Science.gov

Sample records for increased cancer risks

  1. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC) analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine) had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine). For males, the relative risk (RR) was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer

  2. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117

  3. Germline BRCA1 mutations increase prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Leongamornlert, D; Mahmud, N; Tymrakiewicz, M; Saunders, E; Dadaev, T; Castro, E; Goh, C; Govindasami, K; Guy, M; O'Brien, L; Sawyer, E; Hall, A; Wilkinson, R; Easton, D; Goldgar, D; Eeles, R; Kote-Jarai, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer (PrCa) is one of the most common cancers affecting men but its aetiology is poorly understood. Family history of PrCa, particularly at a young age, is a strong risk factor. There have been previous reports of increased PrCa risk in male BRCA1 mutation carriers in female breast cancer families, but there is a controversy as to whether this risk is substantiated. We sought to evaluate the role of germline BRCA1 mutations in PrCa predisposition by performing a candidate gene study in a large UK population sample set. Methods: We screened 913 cases aged 36–86 years for germline BRCA1 mutation, with the study enriched for cases with an early age of onset. We analysed the entire coding region of the BRCA1 gene using Sanger sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was also used to assess the frequency of large rearrangements in 460 cases. Results: We identified 4 deleterious mutations and 45 unclassified variants (UV). The frequency of deleterious BRCA1 mutation in this study is 0.45% three of the mutation carriers were affected at age ⩽65 years and one developed PrCa at 69 years. Using previously estimated population carrier frequencies, deleterious BRCA1 mutations confer a relative risk of PrCa of ∼3.75-fold, (95% confidence interval 1.02–9.6) translating to a 8.6% cumulative risk by age 65. Conclusion This study shows evidence for an increased risk of PrCa in men who harbour germline mutations in BRCA1. This could have a significant impact on possible screening strategies and targeted treatments. PMID:22516946

  4. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Muranen, Taru A; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-08-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breast cancer families. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and a PRS based on 75 common genetic variants in 52 Finnish breast cancer families including 427 genotyped women and pedigree information on ~4000 additional individuals by comparing the affected to healthy family members, as well as in a case-control dataset comprising 1272 healthy population controls and 1681 breast cancer cases with information on family history. Family structure was summarized using the BOADICEA risk prediction model. The PRS was associated with increased disease risk in women with family history of breast cancer as well as in women within the breast cancer families. The odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer within the family dataset was 1.55 [95 % CI 1.26-1.91] per unit increase in the PRS, similar to OR in unselected breast cancer cases of the case-control dataset (1.49 [1.38-1.62]). High PRS-values were informative for risk prediction in breast cancer families, whereas for the low PRS-categories the results were inconclusive. The PRS is informative in women with family history of breast cancer and should be incorporated within pedigree-based clinical risk assessment. PMID:27438779

  5. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  6. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  7. Breast Cancer Patients with High Density Mammograms Do Not Have Increased Risk of Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, September 6, 2012 Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have ... is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of ...

  8. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  9. Increased Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) Is Associated With Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in Jamaican Men

    PubMed Central

    Shivappa, Nitin; Jackson, Maria D.; Bennett, Franklyn; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy; and it accounts for the most cancer deaths among Jamaican males. Diet has been implicated in the etiology of prostate cancer, including through its effects on inflammation. Method We examined the association between a newly developed dietary inflammatory index (DII) and prostate cancer in a case-control study of 40-80 year-old Jamaican males. A total of 229 incident cases and 250 controls attended the same urology out-patient clinics at 2 major hospitals and private practitioners in the Kingston, Jamaica Metropolitan area between March 2005 and July 2007. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to assess diet and cancer in this Jamaican population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, with DII as continuous and expressed as quartiles. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, total energy intake, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, physical activity and family history of prostate cancer. Results Men in the highest quartile of the DII were at higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.14–5.04 (Ptrend = 0.08)] compared to men in the lowest DII quartile. Conclusion These data suggest a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by increasing DII score, may be a risk factor for prostate cancer in Jamaican men. PMID:26226289

  10. Bevacizumab Increases Risk for Severe Proteinuria in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christi; Baer, Lea; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent bevacizumab, a humanized mAb that neutralizes vascular endothelial growth factor, can lead to proteinuria and renal damage. The risk factors and clinical outcomes of renal adverse events are not well understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized, controlled trials to assess the overall risk for severe proteinuria with bevacizumab. We analyzed data from 16 studies comprising 12,268 patients with a variety of tumors. The incidence of high-grade (grade 3 or 4) proteinuria with bevacizumab was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.3%). Compared with chemotherapy alone, bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy significantly increased the risk for high-grade proteinuria (relative risk 4.79; 95% CI 2.71 to 8.46) and nephrotic syndrome (relative risk 7.78; 95% CI 1.80 to 33.62); higher dosages of bevacizumab associated with increased risk for proteinuria. Regarding tumor type, renal cell carcinoma associated with the highest risk (cumulative incidence 10.2%). We did not detect a significant difference between platinum- and non–platinum-based concurrent chemotherapy with regard to risk for high-grade proteinuria (P = 0.39). In conclusion, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy significantly increases the risk for high-grade proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. PMID:20538785

  11. Human Insulin Does Not Increase Bladder Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether human insulin can induce bladder cancer is rarely studied. Methods The reimbursement databases of all Taiwanese diabetic patients from 1996 to 2009 were retrieved from the National Health Insurance. An entry date was set at 1 January 2004 and a total of 785,234 patients with type 2 diabetes were followed up for bladder cancer incidence until the end of 2009. Users of pioglitazone were excluded and the period since the initiation of insulin glargine (marketed after the entry date in Taiwan) was not included in the calculation of follow-up. Incidences for ever-users, never-users and subgroups of human insulin exposure (using tertile cutoffs of time since starting insulin, duration of therapy and cumulative dose) were calculated and the hazard ratios were estimated by Cox regression. Results There were 87,940 ever-users and 697,294 never-users, with respective numbers of incident bladder cancer of 454 (0.52%) and 3,330 (0.48%), and respective incidence of 120.49 and 94.74 per 100,000 person-years. The overall hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) indicated a significant association with insulin in the age-sex-adjusted models [1.238 (1.122–1.366)], but not in the model adjusted for all covariates [1.063 (0.951–1.187)]. There was also a significant trend for the hazard ratios for the different categories of the dose-response parameters in the age-sex-adjusted models, which became insignificant when all covariates were adjusted. Conclusions This study relieves the concern of a bladder cancer risk associated with human insulin. Appropriate adjustment for confounders is important in the evaluation of cancer risk associated with a medication. PMID:24466131

  12. Increased risk for lung cancer and for cancer of the gastrointestinal tract among Geneva professional drivers.

    PubMed

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M; Raymond, L; Bolay, J; Fioretta, G; Puissant, J

    1992-05-01

    A historical prospective cohort study of 6630 drivers from the Canton of Geneva was carried out to evaluate mortality and incidence of cancer in this occupation. The study population was all men (of all vocations) who held in 1949 a special licence for driving lorries, taxis, buses, or coaches and all new licence holders in the period 1949-61. Men born before 1900 and those with only an ordinary driving licence were excluded. According to the occupation registered on their licence, the 6630 drivers were distributed into three groups: (1) professional drivers (n = 1726), (2) non-professional drivers "more exposed" to exhaust gas and fumes (this group included occupations such as vehicle mechanic, policeman, road sweeper; n = 712), and (3) non-professional drivers "less exposed," composed of all other occupations (n = 4192). The cohort was followed up from 1949 to December 1986 and the trace of 197 men (3%) was lost. Compared with the general population of the Canton of Geneva, professional drivers experienced significant excess risks, taking into account 15 years of latency, for all causes of death (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 115, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 107-123) and for all malignant neoplasms (SMR 125, 90% CI 112-140; standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 128, 90% CI 115-142). Cause specific analysis showed significant excesses for lung cancer (SMR 150, 90% CI 123-181; SIR 161, 90% CI 129-198), oesophageal cancer (SMR 183, 90% CI 108-291), stomach cancer (SMR 179, 90% CI 117-263; SIR233, 90% CI 156-336), rectal cancer (SMR 258, 90% CIU 162-392; SIR 200, 90% CI 127-300), and cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 145, 90% CI 104-198). Risk of lung cancer increased significantly with time from first exposure. Among non-professional drivers no significant excess risk was found except for lung cancer mortality among the "less exposed" group (SMR 121, 90% CI 103-140), and for incidence of lung cancer among the "more exposed" group (SIR 161, 90% CI 111-227). The

  13. Breast cancer patients with dense breasts do not have increased death risk

    Cancer.gov

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician

  14. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased risk of nonmelanotic skin cancers and extracutaneous tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaju, Prajakta D; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) represent the most common malignancies worldwide, with reported incidence rising each year. Both cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), as well as other NMSCs, represent complex diseases with a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors. In general, hereditary cancer syndromes that increase the risk of NMSC fall under several broad categories: those associated with immunodeficiencies, those that affect skin pigmentation, and those that perturb key molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of NMSCs. Many of the syndromes are also associated with extracutaneous manifestations, including internal malignancies; therefore, most require a multidisciplinary management approach with a medical geneticist. Finally, dermatologists play a critical role in the diagnosis and management of these conditions, because cutaneous findings are often the presenting manifestations of disease. PMID:26892653

  15. Increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements

    Cancer.gov

    Men who took 400 international units of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,

  16. Does ovarian stimulation for IVF increase gynaecological cancer risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Yonggang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ovarian stimulation for IVF increases the risk of gynaecological cancer, including ovarian, endometrial, cervical and breast cancers, as an independent risk factor. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Clinical trials that examined the association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and gynaecologic cancers were included. The outcomes of interest were incidence rate of gynaecologic cancers. Twelve cohort studies with 178,396 women exposed to IVF were included; 10 studies were used to analyse ovarian (167,640 women) and breast (151,702 women) cancers, and six studies were identified in the analysis of endometrial (116,672 women) and cervical cancer (114,799 women). Among these studies, 175 ovarian, 48 endometrial, 502 cervical and 866 cases of breast cancer were reported. The meta-analysis found no significant association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and increased ovarian, endometrial, cervical and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 1.32; OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.63; OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.60; OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.76, respectively). Ovarian stimulation for IVF, therefore, does not increase the gynaecologic cancer risk, whether hormone-dependent endometrial and breast cancer or non-hormone-dependent ovarian and cervical cancer. PMID:26003452

  17. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters.

    PubMed

    Regli, Stig; Chen, Jimmy; Messner, Michael; Elovitz, Michael S; Letkiewicz, Frank J; Pegram, Rex A; Pepping, T J; Richardson, Susan D; Wright, J Michael

    2015-11-17

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, textile mills, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. We estimate bladder cancer risk from potential increased bromide levels in source waters of disinfecting public drinking water systems in the United States. Bladder cancer is the health end point used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its benefits analysis for regulating disinfection byproducts in drinking water. We use estimated increases in the mass of the four regulated trihalomethanes (THM4) concentrations (due to increased bromide incorporation) as the surrogate disinfection byproduct (DBP) occurrence metric for informing potential bladder cancer risk. We estimate potential increased excess lifetime bladder cancer risk as a function of increased source water bromide levels. Results based on data from 201 drinking water treatment plants indicate that a bromide increase of 50 μg/L could result in a potential increase of between 10(-3) and 10(-4) excess lifetime bladder cancer risk in populations served by roughly 90% of these plants. PMID:26489011

  18. Common genetic variation associated with increased susceptibility to prostate cancer does not increase risk of radiotherapy toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mahbubl; Dorling, Leila; Kerns, Sarah; Fachal, Laura; Elliott, Rebecca; Partliament, Matt; Rosenstein, Barry S; Vega, Ana; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Barnett, Gill; Dearnaley, David P; Hall, Emma; Sydes, Matt; Burnet, Neil; Pharoah, Paul D P; Eeles, Ros; West, Catharine M L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms increase susceptibility to prostate cancer, some lying near genes involved in cellular radiation response. This study investigated whether prostate cancer patients with a high genetic risk have increased toxicity following radiotherapy. Methods: The study included 1560 prostate cancer patients from four radiotherapy cohorts: RAPPER (n=533), RADIOGEN (n=597), GenePARE (n=290) and CCI (n=150). Data from genome-wide association studies were imputed with the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Individuals were genetically similar with a European ancestry based on principal component analysis. Genetic risks were quantified using polygenic risk scores. Regression models tested associations between risk scores and 2-year toxicity (overall, urinary frequency, decreased stream, rectal bleeding). Results were combined across studies using standard inverse-variance fixed effects meta-analysis methods. Results: A total of 75 variants were genotyped/imputed successfully. Neither non-weighted nor weighted polygenic risk scores were associated with late radiation toxicity in individual studies (P>0.11) or after meta-analysis (P>0.24). No individual variant was associated with 2-year toxicity. Conclusion: Patients with a high polygenic susceptibility for prostate cancer have no increased risk for developing late radiotherapy toxicity. These findings suggest that patients with a genetic predisposition for prostate cancer, inferred by common variants, can be safely treated using current standard radiotherapy regimens. PMID:27070714

  19. Increased Risk of Second Primary Cancers After a Diagnosis of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.; Michal Freedman, D.; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Tucker, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of subsequent primary cancers among patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Design Population-based registry study. Setting We evaluated data from 9 cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program from 1973–2006. Participants We included 89 515 patients who survived at least 2 months after their initial melanoma diagnosis. Results Of the patients with melanoma, 10 857 (12.1%) developed 1 or more subsequent primary cancers. The overall risk of a subsequent primary cancer increased by 28% (observed to expected [O:E] ratio=1.28). One quarter of the cancers were subsequent primary melanomas (O:E=8.61). Women with head and neck melanoma and patients younger than 30 had markedly increased risks (O:E=13.22 and 13.40, respectively) of developing a subsequent melanoma. Second melanomas were more likely to be thin than were the first of multiple primary melanomas (thickness at diagnosis <1.00mm, 77.9% vs 70.3%, respectively; P<.001). Melanoma survivors had increased risk of developing several cancers; the most common cancers with elevated risks were breast, prostate, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (O:E=1.10, 1.15, and 1.25, respectively). Conclusions Melanoma survivors have an approximately 9-fold increased risk of developing subsequent melanoma compared with the general population. The risk remains elevated more than 20 years after the initial melanoma diagnosis. This increased risk may be owing to behavioral factors, genetic susceptibility, or medical surveillance. Although the percentage of subsequent primary melanomas thicker than 1 mm is lower than for the first of multiple primary melanomas, it is still substantial. Melanoma survivors should remain under surveillance not only for recurrence but also for future primary melanomas and other cancers. PMID:20231496

  20. Does a high folate intake increase the risk of breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-In

    2006-10-01

    Although not uniformly consistent, epidemiologic studies generally suggest an inverse association between dietary intake and blood measurements of folate and breast cancer risk. However, the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening trial has recently reported for the first time a potential harmful effect of high folate intake on breast cancer risk. In this study, the risk of developing breast cancer was significantly increased by 20% in women reporting supplemental folic acid intake > or = 400 microg/d compared with those reporting no supplemental intake. Furthermore, although food folate intake was not significantly related to breast cancer risk, total folate intake, mainly from folic acid supplementation, significantly increased breast cancer risk by 32%. The data from the PLCO trial support prior observations made in epidemiologic, clinical, and animal studies suggesting that folate possesses dual modulatory effects on the development and progression of cancer depending on the timing and dose of folate intervention. Based on the lack of compelling supportive evidence, routine folic acid supplementation should not be recommended as a chemopreventive measure against breast cancer at present. PMID:17063929

  1. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Kelley, George A.; Hartley, Tara A.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although individual metabolic risk factors are reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, controversy surrounds risk of breast cancer from metabolic syndrome (MS). We report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between MS and breast cancer risk in all adult females. Methods. Studies were retrieved by searching four electronic reference databases [PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and ProQuest through June 30, 2012] and cross-referencing retrieved articles. Eligible for inclusion were longitudinal studies reporting associations between MS and breast cancer risk among females aged 18 years and older. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study and pooled using random-effects models. Publication bias was assessed quantitatively (Trim and Fill) and qualitatively (funnel plots). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results. Representing nine independent cohorts and 97,277 adult females, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A modest, positive association was observed between MS and breast cancer risk (RR: 1.47, 95% CI, 1.15–1.87; z = 3.13; p = 0.002; Q = 26.28, p = 0.001; I2 = 69.55%). No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. MS is associated with increased breast cancer risk in adult women. PMID:25653879

  2. Family history of esophageal cancer increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiantian; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Xingdong; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    A population-based case-control was performed to explore familial aggregation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Family history of cancer was assessed by a structured questionnaire, and from which 2 cohorts of relatives of cases and controls were reconstructed. Unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were applied for case-control design and reconstructed cohort design, respectively. We observed a close to doubled risk of ESCC associated with a positive family history of esophageal cancer among first degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.41), after adjusting age, sex, family size and other confounders. The excess risks of ESCC increased with the increasing of first-degree relatives affected by esophageal cancer (p < 0.001). In particular, those individuals whose both parents with esophageal cancer had an 8-fold excess risk of ESCC (95% CI: 1.74-36.32). The reconstructed cohort analysis showed that the cumulative risk of esophageal cancer to age 75 was 12.2% in the first-degree relatives of cases and 7.0% in those of controls (hazard ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.54-2.37). Our results suggest family history of esophageal cancer significantly increases the risk for ESCC. Future studies are needed to understand how the shared genetic susceptibility and/or environmental exposures contribute to the observed excess risk. PMID:26526791

  3. Increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer related to hormonal factors in women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Lv, Long; Qi, Feng; Qiu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Strikingly higher rates of papillary thyroid cancer in women compared with men suggest that hormonal factors may be involved in the development of this cancer. A number of independent studies have investigated the association between hormonal factors and papillary thyroid cancer risk in women but yielded conflicting and inconclusive findings. We performed a meta-analysis of all currently published studies to provide better estimates for the risk of papillary thyroid cancer related to menstrual, reproductive, and other hormonal factors in women. Six cohort studies and three case-control ones were included into our study after a comprehensive literature search. The pooled relative risk (RR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) implicated that late age at menopause was associated with an increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer (RR = 1.39, 95 % CI 1.03-1.89, P = 0.032). No significant association was demonstrated between papillary thyroid cancer risk and other hormone-related factors, including oral contraceptive, hormone replacement therapy, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, menopausal status, and breast feeding. Subgroup analysis by study design confirmed those associations. Sensitivity analysis did not materially alter the pooled results. The meta-analysis firstly suggests that late age at menopause is a risk factor for papillary thyroid cancer. PMID:25669169

  4. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan; Schmutzhard, Julia; Strobel-Freidekind, Olga; Gronert-Sum, Sabine; Mietag, Carola; D'Amato, Mauro; Schlehe, Bettina; Hemminki, Kari; Sutter, Christian; Ditsch, Nina; Blackburn, Anneke; Hill, Linda Zhai; Jerry, D Joseph; Bugert, Peter; Weber, Bernhard H F; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Schmutzler, Rita K; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R; Mollenhauer, Jan; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C>T, rs2981745, located in the DMBT1 promoter; and DMBT1 c.124A>C, p.Thr42Pro, rs11523871(odds ratio [OR]=1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.21-2.29, P=0.0017; and OR=1.66; 95% CI=1.21-2.28, P=0.0016, respectively), based on 1,195 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative German breast cancer families and 1,466 unrelated German controls. Promoter studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the risk-increasing DMBT1 -93T allele displays significantly decreased promoter activity compared to the DMBT1 -93C allele, resulting in a loss of promoter activity. The data suggest that DMBT1 polymorphisms in the 5'-region are associated with increased breast cancer risk. In accordance with previous results, these data link decreased DMBT1 levels to breast cancer risk. PMID:19830809

  5. Prostatic irradiation is not associated with any measurable increase in the risk of subsequent rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kendal, Wayne S. . E-mail: wkendal@ottawahospital.on.ca; Eapen, Libni; MacRae, Robert; Malone, Shawn; Nicholas, Garth

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate a putative increased risk of rectal cancer subsequent to prostatic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry, we compared men who had radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma with those treated surgically and those treated with neither modality. Kaplan-Meier analyses for the time to failure from rectal cancer were performed between age-matched subgroups of the three cohorts. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to ascertain what influences might affect the incidence of subsequent rectal cancer. Results: In all, 33,831 men were irradiated, 167,607 were treated surgically, and 36,335 received neither modality. Rectal cancers developed in 243 (0.7%) of those irradiated (mean age, 70.7 years), 578 (0.3%) of those treated surgically (68.7 years), and 227 (0.8%) of those treated with neither modality (74.2 years). When age effects and the differences between the surgical and untreated cohorts were controlled for, we were unable to demonstrate any significant increased incidence of rectal cancer in men irradiated for prostatic cancer. Conclusions: An increased frequency of rectal cancer after prostatic irradiation, apparent on crude analysis, could be attributed to age confounding and other unmeasured confounders associated with prostate cancer treatment and rectal cancer risk.

  6. Lifetime increased cancer risk in mice following exposure to clinical proton beam generated neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Gerweck, Leo E.; Huang, Peigen; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald; Zhou, Yenong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the lifespan and risk of cancer following whole-body exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a passively scattered clinical SOBP proton beam. Methods and Materials Three hundred young adult female FVB/N mice, 152 test and 148 control, were entered into the experiment. Mice were placed in an annular cassette around a cylindrical phantom, which was positioned lateral to the mid SOBP of a 165 MeV, clinical proton beam. The average distance from the edge of the mid SOBP to the conscious active mice was 21.5 cm. The phantom was irradiated with once daily fractions of 25 Gy, 4 days per week, for 6 weeks. The age at death and cause of death, i.e., cancer and type vs. non-cancer causes, were assessed over the lifespan of the mice. Results Exposure of mice to a dose of 600 Gy of proton beam generated neutrons, reduced the median lifespan of the mice by 4.2% (Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival, P = 0.053). The relative risk of death from cancer in neutron exposed vs. control mice was 1.40 for cancer of all types (P = 0.0006) and 1.22 for solid cancers (P = 0.09). For a typical 60 Gy dose of clinical protons, the observed 22% increased risk of solid cancer would be expected to decrease by a factor of 10. Conclusions Exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a proton dose which exceeds a typical course of radiotherapy by a factor of 10, resulted in a statistically significant increase in the background incidence of leukemia and a marginally significant increase in solid cancer. The results indicate that the risk of out-of-field 2nd solid cancers from SOBP proton generated neutrons and typical treatment schedules, is 6 - 10 times less than is suggested by current neutron risk estimates. PMID:24725699

  7. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens increase lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J.; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat-mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n=2101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining ~80% of the cases from the area. Non-cancer population controls (n=2120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1903 cases and 2073 controls, and used in conjunction with a meat-mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5–2.2; p-trend<0.001 and OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.4–2.1; p-trend<0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4–4.0, p-trend=0.001 and OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.5–4.2, p-trend=0.001, respectively). Heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:19141639

  8. Increased risk of lung cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and leukemia following Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    van Leeuwen, F.E.; Somers, R.; Taal, B.G.; van Heerde, P.; Coster, B.; Dozeman, T.; Huisman, S.J.; Hart, A.A.

    1989-08-01

    The risk of second cancers (SCs) was assessed in 744 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) admitted to The Netherlands Cancer Institute from 1966 to 1983. Sixty-nine SCs were observed one month or more after start of first treatment. These included 14 cases of lung cancer, nine cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 16 cases of leukemia, and six cases of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The median interval between the diagnosis of HD and that of second lung cancer, NHL, and leukemia was 8.1, 13.3, and 5.7 years, respectively. The overall relative risks (RR) (observed/expected (O/E) ratios) of developing lung cancer, NHL, and leukemia were 4.9 (95% confidence limit (CL), 2.7 to 8.2), 31.0 (95% CL, 14.2 to 58.9) and 45.7 (95% CL, 26.1 to 74.2), respectively. At 15 years the cumulative risk of developing an SC amounted to 20.6% +/- 2.9%. The 15-year estimates of lung cancer, NHL, and leukemia were 6.2% +/- 1.9%, 5.9% +/- 2.1% and 6.3% +/- 1.7%, respectively. Increased lung cancer risk following HD has not frequently been clearly demonstrated before; that we were able to demonstrate such risk may be due to the completeness of follow-up over long periods that could be achieved in this study. Excess lung cancer risk was only noted in treatment regimens with radiotherapy (RT); also, all lung cancers arose in irradiation fields. Excess risk of leukemia was only found in treatment regimens involving chemotherapy (CT). For NHL, combined modality treatment was shown to be the most important risk factor. Risk of lung cancer and NHL increased with time since diagnosis. A time-dependent covariate analysis (Cox model) performed on leukemia and MDS showed an increasing risk with intensity of CT, age (greater than 40 years), and a splenectomy.

  9. Pelvic irradiation does not increase the risk of hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dybvik, Eva; Furnes, Ove; D. Fosså, Sophie; Trovik, Clement; Lie, Stein Atle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term survivors of cancer can develop adverse effects of the treatment. 60% of cancer patients survive for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Pelvic irradiation can cause bone damage in these long-term survivors, with increased risk of fracture and degeneration of the hip. Patients and methods — Analyses were based on linkage between the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN) and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). All women who had been exposed to radiation for curative radiotherapy of gynecological cancer (40–60 Gy for at least 28 days) were identified in the CRN. Radiotherapy had been given between 1998 and 2006 and only patients who were irradiated within 6 months of diagnosis were included. The control group contained women with breast cancer who had also undergone radiotherapy, but not to the pelvic area. Fine and Gray competing-risk analysis was used to calculate subhazard-rate ratios (subHRRs) and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for the risk of having a prosthesis accounting for differences in mortality. Results — Of 962 eligible patients with gynecological cancer, 26 (3%) had received a total hip replacement. In the control group without exposure, 253 (3%) of 7,545 patients with breast cancer had undergone total hip replacement. The 8-year CIF for receiving a total hip replacement was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.6–2.8) for gynecological cancer patients and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.95–3.03) for breast cancer patients; subHRR was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.53–1.22; p = 0.3). In both groups, the most common reason for hip replacement was idiopathic osteoarthritis. Interpretation — We did not find any statistically significantly higher risk of undergoing total hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer who had had pelvic radiotherapy than in women with breast cancer who had not had pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:25238432

  10. Lifetime Increased Cancer Risk in Mice Following Exposure to Clinical Proton Beam–Generated Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gerweck, Leo E. Huang, Peigen; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald; Zhou, Yenong

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the life span and risk of cancer following whole-body exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a passively scattered clinical spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beam. Methods and Materials: Three hundred young adult female FVB/N mice, 152 test and 148 control, were entered into the experiment. Mice were placed in an annular cassette around a cylindrical phantom, which was positioned lateral to the mid-SOBP of a 165-MeV, clinical proton beam. The average distance from the edge of the mid-SOBP to the conscious active mice was 21.5 cm. The phantom was irradiated with once-daily fractions of 25 Gy, 4 days per week, for 6 weeks. The age at death and cause of death (ie, cancer and type vs noncancer causes) were assessed over the life span of the mice. Results: Exposure of mice to a dose of 600 Gy of proton beam–generated neutrons, reduced the median life span of the mice by 4.2% (Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival, P=.053). The relative risk of death from cancer in neutron exposed versus control mice was 1.40 for cancer of all types (P=.0006) and 1.22 for solid cancers (P=.09). For a typical 60 Gy dose of clinical protons, the observed 22% increased risk of solid cancer would be expected to decrease by a factor of 10. Conclusions: Exposure of mice to neutrons generated by a proton dose that exceeds a typical course of radiation therapy by a factor of 10, resulted in a statistically significant increase in the background incidence of leukemia and a marginally significant increase in solid cancer. The results indicate that the risk of out-of-field second solid cancers from SOBP proton-generated neutrons and typical treatment schedules, is 6 to 10 times less than is suggested by current neutron risk estimates.

  11. Methylation of the RARB Gene Increases Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Deliang; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Mitrache, Nicoleta; Do, Kieu C.; Jankowski, Michelle; Chitale, Dhananjay A.; Trudeau, Sheri; Rundle, Andrew; Belinsky, Steven A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Gene promoter hypermethylation may be useful as a biomarker for cancer risk in histopathologically benign prostate specimens. Materials and Methods We performed a nested case-control study of gene promoter methylation status for 5 genes (APC, RARB, CCND2, RASSF1 and MGMT) measured in benign biopsy specimens from 511 prostate cancer case-control pairs. We estimated the overall and race stratified risk of subsequent prostate cancer associated with methylation status. Results On race stratified analysis RARB methylation was associated with a higher cancer risk in black American men (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.39–3.44). APC methylation was associated with an increased risk of high grade tumors (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.20–4.90), which was higher in black than in white men (OR 3.21 vs 2.04). In cases RARB and APC gene methylation in benign prostate samples persisted in matched malignant specimens. In black cases the combined risk associated with RARB and APC methylation (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.44–6.42) was greater than the individual risk of each gene and significantly different from that in white cases (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.56–2.30). Conclusions RARB gene methylation in histopathologically benign prostate samples was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of subsequent prostate cancer in black men. Methylation data on additional genes may improve risk stratification and clinical decision making algorithms for cancer screening and diagnosis. PMID:23376149

  12. The APC I1307K allele conveys a significant increased risk for cancer.

    PubMed

    Leshno, Ari; Shapira, Shiran; Liberman, Eliezer; Kraus, Sarah; Sror, Miri; Harlap-Gat, Amira; Avivi, Doran; Galazan, Lior; David, Maayan; Maharshak, Nitsan; Moanis, Serhan; Arber, Nadir; Moshkowitz, Menachem

    2016-03-15

    This study is the first attempt to evaluate the association between the APC I1307K variant and overall cancer risk. It is unique in both its large sample size and in the reliability of data in the control group. The findings described in this article have major implications in terms of identifying asymptomatic individuals who are at increased risk to harbor cancer and therefore targeted to be enrolled in specific early detection and prevention programs. The prevalence of the APC I1307K missense mutation among Ashkenazi Jews is ∼ 6%. Carriers are at an increased risk for colorectal neoplasia. In this study, we examined the association of this variant with non-colorectal cancers. Consecutive 13,013 healthy subjects who underwent screening at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center between 2006 and 2014 were enrolled. This population was supplemented with 1,611 cancer patients from the same institution. Demographics, medical history, and pathological data were recorded. Mortality data were obtained from the Ministry of Health's registry. The prevalence of APC I1307K in cancer patients and healthy subjects was compared. The APC I1307K variant was detected in 189 (11.8%) cancer patients compared to 614 (4.7%) healthy subjects, reflecting an adjusted age and sex odds ratio (OR) of 2.53 (p < 0.0001). History of two or more cancer types was associated with a positive carrier prevalence (OR = 4.38 p < 0.0001). Males had significantly increased carrier prevalence in lung, urologic, pancreatic, and skin cancers. The carrier prevalence among females was significantly higher only in breast and skin cancers. Female carriers developed cancer at a significantly older age compared to non-carriers (average 62.7 years vs. 57.8, respectively, p = 0.027), had better survival rates (HR = 0.58, p = 0.022) and overall increased longevity (average age of death 78.8 vs. 70.4 years, respectively, p = 0.003). In conclusion, the APC I1307K variant is a reliable marker for overall cancer risk

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that dietary cholesterol intake increases risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Changkun; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Wenjie

    2016-07-01

    Several epidemiological investigations have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and risk of breast cancer, but the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to summarize the evidence from observational studies to test the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol intake increases the risk of breast cancer. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for relevant articles published up to July 2015. Pooled relative risks were calculated with random effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model. Overall, 9 articles involving 6 cohort studies and 3 case-control studies were included in this study. The pooled relative risk with 95% confidence intervals of breast cancer for the highest vs lowest category of dietary cholesterol intake was 1.29 (1.06-1.56). For dose-response analysis, a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary cholesterol and breast cancer, and the association became statistically significant when the cholesterol intake was greater than 370 mg/d. Results from this meta-analysis indicated that dietary cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27333953

  14. Worldwide Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer: Update on Epidemiology and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Francesco; Regalbuto, Concetto; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the last decades, thyroid cancer incidence has continuously and sharply increased all over the world. This review analyzes the possible reasons of this increase. Summary. Many experts believe that the increased incidence of thyroid cancer is apparent, because of the increased detection of small cancers in the preclinical stage. However, a true increase is also possible, as suggested by the observation that large tumors have also increased and gender differences and birth cohort effects are present. Moreover, thyroid cancer mortality, in spite of earlier diagnosis and better treatment, has not decreased but is rather increasing. Therefore, some environmental carcinogens in the industrialized lifestyle may have specifically affected the thyroid. Among potential carcinogens, the increased exposure to medical radiations is the most likely risk factor. Other factors specific for the thyroid like increased iodine intake and increased prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis cannot be excluded, while other factors like the increasing prevalence of obesity are not specific for the thyroid. Conclusions. The increased incidence of thyroid cancer is most likely due to a combination of an apparent increase due to more sensitive diagnostic procedures and of a true increase, a possible consequence of increased population exposure to radiation and to other still unrecognized carcinogens. PMID:23737785

  15. Association of the AURKA and AURKC gene polymorphisms with an increased risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mesic, Aner; Rogar, Marija; Hudler, Petra; Juvan, Robert; Komel, Radovan

    2016-08-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mitotic checkpoint genes can contribute to susceptibility of human cancer, including gastric cancer (GC). We aimed to investigate the effects of Aurora kinase A (AURKA), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), and Aurora kinase C (AURKC) gene polymorphisms on GC risk in Slovenian population. We genotyped four SNPs in AURKA (rs2273535 and rs1047972), AURKB (rs2241909), and AURKC (rs758099) in a total of 128 GC patients and 372 healthy controls using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays to evaluate their effects on GC risk. Our results showed that genotype frequencies between cases and controls were significantly different for rs1047972 and rs758099 (P < 0.05). Our study demonstrated that AURKA rs1047972 TT and (CC + CT) genotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Our results additionally revealed that AURKC rs758099 TT and (CC + CT) genotypes were also associated with increased GC risk. In stratified analysis, genotypes TT and (CC + CT) of AURKA rs1047972 SNP were associated with increased risk of both, intestinal and diffuse, types of GC. In addition, AURKC rs758099 TT and (CC + CT) genotypes were positively associated with increased intestinal type GC risk, but not with an increased diffuse type GC risk. Based on these results, we can conclude that AURKA rs1047972 and AURKC rs758099 polymorphisms could affect the risk of GC development. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(8):634-644, 2016. PMID:27270838

  16. Phase I biomarker modulation study of atorvastatin in women at increased risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arun, Banu K; Gong, Yun; Liu, Diane; Litton, Jennifer K; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Jack Lee, J; Vornik, Lana; Ibrahim, Nuhad K; Cornelison, Terri; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M; Koenig, Kimberly B; Alvarez, Ricardo R; Murray, James L; Valero, Vicente; Lippman, Scott M; Brown, Powel; Sneige, Nour

    2016-07-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tamoxifen, and raloxifene that reduce the risk of breast cancer are limited to only estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer. In addition, patient acceptance of SERMs is low due to toxicity and intolerability. New agents with improved toxicity profile that reduce risk of ER-negative breast cancer are urgently needed. Observational studies show that statins can reduce breast cancer incidence and recurrence. The objective of this prospective short-term prevention study was to evaluate the effect of a lipophilic statin, atorvastatin, on biomarkers in breast tissue and serum of women at increased risk. Eligible participants included women with previous history of carcinoma in situ, or atypical hyperplasia, or 5 year breast cancer projected Gail risk >1.67 %, or lifetime breast cancer risk >20 % calculated by models including Claus, Tyrer-Cuzick, Boadicea, or BRCAPRO. Patients underwent baseline fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the breast, blood collection for biomarker analysis, and were randomized to either no treatment or atorvastatin at 10, 20, or 40 mg/day dose for 3 months. At 3 months, blood collection and breast FNA were repeated. Biomarkers included C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, atorvastatin, and its metabolites, Ki-67, bcl-2, EGFR, and pEGFR. Baseline genotype for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) was also measured. Among 60 patients evaluated, a significant reduction in serum CRP, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increase in atorvastatin metabolites in serum and breast FNAs was demonstrated. No changes were observed in other tissue biomarkers. This study shows that atorvastatin and its metabolites are detectable in breast samples and may lower serum CRP among women without hyperlipidemia. PMID:27287781

  17. Combined effect of CCND1 and COMT polymorphisms and increased breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Onay, Ummiye V; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Briollais, Laurent; Knight, Julia A; Pabalan, Noel; Kilpivaara, Outi; Andrulis, Irene L; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2008-01-01

    Background Estrogens are crucial tumorigenic hormones, which impact the cell growth and proliferation during breast cancer development. Estrogens are metabolized by a series of enzymes including COMT, which converts catechol estrogens into biologically non-hazardous methoxyestrogens. Several studies have also shown the relationship between estrogen and cell cycle progression through activation of CCND1 transcription. Methods In this study, we have investigated the independent and the combined effects of commonly occurring CCND1 (Pro241Pro, A870G) and COMT (Met108/158Val) polymorphisms to breast cancer risk in two independent Caucasian populations from Ontario (1228 breast cancer cases and 719 population controls) and Finland (728 breast cancer cases and 687 population controls). Both COMT and CCND1 polymorphisms have been previously shown to impact on the enzymatic activity of the coded proteins. Results Here, we have shown that the high enzymatic activity genotype of CCND1High (AA) was associated with increased breast cancer risk in both the Ontario [OR: 1.3, 95%CI (1.0–1.69)] and the Finland sample [OR: 1.4, 95%CI (1.01–1.84)]. The heterozygous COMTMedium (MetVal) and the high enzymatic activity of COMTHigh (ValVal) genotype was also associated with breast cancer risk in Ontario cases, [OR: 1.3, 95%CI (1.07–1.68)] and [OR: 1.4, 95%CI (1.07–1.81)], respectively. However, there was neither a statistically significant association nor increased trend of breast cancer risk with COMTHigh (ValVal) genotypes in the Finland cases [OR: 1.0, 95%CI (0.73–1.39)]. In the combined analysis, the higher activity alleles of the COMT and CCND1 is associated with increased breast cancer risk in both Ontario [OR: 2.22, 95%CI (1.49–3.28)] and Finland [OR: 1.73, 95%CI (1.08–2.78)] populations studied. The trend test was statistically significant in both the Ontario and Finland populations across the genotypes associated with increasing enzymatic activity. Conclusion Using

  18. Do Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Increase the Risk of Thyroid Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yawei; Guo, Grace L.; Han, Xuesong; Zhu, Cairong; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zhu, Yong; Boyle, Peter; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2008-01-01

    An increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world including the United States during the past several decades. Recently emerging evidence has demonstrated that polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alter thyroid hormone homeostasis and cause thyroid dysfunction. However, few studies have been conducted to test whether exposure to PBDEs and other PHAHs increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Here, we hypothesize that elevated exposure to PHAHs, particularly PBDEs, increases the risk of thyroid cancer and may explain part of the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer during the past several decades. In addition, genetic and epigenetic variations in metabolic pathway genes may alter the expression and function of metabolic enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of endogenous thyroid hormones and the detoxification of PBDEs and other PHAHs. Such variation may result in different individual susceptibilities to PBDEs and other PHAHs and the subsequent development of thyroid cancer. The investigation of this hypothesis will lead to an improved understanding of the role of PBDEs and other PHAHs in thyroid tumorigenesis and may provide a real means to prevent this deadly disease. PMID:19122824

  19. Postoperative Irradiation for Rectal Cancer Increases the Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction After Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Nancy N.; Hartman, Lacey K.; Tepper, Joel E.; Ricciardi, Rocco; Durham, Sara B.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk of small bowel obstruction (SBO) after irradiation (RT) for rectal cancer Background: SBO is a frequent complication after standard resection of rectal cancer. Although the use of RT is increasing, the effect of RT on risk of SBO is unknown. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry data linked to Medicare claims data to determine the effect of RT on risk of SBO. Patients 65 years of age and older diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive rectal cancer treated with standard resection from 1986 through 1999 were included. We determined whether patients had undergone RT and evaluated the effect of RT and timing of RT on the incidence of admission to hospital for SBO, adjusting for potential confounders using a proportional hazards model. Results: We identified a total of 5606 patients who met our selection criteria: 1994 (36%) underwent RT, 74% postoperatively. Patients were followed for a mean of 3.8 years. A total of 614 patients were admitted for SBO over the study period; 15% of patients in the RT group and 9% of patients in the nonirradiated group (P < 0.001). After controlling for age, sex, race, diagnosis year, type of surgery, and stage, we found that patients who underwent postoperative RT were at higher risk of SBO, hazard ratio 1.69 (95% CI, 1.3–2.1). However, the long-term risk associated with preoperative irradiation was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.55–1.46). Conclusions: Postoperative but not preoperative RT after standard resection of rectal cancer results in an increased risk of SBO over time. PMID:17414603

  20. Intuition versus cognition: a qualitative exploration of how women understand and manage their increased breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Louise; Butow, Phyllis N; Charles, Margaret; Price, Melanie A

    2015-10-01

    Risk comprehension in individuals at increased familial risk of cancer is suboptimal and little is known about how risk is understood and managed by at-risk individuals who do not undergo genetic testing. We qualitatively studied these issues in 36 unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families, including both women who had and had not undergone genetic testing. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Risk comprehension and risk management were largely influenced by the individual's experience of coming from a high-risk family, with both tested and untested women relying heavily on their intuition. Although women's cognitive understanding of their risk appeared generally accurate, this objective risk information was considered of secondary value. The findings could be used to guide the development and delivery of information about risk and risk management to genetically tested and untested individuals at increased risk of hereditary cancer. PMID:25820809

  1. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed Central

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  2. Tailored information increases patient/physician discussion of colon cancer risk and testing: The Cancer Risk Intake System trial.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Celette Sugg; Gupta, Samir; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Ahn, Chul; Tiro, Jasmin A; Halm, Ethan A; Farrell, David; Marks, Emily; Morrow, Jay; Julka, Manjula; McCallister, Katharine; Sanders, Joanne M; Rawl, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    Assess whether receipt of tailored printouts generated by the Cancer Risk Intake System (CRIS) - a touch-screen computer program that collects data from patients and generates printouts for patients and physicians - results in more reported patient-provider discussions about colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and screening than receipt of non-tailored information. Cluster-randomized trial, randomized by physician, with data collected via CRIS prior to visit and 2-week follow-up telephone survey among 623 patients. Patients aged 25-75 with upcoming primary-care visits and eligible for, but currently non-adherent to CRC screening guidelines. Patient-reported discussions with providers about CRC risk and testing. Tailored recipients were more likely to report patient-physician discussions about personal and familial risk, stool testing, and colonoscopy (all p < 0.05). Tailored recipients were more likely to report discussions of: chances of getting cancer (+ 10%); family history (+ 15%); stool testing (+ 9%); and colonoscopy (+ 8%) (all p < 0.05). CRIS is a promising strategy for facilitating discussions about testing in primary-care settings. PMID:27413654

  3. Does fertility treatment increase the risk of uterine cancer? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saso, Srdjan; Louis, Louay S; Doctor, Farah; Hamed, Ali Hassan; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Yazbek, Joseph; Bora, Shabana; Abdalla, Hossam; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Thum, Meen-Yau

    2015-12-01

    An ongoing debate over the last two decades has focused on whether fertility treatment in women may lead to an increased risk of developing uterine cancer over a period of time. Uterine cancer (including mainly endometrial carcinoma and the less common uterine sarcoma) is the commonest reproductive tract cancer and the fourth commonest cancer in women in the UK. Our objective was to assess the association between fertility drugs used in the treatment of female infertility (both as an independent therapy and during in vitro fertilization cycles) and the development of uterine cancer. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for comparative studies until December 2014 to investigate a clinical significance of fertility treatment on the incidence of developing uterine cancer. General and MESH search headings, as well as the 'related articles' function were applied. All comparative studies of 'fertility treatment' versus 'non-fertility treatment' reporting the incidence of uterine cancer as an outcome were included. Uterine cancer incorporated the following terms: uterine cancer, uterine body tumours, uterine sarcomas and endometrial cancers. The primary outcome of interest was the uterine cancer incidence in all 'fertility treatment' versus 'non-fertility treatment' patient groups. Secondary outcomes of interest were: (a) uterine cancer incidence in 'IVF' versus 'non-IVF' patient groups; and (b) uterine cancer incidence according to type of fertility drug used. Odds ratio was the summary statistic. Random-effects modelling, graphical exploration and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the consistency of the calculated treatment effect. We included six studies in our final analysis, which comprised 776,224 patients in total. Of these, 103,758 had undergone fertility treatment and 672,466 had not. There was 100% agreement between the two reviewers regarding the data extraction. All the studies

  4. 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Estrada, Ana; Lott, Paul; Martin, Lynn; Echeverry, Guadalupe Polanco; Velez, Alejandro; Neta, Gila; Takahasi, Meiko; Saenko, Vladimir; Mitsutake, Norisato; Jaeguer, Emma; Duque, Carlos Simon; Rios, Alejandro; Bohorquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Criollo, Angel; Echeverry, Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian; Carvajal Carmona, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    The G allele of the rs6983267 single nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in thyroid cancer susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3,067 cases and 8,575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer in the British Isles (Odds Ratio, OR= 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.11–1.27, P= 4.03 × 10−7), Japan (OR= 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03–1.41, P= 0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR= 1.19, 95% CI: 0.99–1.44, P= 0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5,484 cases and 12,594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (P= 1.23 × 10−7, OR= 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07–1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide thyroid cancer risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ~13%. PMID:26290501

  5. Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1999-12-01

    Amino acids modulate the secretion of both insulin and glucagon; the composition of dietary protein therefore has the potential to influence the balance of glucagon and insulin activity. Soy protein, as well as many other vegan proteins, are higher in non-essential amino acids than most animal-derived food proteins, and as a result should preferentially favor glucagon production. Acting on hepatocytes, glucagon promotes (and insulin inhibits) cAMP-dependent mechanisms that down-regulate lipogenic enzymes and cholesterol synthesis, while up-regulating hepatic LDL receptors and production of the IGF-I antagonist IGFBP-1. The insulin-sensitizing properties of many vegan diets--high in fiber, low in saturated fat--should amplify these effects by down-regulating insulin secretion. Additionally, the relatively low essential amino acid content of some vegan diets may decrease hepatic IGF-I synthesis. Thus, diets featuring vegan proteins can be expected to lower elevated serum lipid levels, promote weight loss, and decrease circulating IGF-I activity. The latter effect should impede cancer induction (as is seen in animal studies with soy protein), lessen neutrophil-mediated inflammatory damage, and slow growth and maturation in children. In fact, vegans tend to have low serum lipids, lean physiques, shorter stature, later puberty, and decreased risk for certain prominent 'Western' cancers; a vegan diet has documented clinical efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Low-fat vegan diets may be especially protective in regard to cancers linked to insulin resistance--namely, breast and colon cancer--as well as prostate cancer; conversely, the high IGF-I activity associated with heavy ingestion of animal products may be largely responsible for the epidemic of 'Western' cancers in wealthy societies. Increased phytochemical intake is also likely to contribute to the reduction of cancer risk in vegans. Regression of coronary stenoses has been documented during low-fat vegan diets

  6. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42–37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  7. Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Terri P; Jung, Song-Yi; Kerin, Michael J; Salzman, David W; Nallur, Sunitha; Nemec, Antonio A; Dookwah, Michelle; Sadofsky, Jackie; Paranjape, Trupti; Kelly, Olivia; Chan, Elcie; Miller, Nicola; Sweeney, Karl J; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann; Pilarski, Robert; Telesca, Donatello; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2015-01-01

    The KRAS-variant is a biologically functional, microRNA binding site variant, which predicts increased cancer risk especially for women. Because external exposures, such as chemotherapy, differentially impact the effect of this mutation, we evaluated the association of estrogen exposures, breast cancer (BC) risk and tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant. Women with BC (n = 1712), the subset with the KRAS-variant (n = 286) and KRAS-variant unaffected controls (n = 80) were evaluated, and hormonal exposures, KRAS-variant status, and pathology were compared. The impact of estrogen withdrawal on transformation of isogenic normal breast cell lines with or without the KRAS-variant was studied. Finally, the association and presentation characteristics of the KRAS-variant and multiple primary breast cancer (MPBC) were evaluated. KRAS-variant BC patients were more likely to have ovarian removal pre-BC diagnosis than non-variant BC patients (p = 0.033). In addition, KRAS-variant BC patients also appeared to have a lower estrogen state than KRAS-variant unaffected controls, with a lower BMI (P < 0.001). Finally, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) discontinuation in KRAS-variant patients was associated with a diagnosis of triple negative BC (P < 0.001). Biologically confirming our clinical findings, acute estrogen withdrawal led to oncogenic transformation in KRAS-variant positive isogenic cell lines. Finally, KRAS-variant BC patients had greater than an 11-fold increased risk of presenting with MPBC compared to non-variant patients (45.39% vs 6.78%, OR 11.44 [3.42-37.87], P < 0.001). Thus, estrogen withdrawal and a low estrogen state appear to increase BC risk and to predict aggressive tumor biology in women with the KRAS-variant, who are also significantly more likely to present with multiple primary breast cancer. PMID:25961464

  8. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated in increased risk for biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Philip J.; Smith, Matthew R.; O'Malley, A. James; Keating, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer produces benefits in several clinical situations but has adverse metabolic effects including obesity, increased abdominal girth, increased triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Each of these is a risk factor for gallstone disease. ADT with a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist was recently shown in metabolomic analyses to increase plasma levels of some bile acids. We assessed whether ADT is associated with an increased incidence of biliary disease. Methods We studied 249,977 men aged >65 living in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results regions who were diagnosed with prostate cancer during 1992-2007 and followed through 2009. We calculated incidence rates for biliary disease during treatment with GnRH agonists, orchiectomy, or no therapy. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association of ADT with biliary disease. Results Among 185,106 men with local/regional prostate cancer, 47.8% received GnRH agonist treatment and 2.2% underwent bilateral orchiectomy during follow-up. GnRH agonist treatment was associated with significantly higher incidence of biliary disease compared with no treatment (14.46 vs. 12.44 cases per 1,000 person years; P<0.001). In adjusted analyses GnRH agonist use was associated with risk of biliary disease (adjusted hazard ratio=1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.14; P <0.001). Orchiectomy was not significantly associated with biliary disease. Conclusions GnRH agonist treatment may be associated with an increased risk of incident biliary disease. This potential risk must be weighed against the potential benefits of therapy. PMID:23428068

  9. Underuse of Surveillance Colonoscopy in Patients at Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin C; Lewis, Carmen L; Golin, Carol E; Sandler, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality have declined over the past two decades, and much of this improvement is attributed to increased use of screening. Approximately 25% of patients who undergo screening colonoscopy have premalignant adenomas that require removal and follow-up colonoscopy. However, there are few studies of the use of surveillance colonoscopy in increased risk patients with previous adenomas. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine factors associated with underuse of surveillance colonoscopy among patients who are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. The study population consisted of patients with previously identified adenomatous polyps and who were due for follow-up colonoscopy. Patients were categorized as attenders (n=100) or non-attenders (n=104) on the basis of completion of follow-up colonoscopy. Telephone surveys assessed the use of surveillance colonoscopy across domains of predisposing patient characteristics, enabling factors, and patient need. Mutlivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with screening completion. RESULTS: Perceived barriers, perceived benefits, social deprivation, and cancer worry were associated with attendance at colonoscopy. Higher benefits (odds ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–5.41) and cancer worry (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.07–2.79) increased the odds of attendance at follow-up colonoscopy, whereas greater barriers (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28–0.88) and high social deprivation (≥2; OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01–0.76) were associated with lower odds. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multilevel factors contribute to the use of surveillance colonoscopy in higher risk populations, many of which are amenable to intervention. Interventions, such as patient navigation, may help facilitate appropriate use of surveillance colonoscopy. PMID:25384901

  10. Lower risk for serious adverse events and no increased risk for cancer after PBSC vs BM donation.

    PubMed

    Pulsipher, Michael A; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R; Navarro, Willis H; Levine, John E; Miller, John P; Shaw, Bronwen E; O'Donnell, Paul V; Majhail, Navneet S; Confer, Dennis L

    2014-06-01

    We compared serious early and late events experienced by 2726 bone marrow (BM) and 6768 peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors who underwent collection of PBSC or BM between 2004 and 2009 as part of a prospective study through the National Marrow Donor Program. Standardized FDA definitions for serious adverse events (SAEs) were used, and all events were reviewed by an independent physician panel. BM donors had an increased risk for SAEs (2.38% for BM vs 0.56% for PBSC; odds ratio [OR], 4.13; P < .001), and women were twice as likely to experience an SAE (OR for men, 0.50; P = .005). Restricting the analysis to life-threatening, unexpected, or chronic/disabling events, BM donors maintained an increased risk for SAEs (0.99% for BM vs 0.31% for PBSC; OR, 3.20; P < .001). Notably, the incidence of cancer, autoimmune illness, and thrombosis after donation was similar in BM vs PBSC donors. In addition, cancer incidence in PBSC donors was less than that reported in the general population (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database). In conclusion, SAEs after donation are rare but more often occurred in BM donors and women. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk for cancer, autoimmune illness, and stroke in donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during this period of observation. PMID:24735965

  11. Lower risk for serious adverse events and no increased risk for cancer after PBSC vs BM donation

    PubMed Central

    Pulsipher, Michael A.; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R.; Navarro, Willis H.; Levine, John E.; Miller, John P.; Shaw, Bronwen E.; O’Donnell, Paul V.; Majhail, Navneet S.; Confer, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    We compared serious early and late events experienced by 2726 bone marrow (BM) and 6768 peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors who underwent collection of PBSC or BM between 2004 and 2009 as part of a prospective study through the National Marrow Donor Program. Standardized FDA definitions for serious adverse events (SAEs) were used, and all events were reviewed by an independent physician panel. BM donors had an increased risk for SAEs (2.38% for BM vs 0.56% for PBSC; odds ratio [OR], 4.13; P < .001), and women were twice as likely to experience an SAE (OR for men, 0.50; P = .005). Restricting the analysis to life-threatening, unexpected, or chronic/disabling events, BM donors maintained an increased risk for SAEs (0.99% for BM vs 0.31% for PBSC; OR, 3.20; P < .001). Notably, the incidence of cancer, autoimmune illness, and thrombosis after donation was similar in BM vs PBSC donors. In addition, cancer incidence in PBSC donors was less than that reported in the general population (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database). In conclusion, SAEs after donation are rare but more often occurred in BM donors and women. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk for cancer, autoimmune illness, and stroke in donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during this period of observation. PMID:24735965

  12. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  13. Radiation to supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer increases the risk of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, G; Holmberg, L; Garmo, H; Terent, A; Blomqvist, C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) affects the risk of stroke, and to explore radiation targets and fraction doses regarding risk and location of stroke. In a Swedish BC cohort diagnosed during 1970–2003, we carried out a nested case–control study of stroke after BC, with relevant details extracted from medical records. The odds ratio (OR) for radiotherapy (RT) vs that of no RT did not differ between cases and controls (OR=0.85; confidence interval, CI=0.6–1.3). Radiotherapy to internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular (SCL) lymph nodes vs that of no RT was associated with a higher, although not statistically significant, risk of stroke (OR=1.3; CI=0.8–2.2). In a pooled analysis, RT to IMC and SCL vs the pooled group of no RT and RT to breast/chest wall/axilla (but not IMC and SCL), showed a significant increase of stroke (OR=1.8; CI=1.1–2.8). There were no associations between cancer laterality, targets of RT, and location of stroke. The radiation targets, IMC and SCL, showed a statistically significant trend for an increased risk of stroke with daily fraction dose. Our finding of a target-specific increased risk of stroke and a dose-response relationship for daily fraction dose, indicate that there may be a causal link between RT to the IMC and SCL and risk of stroke. PMID:19259096

  14. Paternal overweight is associated with increased breast cancer risk in daughters in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Fontelles, Camile Castilho; Carney, Elissa; Clarke, Johan; Nguyen, Nguyen M.; Yin, Chao; Jin, Lu; Cruz, M. Idalia; Ong, Thomas Prates; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; de Assis, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    While many studies have shown that maternal weight and nutrition in pregnancy affects offspring’s breast cancer risk, no studies have investigated the impact of paternal body weight on daughters’ risk of this disease. Here, we show that diet-induced paternal overweight around the time of conception can epigenetically reprogram father’s germ-line and modulate their daughters’ birth weight and likelihood of developing breast cancer, using a mouse model. Increased body weight was associated with changes in the miRNA expression profile in paternal sperm. Daughters of overweight fathers had higher rates of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors which were associated with delayed mammary gland development and alterations in mammary miRNA expression. The hypoxia signaling pathway, targeted by miRNAs down-regulated in daughters of overweight fathers, was activated in their mammary tissues and tumors. This study provides evidence that paternal peri-conceptional body weight may affect daughters’ mammary development and breast cancer risk and warrants further studies in other animal models and humans. PMID:27339599

  15. DNA repair genotype interacts with arsenic exposure to increase bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Angeline S.; Mason, Rebecca A.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Schned, Alan R.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Nelson, Heather H.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2009-01-01

    Drinking water arsenic exposure has been associated with increased bladder cancer susceptibility. Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a co-carcinogenic effect of arsenic with exposure to DNA damaging agents, such as cigarette smoke. Recent evidence further supports the hypothesis that genetic variation in DNA repair genes can modify the arsenic – cancer relationship, possibly because arsenic impairs DNA repair capacity. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based study of bladder cancer with XRCC3, ERCC2 genotype/haplotype and arsenic exposure data on 549 controls and 342 cases. Individual exposure to arsenic was determined in toenail samples by neutron activation. Gene-environment interaction with arsenic exposure was observed in relation to bladder cancer risk for a variant allele of the double-strand break repair gene XRCC3 T241M (adjusted OR 2.8 (1.1–7.3) comparing to homozygous wild type among those in the top arsenic exposure decile (interaction p-value 0.01). Haplotype analysis confirmed the association of the XRCC3 241. Thus, double-strand break repair genotype may enhance arsenic associated bladder cancer susceptibility in the U.S. population. PMID:19429237

  16. Do inhaled corticosteroids increase the risk of Pneumocystis pneumonia in people with lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Msaad, Sameh; Yangui, Ilhem; Bahloul, Najla; Abid, Narjes; Koubaa, Makram; Hentati, Yosr; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Kammoun, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. It is relatively uncommon in patients with lung cancer. We report a case of PCP in a 59-year-old man with a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with formoterol and a moderate daily dose of inhaled budesonide. He had also advanced stage non-small lung cancer treated with concurrent chemo-radiation with a cisplatin-etoposide containing regimen. The diagnosis of PCP was suspected based on the context of rapidly increasing dyspnea, lymphopenia and the imaging findings. Polymerase chain reaction testing on an induced sputum specimen was positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii. The patient was treated with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and systemic corticotherapy and had showed clinical and radiological improvement. Six months after the PCP diagnosis, he developed a malignant pleural effusion and expired on hospice care. Through this case, we remind the importance of screening for PCP in lung cancer patients under chemotherapeutic regimens and with increasing dyspnea. In addition, we alert to the fact that long-term inhaled corticosteroids may be a risk factor for PCP in patients with lung cancer. Despite intensive treatment, the mortality of PCP remains high, hence the importance of chemoprophylaxis should be considered. PMID:26380833

  17. Vasectomy: potential links to an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Gaines, Alexis R; Vidal, Adriana C; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have found associations between aggressive prostate cancer (PC) and having a vasectomy. However, findings from two very recent meta-analyses have found that this is not the case. Therefore, the data are mixed. Herein, we detail the controversy between vasectomy and PC risk, particularly aggressive PC, by shedding some light on the molecular pathways, potential risk factors and suggested links for those considering vasectomy and medical professionals who perform it. We conclude by supporting the American Urological Association's position that there is no need to discuss potential prostate cancer risks with patients considering vasectomy given reasonably strong data finding no link between vasectomy and prostate cancer risk. PMID:26402245

  18. Did natural selection for increased cognitive ability in humans lead to an elevated risk of cancer?

    PubMed

    Arora, Gaurav; Polavarapu, Nalini; McDonald, John F

    2009-09-01

    Despite the overall genetic similarity that exists between humans and chimpanzees, the species are phenotypically distinct. Among the most notable distinctions are differences in brain size and cognitive abilities. Previous studies have shown that significant differences in gene expression exist between the human and chimpanzee brain. Integration of currently available gene expression data with known metabolic and signaling pathways indicates that the expression of genes involved in the programmed cell death of brain neurons is significantly different between humans and chimpanzees and predictive of a reduced level of neuron apoptosis in the human brain. This pattern of expression is generally maintained in other human organs suggesting that apoptosis is reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees. We propose that a decreased rate of programmed neuron death may have been a consequence of selection for increased cognitive ability in humans. Since reduced apoptotic function is associated with an increased risk of cancer and related diseases, we hypothesize that selection for increased cognitive ability in humans coincidently resulted in an increased risk of cancer and other diseases associated with reduced apoptotic function. PMID:19409719

  19. Increased Risk of Additional Cancers Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James D.; Ma, Grace L.; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Madlensky, Lisa; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Tang, Chih-Min; Martinez, Maria Elena; Sicklick, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered non-hereditary or sporadic. However, single-institution studies suggest that GIST patients develop additional malignancies with increased frequencies. We hypothesized that we could gain greater insight into possible associations between GIST and other malignancies using a national cancer database inquiry. Methods Patients diagnosed with GIST (2001–2011) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were included. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to quantify cancer risks incurred by GIST patients before and after GIST diagnoses, respectively, when compared with the general U.S. population. Results Of 6,112 GIST patients, 1,047 (17.1%) had additional cancers. There were significant increases in overall cancer rates: 44% (SPR=1.44) before diagnosis and 66% (SIR=1.66) after GIST diagnoses. Malignancies with significantly increased occurrence both before/after diagnoses included other sarcomas (SPR=5.24/SIR=4.02), neuroendocrine-carcinoid tumors (SPR=3.56/SIR=4.79), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SPR=1.69/SIR=1.76), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.51/SIR=2.16). Esophageal adenocarcinoma (SPR=12.0), bladder adenocarcinoma (SPR=7.51), melanoma (SPR=1.46), and prostate adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.20) were significantly more common only before GIST. Ovarian carcinoma (SIR=8.72), small intestine adenocarcinoma (SIR=5.89), papillary thyroid cancer (SIR=5.16), renal cell carcinoma (SIR=4.46), hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas (SIR=3.10), gastric adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.70), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.03), uterine adenocarcinoma (SIR=1.96), non-small cell lung cancer (SIR=1.74), and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (SIR=1.65) were significantly more common only after GIST. Conclusion This is the first population-based study to characterize the associations and temporal relationships between GIST and other cancers, both by site and

  20. Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: what is the true size of the increased risk?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren; McFadden, Emily; Griffin, James; Thomas, Dawn; Hemming, Jane; Wright, Karen; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases breast cancer risk; however, most cohort studies omit MHT use after enrolment and many infer menopausal age. Methods: We used information from serial questionnaires from the UK Generations Study cohort to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer among post-menopausal women with known menopausal age, and examined biases induced when not updating data on MHT use and including women with inferred menopausal age. Results: Among women recruited in 2003–2009, at 6 years of follow-up, 58 148 had reached menopause and 96% had completed a follow-up questionnaire. Among 39 183 women with known menopausal age, 775 developed breast cancer, and the HR in relation to current oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use (based on 52 current oestrogen plus progestogen MHT users in breast cancer cases) relative to those with no previous MHT use was 2.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05–3.65) for a median duration of 5.4 years of current use, reaching 3.27 (95% CI: 1.53–6.99) at 15+ years of use. The excess HR was underestimated by 53% if oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use was not updated after recruitment, 13% if women with uncertain menopausal age were included, and 59% if both applied. The HR for oestrogen-only MHT was not increased (HR=1.00; 95% CI: 0.66–1.54). Conclusions: Lack of updating MHT status through follow-up and inclusion of women with inferred menopausal age is likely to result in substantial underestimation of the excess relative risks for oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use in studies with long follow-up, limited updating of exposures, and changing or short durations of use. PMID:27467055

  1. Identification of specific Y-chromosomes associated with increased prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Farnham, James M.; Bailey, Matthew; Albright, Frederick S.; Teerlink, Craig C; Agarwal, Neeraj; Stephenson, Robert A.; Thomas, Alun

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence supports the possibility of a role of the Y chromosome in prostate cancer, but controversy exists. Methods A novel analysis of a computerized population-based resource linking genealogy and cancer data was used to test the hypothesis of a role of the Y chromosome in prostate cancer predisposition. Using a statewide cancer registry from 1966 linked to a computerized genealogy representing over 1.2 million descendants of the Utah pioneers, 1,000 independent sets of males, each set hypothesized to share the same Y chromosome as represented in genealogy data, were tested for a significant excess of prostate cancer. Results Multiple Y chromosomes representing thousands of potentially at-risk males were identified to be associated to have a significant excess risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions This powerful and efficient in silico test of an uncommon mode of inheritance has confirmed evidence for Y chromosome involvement in prostate cancer. PMID:24796687

  2. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Flora; Pavelka, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the body’s first-line defenses against fungal infections. Moreover, classical chemotherapeutic agents also have a detrimental effect on components of the adaptive immune system, which further play important roles in the antifungal response. In this review, we discuss the current paradigm regarding the mechanisms behind the increased risk of systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. We also highlight some recent findings, which suggest that chemotherapy may have more extensive effects beyond the human host, in particular towards C. albicans itself and the bacterial microbiota. The extent to which these additional effects contribute towards the development of candidiasis in chemotherapy-treated patients remains to be investigated. PMID:26784236

  3. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  4. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  5. CYP17 polymorphism (rs743572) is associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer in tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajani; Sharma, Kiran L; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-07-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) involves interplay of sex steroids, including estrogen and progesterone. Since CYP17 is a key enzyme involved in estrogen and testosterone hormone biosynthesis as well as in xenobiotic metabolism, it may be a potential candidate gene in the carcinogenesis of the gallbladder. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the association of CYP17 (rs2486758, and rs743572) polymorphisms with GBC susceptibility. The present study included a total of 414 histologically confirmed GBC and 230 healthy controls. The CYP17 (rs2486758 and rs743572) polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan-Allele discrimination assays. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS ver. 16. Overall, both the CYP17 SNPs did not indicate any association with GBC risk at genotype, haplotype, or at the genotypic interaction levels. However, in the case-only analysis, CYP rs743572 showed association with increased risk of GBC in tobacco users at hetero genotype and dominant models, as compared to non-user GBC patients. The TCrs2486758-AGrs743572 genotypic combination was also associated with increased GBC susceptibility in tobacco users. CYP17 rs743572 is associated with increased risk of GBC in tobacco users in the North Indian population. However, the study requires confirmation in other populations. PMID:24687554

  6. The 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Estrada, Ana; Lott, Paul; Martin, Lynn; Polanco Echeverry, Guadalupe; Velez, Alejandro; Neta, Gila; Takahasi, Meiko; Saenko, Vladimir; Mitsutake, Norisato; Jaeguer, Emma; Duque, Carlos Simon; Rios, Alejandro; Bohorquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Criollo, Angel; Echeverry, Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian; Carmona, Luis G Carvajal

    2015-10-01

    The G allele of the rs6983267 single-nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (TC) has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in TC susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3067 cases and 8575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and TC in the British Isles (odds ratio (OR)=1.19, 95% CI: 1.11-1.27, P=4.03×10(-7)), Japan (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41, P=0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.99-1.44, P=0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5484 cases and 12 594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and TC (P=1.23×10(-7), OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide TC risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ∼13%. PMID:26290501

  7. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  8. Recurrent HOXB13 mutations in the Dutch population do not associate with increased breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingjing; Prager–van der Smissen, Wendy J. C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Collée, J. Margriet; Cornelissen, Sten; Lamping, Roy; Nieuwlaat, Anja; Foekens, John A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Verhoef, Senno; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Martens, John W. M.; Hollestelle, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    The HOXB13 p.G84E mutation has been firmly established as a prostate cancer susceptibility allele. Although HOXB13 also plays a role in breast tumor progression, the association of HOXB13 p.G84E with breast cancer risk is less evident. Therefore, we comprehensively interrogated the entire HOXB13 coding sequence for mutations in 1,250 non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases and 800 controls. We identified two predicted deleterious missense mutations, p.G84E and p.R217C, that were recurrent among breast cancer cases and further evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in a larger study. Taken together, 4,520 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 3,127 controls were genotyped including the cases and controls of the whole gene screen. The concordance rate for the genotyping assays compared with Sanger sequencing was 100%. The prostate cancer risk allele p.G84E was identified in 18 (0.56%) of 3,187 cases and 16 (0.70%) of 2,300 controls (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.41–1.59, P = 0.54). Additionally, p.R217C was identified in 10 (0.31%) of 3,208 cases and 2 (0.087%) of 2,288 controls (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 0.76–33.57, P = 0.14). These results imply that none of the recurrent HOXB13 mutations in the Dutch population are associated with breast cancer risk, although it may be worthwhile to evaluate p.R217C in a larger study. PMID:27424772

  9. Increased consultation frequency in primary care, a risk marker for cancer: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Marcela; Naredi, Peter; Nemes, Szilard; Zhang, Chenyang; Månsson, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify early diagnostic profiles such as diagnostic codes and consultation patterns of cancer patients in primary care one year prior to cancer diagnosis. Design Total population-based case–control study. Setting and subjects 4562 cancer patients and 17,979 controls matched by age, sex, and primary care unit. Data were collected from the Swedish Cancer Register and the Regional Healthcare Database. Method We identified cancer patients in the Västra Götaland Region of Sweden diagnosed in 2011 with prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, gynaecological, and skin cancers including malignant melanoma. We studied the symptoms and diagnoses identified by diagnostic codes during a diagnostic interval of 12 months before the cancer diagnosis. Main outcome measures Consultation frequency, symptom density by cancer type, prevalence and odds ratios (OR) for the diagnostic codes in the cancer population as a whole. Results The diagnostic codes with the highest OR were unspecified lump in breast, neoplasm of uncertain behaviour, and abnormal serum enzyme levels. The codes with the highest prevalence were hyperplasia of prostate, other skin changes and abdominal and pelvic pain. The frequency of diagnostic codes and consultations in primary care rose in tandem 50 days before diagnosis for breast and gynaecological cancer, 60 days for malignant melanoma and skin cancer, 80 days for prostate cancer and 100 days for colorectal and lung cancer. Conclusion Eighty-seven percent of patients with the most common cancers consulted a general practitioner (GP) a year before their diagnosis. An increase in consultation frequency and presentation of any symptom should raise the GP’s suspicion of cancer. Key pointsKnowledge about the prevalence of early symptoms and other clinical signs in cancer patients in primary care remains insufficient.• Eighty-seven percent of the patients with the seven most common cancers consulted a general practitioner 12 months prior to cancer

  10. A Randomized Trial of Generic versus Tailored Interventions to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Intermediate Risk Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Sharon L.; Coups, Elliot J.; Markowitz, Arnold; Meropol, Neal J.; Haller, Daniel; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Jandorf, Lina; Peterson, Susan K.; Lesko, Samuel; Philipshen, Steven; Winkel, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with a sibling who has had colorectal cancer diagnosed before age 61 are at increased risk for colorectal cancer and may derive particular benefit from screening. Tailored interventions may increase participation in appropriate colorectal cancer screening. This study evaluated the efficacy of two tailored interventions and a generic print intervention. Participant siblings (N = 412) who were not up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening were randomly assigned to receive either a generic print pamphlet, a tailored print pamphlet, or a tailored print pamphlet and tailored counseling call. Colorectal cancer screening six months after the baseline interview was the outcome measure. Results indicated that colorectal cancer screening adherence increased among intermediate risk siblings enrolled in all three intervention groups. Participants in both tailored intervention groups reported having colorectal cancer screening at significantly higher rates than participants in the generic print group. The increase in colorectal cancer screening in the tailored print and counseling call group was not significantly higher than that achieved by the tailored print alone. Decisional balance partially mediated treatment effects. Tailored behavioral interventions are an effective method for increasing screening adherence but telephone counseling did not add significantly to treatment effects. PMID:19418107

  11. Stroke Patients with a Past History of Cancer Are at Increased Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kui-Kai; Wong, Yuen-Kwun; Teo, Kay-Cheong; Chang, Richard Shek-Kwan; Hon, Sonny Fong-Kwong; Chan, Koon-Ho; Cheung, Raymond Tak-Fai; Li, Leonard Sheung-Wai; Tse, Hung-Fat; Ho, Shu-Leong; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cancer patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. It is unclear whether cancer confers any additional risk for recurrent stroke or cardiovascular mortality after stroke. Methods This was a single center, observational study of 1,105 consecutive Chinese ischemic stroke patients recruited from a large stroke rehabilitation unit based in Hong Kong. We sought to determine whether patients with cancer are at higher risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Results Amongst 1,105 patients, 58 patients (5.2%) had cancer, of whom 74% were in remission. After a mean follow-up of 76±18 months, 241 patients developed a recurrent stroke: 22 in patients with cancer (38%, annual incidence 13.94%/year), substantially more than those without cancer (21%, 4.65%/year) (p<0.01). In a Cox regression model, cancer, age and atrial fibrillation were the 3 independent predictors of recurrent stroke with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54–3.80), 1.01 (1.00–1.03) and 1.35 (1.01–1.82) respectively. Likewise, patients with cancer had a higher cardiovascular mortality compared with those without cancer (4.30%/year vs. 2.35%/year, p = 0.08). In Cox regression analysis, cancer (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.08–4.02), age (HR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.06), heart failure (HR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.72–5.47) and significant carotid atherosclerosis (HR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.02–2.36) were independent predictors for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Stroke patients with a past history of cancer are at increased risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24523883

  12. Increased Physical Activity Associated With Lower Risk of 13 Types of Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and its programs, visit www.nih.gov . NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Reference Moore SC, et al. Leisure-time physical activity and risk of 26 types of cancer in 1.44 million adults. JAMA Internal Medicine. May 16, 2016. DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed. ...

  13. The Cdx-2 polymorphism in the VDR gene is associated with increased risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Jichong; Ma, Yaxian; Wang, Haichuan; Yang, Jiqiao; Xiong, Tianyuan; Du, Liang

    2013-07-01

    The Cdx-2 polymorphism in VDR gene has been extensively investigated for association with cancer risk, however, results of different studies have been inconsistent. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship of the Cdx-2 polymorphism in VDR and cancer risk by meta-analysis. All eligible case-control studies were searched in Pubmed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases. Odds ratios (OR) with the 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association. A total of 12,906 cases and 13,700 controls in 18 case-control studies were included. The results indicated that the AA homozygote carriers had a 16 % increased risk of cancer, when compared with the homozygote GG and heterozygote AG (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05-1.29 for AA vs. GG+AG). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant elevated risks were associated with AA homozygote carriers in Caucasians (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.01-1.33, and P = 0.04) and African Americans (OR = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.07-1.61, and P = 0.01). In the subgroup analysis by cancer types, the polymorphism was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.04-1.46, and P = 0.02). This meta-analysis suggested that the Cdx-2 polymorphism of VDR gene would be a risk factor for cancer. To further evaluate gene-to-gene and gene-to-environmental interactions between polymorphisms of VDR gene and cancer risk, more studies with large groups of patients are required. PMID:23649760

  14. Increased risk of laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer after gastrectomy for ulcer disease in a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lagergren, J; Lindam, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastrectomy has been indicated as a risk factor for laryngeal cancer, and possibly also for pharyngeal cancer, but few studies are available. The postulated mechanism is increased bile reflux following gastrectomy. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study of patients who underwent gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease between 1964 and 2008 in Sweden. Follow-up data for cancer was obtained from the Swedish Cancer Register. Relative risk was calculated as standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The gastrectomy cohort comprises 19 767 patients, contributing 348 231 person-years at risk. The observed number of patients with laryngeal (n=56) and pharyngeal cancer (n=28) was two-fold higher than the expected (SIR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.6 and SIR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6–3.5, respectively). After exclusion of 5536 cohort members with tobacco- or alcohol-related disease, the point SIRs remained increased (SIR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.2 and SIR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9–2.8, respectively). The SIRs of laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer increased with time after gastrectomy (P for trend <0.0001), and were particularly increased ⩾30 years after gastrectomy (SIR: 4.8, 95% CI: 2.1–9.5 and SIR: 10.2, 95% CI: 3.7–22.3, respectively). Conclusion: Gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease might entail a long-term increased risk of laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. PMID:22453126

  15. Perceived risk, anxiety, mammogram uptake, and breast self-examination of women with a family history of breast cancer: the role of knowing to be at increased risk.

    PubMed

    Drossaert, C C; Boer, H; Seydel, E R

    1996-01-01

    Since women with a first-degree relative with breast cancer are at increased risk for breast cancer, it is of special importance that they adhere to early detection programs. In this study, women with (389) and without (3295) a family history of breast cancer were compared with respect to risk perception, breast cancer anxiety, and early detection behavior. Special attention was paid to the role of knowing that family history is a breast cancer risk factor. It was found that 46% of "family history positives" did not know that their risk was increased by their family history. Still, family history positives had increased risk perception; our results suggest that this was partly caused by their knowing they belonged to a risk group and partly by their having experienced the disease at close range. Although family history positives had higher risk perceptions, no differences in early detection behavior were found. This could not be attributed to high anxiety levels. Implications for health education are discussed. PMID:8907207

  16. The GSTM1 Null Genotype Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Based on 46 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Deng, Xin; Song, Guoqing; Qin, Shibo; Liu, Zhanzhan

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) is an important phase II metabolizing enzyme. The null genotype of GSTM1 causes total loss of GSTM1 enzyme activity and numerous studies have investigated the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk. Methods This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between GSTM1 null genotype and susceptibility to gastric cancer and assess the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, Lauren’s classification, and other factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength. Results A total of 46 eligible studies were indentified and analyzed in this meta-analysis, including 8138 cases of gastric cancer and 13867 controls. Pooled results showed that the GSTM1 null genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.217, 95% CI: 1.113-1.331, Pheterogeneity<0.001). Sub-group analysis suggested that the significant association was only observed in Asians (OR=1.273, 95%: 1.137-1.426, Pheterogeneity = 0.002), but not in Caucasians. The increased risk was found among H. pylori positive population (OR=1.928, 95% CI: 1.028-3.615, Pheterogeneity=0.065), while no association was found among H. pylori negative population (OR=0.969, 95% CI: 0.618-1.521, Pheterogeneity=0.168). For smoking status, the GSTM1 null genotype increased risk of gastric cancer in both ever-smokers and non-smokers. Source of control, sample size, location of tumor and Lauren’s classification did not modify the association. Conclusions In this meta-analysis based on 46 epidemiological studies, we show that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer among Asians but not among Caucasians. H. pylori infection but not smoking status could modify the association. PMID:24244742

  17. Increased Risk of Second Primary Malignancy in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Treated with Radioactive Iodine for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Jennifer L.; Jain, Kunal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The long-term sequelae of radioactive iodine (RAI) for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in pediatric and young adult patients are not well-defined. Epidemiologic analyses of second primary malignancy (SPM) risk have only been performed in the adult population. Existing data are limited to case series with limited follow-up. The objective of this study was to analyze the elevated risk of SPM attributable to RAI in young patients treated for DTC. Methods: Population-based analysis of 3850 pediatric and young adult patients (<25 years old) undergoing treatment with surgery with/without RAI for DTC, followed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry (1973–2008), equating to 54,727 person-years at risk (PYR). The excess risk of SPM was calculated relative to a reference population and expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10,000 PYR. Excess risk was compared in RAI-treated and non-RAI-treated patients. Results: A total of 1571 patients (40%) received RAI. The percentage of patients treated with RAI increased over time, from 4% in 1973 to 62% in 2008 (p<0.001). Among patients who received RAI, 26 SPMs were observed, and 18.3 were expected. The relative risk of SPM at any site was significantly elevated (SIR=1.42), corresponding to 4.4 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. SPM risk was not elevated in the non-RAI-treated cohort (SIR=1.01, EAR=0). Patients treated with RAI were at dramatically elevated risk for development of a salivary malignancy (SIR=34.1), corresponding to 1.7 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. The risk of leukemia in RAI-treated patients was elevated (SIR=4.0, EAR=0.9) but did not reach statistical significance. There was no elevated risk of salivary cancer or leukemia in the non-RAI-treated cohort. Conclusions: Pediatric and young adult patients who receive RAI for DTC experience an elevated risk of SPM, mainly salivary gland cancer. These risks appear to be only slightly higher

  18. The HABP2 G534E polymorphism does not increase nonmedullary thyroid cancer risk in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Bohórquez, Mabel E; Estrada, Ana P; Stultz, Jacob; Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Williamson, John; Lott, Paul; Duque, Carlos S; Donado, Jorge; Mateus, Gilbert; Bolaños, Fernando; Vélez, Alejandro; Echeverry, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) has not been clearly linked to causal germline variants, despite the large role that genetic factors play in risk. Recently, HABP2 G534E (rs7080536A) has been implicated as a causal variant in NMTC. We have previously shown that the HABP2 G534E variant is not associated with TC risk in patients from the British Isles. Hispanics are the largest and the youngest minority in the United States and NMTC is now the second most common malignancy in women from this population. In order to determine if the HABP2 G534E variant played a role in NMTC risk among Hispanic populations, we analyzed 281 cases and 1105 population-matched controls from a multicenter study in Colombia, evaluating the association through logistic regression. We found that the HABP2 G534E variant was not significantly associated with NMTC risk (P=0.843) in this Hispanic group. We also stratified available clinical data by multiple available clinicopathological variables and further analyzed the effect of HABP2 on NMTC presentation. However, we failed to detect associations between HABP2 G534E and NMTC risk, regardless of disease presentation (P≥0.273 for all cases). Therefore, without any significant associations between the HABP2 G534E variant and NMTC risk, we conclude that the variant is not causal of NMTC in this Hispanic population. PMID:27097599

  19. The HABP2 G534E polymorphism does not increase nonmedullary thyroid cancer risk in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, Mabel E; Estrada, Ana P; Stultz, Jacob; Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Williamson, John; Lott, Paul; Duque, Carlos S; Donado, Jorge; Mateus, Gilbert; Bolaños, Fernando; Vélez, Alejandro; Echeverry, Magdalena; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G

    2016-05-01

    Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) has not been clearly linked to causal germline variants, despite the large role that genetic factors play in risk. Recently, HABP2 G534E (rs7080536A) has been implicated as a causal variant in NMTC. We have previously shown that the HABP2 G534E variant is not associated with TC risk in patients from the British Isles. Hispanics are the largest and the youngest minority in the United States and NMTC is now the second most common malignancy in women from this population. In order to determine if the HABP2 G534E variant played a role in NMTC risk among Hispanic populations, we analyzed 281 cases and 1105 population-matched controls from a multicenter study in Colombia, evaluating the association through logistic regression. We found that the HABP2 G534E variant was not significantly associated with NMTC risk (P=0.843) in this Hispanic group. We also stratified available clinical data by multiple available clinicopathological variables and further analyzed the effect of HABP2 on NMTC presentation. However, we failed to detect associations between HABP2 G534E and NMTC risk, regardless of disease presentation (P≥0.273 for all cases). Therefore, without any significant associations between the HABP2 G534E variant and NMTC risk, we conclude that the variant is not causal of NMTC in this Hispanic population. PMID:27097599

  20. Does night-shift work increase the risk of prostate cancer? a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dapang; Yu, Haifeng; Bai, Yu; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Background Night-shift work is suggested to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but its association with prostate cancer is still controversial. We examined this association by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane register, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases through December 25, 2014. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects or fixed effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. Results A total of 2,459,845 individuals from eight published studies were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies suggested that night-shift work was associated with a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05–1.46; P=0.011). Sensitivity analysis showed that the association remained significant when repeating the analysis after removing one study each time. Dose–response meta-analysis suggested that an increase in night-shift work of 5 years duration was statistically significantly associated with a 2.8% (95% CI: 0.3, 5.4%, P=0.030) increase in the risk of prostate cancer. There was no significant publication bias. Conclusion Based on a meta-analysis, night-shift work is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Because of the limited number of included studies and the large level of heterogeneity, further well-designed studies are still warranted to confirm the findings of our analysis. PMID:26491356

  1. Bereavement Is Associated with an Increased Risk of HPV Infection and Cervical Cancer: An Epidemiological Study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lu, Donghao; Sundström, Karin; Sparén, Pär; Fall, Katja; Sjölander, Arvid; Dillner, Joakim; Helm, Nathalie Ylitalo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fang, Fang

    2016-02-01

    Grief over the loss of a family member may cause physical and mental illness, but an association between bereavement and cancer risk has not been established. Based on the Swedish National Cervical Screening Register (1969-2011) including 14,011,269 smears from 2,466,107 women, we conducted two nested case-control studies to examine the associations of bereavement (i.e., loss of a family member due to death) with abnormal cytology (390,310 first abnormal and 1,951,319 normal smears) and in situ/invasive cervical cancer (75,128 case and 375,640 control women), both individually matched on year of birth and screening adherence. Among 1,696 of the control women, we further investigated bereavement in association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, both HPV16 and other HPV types. Bereavement was consistently associated with a 4% to 9% increased risk for first abnormal cytology, in situ and invasive cervical cancer (all P < 0.02). The associations became stronger when multiple losses, loss of child, sibling or spouse, and loss due to unnatural cause were analyzed separately (P for trend or difference < 0.0001), and for women with high screening adherence (P for difference < 0.05). Among 1,696 women who had not developed cervical cancer, we further investigated the link between bereavement and HPV infection. Bereavement was associated with a 62% increased risk of HPV16 infection, high viral load, and recurrent infection, and was also more strongly associated with HPV infections designated as high-risk compared with low-risk determinants of cervical carcinogenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that bereavement is associated with an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. Further, they suggest that this association may be attributed to stress-induced oncogenic HPV infections. PMID:26634926

  2. Recruitment to a physical activity intervention study in women at increased risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity is being studied as a breast cancer prevention strategy. Women at risk of breast cancer report interest in lifestyle modification, but recruitment to randomized physical activity intervention studies is challenging. Methods We conducted an analysis of recruitment techniques used for a prospective, randomized pilot study of physical activity in women at risk of breast cancer. We evaluated differences in proportion of eligible patients, enrolled patients, and successful patients identified by each individual recruitment method. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test (an extension of Fisher's exact test from 2 × 2 tables to general row by column tables) was used to compare the success of different recruitment strategies. Results We received 352 inquiries from women interested in participating, of whom 171 (54%) were eligible. Ninety-nine women completed a baseline activity evaluation, and 58 (34% of eligible; 16% of total inquiries) were randomized. Recruitment methods fell into three broad categories: media techniques, direct contact with potential participants, and contacts with health care providers. Recruitment strategies differed significantly in their ability to identify eligible women (p = 0.01), and women who subsequently enrolled in the study (p = 0.02). Conclusion Recruitment techniques had varying success. Our data illustrate the challenges in recruiting to behavior modification studies, and provide useful information for tailoring future recruitment efforts for lifestyle intervention trials. Trial Registration No(s) CDR0000393790, NCI-04-C-0276, NCI-NAVY-B05-001 PMID:19397816

  3. Germline variation in NCF4, an innate immunity gene, is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bríd M.; Zanetti, Krista A.; Robles, Ana I.; Schetter, Aaron J.; Goodman, Julie; Hayes, Richard B.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Gunter, Marc J.; Yeager, Meredith; Burdette, Laurie; Berndt, Sonja I.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of colorectal adenoma and cancer; however, few key inflammatory genes mediating this relationship have been identified. In this study, we investigated the association of germline variation in innate immunity genes in relation to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Our study was based on the analysis of samples collected from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We investigated the association between 196 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 key innate immunity genes with risk of advanced colorectal adenoma and cancer in 719 adenoma cases, 481 cancer cases and 719 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After Bonferroni correction, the AG/GG genotype of rs5995355, which is upstream of NCF4, was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.43, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.73 – 3.39; P<0.0001). NCF4 is part of the NAPDH complex, a key factor in biochemical pathways and the innate immune response. While not definitive, our analyses suggest that the variant allele does not affect expression of NCF4, but rather modulates activity of the NADPH complex. Additional studies on the functional consequences of rs5995355 in NCF4 may help to clarify the mechanistic link between inflammation and colorectal cancer. PMID:23982929

  4. Rare mutations in XRCC2 increase the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, D J; Lesueur, F; Nguyen-Dumont, T; Pertesi, M; Odefrey, F; Hammet, F; Neuhausen, S L; John, E M; Andrulis, I L; Terry, M B; Daly, M; Buys, S; Le Calvez-Kelm, F; Lonie, A; Pope, B J; Tsimiklis, H; Voegele, C; Hilbers, F M; Hoogerbrugge, N; Barroso, A; Osorio, A; Giles, G G; Devilee, P; Benitez, J; Hopper, J L; Tavtigian, S V; Goldgar, D E; Southey, M C

    2012-04-01

    An exome-sequencing study of families with multiple breast-cancer-affected individuals identified two families with XRCC2 mutations, one with a protein-truncating mutation and one with a probably deleterious missense mutation. We performed a population-based case-control mutation-screening study that identified six probably pathogenic coding variants in 1,308 cases with early-onset breast cancer and no variants in 1,120 controls (the severity grading was p < 0.02). We also performed additional mutation screening in 689 multiple-case families. We identified ten breast-cancer-affected families with protein-truncating or probably deleterious rare missense variants in XRCC2. Our identification of XRCC2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene thus increases the proportion of breast cancers that are associated with homologous recombination-DNA-repair dysfunction and Fanconi anemia and could therefore benefit from specific targeted treatments such as PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) inhibitors. This study demonstrates the power of massively parallel sequencing for discovering susceptibility genes for common, complex diseases. PMID:22464251

  5. Rare Mutations in XRCC2 Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, D.J.; Lesueur, F.; Nguyen-Dumont, T.; Pertesi, M.; Odefrey, F.; Hammet, F.; Neuhausen, S.L.; John, E.M.; Andrulis, I.L.; Terry, M.B.; Daly, M.; Buys, S.; Le Calvez-Kelm, F.; Lonie, A.; Pope, B.J.; Tsimiklis, H.; Voegele, C.; Hilbers, F.M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Barroso, A.; Osorio, A.; Giles, G.G.; Devilee, P.; Benitez, J.; Hopper, J.L.; Tavtigian, S.V.; Goldgar, D.E.; Southey, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    An exome-sequencing study of families with multiple breast-cancer-affected individuals identified two families with XRCC2 mutations, one with a protein-truncating mutation and one with a probably deleterious missense mutation. We performed a population-based case-control mutation-screening study that identified six probably pathogenic coding variants in 1,308 cases with early-onset breast cancer and no variants in 1,120 controls (the severity grading was p < 0.02). We also performed additional mutation screening in 689 multiple-case families. We identified ten breast-cancer-affected families with protein-truncating or probably deleterious rare missense variants in XRCC2. Our identification of XRCC2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene thus increases the proportion of breast cancers that are associated with homologous recombination-DNA-repair dysfunction and Fanconi anemia and could therefore benefit from specific targeted treatments such as PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) inhibitors. This study demonstrates the power of massively parallel sequencing for discovering susceptibility genes for common, complex diseases. PMID:22464251

  6. Increased Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer risk in the Andean region of Colombia is mediated by spermine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, R; de Sablet, T; Asim, M; Piazuelo, M B; Barry, D P; Verriere, T G; Sierra, J C; Hardbower, D M; Delgado, A G; Schneider, B G; Israel, D A; Romero-Gallo, J; Nagy, T A; Morgan, D R; Murray-Stewart, T; Bravo, L E; Peek, R M; Fox, J G; Woster, P M; Casero, R A; Correa, P; Wilson, K T

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastric cancer, the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. More than half of the world's population is infected, making universal eradication impractical. Clinical trials suggest that antibiotic treatment only reduces gastric cancer risk in patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), and is ineffective once preneoplastic lesions of multifocal atrophic gastritis (MAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have occurred. Therefore, additional strategies for risk stratification and chemoprevention of gastric cancer are needed. We have implicated polyamines, generated by the rate-limiting enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), in gastric carcinogenesis. During H. pylori infection, the enzyme spermine oxidase (SMOX) is induced, which generates hydrogen peroxide from the catabolism of the polyamine spermine. Herein, we assessed the role of SMOX in the increased gastric cancer risk in Colombia associated with the Andean mountain region when compared with the low-risk region on the Pacific coast. When cocultured with gastric epithelial cells, clinical strains of H. pylori from the high-risk region induced more SMOX expression and oxidative DNA damage, and less apoptosis than low-risk strains. These findings were not attributable to differences in the cytotoxin-associated gene A oncoprotein. Gastric tissues from subjects from the high-risk region exhibited greater levels of SMOX and oxidative DNA damage by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and this occurred in NAG, MAG and IM. In Mongolian gerbils, a prototype colonizing strain from the high-risk region induced more SMOX, DNA damage, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma than a colonizing strain from the low-risk region. Treatment of gerbils with either α-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ODC, or MDL 72527 (N(1),N(4)-Di(buta-2,3-dien-1-yl)butane-1,4-diamine dihydrochloride), an inhibitor of SMOX, reduced gastric dysplasia and carcinoma, as well as apoptosis-resistant cells with DNA

  7. Nucleotide Excision Repair Gene ERCC2 and ERCC5 Variants Increase Risk of Uterine Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jungnam; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kong, Sun-Young; Shin, Hye-Jin; Park, Boram; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jeongseon; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Joo-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Defects in the DNA damage repair process can cause genomic instability and play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of 29 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in the DNA repair pathway, TP53, and TP53BP1 with the risk of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine SNPs in four genes in the DNA repair pathway (ERCC2, ERCC5, NBS1, and XRCC1), TP53, and TP53BP1 were genotyped for 478 cervical cancer patients and 922 healthy control subjects, and their effects on cervical carcinogenesis were analyzed. Results The most significant association was found for rs17655 in ERCC5, with an age-adjusted p-value < 0.0001, for which a strong additive effect of the risk allele C was observed (odds ratio, 2.01 for CC to GG). On the other hand, another significant polymorphism rs454421 in ERCC2 showed a dominant effect (odds ratio, 1.68 for GA+AA to GG) with an age-adjusted p-value of 0.0009. The association of these polymorphisms remained significant regardless of the age of onset. The significant result for rs17655 was also consistent for subgroups of patients defined by histology and human papillomavirus (HPV) types. However, for rs454421, the association was observed only in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and non-HPV 18 type. Conclusion The results of this study show a novel association of cervical cancer and the genes involved in the nucleotide excision pathway in the Korean population. PMID:26130668

  8. Study Finds Small Increase in Cancer Risk after Childhood CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    A study published in the June 6, 2012, issue of The Lancet shows that radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood results in very small but increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors in the first decade after exposure.

  9. Women exposed to DES in the womb face increased cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A large study of the daughters of women who had been given DES, the first synthetic form of estrogen, during pregnancy has found that exposure to the drug while in the womb (in utero) is associated with many reproductive problems and an increased risk of

  10. Uptake of exemestane chemoprevention in postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Bilge; Sorkin, Mia; Pusztai, Lajos; Hofstatter, Erin W

    2016-01-01

    Despite their efficacy, uptake of selective estrogen receptor modulators for breast cancer chemoprevention remains low. Exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has recently been identified as a potential chemopreventive option with fewer serious side effects compared with selective estrogen receptor modulators in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to assess the uptake of exemestane in a breast cancer prevention clinic. A retrospective chart review was conducted to capture chemoprevention uptake by postmenopausal women presenting to the Yale Breast Cancer Prevention Clinic between November 2011 and November 2012. Descriptive statistics of the study population have been presented. Statistical analyses were carried out using SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) between December 2012 and February 2013. Of 90 postmenopausal women, 56 were eligible for chemoprevention. Their mean age was 56.8 years. Among the women, 39% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Thirteen women chose to start chemoprevention medication (23%). Although 31% of the chemopreventive medication administered included exemestane, only four of 56 postmenopausal women opted for exemestane (7%). Chemoprevention uptake rates of postmenopausal women in the setting of a breast cancer prevention clinic are higher than that reported in the general population; however, they remain low overall despite the inclusion of exemestane as an option. A significant proportion of postmenopausal women have decreased bone density, which is a potential barrier to exemestane uptake. The results provide practical implications suggesting that exemestane may have limited impact on breast cancer chemoprevention uptake. Further investigations should focus on understanding the factors that influence, predict, and increase chemoprevention uptake. PMID:25642790

  11. Uptake of exemestane chemoprevention in postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Mia; Pusztai, Lajos; Hofstatter, Erin W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their efficacy, uptake of selective estrogen receptor modulators for breast cancer chemoprevention remains low. Exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has recently been identified as a potential chemopreventive option with fewer serious side effects compared with selective estrogen receptor modulators in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to assess the uptake of exemestane in a breast cancer prevention clinic. A retrospective chart review was conducted to capture chemoprevention uptake by postmenopausal women presenting to the Yale Breast Cancer Prevention Clinic between November 2011 and November 2012. Descriptive statistics of the study population have been presented. Statistical analyses were carried out using SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA) between December 2012 and February 2013. Of 90 postmenopausal women, 56 were eligible for chemoprevention. Their mean age was 56.8 years. Among the women, 39% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Thirteen women chose to start chemoprevention medication (23%). Although 31% of the chemopreventive medication administered included exemestane, only four of 56 postmenopausal women opted for exemestane (7%). Chemoprevention uptake rates of postmenopausal women in the setting of a breast cancer prevention clinic are higher than that reported in the general population; however, they remain low overall despite the inclusion of exemestane as an option. A significant proportion of postmenopausal women have decreased bone density, which is a potential barrier to exemestane uptake. The results provide practical implications suggesting that exemestane may have limited impact on breast cancer chemoprevention uptake. Further investigations should focus on understanding the factors that influence, predict, and increase chemoprevention uptake. PMID:25642790

  12. Evaluation of educational videos to increase skin cancer risk awareness and sun-safe behaviors among adult Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Claudia; Wang, Stephanie; Abraham, Ivy; Angulo, Maria Isabel; Kim, Hajwa; Meza, Joyce R; Munoz, Anastasia; Rodriguez, Lizbeth; Uddin, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    Although skin cancer is less common in Hispanics, they are at higher risk for presenting with more advanced stage skin cancer. We performed semi-structured interviews with Hispanic women that found high concern for photoaging from sun exposure. Based on these results, we developed two short Spanish-language films. The first emphasized photoaging benefits of sun protection, while the second focused on its benefits for skin cancer prevention. Our hypothesis was that the reduction of photoaging would be a more persuasive argument than skin cancer prevention for the adoption of sunscreen use by Hispanic women. Study participants were recruited from beauty salons located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods. Each of the two Spanish-language films was approximately 3 min long. A pre-intervention questionnaire assessed subjects' general knowledge and sunscreen habits, and a second questionnaire administered after viewing both films assessed for improvements in risk perception and inquired about which film was more persuasive. Eighty Hispanics participated ranging in age from 19 to 75. The pre-education survey found that 54 out of 80 believed that fair-skin Hispanics (FS) were at risk for skin cancer, and 44 out of 80 believed that dark-skin Hispanics (DS) were at risk. These numbers increased to 72 (FS) and 69 (DS) after the intervention (p value: <0.0002 FS, <0.0001 DS). Hispanics overwhelmingly selected the video emphasizing the benefits of sun protection for skin cancer prevention as the more persuasive film (74 out of 80). A Spanish-language video has the potential to make an impact in healthy sun-protective behaviors, and information on how to properly apply sunscreen should be included in educational messages. PMID:24595966

  13. The Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Polymorphism Rs10895304 Is Associated With Increased Recurrence Risk in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hwang, Misun; Lopater, Zachary; Chen Heidi; Ray, Geoffrey L.; Perez, Carmen; Cai Qiuyin; Wills, Marcia L.; Lu Bo

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether selected high-risk matrix metalloproteinase-7 single nucleotide polymorphisms influence clinicopathologic outcomes in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred twelve prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy were evaluated with a median follow-up of 9.8 years. Genotyping was performed using hybridization with custom-designed allele-specific probes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms within the matrix metalloproteinase-7 gene were assessed with respect to age at diagnosis, margin status, extracapsular extension, lymph node involvement, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens from patients with early-stage prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. Results: Rs10895304 was the sole significant polymorphism. The A/G genotype of rs10895304 had a statistically significant association with recurrence-free survival in postprostatectomy patients (p = 0.0061, log-rank test). The frequency of the risk-reducing genotype (A/A) was 74%, whereas that of the risk-enhancing genotypes (A/G and G/G) were 20% and 6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analyses detected a significant association between rs10895304 and recurrences after adjustment for known prognostic factors. The G allele of this polymorphism was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence (adjusted hazards ratio, 3.375; 95% confidence interval 1.567-7.269; p < 0.001). The other assayed polymorphisms were not significant, and no correlations were made to other clinical variables. Conclusions: The A/G genotype of rs10895304 is predictive of decreased recurrence-free survival in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Our data suggest that for this subset of patients, prostatectomy alone may not be adequate for local control. This is a novel and relevant marker that should be evaluated for improved risk stratification of patients who

  14. The Effect of Raloxifene on Mammographic Density and Breast MRI in Premenopausal Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Orzano-Birgani, Jennifer; Chow, Catherine K.; Venzon, David; Yao, Jianhua; Galbo, Claudia E.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Prindiville, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. MD and breast MRI volume (MRIV) assess the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the breast. MD and MRIV can be modulated with hormonal interventions, suggesting that these imaging modalities may be useful as surrogate endpoint biomarkers for breast cancer chemoprevention trials. We evaluated the effect of raloxifene on MD and MRIV in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Mammograms and MRIs were obtained at baseline and after one and two years of raloxifene 60 mg by mouth daily for 27 premenopausal women. Mammographic percent dense area was calculated using a semi-quantitative thresholding technique. T1 weighted spoiled gradient-echo MRI with fat suppression was used to determine breast MRIV using a semiautomatic method. Mean change in MD and median change in MRIV were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results No significant change in MD was seen after treatment with raloxifene. Mean change after one year was 1% (95% CI -3 to +5) and after two years was 1% (95% CI -2 to +5). MRIV decreased on raloxifene. Median relative change in MRIV after one year was -17% (95% CI % -28 to -9; p=0.0017) and after two years was -16% (95% CI -31 to -4; p=0.0004). Conclusions In high risk premenopausal women MD did not change on raloxifene, while MRIV significantly declined. Our findings suggest that MRIV is a promising surrogate biomarker in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer and should be investigated further in breast cancer prevention trials. PMID:18583470

  15. Diabetes mellitus and ovarian cancer: More complex than just increasing risk

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monjri M.; Erickson, Britt K.; Matin, Tasnia; McGwin, Gerald; Martin, Jovana Y.; Daily, Laura Becca; Pasko, Daniel; Haygood, Christen W.; Fauci, Janelle M.; Leath, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for endometrial cancer and is associated with poorer outcomes in breast and colon cancers. This association is less clear in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We sought to examine the effect of DM on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in women with EOC. Methods A retrospective cohort study of EOC patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 at a single institution was performed. Demographic, pathologic and DM diagnosis data were abstracted. Pearson chi-square test and t test were used to compare variables. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test were used to compare PFS and OS between non-diabetic (ND) and DM patients. Results 62 (17%) of 367 patients had a diagnosis of DM. No differences in age, histology, debulking status, or administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy between ND and DM patients were present, although there were more stage I and IV patients in the ND group (p=0.04). BMI was significantly different between the two groups (ND vs. DM, 27.5 vs. 30.7 kg/m2, p < 0.001). While there were no differences in survival based on BMI, diabetic patients had a poorer PFS (10.3 vs. 16.3 months, p=0.024) and OS (26.1 vs. 42.2 months, p=0.005) compared to ND patients. Metformin use among diabetic patients did not appear to affect PFS or OS. Conclusions EOC patients with DM have poorer survival than patients without diabetes; this association is independent of obesity. Metformin use did not affect outcomes. The pathophysiology of this observation requires more inquiry. PMID:25220626

  16. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  17. Uterine Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... University School of Medicine Uterine cancer (also called endometrial cancer) is one of the most common cancers in ... help protect themselves. To estimate your risk of uterine cancer and learn about ways to lower that risk, ...

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  19. Increased cancer risk of augmentation cystoplasty: possible role for hyperosmolal microenvironment on DNA damage recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Bradley P.; Chu, Albert; Henry, Jeff; Kim, Rebecca; Bissler, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients who have had surgical bladder augmentation have an increased risk of bladder malignancy, though the mechanism for this increased risk is unknown. Hyperosmolal microenvironments such as the bladder may impair DNA damage signaling and repair; this effect may be more pronounced in tissues not normally exposed to such conditions. Comparing gastric and colon epithelial cell lines to transitional epithelial cell lines gradually adapted to an osmolality of 600mOsm/kg with either sodium chloride or urea, cell lines of gastrointestinal origin were inhibited in their ability to activate ATM and downstream effectors of DNA damage signaling and repair such as p53, Nbs1, replication protein A (RPA), and γH2AX following the induction of DNA damage with etoposide. In contrast, bladder cell lines demonstrated a preserved ability to phosphorylate ATM and its effectors under conditions of hyperosmolal urea, and to a lesser extent with sodium chloride. The bladder cell lines’ ability to respond to DNA damage under hyperosmolal conditions may be due in part to protective mechanisms such as the accumulation of intracellular organic osmolytes and the uroplakin-containing asymmetric unit membrane as found in transitional epithelial cells, but not in gastrointestinal cells. Failure of such protective adaptations in the tissues used for augmentation cystoplasties may place these tissues at increased risk for malignancy. PMID:19647003

  20. Increased cancer risk of augmentation cystoplasty: possible role for hyperosmolal microenvironment on DNA damage recognition.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Bradley P; Chu, Albert; Henry, Jeff; Kim, Rebecca; Bissler, John J

    2009-11-01

    Patients who have had surgical bladder augmentation have an increased risk of bladder malignancy, though the mechanism for this increased risk is unknown. Hyperosmolal microenvironments such as the bladder may impair DNA damage signaling and repair; this effect may be more pronounced in tissues not normally exposed to such conditions. Comparing gastric and colon epithelial cell lines to transitional epithelial cell lines gradually adapted to an osmolality of 600 mOsm/kg with either sodium chloride or urea, cell lines of gastrointestinal origin were inhibited in their ability to activate ATM and downstream effectors of DNA damage signaling and repair such as p53, Nbs1, replication protein A (RPA), and gammaH2AX following the induction of DNA damage with etoposide. In contrast, bladder cell lines demonstrated a preserved ability to phosphorylate ATM and its effectors under conditions of hyperosmolal urea, and to a lesser extent with sodium chloride. The bladder cell lines' ability to respond to DNA damage under hyperosmolal conditions may be due in part to protective mechanisms such as the accumulation of intracellular organic osmolytes and the uroplakin-containing asymmetric unit membrane as found in transitional epithelial cells, but not in gastrointestinal cells. Failure of such protective adaptations in the tissues used for augmentation cystoplasties may place these tissues at increased risk for malignancy. PMID:19647003

  1. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... Risk factors you cannot control includes: Age . Your risk for breast cancer increases as you age. Most cancers are found in ...

  2. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  3. Association of mammographic image feature change and an increasing risk trend of developing breast cancer: an assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maxine; Leader, Joseph K.; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We recently investigated a new mammographic image feature based risk factor to predict near-term breast cancer risk after a woman has a negative mammographic screening. We hypothesized that unlike the conventional epidemiology-based long-term (or lifetime) risk factors, the mammographic image feature based risk factor value will increase as the time lag between the negative and positive mammography screening decreases. The purpose of this study is to test this hypothesis. From a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image database with 1278 cases, we collected all available sequential FFDM examinations for each case including the "current" and 1 to 3 most recently "prior" examinations. All "prior" examinations were interpreted negative, and "current" ones were either malignant or recalled negative/benign. We computed 92 global mammographic texture and density based features, and included three clinical risk factors (woman's age, family history and subjective breast density BIRADS ratings). On this initial feature set, we applied a fast and accurate Sequential Forward Floating Selection (SFFS) feature selection algorithm to reduce feature dimensionality. The features computed on both mammographic views were individually/ separately trained using two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers. The classification scores of the two ANNs were then merged with a sequential ANN. The results show that the maximum adjusted odds ratios were 5.59, 7.98, and 15.77 for using the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st "prior" FFDM examinations, respectively, which demonstrates a higher association of mammographic image feature change and an increasing risk trend of developing breast cancer in the near-term after a negative screening.

  4. Understanding why aspirin prevents cancer and why consuming very hot beverages and foods increases esophageal cancer risk. Controlling the division rates of stem cells is an important strategy to prevent cancer

    PubMed Central

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is, in essence, a stem cell disease. The main biological cause of cancer is that stem cells acquire DNA alterations during cell division. The more stem cell divisions a tissue accumulates over a lifetime, the higher is the risk of cancer in that tissue. This explains why cancer is diagnosed millions of times more often in some tissues than in others, and why cancer incidence increases so dramatically with age. It may also explain why taking a daily low-dose aspirin for several years reduces the risk of developing and dying from cancer. Since aspirin use reduces PGE2 levels and PGE2 fuels stem cell proliferation, aspirin may prevent cancer by restricting the division rates of stem cells. The stem cell division model of cancer may also explain why regular consumption of very hot foods and beverages increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Given that tissue injury activates stem cell division for repair, the thermal injury associated with this dietary habit will increase esophageal cancer risk by inducing the accumulation of stem cell divisions in the esophagus. Using these two examples, here I propose that controlling the division rates of stem cells is an essential approach to preventing cancer. PMID:26682276

  5. Understanding why aspirin prevents cancer and why consuming very hot beverages and foods increases esophageal cancer risk. Controlling the division rates of stem cells is an important strategy to prevent cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is, in essence, a stem cell disease. The main biological cause of cancer is that stem cells acquire DNA alterations during cell division. The more stem cell divisions a tissue accumulates over a lifetime, the higher is the risk of cancer in that tissue. This explains why cancer is diagnosed millions of times more often in some tissues than in others, and why cancer incidence increases so dramatically with age. It may also explain why taking a daily low-dose aspirin for several years reduces the risk of developing and dying from cancer. Since aspirin use reduces PGE2 levels and PGE2 fuels stem cell proliferation, aspirin may prevent cancer by restricting the division rates of stem cells. The stem cell division model of cancer may also explain why regular consumption of very hot foods and beverages increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Given that tissue injury activates stem cell division for repair, the thermal injury associated with this dietary habit will increase esophageal cancer risk by inducing the accumulation of stem cell divisions in the esophagus. Using these two examples, here I propose that controlling the division rates of stem cells is an essential approach to preventing cancer. PMID:26682276

  6. BRCA Mutations Increase Fertility in Families at Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Arbre, Marie; Bidet, Yannick; Laquet, Claire; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Deleterious mutations in the BRCA genes are responsible for a small, but significant, proportion of breast and ovarian cancers (5 - 10 %). Proof of de novo mutations in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families is rare, in contrast to founder mutations, thousands of years old, that may be carried by as much as 1 % of a population. Thus, if mutations favoring cancer survive selection pressure through time, they must provide advantages that compensate for the loss of life expectancy. Method This hypothesis was tested within 2,150 HBOC families encompassing 96,325 individuals. Parameters included counts of breast/ovarian cancer, age at diagnosis, male breast cancer and other cancer locations. As expected, well-known clinical parameters discriminated between BRCA-mutated families and others: young age at breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and male breast cancer. The major fertility differences concerned men in BRCA-mutated families: they had lower first and mean age at paternity, and fewer remained childless. For women in BRCA families, the miscarriage rate was lower. In a logistic regression including clinical factors, the different miscarriage rate and men's mean age at paternity remained significant. Results Fertility advantages were confirmed in a subgroup of 746 BRCA mutation carriers and 483 non-carriers from BRCA mutated families. In particular, female carriers were less often nulliparous (9.1 % of carriers versus 16.0 %, p = 0.003) and had more children (1.8 ± 1.4 SD versus 1.5 ± 1.3, p = 0.002) as well as male carriers (1.7 ± 1.3 versus 1.4 ± 1.3, p = 0.024). Conclusion Although BRCA mutations shorten the reproductive period due to cancer mortality, they compensate by improving fertility both in male and female carriers. PMID:26047126

  7. Sun exposure may increase risk of prostate cancer in the high UV environment of New South Wales, Australia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini; Smith, David P; Egger, Sam; Hughes, Ann Maree; Kaldor, John M; Clements, Mark; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2012-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight may influence risk of prostate cancer. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we examined the relationship between sun exposure at 30 and 50 years of age and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study combining the NSW prostate cancer care and outcome study (cases) and the NSW non-Hodgkin's lymphoma study (controls). Prostate cancer risk increased with increasing estimated sun exposure (adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartiles of average weekly sun exposure in the warmer months 2.07 95% CI: 1.36-3.15) and this increase was most evident with weekend sun exposure (adjusted OR=5.55, 95% CI: 2.94-10.48). High sun sensitivity was also positively associated with risk for prostate cancer (adjusted OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.09-2.44). The apparent effects of weekly sun exposure did not vary by disease aggressiveness. Our results suggest that increasing sun exposure in mid-adult years increases prostate cancer risk in a high ambient solar UV environment. Given that previous studies, conducted mainly in low solar UV environments, have generally found evidence of a negative association, our findings suggest there may be a U-shaped relationship between solar UV exposure and prostate cancer. Further studies are needed to test the hypothesis that high solar UV exposure is a risk factor for prostate cancer and to explore possible mechanisms for such an association. PMID:22173996

  8. A randomized trial to increase colonoscopy screening in members of high risk families in the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry and Cancer Genetics Network

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jan T; Horick, Nora; Kinney, Anita Y; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Garrett, Kathleen; Haile, Robert W; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Sandler, Robert S.; Burke, Carol; Hill, Deirdre A.; Ahnen, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a strong family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) have significant risk for CRC, though adherence to colonoscopy screening in these groups remains low. This study assessed whether a tailored, telephone counseling intervention can increase adherence to colonoscopy in members of high risk families in a randomized, controlled trial. Methods Eligible participants were recruited from two national cancer registries if they had a first-degree relative with CRC under age 60 or multiple affected family members, which included families that met Amsterdam criteria for Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer, and if they were due for colonoscopy within 24-months. Participants were randomized to receive a tailored, telephone intervention grounded in behavioral theory or a mailed packet with general information about screening. Colonoscopy status was assessed through follow-up surveys and endoscopy reports. Cox-proportional hazards models were used to assess intervention effect. Results Of the 632 participants (aged 25–80), 60% were female, the majority were White, non-Hispanic, educated and had health insurance. Colonoscopy adherence increased 11 percentage points in the tailored, telephone intervention group, compared to no significant change in the mailed group. The telephone intervention was associated with a 32% increase in screening adherence compared to the mailed intervention (Hazard Ratio=1.32; p=0.01). Conclusions A tailored, telephone intervention can effectively increase colonoscopy adherence in high risk persons. This intervention has the potential for broad dissemination to health-care organizations or other high risk populations. Impact Increasing adherence to colonoscopy among persons with increased CRC risk could effectively reduce incidence and mortality from this disease. PMID:24501379

  9. FASL –844C polymorphism is associated with increased activation-induced T cell death and risk of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tong; Zhou, Yifeng; Li, Hua; Han, Xiaohong; Shi, Yuankai; Wang, Li; Miao, Xiaoping; Tan, Wen; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Xuemei; Guo, Yongli; Lin, Dongxin

    2005-01-01

    The FAS receptor–ligand system plays a key role in regulating apoptotic cell death, and corruption of this signaling pathway has been shown to participate in tumor-immune escape and carcinogenesis. We have recently demonstrated (Sun, T., X. Miao, X. Zhang, W. Tan, P. Xiong, and D. Lin. 2004. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 96:1030–1036; Zhang, X., X. Miao, T. Sun, W. Tan, S. Qu, P. Xiong, Y. Zhou, and D. Lin. 2005. J. Med. Genet. 42:479–484) that functional polymorphisms in FAS and FAS ligand (FASL) are associated with susceptibility to lung cancer and esophageal cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been elucidated. We show that the FAS –1377G, FAS –670A, and FASL –844T variants are expressed more highly on ex vivo–stimulated T cells than the FAS –1377A, FAS –670G, and FASL –844C variants. Moreover, activation-induced cell death (AICD) of T cells carrying the FASL –844C allele was increased. We also found a threefold increased risk of cervical cancer among subjects with the FASL –844CC genotype compared with those with the –844TT genotype in a case-control study in Chinese women. Together, these observations suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the FAS–FASL pathway confer host susceptibility to cervical cancers, which might be caused by immune escape of tumor cells because of enhanced AICD of tumor-specific T cells. PMID:16186185

  10. Barrett's esophagus. Correlation between mucin histochemistry, flow cytometry, and histologic diagnosis for predicting increased cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Haggitt, R. C.; Reid, B. J.; Rabinovitch, P. S.; Rubin, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    A predominance of sulfated mucin in the nongoblet columnar cells of Barrett's specialized metaplastic epithelium has been postulated to be a form of mild dysplasia and to indicate an increased risk of adenocarcinoma. Flow cytometry for the analysis of nuclear DNA content and cell cycle parameters has also been postulated to be an objective aid in the diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma in Barrett's esophagus. The authors investigated the relationship among sulfated mucin, flow cytometric data, and histologic diagnosis in each of 152 biopsies from 42 patients who had Barrett's specialized metaplastic epithelium. Sulfated mucin, as detected by the high iron diamine-Alcian blue stain, was present in biopsies from 8 of 11 (73%) patients with the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma, in 7 of 9 (78%) patients whose biopsies were indefinite for dysplasia, and in 12 of 22 (55%) patients whose biopsies were negative for dysplasia (P = 0.37). Sulfated mucins predominated in 9%, 22%, and 9% of the patients, respectively (P = 0.56). Abnormal flow cytometry (aneuploidy or increased G2/tetraploid fraction) was found in all patients with the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma, in 3 of 9 (33%) indefinite for dysplasia, and in 1 of 22 (5%) negative for dysplasia (P = less than 0.0001). Neither the presence nor the predominance of sulfated mucin in the specialized metaplastic epithelium of Barrett's esophagus has sufficiently high sensitivity or specificity for dysplasia or carcinoma to be of value in managing patients. Abnormal flow cytometry shows excellent correlation with the histologic diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma; it detects a subset of patients whose biopsies are histologically indefinite or negative for dysplasia, but who have flow cytometric abnormalities similar to those otherwise seen only in dysplasia and carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3354644

  11. Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of Alternative Letrozole Dosing Regimens in Postmenopausal Women with Increased Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    López, Ana Maria; Pruthi, Sandhya; Boughey, Judy C; Perloff, Marjorie; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Lang, Julie E; Ley, Michele; Frank, Denise; Taverna, Josephine A; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2016-02-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) profoundly suppress estrogen levels in postmenopausal women and are effective in breast cancer prevention among high-risk postmenopausal women. Unfortunately, AI treatment is associated with undesirable side effects that limit patient acceptance for primary prevention of breast cancer. A double-blind, randomized trial was conducted to determine whether low and intermittent doses of letrozole can achieve effective estrogen suppression with a more favorable side-effect profile. Overall, 112 postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer were randomized to receive letrozole at 2.5 mg once daily (QD, standard dose arm), 2.5 mg every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (Q-MWF), 1.0 mg Q-MWF, or 0.25 mg Q-MWF for 24 weeks. Primary endpoint was suppression in serum estradiol levels at the end of letrozole intervention. Secondary endpoints included changes in serum estrone, testosterone, C-telopeptide (marker of bone resorption), lipid profile, and quality-of-life measures (QoL) following treatment. Significant estrogen suppression was observed in all dose arms with an average of 75% to 78% and 86% to 93% reduction in serum estradiol and estrone levels, respectively. There were no differences among dose arms with respect to changes in C-telopeptide levels, lipid profile, adverse events (AE), or QoL measures. We conclude that low and intermittent doses of letrozole are not inferior to standard dose in estrogen suppression and resulted in a similar side-effect profile compared with standard dose. Further studies are needed to determine the feasibility of selecting an effective AI dosing schedule with better tolerability. Cancer Prev Res; 9(2); 142-8. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26667449

  12. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  13. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  14. Long-Term Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Wang, Baosheng; Zhang, Xin; Hao, Liliang; Hu, Xianliang; Li, Zhongxiang; Sun, Shaolong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have shown a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer (PC). In particular, new-onset diabetes might be induced by PC, and people with long-term diabetes might be at increased risk for the development of PC. The purpose of our study was to examine whether long-term diabetes represented an independent risk factor for PC development. Methodology A literature search was performed by searching electronic databases for studies published before July 1, 2014, and relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data pertaining to diabetes were recorded at both individual and study levels, with RRs calculated separately to analyze the relationship between the duration of diabetes and the development of PC. Results Forty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 18 studies with a case-control design, 5 with a nested case-control design and 21 with a cohort design. The overall summary estimate for the relationship between the population with a duration of diabetes ≥2 years and PC was 1.64 (1.52-1.78). The pooled RR (95% CI) of PC for the population with a duration of diabetes ≥5 years was 1.58 (1.42-1.75). For the population with a duration of diabetes ≥10 years, the RR (95% CI) of PC was 1.50 (1.28-1.75). Conclusions Our study suggests that long-term diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of PC. However, the level of risk is negatively correlated with increasing diabetes mellitus duration. PMID:26222906

  15. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  16. The double-edged sword of ovarian cancer information for women at increased risk who have previously taken part in screening

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Stephanie; Boivin, Jacky; Menon, Usha; Brain, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Background Women at increased risk who decide not to have, or to delay, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy have to rely on early diagnosis through symptom awareness and presenting to primary care as soon as possible in the absence of screening. However, little is known about the acceptability to women of this strategy. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of women’s perceptions and previous experiences of ovarian cancer symptom management, and the influences on ovarian cancer awareness and anticipated symptom presentation. Method Qualitative interviews were conducted with eight women at increased risk of ovarian cancer who had previously taken part in ovarian cancer screening and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results Familial experience of ovarian cancer and perceived personal risk shaped women’s perceptions and behavioural responses to disease threat. Ovarian cancer information was perceived to be a double-edged sword, regarded as either useful for increasing knowledge and confidence in discussing symptom concerns with health professionals or to be avoided due to fears about cancer. Conclusion Women may be cautious about searching for information independently and in the absence of routine ovarian screening. Practice implications Thought needs to be given to how best to create and disseminate credible ovarian cancer symptom information materials. PMID:27433283

  17. Increased risk of biochemical and local failure in patients with distended rectum on the planning CT for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Crevoisier, Renaud de; Tucker, Susan L. . E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively test the hypothesis that rectal distension on the planning computed tomography (CT) scan is associated with an increased risk of biochemical and local failure among patients irradiated for prostate carcinoma when a daily repositioning technique based on direct prostate-organ localization is not used. Methods and Materials: This study included 127 patients who received definitive three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer to a total dose of 78 Gy at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Rectal distension was assessed by calculation of the average cross-sectional rectal area (CSA; defined as the rectal volume divided by length) and measuring three rectal diameters on the planning CT. The impact of rectal distension on biochemical control, 2-year prostate biopsy results, and incidence of Grade 2 or greater late rectal bleeding was assessed. Results: The incidence of biochemical failure was significantly higher among patients with distended rectums (CSA >11.2 cm{sup 2}) on the planning CT scan (p 0.0009, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis indicates that rectal distension and high-risk disease are independent risk factors for biochemical failure, with hazard ratios of 3.89 (95% C.I. 1.58 to 9.56, p = 0.003) and 2.45 (95% C.I. 1.18 to 5.08, p = 0.016), respectively. The probability of residual tumor without evidence of radiation treatment (as scored by the pathologist) increased significantly with rectal distension (p = 0.010, logistic analysis), and a lower incidence of Grade 2 or greater late rectal bleeding within 2 years was simultaneously observed with higher CSA values (p = 0.031, logistic analysis). Conclusions: We found strong evidence that rectal distension on the treatment-planning CT scan decreased the probability of biochemical control, local control, and rectal toxicity in patients who were treated without daily image-guided prostate localization, presumably because of geographic misses. Therefore

  18. Elevated 4-Aminobiphenyl and 2, 6-Dimethylaniline Hemoglobin Adducts and Increased Risk of Bladder Cancer among Lifelong Nonsmokers - The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Li; Day, Billy W.; Hu, Bibin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wang, Renwei; Stern, Mariana C.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Conti, David V.; Van Den Berg, David; Pike, Malcolm C.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background 4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is an established human bladder carcinogen, with tobacco smoke being a major source of human exposure. Other arylamine compounds, including 2,6-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA), have been implicated as possible human bladder carcinogens. Hemoglobin adducts of 4-ABP and 2,6-DMA are validated biomarkers of exposure to those compounds in humans. Methods The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study enrolled 581 incident bladder cancer cases and 604 population controls. Each participant was solicited for his/her history of tobacco use and other lifestyle factors, and donation of blood and urine specimens. Red blood cell lysates were used to quantify both hemoglobin adducts of 4-ABP and 2,6-DMA. Urine samples were used to quantify total cotinine. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for bladder cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression methods. Results Among lifelong nonsmokers, ORs (95% CIs) of bladder cancer for low (below median of positive values) and high versus undetectable levels of 2,6-DMA hemoglobin adducts were 3.87 (1.39-10.75) and 6.90 (3.17-15.02), respectively (Ptrend<0.001). Similarly, among lifelong nonsmokers, ORs (95% CIs) of bladder cancer for 3rd and 4th versus 1st/2nd quartiles of 4-ABP hemoglobin adducts was 1.30 (0.76-2.22) and 2.29 (1.23-4.24), respectively (Ptrend=0.00). The two associations were independent of each other. Conclusion Hemoglobin adducts of 4-ABP and 2,6-DMA were significantly and independently associated with increased bladder cancer risk among lifelong nonsmokers in Shanghai, China. Impact The findings of the present study in China with previous data in Los Angeles, California strongly implicate arylamines as potential causal agents of human bladder cancer. PMID:23539508

  19. Development of APE1 enzymatic DNA repair assays: low APE1 activity is associated with increase lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sevilya, Ziv; Leitner-Dagan, Yael; Pinchev, Mila; Kremer, Ran; Elinger, Dalia; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Rennert, Hedy S; Freedman, Laurence S; Rennert, Gad; Paz-Elizur, Tamar; Livneh, Zvi

    2015-09-01

    The key role of DNA repair in removing DNA damage and minimizing mutations makes it an attractive target for cancer risk assessment and prevention. Here we describe the development of a robust assay for apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1; APEX1), an essential enzyme involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. APE1 DNA repair enzymatic activity was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cell protein extracts using a radioactivity-based assay, and its association with lung cancer was determined using conditional logistic regression with specimens from a population-based case-control study with 96 lung cancer cases and 96 matched control subjects. The mean APE1 enzyme activity in case patients was 691 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 655-727] units/ng protein, significantly lower than in control subjects (mean = 793, 95% CI = 751-834 units/ng protein, P = 0.0006). The adjusted odds ratio for lung cancer associated with 1 SD (211 units) decrease in APE1 activity was 2.0 (95% CI = 1.3-3.1; P = 0.002). Comparison of radioactivity- and fluorescence-based assays showed that the two are equivalent, indicating no interference by the fluorescent tag. The APE1Asp148Glu SNP was associated neither with APE1 enzyme activity nor with lung cancer risk. Taken together, our results indicate that low APE1 activity is associated with lung cancer risk, consistent with the hypothesis that 'bad DNA repair', rather than 'bad luck', is involved in cancer etiology. Such assays may be useful, along with additional DNA repair biomarkers, for risk assessment of lung cancer and perhaps other cancers, and for selecting individuals to undergo early detection techniques such as low-dose CT. PMID:26045303

  20. Increased NUCKS expression is a risk factor for poor prognosis and recurrence in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianbo; Tan, Shu; Xu, Ye; Meng, Fanling; Yang, Chang; Lou, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) was reported to function as a potential biomarker in various tumors. Thus, we aimed to explore the expression of NUCKS in endometrial cancer (EC) and its clinical significance using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). qRT-PCR results showed that NUCKS mRNA expression gradually elevated from normal endometrium to atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and to EC (P < 0.05 between each group). NUCKS overexpression was strongly associated with FIGO stage (P = 0.002), histologic grade (P = 0.029), lympho-vascular space involvement (P = 0.014), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.019), and recurrence (P < 0.001). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that NUCKS overexpression was an independent factor for overall survival and recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001 for both). Multivariate logistic regression suggested that recurrence was independently correlated with NUCKS overexpresion (P = 0.039), FIGO stage (P = 0.002), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002). In summary, NUCKS overexpression may function as a potential biomarker for prognosis especially for recurrence in ECs. PMID:26885454

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of SREBF-1 Gene Associated with an Increased Risk of Endometrial Cancer in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Dongol, Samina; Wang, Chenguang; Jiang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Aim Elevated levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) have been found in endometrial cancer (EC), suggesting that it is essential to the development of EC. Obesity and diabetes have been established as known risk factors of EC, while SREBF-1 gene polymorphisms have also been found to be associated with obesity and type II diabetes. Therefore, we hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in SREBF-1 gene may be associated with increased risk of EC. Method We analyzed the sequence of SREBF-1 in tissue samples from 30 EC cases and 6 benign controls using high throughput method. Based on the primary results, we selected one SNP (rs2297508) as a genetic marker to conduct a hospital-based case-control study with 139 EC cases and 129 benign controls. The samples were examined under the microscope to determine their histopathology prior to the SNP analysis using RT-PCR. Results Through sequence analysis, we found 10 SNPs of SREBF-1 associated with EC, including 3 new SNPs. Fourteen percent of EC showed the rs2297508 SNP with C allele, while only 7% had the C allele was present in benign controls (p = 0.027, OR = 1.983). Additionally, the C allele was associated with cancer differentiation (p<0.05) and the depth of myometrial invasion (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that SNP (rs2297508) of SREBF-1 may serve as a genetic predisposition factor for the development of EC and screening of such genetic marker may be helpful in its early detection. PMID:24614076

  2. Telomere length shortening in gastric mucosa is a field effect associated with increased risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Okubo, Masaaki; Nakano, Naoko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    Telomere shortening occurs in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by oxidative injury and rapid cell turnover. Short telomeres initiate chromosomal instability and may eventually contribute to tumorigenesis. To evaluate telomere length as potential biomarker for gastric cancer (GC) risk, we measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in GC tissues and in non-neoplastic mucosa from patients with GC and without GC. We obtained of 217 GC patients matched biopsies from the GC and adjacent tissues as well as gastric biopsies of 102 subjects without GC. Relative telomere length was measured in genomic DNA by real-time PCR. Relative telomere length decreased gradually in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) negative and positive gastric mucosa of GC free subjects compared with adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue from GC patients (4.03 ± 0.3 vs. 2.82 ± 0.19 vs. 0.82 ± 0.07 vs. 0.29 ± 0.09, P < 0.0001). In non-neoplastic mucosa of GC patients, shorter telomeres were found significantly more often than in that of GC free subjects (age, sex, and H. pylori adjusted odds ratio = 7.81, 95 % confidence interval = 4.71-12.9, P < 0.0001). Telomere shortening in non-neoplastic mucosa was associated with chronic inflammation (P = 0.0018) and intestinal metaplasia (P < 0.0001). No significant associations were found between relative telomere length and clinicopathological features of GC and overall survival. Telomere shortening in gastric mucosa reflects a field effect in an early stage of carcinogenesis and is associated with an increased risk of GC. Telomere length in GC is not associated with clinicopathological features or prognosis. PMID:27173780

  3. Cyclin D1 Pro241Pro (CCND1-G870A) polymorphism is associated with increased cancer risk in human populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, Noel; Bapat, Bharati; Sung, Lillian; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Francisco-Pabalan, Ofelia; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2008-10-01

    The G870A polymorphism in the CCND1 gene may influence cancer risk. However, data from published studies with individual low statistical power have been controversial. To evaluate whether combined evidence shows an association between this polymorphism and cancer, we considered all available studies in a meta-analysis. Sixty studies were combined representing data for 18,411 cases and 22,209 controls. In our meta-analysis, we investigated overall sample and two ethnic populations (Caucasians and Asians) as well as nine cancer subtypes. Individuals who are homozygous for A allele (AA) were found to be associated with significantly increased cancer risk in overall sample [odds ratio (OR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.13-1.33; P cancer subtypes investigated, modestly significant risk (ORs, 1.08 to 1.51; P=0.02 to 0.04) was detected in breast, colorectal, head and neck, and other cancers. Highly significant and increased risk was found to be associated with genitourinary (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.20-1.89; P=0.0004) and blood-related cancers (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.28-2.05; P increased risk in overall, ethnic groups, as well as breast and colorectal cancers. Significant dominant effects seem to prevail in the majority of the categories investigated, where some recessive effects were also detected. Overall, the risk effects associated with this polymorphism were small; however, due its common occurrence, it affects a large portion of the human population (AA, 25%; AG, 50%). Although the independent small risk associated with CCND1-A870G polymorphism is not clinically useful, its interaction with other genetic variants and environmental factors has been shown to be associated with further increase in cancer risk (OR, 1.6-7.1). In conclusion, our study strongly

  4. Does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? Contributions of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies to a resolution of the controversy.

    PubMed

    Zumoff, B

    1998-01-01

    Despite nearly six decades of epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and reviews, there is still considerable controversy in the literature about the question, does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? In an effort to resolve the controversy, a number of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies in this field have been reviewed. The following summary formulation is proposed: 1. Administration of estrogen is inherently capable of promoting the growth of breast cancer, and therefore of increasing the incidence of clinical breast cancer. 2. Human response to estrogen is like that of the low-cancer-incidence strains of mice studied by Lacassagne, in that large doses and prolonged administration are required to induce clinical breast cancer. 3. The blood levels of estradiol produced by the usual doses of postmenopausal estrogen are relatively low, equivalent to those of the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. These levels may be near the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects; therefore, the tumor response will vary greatly in different populations, depending on genetic susceptibility factors: a. The prevalence of a family history of premenopausal breast cancer in a first-degree relative. b. The prevalence of abnormal BRCA1, BRCA2, and p53 genes. c. The prevalence of increased 16 alpha-hydroxylation of estradiol. d. The prevalence of smokers who are slow acetylators. 4. Consumption of alcohol (5 grams or more daily) along with the postmenopausal estrogen administration results in elevation of blood estradiol levels to values equivalent to those of the periovulatory peak of the menstrual cycle, which may be well above the threshold for producing breast-cancer-promoting effects in all women. The risk for cancer will therefore be uniformly increased in women who use alcohol and take estrogen. 5. Increased risk of breast cancer from postmenopausal estrogen administration can be eliminated by taking

  5. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  6. Perineural invasion associated with increased cancer-specific mortality after external beam radiation therapy for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Clair . E-mail: cbeard@lroc.harvard.edu; Schultz, Delray; Loffredo, Marian; Cote, Kerri; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Hurwitz, Mark D.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To identify an association between perineural invasion (PNI) and cancer-specific survival in patients with prostate cancer after standard-dose external beam radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 517 consecutive patients who underwent RT (median dose, 70.5 Gy) between 1989 and 2003 for low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer were studied. A genitourinary pathologist (AAR) scored presence or absence of PNI on all prostate needle-biopsy specimens. A Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed to assess whether the presence of PNI was associated with risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT when the recognized risk-group variables were factored into the model. Estimates of cancer-specific mortality were made using a cumulative incidence method. Comparisons of survival were made using a two-tailed log-rank test. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 84 patients (16%) have died, 15 of 84 (18%) from prostate cancer. PNI was the only significant predictor of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT (p = 0.012). The estimated prostate cancer-specific mortality was 14% at 8 years for PNI+ patients vs. 5% for PNI- patients (p = 0.0008). Conclusions: Patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who have PNI on prostate needle biopsy have a significantly higher rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality after standard-dose radiation therapy than patients without PNI. Although this analysis is retrospective, this association argues for consideration of the use of more aggressive therapy, such as hormonal therapy with RT or dose escalation, in these select patients.

  7. Gender and plasma iron biomarkers, but not HFE gene mutations, increase the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps.

    PubMed

    Castiella, Agustin; Múgica, Fernando; Zapata, Eva; Zubiaurre, Leire; Iribarren, Arantxa; de Juan, M Dolores; Alzate, Luis; Gil, Ines; Urdapilleta, Gregorio; Otazua, Pedro; Emparanza, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    A cohort study of patients included in the Basque Country colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme was carried out to assess the risk of adenomatous polyps and CRC (P-CRC) associated with HFE gene mutations, with gender and with iron biomarkers (serum ferritin (SF), iron (Fe) and transferrin saturation index (TSI)). Among 432 included patients (mean age 59.8 years), 263 were men (60.9 %) and 169 women (39.1 %). P-CRC were identified in 221 patients (51.2 %) and no polyps (NP) in 211 patients (48.8 %). HFE mutations were identified in 43.8 % of the patients. C282Y/wt genotypic frequency was 6.8 % in the P-CRC group and 1.4 % in the NP group (p < 0.05). The allelic frequency was 3.8 versus 1.2 % (p < 0.05). For laboratory, all three iron biomarkers showed a statistically significant difference: mean Fe, 91.29 ± 34 for P-CRC and 80.81 ± 30.59 for NP group. Mean TSI for P-CRC was 24.95 ± 8.90 and 22.74 ± 8.79 for NP group. Mean SF 308.09 ± 536.32 for P-CRC and 177.55 ± 159.95 for NP group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only male gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04, 1.29-3.22), SF (OR = 1.001, 1.0004-1.003) and Fe (OR = 1.01, 1.004-1.02) were related with the presence of CRC and adenoma. Men gender and raised serum iron biomarkers increase the risk of P-CRC. PMID:25854174

  8. Subclinical Hypothyroidism Is Associated with Increased Risk for Cancer Mortality in Adult Taiwanese—A 10 Years Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Li, Chia-Ing; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and cancer mortality is seldom discussed. Methods A total of 115,746 participants without thyroid disease history, aged 20 and above, were recruited from four nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 5.0–19.96 mIU/L with normal total thyroxine concentrations. Euthyroidism was defined as a serum TSH level of 0.47–4.9 mIU/L. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of death from cancer for adults with SCH during a 10-year follow-up period. Results Among 115,746 adults, 1,841 had SCH (1.6%) and 113,905 (98.4%) had euthyroidism. There were 1,532 cancer deaths during the 1,034,082 person-years follow-up period. Adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol drinking, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% confidence interval) of cancer deaths among subjects with SCH versus euthyroid subjects were 1.51 (1.06 to 2.15). Cancer site analysis revealed a significant increased risk of bone, skin and breast cancer among SCH subjects (RR 2.79, (1.01, 7.70)). The risks of total cancer deaths were more prominent in the aged (RR 1.71, (1.02 to 2.87)), in females (RR 1.69 (1.08 to 2.65)), and in heavy smokers (RR 2.24, (1.19 to 4.21)). Conclusions Subjects with SCH had a significantly increased risk for cancer mortality among adult Taiwanese. This is the first report to demonstrate the association between SCH and cancer mortality. PMID:25830770

  9. Androgen deprivation therapy did not increase the risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, S D; Lin, H C; Tsai, M C; Kao, L T; Huang, C Y; Chen, K C

    2016-05-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer for many decades. Although potential adverse effects of ADT have been reported, there are no empirical studies investigating the association between ADT and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this retrospective cohort study explored the relationship between the use of ADT and the subsequent risk of Alzheimer's disease in men with prostate cancer using a population-based database. We retrieved data from the "Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000." The study included 1335 patients with prostate cancer and 4005 age-matched comparison patients without prostate malignancy. We then individually tracked each patient (n = 5340) for a 5-year period to discriminate those who subsequently received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the hazard ratio (HR) for Alzheimer's disease during the 5-year follow-up period for prostate cancer patients was 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.90~3.25) over that of comparison patients. We further analyzed the hazard ratio for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease between prostate cancer patients who did and those who did not receive ADT, but we failed to observe a significant difference in the hazard ratio for both diseases during the 5-year follow-up period (adjusted HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 0.55~5.62, and HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.58~2.20, respectively). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the use of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer was not associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease during the follow-up period. PMID:27062333

  10. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) Haplotypes are Associated with Increased Risk of Gastric Cancer in Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Manzoor A.; Srivastava, Priya; Zargar, Showkat A.; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim: Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and progression of several types of cancers. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223) in PLCE1 has been identified as a novel susceptibility locus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A > G, rs3765524C > T, and rs7922612C > T) of PLCE1 in gastric cancer patients from Kashmir Valley. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in 108 GC cases and 195 healthy controls from Kashmir Valley. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 test and logistic regression models. A P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The frequency of PLCE1 A2274223C3765524T7922612, G2274223C3765524T7922612, and G2274223T3765524C7922612 haplotypes were higher in patients compared with controls, conferred high risk for GC [odds ratio (OR) =6.29; P = 0.001; Pcorr = 0.003], (OR = 3.23; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), and (OR = 5.14; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033), respectively. Smoking and salted tea are independent risk factors for GC, but we did not find any significant modulation of cancer risk by PLCE1 variants with smoking or excessive consumption of salted tea. Conclusion: These results suggest that variation in PLCE1 may be associated with GC risk in Kashmir Valley. PMID:25434319

  11. A novel recurrent CHEK2 Y390C mutation identified in high-risk Chinese breast cancer patients impairs its activity and is associated with increased breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Ding, H; Liu, C; Li, X; Wei, L; Yu, J; Liu, M; Ying, M; Gao, W; Jiang, H; Wang, Y

    2015-10-01

    Certain predisposition factors such as BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 mutations cause familial breast cancers that occur early. In China, breast cancers are diagnosed at relatively younger age, and higher percentage of patients are diagnosed before 40 years, than that in Caucasians. However, the prevalence for BRCA1/2 mutations and reported CHEK2 germline mutations is much lower or absent in Chinese population, arguing for the need to study other novel risk alleles among Chinese breast cancer patients. In this study, we searched for CHEK2 mutations in young, high-risk breast cancer patients in China and detected a missense variant Y390C (1169A > G) in 12 of 150 patients (8.0%) and 2 in 250 healthy controls (0.8%, P = 0.0002). Four of the Y390C carriers have family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. In patients without family history, Y390C carriers tend to develop breast cancer early, before 35 years of age. The codon change at Y390, a highly conserved residue located in CHEK2's kinase domain, appeared to significantly impair CHEK2 activity. Functional analysis suggested that the CHEK2 Y390C mutation is deleterious as judged by the mutant protein's inability to inactivate CDC25A or to activate p53 after DNA damage. Cells expressing the CHEK2 Y390C variant showed impaired p21 and Puma expression after DNA damage, and the deregulated cell cycle checkpoint and apoptotic response may help conserve mutations and therefore contribute to tumorigeneisis. Taken together, our results not only identified a novel CHEK2 allele that is associated with cancer families and confers increased breast cancer risk, but also showed that this allele significantly impairs CHEK2 function during DNA damage response. Our results provide further insight on how the function of such an important cancer gene may be impaired by existing mutations to facilitate tumorigenesis. It also offers a new subject for breast cancer monitoring, prevention and management. PMID:25619829

  12. The interaction of APEX1 variant with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on increasing chromosome damage and lung cancer risk among male Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoliang; Wei, Jinyu; Xu, Ping; Yin, Xiangqian; Hu, Die; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Li; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Changchun; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; Wu, Tangchun; Yang, Ming; Guo, Huan

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most significant contributors to tobacco-induced lung carcinogenesis. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a central enzyme in the removal of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites caused by DNA damaging agents. This study aimed to investigate the potential interaction of APEX1 polymorphisms and PAHs on genetic damage and lung cancer risk among male Chinese. We recruited an occupational cohort of 922 male coke oven workers and determined their DNA damage levels by calculating the lymphocytic micronucleus (MN) frequencies. Two well-studied APEX1 polymorphisms (-307A > C and Asp148Glu) and their associations with MN frequencies were examined. The impact of MN-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on lung cancer risk was further investigated in two case-control studies including 1634 male lung cancer patients and 1678 controls. It was shown that, the APEX1 148Glu allele was associated with significantly higher MN frequencies than 148Asp allele, with strongest associations among the highest PAH-exposure workers (P = 0.008). The APEX1 148Glu allele was also associated with increased lung cancer risk among male smokers, especially among heavy smokers in both case-control studies (odd ratio: 4.40, 95%CI: 3.29-5.72). In addition, APEX1 148Glu variant interacts with smoking in increasing male lung cancer risk, as measured by the attributable proportion due to interaction, which was 0.23 (95%CI: 0.06-0.39). This study showed evidence on interaction between APEX1 148Glu variant and cigarette smoking in increasing lung cancer susceptibility among male Chinese, which may be due to the synergistic effects of APEX1 148Glu and PAHs in increasing chromosome damage levels. The results provide a new insight into gene-interactions in lung carcinogenesis. PMID:25156607

  13. RsaI but not DraI polymorphism in CYP2E1 gene increases the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Malaysians: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Lee, Chong Cin; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to investigate the association of CYP2E1 C-1019T RsaI and T7678A DraI polymorphisms and factors such as age, gender and ethnicity to the risk of gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) in Malaysians. Design Case–control study. Setting Malaysia. Participants 520 consented healthy blood donors with no previous GIC record and 175 patients with GIC. Measurements C-1019T RsaI and T7678A DraI genotyping of CYP2E1 gene; direct sequencing. Results This study reveals that the variant c2 allele and carrier with at least one c2 allele of C-1019T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly increased the risk of GIC but no significant association was found between T7678A SNP and combined analysis of C-1019T and T7678A SNPs to risk of GIC. The Malaysian Chinese had greater risk of GIC compared with the Malays, Indians and KadazanDusun. An increased risk of GIC was observed in individuals aged >40 years and women had a 2.22-fold and 1.58-fold increased risk of stomach and colorectal cancers, respectively, when compared with men. Limitations The future research should be conducted with a larger sample population and including the gene–gene and gene–environmental interactions. Conclusions Our study suggests that the rare c2 allele and carrier with at least one c2 allele of CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism significantly elevated the risk of GIC and may be used as a genetic biomarker for early screening of GIC in Malaysians. The risk age-group has been shifted to a younger age at 40s and women showed a significant greater risk of stomach and colorectal cancers than men. PMID:24394801

  14. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  16. Haplotypes of the MTHFR gene are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in a Han Chinese population in Gansu province.

    PubMed

    Song, Ailing; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yumin; Wu, Li; Li, Yu; Liu, Xiaokang; Lan, Shen

    2016-07-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels are a risk factor for breast cancer, although the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Genome-wide association studies were used to systematically identify genetic variants which were significantly associated with the circulating homocysteine concentration. To examine the role of homocysteine-related variants in the occurrence of breast cancer, we investigated the association between these variants and breast cancer in a Han Chinese population. Five variants of genome-wide significant homocysteine-related genes were selected for the analysis in a case-control study, with a total of 487 patients with breast cancer and 605 controls. We found that none of the studied polymorphisms were related to the altered breast cancer risk. In the haplotypic analysis, the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) haplotypes rs12085006A/rs1999594G/rs1801133C (OR = 3.44, 95% CI = 1.58-7.50, P = 0.0019) and rs12085006A/rs1999594G/rs1801133T (OR = 16.21, 95% CI = 2.19- 120.32, P = 0.0065) were significantly associated with an increased breast cancer risk when compared with the wild-type haplotype. Both of the risky MTHFR haplotypes were correlated with decreased MTHFR gene expression and elevated homocysteine concentrations, indicating a genetic component for hyperhomocysteinemia. The MTHFR haplotypes reconstructed with homocysteine-related variants were associated with the occurrence of breast cancer. This finding further emphasizes the importance of homocysteine metabolism genes in breast carcinogenesis and highlights the interplay of diet, genetics, and human cancers. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):526-534, 2016. PMID:27237471

  17. Increased micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes contributes to cancer risk in the methyl isocyanate-affected population of Bhopal.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Akhter, Sameena; Malla, Tahir Mohiuddin; Sah, Nand Kishore; Ganesh, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    The Bhopal gas tragedy involving methyl isocyanate (MIC) is one of the most horrific industrial accidents in recent decades. We investigated the genotoxic effects of MIC in long-term survivors and their offspring born after the 1984 occurrence. There are a few cytogenetic reports showing genetic damage in the MIC-exposed survivors, but there is no information about the associated cancer risk. The same is true about offspring. For the first time, we here assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequency using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay to predict cancer risk in the MIC-affected population of Bhopal. A total of 92 healthy volunteers (46 MIC- affected and 46 controls) from Bhopal and various regions of India were studied taking gender and age into consideration. Binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (BNMN), total number of micronuclei in lymphocytes (MNL), and nuclear division index (NDI) frequencies and their relationship to age, gender and several lifestyle variabilities (smoking, alcohol consumption and tobacco-chewing) were investigated. Our observations showed relatively higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.05) in the MIC-affected than in the controls. Exposed females (EF) exhibited significantly higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.01) than their unexposed counterparts. Similarly, female offspring of the exposed (FOE) also suffered higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.05) than in controls. A significant reduction in NDI (P<0.05) was found only in EF. The affected group of non-smokers and non-alcoholics featured a higher frequency of BNMN and MNL than the control group of non-smokers and non-alcoholics (P<0.01). Similarly, the affected group of tobacco chewers showed significantly higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.001) than the non-chewers. Amongst the affected, smoking and alcohol consumption were not associated with statistically significant differences in BNMN, MNL and NDI. Nevertheless, tobacco-chewing had a preponderant effect with respect to MNL. A reasonable correlation between MNL and

  18. Survey on Addressing the Information and Support Needs of Jewish Women at Increased Risk for or Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: The Sharsheret Experience

    PubMed Central

    Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Silber, Elana; Johnson, Andrea C.; Fleischmann, Adina; Murphy, Sarah E.; Mays, Darren; O’Neill, Suzanne C.; Sharkey, Christina M.; Shoretz, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 12% of women living in the United States will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetimes. While all women face formidable challenges posed by the threat of living with or at increased risk for breast cancer, those of Ashkenazi Jewish descent face additional challenges owing to higher BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in this population. Amidst calls for population-based screening for hereditary breast cancer risk, much can be learned from the experiences of Jewish women about their needs. The present study is a secondary analysis of psychoeducational program satisfaction and evaluation data previously collected by a community organization dedicated to serving women of all Jewish backgrounds facing, or at risk for, breast cancer. Among respondents (n = 347), over one-third were referred to the organization by family or friends, most often after a cancer crisis. Of the information and support resources offered, the greatest level of engagement occurred with the one-on-one peer support and health care symposia resources. Respondents endorsed high levels of satisfaction with the programs and services, and a strong desire to give back to the community. These data suggest that culturally-relevant information and support services for Jewish women could be scaled-up for larger dissemination to meet the anticipated needs in this special population.

  19. From observation to intervention: development of a psychoeducational intervention to increase uptake of BRCA genetic counseling among high-risk breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Malo, Teri L; Nam, Kelli M; Nelson, Alison; de la Cruz, Cara Z; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2014-12-01

    We describe the development of a psychoeducational intervention (PEI) to increase uptake of genetic counseling targeted to high-risk breast cancer survivors. Based on previous research, scientific literature, and a review of cancer education websites, we identified potential PEI content. We then assessed the initial acceptability and preference of two booklets of identical content but different layouts, by presenting the booklets to individuals with a personal or family history of breast cancer (n = 57). The preferred booklet was evaluated by two focus groups of ten breast cancer patients who had not attended genetic counseling. The booklet was refined based on participants' feedback at each stage. Focus group participants generally found the booklet visually appealing, informative, and helpful, but some thought that it was too long. Final changes were made based on learner verification principles of attraction, comprehension, cultural acceptability, and persuasion. This project produced an interventional tool to present key constructs that may facilitate decision making about risk-appropriate genetic counseling uptake among high-risk breast cancer survivors. The process described for creating, testing, and adapting materials from a patient perspective can be used for developing other PEIs. This newly developed, unique PEI can be used in many clinical settings. PMID:24706196

  20. Higher Body Mass Index Increases the Risk for Biopsy-Mediated Detection of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–22.9 (normal weight), 23–24.9 (overweight), 25–29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. Results In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10–1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97–1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Conclusion Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa. PMID:25861033

  1. c.29C>T polymorphism in the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1) gene correlates with increased risk of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Kirti Amresh; Pooja, Singh; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Sankhwar, Pushp Lata; Goel, Apul; Rajender, Singh

    2015-10-01

    TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which plays a dual role in tumor development. In the early stages, it inhibits the growth of tumor while in the late stages of carcinoma, it promotes tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of the TGFB1 gene polymorphisms between cases and controls so as to assess their correlation with bladder cancer risk. This study included 237 cases of urinary bladder cancer and 290 age matched controls from the same ethnic background. Three polymorphisms in the TGFB1 gene, c.29C>T (rs-1800470), c.74G>C (rs-1800471) and +140A>G (rs-13447341), were analyzed by direct DNA sequencing. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences in the demographical data, except that the frequencies of smokers and non-vegetarians were higher in the cases. Eighty percent of the bladder cancer patients had superficial transitional cell carcinoma, and 53.16% and 26.31% of the patients were in grade I and grade II, respectively. We found that c.29C>T substitution increased the risk of bladder cancer significantly and recessive model of analysis was the best fitted model (p=0.004; OR=1.72 95% CI 1.18-2.50). A significantly higher risk in the recessive form was also suggested by co-dominant analysis showing that the homozygous form (TT) was a significant risk factor in comparison to CC and CT genotypes. The other two polymorphisms, c.74G>C (p=0.18, OR=0.67 95% CI 0.37-1.21) and +140A>G (p=0.416, OR=0.77 95% CI 0.41-1.45) did not affect the risk of urinary bladder cancer. In conclusion, we found that the TGFB1 c.29C>T substitution increases the risk of bladder cancer significantly while c.74G>C and +140A>G polymorphisms do not affect the risk. PMID:26048435

  2. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Li, Dongdong; Olson, Robert; McBride, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  3. Cancer Risk Assessment Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidala, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Describes the scientific basis of cancer risk assessment, outlining the dominant controversies surrounding the use of different methods for identifying carcinogens (short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies). Points out that risk assessment is as much an art as it is a science. (DH)

  4. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  5. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case–control studies in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case–control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979–1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996–2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist–hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9–1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8–1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7–4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  6. Poor Metabolizers at the Cytochrome P450 2C19 Loci Is at Increased Risk of Developing Cancer in Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zenggan; Yu, Yanmin

    2013-01-01

    Background CYP2C19 encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes, which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of cancer. In the past decade, two common polymorphisms among CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3) that are responsible for the poor metabolizers (PMs) phenotype in humans and cancer susceptibility have been investigated extensively; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. Methods and Results To investigate this inconsistency, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 11,554 cases and 16,592 controls from 30 case-control studies. Overall, the odds ratio (OR) of cancer was 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23–1.88, P<10-4] for CYP2C19 PMs genotypes. However, this significant association vanished when the analyses were restricted to 5 larger studies (no. of cases ≥ 500 cases). In the subgroup analysis for different cancer types, PMs genotypes had an effect of increasing the risks of esophagus cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as head neck cancer. Significant results were found in Asian populations when stratified by ethnicity; whereas no significant associations were found among Caucasians. Stratified analyses according to source of controls, significant associations were found only in hospital base controls. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that the CYP2C19 PMs genotypes most likely contributes to cancer susceptibility, particularly in the Asian populations. PMID:24015291

  7. CHEK2*1100delC Heterozygosity in Women With Breast Cancer Associated With Early Death, Breast Cancer–Specific Death, and Increased Risk of a Second Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Pharoah, Paul; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Nevanlinna, Heli; van't Veer, Laura J.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hopper, John L.; Hall, Per; Andrulis, Irene L.; Devilee, Peter; Fasching, Peter A.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Lambrechts, Diether; Hooning, Maartje; Cox, Angela; Giles, Graham G.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Lindblom, Annika; Couch, Fergus J.; Mannermaa, Arto; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; John, Esther M.; Dörk, Thilo; Flyger, Henrik; Dunning, Alison M.; Wang, Qin; Muranen, Taru A.; van Hien, Richard; Figueroa, Jonine; Southey, Melissa C.; Czene, Kamila; Knight, Julia A.; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Collée, Johanna Margriet; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Severi, Gianluca; Marme, Frederik; Margolin, Sara; Olson, Janet E.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Miron, Alexander; Bogdanova, Natalia; Shah, Mitul; Blomqvist, Carl; Broeks, Annegien; Sherman, Mark; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Glendon, Gord; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ekici, Arif B.; Leunen, Karin; Kriege, Mieke; Cross, Simon S.; Baglietto, Laura; Sohn, Christof; Wang, Xianshu; Kataja, Vesa; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Meyer, Andreas; Easton, Douglas F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Bojesen, Stig E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer–specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer. Patients and Methods From 22 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, 25,571 white women with invasive breast cancer were genotyped for CHEK2*1100delC and observed for up to 20 years (median, 6.6 years). We examined risk of early death and breast cancer–specific death by estrogen receptor status and risk of a second breast cancer after a first breast cancer in prospective studies. Results CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity was found in 459 patients (1.8%). In women with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for heterozygotes versus noncarriers were 1.43 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.82; log-rank P = .004) for early death and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.15; log-rank P < .001) for breast cancer–specific death. In all women, hazard ratio for a second breast cancer was 2.77 (95% CI, 2.00 to 3.83; log-rank P < .001) increasing to 3.52 (95% CI, 2.35 to 5.27; log-rank P < .001) in women with estrogen receptor–positive first breast cancer only. Conclusion Among women with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer, CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity was associated with a 1.4-fold risk of early death, a 1.6-fold risk of breast cancer–specific death, and a 3.5-fold risk of a second breast cancer. This is one of the few examples of a genetic factor that influences long-term prognosis being documented in an extensive series of women with breast cancer. PMID:23109706

  8. Differences of Variable Number Tandem Repeats in XRCC5 Promoter Are Associated with Increased or Decreased Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA Gene Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Luo, Jiangtao; Kim, Yeong C.; Snyder, Carrie; Becirovic, Dina; Downs, Bradley; Lynch, Henry; Wang, San Ming

    2016-01-01

    Ku80 is a subunit of the Ku heterodimer that binds to DNA double-strand break ends as part of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Ku80 is also involved in homologous recombination (HR) via its interaction with BRCA1. Ku80 is encoded by the XRCC5 gene that contains a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) insertion in its promoter region. Different VNTR genotypes can alter XRCC5 expression and affect Ku80 production, thereby affecting NHEJ and HR pathways. VNTR polymorphism is associated with multiple types of sporadic cancer. In this study, we investigated its potential association with familial breast cancer at the germline level. Using PCR, PAGE, Sanger sequencing, and statistical analyses, we compared VNTR genotypes in the XRCC5 promoter between healthy individuals and three types of familial breast cancer cases: mutated BRCA1 (BRCA1+), mutated BRCA2 (BRCA2+), and wild-type BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCAx). We observed significant differences of VNTR genotypes between control and BRCA1+ group (P < 0.0001) and BRCA2+ group (P = 0.0042) but not BRCAx group (P = 0.2185), and the differences were significant between control and cancer-affected BRCA1+ cases (P < 0.0001) and BRCA2+ cases (P = 0.0092) but not cancer-affected BRCAx cases (P = 0.4251). Further analysis indicated that 2R/2R (OR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.26–2.95, P = 0.0096) and 2R/1R (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.11–2.26, P = 0.0388) were associated with increased risk but 1R/1R (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.35–0.84, P = 0.0196) and 1R/0R (OR = 0, 95%CI = 0–0.29, P = 0.0012) were associated with decreased risk in cancer-affected BRCA1+ group; 2R/1R (OR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.14–3.32, P = 0.0242) was associated with increased risk in cancer-affected BRCA2+ group. No correlation was observed for the altered risk between cancer-affected or -unaffected carriers and between different age of cancer diagnosis in cancer-affected carriers. The frequently

  9. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-07-15

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of seven telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a previously reported genome-wide association study. Using a group of 1,536 individuals with phenotypically measured telomere length in WBCs in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health study, we demonstrated the utility of a genetic risk score (GRS) of seven telomere-length associated variants to predict telomere length in an Asian population. We then found that GRSs used as instrumental variables to predict longer telomere length were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.34-1.69) for upper vs. lower quartile of the weighted GRS, p value = 4.54 × 10(-14) ) even after removing rs2736100 (p value = 4.81 × 10(-3) ), a SNP in the TERT locus robustly associated with lung cancer risk in prior association studies. Stratified analyses suggested the effect of the telomere-associated GRS is strongest among younger individuals. We found no difference in GRS effect between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell subtypes. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase lung cancer risk, which is consistent with earlier prospective studies relating longer telomere length with increased lung cancer risk. PMID:25516442

  10. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: A report from the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of 7 telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a previously reported genome-wide association study. Using a group of 1,536 individuals with phenotypically measured telomere length in WBCs in the prospective Shanghai Women’s Health study, we demonstrated the utility of a genetic risk score (GRS) of 7 telomere-length associated variants to predict telomere length in an Asian population. We then found that GRSs used as instrumental variables to predict longer telomere length were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.51 (95% CI=1.34–1.69) for upper vs. lower quartile of the weighted GRS, P-value=4.54×10−14) even after removing rs2736100 (P-value=4.81×10−3), a SNP in the TERT locus robustly associated with lung cancer risk in prior association studies. Stratified analyses suggested the effect of the telomere-associated GRS is strongest among younger individuals. We found no difference in GRS effect between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell subtypes. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase lung cancer risk, which is consistent with earlier prospective studies relating longer telomere length with increased lung cancer risk. PMID:25516442

  11. Are Sitting Occupations Associated with Increased All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk? A Pooled Analysis of Seven British Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Chau, Josephine Y.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Bauman, Adrian; Macniven, Rona; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts. Methods The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education. Results In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.89) and cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43–0.85) mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity. Conclusions Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women. PMID:24086292

  12. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D; Osella, Alberto R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María Del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008-2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569-5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470-3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. PMID:26649040

  13. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D.; Osella, Alberto R.; Eynard, Aldo R.; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. PMID:26649040

  14. Acceptance of, inclination for, and barriers in genetic testing for gene mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers among female residents of Warsaw

    PubMed Central

    Dera, Paulina; Religioni, Urszula; Duda-Zalewska, Aneta; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To check the degree of acceptance of, inclination for, and barriers in genetic testing for gene mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers among female residents of Warsaw Material and methods This study involved 562 women between 20 and 77 years of age, all of whom were patients visiting gynaecologists practising in clinics in the City of Warsaw. The studied population was divided into six age categories. The study method was a diagnostic poll conducted with the use of an original questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions. Results Nearly 70% of the women showed an interest in taking a test to detect predispositions to develop breast and ovarian cancer. More than 10% did not want to take such a test, while every fifth women was undecided. No statistically significant differences between the respondents’ willingness to pay and education were found (p = 0.05). The most frequent answer given by women in all groups was that the amount to pay was too high. Such an answer was given by 52.17% of women with primary education, 65.22% of women with vocational education, 58.61% of women with secondary education, and 41.62% of women with higher education. Conclusions Women with a confirmed increased risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer due to inter alia the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations should pay particular attention to 1st and 2nd level prophylaxis. PMID:27095945

  15. LINE1 methylation levels associated with increased bladder cancer risk in pre-diagnostic blood DNA among US (PLCO) and European (ATBC) cohort study participants.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Karami, Sara; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hurwitz, Lauren; Liao, Linda M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Silverman, Debra T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E

    2014-03-01

    Global methylation in blood DNA has been associated with bladder cancer risk in case-control studies, but has not been examined prospectively. We examined the association between LINE1 total percent 5-methylcytosine and bladder cancer risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (299 cases/676 controls), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) cohort of Finnish male smokers (391 cases/778 controls). Logistic regression adjusted for age at blood draw, study center, pack-years of smoking, and sex was used to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using study- and sex-specific methylation quartiles. In PLCO, higher, although non-significant, bladder cancer risks were observed for participants in the highest three quartiles (Q2-Q4) compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.96 -1.92). The association was stronger in males (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.00-2.20) and statistically significant among male smokers (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.95). No association was found among females or female smokers. Findings for male smokers were validated in ATBC (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.62-3.30) and a highly significant trend was observed (P = 8.7 × 10(-7)). After determining that study data could be combined, pooled analysis of PLCO and ATBC male smokers (580 cases/1119 controls), ORs were significantly higher in Q2-Q4 compared with Q1 (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.52-2.72), and a trend across quartiles was observed (P = 0.0001). These findings suggest that higher global methylation levels prior to diagnosis may increase bladder cancer risk, particularly among male smokers. PMID:24316677

  16. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here. PMID:21139406

  17. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women with a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have abnormal hormone levels, such as higher androgen ( ... increase a woman's chance of getting endometrial cancer. PCOS is also a leading cause of infertility in ...

  18. Promoter Methylation of the Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta2 (RARβ2) Is Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer: A PRISMA Compliant Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xian-Feng; Wei, Xue-Mei; Yu, Guo-Zheng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Epigenetic studies demonstrate that an association may exist between methylation of the retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARβ2) gene promoter and breast cancer onset risk, tumor stage, and histological grade, however the results of these studies are not consistent. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to ascertain a more comprehensive and accurate association. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases up to February 28, 2015. After two independent reviewers screened the studies and extracted the necessary data, meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.2 software. Results Nineteen eligible articles, including 20 studies, were included in our analysis. Compared to non-cancerous controls, the frequency of RARβ2 methylation was 7.27 times higher in patients with breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 7.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.01–17.52). Compared to late-stage RARβ2 methylated patients, the pooled OR of early-stage ones was 0.81 (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.55–1.17). The OR of low-grade RARβ2 methylated patients was 0.96 (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.74–1.25) compared to high-grade RARβ2 methylated patients. Conclusion RARβ2 methylation is significantly increased in breast cancer samples when compared to non-cancerous controls. RARβ2 could serve as a potential epigenetic marker for breast cancer detection and management. PMID:26451736

  19. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  20. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  1. Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis with dose-response analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Lin; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Zhi-Xiao; Duan, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jie; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed the association between tooth loss and the risk of esophageal cancer (EC); however, consistent results were not obtained from different single studies. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to evaluate the association between tooth loss and EC. We conducted electronic searches of PubMed until to February 10, 2015 to identify relevant observational studies that examined the association between tooth loss and the risk of EC. Study selection and data extraction from eligible studies were independently performed by two authors. The meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 software. Finally eight eligible publications with ten studies involving 3 cohort studies, 5 case-control studies, and 1 cross-sectional study were yielded. Meta-analysis identified tooth loss increased risk of EC 1.30 times (Relative risk = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.06–1.60, I2 = 13.5%). Dose-response analysis showed linear relationship between tooth loss and risk of EC (RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00–1.03; P for non-linearity test was 0.45). Subgroup analysis proved similar results and publication bias was not detected. In conclusion, tooth loss could be considered to be a significant and dependent risk factor for EC based on the current evidence. PMID:26742493

  2. Topological transition of the parametric expression site of tumor suppressor inactivation as a marker evidence of environmental hormone-oriented cancer risk increase.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Murakami, M; Kodama, T

    1999-08-01

    cancer and female lung cancer. The summation of the present study and the last study from our laboratory led to the conclusion that the members of low-risk gender in the tumor family with sex discrimination of cancer risk were inclined to show either failed expression of oncogene activation or failed expression of tumor suppressor gene inactivation or both. b) There was a subtle difference of the fitness of log AAIR data to the equilibrium model between the log AAIR changes in time and those in space in that the log AAIR changes in time within the framework of the rect-coordinates, which usually represented the field of centrifugal force or site of tumor suppressor gene inactivation expression, showed an increase in the number of oncogene activation type data sets as compared with the log AAIR changes in space. c) Upon further insight into the AAIR changes in time, consistent association of prominent cancer risk increase in time with the transition of tumor suppressor gene inactivation expression (r seq=+1.000) from the rect-coordinates to the para-coordinates was detected in skin cancer of both sexes, testicular tumor, liver cancer of both sexes and thyroid cancer of both sexes, all of which were related to the prevalence of environmental hormones as regards the recent boost of their cancer risks in the Western countries. In summary, the log AAIR, a cancer risk parameter, in its changes in time and space was found to provide useful information in assessing the interaction between the oncogene-tumor suppressor gene complex and the hormonal milieu of the host in the genesis of both environmental hormone-dependent and -independent human neoplasias. The significance of our statistical maneuver (the sequential regression analysis) is discussed in the light of the development of mathematics in early 19th century. PMID:10402482

  3. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. PMID:24760534

  4. Smoking Cessation Is Followed by Increases in Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant Associated With Lower Risk of Lung Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ran; Mayne, Susan T.; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lower concentrations of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with risk of many smoking-related diseases, including lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and current smokers are reported to have lower bilirubin levels than nonsmokers and past smokers. This study evaluates the effects of smoking cessation on bilirubin levels. Methods: In a secondary analysis of a 6-week placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation, indirect and total bilirubin concentrations were evaluated at baseline and following smoking cessation. Individuals who were continuously abstinent for 6 weeks (n = 155) were compared to those who were not (n = 193). Participants reported smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily at baseline and received smoking cessation counseling, 21mg nicotine patch daily, and either placebo or 1 of 3 doses of naltrexone (25, 50, or 100mg) for 6 weeks. Change in indirect and total bilirubin following the quit date was measured at Weeks 1, 4, and 6 compared to baseline. Results: Individuals who were continuously abstinent from smoking, independent of naltrexone condition, showed a significantly greater mean increase in indirect (~unconjugated) bilirubin (0.06mg/dl, SD = 0.165) compared to those who did not (mean = 0.02, SD = 0.148, p = .015). Similar results were obtained for total bilirubin (p = .037). Conclusions: Smoking cessation is followed by increases in bilirubin concentration that have been associated with lower risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24812024

  5. Alcohol and Tobacco Increases Risk of High Risk HPV Infection in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Study from North-East Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupesh; Rai, Avdhesh Kumar; Das, Debabrata; Das, Rajjyoti; Kumar, R. Suresh; Sarma, Anupam; Sharma, Shashi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Ramteke, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) associated Head and Neck Cancers (HNCs) have generated significant amount of research interest in recent times. Due to high incidence of HNCs and lack of sufficient data on high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection from North -East region of India, this study was conceived to investigate hr-HPV infection, its types and its association with life style habits such as tobacco, alcohol consumption etc. Methods A total of one hundred and six primary HNC tumor biopsy specimens were collected. These samples were analyzed for hr-HPV DNA (13 HPV types) using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping was done by E6 nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR). Results The presence of hr-HPV was confirmed in 31.13% (n = 33) and 24.52% (n = 26) of the HNC patients by nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR) and HC2 assay respectively. Among hr-HPV positive cases, out of thirteen hr- HPV types analyzed, only two prevalent genotypes, HPV-16 (81.81%) followed by HPV-18 (18.18%) were found. Significant association was observed between hr-HPV infection with alcohol consumption (p <0.001) and tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) in HNC cases. Compared to HPV-18 infection the HPV-16 was found to be significantly associated with tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) habit. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption may act as risk factors for hr-HPV infection in HNCs from the North-East region of India. This was the first study from North-East India which also assessed the clinical applicability of HC2 assay in HNC patient specimens. We suggest that alcohol, tobacco and hr- HPV infection act synergistically or complement each other in the process of HNC development and progression in the present study population. PMID:26473489

  6. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... what you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot control ... risk. Race . White women are diagnosed with breast cancer more often than African American/black, ... Can Control Risk factors you can control ...

  7. Changing cancer risk pattern among Finnish hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, E; Nokso-Koivisto, P; Roponen, P

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of 3637 female and 168 male hair-dressers in Finland was followed up for cancer through the Finnish Cancer Registry in 1970-1987. Compared with the total population, the women had a significantly elevated risk (standardized incidence ratio 1.7) during the first third of the observation period, but not thereafter. For the total follow-up period, the relative risks were highest for nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.0), lung cancer (1.7), ovarian cancer (1.6), cervical cancer (1.5), and cancer of the pancreas (1.5); only the risk of ovarian cancer was statistically significant. A decrease in relative risk with time was observed for many primary sites, e.g., pancreas, cervix uteri, central nervous system, and thyroid. The opposite was true for lung and skin: An increased risk was found only in 1982-1987. The excess was most prominent in the oldest age groups with the longest time span since the first employment as a hairdresser. Among men, too, the general cancer risk was highest (1.6) during the first third of the observation period. An excess of cancers of the lung and the pancreas was observed. The small numbers, however, did not allow any further conclusions. The changes in the cancer risk pattern over time may be associated with changes in working conditions in hairdressing salons. PMID:1399013

  8. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  9. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  10. Impact of NGS in the medical sciences: Genetic syndromes with an increased risk of developing cancer as an example of the use of new technologies.

    PubMed

    Lapunzina, Pablo; López, Rocío Ortiz; Rodríguez-Laguna, Lara; García-Miguel, Purificación; Martínez, Augusto Rojas; Martínez-Glez, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    The increased speed and decreasing cost of sequencing, along with an understanding of the clinical relevance of emerging information for patient management, has led to an explosion of potential applications in healthcare. Currently, SNP arrays and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are relatively new techniques used to scan genomes for gains and losses, losses of heterozygosity (LOH), SNPs, and indel variants as well as to perform complete sequencing of a panel of candidate genes, the entire exome (whole exome sequencing) or even the whole genome. As a result, these new high-throughput technologies have facilitated progress in the understanding and diagnosis of genetic syndromes and cancers, two disorders traditionally considered to be separate diseases but that can share causal genetic alterations in a group of developmental disorders associated with congenital malformations and cancer risk. The purpose of this work is to review these syndromes as an example of a group of disorders that has been included in a panel of genes for NGS analysis. We also highlight the relationship between development and cancer and underline the connections between these syndromes. PMID:24764758

  11. Impact of NGS in the medical sciences: Genetic syndromes with an increased risk of developing cancer as an example of the use of new technologies

    PubMed Central

    Lapunzina, Pablo; López, Rocío Ortiz; Rodríguez-Laguna, Lara; García-Miguel, Purificación; Martínez, Augusto Rojas; Martínez-Glez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The increased speed and decreasing cost of sequencing, along with an understanding of the clinical relevance of emerging information for patient management, has led to an explosion of potential applications in healthcare. Currently, SNP arrays and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are relatively new techniques used to scan genomes for gains and losses, losses of heterozygosity (LOH), SNPs, and indel variants as well as to perform complete sequencing of a panel of candidate genes, the entire exome (whole exome sequencing) or even the whole genome. As a result, these new high-throughput technologies have facilitated progress in the understanding and diagnosis of genetic syndromes and cancers, two disorders traditionally considered to be separate diseases but that can share causal genetic alterations in a group of developmental disorders associated with congenital malformations and cancer risk. The purpose of this work is to review these syndromes as an example of a group of disorders that has been included in a panel of genes for NGS analysis. We also highlight the relationship between development and cancer and underline the connections between these syndromes. PMID:24764758

  12. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Sanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Sarkeala, Tytti; Malila, Nea; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants. Material and Methods We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22–60 years and diagnosed in 2000–2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11–1.36) among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10–1.48). We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005). Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50. Conclusions Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be

  13. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  14. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  15. Effects of Vitamin E Supplements and Diet on Colonic α- and γ-tocopherol Concentrations In Persons at Increased Colon Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiting; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Askew, Leah M.; Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Brenner, Dean E.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Turgeon, D. Kim; Djuric, Zora

    2014-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that γ-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than α-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for six months. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was 2-fold higher than that from foods. Serum α-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural α-tocopherol from foods. For serum γ-tocopherol, dietary γ-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary α-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both α- and γ-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural α-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of γ-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited. PMID:25372556

  16. Environmental cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  17. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, et al. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in ...

  18. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  19. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  20. Being Overweight or Obese Increases the Risk of Progression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer after Surgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and progression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients with TNBC who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy between 2007 and 2014. All patients were classified according to BMI (median 23.5 kg/m2, range 17.2–31.6 kg/m2): 31 patients (62%) were classified as being overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) and 19 patients (38%) were classified as having a normal body weight (BMI < 23 kg/m2). The median follow-up for patients was 31.1 months (range, 6.7–101.9 months). Progression occurred in 7 patients (14%), including 5 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences, 2 regional lymph node metastases, and 5 distant metastases. Progression was significantly correlated with overweight or obese patients (P = 0.035), while none of the normal weight patients showed progression. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 85.0% and 87.7%, respectively. DFS was significantly reduced in overweight or obese patients compared to that in normal weight patients (P = 0.035). However, OS was not significantly compromised by being overweight or obese (P = 0.134). In conclusion, being overweight or obese negatively affects DFS in TNBC patients. PMID:27247497

  1. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients. PMID:27067965

  2. Increased risk of severe infections in cancer patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing; Gu, Li-Yan; Ren, Yao-Yao; Zeng, Li-Li; Gong, Ting; Zhong, Dian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) have been widely used in a variety of solid malignancies. Concerns have arisen regarding the risk of severe infections (≥grade 3) with use of these drugs, but the contribution of VEGFR-TKIs to infections is still unknown. Methods The databases of PubMed and abstracts presented at oncology conferences’ proceedings were searched for relevant studies from January 2000 to December 2014. Summary incidences, Peto odds ratio (Peto OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using either random-effects or fixed-effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results A total of 16,488 patients from 27 randomized controlled trials were included. The risk of developing severe (Peto OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.45–1.96, P<0.001) and fatal infections (Peto OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.13–2.81, P=0.013) was significantly increased in patients treated with VEGFR-TKIs when compared to controls. Exploratory subgroup analysis showed no effect of tumor types, phase of trials, or agent used on the Peto OR of severe infections. When stratified according to specific infectious events, the risks of high-grade febrile neutropenia, pneumonia, fever, and sepsis were increased compared with controls, with Peto ORs of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.30–1.88, P<0.001), 1.79 (95% CI: 1.29–2.49, P<0.001), 5.35 (95% CI: 1.47–19.51, P=0.011), and 3.68 (95% CI: 1.51–8.99, P=0.004), respectively. Additionally, VEGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risk of fatal sepsis (OR 3.66, 95% CI: 1.47–9.13, P=0.005) but not fatal pneumonia (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.80–2.25, P=0.26). Conclusion The use of VEGFR-TKIs significantly increases the risk of developing severe and fatal infectious events in cancer patients. A close monitoring for any signs of infections is recommended for patients treated with VEGFR-TKIs. PMID:26355897

  3. GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer ... commonly in Caucasians as well as people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer is increasing in frequency. ...

  4. Human Leukocyte Antigen G Polymorphism and Expression Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Advanced Disease Stage.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Amira; Beauchemin, Karine; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Hamzaoui, Agnes; Hamzaoui, Kamel; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G acts as negative regulator of the immune responses and its expression may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of HLA-G allelic variants and serum soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels on risk of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 191 Caucasian adults with NSCLC and 191 healthy subjects recruited between January 2009 and March 2014 in Ariana (Tunisia). Serum sHLA-G levels were measured by immunoassay and HLA-G alleles were determined using a direct DNA sequencing procedures. The heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 010101 and -G 010401 were associated with increased risks of both NSCLC and advanced disease stages. In contrast, the heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 0105N and -G 0106 were associated with decreased risks of NSCC and clinical disease stage IV, respectively. Serum sHLA-G levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC and particularly in those with advanced disease stages compared to healthy subjects. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.82 for controls vs patients. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity achieved to detect NSCLC was 52.8% at a cutoff value of 24.9 U/ml. Patients with the sHLA-G above median level (≥ 50 U/ml) had a significantly shorter survival time. This study demonstrates that HLA-G allelic variants are independent risk factors for NSCLC. Serum sHLA-G levels in NSCLC patients could be useful biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognosis of NSCLC. PMID:27517300

  5. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index.

  6. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21071816

  7. Apolipoproteins, lipids and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Talha; Almgren, Peter; Shiffman, Dov; Stocks, Tanja; Orho-Melander, Marju; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological evidence for an obesity-cancer association is solid, whereas the association between obesity-associated lipoprotein levels and cancer is less evident. We investigated circulating levels of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and association to risk of overall cancer and common cancer forms. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 17,035 women and 11,063 men (1991-1996). Incident cancer cases were ascertained by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry until end of follow-up, January 1, 2012. Baseline serum levels of ApoA1 and ApoB were analyzed for the entire cohort and HDL-C and LDL-C levels in 5,281 participants. Hazard ratios, with 95% confidence interval, were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. In the entire cohort, none of the exposures were related to overall cancer risk (HRadj ApoA1 = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.95,1.01; HRadj ApoB = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.98-1.04). Among men, ApoB was positively associated with cancer risk (HRadj ApoB = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.01,1.10). Female breast cancer risk was inversely associated with ApoB (HRadj = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86,0.99). Among both genders, ApoA1 was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HRadj = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80,0.97), whereas high ApoB increased lung cancer risk (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.99,1.18). Colorectal cancer risk was increased with high ApoB (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01,1.16) among both genders. Apolipoprotein levels were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. Circulating levels of apolipoproteins are associated with overall cancer risk in men and across both genders with breast, lung and colorectal cancer risk. Validation of these findings may facilitate future primary prevention strategies for cancer. PMID:26804063

  8. Impact of radiotherapy in the risk of esophageal cancer as subsequent primary cancer after breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Eeva K. . E-mail: eevsal@utu.fi; Pukkala, Eero; Kiel, Krys D.; Hakulinen, Timo T.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among breast-cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of the Finnish Cancer Registry from 1953 to 2000 were used to assess the risk of esophageal cancer as second cancer among 75,849 breast-cancer patients. Patients were treated with surgery (n = 33,672), radiotherapy (n = 35,057), chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 4673), or chemotherapy (n = 2,447). The risk of a new primary cancer was expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR), defined as the ratio of observed to expected cases. Results: By the end of 2000, the number of observed cases esophageal cancers was 80 vs. 72 expected cases (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.1, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.9 to 1.5). Among patients followed for 15 years and treated with radiotherapy, the SIR for esophageal cancer was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.4 to 5.4). No increase in risk was seen for patients treated without radiotherapy. The risk of esophageal cancer was increased among patients diagnosed during 1953 to 1974, although age at the treatment did not have marked effect on the risk estimate. Conclusion: Increased risk of second cancer in the esophagus was observed for breast-cancer patients in Finland, especially among patients with over 15 years of follow-up and treated in the earliest period, which may relate to the type of radiotherapy.

  9. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  10. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  2. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansong; Iwasaki, Motoki; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kono, Suminori; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Keku, Temitope O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P’s ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28–2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10−5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05–1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans. PMID:26683305

  3. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansong; Iwasaki, Motoki; Haiman, Christopher A; Kono, Suminori; Wilkens, Lynne R; Keku, Temitope O; Berndt, Sonja I; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC) association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls) and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls). NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P's ≤ 0.002). We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04), African Americans (P = 0.02), and in both groups combined (P = 0.006). The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28-2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10-5), intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59; Ptrend = 0.05) and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45). A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03). Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans. PMID:26683305

  4. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  5. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk. PMID:24450034

  6. No Correlation between TIMP2 -418 G>C Polymorphism and Increased Risk of Cancer: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Raju K.; Akhter, Naseem; Haque, Shafiul; Panda, Aditya K.; Mittal, Rama D.; Alqumber, Mohammed A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP2) is involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and shown to implicate in cancer development and progression. The results from the published studies based on the association between TIMP2 -418 G>C polymorphism and cancer risk are inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the potential association between TIMP2 -418 G>C polymorphism and cancer risk. Methodology We searched PubMed (Medline) and EMBASE web databases to cover all studies based on relationship of TIMP2 -418 G>C polymorphism and risk of cancer until October 2013. The meta-analysis was performed for selected case-control studies and pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for all genetic models. Results A total of 2225 cancer cases and 2532 controls were included from ten eligible case-control studies. Results from overall pooled analysis suggested no evidence of significant risk between TIMP2 -418 G>C polymorphism and cancer risk in any of the genetic models, such as, allele (C vs. G: OR = 1.293, 95% CI = 0.882 to 1.894, p = 0.188), homozygous (CC vs. GG: OR = 0.940, 95% CI = 0.434 to 2.039, p = 0.876), heterozygous (GC vs. GG: OR = 1.397, 95% CI = 0.888 to 2.198, p = 0.148), dominant (CC+GC vs. GG: OR = 1.387, 95% CI = 0.880 to 2.187, p = 0.159) and recessive (CC vs. GG+GC: OR = 0.901, 95% CI = 0.442 to 1.838, p = 0.774) models. No evidence of publication bias was detected during the analysis. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the TIMP2 -418 G>C polymorphism may not be involved in predisposing risk factor for cancer in overall population. However, future larger studies with group of populations are needed to analyze the possible correlation. PMID:25136829

  7. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  8. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  9. The MIF -173G/C gene polymorphism increase gastrointestinal cancer and hematological malignancy risk: evidence from a meta-analysis and FPRP test

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiang; Zheng, Bing; Tong, Qiaoyi; Liu, Sitong; Peng, Sifeng; Yang, Xin; Fan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) -173G/C gene polymorphism has been implicated in the susceptibility to cancer, but the results are not conclusive. So the aim of study to investigate the association between MIF -173G/C gene polymorphism and cancer risk by a comprehensive meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Wanfang and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) databases, with the last updated search being performed on May 24, 2015. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to assess the association. Statistical analysis was performed by STATA 11.0 software. Finally, 7,253 participants from 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis indicated the significant association between MIF -173G/C gene polymorphism and cancer susceptibility, especially in Asians (C vs. G, OR: 1.22, 95% CI=1.00-1.50). In addition, the significant relationship between MIF -173G/C gene polymorphism and gastrointestinal tumors (CC+CG vs. GG, OR: 1.25, 95% CI=1.05-1.50), hematological malignancy (CC+CG vs. GG, OR: 1.27, 95% CI=1.03-1.56), gynecolgical tumors (CC vs. CG+GG, OR: 1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) risk was found. However, to avoid the “false positive report”, we investigated the significant associations observed in the present meta-analysis by the false positive report probabilities (FPRPs) test. Interestingly, the results of FPRP test indicated the MIF -173G/C gene polymorphism only associated with gastrointestinal cancer and hematological malignancy risk (FPRP=0.132, 0.067 respectively) at the level of a prior probability is 0.1. Therefore, the meta-analysis suggested MIF -173G/C gene polymorphism would be a risk factor for the gastrointestinal cancer and hematological malignancy. PMID:26629098

  10. Height and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Harris, Ross; Gunnell, David; Oliver, Steven; Lane, Jane Athene; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David; Hamdy, Freddie; Beynon, Rebecca; Savovic, Jelena; Martin, Richard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Height, a marker of childhood environmental exposures, is positively associated with prostate cancer risk, perhaps through the insulin-like growth factor system. We investigated the relationship of prostate cancer with height and its components (leg and trunk length) in a nested case-control study and with height in a dose-response meta-analysis. Methods We nested a case-control study within a population-based randomized controlled trial evaluating treatments for localized prostate cancer in British men ages 50 to 69 years, including 1,357 cases detected through prostate-specific antigen testing and 7,990 controls (matched on age, general practice, assessment date). Nine bibliographic databases were searched systematically for studies on the height-prostate cancer association that were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results Based on the nested case-control, the odds ratio (OR) of prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer per 10 cm increase in height was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.97-1.16; ptrend = 0.2]. There was stronger evidence of an association of height with high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.43), mainly due to the leg component, but not with low-grade disease (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90-1.10). In general, associations with leg or trunk length were similar. A meta-analysis of 58 studies found evidence that height is positively associated with prostate cancer (random-effects OR per 10 cm: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.09), with a stronger effect for prospective studies of more advanced/aggressive cancers (random-effects OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.05-1.19). Conclusion These data indicate a limited role for childhood environmental exposures—as indexed by adult height—on prostate cancer incidence, while suggesting a greater role for progression, through mechanisms requiring further investigation. PMID:18768501

  11. Combination oral contraceptives and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gast, K; Snyder, T

    1990-07-01

    Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the use of oral contraceptives alters the risk for some types of cancer. Use of oral contraceptives for one year or more will reduce the risk of endometrial cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer by 50%, with the protective effect lasting for at least 10 years. The risk for developing cervical cancer in women who have used oral contraceptives appears to be slightly increased, although two independent studies actually found a protective effect associated with oral contraceptive use. The protective effect was probably related to the increased screening frequency found in oral contraceptive users and not related to a biologically protective effect. Therefore, women should be encouraged to undergo regular Pap tests. Data regarding breast cancer, in general, show no increased risk associated with oral contraceptive use. The latency associated with the development of breast cancer does not allow a definitive conclusion, and further study will be required. Oral contraceptives appear to increase the risk for developing benign hepatocellular adenoma, but not hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:2202849

  12. Smoking and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Knekt, P.; Hakama, M.; Järvinen, R.; Pukkala, E.; Heliövaara, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco smoking was studied in relation to colorectal cancer in 56 973 Finnish men and women initially free from cancer. Smoking status was determined by a health questionnaire. During a follow-up period of 28 years, from the baseline in 1966-72 to the end of 1994, 457 cases of colorectal cancer occurred. There was no significant association between baseline smoking status and colorectal cancer risk over the total follow-up period. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of colorectal cancer between smokers and non-smokers was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.33). For follow-up periods of 11-20 years, however, the relative risk was 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.24). In a subgroup in which smoking habits were assessed twice, the relative risk of colorectal cancer among persistent smokers was 1.71 (95% confidence interval 1.09-2.68) compared with others. The results of the present prospective study are consistent with the possibility that smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer after a relatively long induction period. To clarify the role of smoking in colorectal cancer development, further cohort studies are needed with long follow-up periods and allowing for control of dietary and other potential confounding factors. PMID:9662264

  13. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  14. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  15. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers. PMID:24281033

  16. Cancer Risk in Patients With Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Chung-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cancer risk and possible risk factors in patients diagnosed with empyema. A total of 31,636 patients with newly diagnosed empyema between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 were included in this study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the cancer incidence in these empyema patients to that in the general population. Adjusted hazard ratios were also calculated to investigate whether characteristics increased cancer risk. During the 12-year study period, 2,654 cancers occurred in 31,636 patients with empyema, yielding an SIR of 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57–2.78). We excluded cancer that occurred within 1 year to avoid surveillance bias. The cancer risk remained significantly increased (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58). Specifically, patients with empyema had higher SIR of cancers of the head and neck (1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58), esophagus (2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.33), stomach (1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.89), liver and biliary tract (2.18, 95% CI 1.93–2.45), and lung and mediastinum (1.62, 95% CI 1.39–1.86). Age ≥ 60, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for cancer development. Our study demonstrates an increased incidence of cancer development in patients with empyema, and patients’ age ≥ 60, men, and those with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis showed a higher incidence of developing cancer compared to the general population. The association between such kind of infection and secondary malignancy may be elucidated by further study. PMID:26945399

  17. [Diabetes and cancer risk: oncologic considerations].

    PubMed

    Rosta, András

    2011-07-17

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and malignant tumors are frequent diseases worldwide. The incidence of these two diseases is growing continuously and causes serious health care problem. Population based epidemiologic studies show that the coexistence of type 2 diabetes and malignant tumors is more frequent than expected by the age-corrected incidence and prevalence of each disease. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses show that type 2 diabetes increases the risk and tumor specific mortality of certain cancers. The overlapping risk factors of the diseases suggest a relationship between type 2 diabetes and malignant tumors, with a significant role of obesity as a major risk factor. In the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes there are several biological processes, which may explain the higher cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments, and in vivo animal studies show that the mitotic effect of hyperinsulinemia plays an important role in the relationship of cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies show that the different treatment modalities, antidiabetic drugs and their combinations used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes can modify cancer risk. The majority of the data show that metformin therapy decreases, while insulin secretagog drugs slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancers in type 2 diabetes. Metformin can decrease cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in certain cancer cell lines. Endogenous and exogenous (therapy induced) hyperinsulinemia may be mitogenic and may increase the risk of cancer in type 2 diabetes. Human studies showed that the analogue insulin glargin increases the risk of certain cancers. As a result of conceptual weaknesses in study design, data collection, and statistical methods the results of these studies are questionable. According to present knowledge, obtaining and maintaining optimal metabolic target values with the appropriate choice of treatment modality is the aim of treatment in type 2 diabetes

  18. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (<0.26 microg/g; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.2) after adjustment for established risk factors, and there was a statistically significant increase in risk with increasing cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined. PMID:16788160

  19. Committee opinion no. 634: Hereditary cancer syndromes and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    A hereditary cancer syndrome is a genetic predisposition to certain types of cancer, often with onset at an early age, caused by inherited mutations in one or more genes. Cases of cancer commonly encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric-gynecologic providers--such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer--are features of specific hereditary cancer syndromes. The most common hereditary cancer syndromes related to gynecologic cancer include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. A hereditary cancer risk assessment is the key to identifying patients and families who may be at increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Screening should include, at minimum, a personal cancer history and a first- and second-degree relative cancer history that includes a description of the type of primary cancer, the age of onset, and the lineage (paternal versus maternal) of the family member. In addition, a patient's ethnic background can influence her genetic risk. If a hereditary cancer risk assessment suggests an increased risk of a hereditary cancer syndrome, referral to a specialist in cancer genetics or a health care provider with expertise in genetics is recommended for expanded gathering of family history information, risk assessment, education, and counseling, which may lead to genetic testing. PMID:26000542

  20. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  1. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  2. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding And Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viborg, Søren; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Nørrelund, Helene; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a well-known symptom of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether incident GI bleeding is also a marker of other GI cancers remains unclear. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study examined the risk of various GI cancer types in patients with lower GI bleeding. We used Danish medical registries to identify all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of lower GI bleeding during 1995–2011 and followed them for 10 years to identify subsequent GI cancer diagnoses. We computed absolute risks of cancer, treating death as a competing risk, and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by comparing observed cancer cases with expected cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Among 58,593 patients with lower GI bleeding, we observed 2,806 GI cancers during complete 10-year follow-up. During the first year of follow-up, the absolute GI cancer risk was 3.6%, and the SIR of any GI cancer was 16.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15.6–17.0). Colorectal cancers accounted for the majority of diagnoses, but risks of all GI cancers were increased. During 1–5 years of follow-up, the SIR of any GI cancer declined to 1.36 (95% CI: 1.25–1.49), but risks remained increased for several GI cancers. Beyond 5 years of follow-up, the overall GI cancer risk was close to unity, with reduced risk of rectal cancer and increased risk of liver and pancreatic cancers. CONCLUSIONS: A hospital-based diagnosis of lower GI bleeding is a strong clinical marker of prevalent GI cancer, particularly CRC. It also predicts an increased risk of any GI cancer beyond 1 year of follow-up. PMID:27054580

  3. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  4. Hereditary cancer risk assessment: essential tools for a better approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary cancer risk assessment (HCRA) is a multidisciplinary process of estimating probabilities of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and assessing empiric risks of cancer, based on personal and family history. It includes genetic counseling, testing and management of at-risk individuals so that they can make well-informed choices about cancer surveillance, surgical treatment and chemopreventive measures, including biomolecular cancer therapies. Providing patients and family members with an appropriate HCRA will contribute to a better process of making decisions about their personal and family risks of cancer. Following individuals at high risk through screening protocols, reassuring those at low risk, and referring those at increased risk of hereditary cancer to a cancer genetics center may be the best suitable approach of HCRA. PMID:24165150

  5. Toxicogenetic profile and cancer risk in Lebanese.

    PubMed

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Kobeissi, Loulou

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) were identified among different ethnic groups. Some of these polymorphisms are associated with an increased cancer risk, while others remain equivocal. However, there is sufficient evidence that these associations become significant in populations overexposed to environmental carcinogens. Hence, genetic differences in expression activity of both Phase I and Phase II enzymes may affect cancer risk in exposed populations. In Lebanon, there has been a marked rise in reported cancer incidence since the 1990s. There are also indicators of exposure to unusually high levels of environmental pollutants and carcinogens in the country. This review considers this high cancer incidence by exploring a potential gene-environment model based on available DME polymorphism prevalence, and their impact on bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast, and lung cancer in the Lebanese population. The examined DME include glutathione S-transferases (GST), N-acetyltransferases (NAT), and cytochromes P-450 (CYP). Data suggest that these DME influence bladder cancer risk in the Lebanese population. Evidence indicates that identification of a gene-environment interaction model may help in defining future research priorities and preventive cancer control strategies in this country, particularly for breast and lung cancer. PMID:24627976

  6. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  7. A Common SNP of IL-10 (-1082A/G) is Associated With Increased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer in South Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Cingeetham; Jyothy, Akka; Vijay kumar, Malladi; Raman, Ramaiyer Raghu; Nallari, Pratibha; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evading the immune destruction and angiogenesis has been the two hallmarks of cancer. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with immune suppressing (pro-tumorigenic) and anti-angiogenic (anti-tumorigenic) properties, thus making the role of IL-10 in tumorigenesis enigmatic. Previous studies have suggested a critical role of IL10 altered expression in complex process of tumor-microenvironment, co-evolution and tumorigenesis. Objectives: Evaluating the role of IL10 (-1082A/G) gene promoter polymorphism in breast cancer patients from South India. Patients and Methods: A case-control study was conducted with a total of 285 individuals, these include 125 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 160 age and sex matched controls. Genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Statistical analysis was done to test the significance of results obtained. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that AA genotype of the Il-10 -1082A/G polymorphism is significantly associated with breast cancer (AA vs. AG: χ2 = 14.46, P = 0.0001432, OR = 2.854, 95% CI = 1.68 - 4.849). Up on stratifying subjects based on cancer stage, age at onset, menopausal status, AA genotype has associated with all the sub groups, except for post-menopausal women. There was no significant association which was observed with respected to hormonal status (ER, PR) and Her2/neu status. Conclusions: The present study suggests that IL-10 AA genotype as a risk factor in the etiology of breast cancer in the South Indian population. PMID:26478792

  8. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  9. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... cannot be changed. But just because you have risk factors you cannot control does not mean you cannot take steps to ...

  10. Risk stratification strategies for cancer-associated thrombosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Khorana, Alok A; McCrae, Keith R

    2014-05-01

    Rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary substantially between cancer patients. Multiple clinical risk factors including primary site of cancer and systemic therapy, and biomarkers including leukocyte and platelet counts and tissue factor are associated with increased risk of VTE. However, risk cannot be reliably predicted based on single risk factors or biomarkers. New American Society of Clinical Guidelines recommend that patients with cancer be assessed for VTE risk at the time of chemotherapy initiation and periodically thereafter. This narrative review provides an update on risk stratification approaches including a validated Risk Score. Potential applications of risk assessment including targeted thromboprophylaxis are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:24862143

  11. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-06-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case-control study of men 40-80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00-1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01-1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04-4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20-4.90 for tertile 3 (P(trend) = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  12. Occupational risk for laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Flanders, W.D.; Rothman, K.J.

    1982-04-01

    In a case-control analysis, we studied the effects of type of employment on laryngeal cancer risk using the interview data from the Third National Cancer Survey. Effects were measured relative to the risk for those employed in a group of arbitrarily defined industries and occupations with low risk. We excluded females and controlled for age, tobacco use, alcohol use, and race in the analysis. We found ratio estimates above 3.0 for workers in the railroad industry and the lumber industry; and for sheetmetal workers, grinding wheel operators, and automobile mechanics.

  13. Time course of risk factors in cancer etiology and progression.

    PubMed

    Wei, Esther K; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Colditz, Graham A

    2010-09-10

    Patients with cancer increasingly ask what they can do to change their lifestyles and improve outcomes. Risk factors for onset of cancer may differ substantially from those that modify survival with implications for counseling. This review focuses on recent data derived from population-based studies of causes of cancer and of patients with cancer to contrast risk factors for etiology with those that impact survival. For different cancer sites, the level of information to inform the timing of lifestyle exposures and risk of disease onset or progression after diagnosis is often limited. For breast cancer, timing of some exposures, such as radiation, is particularly important. For other exposures, such as physical activity, higher levels may prevent onset and also improve survival. For colon cancer, study of precursor polyps has provided additional insight to timing. Extensive data indicate that physical activity reduces risk of colon cancer, and more limited data suggest that exposure after diagnosis improves survival. Dietary factors including folate and calcium may also reduce risk of onset. More limited data on prostate cancer point to obesity increasing risk of aggressive or advanced disease. Timing of change in lifestyle for change in risk of onset and for survival is important but understudied among patients with cancer. Counseling patients with cancer to increase physical activity and avoid weight gain may improve outcomes. Advice to family members on lifestyle may become increasingly important for breast and other cancers where family history is a strong risk factor. PMID:20644083

  14. Time Course of Risk Factors in Cancer Etiology and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Esther K.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cancer increasingly ask what they can do to change their lifestyles and improve outcomes. Risk factors for onset of cancer may differ substantially from those that modify survival with implications for counseling. This review focuses on recent data derived from population-based studies of causes of cancer and of patients with cancer to contrast risk factors for etiology with those that impact survival. For different cancer sites, the level of information to inform the timing of lifestyle exposures and risk of disease onset or progression after diagnosis is often limited. For breast cancer, timing of some exposures, such as radiation, is particularly important. For other exposures, such as physical activity, higher levels may prevent onset and also improve survival. For colon cancer, study of precursor polyps has provided additional insight to timing. Extensive data indicate that physical activity reduces risk of colon cancer, and more limited data suggest that exposure after diagnosis improves survival. Dietary factors including folate and calcium may also reduce risk of onset. More limited data on prostate cancer point to obesity increasing risk of aggressive or advanced disease. Timing of change in lifestyle for change in risk of onset and for survival is important but understudied among patients with cancer. Counseling patients with cancer to increase physical activity and avoid weight gain may improve outcomes. Advice to family members on lifestyle may become increasingly important for breast and other cancers where family history is a strong risk factor. PMID:20644083

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J; Duno, M; Wohlfahrt, J; Vissing, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial mutations are commonly reported in tumours, but it is unclear whether impaired mitochondrial function per se is a cause or consequence of cancer. To elucidate this, we examined the risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort of patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: We used nationwide results on genetic testing for mitochondrial disease and the Danish Civil Registration System, to construct a cohort of 311 patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. A total of 177 cohort members were identified from genetic testing and 134 genetically untested cohort members were matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer. Results: During 7334 person-years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68–1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited mDNA mutation, cases=13. Conclusions: Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population. PMID:25742477

  16. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  17. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  18. The TERT promoter SNP rs2853669 decreases E2F1 transcription factor binding and increases mortality and recurrence risks in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunkyong; Seo, Hyun-Wook; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Baek-hui; Jung, Guhung

    2016-01-01

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, rs2853669 influences patient survival rates and the risk of developing cancer. Recently, several lines of evidence suggest that the rs2853669 suppresses TERT promoter mutation-mediated TERT expression levels and cancer mortality as well as recurrence rates. However, no reports are available on the impact of rs2853669 on TERT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with patient survival. Here, we found that HCC-related overall and recurrence-free survival rates were not associated with TERT promoter mutation individually, but rs2853669 and the TERT promoter mutation in combination were associated with poor survival rates. TERT mRNA expression and telomere fluorescence levels were greater in patients with HCC who had both the combination. The combination caused TERT promoter methylation through regulating the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone deacetylase 1 to the TERT promoter in HCC cell lines. The TERT expression level was significantly higher in HCC tumor with a methylated promoter than in that with an unmethylated promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrate a substantial role for the rs2853669 in HCC with TERT promoter mutation, which suggests that the combination of the rs2853669 and the mutation indicate poor prognoses in liver cancer. PMID:26575952

  19. The TERT promoter SNP rs2853669 decreases E2F1 transcription factor binding and increases mortality and recurrence risks in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eunkyong; Seo, Hyun-Wook; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Baek-hui; Jung, Guhung

    2016-01-01

    A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, rs2853669 influences patient survival rates and the risk of developing cancer. Recently, several lines of evidence suggest that the rs2853669 suppresses TERT promoter mutation-mediated TERT expression levels and cancer mortality as well as recurrence rates. However, no reports are available on the impact of rs2853669 on TERT expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with patient survival. Here, we found that HCC-related overall and recurrence-free survival rates were not associated with TERT promoter mutation individually, but rs2853669 and the TERT promoter mutation in combination were associated with poor survival rates. TERT mRNA expression and telomere fluorescence levels were greater in patients with HCC who had both the combination. The combination caused TERT promoter methylation through regulating the binding of DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone deacetylase 1 to the TERT promoter in HCC cell lines. The TERT expression level was significantly higher in HCC tumor with a methylated promoter than in that with an unmethylated promoter. In conclusion, we demonstrate a substantial role for the rs2853669 in HCC with TERT promoter mutation, which suggests that the combination of the rs2853669 and the mutation indicate poor prognoses in liver cancer. PMID:26575952

  20. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  1. Antidiabetic drugs and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tokajuk, Anna; Krzyżanowska-Grycel, Edyta; Tokajuk, Adrian; Grycel, Sławomir; Sadowska, Anna; Car, Halina

    2015-12-01

    Antidiabetic drugs are an important group of medications used worldwide. They differ from each other in the mechanisms of lowering blood glucose as well as in adverse effects that may affect the course of the treatment and its efficacy. In recent years, new drugs have been discovered in order to improve the maintenance of proper blood glucose level and to reduce unwanted effects of these drugs. Their growing administration is related to the increasing incidence of diabetes observed in all countries in the world. Epidemiological data indicate that diabetes increases the risk of cancer, as well as the risk of death linked with neoplasms. It is still unknown whether this is an effect of antidiabetic drugs or just the effect of diabetes itself. In recent years there have been numerous investigations and meta-analyzes, based on both comparative and cohort studies trying to establish the relationship between antidiabetic pharmacotherapy and the incidence and mortality due to cancer. According to their findings, most of antidiabetic drugs increase the risk of cancer while only few of them show antitumor properties. Different mechanisms of action of glucose-lowering drugs may be responsible for these effects. However, most of the published studies concerning the influence of these drugs on cancer incidence were designed with some limitations and differed from each other in the approach. In this review, we discuss the association between antidiabetic drugs used in monotherapy or polytherapy and cancer risk, and consider potential mechanisms responsible for the observed effects. PMID:26481548

  2. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  3. Genetic testing for cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ponder, B

    1997-11-01

    Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility is already part of the clinical management of families with some of the well-defined (but uncommon) inherited cancer syndromes. In cases where the risks associated with a predisposing mutation are less certain, or where there is no clearly effective intervention to offer those with a positive result, its use is more controversial. Careful evaluation of costs and benefits, and of the efficacy of interventions in those found to be at risk, is essential and is only just beginning. An immediate challenge is to ensure that both health professionals and the public understand clearly the issues involved. PMID:9353178

  4. Assessing the cancer risk from environmental PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, V J

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures. New toxicity information from a 1996 cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although different mixtures have different potencies. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures through partitioning, chemical transformation, and preferential bioaccumulation; these processes can increase or decrease toxicity considerably. Bioaccumulated PCBs are of greatest concern because they appear to be more toxic than commercial PCBs and more persistent in the body. The new approach uses toxicity studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of cancer potency estimates and then considers the effect of environmental processes to choose appropriate values for representative classes of environmental mixtures. Guidance is given for assessing risks from different exposure pathways, less-than-lifetime and early-life exposures, and mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. PMID:9618347

  5. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case–control study of men 40–80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00–1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01–1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04–4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20–4.90 for tertile 3 (Ptrend = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  6. Circulating Adiponectin and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes. It has been suggested to be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Published data have shown inconsistent results for the association between circulating adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of circulating adiponectin levels on the development of endometrial cancer. Methods PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, and Cochrane databases were searched for all eligible studies, and the summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated. Additionally, we performed dose-response analysis with eight eligible studies. Results A total of 1,955 cases and 3,458 controls from 12 studies were included. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated high adiponectin level reduced the risk of endometrial cancer [SRR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.66]. Results from the subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall analysis. The SRR for each 1 µg/ml increase of adiponectin indicated a 3% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 2%–4%), and a 14% reduction for each increase of 5 µg/ml (95% CI: 9%–19%). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that low level of circulating adiponectin is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. PMID:26030130

  7. Cancer risks in the optical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J D; Wegman, D H; Smith, T J

    1983-01-01

    A mortality odds ratio (MOR) study has been conducted to explore the cancer risks of exposures experienced in the production of optical lenses and metal spectacle frames. Male death certificates were obtained from a Massachusetts town where a large optical industry is located. Craftsmen, foremen, and operatives of non-optical industries, such as woollen textile workers and workers in the optical company with short-term or no exposure, were chosen as reference workers their incomes were similar to those of the exposed workers. Cardiovascular disease (total 714) is chosen as the reference disease to explore cancers (total 232). An excess risk of total cancers observed = 70, expected = 48) has formed among lens workers. The excess may be accounted for mainly by the excess risk of gastrointestinal cancers; the standardised MORs (sMOR) for medium and long-term exposure were 2.2 and 2.5. The excess was especially evident for colorectal cancers; the sMORs for medium and long-term exposures were 3.2 and 2.6. Excess risks of gastrointestinal cancers (sMOR = 2.9) and colorectal cancers (sMOR = 3.4) were found among metal frame workers with long-term (employed for more than 29 years) exposure, but the number of exposed cases was small (9 and 6 respectively). These results suggest that exposure to abrasives or cutting oil mists or both, possibly by ingestion, might increase the risk of gastrointestinal (especially colorectal) cancers among lens and metal spectacle frame manufacturers. PMID:6830714

  8. Industrialization, electromagnetic fields, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, L I; Matkin, C C

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between the rates of breast cancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breast cancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breast cancer. Although most of the epidemiologic data do not provide strong support for an association between EMF and breast cancer, because of the limited statistical power as well as the possibility of misclassification and bias present in much of the existing data, it is not possible to rule out a relationship between EMF and breast cancer. We make several specific recommendations for future studies carefully designed to test the melatonin-breast cancer and EMF-breast cancer hypotheses. Future study designs should have sufficient statistical power to detect small to moderate associations; include comprehensive exposure assessments that estimate residential and occupational exposures, including shift work; focus on a relevant time period; control for known breast cancer risks; and pay careful attention to menopausal and estrogen receptor status. PMID:10229714

  9. Polymorphism of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes increase the risk of neuropathy in breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Tulay; Aktas, Gokmen; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Demiryurek, Abdullah Tuncay; Ulasli, Mustafa; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Sevinc, Alper; Kul, Seval; Camci, Celaletdin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability of pharmacogenetics may account for unpredictable neurotoxicities of taxanes. Methods From March 2011 to June 2015, female patients with operable breast cancer who had received docetaxel- or paclitaxel-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were included in this study. All patients were treated with single-agent paclitaxel intravenously (IV) 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for four cycles, or IV 80 mg/m2 weekly for 12 cycles, and IV 100 mg/m2 docetaxel for four cycles as adjuvant treatment. We evaluated the relationship between neurotoxicity of taxanes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, CYP3A4, ERCC1, ERCC2, FGFR4, TP53, ERBB2, and CYP2C8 genes. Taxane-induced neurotoxicity during the treatment was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.03 prior to each cycle. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the two groups, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used for determining possible risk factors of neuropathy. Results Pharmacogenetic analysis was performed in 219 females. ABCB1 3435 TT genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.759, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.172–6.493, P: 0.017) compared to TC and CC genotype, and also CYP3A4 392 AA and AG genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (OR: 2.259, 95% CI: 1.033–4.941, P: 0.038) compared to GG genotype. For FDGF4 gene with AG and GG genotype, OR was 1.879 (95% CI: 1.001–3.525, P: 0.048) compared to AA genotype with regard to any grade of neuropathy risk. We could not find any other association of other genotypes with neurotoxicity grades. Conclusion ABCB1 3435 TT genotype and CYP3A4 392 AA/AG genotypes may be used as predictors of neurotoxicity during taxane chemotherapy. PMID:27574448

  10. RAD51 135G>C substitution increases breast cancer risk in an ethnic-specific manner: a meta-analysis on 21,236 cases and 19,407 controls.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Deepa; Pooja, Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    RAD51 is a homolog of bacterial RecA protein, which plays an important role in preserving stability of the genome. RAD51 interacts with BRCA1 and BRCA2 for homologous recombination repair. A functional polymorphism (135G > C) in the RAD51 gene has been a subject of great interest, which is evidenced by at least 28 case-control studies and eight meta-analyses undertaken on this polymorphism till now. We undertook a meta-analysis on RAD51 135G > C data for 21,236 cases and 19,407 controls pooled from 28 studies on breast cancer in women. Pooled data analysis suggested a significant association of the substitution with breast cancer in the recessive model (GG + GC versus CC) and in the co-dominant models comparing GG versus CC and GC versus CC. Analysis of the results suggested that 'CC' genotype is a significant breast cancer risk factor in comparison to 'GG' and 'GC' genotypes. We also undertook pooled analyses on different ethnic groups and found that 'CC' was a strong risk factor in Caucasians, but not in East-Asians and populations of mixed ethnicity. In conclusion, the RAD51 135G > C substitution in the homozygous form (CC) increases the risk of breast cancer in an ethnic-specific manner. PMID:26108708

  11. Endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Gail S

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence both from epidemiology studies and animal models that specific endocrine-disrupting compounds may influence the development or progression of prostate cancer. In large part, these effects appear to be linked to interference with estrogen signaling, either through interacting with ERs or by influencing steroid metabolism and altering estrogen levels within the body. In humans, epidemiologic evidence links specific pesticides, PCBs and inorganic arsenic exposures to elevated prostate cancer risk. Studies in animal models also show augmentation of prostate carcinogenesis with several other environmental estrogenic compounds including cadmium, UV filters and BPA. Importantly, there appears to be heightened sensitivity of the prostate to these endocrine disruptors during the critical developmental windows including in utero and neonatal time points as well as during puberty. Thus infants and children may be considered a highly susceptible population for ED exposures and increased risk of prostate cancers with aging. PMID:18524946

  12. CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroform is a common chlorination by-product in drinking water. EPA has regulated chloroform as a probable human carcinogen under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The cancer risk estimate via ingestion was based on the 1985 Jorgenson study identifying kidney tumors in male Osborne ...

  13. Diabetes and Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samy L.; Rojna, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer represent two complex, diverse, chronic, and potentially fatal diseases. Cancer is the second leading cause of death, while diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death with the latter still likely underreported. There is a growing body of evidence published in recent years that suggest substantial increase in cancer incidence in diabetic patients. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes was estimated to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. About 26.9% of all people over 65 have diabetes and 60% have cancer. Overall, 8–18% of cancer patients have diabetes. In the context of epidemiology, the burden of both diseases, small association between diabetes and cancer will be clinically relevant and should translate into significant consequences for future health care solutions. This paper summarizes most of the epidemiological association studies between diabetes and cancer including studies relating to the general all-site increase of malignancies in diabetes and elevated organ-specific cancer rate in diabetes as comorbidity. Additionally, we have discussed the possible pathophysiological mechanisms that likely may be involved in promoting carcinogenesis in diabetes and the potential of different antidiabetic therapies to influence cancer incidence. PMID:23476808

  14. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  15. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ...

  16. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Cancer.gov

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  17. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  18. Multi-organ Mapping of Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqin; Finkelstein, David; Gao, Culian; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yongdong; López-Terrada, Dolores; Wang, Kasper; Utley, Sarah; Pounds, Stanley; Neale, Geoffrey; Ellison, David; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Gilbertson, Richard James

    2016-08-25

    Cancers are distributed unevenly across the body, but the importance of cell intrinsic factors such as stem cell function in determining organ cancer risk is unknown. Therefore, we used Cre-recombination of conditional lineage tracing, oncogene, and tumor suppressor alleles to define populations of stem and non-stem cells in mouse organs and test their life-long susceptibility to tumorigenesis. We show that tumor incidence is determined by the life-long generative capacity of mutated cells. This relationship held true in the presence of multiple genotypes and regardless of developmental stage, strongly supporting the notion that stem cells dictate organ cancer risk. Using the liver as a model system, we further show that damage-induced activation of stem cell function markedly increases cancer risk. Therefore, we propose that a combination of stem cell mutagenesis and extrinsic factors that enhance the proliferation of these cell populations, creates a "perfect storm" that ultimately determines organ cancer risk. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27565343

  19. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P < .0001, vs. reference group CD44 <2.22 ng/mL and protein <1.23 mg/mL]. Total protein aided prediction above CD44 alone. Sensitivity and specificity in the frequency-matched study was 80% and 48.7%, respectively. However, controls were not representative of the target screening population due, in part, to a high rate of prior cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  20. Dietary acrylamide and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2012-07-15

    Acrylamide has been designated by IARC as a "probable human carcinogen." High levels are formed during cooking of many commonly consumed foods including French fries, potato chips, breakfast cereal and coffee. Two prospective cohort studies and two case-control studies in Europe found no association between acrylamide intake and prostate cancer. We examined this association in a large prospective cohort of 47,896 US men in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, using updated dietary acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998 and 2002. From 1986 through 2006, we documented 5025 cases of prostate cancer, and 642 lethal cancers. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide intake from diet and prostate cancer risk overall as well as risk of advanced or lethal cancer. Acrylamide intake ranged from a mean of 10.5 mcg/day in the lowest quintile to 40.1 mcg/day in the highest quintile; coffee and potato products were largest contributors to intake. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of prostate cancer was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.13) for the highest versus lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (p-value for trend = 0.90). Results were similar when restricted to never smokers and to men who had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. There was no significant association for dietary acrylamide and risk of lethal, advanced or high-grade disease, or for different latency periods ranging from 0-4 years to 12-16 years. We found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:21866549

  1. NIH study shows increased risk for two types of myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Cancer.gov

    Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Content and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Matthew R.; Shen, Min; Liu, Chin-San; DiVita, Margaret; He, Xingzhou; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Smoky coal contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and has been strongly implicated in etiology of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China. While PAHs have been demonstrated to form bulky adducts in nuclear DNA, they have a 90-fold greater affinity for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). To compensate for mitochondrial dysfunction or damage, mtDNA content is thought to increase. We conducted a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China hypothesizing that mtDNA content is associated with lung cancer risk. Cases (n = 122) and controls (n = 121) were individually matched on age (±2yrs), sex, village of residence, and type of heating/cooking fuel currently used. Lifetime smoky coal use and potential confounders were determined with questionnaires. mtDNA was extracted from sputum and content was determined with quantitative RT-PCR. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated with unconditional logistic regression. mtDNA content was dichotomized at the median based on the distribution among the controls. mtDNA content > 157 was associated with a 2-fold increase in lung cancer risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0–3.2) compared with those with ≤157 copies. Risk was higher among those >57 years of age compared with those ≤ 57 years (p interaction = 0.01). In summary, mtDNA content was positively associated with lung cancer risk. Furthermore, there was some evidence that mtDNA content was more strongly associated with lung cancer risk among older individuals. However, due to the small sample size, additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. PMID:18691788

  3. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  4. Fertility drugs, reproductive strategies and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Tomao, Federica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Prete, Alessandra Anna; Prinzi, Natalie; Sinjari, Marsela; Vici, Patrizia; Papa, Anselmo; Chiotti, Maria Stefania; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Tomao, Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Several adverse effects have been related to infertility treatments, such as cancer development. In particular, the relationship between infertility, reproductive strategies, and risk of gynecological cancers has aroused much interest in recent years. The evaluation of cancer risk among women treated for infertility is very complex, mainly because of many factors that can contribute to occurrence of cancer in these patients (including parity status). This article addresses the possible association between the use of fertility treatments and the risk of ovarian cancer, through a scrupulous search of the literature published thus far in this field. Our principal objective was to give more conclusive answers on the question whether the use of fertility drug significantly increases ovarian cancer risk. Our analysis focused on the different types of drugs and different treatment schedules used. This study provides additional insights regarding the long-term relationships between fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:24829615

  5. Low RBM3 Protein Expression Correlates with Clinical Stage, Prognostic Classification and Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Testicular Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Sven-Erik; Nodin, Björn; Gaber, Alexander; Eberhard, Jakob; Uhlén, Mathias; Jirström, Karin; Jerkeman, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has been shown to correlate with favourable clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in several cancer diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and prognostic ability of RBM3 in patients with testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). Patients and Methods Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was analysed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 206 patients. Chi-square test was applied to analyze associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the impact of RBM3 expression on cancer-specific survival (CSS) and failure-free survival (FFS). Cox regression proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk for failure. Results In the entire cohort, there was a significant association between clinical stage (p=0.044) and RBM3 expression. Weak RBM3 expression correlated with a significantly reduced FFS [79.3% versus 90.4% (p=0.019)] and CSS [87.5% versus 97.3% (p=0.047)]. For patients with metastatic disease (n = 88), significant associations were found between RBM3 expression and IGCCC group (p=0.007). The FFS was significantly inferior for patients with low tumour-specific RBM3 expression [59.3% versus 79.0% (p=0.013)], and this association remained significant in a multivariable model for patients with metastatic disease (HR=3.67; 95% CI 1.14, 11.89). Conclusion Low RBM3 expression is an independent predictor of treatment failure in metastatic NSGCT, in relation to the prognostic factors included in the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC). These findings suggest that RBM3 may be a potential biomarker for treatment stratification in patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours, and therefore merit further validation. PMID:25811459

  6. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  8. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  9. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer ...

  10. Topics in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S S; Neumann, D A; Foran, J A; Scarano, G J

    1997-01-01

    The estimation of carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemicals has become an integral part of the regulatory process in the United States within the past decade. With it have come considerable controversy and debate over the scientific merits and shortcomings of the methods and their impact on risk management decisions. In this paper we highlight selected topics of current interest in the debate. As an indication of the level of public concern, we note the major recent reports on risk assessment from the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's proposed substantial revisions to its Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. We identify and briefly frame several key scientific issues in cancer risk assessment, including the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the mode of action of carcinogenesis in experimental animals and in humans, the methodologies and challenges in quantitative extrapolation of cancer risks, and the question of how to assess and account for human variability in susceptibility to carcinogens. In addition, we discuss initiatives in progress that may fundamentally alter the carcinogenesis testing paradigm. PMID:9114281

  11. Potent increased risk of the initiation of DNA replication in human prostate cancer with the use of 5α-reductase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Takeo; Yasumizu, Yota; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Miyajima, Akira; Kikuchi, Eiji; Oya, Mototsugu

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have raised the clinically important question of the relationship between dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. The significance of DHT or 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) in PCa development and progression has not yet been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to determine whether the initiation of DNA replication was influenced by DHT in PCa. Three cell lines were used. LNCaP: a human PCa cell line that exhibits androgen-dependent proliferation, C4-2: a human PCa cell line that exhibits androgen-independent proliferation, and C4-2AT6: a castration resistant prostate cancer cell line. Two 5ARIs, finasteride and dutasteride, were used. We examined the mRNA expression of the components of pre-replication complex (Pre-RC), CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7. DHT induced cell proliferation of LNCaP accompanied by significantly increased CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7 expression. In contrast to LNCaP, DHT inhibited cell proliferation in C4-2AT6 cells accompanied by decreased expression of CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7. These reverse effects resemble the effects of 5ARIs in Pre-RC. Treatment with finasteride or dutasteride inhibited CDC6 expression in LNCaP, but both 5ARIs induced CDC6 expression in C4-2 and C4-2AT6 cells.These results indicate that DHT showed reversal effects on PCa cell proliferation among prostate cancer cells based on androgen-dependence, accompanied by regulation of the initiation of DNA replication. 5ARIs may modulate the DNA replication system in someaggressive PCa through up-regulation of CDC6 expression. PMID:25374915

  12. Potent increased risk of the initiation of DNA replication in human prostate cancer with the use of 5α-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Takeo; Yasumizu, Yota; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Miyajima, Akira; Kikuchi, Eiji; Oya, Mototsugu

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have raised the clinically important question of the relationship between dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. The significance of DHT or 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) in PCa development and progression has not yet been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to determine whether the initiation of DNA replication was influenced by DHT in PCa. Three cell lines were used. LNCaP: a human PCa cell line that exhibits androgen-dependent proliferation, C4-2: a human PCa cell line that exhibits androgen-independent proliferation, and C4-2AT6: a castration resistant prostate cancer cell line. Two 5ARIs, finasteride and dutasteride, were used. We examined the mRNA expression of the components of pre-replication complex (Pre-RC), CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7. DHT induced cell proliferation of LNCaP accompanied by significantly increased CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7 expression. In contrast to LNCaP, DHT inhibited cell proliferation in C4-2AT6 cells accompanied by decreased expression of CDC6, CDT1, and MCM2-7. These reverse effects resemble the effects of 5ARIs in Pre-RC. Treatment with finasteride or dutasteride inhibited CDC6 expression in LNCaP, but both 5ARIs induced CDC6 expression in C4-2 and C4-2AT6 cells.These results indicate that DHT showed reversal effects on PCa cell proliferation among prostate cancer cells based on androgen-dependence, accompanied by regulation of the initiation of DNA replication. 5ARIs may modulate the DNA replication system in someaggressive PCa through up-regulation of CDC6 expression. PMID:25374915

  13. Reprocessed uranium exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Canu, Irina Guseva; Jacob, Sophie; Cardis, Elisabeth; Wild, Pascal; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Auriol, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the risk of lung cancer in regards to protracted occupational exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds. Two thousand seven hundred and nine male workers employed at the AREVA NC uranium processing plant between 1960 and 2005 in France were included in the cohort. Historical exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds classified by their solubility type was assessed on the basis of the plant's specific job-exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for attained age, calendar period, and socioeconomic status were used to estimate relative risks in regards of each type of uranium compound. The relative risk of lung cancer tended to increase with decreasing solubility of reprocessed uranium compounds. The highest-though not statistically significant-relative risk was observed among workers exposed to slowly soluble reprocessed uranium dioxide. This study is the first suggesting an increasing risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to reprocessed uranium. Our results are consistent with data from experimental studies of biokinetics and the action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium compounds, but need to be confirmed in larger studies with more detailed dose-response analyses. PMID:20699691

  14. Cancer risk following radiotherapy for infertility or menstrual disorders.

    PubMed

    Ron, E; Auvinen, A; Alfandary, E; Stovall, M; Modan, B; Werner, A

    1999-09-01

    A cohort of 968 Israeli women treated with radiotherapy for infertility was followed up for cancer incidence. The majority of the subjects were irradiated to both the ovaries and the pituitary gland. Mean doses to the brain, colon, ovary and bone marrow were 0. 8, 0.6, 1.0 and 0.4 Gy, respectively. More than 10 years after radiation treatment, 60 cancers were observed compared with 74.5 expected based on national cancer incidence rates (standardized incidence ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.61-1.04). No statistically significant excess or deficit was seen for any individual type of cancer; however, a non-significant 60% increased risk of colon cancer was observed. Risk of colon cancer was higher among women with 2 or more treatments and increased with length of follow-up. A decreased risk of breast cancer was suggested. Neither age at exposure nor attained age modified subsequent cancer risk. No clear excess of any cancer site was observed among women at organ doses above the median compared with subjects at doses below the median, except a slight increase in colon cancer. No significant excess incidence of cancer was demonstrated in this small cohort of patients treated with radiotherapy for infertility. Our results are consistent with those from an earlier study of cancer mortality among women receiving radiotherapy for infertility conducted in New York City. Int. J. Cancer 82:795-798, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:10446443

  15. Prostate cancer trends in Canada: rising incidence or increased detection?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, I G; Gibbons, L; Collins, J P; Perkins, D G; Mao, Y

    1993-01-01

    procedures did not increase. Significantly more slides per gram of tissue were analysed in 1986-87 than in 1976 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The correlations between the incidence rates of prostate cancer and those of TURP suggest that increased treatment of benign prostatic disease has led to increased detection of prostate cancer. Extrapolation of the data obtained from the chart review indicates that the increase in observed incidence rates can be attributed to an increase in the rate of localized disease and thus primarily to early detection rather than to elevated risk. However, because the rate of death from prostate cancer was elevated in elderly men, increases in exposure to unestablished risk factors cannot be ruled out. PMID:8364818

  16. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  17. Selected aspects of Mediterranean diet and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Rossi, Marta; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    European Mediterranean populations have a high life expectancy. Several aspects of their diet are considered favorable on health. We considered the role of various aspects of the Mediterranean diet on cancer risk in a series of Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 cases of cancer at 13 different sites and over 17,000 controls. For most epithelial cancers, the risk decreased with increasing vegetable consumption. Allium vegetables were also favorably related to cancer risk. Fruit intake was inversely associated with digestive tract and laryngeal cancers. For digestive tract cancers, the population attributable risks for low intake of vegetables and fruit ranged between 15% and 40%. Olive oil and unsaturated fats, which are typical aspects of the Mediterranean diet, were inversely related to the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract. Whole grain food (and hence possibly fiber) intake was also related to reduced risk of various cancers. In contrast, refined grains and, consequently, glycemic load and index were associated to increased risks. Several micronutrients and food components (including folate, flavonoids, and carotenoids) showed inverse relations with cancer risk, but the main component(s) responsible for the favorable effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruit remain undefined. PMID:20155613

  18. Cancer risk management decision making for BRCA+ women.

    PubMed

    Leonarczyk, Terri Jabaley; Mawn, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Women with pathogenic BRCA genetic mutations face high risks for cancer development. Estimates vary among mutation carriers, with lifetime risks ranging from 41% to 90% for breast cancer and 8% to 62% for ovarian cancer. Cancer risk management options for BRCA mutation positive (BRCA+) women have life-altering implications. This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the experience of cancer risk management decision making for women who are unaffected carriers of a BRCA mutation (previvors). Fifteen previvors recruited from Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE), an online informational and support group, were interviewed. Findings consisted of four major themes: the early previvor experience, intense emotional upheaval; the decisional journey, navigating a personal plan for survival; lack of knowledge and experience among health care providers; and support is essential. Findings highlight the different decisional perspectives of previvors based on age and individual factors and the need for increased competence among health care providers. PMID:24470135

  19. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  20. Polymorphisms of the coagulation system and risk of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tinholt, Mari; Sandset, Per Morten; Iversen, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Hypercoagulability is a frequently finding in patients with cancer, and is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VT). Cancer-associated VT is associated with poor prognosis and represents the leading non-cancer cause of death among these patients. Conversely, patients experiencing VT are at increased risk of subsequent cancer, suggesting an epidemiological bidirectional link between cancer and hemostasis, and indicating a role of the hemostatic system in cancer development. How the coagulation system relates to cancer etiology at the genetic level is largely unexplored. Data on the association of polymorphisms in genes involved in coagulation with cancer development is important to clarify the role of the coagulation system in cancer pathogenesis. Effects of coagulation-related gene polymorphisms on cancer risk may possibly be translated into novel treatment- and prevention strategies of cancer-associated thrombosis and the cancer itself. This article reviews the current knowledge of the relation between polymorphisms in genes involved in coagulation and cancer risk in solid tumors. PMID:27067978

  1. MO-E-17A-09: Has Cancer Risk for Pediatric CT Increased Or Decreased? An Analysis of Cohort Data From 2004-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S; Kaufman, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze CT radiation dosimetry trends in a pediatric population imaged with modern (2004-2013) CT technology Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective review. Two cohorts of pediatric patients that received CT scans for treatment or surveillance for Wilms tumor (n=73) or Neuroblastoma (n=74) from 2004–2013 were included in this study. Patients were scanned during this time period on a GE Ultra (8 slice; 2004–2007), a GE VCT (2008–2011), or a GE VCT-XTe (2011–2013). Each patient's individual or combined chest, abdomen, and pelvic CT exams (n=4138) were loaded onto a PACS workstation (Intelerad, Canada) and measured to calculate their effective diameter and SSDE. Patient SSDE was used to estimate patient organ dosimetry based on previously published data. Patient's organ dosimetry were sorted by gender, weight, age, scan protocol (i.e., chest, abdomen, or pelvis), and CT scanner technology and averaged accordingly to calculate population averaged absolute and effective dose values. Results: Patient radiation dose burden calculated for all genders, weights, and ages decreased at a rate of 0.2 mSv/year (4.2 mGy/year; average organ dose) from 2004–2013; overall levels decreased by 50% from 3.0 mSv (60.0 mGy) to 1.5 mSv (25.9 mGy). Patient dose decreased at equal rates for both male and female, and for individual scan protocols. The greatest dose savings was found for patients between 0–4 years old (65%) followed by 5-9 years old (45%), 10–14 years old (30%), and > 14 years old (21%). Conclusion: Assuming a linear-nothreshold model, there always will be potential risk of cancer induction from CT. However, as demonstrated among these patient populations, effective and organ dose has decreased over the last decade; thus, potential risk of long-term side effects from pediatric CT examinations has also been reduced.

  2. Risk of Cancer Among Children of Cancer Patients - A Nationwide Study in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria S.; Malila, Nea; Lähteenmäki, Päivi; Pukkala, Eero; Mulvihill, John J; Boice, John D.; Sankila, Risto

    2009-01-01

    Cancer treatments have the potential to cause germline mutations that might increase the risk of cancer in the offspring of former cancer patients. This risk was evaluated in a population-based study of early onset cancer patients in Finland. Using nationwide registry data, 26,331 children of pediatric and early onset cancer patients (diagnosed under age 35 between 1953 and 2004) were compared to 58,155 children of siblings. Cancer occurrence among the children was determined by linkage with the cancer registry, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated comparing the observed number of cancers with that expected, based on rates in the general population of Finland. Among the 9877 children born after their parent’s diagnosis, cancer risk was increased (SIR 1.67; 95% CI 1.29–2.12). However, after removing those with hereditary cancer syndromes, this increase disappeared (SIR 1.03; 95% CI 0.74–1.40). The overall risk of cancer among the offspring of siblings (SIR 1.07; 95% CI 0.94–1.21) was the same as among the offspring of the patients with non-hereditary cancer. Risk of cancer in offspring born prior to their parents cancer diagnosis was elevated (SIR 1.37, 95% CI 1.20–1.54), but removing hereditary syndromes resulted in a diminished and non-significant association (SIR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.25). This study shows that offspring of cancer patients are not at an increased risk of cancer except when the patient has a cancer-predisposing syndrome. These findings are directly relevant to counseling cancer survivors with regard to family planning. PMID:19728329

  3. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  4. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  5. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process. PMID:12298344

  6. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  7. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10-24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  8. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval (CI), 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose.

  9. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  10. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  11. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis. PMID:26704725

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  13. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Onitilo, Adedayo A; Stankowski, Rachel V; Berg, Richard L; Engel, Jessica M; Glurich, Ingrid; Williams, Gail M; Doi, Suhail A

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by prolonged hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and progressive hyperglycemia. Disease management relies on glycemic control through diet, exercise, and pharmacological intervention. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of glycemic control and the use of glucose-lowering medication on the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=9486) between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2009 were identified and data on glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c, glucose), glucose-lowering medication use (insulin, metformin, sulfonylurea), age, BMI, date of diabetes diagnosis, insurance status, comorbidities, smoking history, location of residence, and cancer diagnoses were electronically abstracted. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to examine the relationship between glycemic control, including medication use, and cancer risk. The results varied by cancer type and medication exposure. There was no association between glycemic control and breast or colon cancer; however, prostate cancer risk was significantly higher with better glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≤ 7.0%). Insulin use was associated with increased colon cancer incidence in women, but not with colon cancer in men or breast or prostate cancer risk. Metformin exposure was associated with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence, but had no association with colon cancer risk. Sulfonylurea exposure was not associated with risk of any type of cancer. The data reported here support hyperinsulinemia, rather than hyperglycemia, as a major diabetes-related factor associated with increased risk of breast and colon cancer. In contrast, hyperglycemia appears to be protective in the case of prostate cancer. PMID:23962874

  15. Does Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Pesticides in Association with Glutathione S-Transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 Polymorphisms Increase the Risk of Bladder Cancer? The Belgrade Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Savic-Radojevic, Ana R.; Bulat, Petar V.; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija S.; Dragicevic, Dejan P.; Djukic, Tatjana I.; Simic, Tatjana P.; Pekmezovic, Tatjana D.

    2014-01-01

    glutathione S-transferase A1, T1, and P1 did not contribute independently towards the risk of bladder cancer in males. However, in association with occupational exposure, low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 and glutathione S-transferase M1-null as well as glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotypes increase individual susceptibility to bladder cancer. PMID:24914957

  16. Managing patients at genetic risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Holly J; Padia, Shilpa A; May, Maureen; Grobmyer, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary syndromes that increase the risk of breast cancer are not common, but it is critical to recognize and manage them appropriately. This paper reviews the management of patients with the most common hereditary breast cancer syndromes, ie, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, Cowden syndrome (PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. PMID:26974991

  17. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the ... before you get tested. Which Cancers May Be Genetic Today, we know specific gene mutations that can ...

  18. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  19. The genetics of cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Mark M; Freedman, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades before the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, R. A. Fisher published his landmark article, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance," bridging this divide and demonstrating that multiple alleles, all individually obeying Mendel's laws, account for the phenotypic variation observed in nature.Since that time, geneticists have sought to identify the link between genotype and phenotype. Trait-associated alleles vary in their frequency and degree of penetrance. Some minor alleles may approach a frequency of 50% in the human population, whereas others are present within only a few individuals. The spectrum for penetrance is similarly wide. These characteristics jointly determine the segregation pattern of a given trait, which, in turn, determine the method used to map the trait. Until recently, identification of rare, highly penetrant alleles was most practical. Revolutionary studies in genomics reported over the past decade have made interrogation of most of the spectrum of genetic variation feasible.The following article reviews recent discoveries in the genetic basis of inherited cancer risk and how these discoveries inform cancer biology and patient management. Although this article focuses on prostate cancer, the principles are generic for any cancer and, indeed, for any trait. PMID:22157285

  20. Genetic polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate, in a comprehensive manner, the published data regarding the contribution of genetic polymorphisms to risk of esophageal cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma, in humans. All relevant studies available in MEDLINE and published before February 2007 were identified. Studies carried out in humans and that compared esophageal cancer patients with at least 1 standard control group were considered for analysis. One-hundred studies and 3 meta-analyses were identified. Eighty (80%) studies were conducted in Asian countries, particularly China including Taiwan (60 (60%) studies). The most intensively examined genes were those encoding carcinogen metabolic enzymes. The most widely studied gene was GSTM1 (15 studies), followed by ALDH2 (11 studies). ALDH2, MTHFR C677T, CYP1A1 Ile/Val, CYP1A1MspI, CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 were examined by meta-analyses and significant relations were found between ALDH2*1*2 and the CYP1A1 Val allele and increased risk of esophageal cancer. In addition, increased risk of esophageal SCC was consistently associated with the ADH2*1*2 and the p53 codon 72 Pro/Pro genotypes. Cohort studies that simultaneously consider multiple genetic and environmental factors possibly involved in esophageal carcinogenesis are needed to ascertain not only the relative contribution of these factors to tumor development but also the contributions of their putative interactions. PMID:17674367

  1. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis. PMID:24554877

  2. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  3. Study finds increases in risk of leukemias related to treatment

    Cancer.gov

    A new study describes the pattern of risk for chemotherapy-related acute myeloid leukemia among adult cancer survivors over the past three decades who have previously been treated with chemotherapy for other cancers. These patterns coincide with major shi

  4. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women. PMID:27255073

  5. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  6. Withdrawal of hormone therapy and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2016-06-01

    Many menopause specialists follow the principle of prescribing postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) for the shortest duration needed, in order to decrease the risk of some related serious adverse effects, such as breast cancer. Based on several large studies, it seems, however, that withdrawal of HT may be associated with immediate, though small increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Cessation of HT correlates with increased risk of fractures as well. This information should be relayed to hormone users while discussing the continuation of HT with their health-care provider, but, since the potential cardiovascular harm is actually very small, it should not deter symptomatic women from using HT when needed. PMID:27075839

  7. Chlorination Disinfection By-products and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Do, Minh T.; Birkett, Nicholas J.; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Krewski, Daniel; Villeneuve, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Chlorination disinfection by-products (CDBPs) are produced during the treatment of water with chlorine to remove bacterial contamination. CDBPs have been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. There is also some evidence that they may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. We report results from a population-based case–control study of 486 incident cases of pancreatic cancer and 3,596 age- and sex-matched controls. Exposure to chlorination by-products was estimated by linking lifetime residential histories to two different databases containing information on CDBP levels in municipal water supplies. Logistic regression analysis found no evidence of increased pancreatic cancer risk at higher CDBP concentrations (all odds ratios < 1.3). Null findings were also obtained assuming a latency period for pancreatic cancer induction of 3, 8, or 13 years. PMID:15811832

  8. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, E C; Segev, D L; Engels, E A

    2013-03-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. US kidney recipients (N = 87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, p<0.001) and higher incidence of kidney (aIRR 2.09, p<0.001) and prostate cancer (aIRR 2.14, p<0.001); Hispanic recipients had lower incidence of NHL (aIRR 0.64, p = 0.001), lung (aIRR 0.41, p < 0.001), breast (aIRR 0.53, p = 0.003) and prostate cancer (aIRR 0.72, p = 0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. PMID:23331953

  9. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  10. [Cancer risk associated to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Laurier, Dominique; Hill, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    This article presents an update of the available data on the risk of cancer associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. The epidemiological studies conducted or continued during the last 10 years have led to improved quantification of radiation induced risks at low dose levels, notably by extension of the follow-up duration. The results comfort the underlying hypotheses of the radiation protection system in use. In particular, they show the existence of an increased risk for doses below 100 mSv of for exposures protracted over time. These results highlight the relevance of measures to reduce all exposures: accidental, medical, occupational or natural, and reinforce the importance of a prudent use of medical radiation, particularly for children. PMID:24298833

  11. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; He, Qi; Shao, Yu-Guo; Ji, Min; Bao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 studies on VDR polymorphisms, including FokI, BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI, and breast cancer risk published before May 2013. For FokI, the allele of f was found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer compared with F (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.36). Patients with ff genotype were at significantly higher risk of breast cancer compared with those with FF genotype (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.66-2.29). In subgroup analysis by race, Fok1 polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer risk for Caucasian population (f vs. F: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.59; ff vs. FF: OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.86-2.54; ff vs. FF + Ff: OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). For ApaI, aa genotype was associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asian population based on four studies (aa vs. Aa + AA, OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-1.98). No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and ApaI and TaqI polymorphism in different models and populations. Our updated meta-analysis showed that Fok1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk both in general population and in Caucasian population. ApaI polymorphism might be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian population. Large well-designed epidemiological studies are necessary to clarify the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. PMID:23900677

  12. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  13. Functional annotation of colon cancer risk SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lijing; Tak, Yu Gyoung; Berman, Benjamin P.; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for CRC. A molecular understanding of the functional consequences of this genetic variation has been complicated because each GWAS SNP is a surrogate for hundreds of other SNPs, most of which are located in non-coding regions. Here we use genomic and epigenomic information to test the hypothesis that the GWAS SNPs and/or correlated SNPs are in elements that regulate gene expression, and identify 23 promoters and 28 enhancers. Using gene expression data from normal and tumour cells, we identify 66 putative target genes of the risk-associated enhancers (10 of which were also identified by promoter SNPs). Employing CRISPR nucleases, we delete one risk-associated enhancer and identify genes showing altered expression. We suggest that similar studies be performed to characterize all CRC risk-associated enhancers. PMID:25268989

  14. Factors Predicting Adherence to Risk Management Behaviors of Women at Increased Risk for Developing Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kerry A.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Roussi, Pagona; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management. Methods Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Centre breast clinic. Participants (N=103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication “Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know”. Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Results Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12- month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence. Conclusions Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance. PMID:24970542

  15. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases. PMID:15539533

  16. Evolutionary Action score of TP53 (EAp53) identifies high risk mutations associated with decreased survival and increased distant metastases in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neskey, David M.; Osman, Abdullah A.; Ow, Thomas J.; Katsonis, Panagiotis; McDonald, Thomas; Hicks, Stephanie C.; Hsu, Teng-Kuei; Pickering, Curtis R.; Ward, Alexandra; Patel, Ameeta; Yordy, John S.; Skinner, Heath D.; Giri, Uma; Sano, Daisuke; Story, Michael D.; Beadle, Beth M.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Kies, Merrill S.; William, William N.; Caulin, Carlos; Frederick, Mitchell; Kimmel, Marek; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    TP53 is the most frequently altered gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with mutations occurring in over two third of cases, but the prognostic significance of these mutations remains elusive. In the current study, we evaluated a novel computational approach termed Evolutionary Action (EAp53) to stratify patients with tumors harboring TP53 mutations as high or low risk, and validated this system in both in vivo and in vitro models. Patients with high risk TP53 mutations had the poorest survival outcomes and the shortest time to the development of distant metastases. Tumor cells expressing high risk TP53 mutations were more invasive and tumorigenic and they exhibited a higher incidence of lung metastases. We also documented an association between the presence of high risk mutations and decreased expression of TP53 target genes, highlighting key cellular pathways that are likely to be dysregulated by this subset of p53 mutations which confer particularly aggressive tumor behavior. Overall, our work validated EAp53 as a novel computational tool that may be useful in clinical prognosis of tumors harboring p53 mutations. PMID:25634208

  17. Do Cervical Cancer Screening Rates Increase in Association with an Intervention Designed to Increase Mammography Usage?

    PubMed Central

    KATZ, MIRA L.; TATUM, CATHY M.; DEGRAFFINREID, CECILIA R.; DICKINSON, STEPHANIE; PASKETT, ELECTRA D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess cervical cancer screening behaviors among underserved women participating in an intervention designed to increase mammography use. Methods This was a randomized trial of 897 women from three racial groups (white, African American, Native American) living in a rural county in North Carolina. Baseline and follow-up surveys were completed by 815 women; 775 women provided data to be included in these analyses. The intervention group received an educational program focused on mammography delivered by a lay health advisor, and the control group received a physician letter/brochure focusing on Pap tests. Results Women in both the intervention (OR 1.70; 1.31, 2.21, p < 0.001) and control groups (OR 1.38; 1.04, 1.82, p = 0.025) significantly increased cervical cancer screening rates within risk appropriate guidelines. No differences by racial group were documented. Women categorized in the high-risk group for developing cervical cancer (>2 sexual partners, age <18 years at first sexual intercourse, smoker; treated for sexually transmitted disease [STD] or partner with treated STD) significantly (OR 1.88; 1.54, 2.28, p < 0.001) increased Pap test completion. However, a nonsignificant increase (OR 1.25; 0.87, 1.79, p = 0.221) in Pap test completion was demonstrated in women categorized as low risk for cervical cancer. Conclusions This study suggests that women in an intensive behavioral intervention designed to increase mammography use may also increase Pap test completion, similar to a minimal intervention focused only on increasing Pap test completion. These results have implications for the design and evaluation of behavioral intervention studies. PMID:17324094

  18. Long-Term Survival and Risk of Second Cancers After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Sato, Shinichiro; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Arai, Tatsuo

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of second cancers after cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy for Asian populations. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 2,167 patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy between 1961 and 1986. Intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with high-dose rate source (82%) or low-dose rate source (12%). Relative risk (RR), absolute excess risk (AR), and cumulative risk of second cancer were calculated using the Japanese disease expectancy table. For 1,031 patients, the impact of smoking habit on the increasing risk of second cancer was also evaluated. Results: The total number of person-years of follow-up was 25,771, with 60 patients being lost to follow-up. Among the 2,167 patients, 1,063 (49%) survived more than 10 years. Second cancers were observed in 210 patients, representing a significant 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) of developing second cancer compared with the general population, 1.6% excess risk per person per decade of follow-up, and elevating cumulative risk up to 23.8% (95% CI, 20.3-27.3) at 30 years after radiotherapy. The RR of second cancer was 1.6-fold for patients with the smoking habit and 1.4-fold for those without. Conclusions: Small but significant increased risk of second cancer was observed among Japanese women with cervical cancer mainly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. Considering the fact that about half of the patients survived more than 10 years, the benefit of radiotherapy outweighs the risk of developing second cancer.

  19. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipworth, Loren; Tarone, Robert E; Lund, Lars; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2009-01-01

    Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches, including evaluation of gene–environment interactions and epigenetic mechanisms of inherited and acquired increased risk, are needed to explain the increasing incidence of renal cell cancer. PMID:20865085

  20. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  1. Risk of Cancer in Diabetes: The Effect of Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mojtaba; Emami, Zahra; Khamseh, Mohammad E.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death. Association of diabetes as a growing and costly disease with cancer is a major health concern. Meanwhile, preexisting diabetes is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortalities. Presence of diabetes related comorbidities, poorer response to cancer treatment, and excess mortality related to diabetes are among the most important explanations. Although diabetes appear to be a risk factor for cancer and is associated with the mortality risk in cancer patients, several factors such as diabetes duration, multiple drug therapy, and the presence of diabetes comorbidities make the assessment of the effect of diabetes treatment on cancer risk and mortality difficult. Metformin is the drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The available evidence from basic science, clinical, and population-based research supports the anticancer effect of metformin. However, randomized controlled clinical trials do not provide enough evidence for a strong protective effect of metformin on cancer incidence or mortality. One of the most important limitations of these trials is the short duration of the followup. Further long-term randomized controlled clinical trials specifically designed to determine metformin effect on cancer risk are needed to provide the best answer to this challenge. PMID:24224094

  2. Risk of Skin Cancer from Space Radiation. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu

    2003-01-01

    We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.

  3. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation.

  4. Alcohol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: Weighing the Overall Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Goyal, Abhishek; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to an approximate 30-50% increased risk in breast cancer. Case-control and cohort studies have consistently observed this modest increase. We highlight recent evidence from molecular epidemiologic studies and studies of intermediate markers like mammographic density that provide additional evidence that this association is real and not solely explained by factors/correlates of the exposure and outcome present in non-randomized studies. We also review evidence from studies of higher risk women including BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the incidence of heart disease is higher than breast cancer and modest alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of heart disease, we examine the latest evidence to evaluate if alcohol reduction should be targeted to women at high risk for breast cancer. We also review the most recent evidence on the effect of alcohol use on tumor recurrence and survival for those diagnosed with breast cancer. PMID:24265860

  5. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shahana; O’Mara, Tracy A.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A.; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A.; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Strom, Brian L.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11 928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  6. Breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk: a Collaborative Endometrial Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Healey, Catherine S; Ahmed, Shahana; O'Mara, Tracy A; Ferguson, Kaltin; Lambrechts, Diether; Garcia-Dios, Diego A; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Howarth, Kimberley; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; Tomlinson, Ian; Yang, Hannah P; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Shah, Mitul; Pharoah, Paul D P; Thompson, Deborah J; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Strom, Brian L; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2011-12-01

    Recent large--scale association studies, both of genome-wide and candidate gene design, have revealed several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer. As both breast and endometrial cancers are considered to be hormonally driven and share multiple risk factors, we investigated whether breast cancer risk alleles are also associated with endometrial cancer risk. We genotyped nine breast cancer risk SNPs in up to 4188 endometrial cases and 11,928 controls, from between three and seven Caucasian populations. None of the tested SNPs showed significant evidence of association with risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21965274

  7. Increasing uptake of bowel cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Uptake of bowel cancer screening uptake at our practice is 32.72%, which is below the national target of 60%, but our cancer prevalence and death rate is higher than our CCG statistical mean. We examined reasons for non-response to bowel cancer screening in our patients and explored ways to promote engagement. From August 2013 to February 2014 we used three interventions in two patient groups: those turning 60 and eligible for screening (rising 60's) and non-responders to screening. Interventions used were; letter encouragement for rising 60's, staff education to increase opportunistic promotion of screening and calling non- responders to identify reasons for non-participation and encourage participation. Calls were made by either a Doctor or a Health Care Assistant (HCA); ethnicity, language spoken, caller and call outcome was recorded. Rising 60's (n=26) had an uptake of 46%, increased from 32.72%. From the non-responders (n = 73) we were unable to contact 38%, 46% was due to an incorrect or no phone number. Of those contacted main reasons for non-participation were not receiving a screening kit (n=19) and not wanting to be screened (n=14). Following calls 66% of non-responders agreed to screening. From this 66% half (50%) completed screening with a negative result. 15 non-responders refused screening following our calls, the main reason given was not wanting to know if they had cancer (n =14). Calls from doctor and HCA had similar rates of screening uptake (39% and 33% respectively). Difficulty contacting patients was an unexpected barrier to screening and will be addressed. Actively encouraging screening appears beneficial with similar responses to Doctor and HCA. There appears to be a place for increased education regarding screening and early detection of malignancy amongst patients. Overall our interventions improved screening uptake at the practice and will be continued in future.

  8. Anti-diabetic therapies affect risk of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Yeung, Sai-Ching J.; Hassan, Manal M.; Konopleva, Marina; Abbruzzese, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Anti-diabetic drugs have been found to have various effects on cancer in experimental systems and in epidemiological studies, although the association between these therapeutics and the risk of human pancreatic cancer has not been explored. We investigated the effect of anti-diabetic therapies on the risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 2004 through 2008 involving 973 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (including 259 diabetics) and 863 controls (including 109 diabetics). Information on diabetes history and other risk factors was collected by personal interview. The frequencies of use of insulin, insulin secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, metformin and other antidiabetic medications among diabetics were compared between cases and controls. The risk of pancreatic cancer was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results Diabetics that had taken metformin had a significantly lower risk of pancreatic cancer, compared with those that had not taken metformin (OR=0.38; 95% CI, 0.22–0.69; P=0.001) with adjustments for demographic, clinical and risk factors. This difference remained statistically significant when the analysis was restricted to patients with a duration of diabetes >2 years or those never used insulin. In contrast, diabetics that had taken insulin or insulin secretagogues had a significantly higher risk of pancreatic cancer, compared with diabetics that had not take these drugs. Use of thiazolidinediones did not significantly modify pancreatic cancer risk. Conclusions Metformin use was associated with reduced risk, and insulin or insulin secretagogues use were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics. PMID:19375425

  9. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports.

    PubMed

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%-12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer. PMID:21407994

  10. Birth Weight and Subsequent Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Wallace, Robert B; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Robinson, Jennifer G; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wellons, Melissa F; Saftlas, Audrey F; Snetselaar, Linda G; Manson, JoAnn E; Hou, Lifang; Qi, Lihong; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the association between self-reported birth weight and incident cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study cohort, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods 65,850 women reported their birth weight by category (<6 lbs., 6 lbs.–7 lbs. 15 oz., 8 lbs.–9 lbs. 15 oz., and ≥10 lbs.). All self-reported, incident cancers were adjudicated by study staff. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for associations between birth weight and: 1) all cancer sites combined, 2) gynecologic cancers, and 3) several site-specific cancer sites. Results After adjustments, birth weight was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer (p=0.01), and colon cancer (p=0.04). An inverse trend was observed between birth weight and risk for leukemia (p=0.04). A significant trend was not observed with breast cancer risk (p=0.67); however, women born weighing ≥10 lbs. were less likely to develop breast cancer compared to women born between 6 lbs.–7 lbs. 15 oz (aHR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63, 0.94). Conclusion Birth weight category appears to be significantly associated with the risk of any postmenopausal incident cancer, though the direction of the association varies by cancer type. PMID:25096278

  11. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women. PMID:18403857

  12. Multiple primary cancer: an increasing health problem. Strategies for prevention in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    López, M L; Lana, A; Díaz, S; Folgueras, M V; Sánchez, L; Comendador, M A; Belyakova, E; Rodríguez, J M; Cueto, A

    2009-11-01

    This study was set to look for associations between the sites of the first and subsequent tumours in patients with multiple primary cancer (MPC) diagnosed from 1975 to 2002 in the reference hospital of a Spanish northern region, and propose prevention strategies. Patient and tumour variables were measured. Crude and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants were obtained, and the association between MPC incidence and time was analysed by means of lineal regression. Relative risks were calculated to analyse associations between tumour sites. A total of 2737 MPC cases were registered (male/female ratio = 2). The percentage of MPC with respect to the total cancer increased from 1.78% in the 1975-1979 period to 7.08% in the 2000-2002 period (R(2) = 0.92; P = 0.003). Great increase of incidence by time was found (R(2) = 0.90; P = 0.004). Breast, prostate and bladder cancers increase risk of second tumour in female genital organs [RR 4.78 (3.84-5.93)], urinary system [RR 3.69 (2.89-4.69)] and male genital organs [RR 3.76 (2.84-4.69)] respectively. The MPC incidence is increasing. Interventions for MPC prevention, according to the European Code against Cancer, should be implemented early after the first cancer principally if patients suffer breast, bladder, prostate, larynx and colon cancers. PMID:19486126

  13. A meta-analysis on depression and subsequent cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background The authors tested the hypothesis that depression is a possible factor influencing the course of cancer by reviewing prospective epidemiological studies and calculating summary relative risks. Methods Studies were identified by computerized searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO. as well as manual searches of reference lists of selected publications. Inclusion criteria were cohort design, population-based sample, structured measurement of depression and outcome of cancer known for depressed and non-depressed subjects Results Thirteen eligible studies were identified. Based on eight studies with complete crude data on overall cancer, our summary relative risk (95% confidence interval) was 1.19 (1.06–1.32). After adjustment for confounders we pooled a summary relative risk of 1.12 (0.99–1.26). No significant association was found between depression and subsequent breast cancer risk, based on seven heterogeneous studies, with or without adjustment for possible confounders. Subgroup analysis of studies with a follow-up of ten years or more, however, resulted in a statistically significant summary relative risk of 2.50 (1.06–5.91). No significant associations were found for lung, colon or prostate cancer. Conclusion This review suggests a tendency towards a small and marginally significant association between depression and subsequent overall cancer risk and towards a stronger increase of breast cancer risk emerging many years after a previous depression. PMID:18053168

  14. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk. |

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and medication: Cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Tim R A; Wintjens, Dion S J; Jeuring, Steven F G; Wassink, Maartje H H; Romberg-Camps, Marielle J L; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Hameeteman, Wim H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Masclee, Ad A; Jonkers, Daisy M; Pierik, Marie J

    2016-09-15

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed since the mid-1990s (e.g., use of thiopurines/anti-TNFα agents, improved surveillance programs), possibly affecting cancer risk. To establish current cancer risk in IBD, updates are warranted from cohorts covering this time span, and detailed enough to study associations with phenotype and medication. We studied intestinal-, extra-intestinal- and overall cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. In total, 1,157 Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,644 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed between 1991 and 2011, and followed until 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CD and UC separately, as well as for gender-, phenotype-, disease duration-, diagnosis era- and medication groups. We found an increased risk for colorectal cancer in CD patients with colon involvement (SIR 2.97; 95% CI 1.08-6.46), but not in the total CD or UC population. In addition, CD patients were at increased risk for hematologic- (2.41; 1.04-4.76), overall skin- (1.55; 1.06-2.19), skin squamous cell- (SCC; 3.83; 1.83-7.04) and overall cancer (1.28; 1.01-1.60), whereas UC patients had no increased risk for extra-intestinal- and overall cancer. Finally, in a medication analysis on CD and UC together, long-term immunosuppression exposure (>12 months) was associated with an increased risk for hematologic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, SCC and overall cancer, and this increase was mainly attributed to thiopurines. IBD patients with long-term immunosuppression exposure can be considered as having a higher cancer risk, and our data support the advice in recent IBD guidelines to consider skin cancer screening in these patients. PMID:27170593

  16. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  17. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  18. MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met interaction with smoking increase the risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rong; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xueqin; Zhu, Beibei; Lou, Jiao; Li, Jiaoyuan; Shen, Na; Yang, Yang; Gong, Yajie; Zhu, Ying; Yuan, Jing; Xia, Xiaoping; Miao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) has been established as an important mechanism of driving aneuploidy, which occurs at a high frequency in the colorectal tumorigenesis. Two important components of SAC are MAD1L1 and MAD2L1, which function together in an interactive manner to initiate the checkpoint signal. We hypothesize that genetic variants in the binding domains of MAD1L1 and MAD2L1 may modulate protein structures and eventually contribute to CRC susceptibility. A case-control study including 710 CRC cases and 735 controls was performed to examine MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met’s conferring susceptibility to CRC. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were applied to assess the effect of two functional variants on chromosomal instability (CIN). Significant associations with CRC risk were observed for MAD1L1 Arg558His (OR = 1.38,95% CI: 1.09–1.75) and MAD2L1 Leu84Met in a dominant model (OR = 1.48,95% CI: 1.09–2.01). Moreover, significant multiplicative gene-smoking interactions were found in MAD1L1 Arg558His (P = 0.019) and MAD2L184 Leu/Met (P = 0.016) to enhance CRC risk. Additionally, the frequencies of lymphocytic micro-nucleated binucleated cells for MAD1L1 Arg558His polymorphism were significantly different in the exposed group (P = 0.013), but not in the control group. The study emphasized that MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met can significantly interact with smoking to enhance CRC risk, and the genetic effects of MAD1L1Arg558His on CIN need to be further clarified in follow-up studies. PMID:26183163

  19. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  20. Age and cancer risk: a potentially modifiable relationship.

    PubMed

    White, Mary C; Holman, Dawn M; Boehm, Jennifer E; Peipins, Lucy A; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S Jane

    2014-03-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  1. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels. PMID:26335172

  2. Diabetes and cancer II: role of diabetes medications and influence of shared risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2014-01-01

    An association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer has long been postulated, but the biological mechanism responsible for this association has not been defined. In part one of this review, we discussed the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. Here we review the risk factors shared by cancer and DM and how DM medications play a role in altering cancer risk. Hyperinsulinemia stands out as a major factor contributing to the association between DM and cancer, and modulation of circulating insulin levels by DM medications appears to play an important role in altering cancer risk. Drugs that increase circulating insulin, including exogenous insulin, insulin analogs, and insulin secretagogues, are generally associated with an increased cancer risk. In contrast, drugs that regulate insulin signaling without increasing levels, especially metformin, appear to be associated with a decreased cancer risk. In addition to hyperinsulinemia, the effect of DM medications on other shared risk factors including hyperglycemia, obesity, and oxidative stress as well as demographic factors that may influence the use of certain DM drugs in different populations are described. Further elucidation of the mechanisms behind the association between DM, cancer, and the role of DM medications in modulating cancer risk may aid in the development of better prevention and treatment options for both DM and cancer. Additionally, incorporation of DM medication use into cancer prediction models may lead to the development of improved risk assessment tools for diabetic patients. PMID:22527174

  3. Cancer Risk Assessment for Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. This is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within any given clinically normal individual. The radiation health research priorities for enabling long-duration human exploration of space were established in the 1996 NRC Report entitled "Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies". This report emphasized that a 15-fold uncertainty in predicting radiation-induced cancer incidence must be reduced before NASA can commit humans to extended interplanetary missions. That report concluded that the great majority of this uncertainty is biologically based, while a minority is physically based due to uncertainties in radiation dosimetry and radiation transport codes. Since that report, the biologically based uncertainty has remained large, and the relatively small uncertainty associated with radiation dosimetry has increased due to the considerations raised by concepts of microdosimetry. In a practical sense, however, the additional uncertainties introduced by microdosimetry are encouraging since they are in a direction of lowered effective dose absorbed through infrequent interactions of any given cell with the high energy particle component of space radiation. The biological uncertainty in predicting cancer risk for space radiation derives from two primary facts. 1) One animal tumor study has been reported that includes a relevant spectrum of particle radiation energies, and that is the Harderian gland model in mice. Fact #1: Extension of cancer risk from animal models, and especially from a single study in an animal model, to humans is inherently uncertain. 2) One human database

  4. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-11-15

    Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:24723234

  5. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk.

  6. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wu, P C; Lang, J H; Ge, W J; Hartge, P; Brinton, L A

    1992-02-01

    A study in Beijing, China of 112 pathologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 224 age-matched community controls enabled evaluation of risk in relation to reproductive, medical, familial, and selected lifestyle factors. An inverse relationship was observed between the number of full-term pregnancies and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to nulliparous women, subjects with one, two, or three full-term pregnancies were at 50%, 70%, or 90% reduced risks, respectively (P for trend less than 0.01). A positive correlation was found between the number of ovulatory years and risk, with a 2.6-fold increased risk for women with 30 or more compared to less than 10 ovulatory years (P for trend less than 0.01). Infertility, as estimated in various ways, was also found to be an important risk factor. When parity was taken into account, age at first pregnancy was not related to ovarian cancer risk. No protective effect was associated with mumps virus infection. In contrast, risk increased significantly as serum mumps virus antibody titres increased (P for trend less than 0.01). An elevated risk was found in women with a history of long-term (greater than 3 months) application of talc-containing dusting powder to the lower abdomen and perineum (Relative risk 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-10.63). These findings suggest that Chinese women have risk factors similar to those of occidental women. PMID:1544753

  7. Increased MUTYH mutation frequency among Dutch families with breast cancer and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Marijke; Out, Astrid A; Vermeulen, Joyce; Nielsen, Maartje; van den Ouweland, Ans; Tops, Carli M J; Wijnen, Juul T; Vasen, Hans F A; Weiss, Marjan M; Klijn, Jan G M; Devilee, Peter; Hes, Frederik J; Schutte, Mieke

    2010-12-01

    Homozygous and compound heterozygous MUTYH mutations predispose for MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). The clinical phenotype of MAP is characterised by the multiple colorectal adenomas and colorectal carcinoma. We previously found that female MAP patients may also have an increased risk for breast cancer. Yet, the involvement of MUTYH mutations in families with both breast cancer and colorectal cancer is unclear. Here, we have genotyped the MUTYH p.Tyr179Cys, p.Gly396Asp and p.Pro405Leu founder mutations in 153 Dutch families with breast cancer patients and colorectal cancer patients. Families were classified as polyposis, revised Amsterdam criteria positive (FCRC-AMS positive), revised Amsterdam criteria negative (FCRC-AMS negative), hereditary breast and colorectal cancer (HBCC) and non-HBCC breast cancer families. As anticipated, biallelic MUTYH mutations were identified among 13% of 15 polyposis families, which was significantly increased compared to the absence of biallelic MUTYH mutations in the population (P = 0.0001). Importantly, six heterozygous MUTYH mutations were identified among non-polyposis families with breast and colorectal cancer. These mutations were identified specifically in FCRC-AMS negative and in HBCC breast cancer families (11% of 28 families and 4% of 74 families, respectively; P = 0.02 for both groups combined vs. controls). Importantly, the 11% MUTYH frequency among FCRC-AMS negative families was almost fivefold higher than the reported frequencies for FCRC-AMS negative families unselected for the presence of breast cancer patients (P = 0.03). Together, our results indicate that heterozygous MUTYH mutations are associated with families that include both breast cancer patients and colorectal cancer patients, independent of which tumour type is more prevalent in the family. PMID:20191381

  8. Overweight, obesity, oxidative stress and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    There is growing scientific evidence linking excess body weight to breast cancer risk. However, there is no common consensus on this relation due partly to methodologies used, populations studied and the cancer subtype. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of overweight and obesity in pathogenesis of breast cancer and possible mechanisms through which excess body weight might influence the risk, focusing on the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer etiology. The findings demonstrate duality of excess body weight action in dependence on menopausal status: a statistically significant increased risk in postmenopausal overweight/ obese women and non-significant preventive effect among premenopausal women. Due to several gaps in the literature on this topic, additional studies are needed. Future research should address factors influencing the excess body weight - breast cancer relationship, such as race/ethnicity, tumor subtype, receptor status, the most appropriate measure of adiposity, reproductive characteristics, and lifestyle components. PMID:25520070

  9. Latent Tuberculosis Infection and the Risk of Subsequent Cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Yen, Yung-Feng; Pan, Sheng-Wei; Chuang, Pei-Hung; Feng, Jia-Yih; Chou, Kun-Ta; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Wei-Juin

    2016-01-01

    The association of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with subsequent cancer remains unclear. We investigated the risk of future cancer among tuberculosis (TB) contacts with or without subsequent TB activation. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. TB contacts during 1997 to 2012 were included as the study cohort. Patients with antecedent cancer and TB were excluded. Data from 11,522 TB contacts and 46,088 age-, sex-, and enrollment date-matched subjects during 1997 to 2012 were analyzed. The 2 cohorts were monitored until December 31, 2012 for incidence of cancer and TB infection. LTBI was defined as a TB contact with subsequent TB activation. The primary endpoint was occurrence of newly diagnosed cancer. There was no difference in cancer development between the TB contact cohort and comparison cohort (log-rank test, P = 0.714). After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer among the LTBI patients was 2.29 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-4.17; P = 0.007]. There was increase in cancer incidences for several specific cancer types, including multiple myeloma (HR 340.28), lung (HR 2.69), kidney and bladder (HR 6.16), hepatobiliary (HR 2.36), and gastrointestinal (HR 2.99) cancers. None of the 136 TB contacts who received isoniazid prophylaxis developed cancer. LTBI patients had a higher risk of future cancer. PMID:26825880

  10. Dietary microbes modulate transgenerational cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Varian, Bernard J; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lakritz, Jessica R; Mirabal, Sheyla; Kwok, Caitlin; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Kearney, Sean M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors are suspected in the rise of obesity and cancer in industrialized countries but poorly understood. Here we used animal models to test how future generations may be affected by Westernized diets. We discover long-term consequences of grandmothers’ in-utero dietary exposures leading to high rates of obesity and frequent cancers of lung and liver in two subsequent generations of mice. Transgenerational effects were transplantable using diet-associated bacteria communities alone. Consequently, feeding of beneficial microbes was sufficient to lower transgenerational risk for cancer and obesity regardless of diet history. Targeting microbes may be a highly effective population-based approach to lower risk for cancer. PMID:25716681

  11. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  12. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2009-04-15

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (P(trend) = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  13. Insights from epidemiology into dichloromethane and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Bale, Ambuja S

    2011-08-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements. PMID:21909313

  14. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Glinda S.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Bale, Ambuja S.

    2011-01-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements. PMID:21909313

  15. Association Between COX-2 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Fan, Xinyun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yi; Yang, Siyuan; Li, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple relevant risk factors for lung cancer have been reported in different populations, but results of previous studies were not consistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis is necessary to summarize these outcomes and reach a relatively comprehensive conclusion. Material/Methods STATA 12.0 software was used for all statistical of the relationship between COX-2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Inter-study heterogeneity was examined with the Q statistic (significance level at P<0.1). The publication bias among studies in the meta-analysis was analyzed with Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in all controls of the studies. Results COX-2 rs20417 polymorphism had a significant association with reduced risk of lung cancer under homozygous and recessive models, and similar results were observed in white and population-based subgroups under 2 and 3 contrasts, respectively. Additionally, rs2066826 polymorphism manifested a strong correlation with increased risk of lung cancer under 5 genetic models. Conclusions In COX-2 gene, rs20417 may have a certain relationship with reduced risk of lung cancer, while rs2066826 may increase the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26624903

  16. Cancer Risks Associated with External Radiation From Diagnostic Imaging Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Slovis, Thomas L.; Miller, Donald L.; Kleinerman, Ruth; Lee, Choonsik; Rajaraman, Preetha; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    The 600% increase in medical radiation exposure to the US population since 1980 has provided immense benefit, but potential future cancer risks to patients. Most of the increase is from diagnostic radiologic procedures. The objectives of this review are to summarize epidemiologic data on cancer risks associated with diagnostic procedures, describe how exposures from recent diagnostic procedures relate to radiation levels linked with cancer occurrence, and propose a framework of strategies to reduce radiation from diagnostic imaging in patients. We briefly review radiation dose definitions, mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, key epidemiologic studies of medical and other radiation sources and cancer risks, and dose trends from diagnostic procedures. We describe cancer risks from experimental studies, future projected risks from current imaging procedures, and the potential for higher risks in genetically susceptible populations. To reduce future projected cancers from diagnostic procedures, we advocate widespread use of evidence-based appropriateness criteria for decisions about imaging procedures, oversight of equipment to deliver reliably the minimum radiation required to attain clinical objectives, development of electronic lifetime records of imaging procedures for patients and their physicians, and commitment by medical training programs, professional societies, and radiation protection organizations to educate all stakeholders in reducing radiation from diagnostic procedures. PMID:22307864

  17. Predicting cancer risks from dental computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wu, T-H; Lin, W-C; Chen, W-K; Chang, Y-C; Hwang, J-J

    2015-01-01

    Dental computed tomography (CT) has become a common tool when carrying out dental implants, yet there is little information available on its associated cancer risk. The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime-attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence that is associated with the radiation dose from dental CT scans and to evaluate the effect of scan position, sex, and age on the cancer risk. This retrospective cohort study involved 505 participants who underwent CT scans. The mean effective doses for male and female patients in the maxilla group were 408 and 389 µSv (P = 0.055), respectively, whereas the mean effective doses for male and female patients in the mandible groups were 475 and 450 µSv (P < 0.001), respectively. The LAR for cancer incidence after mandible CT scanning varied from 1 in 16,196 for a 30-y-old woman to 1 in 114,680 for a 70-y-old man. The organ-specific cancer risks for thyroid cancer, other cancers, leukemia, and lung cancer account for 99% of the LAR. Among patients of all ages, the estimated LAR of a mandible scan was higher than that of a maxilla scan. Furthermore, the LAR for female thyroid cancer had a peak before age 45 y. The risk for a woman aged 30 y is roughly 8 times higher than that of a woman aged 50 y. After undergoing a dental CT scan, the possible cancer risks related to sex and age across various different anatomical regions are not similar. The greatest risk due to a dental CT scan is for a mandible scan when the woman is younger than 45 y. Given the limits of the sample size, machine parameters, and the retrospective nature of this study, the results need to be interpreted within the context of this patient population. Future studies will be of value to corroborate these findings. PMID:25359782

  18. Risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Grant, Eric J; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    Late health effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation have been evaluated in survivors. A cohort of 120 321 people has been followed since 1950 for mortality, including the cause of death using the Japanese population registry system (Life Span Study), and for cancer incidence using population-based cancer registries. Findings have included a markedly increased risk of leukaemia several years after the exposure, increased risk of various malignant tumours several decades after the exposure and, more recently, findings of increased rates of non-cancer diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21502293

  19. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  20. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectal Cancer Home Page Colon and Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to ... corresponding to answers “medications that do not contain aspirin unknown" (page 4 of 7). Things to know ...

  2. Increased DHT levels in androgenic alopecia have been selected for to protect men from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia, a condition characterized by increased levels of DHT could have been selected for due to the benefits that prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)) has on the prostate. A DHT metabolite can increase the transcription of prostaglandin D2 synthase through estrogen receptor beta. The increase of PGD(2) can decrease the risk of prostate cancer and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, the mechanisms behind male pattern baldness may also curtail the advancement of prostate cancer. PMID:24548754

  3. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the study were published online June 23 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . SOURCES: Lindsay Kohler, doctoral student, epidemiology, Mel ... nutritional epidemiology, American Cancer Society; June 23, 2016, Cancer Epidemiology, ... Prevention HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  4. Bone mineral density and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Debjani; Cooke, Andrew L; Lix, Lisa; Metge, Colleen; Lu, Huimin; Leslie, William D

    2011-04-01

    To determine if higher bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for breast cancer in women age 50 years and older. 37,860 women ≥ 50-year old with no previous breast cancer diagnosis had baseline BMD assessment between January 1999 and December 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were created for time to a new breast cancer as a function of lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD quartile (1st = lowest as reference) with adjustment for relevant covariates. A secondary analysis was performed to look for an association with estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancers. 794 invasive and in situ breast cancers (484 ER-positive) occurred with a median follow up of 5.4 years. Increased breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd and 4th quartiles of lumbar spine BMD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.16-1.81), respectively and for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.07-1.64). A test for linear trend showed that lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.001) and femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04) were associated with increased risk. Higher lumbar spine BMD was also associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer with HR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08-1.94), and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.24-2.27) for women in the 2nd and 4th quartiles, respectively. A test for linear trend showed lumbar spine BMD was associated with increasing risk of ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.003). Increased ER-positive breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.89). Higher lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with higher risk of breast cancer in women ≥50-year old. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:20838879

  5. Weight Loss Might Reduce Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence in the jigsaw of the benefits of losing weight, and how important weight loss is to ... Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. In general, losing weight reduces the risk of breast, colon and ...

  6. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures. PMID:1835869

  7. The readability of online breast cancer risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Sarah; Milbrandt, Melissa; Kaphingst, Kimberly; James, Aimee; Colditz, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Numerous breast cancer risk assessment tools that allow users to input personal risk information and obtain a personalized breast cancer risk estimate are available on the Internet. The goal of these tools is to increase screening awareness and identify modifiable health behaviors; however, the utility of this risk information is limited by the readability of the material. We undertook this study to assess the overall readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and accompanying information, as well as to identify areas of suggested improvement. We searched for breast cancer risk assessment tools, using five search terms, on three search engines. All searches were performed on June 12, 2014. Sites that met inclusion criteria were then assessed for readability using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the SMOG readability formula (July 1, 2014–January 31, 2015). The primary outcomes are the frequency distribution of overall SAM readability category (superior, adequate, or not suitable) and mean SMOG reading grade level. The search returned 42 sites were eligible for assessment, only 9 (21.4 %) of which achieved an overall SAM superior rating, and 27 (64.3 %) were deemed adequate. The average SMOG reading grade level was grade 12.1 (SD 1.6, range 9–15). The readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and the sites that host them is an important barrier to risk communication. This study demonstrates that most breast cancer risk assessment tools are not accessible to individuals with limited health literacy skills. More importantly, this study identifies potential areas of improvement and has the potential to heighten a physician’s awareness of the Internet resources a patient might navigate in their quest for breast cancer risk information. PMID:26475705

  8. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution. PMID:23924644

  9. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health. PMID:26700034

  10. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Livaudais, Jennifer; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Romieu, Isabelle; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12. METHODS A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol. PMID:20155314

  11. Childbearing Recency and Modifiers of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B.; Huang, Yifan; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Anic, Gabriella; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer for women in relation to childbearing recency, and whether this association differs by breastfeeding history and/or the amount of weight gained during pregnancy. This analysis was based on data from a population-based case-control study comprised of 1,706 incident cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,756 population controls from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In a telephone interview conducted from 1996 to 2001, information was gathered on established breast cancer risk factors, as well as reproductive history, including amount of weight gained during the last full-term pregnancy, and whether or not the child was breast-fed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Wald 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of breast cancer. When compared to nulliparous women, women that had given birth within the past 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis in the cases or a comparable period in controls had a non-significant 35% increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 0.90–2.04) adjusting for age and known breast cancer risk factors (p trend = 0.14). We did not find a significant interaction with breast-feeding (p for interaction = 0.30) or pregnancy weight gain (p for interaction = 0.09). PMID:18990773

  12. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  13. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  14. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  15. The Distinct Role of Comparative Risk Perceptions in a Breast Cancer Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Ubel, Peter A.; Smith, Dylan M.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Nair, Vijay; Derry, Holly A.; Zhang, Aijun; Pitsch, Rosemarie K.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; McClure, Jennifer B.; Fagerlin, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative risk perceptions may rival other types of information in terms of effects on health behavior decisions. Purpose We examined associations between comparative risk perceptions, affect, and behavior while controlling for absolute risk perceptions and actual risk. Methods Women at an increased risk of breast cancer participated in a program to learn about tamoxifen which can reduce the risk of breast cancer. Women reported comparative risk perceptions of breast cancer and completed measures of anxiety, knowledge, and tamoxifen-related behavior intentions. Three months later, women reported their behavior. Results Comparative risk perceptions were positively correlated with anxiety, knowledge, intentions, and behavior three months later. After controlling for participants’ actual risk of breast cancer and absolute risk perceptions, comparative risk perceptions predicted anxiety and knowledge, but not intentions or behavior. Conclusions Comparative risk perceptions can affect patient outcomes like anxiety and knowledge independently of absolute risk perceptions and actual risk information. PMID:21698518

  16. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; de Vroome, Ernest; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jacob J; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Shipley, Martin J; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Dragano, Nico; Rugulies, Reiner; Kawachi, Ichiro; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working ⩾55 h per week was associated with 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval 1.12–2.29) increase in female breast cancer risk independently of age, socioeconomic position, shift- and night-time work and lifestyle factors, but this observation may have been influenced by residual confounding from parity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that working long hours is unrelated to the overall cancer risk or the risk of lung, colorectal or prostate cancers. The observed association with breast cancer would warrant further research. PMID:26889978

  17. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  18. Minimizing second cancer risk following radiotherapy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ng, John; Shuryak, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Secondary cancer risk following radiotherapy is an increasingly important topic in clinical oncology with impact on treatment decision making and on patient management. Much of the evidence that underlies our understanding of secondary cancer risks and our risk estimates are derived from large epidemiologic studies and predictive models of earlier decades with large uncertainties. The modern era is characterized by more conformal radiotherapy technologies, molecular and genetic marker approaches, genome-wide studies and risk stratifications, and sophisticated biologically based predictive models of the carcinogenesis process. Four key areas that have strong evidence toward affecting secondary cancer risks are 1) the patient age at time of radiation treatment, 2) genetic risk factors, 3) the organ and tissue site receiving radiation, and 4) the dose and volume of tissue being irradiated by a particular radiation technology. This review attempts to summarize our current understanding on the impact on secondary cancer risks for each of these known risk factors. We review the recent advances in genetic studies and carcinogenesis models that are providing insight into the biologic processes that occur from tissue irradiation to the development of a secondary malignancy. Finally, we discuss current approaches toward minimizing the risk of radiation-associated secondary malignancies, an important goal of clinical radiation oncology. PMID:25565886

  19. NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... increases cancer risk remains unclear. Researchers suspect that DNA methylation, or the binding of chemical tags, called methyl groups, onto DNA, may be involved. Methyl groups activate or silence ...

  20. Association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 446 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shu-Zhe; Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Yu, Jun-hua; Liu, Li; Wang, Wei; Xie, Dao-Lin; Qin, Jiang-Bo

    2015-11-01

    Many molecular epidemiological studies have been performed to explore the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and cancer risk in diverse populations. However, the results were inconsistent. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer risk and MTHFR C677T (150,086 cases and 200,699 controls from 446 studies) polymorphism. Overall, significantly increased cancer risk was found when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In the further stratified and sensitivity analyses, significantly increased breast cancer risk was found in Asians and Indians, significantly decreased colon cancer risk was found, significantly decreased colorectal cancer risk was found in male population, significantly increased gastric cancer risk was found in Caucasians and Asians, significantly increased hepatocellular cancer risk was found in Asians, significantly decreased adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AALL) risk was found in Caucasians, significantly decreased childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CALL) risk was found in Asians, and significantly increased multiple myeloma and NHL risk was found in Caucasians. In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased breast cancer, gastric cancer, and hepatocellular cancer risk in Asians, is associated with increased gastric cancer, multiple myeloma, and NHL risk in Caucasians, is associated with decreased AALL risk in Caucasians, is associated with decreased CALL risk in Asians, is associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asians, is associated with decreased colon cancer risk, and is associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk in male population. Moreover, this meta-analysis also points out the importance of new studies, such as Asians of HNC, Asians of lung cancer, and Indians of breast cancer, because they had high heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I(2) > 75%). PMID:26081619

  1. Population Cancer Risks Associated with Coal Mining: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Wiley D.; Christian, W. Jay; Mueller, Georgia; Robbins, K. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Coal is produced across 25 states and provides 42% of US energy. With production expected to increase 7.6% by 2035, proximate populations remain at risk of exposure to carcinogenic coal products such as silica dust and organic compounds. It is unclear if population exposure is associated with increased risk, or even which cancers have been studied in this regard. Methods We performed a systematic review of English-language manuscripts published since 1980 to determine if coal mining exposure was associated with increased cancer risk (incidence and mortality). Results Of 34 studies identified, 27 studied coal mining as an occupational exposure (coal miner cohort or as a retrospective risk factor) but only seven explored health effects in surrounding populations. Overall, risk assessments were reported for 20 cancer site categories, but their results and frequency varied considerably. Incidence and mortality risk assessments were: negative (no increase) for 12 sites; positive for 1 site; and discordant for 7 sites (e.g. lung, gastric). However, 10 sites had only a single study reporting incidence risk (4 sites had none), and 11 sites had only a single study reporting mortality risk (2 sites had none). The ecological study data were particularly meager, reporting assessments for only 9 sites. While mortality assessments were reported for each, 6 had only a single report and only 2 sites had reported incidence assessments. Conclusions The reported assessments are too meager, and at times contradictory, to make definitive conclusions about population cancer risk due to coal mining. However, the preponderance of this and other data support many of Hill’s criteria for causation. The paucity of data regarding population exposure and risk, the widespread geographical extent of coal mining activity, and the continuing importance of coal for US energy, warrant further studies of population exposure and risk. PMID:23977014

  2. Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts.

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, A; Ozonoff, D; Coogan, P; Vezina, R; Heeren, T; Zhang, Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the relationship between cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted. Cases, diagnosed during 1983 through 1986 among residents of the Upper Cape Cod area of Massachusetts, involved incident cancers of the lung (n = 252), breast (n = 265), colon-rectum (n = 326), bladder (n = 63), kidney (n = 35), pancreas (n = 37), and brain (n = 37), along with leukemia (n = 35). Control subjects were randomly selected from among telephone subscribers (n = 184), Medicare beneficiaries (n = 464), and deceased individuals (n = 723). RESULTS: No meaningful increases in risk were seen for any of the cancer sites except for the brain. When latency was considered, subjects who had ever lived within 2600 ft (780 m) of a cranberry bog had a twofold increased risk of brain cancer overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8, 4.9) and a 6.7-fold increased risk of astrocytoma (95% CI = 1.6, 27.8). CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to cranberry bog cultivation was not associated with seven of the eight cancers investigated; however, an association was observed with brain cancer, particularly astrocytoma. Larger, more detailed studies are necessary to elucidate this relationship. PMID:8806382

  3. Fertility drugs and the risk of breast and gynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Louise A; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Scoccia, Bert

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of cancer risk among patients treated for infertility is complex, given the need to consider indications for use, treatment details, and the effects of other factors (including parity status) that independently affect cancer risk. Many studies have had methodologic limitations. Recent studies that have overcome some of these limitations have not confirmed a link between drug use and invasive ovarian cancers, although there is still a lingering question as to whether borderline tumors might be increased. It is unclear whether this merely reflects increased surveillance. Investigations regarding breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. In contrast, an increasing number of studies suggest that fertility drugs may have a special predisposition for the development of uterine cancers, of interest given that these tumors are recognized as particularly hormonally responsive. Additional studies are needed to clarify the effects on cancer risk of fertility drugs, especially those used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization. Because many women who have received such treatments are still relatively young, further monitoring should be pursued in large well-designed studies that enable assessment of effects within a variety of subgroups defined by both patient and disease characteristics. PMID:22549713

  4. Risk of second primary cancer after treatment for esophageal cancer: a pooled analysis of nine cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G; Chen, Y; Zhu, Z; Lu, L; Bi, X; Deng, Q; Chen, X; Su, H; Liu, Y; Guo, H; Zheng, T; Yu, H; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    The introduction of new treatments for esophageal cancer including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of these modalities has not only improved patient survival, but may also increase the risk of the second primary cancers. The available evidence is conflicting with most risk estimates based on sparse numbers. Here we estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of second cancer among 24,557 esophageal cancer survivors (at least 2 months) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2007, who had been followed up for median 6.5 years (range 2 months-29.3 years). Second cancer risk was statistically significantly elevated (SIR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.25-1.42) among the survivors compared with the general population; the SIRs for cancers of oral and pharynx, stomach, small intestine, larynx, lung and bronchus, thyroid and prostate cancer were 8.64 (95% CI = 7.36-10.07), 2.87 (95% CI = 2.10-3.82), 3.80 (95% CI = 1.82-7.00), 3.19 (95% CI = 2.12-4.61), 1.68 (95% CI = 1.46-1.93), 2.50 (95% CI = 1.25-4.47), and 0.77 (95% CI = 0.65-0.90), respectively. Radiotherapy raised cancer risk of larynx (SIR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.43-6.14) and thyroid (SIR = 3.57, 95% CI = 1.54-7.03) among all esophageal cancer survivors. For patients who had 5-9 years of follow up after radiotherapy, the SIR for lung cancer was 3.46 (95% CI = 2.41-4.82). Patients with esophageal cancer are at increased risks of second cancers of oral and pharynx, larynx, lung, and thyroid, while at a decreased risk for prostate cancer. These findings indicate that radiotherapy for esophageal cancer patients may increase risk of developing second cancers of larynx, lung, and thyroid. Thus, randomized clinical trials to address the association of radiotherapy and the risk of secondary cancer are warranted. PMID:22067063

  5. [Cancer morbidity risks among workers of asbestos-cement productions].

    PubMed

    Nagornaia, A M; Varivonchik, D V; Kundiev, Iu I; Fedorenko, Z P; Gorokh, E L; Gulak, L O; Vitte, P N; Karakashian, A N; Lepeshkina, T R; Martynovskaia, T Iu

    2008-01-01

    The retrospective assessment of morbidity rates and cancer pathology risks in workers of asbestosis-cement enterprises of Ukraine has been made. It was established that annual cancer morbidity among workers makes 88,1 per 100 000 of workers (RR = 0.26, CI 95 % 0.06-1.01). The most often cancer pathology was located in digestive organs (48.1%), respiratory organs (18.5%) (lung cancer--11.1%). The mesothelioma of pleura, peritoneum and pericardium were not found. The risks (odds ratio--OR) of cancer morbidity were increased for such organs as: respiratory organs (OR = 2.37), skin (OR = 1.78), digestive organs (OR = 1.34). PMID:18467971

  6. Ovulation inducing agents and cancer risk: review of literature.

    PubMed

    Impicciatore, Gianna Gabriella; Tiboni, Gian Mario

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decades, the use of ovulation inducing drugs has been increasing. A possible causal link between fertility treatments (especially clomiphene citrate and gonadotrophins) and various types of malignancies, including cancers of female reproductive system, thyroid cancer and melanoma, has been postulated. The majority of the available studies on this subject suffers from methodological limitations, including the small number of outcomes, short and incomplete follow-up, and inability to control for potential confounders. Concerning ovarian cancer, while early studies led to the suggestion of an association between ovulation inducing agents and increased risk of malignancies, the majority of data do not support a causal link. An increased risk was recently observed in women giving birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF), but it appeared to be consequential to the infertile status rather than the effect of fertility drugs. More controversial are the results concerning breast cancer with some investigations suggesting an increased risk after exposure to ovulation inducing agents, especially clomiphene citrate, whereas others not supporting this concept. A possible trend towards an increased risk has been reported by some authors for endometrial cancer. Altogether, current data should be thus regarded as a signal for the need of further studies rather than being definitive in them. PMID:22129320

  7. Association Between Cd Exposure and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ju-Kun, Song; Yuan, Dong-Bo; Rao, Hao-Fu; Chen, Tian-Fei; Luan, Bo-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fu-Neng; Zhong, Wei-De; Zhu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several observational studies on the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer have yielded inconsistent results. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Relevant studies in PubMed and Embase databases were retrieved until October 2015. We compared the highest and lowest meta-analyses to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. In the general population, high Cd exposure was not associated with increased prostate cancer (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.91–1.64), whereas the combined standardized mortality ratio of the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer was 1.66 (95% CI 1.10–2.50) in populations exposed to occupational Cd. In addition, high D-Cd intake (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.96–1.20) and U-Cd concentration (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.48–1.55) among the general population was not related to the increased risk of prostate cancer. In the dose analysis, the summary relative risk was 1.07 (95% CI 0.73–1.57) for each 0.5 μg/g creatinine increase in U-Cd and 1.02 (95% CI 0.99–1.06) for each 10 μg/day increase of dietary Cd intake. However, compared with nonoccupational exposure, high occupational Cd exposure may be associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer. This meta-analysis suggests high Cd exposure as a risk factor for prostate cancer in occupational rather than nonoccupational populations. However, these results should be carefully interpreted because of the significant heterogeneity among studies. Additional large-scale and high-quality prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between Cd exposure and risk of prostate cancer. PMID:26871808

  8. Risk and Surveillance of Cancers in Primary Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hrad, Valery; Abebe, Yoftahe; Ali, Syed Haris; Velgersdyk, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary diseases have been associated in several studies with various malignancies. Understanding the risk and optimizing surveillance strategy of these malignancies in this specific subset of patients are an important facet of clinical care. For instance, primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma (which is very challenging to diagnose) and when IBD is present for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis patients with cirrhosis or not responding to 12 months of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review we will discuss in detail the risks and optimal surveillance strategies for patients with primary biliary diseases. PMID:27413366

  9. Reducing Your Risk of Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the following areas: •Lung • Breast (see FAQ178 “Mammography and Screening for Breast Problems” ) • Colon and rectum • ... Tests Type of Cancer Test or Exam Breast Mammography Cancer of the cervix* Pap test Co-testing ( ...

  10. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals ... in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, ...

  11. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  12. Breast cancer risk in mothers of twins.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M. F.; Broeders, M. J.; Carpenter, L. M.; Gunnarskog, J.; Leon, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    The risk of breast cancer associated with delivering a twin birth was examined in a population-based nested case-control study of nearly 4800 Swedish women with breast cancer and 47000 age-matched control subjects. All were aged less than 50 years and parous. After adjustment for age at first birth and parity, a 29% reduction in breast cancer risk was observed in mothers of twins relative to those who were not (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.91). These results provide evidence that women who bear twins are at reduced risk of breast cancer, one explanation for which may be their unusual levels of hormonal exposure. PMID:9083344

  13. Cancer risks in second-generation immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun

    2002-05-10

    We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyze cancer risks in Sweden-born descendants of immigrants from European and North American countries. Our study included close to 600,000 0-66-year-old descendants of an immigrant father or mother. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 17 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. All cancer was marginally below the Swedish incidence in offspring of immigrant origin. Decreased SIRs were observed for breast cancer among Norwegian descendants, melanoma among descendants of Hungarian fathers and ovarian and bladder cancer among descendents of Finnish mothers, all consistent with the difference in cancer incidence between Swedes and the indigenous populations. Cervical cancer was increased in daughters of Danish men, whereas thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were in excess in offspring of parents of Yugoslav and Asian descent. Even these results agreed with the high incidence rates in parents compared to Swedes, except that for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma other explanations are needed; these may be related to immune malfunction. Comparison of the results between the first- and the second-generation immigrants suggest that the first 2 decades of life are important in setting the pattern for cancer development in subsequent life. Birth in Sweden sets the Swedish pattern for cancer incidence, irrespective of the nationality of descent, while entering Sweden in the 20s is already too late to influence the environmentally imprinted program for the cancer destiny. PMID:11979438

  14. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  15. Cancer trends and risk factors in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Farazi, Paraskevi A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyprus, a European Union member state, is a small island in the Mediterranean with a population approaching 900,000 people. Cancer is the second leading cause of death; more therapeutic options for any patient with the disease are available in a central oncology centre in the capital of the island (Nicosia) and fewer therapeutic options (e.g. chemotherapy and hormone therapy only) in a few other public hospitals. Palliative care is offered in several hospices and hospitals, although the field needs improvement. With regards to screening, a national breast cancer screening programme has been in place countrywide since 2007 and is offered free of charge to women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, while colorectal and prostate cancer screening is performed on an individual basis (a pilot programme for colorectal cancer screening was recently initiated). Genetic testing is available for breast and colon cancer. To improve understanding of the causes of cancer in the country, a cancer research centre was established in 2010 (Mediterranean Centre for Cancer Research). Recent epidemiologic work has revealed increasing cancer trends in Cyprus; prostate cancer is the most common in men and breast cancer is the most common in women. Interestingly, thyroid cancer incidence in women has been rising from 1998 to 2008. Cancer of the colon and rectum is also on the rise affecting both sexes. Overall, cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than other EuroMed countries with similar lifestyle and geography. PMID:24678344

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, unprotected exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor ... in the stomach and intestine while they are teenagers. They also have a high risk of cancer, ...

  17. Will supplemental screening ultrasound increase breast cancer overdiagnosis?

    PubMed

    Molleran, Virginia M

    2015-08-01

    Overdiagnosis refers to the detection of cancers that would never come to light in a patient's lifetime and are only identified by means of screening. Exactly how much overdiagnosis currently exists with screening mammography is uncertain. Because we do not know for certain which tumors would ultimately lead to death if left untreated and which would not, we cannot directly measure overdiagnosis and how best to estimate it is a matter of controversy. A conservative estimate of overdiagnosis with mammography would be on the order of 10%, but estimates have ranged as high as 54%. We know from multiple studies that ultrasound (US) screening mostly detects small, invasive, node-negative cancers; and in the ACRIN 6666 study, there was a greater tendency for US-only-detected tumors to be low grade than those detected with mammography. However, the population of patients undergoing screening US can be expected to differ from the average screening mammography population in that they will have higher breast density, they will be younger, and they may also have higher breast cancer risk than the population undergoing screening mammography. These factors may be associated with more aggressive tumors. There is no way to know whether we will be increasing overdiagnosis without performing a large randomized controlled study with very long-term follow-up. Even if some cancers are overdiagnosed with US, there will be a greater proportion of lethal breast cancers that are successfully treated because of screening US. The more important task is to learn how to correctly diagnose and appropriately treat nonlethal cancers. PMID:26100187

  18. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Cancer.gov

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  19. Cancer risks from exposure to radon in homes.

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, O

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products in mines is a well recognized risk of lung cancer in miners. A large number of epidemiologic studies from various countries are quite consistent in this respect even it the magnitude of the risk differs according to exposure levels. Indoor radon became a concern in the 1970s and about a dozen studies have been conducted since 1979, mainly of the case-control design. From first being of a simple pilot character, the designs have become increasingly sophisticated, especially with regard to exposure assessment. Crude exposure estimates based on type of house, building material and geological features have been supplemented or replaced by quite extensive measurements. Still, exposure assessment remains a difficult and uncertain issue in these studies, most of which indicate a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. Also a recent large scale study has confirmed a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. More recently there are also some studies, mainly of the correlation type, suggesting other cancers also to be related to indoor radon, especially leukemia, kidney cancer, and malignant melanoma, and some other cancers as well. The data are less consistent and much more uncertain than for indoor radon and lung cancer, however; and there is no clear support from studies of miners in this respect. PMID:7614945

  20. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Methods used to estimate the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure must take into consideration the variability of dose to different areas of the body and the individual factors that may contribute to increased risk, including skin pigment and synergistic effects from combined ionizing and UV exposure. We have estimated the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions using: (1) the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, (2) epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and (3) models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding for 5260 skin loci. We have estimated that the probability for increased skin cancer risk from solar particle events varies more than 10-fold depending on the individual and area of skin exposed. We show that a skin cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color following exposure to medium or large class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from exposure to galactic cosmic rays during Mars missions.

  1. Germline Mutations in HOXB13 and Prostate-Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Charles M.; Ray, Anna M.; Lange, Ethan M.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Robbins, Christiane M.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Johng, Dorhyun; Wang, Yunfei; Bizon, Chris; Yan, Guifang; Gielzak, Marta; Partin, Alan W.; Shanmugam, Vijayalakshmi; Izatt, Tyler; Sinari, Shripad; Craig, David W.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Walsh, Patrick C.; Montie, James E.; Xu, Jianfeng; Carpten, John D.; Isaacs, William B.; Cooney, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, although the molecular basis for this association is poorly understood. Linkage studies have implicated chromosome 17q21-22 as a possible location of a prostate-cancer susceptibility gene. METHODS We screened more than 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region by sequencing germline DNA from 94 unrelated patients with prostate cancer from families selected for linkage to the candidate region. We tested family members, additional case subjects, and control subjects to characterize the frequency of the identified mutations. RESULTS Probands from four families were discovered to have a rare but recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 (rs138213197), a homeobox transcription factor gene that is important in prostate development. All 18 men with prostate cancer and available DNA in these four families carried the mutation. The carrier rate of the G84E mutation was increased by a factor of approximately 20 in 5083 unrelated subjects of European descent who had prostate cancer, with the mutation found in 72 subjects (1.4%), as compared with 1 in 1401 control subjects (0.1%) (P = 8.5×10−7). The mutation was significantly more common in men with early-onset, familial prostate cancer (3.1%) than in those with late-onset, nonfamilial prostate cancer (0.6%) (P = 2.0×10−6). CONCLUSIONS The novel HOXB13 G84E variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of hereditary prostate cancer. Although the variant accounts for a small fraction of all prostate cancers, this finding has implications for prostate-cancer risk assessment and may provide new mechanistic insights into this common cancer. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:22236224

  2. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  3. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  4. Be smart against cancer! A school-based program covering cancer-related risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that most school-age children are poorly informed about cancer risk factors. This study examines the effectiveness of the ‘Be smart against cancer’ (BSAC) program in promoting cancer awareness and intentions to engage in health-promoting behavior. Methods 235 seventh-grade students were randomized to either the intervention (N = 152) or the wait-control group (N = 83). The intervention included the modules: “What is cancer?,” “Sun protection,” “Non smoking,” and “Physical activity, Healthy nutrition, and Limited alcohol consumption.” Outcomes measured at baseline and at the end of the one week BSAC program included knowledge of cancer and its behavioral risk factors, health-promoting intentions, and reported risk behavior. Results BSAC was effective in increasing knowledge about cancer and risk factors for cancer (p < .001), as well as in increasing intentions to engage in health-promoting behavior (p < .001), independent of a student’s risk profile. Knowledge did not serve as a mediator for intention building. Conclusions The BSAC is an effective school-based program for raising awareness of cancer, associated risk factors and intentions to engage in cancer-preventive behavior. The results indicate that the effectiveness of BSAC is independent of a student’s risk profile. Therefore, it holds considerable promise as a broadly applicable program to raise cancer awareness and promote healthy behavior intentions. PMID:24758167

  5. Testing different formats for communicating colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, I M; Crawford, Y; Fenn, K; Biradavolu, M; Binder, R A; Marcus, A; Mason, M

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which different formats of informing men and women age 50 and over of the risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) affected their perceptions of their absolute and comparative (self versus other) 10-year and lifetime risks; emotional reactions about getting CRC; and screening intentions. Forty-four men and 78 women received information about the absolute lifetime risk of getting CRC. In addition, participants either did or did not receive information about (1) lifetime risk of getting CRC compared with other cancers, and (2) risk factors for CRC (age and polyps). Participants who received risk factors information were more likely to increase their perceived absolute 10-year and lifetime risks of getting CRC compared with participants who did not receive risk factors information. In addition, participants who received risk factors information were more likely to believe age was related to getting CRC and felt at greater risk for having polyps compared with participants who did not receive this information. None of the experimental conditions affected how worried, anxious, and fearful participants felt about getting CRC, nor did they affect screening intentions. Independent of experimental condition, participants tended to increase their intentions to get screened for CRC in the next year or two. Intention to be screened was more pronounced among participants who had been screened via a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or sigmoidoscopy (SIG). Implications for the design of interventions involving the communication of CRC risks are discussed. PMID:10790787

  6. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the Risk of Prostate Cancer and Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyu; Fang, Xiangming; Ma, Ying; Xianyu, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been suggested to be a risk factor for certain urologic cancers, but the current evidence is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BPH and urologic cancers. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for potential eligible studies. We included case-control studies or cohort studies, which evaluated the association between BPH and urologic cancers (including prostate cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, or penile cancer). Overall effect estimates were calculated using the DerSimonian–Laird method for a random-effects model. Summary effect-size was calculated as risk ratio (RR), together with the 95% confidence interval (CI). This systematic review included 16 case-control studies and 10 cohort studies evaluating the association of BPH and prostate or bladder cancer; we did not identify any study about other urologic cancers. Meta-analyses demonstrated that BPH was associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (case-control study: RR = 3.93, 95% CI = 2.18–7.08; cohort-study: RR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.00–1.99) and bladder cancer (case-control study: RR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.63–3.84; cohort-study: RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.28–1.95). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the association between BPH and prostate cancer was much stronger in Asians (RR = 6.09, 95% CI = 2.96–12.54) than in Caucasians (RR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.19–2.01). Egger's tests indicated low risk of publication bias (prostate cancer: P = 0.11; bladder cancer: P = 0.95). BPH is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and bladder cancer. The risk of prostate cancer is particularly high in Asian BPH patients. Given the limitations of included studies, additional prospective studies with strict design are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27149447

  7. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is heating. The ability of microwave ovens to heat food is one example of this effect of ...

  8. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead researcher Lindsay Kohler, a doctoral student in epidemiology at the University of Arizona's Mel and Enid ... benefit, said Marjorie McCullough, strategic director of nutritional epidemiology for the American Cancer Society. "The benefits really ...

  9. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8–10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:20693267

  10. [Folate and breast cancer risk: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Castillo-L, Cecilia; Tur, Josep A; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    An increased folate intake may be beneficial in deficient populations. However, in women with adequate levels it may not deliver additional benefits while it may increase the risk for some forms of cancer. A systematic literature review of benefits or risks of folate in the development of breast cancer was performed using MEDLINE, systematic review of selected articles and references of the selected articles looking specifically at serum folate levels, dietary folate intake or total folate intake and the risk of developing breast cancer. Fourteen case-control studies, fourteen cohort studies, seven case-control nested studies, two randomized trials and two meta-analyses were selected for analysis based on pre-established criteria. The reviewed evidence does not support the hypothesis that higher intakes of dietary folate reduce the risk for breast cancer. Some studies showed a higher risk of breast cancer in populations exposed to high folate intake post fortification, especially when folic acid is used. The results support the need to be cautious and to limit the exposure of women to high intakes of folic acid, especially in countries with mandatory food fortification. PMID:22739957

  11. Risks of Lynch Syndrome Cancers for MSH6 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Baglietto, Laura; Dowty, James G.; White, Darren M.; Wagner, Anja; Gomez Garcia, Encarna B.; Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; Cartwright, Nicola R.; Barnetson, Rebecca A.; Farrington, Susan M.; Tenesa, Albert; Hampel, Heather; Buchanan, Daniel; Arnold, Sven; Young, Joanne; Walsh, Michael D.; Jass, Jeremy; Macrae, Finlay; Antill, Yoland; Winship, Ingrid M.; Giles, Graham G.; Goldblatt, Jack; Parry, Susan; Suthers, Graeme; Leggett, Barbara; Butz, Malinda; Aronson, Melyssa; Poynter, Jenny N.; Baron, John A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Haile, Robert; Gallinger, Steve; Hopper, John L.; Potter, John; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vasen, Hans F.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Jenkins, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in MSH6 account for 10%–20% of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers caused by hereditary DNA mismatch repair gene mutations. Because there have been only a few studies of mutation carriers, their cancer risks are uncertain. Methods We identified 113 families of MSH6 mutation carriers from five countries that we ascertained through family cancer clinics and population-based cancer registries. Mutation status, sex, age, and histories of cancer, polypectomy, and hysterectomy were sought from 3104 of their relatives. Age-specific cumulative risks for carriers and hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer risks of carriers, compared with those of the general population of the same country, were estimated by use of a modified segregation analysis with appropriate conditioning depending on ascertainment. Results For MSH6 mutation carriers, the estimated cumulative risks to ages 70 and 80 years, respectively, were as follows: for colorectal cancer, 22% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 32%) and 44% (95% CI = 28% to 62%) for men and 10% (95% CI = 5% to 17%) and 20% (95% CI = 11% to 35%) for women; for endometrial cancer, 26% (95% CI = 18% to 36%) and 44% (95% CI = 30% to 58%); and for any cancer associated with Lynch syndrome, 24% (95% CI = 16% to 37%) and 47% (95% CI = 32% to 66%) for men and 40% (95% CI = 32% to 52%) and 65% (95% CI = 53% to 78%) for women. Compared with incidence for the general population, MSH6 mutation carriers had an eightfold increased incidence of colorectal cancer (HR = 7.6, 95% CI = 5.4 to 10.8), which was independent of sex and age. Women who were MSH6 mutation carriers had a 26-fold increased incidence of endometrial cancer (HR = 25.5, 95% CI = 16.8 to 38.7) and a sixfold increased incidence of other cancers associated with Lynch syndrome (HR = 6.0, 95% CI = 3.4 to 10.7). Conclusion We have obtained precise and accurate estimates of both absolute and relative

  12. Cancer risks in naval divers with multiple exposures to carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elihu D; Friedman, Lee S; Tamir, Yuval; Berman, Tamar; Levy, Or; Westin, Jerome B; Peretz, Tamar

    2003-01-01

    We investigated risks for cancer and the case for a cause-effect relationship in five successive cohorts of naval commando divers (n = 682) with prolonged underwater exposures (skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airways) to many toxic compounds in the Kishon River, Israel's most polluted waterway, from 1948 to 1995. Releases of industrial, ship, and agricultural effluents in the river increased substantially, fish yields decreased, and toxic damage to marine organisms increased. Among the divers (16,343 person-years follow-up from 18 years of age to year 2000), the observed/expected ratio for all tumors was 2.29 (p<0.01). Risks increased in cohorts first diving after 1960 compared to risks in earlier cohorts, notably for hematolymphopoietic, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, and skin cancer; induction periods were often brief. The findings suggest that the increases in risk for cancer and short induction periods resulted from direct contact with and absorption of multiple toxic compounds. Early toxic effects in marine life predicted later risks for cancer in divers. PMID:12676624

  13. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process

    PubMed Central

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  14. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  15. Korean Risk Assessment Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Methods Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. Results The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878). The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women. PMID:24204664

  16. The Childhood Incidents That Increase Later Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents That Increase Later Suicide Risk Exposure to domestic violence, abuse cast a long shadow, study finds To ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Adults who witnessed parental domestic violence in childhood are at increased risk for suicide ...

  17. Obesity as an Important Risk Factor for Certain Types of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossain; Malek-Shahabi, Talieh; Malekshahi-Moghadam, Ali; Shahbazi, Roghieh; Esmaeili, Saeideh

    2013-01-01

    Cancer could be described as the uncontrolled and unrestricted growth of malignant cells in any place of the body. It is a multifactorial disease which either heredity or environmental factors (such as nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol, obesity, exposure to sun, environmental pollutants, infections) chip in incidence of cancer. In recent years, several researchers have focused on obesity as a potent cancer risk factor. Scientificevidences have suggested that obesity has associated with increased risk for a plenty of different types of cancer. The evidences are the most consistent for endometrial cancer, breast cancer between the postmenopausal women, and renal cell cancer. More contradictoryresults have reported about the colorectal, prostate, and pancreatic cancer. Although numerous studies have done according to the obesity and cancer relation or joint, but the molecular mechanisms in which obesity could increase the risks of cancer, have been poorly understood. PMID:25250133

  18. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks. PMID:19123106

  19. Progesterone receptor gene variants and risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Tracy A.; Fahey, Paul; Ferguson, Kaltin; Marquart, Louise; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Czene, Kamila; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Ahmed, Shahana; Dunning, Alison M.; Gregory, Catherine S.; Shah, Mitul; Webb, Penelope M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged excessive estrogen exposure unopposed by progesterone is widely accepted to be a risk factor for endometrial cancer development. The physiological function of progesterone is dependent upon the presence of its receptor [progesterone receptor (PGR)] and several studies have reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PGR gene to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. We sought to confirm the associations with endometrial cancer risk previously reported for four different PGR polymorphisms. A maximum of 2888 endometrial cancer cases and 4483 female control subjects from up to three studies were genotyped for four PGR polymorphisms (rs1042838, rs10895068, rs11224561 and rs471767). Logistic regression with adjustment for age, study, ethnicity and body mass index was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values. Of the four SNPs investigated, only rs11224561 in the 3′ region of the PGR gene was found to be significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk. The A allele of the rs11224561 SNP was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer (OR per allele 1.31; 95% CI 1.12–1.53, P = 0.001, adjusted for age and study), an effect of the same magnitude and direction as reported previously. We have validated the endometrial cancer risk association with a tagSNP in the 3′ untranslated region of PGR previously reported in an Asian population. Replication studies will be required to refine the risk estimate and to establish if this, or a correlated SNP, is the underlying causative variant. PMID:21148628

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  1. Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Gold, E B; Gordis, L; Diener, M D; Seltser, R; Boitnott, J K; Bynum, T E; Hutcheon, D F

    1985-01-15

    The findings of a case - control study of cancer of the pancreas, which was conducted in the Baltimore metropolitan area, are reported. Two hundred one patients with pancreatic cancer were matched on age (+/- 5 years), race, and sex to hospital and non-hospital controls, the latter selected by random-digit-dialing (RDD). All subjects were interviewed regarding diet, beverage consumption, occupational and environmental exposures, and medical and surgical history. Significantly decreased risks were associated with consumption of raw fruits and vegetables and diet soda, and significantly increased risks were associated with consumption of white bread when cases were compared with hospital and RDD controls. A significantly reduced risk was associated with consumption of wine when cases were compared to RDD controls. Risk ratios for consumption of coffee were not significantly different from one, although there appeared to be a dose - response relationship in women. A moderate but statistically nonsignificant increase in relative odds was found for cigarette smoking, and cessation of smoking was associated with a marked reduction in risk. No significant associations were found with particular occupational exposures. Tonsillectomy was associated with a significantly reduced risk, a finding that has been observed for other cancers as well. The current evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is likely to result from a complex interaction of factors and suggests that the study of its etiology requires a multidisciplinary approach involving both laboratory and epidemiologic components. PMID:3965101

  2. Perceived and objective breast cancer risk assessment in Chilean women living in an underserved area

    PubMed Central

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Püschel, Klaus; Martinez, Javiera; Anderson, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Beti

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among Chilean women and an increasingly significant public health threat. This study assessed the accuracy of breast cancer risk perception among underserved, Chilean women. Methods Women aged 50 to 70 years, with no mammogram during the last two years, were randomly selected from a community clinic registry in Santiago, Chile (n=500). Perceived risk was measured using three methods: absolute risk, comparative risk and numerical risk. Risk comprehension was measured by comparing women’s perceived and objective risk estimates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess overestimation of perceived risk. Results Women at high risk of breast cancer were more likely than average risk women to perceive themselves at high or higher risk, using absolute and comparative risk approaches (p<0.001). The majority of participants (67%) overestimated their breast cancer risk, based on risk comprehension; although, participants achieved higher accuracy with comparative risk (40%) and absolute risk (31.6%) methods. [Age, breast cancer knowledge and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) 5-year risk were significantly associated (p<0.01) with accuracy of perceived risk]. Conclusion Chilean women residing in an underserved community may not accurately assess their breast cancer risk, though risk perception and level of accuracy differed between perceived risk measures. Comparative and absolute risk methods may better reflect women’s interpretation and accuracy of risk perception. Impact Improving our understanding of Chilean women’s perceptions of developing breast cancer may lead to the development of culturally relevant efforts to reduce the breast cancer burden in this population. PMID:22837144

  3. Alcohol Intake and Cigarette Smoking and Risk of a Contralateral Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Leslie; Largent, Joan; Capanu, Marinela; Begg, Colin B.; Mellemkjær, Lene; Lynch, Charles F.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Reiner, Anne S.; Liang, Xiaolin; Haile, Robert W.; Boice, John D.; Bernstein, Jonine L.

    2009-01-01

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study (1985–2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). Cases and controls aged less than 55 years at first breast cancer diagnosis were identified from 5 population-based cancer registries in the United States and Denmark. Controls were matched to cases on birth year, diagnosis year, registry region, and race and countermatched on radiation treatment. Risk factor information was collected by telephone interview. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Ever regular drinking was associated with an increased risk of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.6), and the risk increased with increasing duration (P = 0.03). Smoking was not related to asynchronous contralateral breast cancer. In this, the largest study of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer to date, alcohol is a risk factor for the disease, as it is for a first primary breast cancer. PMID:19211621

  4. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... siblings, or children Gene changes (mutations) in certain genes (rare) African American or Ashkenazi Jews (people of Eastern European Jewish descent) Type II diabetes Diet high in red and processed meats Physical inactivity Obesity Smoking Heavy alcohol use How to Reduce Your Risk Some risk ...

  5. Risk of Second Primary Cancer among Prostate Cancer Patients in Korea: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Young; Lim, Jiwon; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Cho, Hyunsoon; Kim, Sung Han; Seo, Ho Kyung; Park, Weon Seo; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun; Won, Young-Joo

    2015-01-01

    As patients with prostate cancer have a long life expectancy, there is increasing interest in predicting the risk of development of a second primary cancer (SPC), and we therefore designed this study to estimate the overall risk of developing SPCs among Korean prostate cancer patients. We used a population-based cohort from the Korean Central Cancer Registry composed of 55,378 men diagnosed with a first primary prostate cancer between 1993 and 2011. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPCs were analyzed by age at diagnosis, latency period, period of diagnosis, and type of initial treatment. Survival analysis was stratified by development of SPC. Men with primary prostate cancer had an overall lower risk of developing an SPC [SIR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72−0.78], which was significant for SPCs of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, pancreas, larynx, lung, and bronchus. In contrast, there were significant increases in the risk of bladder and thyroid cancers, which tended to decrease after longer follow-up. Patients who received initial radiation therapy had an increased risk of subsequent rectal cancer, although this was still lower than that of the general male population. Other urinary tract cancers including those of the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter tended to be associated with a higher risk of developing an SPC, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The patients with prostate cancer and SPC had lower overall survival rates than those with one primary prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that men with prostate cancer have a 25% lower risk of developing an SPC in Korea, but a higher risk of developing subsequent bladder and thyroid cancers, which suggests the need for continued cancer surveillance among prostate cancer survivors. PMID:26469085

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yeqiong; He, Bangshun; Pan, Yuqin; Deng, Qiwen; Sun, Huiling; Li, Rui; Gao, Tianyi; Song, Guoqi; Wang, Shukui

    2014-05-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) can influence cancer susceptibility through binding to vitamin D. However, the previous studies were contradictory. Therefore this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the association between VDR polymorphisms (BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI) and cancer risk. One hundred twenty-six studies were enrolled through PubMed. For VDR BsmI polymorphism, significantly increased cancer risks were observed in the overall analysis. In the further stratified analysis, increased risks were observed in colorectal and skin cancer, especially in Caucasian population. However, no significant associations were observed in other VDR polymorphisms in the overall analysis. In the further subgroup analysis, increased risks were found in oral, breast, and basal cell cancer while decreased risk was found in prostate cancer in t allele carriers of TaqI polymorphism. For VDR FokI polymorphism, increased risks were found in ovarian and skin cancer while decreased risk in glioma in f allele carriers. For VDR ApaI polymorphism, increased risk was observed in basal cell cancer, especially in Asian population in a allele carriers. In conclusion, these results indicated that b allele of BamI polymorphism was a risk factor for cancer susceptibility. Meanwhile, t allele of TaqI polymorphism was a risk factor for oral, breast, and basal cell cancer and a protective factor for prostate cancer. Moreover, f allele of FokI polymorphism was a risk factor for ovarian and skin cancer and a protective factor for glioma. Finally, a allele of ApaI polymorphism was a risk factor for basal cell cancer in Asian population. PMID:24408013

  7. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2015-02-01

    cancer risks in prostate cancer survivors by approximately 3 cases per 1000 after 15 years. Despite concerns about the neutron doses, we did not find evidence that higher energy therapy was associated with increased second cancer risks.

  8. Association between Socioeconomic Factors and Cancer Risk: A Population Cohort Study in Scotland (1991-2006)

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Katharine H.; McMahon, Alex D.; Raab, Gillian M.; Brewster, David H.; Conway, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances and routinely measured using area socioeconomic indices. We investigated effect of country of birth, marital status, one area deprivation measure and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education, occupational social class, car ownership, household tenure) on risk associated with lung, UADT and all cancer combined (excluding non melanoma skin cancer). Methods We linked Scottish Longitudinal Study and Scottish Cancer Registry to follow 203,658 cohort members aged 15+ years from 1991–2006. Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression models by sex offset for person-years of follow-up. Results 21,832 first primary tumours (including 3,505 lung, 1,206 UADT) were diagnosed. Regardless of cancer, economically inactivity (versus activity) was associated with increased risk (male: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.18; female: RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11). For lung cancer, area deprivation remained significant after full adjustment suggesting the area deprivation cannot be fully explained by individual variables. No or non degree qualification (versus degree) was associated with increased lung risk; likewise for UADT risk (females only). Occupational social class associations were most pronounced and elevated for UADT risk. No car access (versus ownership) was associated with increased risk (excluding all cancer risk, males). Renting (versus home ownership) was associated with increased lung cancer risk, UADT cancer risk (males only) and all cancer risk (females only). Regardless of cancer group, elevated risk was associated with no education and living in deprived areas. Conclusions Different and independent socioeconomic variables are inversely associated with different cancer risks in both sexes; no one socioeconomic variable captures all aspects of socioeconomic circumstances or life course. Association of multiple

  9. Does Migraine Increase the Risk of Glaucoma?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated whether migraine influences the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in Taiwan. We retrieved the data analyzed in this study from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 17,606 newly diagnosed migraine patients without preexisting glaucoma and randomly selected and matched 70,423 subjects without migraine as the comparison cohort. The same exclusion criteria were also applied to comparison subjects. Multivariate Cox proportion-hazards regression model was used to assess the effects of migraines on the risk of glaucoma after adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities. The cumulative incidence of POAG was higher in the migraine cohort than that in the comparison cohort (log-rank P = 0.04). The overall incidence of POAG (per 10,000 person-years) was 9.62 and 7.69, respectively, for migraine cohort and nonmigraine cohort (crude hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.54). After adjusting the covariates, the risk of POAG was not significantly higher in the migraine cohort than in the comparison cohort (adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.93–1.42). The cumulative incidence of PACG did not differ between the migraine cohort and the comparison cohort (log-rank test P = 0.53). The overall incidence of PACG was not significantly higher in the migraine cohort than that in the comparison cohort (7.42 vs 6.84 per 10,000 person-years), with an aHR of 1.04 (95% CI = 0.82–1.32). This study shows that migraines are not associated with a higher risk either in POAG or in PACG. PMID:27175700

  10. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.; and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  11. Cancer prevention strategies greatly exaggerate risks

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N. ); Gold, L.S. )

    1991-01-07

    This paper reports on the attempt to prevent cancer by regulating low levels of synthetic chemicals by risk assessment. Testing chemicals for carcinogenicity at near-toxic doses in rodents does not provide enough information to predict the excess numbers of human cancers that might occur at low-dose exposures. In addition, this cancer prevention strategy is enormously costly, is counterproductive because it diverts resources from much more important risks, and, in the case of synthetic pesticides, makes fruits and vegetables more expensive, thus serving to decrease consumption of foods that help prevent cancer. The regulatory process doesn't take into account that: The world of natural chemicals makes up the vast bulk of chemicals humans are exposed to. The toxicology of synthetic and natural toxins is not fundamentally different. About half the natural chemicals tested chronically in rats and mice at the maximum tolerated dose are carcinogens. Testing at the maximum tolerated dose frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement (a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses), and ignoring this greatly exaggerates risks. An extrapolation from high to low doses should be based on an understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

  12. Genetic risk profiles for cancer susceptibility and therapy response.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Helmut; Dally, Heike; Popanda, Odilia; Risch, Angela; Schmezer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Cells in the body are permanently attacked by DNA-reactive species, both from intracellular and environmental sources. Inherited and acquired deficiencies in host defense mechanisms against DNA damage (metabolic and DNA repair enzymes) can modify cancer susceptibility as well as therapy response. Genetic profiles should help to identify high-risk individuals who subsequently can be enrolled in preventive measures or treated by tailored therapy regimens. Some of our attempts to define such risk profiles are presented. Cancer susceptibility: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metabolic and repair genes were investigated in a hospital-based lung cancer case-control study. When evaluating the risk associated with different genotypes for N-acetyltransferases (Wikman et al. 2001) and glutathione-S-transferases (Risch et al. 2001), it is mandatory to distinguish between the three major histological subtypes of lung tumors. A promoter polymorphism of the myeloperoxidase gene MPO was shown to decrease lung cancer susceptibility mainly in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (Dally et al. 2002). The CYP3A4*1B allele was also linked to an increased SCLC risk and in smoking women increased the risk of lung cancer eightfold (Dally et al. 2003b). Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes were shown to modulate lung cancer risk in smokers, and reduced DNA repair capacity elevated the disease risk (Rajaee-Behbahani et al. 2001). Investigations of several DNA repair gene variants revealed that lung cancer risk was only moderately affected by a single variant but was enhanced up to approximately threefold by specific risk allele combinations (Popanda et al. 2004). Therapy response: Inter-individual differences in therapy response are consistently observed with cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Initial results from ongoing studies showed that certain polymorphisms in drug transporter genes (ABCB1) differentially affect response outcome in histological subgroups of lung cancer. Stronger

  13. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  14. Breast cancer risk in MEN1 - a cancer genetics perspective.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The tumour spectrum associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been known for many years. New data suggest that females with MEN1 may face an additional, hitherto unrecognized, risk of early-onset breast cancer. The menin protein is certainly known to have a role in regulating oestrogen receptor activity; but how robust are the data linking MEN1 to breast cancer? This article examines the published data from the viewpoint of a cancer geneticist and considers whether there really is a justifiable indication for enhanced breast surveillance in women with MEN1. PMID:25279812

  15. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  16. Association between ERCC5 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Na, Nari; Dun, Eer; Ren, Lidong; Li, Guoxin

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between ERCC5 polymorphism and breast cancer risk. 325 breast cancer patients and 325 controls were recruited in our study between January 2011 and March 2014. ERCC5 rs1047768, rs2094258, rs2296147, rs751402 and rs873601 polymorphisms were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. By logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals with AA genotype of rs2094258 was associated with increased risk of breast cancer when compared with wide-type genotype, and the OR (95% CI) was 1.80 (1.12-2.92) for AA genotype. Individuals with GA+GG genotype of rs2094258 were significantly correlated with increased risk of breast cancer in tobacco smokers, and the OR (95% CI) was 7.35 (1.21-47.20). In conclusion, our study indicated that ERCC5 rs2094258 polymorphism may contribute to the risk of breast cancer. PMID:26045839

  17. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  18. Oral progestagens before menopause and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, A; Fournier, A; Mesrine, S; Desreux, J; Gompel, A; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between use of progestagen-only before menopause (except for mini-pills) after the age of 40 and invasive breast cancer risk in 73 664 women from the French E3N cohort study (mean age at start of follow-up, 51.8 years; mean duration of follow-up, 9.1 years). A total of 2390 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Risk estimates were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. Overall, ever use of progestagen before menopause was not significantly associated with risk (relative risk (RR): 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.93–1.11). However, we observed a significant increase in risk associated with the duration of use (P-value for trend: 0.012), current use of progestagens for longer than 4.5 years being significantly associated with risk (RR: 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–2.00). Prolonged use of progestagens after the age of 40 may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and the subject needs to be investigated further. PMID:17299388

  19. Coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Talamini, R; Decarli, A; Franceschi, S; Parazzini, F; Tognoni, G

    1986-09-01

    The relationship of breast cancer to coffee drinking habits was evaluated in a case-control study of 616 women with breast cancer and 616 control subjects with nonmalignant disorders, apparently unrelated to coffee consumption. Compared with women who had never drunk coffee, the relative risk estimates for those women who drank less than two, two or three, and four or more cups each day were 1.5, 1.3, and 1.0, respectively. There was no apparent association with duration of consumption or use of other methylxanthine-containing beverages. The results were not modified by several potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer. The findings suggest that coffee consumption does not increase the risk of malignant neoplasms of the breast. PMID:3738766

  20. Genetic tests to identify risk for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Julie; Venne, Vickie; Berse, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the currently available genetic tests that identify hereditary risk for breast cancer. Data sources Systematic review of scientific literature, clinical practice guidelines, and data published by test manufacturers. Conclusion Changes in gene patent laws and advances in sequencing technologies have resulted in rapid expansion of genetic testing. While BRCA1/2 are the most recognized genes linked to breast cancer, several laboratories now offer multi-gene panels to detect many risk-related mutations. Implication for Nursing Practice Genetic testing will be increasingly important in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. Oncology and advanced practice nurses need to understand risk factors, significance of various genetic tests, and patient counseling. PMID:25951739

  1. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  2. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  3. Insulin secretion as a determinant of pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-08-01

    New epidemiology confirms that glucose intolerance is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and that this association cannot be accounted for by an adverse impact of early pancreatic cancer on beta cell function. Previous reports indicate that risk for pancreatic cancer is increased in adult-onset diabetics. Since streptozotocin diabetes inhibits carcinogen-mediated induction of pancreatic cancer in hamsters, the most reasonable interpretation of these findings is that insulin (or some other beta cell product) acts as a promoter for pancreatic carcinogenesis. This view is consistent with a report that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas express insulin receptors that can stimulate mitosis; an additional possibility is that high insulin levels indirectly promote pancreatic carcinogenesis by boosting effective IGF-I activity via hepatic actions. In international ecologic epidemiology, pancreatic cancer rates correlate tightly with dietary intake of animal products; this may reflect the fact that vegan diets are associated with low diurnal insulin secretion. There is also suggestive evidence that macrobiotic vegan diets, which are low in glycemic index, may increase mean survival time in pancreatic cancer. However, other types of diets associated with decreased postprandial insulin response, such as high-protein diets or 'Mediterranean' diets high in oleic acid, may also have the potential for pancreatic cancer prevention. The huge increases of age-adjusted pancreatic cancer mortality in Japan and among African-Americans during the last century imply that pancreatic cancer is substantially preventable; a low-insulin-response diet coupled with exercise training, weight control, and smoking avoidance, commendable for a great many other reasons, may slash pancreatic cancer mortality dramatically. PMID:11461162

  4. Cancer risks in Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, K; Li, X

    2002-12-01

    Numerous migrant studies on cancer have been carried out, but little data are available on cancer incidence upon inter-European migration. We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risk among Nordic immigrants and their offspring in Sweden. The parental population had entered Sweden in their 20s and they had become parents in Sweden. Finns were the largest immigrant group including approximately 183,000 parents and 278,000 offspring. We calculated the standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 90 or 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 26 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Cancers in the first generation immigrants followed the rates in the countries of origin, reaching high SIRs for tobacco-related, cervical and testicular cancer among Danes and for stomach cancer among Finns. Only a few cancers, such as cervical cancer was increased in the second generation. At many sites, particularly among the Finns, protection was observed in the first generation. At three sites, breast, ovary and urinary bladder, where plausible evidence for protection was found even among offspring, this was not reinforced among the offspring of compatriot parents, which is inconsistent with heritable effects. Protection against melanoma was strongest among the offspring of compatriots, but the contribution of cultural factors cannot be excluded. As the parents immigrated to Sweden in their 20s, their cancer pattern, including habits and life style, appeared to be set before that age because the differences to Swedes persisted even in cancers that predominate in old age. Immigrant populations would appear to be attractive subjects to study etiological factors of cancer at sites where causes remain poorly understood, such as testicular cancer. PMID:12460788

  5. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  6. Cancer risks in painters: study based on the New Zealand Cancer Registry.

    PubMed Central

    Bethwaite, P B; Pearce, N; Fraser, J

    1990-01-01

    Painters are exposed to a range of complex chemical mixtures which include organic solvents and dye products with known carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. Trade painters or those manufacturing paints and coatings have increased rates of non-malignant diseases and cancers; including lung cancer, acute leukaemia, bladder cancer, and cancers of the oesophagus, larynx, biliary system, liver, skin, and large bowel. A series of case-control studies of painters, based on the New Zealand Cancer Registry, are presented. These concerned 19,904 male patients registered for the period 1980-4 who were aged 20 or older at the time of registration. For each cancer site studied, the registrants for all other cancer sites formed the control group. Three cancer sites were associated with work as a painter--namely, bladder tumours (odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00-2.31), kidney and other urothelial tumours (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.85-2.50), and multiple myeloma (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.05-3.65). Risks for multiple myeloma were greater among car or spray painters and signwriters (OR 2.81) compared with construction and general painters (OR 1.80). No increased risk was found for leukaemia or for respiratory, biliary, skin, or gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:2245185

  7. Cancer risks in painters: study based on the New Zealand Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Bethwaite, P B; Pearce, N; Fraser, J

    1990-11-01

    Painters are exposed to a range of complex chemical mixtures which include organic solvents and dye products with known carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. Trade painters or those manufacturing paints and coatings have increased rates of non-malignant diseases and cancers; including lung cancer, acute leukaemia, bladder cancer, and cancers of the oesophagus, larynx, biliary system, liver, skin, and large bowel. A series of case-control studies of painters, based on the New Zealand Cancer Registry, are presented. These concerned 19,904 male patients registered for the period 1980-4 who were aged 20 or older at the time of registration. For each cancer site studied, the registrants for all other cancer sites formed the control group. Three cancer sites were associated with work as a painter--namely, bladder tumours (odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00-2.31), kidney and other urothelial tumours (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.85-2.50), and multiple myeloma (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.05-3.65). Risks for multiple myeloma were greater among car or spray painters and signwriters (OR 2.81) compared with construction and general painters (OR 1.80). No increased risk was found for leukaemia or for respiratory, biliary, skin, or gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:2245185

  8. Microdosimetric considerations of lung cancer risks from plutonium.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jack A

    2015-03-01

    New data from the workers at the Mayak nuclear facility near Chelyabinsk, Russia, apparently show a linear increase in the risk of lung cancer with increasing dose. Furthermore, this increase occurs without a threshold. However, these conclusions are at variance with the results reported by other investigators. A possible cause of these inconsistencies could be the lack of application of microdosimetric considerations when discussing "dose" to the lung. PMID:25627951