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Sample records for increased inflammatory gene

  1. Bactericidal Permeability Increasing Protein Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in the Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Can, Güray; Akın, Hakan; Özdemir, Filiz T.; Can, Hatice; Yılmaz, Bülent; Eren, Fatih; Atuğ, Özlen; Ünsal, Belkıs; Hamzaoğlu, Hülya O.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease, a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology, affects the small and large bowel at different levels. It is increasingly considered that innate immune system may have a central position in the pathogenesis of the disease. As a part of the innate immune system, bactericidal permeability increasing protein has an important role in the recognition and neutralization of gram-negative bacteria. The aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of bactericidal permeability increasing protein gene polymorphism (bactericidal permeability increasing protein Lys216Glu) in inflammatory bowel disease in a large group of Turkish patients. Patients and Methods: The present study included 528 inflammatory bowel disease patients, 224 with Crohn's disease and 304 with ulcerative colitis, and 339 healthy controls. Results: Bactericidal permeability increasing protein Lys216Glu polymorphism was found to be associated with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (P = 0.0001). The frequency of the Glu/Glu genotype was significantly lower in patients using steroids and in those with steroid dependence (P = 0.012, OR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.94; P = 0.0286, OR, 0.75; 95% CI: 0.66-0.86, respectively). There was no other association between bactericidal permeability increasing protein gene polymorphism and phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions: Bactericidal permeability increasing protein Lys216Glu polymorphism is associated with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This is the first study reporting the association of bactericidal permeability increasing protein gene polymorphism with steroid use and dependence in Crohn's disease. PMID:26228368

  2. Childhood and later life stressors and increased inflammatory gene expression at older ages.

    PubMed

    Levine, M E; Cole, S W; Weir, D R; Crimmins, E M

    2015-04-01

    Adverse experiences in early life have the ability to "get under the skin" and affect future health. This study examined the relative influence of adversities during childhood and adulthood in accounting for individual differences in pro-inflammatory gene expression in late life. Using a pilot-sample from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 114) aged from 51 to 95, OLS regression models were run to determine the association between a composite score from three proinflammatory gene expression levels (PTGS2, ILIB, and IL8) and 1) childhood trauma, 2) childhood SES, 3) childhood health, 4) adult traumas, and 5) low SES in adulthood. Our results showed that only childhood trauma was found to be associated with increased inflammatory transcription in late life. Furthermore, examination of interaction effects showed that childhood trauma exacerbated the influence of low SES in adulthood on elevated levels of inflammatory gene expression-signifying that having low SES in adulthood was most damaging for persons who had experienced traumatic events during their childhood. Overall our study suggests that traumas experienced during childhood may alter the stress response, leading to more sensitive reactivity throughout the lifespan. As a result, individuals who experienced greater adversity in early life may be at higher risk of late life health outcomes, particularly if adulthood adversity related to SES persists. PMID:25658624

  3. Gene expression analysis of tuberous sclerosis complex cortical tubers reveals increased expression of adhesion and inflammatory factors

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Karin; Crino, Peter B.; Gorter, Jan A.; Nellist, Mark; Jansen, Floor E.; Spliet, Wim G.M.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Wittink, Floyd R.A.; Breit, Timo M.; Troost, Dirk; Wadman, Wytse J.; Aronica, Eleonora

    2009-01-01

    Cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are associated with disabling neurological manifestations, including intractable epilepsy. While these malformations are believed to result from the effects of TSC1 or TSC2 gene mutations, the molecular mechanisms leading to tuber formation, as well as the onset of seizures remain largely unknown. We used the Affymetrix Gene Chip platform to provide the first genome wide investigation of gene expression in surgically resected tubers, compared with histological normal perituberal tissue from the same patients or autopsy control tissue. We identified 2501 differentially expressed genes in cortical tubers compared with autopsy controls. Expression of genes associated with cell adhesion e.g., VCAM1, integrins and CD44, or with the inflammatory response, including complement factors, serpinA3, CCL2 and several cytokines, was increased in cortical tubers, whereas genes related to synaptic transmission e.g., the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1, and voltage-gated channel activity, exhibited lower expression. Gene expression in perituberal cortex was distinct from autopsy control cortex suggesting that even in the absence of tissue pathology the transcriptome is altered in TSC. Changes in gene expression yield insights into new candidate genes that may contribute to tuber formation or seizure onset, representing new targets for potential therapeutic development. PMID:19912235

  4. RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Labadorf, Adam; Hoss, Andrew G.; Lagomarsino, Valentina; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Hadzi, Tiffany C.; Bregu, Joli; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Akbarian, Schahram; Weng, Zhiping; Myers, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confidently detected genes are differentially expressed (FDR<0.05) and are predominantly up-regulated. A novel hypothesis-free geneset enrichment method that dissects large gene lists into functionally and transcriptionally related groups discovers that the differentially expressed genes are enriched for immune response, neuroinflammation, and developmental genes. Markers for all major brain cell types are observed, suggesting that HD invokes a systemic response in the brain area studied. Unexpectedly, the most strongly differentially expressed genes are a homeotic gene set (represented by Hox and other homeobox genes), that are almost exclusively expressed in HD, a profile not widely implicated in HD pathogenesis. The significance of transcriptional changes of developmental processes in the HD brain is poorly understood and warrants further investigation. The role of inflammation and the significance of non-neuronal involvement in HD pathogenesis suggest anti-inflammatory therapeutics may offer important opportunities in treating HD. PMID:26636579

  5. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-01

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 C. GBS expressed cylE (?-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 C than at 28 C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1? and TNF-?) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality. PMID:24856132

  6. Type 2 Diabetes Monocyte MicroRNA and mRNA Expression: Dyslipidemia Associates with Increased Differentiation-Related Genes but Not Inflammatory Activation

    PubMed Central

    Balden R., Lucy; Weigelt, Karin; de Wit, Harm; Ozcan, Behiye; van Oudenaren, Adri; Semprtegui, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric; Grosse, Laura; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue are involved in insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Due to a relative paucity of data on circulating monocytes in T2D, it is unclear whether the inflammatory changes of adipose tissue macrophages are reflected in these easily accessible cells. Objective To study the expression pattern of microRNAs and mRNAs related to inflammation in T2D monocytes. Design A microRNA finding study on monocytes of T2D patients and controls using array profiling was followed by a quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) study on monocytes of an Ecuadorian validation cohort testing the top over/under-expressed microRNAs. In addition, monocytes of the validation cohort were tested for 24 inflammation-related mRNAs and 2 microRNAs previously found deregulated in (auto)-inflammatory monocytes. Results In the finding study, 142 significantly differentially expressed microRNAs were identified, 15 having the strongest power to discriminate T2D patients from controls (sensitivity 66%, specificity 90%). However, differences in expression of these microRNAs between patients and controls were small. On the basis of >1.4 or <0.6-fold change expression 5 microRNAs were selected for further validation. One microRNA (miR-34c-5p) was validated as significantly over-expressed in T2D monocytes. In addition, we found over expression of 3 mRNAs (CD9, DHRS3 and PTPN7) in the validation cohort. These mRNAs are important for cell morphology, adhesion, shape change, and cell differentiation. Classical inflammatory genes (e.g. TNFAIP3) were only over-expressed in monocytes of patients with normal serum lipids. Remarkably, in dyslipidemia, there was a reduction in the expression of inflammatory genes (e.g. ATF3, DUSP2 and PTGS2). Conclusions The expression profile of microRNAs/mRNAs in monocytes of T2D patients indicates an altered adhesion, differentiation, and shape change potential. Monocyte inflammatory activation was only found in patients with normal serum lipids. Abnormal lipid values coincided with a reduced monocyte inflammatory state. PMID:26083362

  7. Deletion of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 increases ischemic brain damage after transient focal ischemia by altering gene expression patterns and enhancing inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Bryan A; Mehta, Suresh L; Pratt, Serena M; Warden, Craig H; Li, P Andy

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial hyperpolarization inhibits the electron transport chain and increases incomplete reduction of oxygen, enabling production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The consequence is mitochondrial damage that eventually causes cell death. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inner mitochondrial membrane proteins that dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient by transporting H+ across the inner membrane, thereby stabilizing the inner mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing the formation of ROS. The role of UCP2 in neuroprotection is still in debate. This study seeks to clarify the role of UCP2 in transient focal ischemia (tFI) and to further understand the mechanisms of ischemic brain damage. Both wild-type and UCP2-knockout mice were subjected to tFI. Knocking out UCP2 significantly increased the infarct volume to 61% per hemisphere as compared with 18% in wild-type animals. Knocking out UCP2 suppressed antioxidant, cell-cycle, and DNA repair genes, including Sod1 and Sod2, Gstm1, and cyclins. Furthermore, knocking out UCP2 significantly upregulated the protein levels of the inflammatory cytokines, including CTACK, CXCL16, Eotaxin-2, fractalkine, and BLC. It is concluded that knocking out the UCP2 gene exacerbates neuronal death after cerebral ischemia with reperfusion and this detrimental effect is mediated by alteration of antioxidant genes and upregulation of inflammatory mediators. PMID:20407461

  8. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-activated Gene (NAG-1/GDF15) Expression Is Increased by the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Kamitani, Hideki; Watanabe, Takashi; Eling, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) is a putative tumor suppressor whose expression can be increased by drug treatment. Glioblastoma is the most common central nervous system tumor, is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and responds poorly to surgical, chemical, and radiation therapy. The histone deacetylase inhibitors are under current consideration as therapeutic agents in treating glioblastoma. We investigated whether trichostatin A (TSA) would alter the expression of NAG-1 in glioblastoma cells. The DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-dC did not increase NAG-1 expression, but TSA up-regulated NAG-1 expression and acted synergistically with 5-aza-dC to induce NAG-1 expression. TSA indirectly increases NAG-1 promoter activity and increases NAG-1 mRNA and protein expression in the T98G human glioblastoma cell line. TSA also increases the expression of transcription factors Sp-1 and Egr-1. Small interfering RNA experiments link NAG-1 expression to apoptosis induced by TSA. Reporter gene assays, specific inhibition by small interfering RNA transfections, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that Egr-1 and Sp-1 mediate TSA-induced NAG-1 expression. TSA also increases the stability of NAG-1 mRNA. TSA-induced NAG-1 expression involves multiple mechanisms at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:18801729

  9. Targeted rejection predicts decreased anti-inflammatory gene expression and increased symptom severity in youth with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael Liam; Slavich, George; Chen, Edith; Miller, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Although responses to stress are sometimes assumed to be similar across different stressors, recent research has demonstrated that certain types of stress, such as targeted rejection, are particularly impactful. To test such associations in a chronic disease model, we examined how non-interpersonal, interpersonal, and targeted rejection life events predicted changes in gene expression and symptom severity in 121 youth with asthma who were assessed every 6 months for 2 years. Youth who recently experienced targeted rejection had less mRNA for signaling molecules that control airway inflammation and obstruction, specifically the glucocorticoid receptor and β2-adrenergic receptor. These associations were specific to targeted rejection and stronger for higher-status youth. Higher-status youth exposed to targeted rejection (but not other types of stress) also exhibited more asthma symptoms. These data demonstrate stressor-specific associations with molecular signaling pathways and asthma disease severity, and suggests threats to the social self may be particularly deleterious. PMID:25564524

  10. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Insights into Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzo, Michele; Missiroli, Filippo; Borgiani, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Cusumano, Andrea; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ricci, Federico; Giardina, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old). AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension). In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species) have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2) that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines), immune cells (macrophages), and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:25478207

  11. Age-related macular degeneration: insights into inflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Raffaella; Ragazzo, Michele; Strafella, Claudia; Missiroli, Filippo; Borgiani, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Cusumano, Andrea; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ricci, Federico; Giardina, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old). AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension). In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species) have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2) that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines), immune cells (macrophages), and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression. PMID:25478207

  12. Inhibition of polyadenylation reduces inflammatory gene induction

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashov, Alexander; Meijer, Hedda A.; Barthet-Barateig, Adeline; Parker, Hannah N.; Khurshid, Asma; Tessier, Sarah; Sicard, Marie; Knox, Alan J.; Pang, Linhua; de Moor, Cornelia H.

    2012-01-01

    Cordycepin (3? deoxyadenosine) has long been used in the study of in vitro assembled polyadenylation complexes, because it terminates the poly(A) tail and arrests the cleavage complex. It is derived from caterpillar fungi, which are highly prized in Chinese traditional medicine. Here we show that cordycepin specifically inhibits the induction of inflammatory mRNAs by cytokines in human airway smooth muscle cells without affecting the expression of control mRNAs. Cordycepin treatment results in shorter poly(A) tails, and a reduction in the efficiency of mRNA cleavage and transcription termination is observed, indicating that the effects of cordycepin on 3? processing in cells are similar to those described in in vitro reactions. For the CCL2 and CXCL1 mRNAs, the effects of cordycepin are post-transcriptional, with the mRNA disappearing during or immediately after nuclear export. In contrast, although the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the IL8 promoter is also unaffected, the levels of nascent transcript are reduced, indicating a defect in transcription elongation. We show that a reporter construct with 3? sequences from a histone gene is unaffected by cordycepin, while CXCL1 sequences confer cordycepin sensitivity to the reporter, demonstrating that polyadenylation is indeed required for the effect of cordycepin on gene expression. In addition, treatment with another polyadenyation inhibitor and knockdown of poly(A) polymerase ? also specifically reduced the induction of inflammatory mRNAs. These data demonstrate that there are differences in the 3? processing of inflammatory and housekeeping genes and identify polyadenylation as a novel target for anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23118416

  13. Polymorphisms within inflammatory genes and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Stefano; Gemignani, Federica; Bottari, Fabio; Gioia-Patricola, Lydie; Guino, Elisabet; Cambray, Mara; Biondo, Sebastiano; Capella, Gabriel; Boldrini, Laura; Canzian, Federico; Moreno, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer and polymorphisms in the inflammatory genes could modulate the levels of inflammation. We have investigated ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the following inflammation-related genes: TLR4 (Asp299Gly), CD14 (-260 T>C), MCP1 (-2518 A>G), IL12A (+7506 A>T, +8707 A>G, +9177 T>A, +9508 G>A), NOS2A (+524T>C), TNF (-857C>T), and PTGS1 (V444I) in 377 colorectal (CRC) cancer cases and 326 controls from Barcelona (Spain). Results There was no statistically significant association between the SNPs investigated and colorectal cancer risk. Conclusion The lack of association may show that the inflammatory genes selected for this study are not involved in the carcinogenic process of colorectum. Alternatively, the negative results may derive from no particular biological effect of the analysed polymorphisms in relation to CRC. Otherwise, the eventual biological effect is so little to go undetected, unless analysing a much larger sample size. PMID:17062130

  14. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Numerous risk factors for endothelial cell inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis have been identified, including inhalation of ultrafine particles. Recently, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) such as titanium (TiO2) NPs have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications. However, there are also great concerns surrounding potential adverse health effects in vascular systems. Although TiO2 NPs are known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, the associated signaling pathways have not been well studied. The focus of this work, therefore, deals with examination of the cellular signaling pathways responsible for TiO2 NP-induced endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, primary vascular endothelial cells were treated with TiO2 NPs for 2-16h at concentrations of 0-50 ?g/mL. TiO2 NP exposure increased cellular oxidative stress and DNA binding of NF-?B. Further, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 was increased in cells exposed to TiO2 NPs. TiO2 NPs also significantly increased induction of mRNA and protein levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Pretreatment with inhibitors for NF-?B (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), oxidative stress (epigallocatechin gallate and apocynin), Akt (LY294002), ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 (SB203580) significantly attenuated TiO2 NP-induced MCP-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression. These data indicate that TiO2 NPs can induce endothelial inflammatory responses via redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. PMID:23380242

  15. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Numerous risk factors for endothelial cell inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis have been identified, including inhalation of ultrafine particles. Recently, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) such as titanium (TiO2) NPs have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications. However, there are also great concerns surrounding potential adverse health effects in vascular systems. Although TiO2 NPs are known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, the associated signaling pathways have not been well studied. The focus of this work, therefore, deals with examination of the cellular signaling pathways responsible for TiO2 NP-induced endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, primary vascular endothelial cells were treated with TiO2 NPs for 216 h at concentrations of 050 g/mL. TiO2 NP exposure increased cellular oxidative stress and DNA binding of NF-?B. Further, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 was increased in cells exposed to TiO2 NPs. TiO2 NPs also significantly increased induction of mRNA and protein levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and mRNA levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Pretreatment with inhibitors for NF-?B (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), oxidative stress (epigallocatechin gallate and apocynin), Akt (LY294002), ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 (SB203580) significantly attenuated TiO2 NP-induced MCP-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression, as well as activation of NF-?B. These data indicate that TiO2 NPs can induce endothelial inflammatory responses via redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. PMID:23380242

  16. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases as Coregulators of Inflammatory Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, M Lienhard; Kracht, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) exert a variety of functions through regulation of the cell cycle and gene expression, thus implicating them in diverse biological processes. Recent studies have deciphered the molecular mechanisms employed by nuclear CDKs to support the expression of inflammatory mediators. Induced transcription of many proinflammatory genes is increased during the G1 phase of the cell cycle in a CDK-dependent manner. This process involves the cytokine-induced recruitment of CDK6 to the nuclear chromatin fraction where it associates with transcription factors of the NF-?B, STAT, and AP-1 families. The ability of CDK6 to trigger the expression of VEGF-A and p16(INK4A) and to recruit the NF-?B subunit p65 to its target sites is largely independent of its kinase function. The involvement of CDKs in proinflammatory gene expression also allows therapeutic targeting of their functions to interfere with tumor-promoting inflammation or chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26719217

  17. Macrophage Expression of Inflammatory Genes in Response to EMCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Zachary R.; Corbett, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The expression and production of type 1 interferon is the classic cellular response to virus infection. In addition to this antiviral response, virus infection also stimulates the production of proinflammatory mediators. In this review, the pathways controlling the induction of inflammatory genes and the roles that these inflammatory mediators contribute to host defense against viral pathogens will be discussed. Specific focus will be on the role of the chemokine receptor CCR5, as a signaling receptor controlling the activation of pathways leading to virus-induced inflammatory gene expression. PMID:26295266

  18. Flavone deglycosylation increases their anti-inflammatory activity and absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Gregory; Riedl, Ken; Cardenas, Horacio; Diosa-Toro, Mayra; Arango, Daniel; Schwartz, Steven; Doseff, Andrea I.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Flavones have reported anti-inflammatory activities, but the ability of flavone-rich foods to reduce inflammation is unclear. Here, we report the effect of flavone glycosylation in the regulation of inflammatory mediators in vitro and the absorption of dietary flavones in vivo. Methods and results The anti-inflammatory activities of celery extracts, some rich in flavone aglycones and others rich in flavone glycosides, were tested on the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Pure flavone aglycones and aglycone-rich extracts effectively reduced TNF-α production and inhibited the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, while glycoside-rich extracts showed no significant effects. Deglycosylation of flavones increased cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microscopy using the flavonoid fluorescent dye diphenyl-boric acid 2-aminoethyl ester (DPBA). Celery diets with different glycoside or aglycone contents were formulated and absorption was evaluated in mice fed with 5 or 10% celery diets. Relative absorption in vivo was significantly higher in mice fed with aglycone-rich diets as determined by HPLC-MS/MS (where MS/MS is tandem mass spectrometry). Conclusion These results demonstrate that deglycosylation increases absorption of dietary flavones in vivo and modulates inflammation by reducing TNF-α and NF-κB, suggesting the potential use of functional foods rich in flavones for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:22351119

  19. Methylation and Expression of Immune and Inflammatory Genes in the Offspring of Bariatric Bypass Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gunard, Frdric; Tchernof, Andr; Deshaies, Yves; Cianflone, Katherine; Kral, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and overnutrition during pregnancy increase risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Maternal biliopancreatic diversion is an effective treatment for severe obesity and is beneficial for offspring born after maternal surgery (AMS). These offspring exhibit lower severe obesity prevalence and improved cardiometabolic risk factors including inflammatory marker compared to siblings born before maternal surgery (BMS). Objective. To assess relationships between maternal bariatric surgery and the methylation/expression of genes involved in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Methods. A differential gene methylation analysis was conducted in a sibling cohort of 25 BMS and 25 AMS offspring from 20 mothers. Following differential gene expression analysis (23 BMS and 23 AMS), pathway analysis was conducted. Correlations between gene methylation/expression and circulating inflammatory markers were computed. Results. Five immune and inflammatory pathways with significant overrepresentation of both differential gene methylation and expression were identified. In the IL-8 pathway, gene methylation correlated with both gene expression and plasma C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion. These results suggest that improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers in AMS compared to BMS offspring may be mediated through differential methylation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23840945

  20. Inflammatory arthritis increases mouse osteoclast precursors with myeloid suppressor function.

    PubMed

    Charles, Julia F; Hsu, Lih-Yun; Niemi, Erene C; Weiss, Arthur; Aliprantis, Antonios O; Nakamura, Mary C

    2012-12-01

    Increased osteoclastic bone resorption leads to periarticular erosions and systemic osteoporosis in RA patients. Although a great deal is known about how osteoclasts differentiate from precursors and resorb bone, the identity of an osteoclast precursor (OCP) population in vivo and its regulatory role in RA remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of a CD11b(-/lo)Ly6C(hi) BM population with OCP activity in vitro and in vivo. These cells, which can be distinguished from previously characterized precursors in the myeloid lineage, display features of both M1 and M2 monocytes and expand in inflammatory arthritis models. Surprisingly, in one mouse model of RA (adoptive transfer of SKG arthritis), cotransfer of OCP with SKG CD4+ T cells diminished inflammatory arthritis. Similar to monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), OCPs suppressed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro through the production of NO. This study identifies a BM myeloid precursor population with osteoclastic and T cell-suppressive activity that is expanded in inflammatory arthritis. Therapeutic strategies that prevent the development of OCPs into mature bone-resorbing cells could simultaneously prevent bone resorption and generate an antiinflammatory milieu in the RA joint. PMID:23114597

  1. The mechanisms regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in hippocampus during systemic inflammatory response: The effect on inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Czapski, Grzegorz A; G?ssowska, Magdalena; Wilkaniec, Anna; Chalimoniuk, Ma?gorzata; Strosznajder, Joanna B; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is critical for nervous system's development and function, and its aberrant activation contributes to pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. It was recently suggested that Cdk5 may participate in regulation of inflammatory signalling. The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanisms involved in regulating Cdk5 activity in the brain during systemic inflammatory response (SIR) as well as the involvement of Cdk5 in controlling the expression of inflammatory genes. Genetic and biochemical alterations in hippocampus were analysed 3 and 12h after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. We observed an increase in both Cdk5 gene expression and protein level. Moreover, phosphorylation of Cdk5 on Ser159 was significantly enhanced. Also transcription of Cdk5-regulatory protein (p35/Cdk5r1) was augmented, and the level of p25, calpain-dependent cleavage product of p35, was increased. All these results demonstrated rapid activation of Cdk5 in the brain during SIR. Hyperactivity of Cdk5 contributed to enhanced phosphorylation of tau and glycogen synthase kinase 3?. Inhibition of Cdk5 with Roscovitine reduced activation of NF-?B and expression of inflammation-related genes, demonstrating the critical role of Cdk5 in regulation of gene transcription during SIR. PMID:26806339

  2. Systematically identify key genes in inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Minghao; Zhong, Ling; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-10

    Although the gene expression in breast tumor stroma, playing a critical role in determining inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) phenotype, has been proved to be significantly different between IBC and non-inflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC), more effort needs to systematically investigate the gene expression profiles between tumor epithelium and stroma and to efficiently uncover the potential molecular networks and critical genes for IBC and non-IBC. Here, we comprehensively analyzed and compared the transcriptional profiles from IBC and non-IBC patients using hierarchical clustering, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses, and identified PDGFR?, SUMO1, COL1A1, FYN, CAV1, COL5A1 and MMP2 to be the key genes for breast cancer. Interestingly, PDGFR? was found to be the hub gene in both IBC and non-IBC; SUMO1 and COL1A1 were respectively the key genes for IBC and non-IBC. These analysis results indicated that those key genes might play important role in IBC and non-IBC and provided some clues for future studies. PMID:26403314

  3. Increased expression of IL-16 in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Seegert, D; Rosenstiel, P; Pfahler, H; Pfefferkorn, P; Nikolaus, S; Schreiber, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterised by infiltration of inflamed mucosal regions with CD4+ T lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells. Interleukin (IL)-16 exerts a strong chemoattractant activity on CD4+ cells. Moreover, IL-16 activates expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, IL-6, IL-15, and tumour necrosis factor ?(TNF-?) in human monocytes.?AIMTo examine if IL-16 expression is increased in IBD patients compared with healthy controls.?METHODSTwenty one patients with IBD (10with ulcerative colitis (UC), 11with Crohn's disease (CD)), seven disease specificity controls (DSC), and seven healthy controls were studied. Biopsies were taken during colonoscopies and IL-16 mRNA as well as protein expression were investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, western blot, and immunohistochemistry.?RESULTSIL-16 mRNA and protein expression in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients were increased twofold compared with healthy controls, DSC, or IBD patients under steroid treatment. Most of the detected IL-16 protein was in its bioactive 17kDa form and was predominantly expressed in eosinophils. Increased IL-16 expression in UC patients appeared to be mainly restricted to the inflamed regions of the colonic mucosa. Levels of caspase 3,which processes the 68kDa IL-16 precursor molecule into the biological active 17kDa form, were not increased.?CONCLUSIONSOur results provide evidence that IL-16 expression is significantly increased in the inflamed colonic mucosa of IBD patients but not in control individuals, DSC, or patients under steroid treatment. Therefore, upregulation of IL-16 expression seems to be specific for chronic intestinal inflammation and could lead to increased secretion of other proinflammatory cytokines in IBD.???Keywords: interleukin-16; T lymphocytes; eosinophils; Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease PMID:11171821

  4. Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in PBMCs by Immunostimulatory Botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Denzler, Karen L.; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Rochon, Yvan; Langland, Jeffrey O.

    2010-01-01

    Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics), this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata) and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica), the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:20838436

  5. ?2-adrenergic agonists modulate TNF-? induced astrocytic inflammatory gene expression and brain inflammatory cell populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The NF-?B signaling pathway orchestrates many of the intricate aspects of neuroinflammation. Astrocytic ?2-adrenergic receptors have emerged as potential regulators in central nervous system inflammation and are potential targets for pharmacological modulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crosstalk between astrocytic ?2-adrenergic receptors and the TNF-? induced inflammatory gene program. Methods Proinflammatory conditions were generated by the administration of TNF-?. Genes that are susceptible to astrocytic crosstalk between ?2-adrenergic receptors (stimulated by clenbuterol) and TNF-? were identified by qPCR-macroarray-based gene expression analysis in a human 1321N1 astrocytoma cell line. Transcriptional patterns of the identified genes in vitro were validated by RT-PCR on the 1321N1 cell line as well as on primary rat astrocytes. In vivo expression patterns were examined by intracerebroventricular administration of clenbuterol and/or TNF-? in rats. To examine the impact on the inflammatory cell content of the brain we performed extensive FACS analysis of rat brain immune cells after intracerebroventricular clenbuterol and/or TNF-? administration. Results Parallel transcriptional patterns in vivo and in vitro confirmed the relevance of astrocytic ?2-adrenergic receptors as modulators of brain inflammatory responses. Importantly, we observed pronounced effects of ?2-adrenergic receptor agonists and TNF-? on IL-6, CXCL2, CXCL3, VCAM1, and ICAM1 expression, suggesting a role in inflammatory brain cell homeostasis. Extensive FACS-analysis of inflammatory cell content in the brain demonstrated that clenbuterol/TNF-? co-administration skewed the T cell population towards a double negative phenotype and induced a shift in the myeloid brain cell population towards a neutrophilic predominance. Conclusions Our results show that astrocytic ?2-adrenergic receptors are potent regulators of astrocytic TNF-?-activated genes in vitro and in vivo, and ultimately modulate the molecular network involved in the homeostasis of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system. Astrocytic ?2-adrenergic receptors and their downstream signaling pathway may serve as potential targets to modulate neuroinflammatory responses. PMID:24479486

  6. Influence of triterpenoids present in apple peel on inflammatory gene expression associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

    PubMed

    Mueller, Dolores; Triebel, Sven; Rudakovski, Olga; Richling, Elke

    2013-08-15

    Various ursanic, oleanic and lupanic pentacyclic triterpenoids found in apple peel were studied for anti-inflammatory effects in vitro using T84 colon carcinoma cells. After pretreatment with single triterpenoids, cells were stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, INF-?, IL-1?). Regulation of mRNA expression was analysed for three specific inflammation-associated marker genes (TNF-?, IL-8, IP-10) using qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the effects of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) on the synthesis of certain pro-inflammatory proteins were examined. IP-10 expression was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by all the tested compounds at concentrations ?25 ?M. The mRNA expression of TNF-? was slightly affected and the IL-8 level was increased. At the protein level, UA and OA (25 ?M) reduced the synthesis of IP-10; sICAM-1, IL-23 and GRO? were slightly repressed. The TNF-? level was not modulated, whereas induction of IL-8 was increased. UA also enhanced the synthesis of IL-1ra, while OA suppressed the level of I-TAC. The present study confirms that triterpenoids present in apple peel and ?-damascone may be implicated in the anti-inflammatory properties of apple constituents, suggesting that these substances might be helpful in the treatment of IBD as nutrient supplements. PMID:23561115

  7. Rofecoxib modulates multiple gene expression pathways in a clinical model of acute inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Min; Wu, Tian-Xia; Hamza, May; Ramsay, Edward S; Wahl, Sharon M; Dionne, Raymond A

    2007-03-01

    New insights into the biological properties of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its response pathway challenge the hypothesis that COX-2 is simply pro-inflammatory and inhibition of COX-2 solely prevents the development of inflammation and ameliorates inflammatory pain. The present study performed a comprehensive analysis of gene/protein expression induced by a selective inhibitor of COX-2, rofecoxib, compared with a non-selective COX inhibitor, ibuprofen, and placebo in a clinical model of acute inflammatory pain (the surgical extraction of impacted third molars) using microarray analysis followed by quantitative RT-PCR verification and Western blotting. Inhibition of COX-2 modulated gene expression related to inflammation and pain, the arachidonic acid pathway, apoptosis/angiogenesis, cell adhesion and signal transduction. Compared to placebo, rofecoxib treatment increased the gene expression of ANXA3 (annexin 3), SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) and IL1RN (IL1 receptor antagonist) which are associated with inhibition of phospholipase A(2) and suppression of cytokine signaling cascades, respectively. Both rofecoxib and ibuprofen treatment increased the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators, IL6 and CCL2 (chemokine C-C motif ligand 2), following tissue injury compared to the placebo treatment. These results indicate a complex role for COX-2 in the inflammatory cascade in addition to the well-characterized COX-dependent pathway, as multiple pathways are also involved in rofecoxib-induced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects at the gene expression level. These findings may also suggest an alternative hypothesis for the adverse effects attributed to selective inhibition of COX-2. PMID:17070997

  8. Increased matriptase zymogen activation in inflammatory skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Wu, Bai-Yao; Tsao, Pai-In; Chen, Chi-Yung; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Chan, Yee Lam E.; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Johnson, Michael D.; Eckert, Richard L.; Chen, Ya-Wen; Chou, Fengpai; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Matriptase, a type 2 transmembrane serine protease, and its inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 are required for normal epidermal barrier function, and matriptase activity is tightly regulated during this process. We therefore hypothesized that this protease system might be deregulated in skin disease. To test this, we examined the level and activation state of matriptase in examples of 23 human skin disorders. We first examined matriptase and HAI-1 protein distribution in normal epidermis. Matriptase was detected at high levels at cell-cell junctions in the basal layer and spinous layers but was present at minimal levels in the granular layer. HAI-1 was distributed in a similar pattern, except that high-level expression was retained in the granular layer. This pattern of expression was retained in most skin disorders. We next examined the distribution of activated matriptase. Although activated matriptase is not detected in normal epidermis, a dramatic increase is seen in keratinocytes at the site of inflammation in 16 different skin diseases. To gain further evidence that activation is associated with inflammatory stimuli, we challenged HaCaT cells with acidic pH or H2O2 and observed matriptase activation. These findings suggest that inflammation-associated reactive oxygen species and tissue acidity may enhance matriptase activation in some skin diseases. PMID:21123732

  9. Inflammatory mediators increase the expression of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in rat astrocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Beata; Rosenberger, J; Kim, Kee-Won; Cox, Brian M

    2002-09-01

    In the central nervous system, glial cells play an important role in inflammatory and immune responses, and opioid peptides have been identified as essential mediators between the nervous and the immune systems. We report the profound upregulation of the opioid-related nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) by inflammatory mediators in astrocytes. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), induced levels of N/OFQ mRNA and immunoreactivity. HPLC analysis of the immunoreactivity in astrocyte extracts revealed that a large molecular weight precursor for N/OFQ is being synthesized and released in response to LPS and astrocytes appear to lack the enzymes required to process the precursor protein. Western blot analysis showed that LPS treatment elicited the activation of ERK 1/2 and p38 MAP kinases. Blockade of the p38 or the ERK MAP kinase pathways prevented the LPS-induced increase in N/OFQ mRNA levels indicating a role for these cascades in the regulation of N/OFQ genes in response to LPS. Regulation of N/OFQ gene expression by ERK and p38 activation may be mediated through the transcription factor CREB. We observed CREB phosphorylation in response to LPS, which was also prevented by SB202190 and PD98059. The NFkappaB pathway also appears to be involved in the induction of N/OFQ transcription by LPS, since NFkappaB inhibitors antagonized the effect of LPS on N/OFQ expression. Regulation of N/OFQ by inflammatory mediators in astrocytes may suggest a role for N/OFQ in neural-glial communication and in inflammatory responses in certain neuropathophysiological conditions. PMID:12203390

  10. Transcription of Inflammatory Genes: Long Noncoding RNA and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system must coordinate elaborate signaling pathways to turn on expression of hundreds of genes to provide protection against pathogens and resolve acute inflammation. Multiple genes within distinct functional categories are coordinately and temporally regulated by transcriptional on and off switches in response to distinct external stimuli. Three classes of transcription factors act together with transcriptional coregulators and chromatin-modifying complexes to control these programs. In addition, newer studies implicate long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) as additional regulators of these responses. LncRNAs promote, fine-tune, and restrain the inflammatory program. In this study, we provide an overview of gene regulation and the emerging importance of lncRNAs in the immune system. PMID:25250698

  11. Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Gene Expression in Healthy Humans*

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Kelly L.; Ivester, Priscilla; Seeds, Michael; Case, L. Douglas; Arm, Jonathan P.; Chilton, Floyd H.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 100 years, changes in the food supply in Western nations have resulted in alterations in dietary fatty acid consumption, leading to a dramatic increase in the ratio of omega-6 (?6) to ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in circulation and in tissues. Increased ?6/?3 ratios are hypothesized to increase inflammatory mediator production, leading to higher incidence of inflammatory diseases, and may impact inflammatory gene expression. To determine the effect of reducing the ?6/?3 ratio on expression of inflammatory pathway genes in mononuclear cells, healthy humans were placed on a controlled diet for 1 week, then given fish oil and borage oil for an additional 4 weeks. Serum and neutrophil fatty acid composition and ex vivo leukotriene B4 production from stimulated neutrophils were measured at the start and end of the supplementation period and after a 2-week washout. RNA was isolated from mononuclear cells and expression of PI3K, Akt, NF?B, and inflammatory cytokines was measured by real-time PCR. A marked increase was seen in serum and neutrophil levels of long-chain ?3 PUFA concomitant with a reduction in the ?6/?3 PUFA ratio (40%). The ex vivo capacity of stimulated neutrophils to produce leukotriene B4 was decreased by 31%. Expression of PI3K? and PI3K? and the quantity of PI3K? protein in mononuclear cells was reduced after supplementation, as was the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines. These data reveal that PUFA may exert their clinical effects via their capacity to regulate the expression of signal transduction genes and genes for proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:19359242

  12. Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene expression in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kelly L; Ivester, Priscilla; Seeds, Michael; Case, L Douglas; Arm, Jonathan P; Chilton, Floyd H

    2009-06-01

    Over the past 100 years, changes in the food supply in Western nations have resulted in alterations in dietary fatty acid consumption, leading to a dramatic increase in the ratio of omega-6 (omega6) to omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in circulation and in tissues. Increased omega6/omega3 ratios are hypothesized to increase inflammatory mediator production, leading to higher incidence of inflammatory diseases, and may impact inflammatory gene expression. To determine the effect of reducing the omega6/omega3 ratio on expression of inflammatory pathway genes in mononuclear cells, healthy humans were placed on a controlled diet for 1 week, then given fish oil and borage oil for an additional 4 weeks. Serum and neutrophil fatty acid composition and ex vivo leukotriene B(4) production from stimulated neutrophils were measured at the start and end of the supplementation period and after a 2-week washout. RNA was isolated from mononuclear cells and expression of PI3K, Akt, NFkappaB, and inflammatory cytokines was measured by real-time PCR. A marked increase was seen in serum and neutrophil levels of long-chain omega3 PUFA concomitant with a reduction in the omega6/omega3 PUFA ratio (40%). The ex vivo capacity of stimulated neutrophils to produce leukotriene B(4) was decreased by 31%. Expression of PI3Kalpha and PI3Kgamma and the quantity of PI3Kalpha protein in mononuclear cells was reduced after supplementation, as was the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines. These data reveal that PUFA may exert their clinical effects via their capacity to regulate the expression of signal transduction genes and genes for proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:19359242

  13. Expression patterns and action analysis of genes associated with inflammatory responses during rat liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Heng-Yi; Zhao, Li-Feng; Xu, Cun-Shuan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between inflammatory response and liver regeneration (LR) at transcriptional level. METHODS: After partial hepatectomy (PH) of rats, the genes associated with inflammatory response were obtained according to the databases, and the gene expression changes during LR were checked by the Rat Genome 230 2.0 array. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-nine genes were associated with liver regeneration. The initial and total expressing gene numbers found in initiation phase (0.5-4 h after PH), G0/G1 transition (4-6 h after PH), cell proliferation (6-66 h after PH), cell differentiation and structure-function reconstruction (66-168 h after PH) of liver regeneration were 107, 34, 126, 6 and 107, 92, 233, 145 respectively, showing that the associated genes were mainly triggered at the beginning of liver regeneration, and worked at different phases. According to their expression similarity, these genes were classified into 5 groups: only up-regulated, predominantly up-, only down-, predominantly down-, up- and down-, involving 92, 25, 77, 14 and 31 genes, respectively. The total times of their up- and down-regulated expression were 975 and 494, respectively, demonstrating that the expressions of the majority of genes were increased, and that of a few genes were decreased. Their time relevance was classified into 13 groups, showing that the cellular physiological and biochemical activities were staggered during liver regeneration. According to gene expression patterns, they were classified into 33 types, suggesting that the activities were diverse and complex during liver regeneration. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory response is closely associated with liver regeneration, in which 239 LR-associated genes play an important role. PMID:17230604

  14. Association of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms with inflammatory bowel disease in a Moroccan cohort.

    PubMed

    Senhaji, N; Serrano, A; Badre, W; Serbati, N; Karkouri, M; Zaid, Y; Nadifi, S; Martin, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether common variants in inflammatory and immune response genes influence inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk among Moroccan patients. Using a candidate gene approach, 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms mapping on six genes (MIF_rs755622, TNFA_rs1800629, IL6_rs2069840, IL6R_rs2228145, IL6ST_rs2228044, IL17A (rs2275913, rs4711998, rs7747909, rs8193036, rs3819024)) were assessed in 510 subjects grouped in 199 IBD and 311 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed with the TaqMan allelic discrimination technology. The results were analyzed using PLINK software. The frequency of allele A for TNFA rs1800629 was significantly higher in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients compared with controls (30.16 vs 16.72%; P=0.0005; odds ratio (OR)=2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39-3.32). Statistically significant association to UC was also found under dominant AA+AG vs GG (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.07-3.21; P=0.02) and recessive models (OR=8.38; 95% CI=2.86-24.53; P=0.0001). In the same way, an association of TNFA rs1800629 variant was observed with IBD under recessive model AA vs AG+GG (OR=4.10; 95% CI=1.56-10.76; P=0.004). No evidence of significant associations was found for the remaining investigated polymorphisms. Our data suggest that TNFA gene promoter polymorphism participates in determining IBD susceptibility in Moroccan patients. PMID:26632999

  15. Association of inflammatory gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. Methods A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes. We tested the genotype-stroke association with logistic regression model. Results We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCL11 were associated with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) with a 0.20 cut-off point, CCL11 rs4795895 remained statistically significant. We further stratified the study population by their hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, CCR2 rs1799864, CCR5 rs1799987 and CCL11 rs4795895 were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke. In the non-hypertensive group, CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 and CCL11 rs4795895 were associated with ischemic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, CCR2 rs1799864 and CCR5 rs1799987 remained significant in the hypertensive group, and CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 remained significant in the non-hypertensive group. Conclusions Our results indicate that inflammatory genetic variants are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population, particularly in non-hypertensive individuals. PMID:22769019

  16. Inflammatory mediators release calcitonin gene-related peptide from dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, B; Izydorczyk, I; Kress, M

    2000-01-01

    The interactions between the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2) and acid pH were studied in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. For this purpose, the cultures were stimulated by inflammatory mediators (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E(2), 10(-5)M each) or acid solution (pH 6.1) for 5 min and the content of calcitonin gene-related peptide was determined in the supernatant before, during and after stimulation, using an enzyme immunoassay. Acid solution resulted in a threefold increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was entirely dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. The release could not be blocked by the addition of the capsaicin antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M). Bradykinin (10(-5)M) caused a 50% increase of the basal calcitonin gene-related peptide release which was again dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium, whereas serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) were each ineffective at 10(-5)M concentration. The combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2) led to a fivefold increase of the calcitonin gene-related peptide release which could not be further enhanced by acidification. The competitive capsaicin receptor antagonist capsazepine (10(-5)M) significantly reduced the release induced by the combination of bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin E(2). It is suggested that the inflammatory mediators co-operate and together may act as endogenous agonists at the capsaicin receptor to cause calcium influx and consecutive neuropeptide release. PMID:10858619

  17. Effects of gender, cytokine gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Moscovis, Sophia M; Cox, Amanda; Hall, Sharron T; Burns, Christine J; Scott, Rodney J; Blackwell, C Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cytokine gene polymorphisms of Indigenous Australians were predominantly associated with strong pro-inflammatory responses. We tested the hypothesis that cells of donors with genetic profiles of inflammatory cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) similar to Indigenous Australians produce higher pro-inflammatory responses. PBMCs from 14 donors with genetic profiles for a high risk of strong pro-inflammatory responses and 14 with low-risk profiles were stimulated with endotoxin and effects of gender, IFN-?, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and testosterone on cytokine responses analysed. Cytokines were calculated from standard curves (Luminex 2.3 software). No significant differences were associated with SNP profile alone. Lower pro-inflammatory responses were observed for cells from males with low- or high-risk profiles. For cells from females with high-risk profiles, anti-inflammatory IL-10 responses were significantly reduced. There was no effect of testosterone levels on responses from males. For females, results from IFN-?-treated cells showed positive correlations between testosterone levels and IL-1? responses to endotoxin for both risk groups and TNF-? for the high-risk group. If interactions observed among CSE, IFN-?, genetic background and testosterone reflect those in vivo, these might contribute to increased incidences of hospitalisations for infectious diseases among Indigenous women. PMID:25432967

  18. Promoter RNA links transcriptional regulation of inflammatory pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Masayuki; Chu, Yongjun; Zhang, Huiying; Gagnon, Keith T.; Shaikh, Sarfraz; Kuchimanchi, Satya; Manoharan, Muthiah; Corey, David R.; Janowski, Bethany A.

    2013-01-01

    Although many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered, their function and their association with RNAi factors in the nucleus have remained obscure. Here, we identify RNA transcripts that overlap the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) promoter and contain two adjacent binding sites for an endogenous miRNA, miR-589. We find that miR-589 binds the promoter RNA and activates COX-2 transcription. In addition to miR-589, fully complementary duplex RNAs that target the COX-2 promoter transcript activate COX-2 transcription. Activation by small RNA requires RNAi factors argonaute-2 (AGO2) and GW182, but does not require AGO2-mediated cleavage of the promoter RNA. Instead, the promoter RNA functions as a scaffold. Binding of AGO2 protein/small RNA complexes to the promoter RNA triggers gene activation. Gene looping allows interactions between the promoters of COX-2 and phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A), an adjacent pro-inflammatory pathway gene that produces arachidonic acid, the substrate for COX-2 protein. miR-589 and fully complementary small RNAs regulate both COX-2 and PLA2G4A gene expression, revealing an unexpected connection between key steps of the eicosanoid signaling pathway. The work demonstrates the potential for RNA to coordinate locus-dependent assembly of related genes to form functional operons through cis-looping. PMID:23999091

  19. Cyclic strain inhibits acute pro-inflammatory gene expression in aortic valve interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathryn E; Metzler, Scott A; Warnock, James N

    2010-02-01

    Mechanical in vitro preconditioning of tissue engineered heart valves is viewed as an essential process for tissue development prior to in vivo implantation. However, a number of pro-inflammatory genes are mechanosensitive and their elaboration could elicit an adverse response in the host. We hypothesized that the application of normal physiological levels of strain to isolated valve interstitial cells would inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Cells were subjected to 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% strain. Expression of VCAM-1, MCP-1, GM-CSF and OPN was then measured using qRT-PCR. With the exception of OPN, all genes were significantly up regulated when no strain was applied. MCP-1 expression was significantly lower in the presence of strain, although strain magnitude did not affect the expression level. VCAM-1 and GM-CSF had the lowest expression levels at 15% strain, which represent normal physiological conditions. These findings were confirmed using confocal microscopy. Additionally, pSMAD 2/3 and IkappaBalpha expression were imaged to elucidate potential mechanisms of gene expression. Data showed that 15% strain increased pSMAD 2/3 expression and prevented phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha. In conclusion, cyclic strain reduces expression of pro-inflammatory genes, which may be beneficial for the in vitro pre-conditioning of tissue engineered heart valves. PMID:19636599

  20. Control of Middle Ear Inflammatory and Ion Homeostasis Genes by Transtympanic Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Jessyka G.; Kempton, J. Beth; Hausman, Frances; MacArthur, Carol J.; Trune, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Transtympanic steroid treatment will induce changes in ion homeostasis and inflammatory gene expression to decrease middle ear inflammation due to bacterial inoculation. Background Otitis media is common, but treatment options are limited to systemic antibiotic therapy or surgical intervention. Systemic glucocorticoid treatment of mice decreases inflammation and improves fluid clearance. However, transtympanic delivery of glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoid has not been explored to determine if direct steroid application is beneficial. Methods Balb/c mice received transtympanic inoculation of heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae (H flu), followed by transtympanic treatment with either prednisolone or aldosterone. Mice given PBS instead of steroid and untreated mice were used as controls. Four hours after steroid treatment, middle ears were harvested for mRNA extraction and 24 hours after inoculation middle ears were harvested and examined for measures of inflammation. Results H flu inoculation caused the increased expression of nearly all inflammatory cytokine genes and induced changes in expression of several genes related to cellular junctions and transport channels. Both steroids generally reversed the expression of inflammatory genes and caused ion and water regulatory genes to return to normal or near normal levels. Histologic evaluation of middle ears showed improved fluid and inflammatory cell clearance. Conclusion Improvement in middle ear inflammation was noted with both the glucocorticoid prednisolone and the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. This was due to reversal of inflammation-induced changes in middle ear cytokine genes, as well as those involved in ion and water homeostasis. Because glucocorticoids bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor, but not the reverse, it is concluded that much of the reduction of fluid and other inflammation measures was due to these steroids impact on ion and water transport channels. Further research is necessary to determine if this alternative mineralocorticoid treatment for otitis media will be clinically effective with fewer side effects than glucocorticoids. PMID:25811752

  1. Endogenous hepatic glucocorticoid receptor signaling coordinates sex-biased inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew A; Cidlowski, John A

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex affects gene expression and many inflammatory diseases present in a sex-biased manner. Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are regulators of inflammatory genes, but their role in sex-specific responses is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate whether GR differentially regulates inflammatory gene expression in male and female mouse liver. Twenty-five percent of the 251 genes assayed by nanostring analysis were influenced by sex. Of these baseline sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes, 82% was expressed higher in female liver. Pathway analyses defined pattern-recognition receptors as the most sexually dimorphic pathway. We next exposed male and female mice to the proinflammatory stimulus LPS. Female mice had 177 genes regulated by treatment with LPS, whereas males had 149, with only 66% of LPS-regulated genes common between the sexes. To determine the contribution of GR to sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes we performed nanostring analysis on liver-specific GR knockout (LGRKO) mice in the presence or absence of LPS. Comparing LGRKO to GR(flox/flox) revealed that 36 genes required GR for sexually dimorphic expression, whereas 24 genes became sexually dimorphic in LGRKO. Fifteen percent of LPS-regulated genes in GR(flox/flox) were not regulated in male and female LGRKO mice treated with LPS. Thus, GR action is influenced by sex to regulate inflammatory gene expression.-Quinn, M. A., Cidlowski, J. A. Endogenous hepatic glucocorticoid receptor signaling coordinates sex-biased inflammatory gene expression. PMID:26581598

  2. Effect of complex decongestive physiotherapy on gene expression for the inflammatory response in peripheral lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Fldi, E; Sauerwald, A; Hennig, B

    2000-03-01

    Complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP), consisting of manual lymph drainage, compression bandaging, remedial exercises and skin care, mobilizes accumulated edema fluid and increases lymph flow. On the other hand, it also has a beneficial therapeutic effect on fibrosclerosis. Because little is known of its possible mode of action on a molecular level, this preliminary study evaluated CDP in patients with peripheral leg lymphedema as to the potential role of gene expression in the inflammatory response. The quantitative expression of genes for CD14, interferon-gamma receptor (IFN gamma R), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (VLA-4), tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 (TNFR1) and CD44 (standard form) was examined in 9 patients with primary or secondary leg lymphedema before and after phase 1 of CDP. Overall, there was a decrease of expression of these pro-inflammatory genes after CDP, suggesting that biologic mechanisms implicated in the inflammatory cascades in other disorders are also involved in the fibrosclerotic reactivity in lymphedema. However, whereas each patient acted as his or her own control before and after CDP, gene expression in normal patients and normal limbs before and after CDP needs to be examined before the full meaning of these observations can be understood. PMID:10769812

  3. A Variant Form of the Human Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumor 1 (DMBT1) Gene Shows Increased Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Interacts with Dimeric Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jens; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Nielsen, Ole; Torne, Ida; Thim, Lars; Fenger, Claus; Mollenhauer, Jan; Holmskov, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) and the trefoil factor (TFF) proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human DMBT1gp340. Analysis of lung washings and colon tissue extracts by Western blotting in the unreduced state, two antibodies (Hyb213-1 and Hyb213-6) reacted with a double band of 290 kDa in lung lavage. Hyb213-6, in addition, reacted against a double band of 270 kDa in colon extract while Hyb213-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1gp340 positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue sections from patients with ulcerative colitis (p<0.0001) and Crohns disease (p?=?0.006) compared to normal colon tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of trefoil factor TFF1, 2 and 3 showed that TFF1 and 3 localized to goblet cells in both normal colon tissue and in tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease. No staining for TFF2 was seen in goblet cells in normal colon tissue whereas the majority of tissue sections in ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease showed sparse and scattered TFF2 positive goblet cells. DMBT1 and TFF proteins did therefore not co-localize in the same cells but localized in adjacent cells in the colon. The interaction between DMBT1gp340 and trefoil TFFs proteins was investigated using an ELISA assay. DMBT1gp340 bound to solid-phase bound recombinant dimeric TFF3 in a calcium dependent manner (p<0.0001) but did not bind to recombinant forms of monomeric TFF3, TFF2 or glycosylated TFF2. This implies a role for DMBT1 and TFF3 together in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23691218

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease: An increased risk factor for neurologic complications

    PubMed Central

    Mors, Germn

    2014-01-01

    Only a very few systematic studies have investigated the frequency of neurologic disorders in patients with Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which are the two main types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Results have been inconsistent and variable, owing to differences in case-finding methods and evaluated outcomes in different studies. The most frequent neurologic manifestations reported in CD and UC populations are cerebrovascular disease (with either arterial or venous events), demyelinating central nervous system disease, and peripheral neuropathy (whether axonal or demyelinating); however, the literature describes numerous nervous system disorders as being associated with IBD. The pathogenesis of nervous system tissue involvement in IBD has yet to be elucidated, although it seems to be related to immune mechanisms or prothrombotic states. The recently-introduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have proven successful in controlling moderate to severe IBD activity. However, severe neurologic disorders associated with TNF inhibitors have been reported, which therefore raises concerns regarding the effect of anti-TNF-? antibodies on the nervous system. Although neurological involvement associated with IBD is rarely reported, gastroenterologists should be aware of the neurologic manifestations of IBD in order to provide early treatment, which is crucial for preventing major neurologic morbidity. PMID:24574797

  5. Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chun-Ki; Cho, Dong Hui; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Lee, Dong-Keon; Park, Chan-Woong; Kim, Wan Gi; Lee, Sang Jun; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Goo Taeg, Oh; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE) and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCL). Furthermore, KGBE administration suppressed NF-?B-mediated expression of atherogenic inflammatory genes (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1), without altering serum cholesterol levels, in ApoE?/? mice fed a high fat-diet. Treatment with KGBE increased phase II gene expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production, NF-?B activation, and inflammatory gene expression in primary macrophages. Importantly, these cellular events were blocked by selective inhibitors of HO-1 and GCL. In addition, these inhibitors reversed the suppressive effect of KGBE on TNF-?-mediated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, resulting in decreased interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes. These results suggest that KGBE ameliorates atherosclerosis by inhibiting NF-?B-mediated expression of atherogenic genes via upregulation of phase II enzymes and thus has therapeutic or preventive potential for atherosclerosis. PMID:23243449

  6. Transcriptional Activation of Inflammatory Genes: Mechanistic Insight into Selectivity and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Afsar U.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Hannigan, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    Acute inflammation, an integral part of host defence and immunity, is a highly conserved cellular response to pathogens and other harmful stimuli. An inflammatory stimulation triggers transcriptional activation of selective pro-inflammatory genes that carry out specific functions such as anti-microbial activity or tissue healing. Based on the nature of inflammatory stimuli, an extensive exploitation of selective transcriptional activations of pro-inflammatory genes is performed by the host to ensure a defined inflammatory response. Inflammatory signal transductions are initiated by the recognition of inflammatory stimuli by transmembrane receptors, followed by the transmission of the signals to the nucleus for differential gene activations. The differential transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory genes is precisely controlled by the selective binding of transcription factors to the promoters of these genes. Among a number of transcription factors identified to date, NF-κB still remains the most prominent and studied factor for its diverse range of selective transcriptional activities. Differential transcriptional activities of NF-κB are dictated by post-translational modifications, specificities in dimer formation, and variability in activation kinetics. Apart from the differential functions of transcription factors, the transcriptional activation of selective pro-inflammatory genes is also governed by chromatin structures, epigenetic markers, and other regulators as the field is continuously expanding. PMID:26569329

  7. Polyplex Exposure Inhibits Cell Cycle, Increases Inflammatory Response, and Can Cause Protein Expression Without Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Rebecca L.; Erickson, Blake; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Baker, James R.; Orr, Bradford G.; Banaszak Holl, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between cell division and protein expression when using commercial poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-based polyplexes. The membrane dye PKH26 was used to assess cell division, and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was used to monitor protein expression. When analyzed at the whole population level, a greater number of cells divided than expressed protein, regardless of the level of protein expression observed, giving apparent consistency with the hypothesis that protein expression requires cells to pass through mitosis in order for the transgene to overcome the nuclear membrane. However, when the polyplex-exposed population was evaluated for the amount of division in the protein-expressing subpopulation, it was observed that substantial amounts of expression had occurred in the absence of division. Indeed, in HeLa S3 cells, this represented the majority of expressing cells. Of interest, the doubling time for both cell lines was slowed by ~2-fold upon exposure to polyplexes. This change was not altered by the origin of the plasmid DNA (pDNA) transgene promoter (cytomegalovirus (CMV) or elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?)). Gene expression arrays in polyplex-exposed HeLa S3 cells showed upregulation of cell cycle arrest genes and downregulation of genes related to mitosis. Chemokine, interleukin, and toll-like receptor genes were also upregulated, suggesting activation of proinflammatory pathways. In summary, we find evidence that a cell division-independent expression pathway exists, and that polyplex exposure slows cell division and increases inflammatory response. PMID:23458572

  8. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  9. The GAIT system: a gatekeeper of inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Jia, Jie; Arif, Abul; Ray, Partho Sarothi; Fox, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Functionally related genes are coregulated by specific RNA–protein interactions that direct transcript-selective translational control. In myeloid cells, interferon (IFN)-γ induces formation of the heterotetrameric, IFN-γ-activated inhibitor of translation (GAIT) complex comprising glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS), NS1-associated protein 1 (NSAP1), ribosomal protein L13a and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). This complex binds defined 3′ untranslated region elements within a family of inflammatory mRNAs and suppresses their translation. IFN-γ-dependent phosphorylation, and consequent release of EPRS and L13a from the tRNA multisynthetase complex and 60S ribosomal subunit, respectively, regulates GAIT complex assembly. EPRS recognizes and binds target mRNAs, NSAP1 negatively regulates RNA binding, and L13a inhibits translation initiation by binding eukaryotic initiation factor 4G. Repression of a post-transcriptional regulon by the GAIT system might contribute to the resolution of chronic inflammation. PMID:19535251

  10. Negative transcriptional regulation of inflammatory genes by group B3 vitamin nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Jing, Yu-Ping; Jia, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Li

    2012-12-01

    The water-soluble group B3 vitamin nicotinamide (NAM) is involved in a wide range of physical processes through biosynthetically converted to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). In addition to its pivotal role in energy metabolism, NAD(+) is also the indispensable substrate of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). PARP-1 and SIRT1 may catalyze the posttranslational poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and acetylation of histones as well as non-histone proteins, such as nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein 1, which play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation of inflammatory genes. The NAD(+)-dependent modifications catalyzed by PARP-1 and SIRT1 liberate NAM, and NAM acts as feedback inhibitor of PARP-1 and SIRT1 through interacting with the enzymes at the binding site for NAD(+). There is increasing evidence that NAM effectively suppresses the expression of inflammatory genes and provides therapeutic benefits in various inflammation-based diseases. The mechanisms underlie the anti-inflammatory properties of NAM might involve the inhibition of PARP-1 and SIRT1. PMID:23053940

  11. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Cormac T.; Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T.; Ryan, Silke

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key source of inflammatory mediators in OSA.

  12. ?-Cryptoxanthin Alleviates Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kobori, Masuko; Ni, Yinhua; Takahashi, Yumiko; Watanabe, Natsumi; Sugiura, Minoru; Ogawa, Kazunori; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutritional epidemiological surveys showed that serum ?-cryptoxanthin inversely associates with the risks for insulin resistance and liver dysfunction. Consumption of ?-cryptoxanthin possibly prevents nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is suggested to be caused by insulin resistance and oxidative stress from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. To evaluate the effect of ?-cryptoxanthin on diet-induced NASH, we fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (CL diet) with or without 0.003% ?-cryptoxanthin to C56BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. After feeding, ?-cryptoxanthin attenuated fat accumulation, increases in Kupffer and activated stellate cells, and fibrosis in CL diet-induced NASH in the mice. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that although ?-cryptoxanthin histochemically reduced steatosis, it was more effective in inhibiting inflammatory gene expression change in NASH. ?-Cryptoxanthin reduced the alteration of expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammatory responses, infiltration and activation of macrophages and other leukocytes, quantity of T cells, and free radical scavenging. However, it showed little effect on the expression of genes related to cholesterol and other lipid metabolism. The expression of markers of M1 and M2 macrophages, T helper cells, and cytotoxic T cells was significantly induced in NASH and reduced by ?-cryptoxanthin. ?-Cryptoxanthin suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible and/or TNF?-inducible genes in NASH. Increased levels of the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were reduced by ?-cryptoxanthin in NASH. Thus, ?-cryptoxanthin suppresses inflammation and the resulting fibrosis probably by primarily suppressing the increase and activation of macrophages and other immune cells. Reducing oxidative stress is likely to be a major mechanism of inflammation and injury suppression in the livers of mice with NASH. PMID:24858832

  13. Increased Peripheral Blood Pro-Inflammatory/Cytotoxic Lymphocytes in Children with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, G.; Upham, J. W.; Chang, A. B.; Baines, K. J.; Yerkovich, S. T.; Pizzutto, S. J.; Hodge, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bronchiectasis (BE) in children is common in some communities including Indigenous children in Australia. Relatively little is known about the nature of systemic inflammation in these children, especially the contribution of specific pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets: T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT-like cells. We have shown that these cells produce increased cytotoxic (granzyme b and perforin) and inflammatory (IFNγ and TNFα) mediators in several adult chronic lung diseases and hypothesised that similar changes would be evident in children with BE. Methods Intracellular cytotoxic mediators perforin and granzyme b and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in T cell subsets, NKT-like and NK cells from blood and bronchoalveolar samples from 12 children with BE and 10 aged-matched control children using flow cytometry. Results There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and T and NKT-like subsets expressing perforin/granzyme and IFNγ and TNFα in blood in BE compared with controls. There was a further increase in the percentage of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic T cells in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous children. There was no change in any of these mediators in BAL. Conclusions Childhood bronchiectasis is associated with increased systemic pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Future studies need to examine the extent to which elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic cells predict future co-morbidities. PMID:26258716

  14. Sumoylation coordinates the repression of inflammatory and anti-viral gene-expression programs during innate sensing.

    PubMed

    Decque, Adrien; Joffre, Olivier; Magalhaes, Joao G; Cossec, Jack-Christophe; Blecher-Gonen, Ronnie; Lapaquette, Pierre; Silvin, Aymeric; Manel, Nicolas; Joubert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Seeler, Jacob-Sebastian; Albert, Matthew L; Amit, Ido; Amigorena, Sebastian; Dejean, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Innate sensing of pathogens initiates inflammatory cytokine responses that need to be tightly controlled. We found here that after engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in myeloid cells, deficient sumoylation caused increased secretion of transcription factor NF-?B-dependent inflammatory cytokines and a massive type I interferon signature. In mice, diminished sumoylation conferred susceptibility to endotoxin shock and resistance to viral infection. Overproduction of several NF-?B-dependent inflammatory cytokines required expression of the type I interferon receptor, which identified type I interferon as a central sumoylation-controlled hub for inflammation. Mechanistically, the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO operated from a distal enhancer of the gene encoding interferon-? (Ifnb1) to silence both basal and stimulus-induced activity of the Ifnb1 promoter. Therefore, sumoylation restrained inflammation by silencing Ifnb1 expression and by strictly suppressing an unanticipated priming by type I interferons of the TLR-induced production of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26657003

  15. Developmental exposure to manganese increases adult susceptibility to inflammatory activation of glia and neuronal protein nitration.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Julie A; Streifel, Karin M; Sullivan, Kelly A; Legare, Marie E; Tjalkens, Ronald B

    2009-12-01

    Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) produces a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the basal ganglia characterized by reactive gliosis and expression of neuroinflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Induction of NOS2 in glial cells causes overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and injury to neurons that is associated with parkinsonian-like motor deficits. Inflammatory activation of glia is believed to be an early event in Mn neurotoxicity, but specific responses of microglia and astrocytes to Mn during development remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of juvenile exposure to Mn on the activation of glia and production of NO in C57Bl/6J mice, postulating that developmental Mn exposure would lead to heightened sensitivity to gliosis and increased expression of NOS2 in adult mice exposed again later in life. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Mn exposure caused increased activation of both microglia and astrocytes in the striatum (St), globus pallidus (Gp), and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) of treated mice compared with controls. More robust activation of microglia was observed in juveniles, whereas astrogliosis was more prominent in adult mice preexposed during development. Co-immunofluorescence studies demonstrated increased expression of NOS2 in glia located in the Gp and SNpr. Additionally, greater increases in the level of 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts were detected in dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32-positive neurons of the St of Mn-treated adult mice preexposed as juveniles. These data indicate that subchronic exposure to Mn during development leads to temporally distinct patterns of glial activation that result in elevated nitrosative stress in distinct populations of basal ganglia neurons. PMID:19812365

  16. Eosinophil associated genes in the inflammatory bowel disease 4 region: Correlation to inflammatory bowel disease revealed

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Kristin; Rubin, Jenny; Halfvarson, Jonas; Törkvist, Leif; Rönnblom, Anders; Sangfelt, Per; Lördal, Mikael; Jönsson, Ulla-Britt; Sjöqvist, Urban; Håkansson, Lena Douhan; Venge, Per; Carlson, Marie

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and genetic variations in eosinophil protein X (EPX) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). METHODS: DNA was extracted from ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid blood of 587 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 592 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 300 healthy subjects. The EPX405 (G > C, rs2013109), ECP434 (G > C, rs2073342) and ECP562 (G > C, rs2233860) gene polymorphisms were analysed, by the 5’-nuclease allelic discrimination assay. For determination of intracellular content of EPX and ECP in granulocytes, 39 blood samples was collected and extracted with a buffer containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The intracellular content of EPX was analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The intracellular content of ECP was analysed with the UniCAP® system as described by the manufacturer. Statistical tests for calculations of results were χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls test, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve with Log-rank test for trend, the probability values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The genotype frequency for males with UC and with an age of disease onset of ≥ 45 years (n = 57) was for ECP434 and ECP562, GG = 37%, GC = 60%, CC = 4% and GG = 51%, GC = 49%, CC = 0% respectively. This was significantly different from the healthy subject’s genotype frequencies of ECP434 (GG = 57%, GC = 38%, CC = 5%; P = 0.010) and ECP562 (GG = 68%, GC = 29%,CC = 3%; P = 0.009). The genotype frequencies for females, with an age of disease onset of ≥ 45 years with CD (n = 62), was for the ECP434 and ECP562 genotypes GG = 37%, GC = 52%, CC = 11% and GG = 48%, GC = 47% and CC = 5% respectively. This was also statistically different from healthy controls for both ECP434 (P = 0.010) and ECP562 (P = 0.013). The intracellular protein concentration of EPX and ECP was calculated in μg/106 eosinophils and then correlated to the EPX 405 genotypes. The protein content of EPX was highest in the patients with the CC genotype of EPX405 (GG = 4.65, GC = 5.93, and CC = 6.57) and for ECP in the patients with the GG genotype of EPX405 (GG = 2.70, GC = 2.47 and CC = 1.90). ANOVA test demonstrated a difference in intracellular protein content for EPX (P = 0.009) and ECP (P = 0.022). The age of disease onset was linked to haplotypes of the EPX405, ECP434 and ECP562 genotypes. Kaplan Maier curve showed a difference between haplotype distributions for the females with CD (P = 0.003). The highest age of disease onset was seen in females with the EPX405CC, ECP434GC, ECP562CC haplotype (34 years) and the lowest in females with the EPX405GC, ECP434GC, ECP562GG haplotype (21 years). For males with UC there was also a difference between the highest and lowest age of the disease onset (EPX405CC, ECP434CC, ECP562CC, mean 24 years vs EPX405GC, ECP434GC, ECP562GG, mean 34 years, P = 0.0009). The relative risk for UC patients with ECP434 or ECP562-GC/CC genotypes to develop dysplasia/cancer was 2.5 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4, P = 0.01) and 2.5 (95%CI: 1.1-5.4, P = 0.02) respectively, compared to patients carrying the GG-genotypes. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of EPX and ECP are associated to IBD in an age and gender dependent manner, suggesting an essential role of eosinophils in the pathophysiology of IBD. PMID:23197886

  17. Loss of CX3CR1 increases accumulation of inflammatory monocytes and promotes gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xi; Chen, Zhihong; Heinzmann, David; Rasmussen, Rikke Darling; Alvarez-Garcia, Virginia; Kim, Yeonghwan; Wang, Bingcheng; Tamagno, Ilaria; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaoxia; Kettenmann, Helmut; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant populations of non-neoplastic cells in the glioblastoma (GBM) microenvironment are resident microglia, macrophages and infiltrating monocytes from the blood circulation. The mechanisms by which monocytes infiltrate into GBM, their fate following infiltration, and their role in GBM growth are not known. Here we tested the hypothesis that loss of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in microglia and monocytes would affect gliomagenesis. Deletion of Cx3cr1 from the microenvironment resulted in increased tumor incidence and shorter survival times in glioma-bearing mice. Loss of Cx3cr1 did not affect accumulation of microglia/macrophages in peri-tumoral areas, but instead indirectly promoted the trafficking of CD11b+CD45hiCX3CR1lowLy-6ChiLy-6G?F4/80?/low circulating inflammatory monocytes into the CNS, resulting in their increased accumulation in the perivascular area. Cx3cr1-deficient microglia/macrophages and monocytes demonstrated upregulation of IL1? expression that was inversely proportional to Cx3cr1 gene dosage. The Proneural subgroup of the TCGA GBM patient dataset with high IL1? expression showed shorter survival compared to patients with low IL1?. IL1? promoted tumor growth and increased the cancer stem cell phenotype in murine and human Proneural glioma stem cells (GSCs). IL1? activated the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2) by tumor cells. Loss of Cx3cr1 in microglia in a monocyte-free environment had no impact on tumor growth and did not alter microglial migration. These data suggest that enhancing signaling to CX3CR1 or inhibiting IL1? signaling in intra-tumoral macrophages can be considered as potential strategies to decrease the tumor-promoting effects of monocytes in Proneural GBM. PMID:25987130

  18. Inflammatory Gene Expression Upon TGF-?1-Induced p38 Activation in Primary Dupuytren's Disease Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bujak, Maro; Ratkaj, Ivana; Markova-Car, Elitza; Jurii?, Davor; Horvati?, Anita; Vu?ini?, Sr?an; Lerga, Jonatan; Baus-Lon?ar, Mirela; Paveli?, Kreimir; Kraljevi? Paveli?, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation is an underlying mechanism behind fibrotic processes and differentiation of cells into myofibroblasts. Presented study therefore provides new data on activation of autoimmune and inflammatory immune response genes that accompany activation of p38 and cell differentiation in primary cells derived from Dupuytren's disease (DD) patients. Methods: Primary non-Dupuytren's disease cells (ND) were isolated from macroscopically unaffected palmar fascia adjacent to diseased tissue obtained from patients diagnosed with the last stage of DD and cultured in vitro. Gene expression, collagen gel contraction assay and analysis of secreted proteins were performed in ND cells treated with TGF-?1 and/or inhibitor of p38 phosphorylation. Results: During differentiation of ND fibroblasts, increased expression of immune response genes PAI-1, TIMP-1, CCL11, and IL-6 was found. These changes were accompanied by increased cell contractility and activation of p38 and its target kinase MK2. Inhibition of p38 phosphorylation reversed these processes in vitro. Conclusions: TGF-?1 induced p38 phosphorylation in ND cells grown from macroscopically unaffected palmar fascia adjacent to diseased tissue from DD patients. This was accompanied by activation of the cytokine genes CCL-11 and IL-6 and secretion of extracellular matrix regulatory proteins PAI-1 and TIMP-1. A combined approach directed toward inflammation and p38 MAPK-mediated processes in DD might be considered for improving management of DD patients and prevention of recurrence. PMID:26697433

  19. Increased expression of chymase in inflammatory polyps in elderly patients with functional bowel disorder

    PubMed Central

    RONG, JIAN-MING; JI, HONG-ZAN; WU, XIAO-WEI; SUN, QUAN; GUO, MEI-XIA; XU, XIAO-BING; WANG, FANG-YU

    2014-01-01

    Chymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease, is a non-angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) angiotensin II (Ang II)-generating enzyme. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chymase activity was increased in inflammatory polyps of elderly patients with functional bowel disorder (FBD). This study enrolled 45 elderly patients with FBD and 44 healthy control individuals. Expression of chymase in intestinal mucosa was assessed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC showed an increased number of chymase-positive mast cells in inflammatory polyps than in healthy intestinal mucosa (P<0.05). Compared with healthy mucosa, expression of chymase at the mRNA and protein level was significantly higher in inflammatory polyps. The frequencies of the chymase GG genotype and the G allele type were higher in the intestinal mucosa of patients with FBD compared with healthy controls (66.67 versus 40.91%, 81.11 versus 63.63%, both P<0.05). The frequency of the G allele type in the intestinal mucosa of the C4 subgroup of FBD was higher than that in the control group. However, in other FBD subgroups, there was no difference between patients and controls. Based on the fact that enhanced chymase expression was observed in inflammatory polyps of elderly patients with FBD relative to those in healthy controls, it was concluded that chymase has a significant role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory polyps in elderly patients with FBD. PMID:24396407

  20. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism modulates inflammatory cytokine responses during acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Ohira, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are important mediators of various stress-related modulations of immune function. A major genetic factor determining inter-individual differences in stress reactivity is polymorphisms of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) transporter (5HTT) gene. A short (S) variant, compared with a long (L) variant, of the promoter region of the 5HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) has been related to emotional and stress hyper-reactivity. The present study examined whether the 5HTTLPR can modulate responses of inflammatory cytokines under acute stress. Nine Japanese male participants carrying two copies of the S alleles and nine Japanese males carrying S and L alleles underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Inflammatory cytokines, endocrine parameters, heart rate and subjective stress were measured before, during and after the task. The participants carrying the SS alleles, but not those carrying the SL alleles, showed a significant increase of IL-1β immediately after TSST. This hyper-reactivity to acute stress in individuals with the SS alleles was also observed in their heart rate and cortisol levels. These results suggest that the S allele of the 5HTTLPR is consistently associated with stress reactivity in multi-level stress-related biological systems. PMID:26349674

  1. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism modulates inflammatory cytokine responses during acute stress.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Ohira, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are important mediators of various stress-related modulations of immune function. A major genetic factor determining inter-individual differences in stress reactivity is polymorphisms of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) transporter (5HTT) gene. A short (S) variant, compared with a long (L) variant, of the promoter region of the 5HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) has been related to emotional and stress hyper-reactivity. The present study examined whether the 5HTTLPR can modulate responses of inflammatory cytokines under acute stress. Nine Japanese male participants carrying two copies of the S alleles and nine Japanese males carrying S and L alleles underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Inflammatory cytokines, endocrine parameters, heart rate and subjective stress were measured before, during and after the task. The participants carrying the SS alleles, but not those carrying the SL alleles, showed a significant increase of IL-1β immediately after TSST. This hyper-reactivity to acute stress in individuals with the SS alleles was also observed in their heart rate and cortisol levels. These results suggest that the S allele of the 5HTTLPR is consistently associated with stress reactivity in multi-level stress-related biological systems. PMID:26349674

  2. Association between blood pressure and DNA methylation of retrotransposons and pro-inflammatory genes

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, Stacey E; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Halonen, Jaana; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Tarantini, Letizia; Bollati, Valentina; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an epigenetic regulator of gene expression that changes with age, but its contribution to aging-related disorders, including high blood pressure (BP), is still largely unknown. We examined the relation of BP to the methylation of retrotransposon sequences of DNA and of selected candidate genes. Methods This investigation included 789 elderly participants in the Normative Aging Study, ranging in age from 55 to 100 years, who had longitudinal measurements of DNA methylation. In these subjects DNA we measured the proportion of methylated sites in retrotransposable sequences and in pro-inflammatory genes, expressed as the percent of 5-methylated cytosines (%5mC) among all cytosines. From one to four methylation measurements were made for each subject between 1999 and 2009. We fit mixed-effects models, using repeated measures of BP as the outcome and DNA methylation as the explanatory variable, adjusting for confounding variables. We also fit a Bayesian mixed-effects structural equation model to account for heterogeneity in the effects of methylation sites within each gene. Results An increase in inter-quartile range (IQR) in the methylation of Alu elements was associated with an increase of 0.97 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (95% CI 0.321.57), but no such association was observed for long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1). We also found positive associations between DBP and methylation of the genes for toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and a negative association between DBP and methylation of the gene for interferon-? (IFN-?). Associations between methylation and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were weaker than those between methylation and DBP. Bayesian mixed-effects structural equation model results were similar for both DBP and SBP models. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that changes in DNA methylation of some pro-inflammatory genes and retrotransposable elements are related to small changes in BP. PMID:23508416

  3. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; van der Veer, Willem M; de Jong, Etty H; Gibbs, Susan; Niessen, Frank B

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic scar (NTscar) tissue. Another drawback is that often only one time period after wounding is studied, while scar formation is a dynamic process over a period of several months. In this study, we compared the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and also macrophage infiltration in biopsies obtained before and up to 52 weeks after standard surgery in five patients who developed HTscar and six patients who developed NTscar. It was found that HTscar formation coincided with a prolonged decreased expression of inflammatory genes (TNF?, IL-1?, IL-1RN, CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, CXCR2, C3 and IL-10) and an extended increased expression of ECM-related genes (PLAU, Col3A1, TGF?3). This coincided with a delayed but prolonged infiltration of macrophages (type 2) in HTscar tissue compared to NTscar tissue. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical localization of proteins coding for select genes named above. Our study emphasizes that human cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic process that is needed to be studied over a period of time rather than a single point of time. Taken together, our results suggest innate immune stimulatory therapies may be a better option for improving scar quality than the currently used anti-inflammatory scar therapies. PMID:25939875

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.; Yang, H.; Targan, S.

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  5. AGING INCREASES EXPRESSION OF INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS IN MOUSE ADIPOSE TISSUE (AT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases with age. Low-grade inflammation in AT is implicated in development of insulin resistance and T2D. We conducted a study to determine if inflammatory responses are upregulated with age in AT. Results show that visceral AT from old mice had significantl...

  6. Differential DNA methylation and expression of inflammatory and zinc transporter genes defines subgroups of osteoarthritic hip patients

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Michael D; Young, David A; Loughlin, John; Reynard, Louise N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We have previously shown that the cartilage DNA methylome delineates two clusters of osteoarthritic (OA) hip patients, characterised by differential methylation of inflammatory genes, while others have demonstrated a link between zinc homeostasis and inflammation in OA. We aimed to investigate these effects at the methylation and gene expression level. Methods We used our previously generated methylation data while quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression using RNA from the hip cartilage of members of both clusters and from control individuals without hip OA. Results One of the OA clusters is characterised by the promoter hypomethylation and increased expression of inflammation-associated genes including IL1A and TNF. Furthermore, we show that the increase in expression of these genes is accompanied by increased expression of several zinc transporter genes. In addition, the zinc responsive transcription factor MTF1 is also upregulated, which is accompanied by an increase in the expression of its targets the metalloproteinases MMP13 and ADAMTS5. Conclusions We have identified a subgroup of OA hip patients that are epigenetically and transcriptiomically characterised by a cartilage inflammatory phenotype with concurrent differential regulation of zinc regulators. The identification of subgroups enhances stratified phenotyping of OA patients and has important implications for future therapeutic applications. PMID:25854584

  7. Angiogenic gene signature in human pancreatic cancer correlates with TGF-beta and inflammatory transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Craven, Kelly E; Gore, Jesse; Wilson, Julie L; Korc, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are hypovascular, but overexpress pro-angiogenic factors and exhibit regions of microvasculature. Using RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we previously reported that ~12% of PDACs have an angiogenesis gene signature with increased expression of multiple pro-angiogenic genes. By analyzing the recently expanded TCGA dataset, we now report that this signature is present in ~35% of PDACs but that it is mostly distinct from an angiogenesis signature present in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These PDACs exhibit a transcriptome that reflects active TGF-? signaling, and up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory genes, and many members of JAK signaling pathways. Moreover, expression of SMAD4 and HDAC9 correlates with endothelial cell abundance in PDAC tissues. Concomitantly targeting the TGF-? type I receptor (T?RI) kinase with SB505124 and JAK1-2 with ruxolitinib suppresses JAK1 phosphorylation and blocks proliferative cross-talk between human pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and human endothelial cells (ECs), and these anti-proliferative effects were mimicked by JAK1 silencing in ECs. By contrast, either inhibitor alone does not suppress their enhanced proliferation in 3D co-cultures. These findings suggest that targeting both TGF-? and JAK1 signaling could be explored therapeutically in the 35% of PDAC patients whose cancers exhibit an angiogenesis gene signature. PMID:26586478

  8. GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ALTERS APOPTOTIC AND INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION OF TROPHOBASTS FROM HUMAN TERM PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    MAGEE, Thomas R.; ROSS, Michael G.; WEDEKIND, Lauren; DESAI, Mina; KJOS, Siri; BELKACEMI, Louiza

    2014-01-01

    AIM Increased placental growth secondary to reduced apoptosis may contribute to the development of macrosomia in GDM pregnancies. We hypothesize that reduced apoptosis in GDM placentas is caused by dysregulation of apoptosis related genes from death receptors or mitochondrial pathway or both to enhance placental growth in GDM pregnancies. METHODS Newborn and placental weights from women with no pregnancy complications (controls; N=5), or with GDM (N=5) were recorded. Placental villi from both groups were either fixed for TUNEL assay, or snap frozen for gene expression analysis by apoptosis PCR microarrays and qPCR. RESULTS Maternal, placental and newborn weights were significantly higher in the GDM group vs. Controls. Apoptotic index of placentas from the GDM group was markedly lower than the Controls. At a significant threshold of 1.5, seven genes (BCL10, BIRC6, BIRC7, CASP5, CASP8P2, CFLAR, and FAS) were down regulated, and 13 genes (BCL2, BCL2L1, BCL2L11, CASP4, DAPK1, I?B?E, MCL1, NF?BIZ, NOD1, PEA15, TNF, TNFRSF25, and XIAP) were unregulated in the GDM placentas. qPCR confirmed the consistency of the PCR microarray. Using Western blotting we found significantly decreased placental pro-apoptotic FAS receptor and FAS ligand (FASL), and increased mitochondrial anti-apoptotic BCL2 post GDM insult. Notably, caspase-3, which plays a central role in the execution-phase of apoptosis, and its substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly down regulated in GDM placentas, as compared to non-diabetic Control placentas. CONCLUSION . Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk for having macrosomic newborns, and larger placentas with reduced apoptosis. Decreased apoptosis subsequent to alterations in apoptotic and inflammatory genes may promote elevated weight in the GDM placentas. PMID:24768206

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of steryl ferulate on experimental rats with non-bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinzhou; Xiong, Lina; Huang, Weisu; Cai, Huafang; Luo, Yanxi; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Baiyi

    2014-06-01

    Steryl ferulate (SF) is a bioactive mixture extracted from rice bran and shows higher inhibitory activity against inflammation than the corresponding free sterols. In this study, the aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of SF using a Xiaozhiling-induced non-bacterial prostatitis (NBP) rat model. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by prostate weight, prostate index, acid phosphatase, density of lecithin corpuscles (DLC), white blood cell count (WBC), and prostatic histologic section. Prostate gene expression profiling was assessed by a cDNA microarray and validated by quantitative real-time PCR of five selected genes. Pathway analysis and Gene ontology (GO) analysis were applied to determine the roles of these differentially expressed genes involved in these biological pathways or GO terms. SF treatment could significantly inhibit prostate weight, prostate index, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and WBC, suppress the severity of histological lesion and increase the DLC. Compared with the control group, the SF treatment group contained 238 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. GO analysis demonstrated that the most significant expression genes were closely related to the terms of fibrinolysis, inflammatory response, high-density lipoprotein particle, protein-lipid complex, enzyme inhibitor activity, peptidase inhibitor activity and others. Canonical pathway analysis indicated five pathways were significantly regulated, which were associated with inflammation and tumorgenesis. In conclusion, SF may be used as a health supplement to prevent NBP, in that it could inhibit prostate inflammation in NBP patients by affecting the expression of genes in the related GO terms and pathways. PMID:24686498

  10. Epigenetic Modulation of Microglial Inflammatory Gene Loci in Helminth-Induced Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Quenum, Fredice Z.; Abbas, Ata; Bradley, David S.; Nechaev, Sergei; Singh, Brij B.; Sharma, Jyotika

    2015-01-01

    In neurocysticercosis, parasite-induced immune suppressive effects are thought to play an important role in enabling site-specific inhibition of inflammatory responses to infections. It is axiomatic that microglia-mediated (M1 proinflammatory) response causes central nervous system inflammation; however, the mechanisms by which helminth parasites modulate microglia activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that microglia display a diminished expression of M1-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) in murine neurocysticercosis. Microglia also exhibited a lack of myeloid cell maturation marker major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II in these parasite-infected brains. Treatment of microglia with helminth soluble/secreted factors (HSFs) invitro did not induce expression of M1-inflammatory signature molecule NOS2 as well as MHC-II in primary microglia. However, HSF treatment completely inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in expression of MHC-II, NOS2 and nitric oxide production in these cells. As epigenetic modulation of chromatin states that regulates recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol-II) is a key regulatory step in determining gene expression and functional outcome, we next evaluated whether HSF induced modulation of these phenomenon in microglia invitro. Indeed, HSF downregulated Pol-II recruitment to the promoter region of TNF-?, IL-6, NOS2, MHC-II, and transcription factor CIITA (a regulator of MHC-II expression), by itself. Moreover, HSF suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in Pol-II recruitment as well. In addition, HSF exposure reduced the positive histone marks H3K4Me3 and H3K9/14Ac at the promoter of TNF-?, IL-6, NOS2, MHC-II, and CIITA. These studies provide a novel mechanistic insight into helminth-mediated immune suppression in microglia via modulation of epigenetic processes. PMID:26148848

  11. Increased inflammatory markers identified in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fillman, S G; Cloonan, N; Catts, V S; Miller, L C; Wong, J; McCrossin, T; Cairns, M; Weickert, C S

    2013-02-01

    Upregulation of the immune response may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia with changes occurring in both peripheral blood and brain tissue. To date, microarray technology has provided a limited view of specific inflammatory transcripts in brain perhaps due to sensitivity issues. Here we used SOLiD Next Generation Sequencing to quantify neuroimmune mRNA expression levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 20 individuals with schizophrenia and their matched controls. We detected 798 differentially regulated transcripts present in people with schizophrenia compared with controls. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified the inflammatory response as a key change. Using quantitative real-time PCR we confirmed the changes in candidate cytokines and immune modulators, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1? and SERPINA3. The density of major histocompatibility complex-II-positive cells morphologically resembling microglia was significantly increased in schizophrenia and correlated with IL-1? expression. A group of individuals, most of whom had schizophrenia, were found to have increased inflammatory mRNA expression. In summary, we have demonstrated changes in an inflammatory response pathway that are present in ?40% of people diagnosed with schizophrenia. This suggests that therapies aimed at immune system attenuation in schizophrenia may be of direct benefit in the brain. PMID:22869038

  12. Gene and cell therapy based treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    van der Marel, Sander; Majowicz, Anna; van Deventer, Sander; Petry, Harald; Hommes, Daniel W; Ferreira, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders most commonly affecting young adults. Currently available therapies can result in induction and maintenance of remission, but are not curative and have sometimes important side effects. Advances in basic research in IBD have provided new therapeutic opportunities to target the inflammatory process involved. Gene and cell therapy approaches are suitable to prevent inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and show therefore potential in the treatment of IBD. In this review, we present the current progress in the field of both gene and cell therapy and future prospects in the context of IBD. Regarding gene therapy, we focus on viral vectors and their applications in preclinical models. The focus for cell therapy is on regulatory T lymphocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells, their potential for the treatment of IBD and the progress made in both preclinical models and clinical trials. PMID:22180846

  13. Increased Circulating Anti-inflammatory Cells in Marathon-trained Runners.

    PubMed

    Rehm, K; Sunesara, I; Marshall, G D

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training can alter immune function. Marathon training has been associated with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and an increased activity of inflammatory-based diseases, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of circulating CD4+? T cell subsets in the periphery of marathon-trained runners and matched non-marathon controls. 19 recreational marathoners that were 4 weeks from running a marathon and 19 demographically-matched healthy control subjects had the percentage of CD4+ T cell subpopulations (T helper 1, T helper 2, T helper 1/T helper 2 ratio, regulatory T cells, CD4+ IL10+, and CD4+ TGF?+ (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) measured by flow cytometry. Marathon-trained runners had significantly less T helper 1 and regulatory T cells and significantly more T helper 2, CD4+?IL10+, and TGF?+ cells than the control subjects. The alterations in the percentage of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells led to a significantly lower T helper 1/T helper 2 ratio in the marathon-trained runners. These data suggest that endurance-based training can increase the number of anti-inflammatory cells. This may be a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of both infectious and inflammatory diseases observed in endurance athletes. PMID:26038877

  14. Gene expression of inflammatory molecules in circulating lymphocytes from arsenic-exposed human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Ho, I-Ching; Chen, Chien-Jen; Lee, Te-Chang

    2003-01-01

    Long-term arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of vascular diseases including ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and carotid atherosclerosis. The pathogenic mechanisms of arsenic atherogenicity are not completely clear. A fundamental role for inflammation in atherosclerosis and its complications has become appreciated recently. To investigate molecular targets of inflammatory pathway possibly involved in arsenic-associated atherosclerosis, we conducted an exploratory study using cDNA microarray and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify genes with differential expression in arsenic-exposed yet apparently healthy individuals. As an initial experiment, array hybridization was performed with mRNA isolated from activated lymphocytes of 24 study subjects with low (0-4.32 microg/L), intermediate (4.64-9.00 microg/L), and high (9.60-46.5 microg/L) levels of blood arsenic, with each group comprising eight age-, sex-, and smoking frequency-matched individuals. A total of 708 transcripts of known human genes were analyzed, and 62 transcripts (8.8%) showed significant differences in the intermediate or high-arsenic groups compared with the low-level arsenic group. Among the significantly altered genes, several cytokines and growth factors involving inflammation, including interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP1), chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1/growth-related oncogene alpha, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 2/growth-related oncogene beta, CD14 antigen, and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (interstitial collagenase) were upregulated in persons with increased arsenic exposure. Multivariate analyses on 64 study subjects of varying arsenic exposure levels showed that the association of CCL2/MCP1 plasma protein level with blood arsenic remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The results of this gene expression study indicate that the expression of inflammatory molecules may be increased in human subjects after prolonged exposure to arsenic, which might be a contributory factor to the high risk of atherosclerosis in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan. Further multidisciplinary studies, including molecular epidemiologic investigations, are needed to elucidate the role of arsenic-associated inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. PMID:12928151

  15. Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 Gene and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Markers in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kamna; Narang, Rajiv; Bhatia, Jagriti; Saluja, Daman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is characterized by systemic high blood pressure and is the most common and important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that the circulating levels of certain inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interlukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor suppressor protein-53 (p53) are upregulated and are independently associated with essential hypertension. However, mechanism of increase in the levels of HSP70 protein is not clear. No such studies are reported in the blood circulation of patients with essential hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the expression of circulating HSP70 at mRNA and protein levels and its relationship with other inflammatory markers in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods We recruited 132 patients with essential hypertension and 132 normal controls from similar socio-economic-geographical background. The expression of HSP70 at mRNA levels was determined by Real Time PCR and at protein levels by indirect Elisa and Western Blot techniques. Results We found a significantly higher expression of HSP70 gene expression (approximately 6.45 fold, P < 0.0001) in hypertensive patients as compared to healthy controls. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the protein expression of HSP70 was also observed in plasma of patients as compared to that of controls. Conclusion Higher expression of HSP70 is positively correlated with inflammatory markers in patients with essential hypertension and this correlation could play an important role in essential hypertension. PMID:26989902

  16. Changes in inflammatory gene expression induced by hyperbaric oxygen treatment in human endothelial cells under chronic wound conditions.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Whatmore, Jacqueline L; Harries, Lorna W; Winyard, Paul G; Smerdon, Gary R; Eggleton, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy involves the inhalation of 100% oxygen, whilst inside a chamber at greater than atmospheric pressure. It is an effective treatment for chronic diabetic wounds, although the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We hypothesised that HBO could alter inflammatory gene expression in human endothelial cells via a reactive oxygen/nitrogen species-mediated pathway. Endothelial cells were exposed to a chronic wound model comprising hypoxia (2% O(2) at 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA); PO(2) ~2 kPa) in the presence of lipopolysaccharide and TNF-? for 24h, then treated with HBO for 90 min (97.5% O(2) at 2.4 ATA; PO(2) ~237 kPa). 5h post-HBO, 19 genes involved in adhesion, angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress were downregulated. Notably, only angiogenin gene expression, which promotes both angiogenesis and nitric oxide production (reflected by increased eNOS protein expression in this study), was upregulated. This led to a decrease in endothelial IL-8 mRNA and protein, which could help alleviate inflammatory processes during chronic wound healing. This was no longer evident 22.5h post-HBO, demonstrating the importance of daily exposures in HBO treatment protocols. These studies indicate that elevated oxygen transiently regulates inflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells, which may enhance chronic wound healing. PMID:22063471

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease gene discovery. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-09

    The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the human gene(s) responsible for the disorder known as IBD. The work was planned in two phases. The desired products resulting from Phase 1 were BAC clone(s) containing the genetic marker(s) identified by gene/Networks, Inc. as potentially linked to IBD, plasmid subclones of those BAC(s), and new genetic markers developed from these plasmid subclones. The newly developed markers would be genotyped by gene/Networks, Inc. to ascertain evidence for linkage or non-linkage of IBD to this region. If non-linkage was indicated, the project would move to investigation of other candidate chromosomal regions. Where linkage was indicated, the project would move to Phase 2, in which a physical map of the candidate region(s) would be developed. The products of this phase would be contig(s) of BAC clones in the region exhibiting linkage to IBD, as well as plasmic subclones of the BACs and further genetic marker development. There would also be continued genotyping with new polymorphic markers during this phase. It was anticipated that clones identified and developed during these two phases would provide the physical resources for eventual disease gene discovery.

  18. Rapid changes in histone deacetylases and inflammatory gene expression in expert meditators

    PubMed Central

    Kaliman, Perla; lvarez-Lpez, Mara Jess; Cosn-Toms, Marta; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A growing body of research shows that mindfulness meditation can alter neural, behavioral and biochemical processes. However, the mechanisms responsible for such clinically relevant effects remain elusive. METHODS Here we explored the impact of a day of intensive practice of mindfulness meditation in experienced subjects (n= 19) on the expression of circadian, chromatin modulatory and inflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In parallel, we analyzed a control group of subjects with no meditation experience who engaged in leisure activities in the same environment (n= 21). PBMCs from all participants were obtained before (t1) and after (t2) the intervention (t2-t1= 8 hours) and gene expression was analyzed using custom pathway focused quantitative-real time PCR assays. Both groups were also presented with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). RESULTS Core clock gene expression at baseline (t1) was similar between groups and their rhythmicity was not influenced in meditators by the intensive day of practice. Similarly, we found that all the epigenetic regulatory enzymes and inflammatory genes analyzed exhibited similar basal expression levels in the two groups. In contrast, after the brief intervention we detected reduced expression of histone deacetylase genes (HDAC2, 3 and 9), alterations in global modification of histones (H4ac; H3K4me3) and decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes (RIPK2 and COX2) in meditators compared with controls. We found that the expression of RIPK2 and HDAC2 genes was associated with a faster cortisol recovery to the TSST in both groups. CONCLUSIONS The regulation of HDACs and inflammatory pathways may represent some of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of mindfulness-based interventions. Our findings set the foundation for future studies to further assess meditation strategies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:24485481

  19. Glucocorticoid receptor and Klf4 co-regulate anti-inflammatory genes in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Lisa M; Latorre, Víctor; Carceller, Elena; Boix, Julia; Vodák, Daniel; Mills, Ian Geoffrey; Pérez, Paloma

    2015-09-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) and Kruppel-like factor Klf4 are transcription factors that play major roles in skin homeostasis. However, whether these transcription factors cooperate in binding genomic regulatory regions in epidermal keratinocytes was not known. Here, we show that in dexamethasone-treated keratinocytes GR and Klf4 are recruited to genomic regions containing adjacent GR and KLF binding motifs to control transcription of the anti-inflammatory genes Tsc22d3 and Zfp36. GR- and Klf4 loss of function experiments showed total GR but partial Klf4 requirement for full gene induction in response to dexamethasone. In wild type keratinocytes induced to differentiate, GR and Klf4 protein expression increased concomitant with Tsc22d3 and Zfp36 up-regulation. In contrast, GR-deficient cells failed to differentiate or fully induce Klf4, Tsc22d3 and Zfp36 correlating with increased expression of the epithelium-specific Trp63, a known transcriptional repressor of Klf4. The identified transcriptional cooperation between GR and Klf4 may determine cell-type specific regulation and have implications for developing therapies for skin diseases. PMID:26001834

  20. Prolonged inflammatory gene response following soman-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhote, Franck; Peinnequin, André; Carpentier, Pierre; Baille, Valérie; Delacour, Claire; Foquin, Annie; Lallement, Guy; Dorandeu, Frédéric

    2007-09-01

    Following exposure to the organophosphorus nerve agent soman, the development of long-lasting seizures and build-up of irreversible seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) still represent a therapeutic challenge. A neuro-inflammatory reaction takes place in the brain after poisoning but its characteristics and potential role in SRBD and post-status epilepticus epileptogenesis is not well understood. In the present study we have analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR the time course of changes in mRNA levels of IL-1beta, TNFalpha, IL-6, ICAM-1 and SOCS3 in hippocampus, whole cortex and cerebellum in a mouse model of severe seizures and neuropathy up to 7 days after poisoning. Mice received an injection of the oxime HI-6 (50mg/kg) 5 min prior to the administration of a convulsive dose of soman (172 microg/kg). An important and highly significant increase of the five mRNA levels was recorded in cortex and hippocampus. In the cortex, the activation was generally detected as early as 1h post-intoxication with a peak response recorded between 6 and 24h. In the hippocampus, the gene up-regulation was delayed to 6h post-soman and the peak response observed between 24 and 48 h. After peaking, the response declined (except for ICAM in the hippocampus) but remained elevated, some of them significantly, at day 7. Interestingly, in the cerebellum, some changes were also observed but were several fold smaller. In conclusion, the present study indicates a quick neuro-inflammatory gene response that does not subside over 7 days suggesting a potential role in the neurological consequences of soman-induced status epilepticus. PMID:17662515

  1. Inflammatory Signalling in Fetal Membranes: Increased Expression Levels of TLR 1 in the Presence of Preterm Histological Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Gareth J.; Robson, Stephen C.; Bulmer, Judith N.; Tyson-Capper, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an established marker of ascending infection, a major cause of preterm birth. No studies have characterised the global change in expression of genes involved in the toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathways in the presence of HCA in the setting of preterm birth (pHCA). Fetal membranes were collected immediately after delivery and underwent histological staging for inflammation to derive 3 groups; term spontaneous labour without HCA (n = 9), preterm birth <34 weeks gestation without HCA (n = 8) and pHCA <34 weeks (n = 12). Profiling arrays ran in triplicate for each group were used to determine the expression of 84 genes associated with TLR signalling and screen for genes of interest (fold change >2; p<0.1). Expression of identified genes was validated individually for all samples, relative to GAPDH, using RT-PCR. Expression of TLR 1, TLR 2, lymphocyte antigen 96, interleukin 8 and Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 was increased in pHCA (p<0.05). Degree of expression was positively associated with histological staging of both maternal and fetal inflammation (p<0.05). The inflammatory expression profile at the maternal/fetal interface associated with pHCA, a reflection of ascending infection, is extremely heterogeneous suggesting polymicrobial involvement with activation of a common pathway. Antagonism of TLR 1 and TLR 2 signalling in this setting warrants further assessment. PMID:25965269

  2. The histone acetyltransferase p300 inhibitor C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Thea; Boichenko, Alexander; Leus, Niek G J; Ourailidou, Maria E; Wapenaar, Hannah; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Imhof, Axel; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-02-15

    Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as erasers. Because of their role in signal transduction cascades, these enzymes are important players in inflammation. Therefore, histone acetyltransferase inhibitors could reduce inflammatory responses. Among the few histone acetyltransferase inhibitors described, C646 is one of the most potent (Ki of 0.4?M for histone acetyltransferase p300). C646 was described to affect the NF-?B pathway; an important pathway in inflammatory responses, which is regulated by acetylation. This pathway has been implicated in asthma and COPD. Therefore, we hypothesized that via regulation of the NF-?B signaling pathway, C646 can inhibit pro-inflammatory gene expression, and have potential for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. In line with this, we demonstrate here that C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and murine precision-cut lung slices. To unravel its effects on cellular substrates we applied mass spectrometry and found, counterintuitively, a slight increase in acetylation of histone H3. Based on this finding, and structural features of C646, we presumed inhibitory activity of C646 on histone deacetylases, and indeed found inhibition of histone deacetylases from 7?M and higher concentrations. This indicates that C646 has potential for further development towards applications in the treatment of inflammation, however, its newly discovered lack of selectivity at higher concentrations needs to be taken into account. PMID:26718586

  3. Increased Cellular Proliferation And Inflammatory Cytokines In Tonsils Derived From Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkwan; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Dayyat, Ehab; Snow, Ayelet B.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Goldman, Julie L.; Li, Richard C.; Serpero, Laura D.; Clair, Heather B.; Gozal, David

    2009-01-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the major pathophysiological mechanism underlying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and recurrent tonsillitis (RI) in children. The increased expression of various mediators of the inflammatory response in tonsils of OSA patients prompted our hypothesis that the enhanced local and systemic inflammation in OSA children would promote tonsillar proliferation. Mixed cell cultures from tonsils recovered during adenotonsillectomy in children with OSA and RI were established, and proliferative rates were assessed. Cells were also cultured to determine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-oxidant protein levels and mRNA expression. Global cell proliferative rates from OSA tonsils were significantly higher than RI (P<0.01), with CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell proliferation being higher in OSA (P<0.05). Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? were highly expressed in OSA-derived tonsils. Furthermore, thioredoxin (TRX), an anti-oxidant protein, was also highly expressed in OSA tonsils at the mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01). Thus, T-cells are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsils of children with OSA, and are associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and TRX, when compared to children with RI. PMID:19581829

  4. The potent anti-inflammatory agent escin does not increase corticosterone secretion and immune cell apoptosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Hongsheng; Fan, Huaying; Wang, Tian; Jiang, Na; Yu, Pengfei; Fu, Fenghua

    2011-09-01

    Escin exerts potent glucocorticoid-like anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory effect of escin is through the up-regulation of glucocorticoids and if escin induces pathological changes in immune organs. Mice were administrated with escin intravenously for 7 days before observing the relevant parameters. The results showed that escin exhibits a potent anti-inflammatory effect, but does not increase corticosterone secretion in mice, and does not increase immune cell apoptosis in the spleen and thymus of mice. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of escin is not dependent on the release of corticosterone. PMID:21596110

  5. Activated endothelial cells limit inflammatory response, but increase chemoattractant potential and bacterial clearance by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Herrera, Ismael; Alvarado-Moreno, José Antonio; Cérbulo-Vázquez, Arturo; Prieto-Chávez, Jessica L; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; López-Macías, Constantino; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Isibasi, Armando; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2015-06-01

    Inflammation is the normal immune response of vascularized tissues to damage and bacterial products, for which leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is critical. The effects of cell-to-cell contact seen in both leukocyte and endothelial cells include cytoskeleton rearrangement, and dynamic expression of adhesion molecules and metalloproteinases. TEM induces expression of anti-apoptotic molecules, costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation, and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), such as TLR-4, in monocytes. However, little is known about how TLR-4 increment operates in monocytes during an inflammatory response. To understand it better, we used an in vitro model in which monocytes crossed a layer of IL-1β stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). After TEM, monocytes were tested for the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, their phenotype (CD14, CD16, TLR-4 expression), and TLR-4 canonical [Nuclear Factor kappa B, (NF-κB) pathway] and non-canonical [p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway] signal transduction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Phagocytosis and bacterial clearance were also measured. There was diminished secretion of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and higher secretion of chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8 and CCL2/MCP-1) in supernatant of TEM monocytes. These changes were accompanied by increases in TLR-4, CD14 (surfaces expression), p38, and ERK1/2 phosphorylated cytoplasmic forms, without affecting NF-κB activation. It also increased bacterial clearance after TEM by an O2 -independent mechanism. The data suggest that interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes fine-tunes the inflammatory response and promotes bacterial elimination. PMID:25598193

  6. The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors Ranibizumab and Aflibercept Markedly Increase Expression of Atherosclerosis-Associated Inflammatory Mediators on Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arnott, Clare; Punnia-Moorthy, Gaya; Tan, Joanne; Sadeghipour, Sara; Bursill, Christina; Patel, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have suggested that the VEGF inhibitors, Ranibizumab and Aflibercept may be associated with an excess of cardiovascular events, potentially driven by increasing atheroma instability, leading to plaque rupture and clinical events. Inflammation plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerotic plaque and particularly conversion to an unstable phenotype. Here, we sought to assess the in vitro effects of these drugs on the expression of key inflammatory mediators on endothelial cells. Methods Human coronary artery endothelial cells were co-incubated for 16h with Ranibizumab (0.11nM) or Aflibercept (0.45nM), as determined by each drug’s peak serum concentration (Cmax). Expression at protein (ELISA) and gene (RT-PCR) level of inflammatory chemokines CCL2, CCL5 and CXC3L1 as well as gene expression for the cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and the key NF-κb protein p65 was assessed. VEGF-A protein levels were also determined. Results Both drugs significantly increased chemokine, cell adhesion molecule (CAM) and p65 expression, while decreasing VEGF-A protein secretion. At equivalent Cmax concentrations, Aflibercept was significantly more pro-inflammatory than Ranibizumab. Reduction of secreted VEGF-A levels significantly attenuated inflammatory effects of both drugs, whereas blockade of the VEGF-A receptor or silencing of VEGF-A gene synthesis alone had no effect, suggesting that binding of drug to secreted VEGF-A is crucial in promoting inflammation. Finally, blockade of Toll-like receptor 4 significantly reduced inflammatory effects of both drugs. Conclusion We demonstrated here, for the first time, that both drugs have potent pro-inflammatory effects, mediated via activation of Toll-like receptor 4 on the endothelial cell surface by drug bound to VEGF-A. Further studies are required to investigate whether these effects are also seen in vivo. PMID:26959822

  7. Inflammatory Genes and Psychological Factors Predict Induced Shoulder Pain Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    George, Steven Z.; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Wu, Samuel S.; Borsa, Paul A.; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The pain experience has multiple influences but little is known about how specific biological and psychological factors interact to influence pain responses. The current study investigated the combined influences of genetic (pro-inflammatory) and psychological factors on several pre-clinical shoulder pain phenotypes. Methods An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (IL1B, TNF/LTA region, IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and psychological (anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, kinesiophobia) factors were included as the predictors of interest. The phenotypes were pain intensity (5-day average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper-extremity disability (5-day average and peak reported on the QuickDASH instrument), and duration of shoulder pain (in days). Results After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered separately as main effects and interaction terms in regression models for each pain phenotype. Results from the recruited cohort (n = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for the interactions between 1) TNF/LTA SNP rs2229094 and depressive symptoms for average pain intensity and duration and 2) IL1B two-SNP diplotype and kinesiophobia for average shoulder pain intensity. Moderate statistical evidence for prediction of additional shoulder pain phenotypes included interactions of kinesiophobia, fear of pain, or depressive symptoms with TNF/LTA rs2229094 and IL1B. Conclusion These findings support the combined predictive ability of specific genetic and psychological factors for shoulder pain phenotypes by revealing novel combinations that may merit further investigation in clinical cohorts, to determine their involvement in the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions. PMID:24598699

  8. Increased interleukin 8 expression in the colon mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Daig, R; Andus, T; Aschenbrenner, E; Falk, W; Schlmerich, J; Gross, V

    1996-01-01

    To test whether there is a difference in the expression of interleukin 8 (IL8) between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis and to determine the main site of its synthesis this study analysed IL8 in mucosal biopsy specimens of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by in situ hybridisation. IL8 was measured by ELISA in 38 normal control patients, eight inflammatory control patients, 55 Crohn's disease biopsy specimens (26 patients), and 67 ulcerative colitis biopsy specimens (35 patients). IL8 mRNA was determined in samples by in situ hybridisation using a specific IL8 RNA probe. IL8 protein was significantly increased in macroscopically inflamed specimens of Crohn's disease (median 118 pg/specimen, p < 0.0001), ulcerative colitis (median 140 pg/specimen, p < 0.001), and inflammatory controls (median 30 pg/specimen, p = 0.010) compared with normal controls (median 4 pg/specimen). IL8 was also increased in uninflamed specimens of Crohn's disease (median 46 pg/specimen, p < 0.001) but not of ulcerative colitis patients (median 9 pg/specimen, p = 0.3). IL8 protein in the mucosa correlated significantly with macroscopic inflammation in Crohn's disease (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) and in ulcerative colitis (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). IL8 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridisation in 31 of 55 biopsy specimens (56%) of Crohn's disease patients, in 38 of 67 specimens of ulcerative colitis patients (57%), in five of eight inflammatory controls (63%) and in five of 38 normal controls (13%). Mucosal IL8 mRNA expression correlated with mucosal IL8 protein (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). IL8 mRNA was only detected in inflammatory cells of the interstitium but not in mucosal epithelial cells. IL8 is produced mainly in the lamina propria of the colon in inflammatory bowel disease and correlates with mucosal inflammation. Images Figure 5 PMID:8801200

  9. Spaceflight impairs antigen-specific tolerance induction in vivo and increases inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tammy T; Spurlock, Sandra M; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Grenon, S Marlene; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-10-01

    The health risks of a dysregulated immune response during spaceflight are important to understand as plans emerge for humans to embark on long-term space travel to Mars. In this first-of-its-kind study, we used adoptive transfer of T-cell receptor transgenic OT-II CD4 T cells to track an in vivo antigen-specific immune response that was induced during the course of spaceflight. Experimental mice destined for spaceflight and mice that remained on the ground received transferred OT-II cells and cognate peptide stimulation with ovalbumin (OVA) 323-339 plus the inflammatory adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A. Control mice in both flight and ground cohorts received monophosphoryl lipid A alone without additional OVA stimulation. Numbers of OT-II cells in flight mice treated with OVA were significantly increased by 2-fold compared with ground mice treated with OVA, suggesting that tolerance induction was impaired by spaceflight. Production of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in flight compared with ground mice, including a 5-fold increase in IFN-? and a 10-fold increase in IL-17. This study is the first to show that immune tolerance may be impaired in spaceflight, leading to excessive inflammatory responses. PMID:26085131

  10. Co-culture with human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits inflammatory activity and increases cell proliferation of sodium nitroprusside-stimulated chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jae-Sung; Jung, Yeon-Hwa; Cho, Mi-Young; Yeo, Jee Eun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Kim, Yong Il; Koh, Yong-Gon

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Co-culture of hSDMSCs with SNP-stimulated chondrocytes improves anti-inflammation. • Co-culture system produces IGF-1. • Co-culture system suppresses inflammatory genes expression. • Co-culture system improves cell proliferation. • Exogenous IGF-1 inhibits inflammatory activity in SNP-stimulated chondrocytes. - Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are primarily chronic inflammatory diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage, and to regulate immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, MSCs have been shown to secrete insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The purpose of the present study was to examine the inhibitory effects on inflammatory activity from a co-culture of human synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hSDMSCs) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated chondrocytes. First, chondrocytes were treated with SNP to generate an in vitro model of RA or OA. Next, the co-culture of hSDMSCs with SNP-stimulated chondrocytes reduced inflammatory cytokine secretion, inhibited expression of inflammation activity-related genes, generated IGF-1 secretion, and increased the chondrocyte proliferation rate. To evaluate the effect of IGF-1 on inhibition of inflammation, chondrocytes pre-treated with IGF-1 were treated with SNP, and then the production of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed. Treatment with IGF-1 was shown to significantly reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion in SNP-stimulated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that hSDMSCs offer a new strategy to promote cell-based cartilage regeneration in RA or OA.

  11. Correlation of protein and gene expression profiles of inflammatory proteins after endotoxin challenge in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Uma; Conway, Theresa M; Murdock, Paul; Mooney, Jeff L; Clark, Steve; Hedge, Priti; Bond, Brian C; Jazwinska, Elizabeth C; Barnes, Michael R; Tobin, Frank; Damian-Iordachi, Valeriu; Greller, Larry; Hurle, Mark; Stubbs, Andrew P; Li, Zhong; Valoret, Elizabeth I; Erickson-Miller, Connie; Cass, Lisa; Levitt, Blanche; Davis, Hugh M; Jorkasky, Diane K; Williams, William V

    2005-07-01

    Administration of endotoxin (LPS) in humans results in profound physiological responses, including activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the release of inflammatory factors. The time course of the response of selected inflammatory proteins was examined in healthy subjects (n = 6) administered a single intravenous dose of the purified derivative of endotoxin (3.0 ng/kg). Microarray analysis demonstrated changes in the expression of a number of genes, which were confirmed in separate in vitro endotoxin stimulation experiments. Subsequent TaqMan analysis of genes of interest indicated time-dependent changes in the expression of many of these genes. This included pre-B cell enhancing factor, which was identified on microarray analysis as being markedly upregulated following endotoxin stimulation. Protein expression of the genes examined by TaqMan analysis was measured and demonstrated the appearance of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and sTNF-R proteins in the plasma beginning within 1 h after dosing, followed by other cytokines/ inflammatory markers (e.g., IL-1ra, G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1 and SOCS-3). In general, cytokine protein expression correlated well with gene expression; however, the temporal profile of expression of some genes did not correlate well with the protein data. For many of these proteins, the lack of correlation was attributable to alternate tissue sources, which were demonstrated on TaqMan analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that cytokines could be grouped according to their temporal pattern of response, with most transcript levels returning to baseline 24 h following endotoxin administration. The combination of cDNA microarray and TaqMan analysis to identify and quantify changes in gene expression, along with the analysis of protein expression, can be useful in investigating inflammatory and other diseases. PMID:16008510

  12. [Increased risk of tromboembolic complication in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Jussila, Airi; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Collin, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Tromboembolic complications are 2-4-fold more likely in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals; active IBD may increase the relative risk even 15-fold. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common involvements, but also atypical forms occur. We describe such uncommon thrombotic manifestations in two IBD patients: one had mesenterial vein and the other cavernoid sinus thrombosis. The risk of thrombotic complications should be estimated individually, and prophylactic management with low molecular weight heparin should be considered in hospitalized IBD patients. PMID:23155754

  13. Pneumococcal hydrogen peroxide-induced stress signaling regulates inflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    Loose, Maria; Hudel, Martina; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Garcia, Ernesto; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Lucas, Rudolf; Chakraborty, Trinad; Pillich, Helena

    2015-01-15

    Microbial infections can induce aberrant responses in cellular stress pathways, leading to translational attenuation, metabolic restriction, and activation of oxidative stress, with detrimental effects on cell survival. Here we show that infection of human airway epithelial cells with Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress, activation of mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and regulation of their respective target genes. We identify pneumococcal H2O2 as the causative agent for these responses, as both catalase-treated and pyruvate oxidase-deficient bacteria lacked these activities. Pneumococcal H2O2 induced nuclear NF-?B translocation and transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of translational arrest and ER stress by salubrinal or of MAPK signaling pathways attenuate cytokine transcription. These results provide strong evidence for the notion that inhibition of translation is an important host pathway in monitoring harmful pathogen-associated activities, thereby enabling differentiation between pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. PMID:25183769

  14. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Is Associated with Changes in Salivary Inflammatory Genes Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Thimgan, Matthew S.; Toedebusch, Cristina; McLeland, Jennifer; Duntley, Stephen P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a ubiquitous problem that affects public health and safety. A test that can reliably identify individuals that suffer from EDS is needed. In contrast to other methods, salivary biomarkers are an objective, inexpensive, and noninvasive method to identify individuals with inadequate sleep. Although we have previously shown that inflammatory genes are elevated in saliva samples taken from sleep deprived individuals, it is unclear if inflammatory genes will be elevated in clinical populations with EDS. In this study, salivary samples from individuals with sleep apnea were evaluated using the Taqman low density inflammation array. Transcript levels for 3 genes, including prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), were elevated in patients with sleep apnea. Interestingly, PTGS2 was also elevated in patients with EDS but who did not have sleep apnea. These data demonstrate the feasibility of using salivary transcript levels to identify individuals that self-report excessive daytime sleepiness. PMID:25873764

  15. Contribution of interleukin-1 beta to the inflammation-induced increase in nerve growth factor levels and inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    PubMed Central

    Safieh-Garabedian, B.; Poole, S.; Allchorne, A.; Winter, J.; Woolf, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. Peripheral inflammation is associated with the local production of neuroactive inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. These may contribute to inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia by directly or indirectly altering the function or chemical phenotype of responsive primary sensory neurones. 2. To investigate this, inflammation was produced by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in adult rats. This resulted in a significant elevation in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the inflamed tissue and of the peptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the L4 dorsal root ganglion 48 h post CFA injection. 3. The effects of a steroidal (dexamethasone) and a non-steroidal (indomethacin) anti-inflammatory drug on the levels of NGF and IL-1 beta in inflamed tissue were investigated and compared with alterations in behavioural hyperalgesia and neuropeptide expression in sensory neurones. 4. Systemic dexamethasone (120 micrograms kg-1 per day starting the day before the CFA injection) had no effect on the inflammatory hyperalgesia. When the dose was administered 3 times daily, a reduction in mechanical and to a lesser extent thermal sensitivity occurred. Indomethacin at 2 mg kg-1 daily (i.p.) had no effect on the hyperalgesia and a dose of 4 mg kg-1 daily was required to reduce significantly mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. 5. The increase in NGF produced by the CFA inflammation was prevented by both dexamethasone and indomethacin, but only at the higher dose levels. Dexamethasone at the lower and higher dose regimes diminished the upregulation of IL-1 beta whereas indomethacin had an effect only at the higher dose. 6. The increase in SP and CGRP levels produced by the CFA inflammation was prevented by dexamethasone and indomethacin at the lower and higher dose regimes. 7. Intraplantar injections of IL-1 beta (0.01, 0.1 and 1 ng) produced a brief (6 h) thermal hyperalgesia and an elevation in cutaneous NGF levels which was prevented by pretreatment with human recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra) (0.625 microgram, i.v.). The thermal hyperalgesia but not the NGF elevation produced by intraplantar IL-1 beta (1 ng) was prevented by administration of a polyclonal neutralizing anti-NGF serum. 8. IL-1 ra significantly reduced the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by CFA for 6 h after administration as well as the CFA-induced elevation in NGF levels. Anti-NGF pretreatment substantially reduced CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia without reducing the elevation in IL-1 beta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582555

  16. Increased plasma levels of BDNF and inflammatory markers in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Faria, Mayara Chaves; Gonalves, Gisele Santos; Rocha, Natlia Pessoa; Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida; Gualberto Cintra, Marco Tlio; Jardim de Paula, Jonas; Jos Ravic de Miranda, Lus Felipe; Clayton de Souza Ferreira, Alessandro; Teixeira, Antnio Lcio; Gomes, Karina Braga; Carvalho, Maria das Graas; Sousa, Lirlndia P

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Neurotrophic factors and inflammatory markers may play considerable roles in AD. In this study we measured, through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neuronal growth factor (NGF), as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha soluble receptors, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), in 50 AD patients, 37 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 56 healthy elderly controls. BDNF levels, expressed as median and interquartile range, were higher for AD patients (2545.3, 1497.4-4153.4pg/ml) compared to controls (1503.8, 802.3-2378.4pg/ml), P<0.001. sICAM-1 was also higher in AD patients. sTNFR1 levels were increased in AD when compared to controls and also to MCI. GDNF, NGF and sTNFR2 levels showed no significant differences among the studied groups. The increase in BDNF might reflect a compensatory mechanism against early neurodegeneration and seems to be related to inflammation. sTNFR1 appears to mark not only the inflammatory state but also differentiates between MCI and AD, which may be an additional tool for differentiating degrees of cognitive impairment. PMID:24576746

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Through Alteration in Production of TNF-α, ROS and Expression of Certain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ashim K.; Mazumder, Tamal; Chatterjee, Shankar N.

    2011-01-01

    Search for a novel anti-inflammatory agent from a herbal source, such as Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., a plant from the Eastern Himalayas, is of prime interest in the present investigation. Inflammation causes tissue destruction and development of diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and so forth. The ethanolic leaf extract of E. adenophorum (EEA) was administered intravenously and in other cases topically at the site of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in mouse foot paw induced with dinitrofluorobenzene. EEA can effectively inhibit DTH reaction and bring back normalcy to the paw much earlier than the controls. Efficacy of EEA on regulatory mechanisms for inflammation has also been considered. Intravenous administration of EEA increased the number of CD4+ T cells in spleen and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum of DTH mice. Initially it was difficult to reconcile with the anti-inflammatory role of EEA and simultaneous induction of TNF-α, an established pro-inflammatory cytokine. EEA induces higher expression of TNF-α gene and amount of the cytokine in serum. We discussed the other role of TNF-α, its involvement in repairing tissue damage incurred in course of inflammatory reaction. EEA also induces TGF-β encoding a cytokine involved in tissue repair mechanism. EEA inhibits expression of another pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-1β and downregulates cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) gene responsible for metabolism of inflammatory mediators like prostaglandins. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory role of EEA is also revealed through its inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation. Notably EEA does not necessarily affect the expression of other inflammation-related genes such as IL-6, IL-10 and IKK. The present study reports and analyzes for the first time the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf extract of E. adenophorum. PMID:21808653

  18. Adenoviral gene transfer of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, R.; Driscoll, K.; Wan, Y.; Braciak, T.; Howard, B.; Xing, Z.; Graham, F.; Gauldie, J.

    1996-01-01

    Replication-defective adenoviral vectors are capable of localized transfer and expression of incorporated gene product in lung tissue. We have constructed an adenoviral vector that expresses rat macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, a C-X-C chemokine specifically chemotactic for neutrophils, Supernatants from 293 cells, infected with the adenoviral MIP-2 (ADMIP-2) construct, showed potent chemotactic activity and the ability of the ADMIP-2 vector to transcribe and make functional protein was confirmed. In vivo analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats after intratracheal instillation of ADMIP-2 (10(9) plaque-forming units) showed a 10-fold increase in the absolute number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as opposed to rats treated with an equal titer of an E1-disabled control virus expressing firefly luciferase (ADCA-18). Neutrophils constituted 65% of total BAL cells with alveolar macrophages being the other major cell type recovered. Rat MIP-2 protein was increased (nanograms per milliliter) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid over a period of 7 days in ADMIP-2-treated animals. MIP-2 mRNA was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis in lung tissue, and histological analysis confirmed the presence of massive localized tissue neutrophilia. Evidence of chronic tissue injury and repair (ie, fibrosis) was not detected up to 2 weeks after the neutrophil infiltrate had resolved, subsequent to decreased chemokine presence. Adenoviral gene transfer proved an effective tool for the assessment of lung tissue expression of this chemokine in vivo and is useful in developing rodent models of tissue neutrophilia. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8863686

  19. Increased catabolism and decreased unsaturation of ganglioside in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Miklavcic, John J; Hart, Tasha DL; Lees, Gordon M; Shoemaker, Glen K; Schnabl, Kareena L; Larsen, Bodil MK; Bathe, Oliver F; Thomson, Alan BR; Mazurak, Vera C; Clandinin, M Tom

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether accelerated catabolism of ganglioside and decreased ganglioside content contribute to the etiology of pro-inflammatory intestinal disease. METHODS: Intestinal mucosa from terminal ileum or colon was obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis or inflammatory Crohns disease (n = 11) undergoing bowel resection and compared to control samples of normal intestine from patients with benign colon polyps (n = 6) and colorectal cancer (n = 12) in this observational case-control study. Gangliosides and phospholipids of intestinal mucosa were characterized by class and ceramide or fatty acid composition using liquid chromatography triple-quad mass spectrometry. Content and composition of ganglioside classes GM1, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GT1 and GT3 were compared among subject groups. Content and composition of phospholipid classes phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine were compared among subject groups. Unsaturation index of individual ganglioside and phospholipid classes was computed and compared among subject groups. Ganglioside catabolism enzymes beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) and sialidase-3 (NEU3) were measured in intestinal mucosa using western blot and compared among subject groups. RESULTS: Relative GM3 ganglioside content was 2-fold higher (P < 0.05) in intestine from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to control intestine. The quantity of GM3 and ratio of GM3/GD3 was also higher in IBD intestine than control tissue (P < 0.05). Control intestine exhibited 3-fold higher (P < 0.01) relative GD1a ganglioside content than IBD intestine. GD3 and GD1a species of ganglioside containing three unsaturated bonds were present in control intestine, but were not detected in IBD intestine. The relative content of PC containing more than two unsaturated bonds was 30% lower in IBD intestine than control intestine (P < 0.05). The relative content of HEXA in IBD intestine was increased 1.7-fold (P < 0.05) and NEU3 was increased 8.3-fold (P < 0.01) compared to normal intestine. Intestinal mucosa in IBD is characterized by increased GM3 content, decreased GD1a, and a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents in GD3, GD1a and PC. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a new paradigm by proposing that IBD occurs as a consequence of increased metabolism of specific gangliosides. PMID:26401073

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi: parasite shed vesicles increase heart parasitism and generate an intense inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Trocoli Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Tonelli, Renata Rosito; Pavanelli, Wander Rogrio; da Silva, Joo Santana; Schumacher, Robert Ivan; de Souza, Wanderley; E Silva, Narcisa Cunha; de Almeida Abrahamsohn, Ises; Colli, Walter; Manso Alves, Maria Jlia

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes continuously shed into the medium plasma membrane fragments sealed as vesicles enriched in glycoproteins of the gp85 and trans-sialidase (TS) superfamily and alpha-galactosyl-containing glycoconjugates. Injection of a vesicle fraction into BALB/c mice prior to T. cruzi infection led to 40% of deaths on the 16thday post-infection and 100% on day 20th whereas 20% of untreated animals survived for more than 30days. The vesicle-treated animals developed severe heart pathology, with intense inflammatory reaction and higher number of amastigote nests. Analysis of the inflammatory infiltrates 15days after infection showed predominance of TCD4(+) lymphocytes and macrophages, but not of TCD8(+) cells, as well as a decrease of areas labeled with anti-iNOS antibodies as compared to the control. Higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 mRNAs were found in the hearts and higher IL-10 and lower NO levels in splenocytes of vesicles pretreated animals. Treatment of mice with neutralizing anti-IL-10 or anti-IL-4 antibodies precluded the effects of pre-inoculation of membrane vesicles on infection. These results indicate that T. cruzi shed membrane components increase tissue parasitism and inflammation by stimulation of IL-4 and IL-10 synthesis and thus may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease acute phase. PMID:19028594

  1. Oscillation of p38 activity controls efficient pro-inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Tomida, Taichiro; Takekawa, Mutsuhiro; Saito, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    The p38 MAP kinase signalling pathway controls inflammatory responses and is an important target of anti-inflammatory drugs. Although pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) appear to induce only transient activation of p38 (over ∼60 min), longer cytokine exposure is necessary to induce p38-dependent effector genes. Here we study the dynamics of p38 activation in individual cells using a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based p38 activity reporter. We find that, after an initial burst of activity, p38 MAPK activity subsequently oscillates for more than 8 h under continuous IL-1β stimulation. However, as this oscillation is asynchronous, the measured p38 activity population average is only slightly higher than basal level. Mathematical modelling, which we have experimentally verified, indicates that the asynchronous oscillation of p38 is generated through a negative feedback loop involving the dual-specificity phosphatase MKP-1/DUSP1. We find that the oscillatory p38 activity is necessary for efficient expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2. PMID:26399197

  2. Epigenetic priming of inflammatory response genes by high glucose in adipose progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Rnningen, Torunn; Shah, Akshay; Reiner, Andrew H; Collas, Philippe; Moskaug, Jan ivind

    2015-11-27

    Cellular metabolism confers wide-spread epigenetic modifications required for regulation of transcriptional networks that determine cellular states. Mesenchymal stromal cells are responsive to metabolic cues including circulating glucose levels and modulate inflammatory responses. We show here that long term exposure of undifferentiated human adipose tissue stromal cells (ASCs) to high glucose upregulates a subset of inflammation response (IR) genes and alters their promoter histone methylation patterns in a manner consistent with transcriptional de-repression. Modeling of chromatin states from combinations of histone modifications in nearly 500 IR genes unveil three overarching chromatin configurations reflecting repressive, active, and potentially active states in promoter and enhancer elements. Accordingly, we show that adipogenic differentiation in high glucose predominantly upregulates IR genes. Our results indicate that elevated extracellular glucose levels sensitize in ASCs an IR gene expression program which is exacerbated during adipocyte differentiation. We propose that high glucose exposure conveys an epigenetic 'priming' of IR genes, favoring a transcriptional inflammatory response upon adipogenic stimulation. Chromatin alterations at IR genes by high glucose exposure may play a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases. PMID:26462465

  3. The effect of PrPSc accumulation on inflammatory gene expression within sheep peripheral lymphoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Anton G.; Hopkins, John

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of the misfolded prion protein, PrPSc in the central nervous system (CNS) is strongly linked to progressive neurodegenerative disease. For many transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), peripheral lymphoid tissue is an important site of PrPSc amplification but without gross immunological consequence. Susceptible VRQ homozygous New Zealand Cheviot sheep were infected with SSBP/1 scrapie by inoculation in the drainage area of the prescapular lymph nodes. The earliest time that PrPSc was consistently detected by immunohistology in these nodes was D50 post infection. This transcriptomic study of lymph node taken before (D10) and after (D50) the detection of PrPSc, aimed to identify the genes and physiological pathways affected by disease progression within the nodes as assessed by PrPSc detection. Affymetrix Ovine Gene arrays identified 75 and 80 genes as differentially-expressed at D10 and D50, respectively, in comparison with control sheep inoculated with uninfected brain homogenate. Approximately 70% of these were repressed at each time point. RT-qPCR analysis of seven genes showed statistically significant correlation with the array data, although the results for IL1RN and TGIF were different between the two technologies. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and general low level of repression of gene expression in lymphoid tissue, including many inflammatory genes, contrasts with the pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic events that occur within the CNS at equivalent stages of disease progression as assessed by PrPSc accumulation. PMID:26507419

  4. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNF?, COX2, IL1?, NF?B1, NF?B2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPAR? was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 ?M) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1?, NFE2L2, NF?B1, NF?B2, NOS2, and TNF?, while PPAR? was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1? expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NF?B1, NF?B2, and TNF? were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPAR? was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel modulating therapeutic strategies. PMID:25075197

  5. Associations between CD24 gene polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Li; Xu, Dong-Hua; Wang, Guo-Pin; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Cheng-Gong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between CD24 gene polymorphisms and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD). METHODS: The PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched (up to May 30, 2014). The search terms CD24, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohns disease, Ulcerative colitis, IBD, CD or UC; and polymorphism, mutation or variant were used. Association studies were limited to the English language, but no limitations in terms of race, ethnicity or geographic area were employed. Stata SE12 software was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The information was independently extracted from each eligible study by two investigators. Two common polymorphisms, C170T (rs8734) and TG1527del (rs3838646), in the CD24 gene were assessed. RESULTS: A total of three case-control studies including 2342 IBD patients and 1965 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. The patients and controls were from Caucasian cohorts. The three articles included in this meta-analysis all conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This meta-analysis revealed that there were no significant associations between the two CD24 polymorphisms and the risk for IBD (all P > 0.05). However, in a disease subgroup analysis, we found that the CD24 C170T polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of UC in a dominant model (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.15-2.77, P = 0.009) and an additive model (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.19-2.93, P = 0.007), but this relationship was not present for CD. The CD24 TG1570del polymorphism was significantly associated with CD in the additive model (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.01-1.52, P = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence that the CD24 C170T polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility to UC, and the CD24 TG1527del polymorphism might be associated with the risk of CD. PMID:26019472

  6. Analysis of the contribution of HLA genes to genetic predisposition in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Naom, I.; Haris, I.; Hodgson, S.V.; Mathew, C.G.

    1996-07-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) of unknown etiology. First-degree relatives of IBD patients have a 10-fold increase in risk of developing the same disease, and distinct associations between specific HLA types and both CD and UC have been reported. We have evaluated the contribution of genes at the HLA locus to susceptibility in IBD by linkage analysis of highly informative microsatellite polymorphisms in 43 families with multiple affected cases. No evidence for linkage of HLA to IBD was obtained under any of the four models tested. Analysis of HLA haplotype sharing in affected relatives indicated that the relative risk to a sibling conferred by the HLA locus was 1.11 in UC and 0.75 in CD, with upper (95%) confidence limits of 2.41 and 1.37, respectively. This suggests that other genetic or environmental factors are responsible for most of the familial aggregation in IBD. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Genetic Variations in Inflammatory Response Genes and Their Association with the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xin; Yan, Hao; Ou, Tong-Wen; Jia, Chun-Song; Wang, Qi; Xu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men. Genetic variations in inflammatory response genes can potentially influence the risk of prostate cancer. We aimed to examine the association between PPARG Pro12Ala, NFKB1 -94 ins/del, NFKBIA -826C/T, COX-1 (50C>T), and COX-2 (-1195G>A) polymorphisms on prostate cancer risk. The genotypes of the polymorphisms were ascertained in 543 prostate cancer patients and 753 controls through PCR-RFLP and the risk association was evaluated statistically using logistic regression analysis. The NFKB1 -94 polymorphism was shown to decrease prostate cancer risk in both heterozygous and homozygous comparison models (odds ratios of 0.74 (95% CI = 0.580.96) (P = 0.02) and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.420.78) (P < 0.01), resp.). An opposite finding was observed for COX-2 (-1195) polymorphism (odds ratios of 1.58 (95% CI = 1.152.18) (P < 0.01) for heterozygous comparison model and 2.08 (95% CI = 1.482.92) (P < 0.01) for homozygous comparison model). No association was observed for other polymorphisms. In conclusion, NFKB1 -94 ins/del and COX-2 (-1195G>A) polymorphisms may be, respectively, associated with decreased and increased prostate cancer risk in the Chinese population.

  8. IRF5:RelA Interaction Targets Inflammatory Genes in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, David G.; Heger, Andreas; Eames, Hayley L.; Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Teixeira, Ana; Blazek, Katrina; Androulidaki, Ariadne; Wong, Daniel; Goh, Fui G.; Weiss, Miriam; Byrne, Adam; Pasparakis, Manolis; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Udalova, Irina A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) plays a major role in setting up an inflammatory macrophage phenotype, but the molecular basis of its transcriptional activity is not fully understood. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of IRF5 recruitment in macrophages stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and discover that IRF5 binds to regulatory elements of highly transcribed genes. Analysis of protein:DNA microarrays demonstrates that IRF5 recognizes the canonical IRF-binding (interferon-stimulated response element [ISRE]) motif in vitro. However, IRF5 binding in vivo appears to rely on its interactions with other proteins. IRF5 binds to a noncanonical composite PU.1:ISRE motif, and its recruitment is aided by RelA. Global gene expression analysis in macrophages deficient in IRF5 and RelA highlights the direct role of the RelA:IRF5 cistrome in regulation of a subset of key inflammatory genes. We map the RelA:IRF5 interaction domain and suggest that interfering with it would offer selective targeting of macrophage inflammatory activities. PMID:25159141

  9. Inflammatory and bone-related genes are modulated by aging in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Bruno Braga; Silvério, Karina Gonzales; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Nociti, Francisco Humberto

    2009-05-01

    Periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) play a major role in periodontal tissues homeostasis and destruction. Most age-associated diseases seem to be closely related to an underlying chronic inflammatory state. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating in PDLC the effect of aging on the basal levels of inflammatory and bone-related genes. Primary PDLC cultures were obtained from subjects aged 15-20 years (control- n=5), and subjects aged more than 60 years (test- n=5). Proliferation, cell viability and total secreted protein assays were performed, and mRNA levels were quantitatively assessed for interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-8, and for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by real time PCR. Data analysis demonstrated that aging negatively influenced cell proliferation, whereas cell viability and total secreted protein were not affected (p>0.05). Gene expression analysis showed that mRNA levels for RANKL and IL-8 were not affected by aging (p>0.05) whereas, mRNA levels for IL-4 was significantly lower in aged cells (p<0.05) and OPG, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA levels were higher (p<0.05). Data analysis suggests that aging decreased the ability of PDLC to proliferate and modulated the expression of important inflammatory and bone-related genes in periodontal ligament cells, favoring a proinflammatory and an antiresorptive profile. PMID:19251432

  10. Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia does not promote generalized inflammatory gene expression in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Peters, Megan E; Kimyon, Rebecca S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Watters, Jyoti J

    2015-11-01

    Modest protocols of repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) enhance motor function in patients with chronic incomplete spinal injury. Since chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) elicits neuroinflammation, there is potential for rAIH to have similar effects. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that rAIH has minimal impact on microglial inflammatory gene expression, but up-regulates key neurotrophic factor expression in a CNS region-specific manner. Using real time PCR, we evaluated mRNA levels of inflammatory and neurotrophic factors in immunomagnetically-isolated microglia from rat frontal cortex, brainstem and upper and lower cervical spinal cord following rAIH (ten, 5-min episodes, thrice weekly, 4 weeks). In agreement with our hypothesis, rAIH had no significant impact on microglial inflammatory gene expression in any region studied. On the other hand, neurotrophic factor expression was altered in a gene- and region-specific pattern. These results have important implications for the safety of rAIH as a potential therapy to enhance neuroplasticity and motor function in patients with spinal injury or other neurologic disorders. PMID:26213117

  11. The Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Genes on the Obese Phenotype and Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Yael T.; Collins, Malcolm; Goedecke, Julia H.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition is associated with the development of many comorbidities including dyslipidemia. This review examines interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the inflammatory genes tumor necrosis alpha (TNFA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dietary fatty acids, and their relationship with obesity and serum lipid levels. In summary, dietary fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids and the omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, impact the expression of the cytokine genes TNFA and IL-6, and alter TNF? and IL-6 production. In addition, sequence variants in these genes have also been shown to alter their gene expression and plasma levels, and are associated with obesity, measures of adiposity and serum lipid concentrations. When interactions between dietary fatty acids and TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid were analyzed, both the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids modulated the relationship between TNFA and IL-6 SNPs on obesity and serum lipid profiles, thereby impacting the association between phenotype and genotype. Researching these dietgene interactions more extensively, and understanding the role of ethnicity as a confounder in these relationships, may contribute to a better understanding of the inter-individual variability in the obese phenotype. PMID:23698162

  12. Effects of low level laser therapy on inflammatory and angiogenic gene expression during the process of bone healing: A microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Tim, Carla Roberta; Bossini, Paulo Srgio; Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Malavazi, Iran; von Zeska Kress, Marcia Regina; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Renn, Ana Cludia

    2016-01-01

    The process of bone healing as well as the expression of inflammatory and angiogenic genes after low level laser therapy (LLLT) were investigated in an experimental model of bone defects. Sixty Wistar rats were distributed into control group and laser group (830nm, 30mW, 2,8J, 94seg). Histopathological analysis showed that LLLT was able to modulate the inflammatory process in the area of the bone defect and also to produce an earlier deposition of granulation tissue and newly formed bone tissue. Microarray analysis demonstrated that LLLT produced an up-regulation of the genes related to the inflammatory process (MMD, PTGIR, PTGS2, Ptger2, IL1, 1IL6, IL8, IL18) and the angiogenic genes (FGF14, FGF2, ANGPT2, ANGPT4 and PDGFD) at 36h and 3days, followed by the decrease of the gene expression on day 7. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the subjects that were treated presented a higher expression of COX-2 at 36h after surgery and an increased VEGF expression on days 3 and 7 after surgery. Our findings indicate that LLLT was efficient on accelerating the development of newly formed bone probably by modulating the inflammatory and angiogenic gene expression as well as COX2 and VEGF immunoexpression during the initial phase of bone healing. PMID:26599085

  13. Inflammatory Pathways as Promising Targets to Increase Chemotherapy Response in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhaowei; Shen, Zhoujun; Xu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    While more and more physicians are choosing chemotherapy for patients with bladder cancer, the current treatment is still far from satisfactory due to low response rate and severe side effects. Emerging evidence indicates that inflammatory microenvironment is involved in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer. Recent studies have also provided ample evidence that chemotherapy response is influenced by activation of major inflammatory mediators, including transcription factors, cytokines, chemokines, and COX-2. We reviewed all published literature addressing the roles of inflammatory microenvironment in bladder cancer and evaluating emerging evidence that inflammatory pathways represent potential therapeutic targets to enhance chemotherapy of bladder cancer. PMID:22811589

  14. Cohabitation with a sick partner increases allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; de Lima, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; dos Santos Franco, Adriana Lino; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Palermo-Neto, Joo

    2014-11-01

    The bidirectional relationship between the nervous system and the immune system is relevant for homeostatic organism maintenance. Studies from our laboratory showed that 14days of cohabitation with a sick partner (injected with Ehrlich tumor cells-TAE) produced behavioral, neurochemical, endocrinological and immunological changes. This study analyzes the effects of cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing animal on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammatory response in mice. Pairs of male mice were divided into three groups: nave, control and experimental. Animals of the nave group were kept undisturbed being used for the assessment of basal parameters. One animal of each experimental and control pair of mice was immunized with OVA. On ED(0), these OVA-immunized animals received an OVA booster. At this day (D(0)) the experimental mice that were kept undisturbed were inoculated with 510(6) Ehrlich tumor cells; their immunized cage-mates were then referred as to CSP ("companion of sick partner"). The undisturbed mice of each control pair were i.p. treated on D(0) with 0.9% NaCl; their sensitized cage-mates were subsequently referred as CHP ("companion of health partner"). The OVA challenge was performed on CSP and CHP mice on ED(12) and ED(13); blood and tissue collection were performed on ED(14). Fourteen days after cohabitation, in comparison to the CHP mice, the CSP mice displayed the following: (1) an increased number of eosinophils and neutrophils in the BAL, (2) a decreased bone marrow cell count, (3) increased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 and decreased levels of IL-10 and IFN-? in the BAL supernatant, (5) increased levels of IgG1-OVA, decreased levels of IgG2a-OVA and no changes in OVA-specific IgE in the peripheral blood, (6) increased expression of L-selectin in the BAL granulocytes, (7) decreased tracheal reactivity to methacholine measured in vitro, (8) no changes in plasma corticosterone levels and (9) increased levels of plasmatic noradrenaline. These results suggest that allergic lung inflammatory response exacerbation in CSP mice is a consequence of the psychological stress induced by forced cohabitation with the sick partner. Strong involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through adrenaline and noradrenaline release and a shift of the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile toward a Th2 response were considered to be the mechanisms underlying the cell recruitment to the animal's airways. PMID:24929194

  15. No inflammatory gene-expression response to acute exercise in human Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, Ulrich; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Kjaer, Michael; Harisson, Adrian; Langberg, Henning

    2013-08-01

    Although histology data favour the view of a degenerative nature of tendinopathy, indirect support for inflammatory reactions to loading in affected tendons exists. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether inflammatory signalling responses after acute mechanical loading were more pronounced in tendinopathic versus healthy regions of human tendon and if treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAID's) reduces this response. Twenty-seven tendinopathy patients (>6 months) were randomly assigned to a placebo (n = 14) or NSAID (Ibumetin NYCOMED GmbH Plant Oranienburg Germany (600 mg) 3/day/1 week) group (n = 13) in a double-blinded-fashion. Tendon biopsies were taken from the painful and a healthy region of the same tendon 2 h after 1 h running. Gene-expression of several targets was analysed in the sampled Achilles tendon biopsies. The mRNA for TGF-?, collagen-I and collagen-III were significantly higher expressed, and decorin, CTGF, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower expressed in the tendinopathic versus healthy tendon area. Only IL-10 was lower in expression in experiments with NSAID administration, while all other determined parameters were unaffected by NSAID. All ultrasonographic outcomes were unchanged in response to acute exercise and not influenced by NSAID. The signalling for collagen and TGF-beta was upregulated after acute loading in tendinopathic tendon. In contrast to the hypothesis, inflammatory signalling was not exaggerated in tendinopathic tendon 2 h after acute mechanical loading. PMID:23588255

  16. Carbon black nanoparticles induce biphasic gene expression changes associated with inflammatory responses in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice following a single intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mainul; Kyjovska, Zdenka O; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Saber, Anne T; Jensen, Keld A; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Williams, Andrew; Wallin, Hkan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) causes pulmonary inflammation; however, time course data to evaluate the detailed evolution of lung inflammatory responses are lacking. Here we establish a time-series of lung inflammatory response to CBNPs. Female C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally instilled with 162?g CBNPs alongside vehicle controls. Lung tissues were examined 3h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, and 42days (d) post-exposure. Global gene expression and pulmonary inflammation were assessed. DNA damage was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung tissue using the comet assay. Increased neutrophil influx was observed at all time-points. DNA strand breaks were increased in BAL cells 3h post-exposure, and in lung tissues 2-5d post-exposure. Approximately 2600 genes were differentially expressed (1.5 fold; p?0.05) across all time-points in the lungs of exposed mice. Altered transcript levels were associated with immune-inflammatory response and acute phase response pathways, consistent with the BAL profiles and expression changes found in common respiratory infectious diseases. Genes involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and muscle contraction were also differentially expressed. Gene expression changes associated with inflammatory response followed a biphasic pattern, with initial changes at 3h post-exposure declining to base-levels by 3d, increasing again at 14d, and then persisting to 42d post-exposure. Thus, this single CBNP exposure that was equivalent to nine 8-h working days at the current Danish occupational exposure limit induced biphasic inflammatory response in gene expression that lasted until 42d post-exposure, raising concern over the chronic effects of CBNP exposure. PMID:26551751

  17. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1? signaling might be of value in terms of controlling the inflammatory response around calving. The present study revealed that overfeeding cows during late pregnancy results in activation, ahead of parturition, of PMNL responses associated with stress and inflammation. These adaptations observed in PMNL did not seem to be detrimental for production. PMID:26026766

  18. Macrophage-Derived Human Resistin Is Induced in Multiple Helminth Infections and Promotes Inflammatory Monocytes and Increased Parasite Burden

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jessica C.; Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H.; Barnes, Mark A.; Chung, Josiah I.; Camberis, Mali; Le Gros, Graham; Cooper, Philip J.; Steel, Cathy; Nutman, Thomas B.; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Nair, Meera G.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can be associated with lifelong morbidity such as immune-mediated organ failure. A better understanding of the host immune response to helminths could provide new avenues to promote parasite clearance and/or alleviate infection-associated morbidity. Murine resistin-like molecules (RELM) exhibit pleiotropic functions following helminth infection including modulating the host immune response; however, the relevance of human RELM proteins in helminth infection is unknown. To examine the function of human resistin (hResistin), we utilized transgenic mice expressing the human resistin gene (hRetnTg+). Following infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), hResistin expression was significantly upregulated in infected tissue. Compared to control hRetnTg? mice, hRetnTg+ mice suffered from exacerbated Nb-induced inflammation characterized by weight loss and increased infiltration of inflammatory monocytes in the lung, along with elevated Nb egg burdens and delayed parasite expulsion. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the infected tissue revealed that hResistin promoted expression of proinflammatory cytokines and genes downstream of toll-like receptor signaling. Moreover, hResistin preferentially bound lung monocytes, and exogenous treatment of mice with recombinant hResistin promoted monocyte recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human studies, increased serum resistin was associated with higher parasite load in individuals infected with soil-transmitted helminths or filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti, and was positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these studies identify human resistin as a detrimental factor induced by multiple helminth infections, where it promotes proinflammatory cytokines and impedes parasite clearance. Targeting the resistin/proinflammatory cytokine immune axis may provide new diagnostic or treatment strategies for helminth infection and associated immune-mediated pathology. PMID:25568944

  19. Macrophage-derived human resistin is induced in multiple helminth infections and promotes inflammatory monocytes and increased parasite burden.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jessica C; Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H; Barnes, Mark A; Chung, Josiah I; Camberis, Mali; Le Gros, Graham; Cooper, Philip J; Steel, Cathy; Nutman, Thomas B; Lazar, Mitchell A; Nair, Meera G

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections can be associated with lifelong morbidity such as immune-mediated organ failure. A better understanding of the host immune response to helminths could provide new avenues to promote parasite clearance and/or alleviate infection-associated morbidity. Murine resistin-like molecules (RELM) exhibit pleiotropic functions following helminth infection including modulating the host immune response; however, the relevance of human RELM proteins in helminth infection is unknown. To examine the function of human resistin (hResistin), we utilized transgenic mice expressing the human resistin gene (hRetnTg+). Following infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), hResistin expression was significantly upregulated in infected tissue. Compared to control hRetnTg- mice, hRetnTg+ mice suffered from exacerbated Nb-induced inflammation characterized by weight loss and increased infiltration of inflammatory monocytes in the lung, along with elevated Nb egg burdens and delayed parasite expulsion. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the infected tissue revealed that hResistin promoted expression of proinflammatory cytokines and genes downstream of toll-like receptor signaling. Moreover, hResistin preferentially bound lung monocytes, and exogenous treatment of mice with recombinant hResistin promoted monocyte recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human studies, increased serum resistin was associated with higher parasite load in individuals infected with soil-transmitted helminths or filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti, and was positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these studies identify human resistin as a detrimental factor induced by multiple helminth infections, where it promotes proinflammatory cytokines and impedes parasite clearance. Targeting the resistin/proinflammatory cytokine immune axis may provide new diagnostic or treatment strategies for helminth infection and associated immune-mediated pathology. PMID:25568944

  20. Increased expression of cell adhesion molecule P-selectin in active inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Schrmann, G M; Bishop, A E; Facer, P; Vecchio, M; Lee, J C; Rampton, D S; Polak, J M

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenic changes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) depend on migration of circulating leucocytes into intestinal tissues. Although leucocyte rolling and tenuous adhesion are probably regulated by inducible selectins on vascular endothelia, little is known about the expression of these molecules in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Using immunohistochemistry on surgically resected specimens, this study investigated endothelial P-selectin (CD62, granular membrane protein-140) in frozen sections of histologically uninvolved tissues adjacent to inflammation (Crohn's disease = 10; ulcerative colitis = 10), from highly inflamed areas (Crohn's disease = 20; ulcerative colitis = 13), and from normal bowel (n = 20). By light microscopy, two forms of P-selectin immunoreactivity were detected that apparently corresponded ultrastructurally to stored and released distributions. Compared with the normal gut, there was a 3.7-fold increase of P-selectin immunoreactivity on veins (p < 0.0001), venules (p < 0.0001), and capillaries (p < 0.05) in the highly inflamed gut, without differences between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In the uninvolved gut, P-selectin expression was similar to that seen in normal controls, except for a focal increase of P-selectin in the vicinity of small lymphocyte aggregates. The dramatic upregulation of P-selectin in the inflamed tissue and its potential role in leucocyte trafficking support the concept of P-selectin blocking therapy for the control of active IBD. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7535284

  1. Assessing the site of increased intestinal permeability in coeliac and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Teahon, K; Somasundaram, S; Smith, T; Menzies, I; Bjarnason, I

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise site of intestinal permeability changes in patients with coeliac and inflammatory bowel disease is unknown. AIMS: To design a non-invasive technique for the localisation of altered gastrointestinal permeability to 51chromium labelled EDTA (51CrEDTA). The method depends on comparing and defining concentration/time profiles in serum of a series of simultaneously ingested indicators with a well defined absorption site (3-0-methyl-D-glucose (jejunal indicator), 57cobalt labelled vitamin B12 (ileal indicator), and sulphasalazine (caecal-colonic indicator)) in relation to simultaneously ingested 51CrEDTA. SUBJECTS: Five normal controls, six patients with untreated coeliac disease, five with Crohn's ileitis, and five with pan-ulcerative colitis underwent study, which entailed the simultaneous ingestion of the above four test substances followed, during the next 24 hours, by timed serial collection of urine and serum for marker analysis. RESULTS: Urinary excretion of 51CrEDTA was significantly increased in all patient groups. Analysis of serum appearances and profiles of the markers suggested that the increased intestinal permeation of 51CrEDTA took place in the diseased jejunum in patients with coeliac disease, predominantly in the ileum in Crohn's disease and in the colon in the patients with pan-ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSION: A new non-invasive technique has been assessed that permits the localisation of the site of permeability changes with the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:8984025

  2. Inflammatory Eicosanoids Increase Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression via Activation of Multiple Neuronal Receptors.

    PubMed

    Herbst-Robinson, Katie J; Liu, Li; James, Michael; Yao, Yuemang; Xie, Sharon X; Brunden, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Senile plaques comprised of A? peptides are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, as are activated glia that release inflammatory molecules, including eicosanoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and A? levels can be increased through activation of thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptors on neurons. We demonstrate that TP receptor regulation of APP expression depends on G?q-signaling and conventional protein kinase C isoforms. Importantly, we discovered that G?q-linked prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene D4 receptors also regulate APP expression. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2, as well as total APP levels, were found to be elevated in the brains of aged 5XFAD transgenic mice harboring A? plaques and activated glia, suggesting that increased APP expression resulted from eicosanoid binding to G?q-linked neuronal receptors. Notably, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis significantly lowered brain APP protein levels in aged 5XFAD mice. These results provide new insights into potential AD therapeutic strategies. PMID:26672557

  3. Inflammatory Eicosanoids Increase Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression via Activation of Multiple Neuronal Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Herbst-Robinson, Katie J.; Liu, Li; James, Michael; Yao, Yuemang; Xie, Sharon X.; Brunden, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Senile plaques comprised of Aβ peptides are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, as are activated glia that release inflammatory molecules, including eicosanoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ levels can be increased through activation of thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptors on neurons. We demonstrate that TP receptor regulation of APP expression depends on Gαq-signaling and conventional protein kinase C isoforms. Importantly, we discovered that Gαq-linked prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene D4 receptors also regulate APP expression. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2, as well as total APP levels, were found to be elevated in the brains of aged 5XFAD transgenic mice harboring Aβ plaques and activated glia, suggesting that increased APP expression resulted from eicosanoid binding to Gαq-linked neuronal receptors. Notably, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis significantly lowered brain APP protein levels in aged 5XFAD mice. These results provide new insights into potential AD therapeutic strategies. PMID:26672557

  4. Sjgren's syndrome autoantibodies provoke changes in gene expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines triggering a pathway involving TACE/NF-?B.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Sabrina; Sisto, Margherita; Lofrumento, Dario Domenico; D'Amore, Massimo

    2012-04-01

    We explore the association of the inflammatory gene expression profile observed in the chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder Sjgren's syndrome (SS) with changes in TNF-? converting enzyme (TACE), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and nuclear factor (NF)-?B levels showing that pathways that include TNF-? signaling converge on NF-?B contributing to exacerbate the diseases. The treatment of human salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) with SS anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies (Abs) result in a progressive increase in NF-?B-DNA binding, that includes a marked enhancement in NF-?B subunit p65 protein-DNA binding. A human cytokine multi-analyte array demonstrated that the NF-?B proinflammatory target genes, increased by anti-Ro/SSA Abs treatment, includes CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL6 and CXCL9), CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL13 and CCL20), interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-1F8, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17 and IL-22) and their receptors (IL-1RN, IL-10R?, IL-13R?, CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4 and CXCR1). Blockade of TACE through the use of the specific inhibitor TAPI-1 regulates proinflammatory cytokines production in SGEC treated with anti-Ro/SSA Abs inhibiting NF-?B nuclear translocation and activation. To further investigate the role of NF-?B on anti-Ro/SSA Abs-determined proinflammatory gene expression, we used the inhibitory protein I?B-? dominant negative super-repressor as inhibitor of NF-?B-DNA binding, demonstrating that transfection with dominant-negative I?B-? in anti-Ro/SSA-treated SGEC determined a marked reduction of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression. Although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying SS, our results demonstrate that SS Abs exert their pathogenic effects via triggering the TACE/TNF-?/NF-?B axis. PMID:22157716

  5. Modulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Fontana, Luis; Gil, Angel

    2014-11-14

    The potential for the positive manipulation of the gut microbiome through the introduction of beneficial microbes, as also known as probiotics, is currently an active area of investigation. The FAO/WHO define probiotics as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. However, dead bacteria and bacterial molecular components may also exhibit probiotic properties. The results of clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical potential of probiotics in many pathologies, such as allergic diseases, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and viral infection. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of probiotics, most of which involve gene expression regulation in specific tissues, particularly the intestine and liver. Therefore, the modulation of gene expression mediated by probiotics is an important issue that warrants further investigation. In the present paper, we performed a systematic review of the probiotic-mediated modulation of gene expression that is associated with the immune system and inflammation. Between January 1990 to February 2014, PubMed was searched for articles that were published in English using the MeSH terms "probiotics" and "gene expression" combined with "intestines", "liver", "enterocytes", "antigen-presenting cells", "dendritic cells", "immune system", and "inflammation". Two hundred and five original articles matching these criteria were initially selected, although only those articles that included specific gene expression results (77) were later considered for this review and separated into three major topics: the regulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver. Particular strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium, Bacillus and Saccharomyces influence the gene expression of mucins, Toll-like receptors, caspases, nuclear factor-κB, and interleukins and lead mainly to an anti-inflammatory response in cultured enterocytes. In addition, the interaction of commensal bacteria and probiotics with the surface of antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes that are linked to inflammatory signaling pathways, whereas other anti-inflammatory genes are upregulated. The effects of probiotics have been extensively investigated in animal models ranging from fish to mice, rats and piglets. These bacteria induce a tolerogenic and hyporesponsive immune response in which many genes that are related to the immune system, in particular those genes expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines, are upregulated. By contrast, information related to gene expression in human intestinal cells mediated by the action of probiotics is scarce. There is a need for further clinical studies that evaluate the mechanism of action of probiotics both in healthy humans and in patients with chronic diseases. These types of clinical studies are necessary for addressing the influence of these microorganisms in gene expression for different pathways, particularly those that are associated with the immune response, and to better understand the role that probiotics might have in the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:25400447

  6. Modulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver by probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Fontana, Luis; Gil, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The potential for the positive manipulation of the gut microbiome through the introduction of beneficial microbes, as also known as probiotics, is currently an active area of investigation. The FAO/WHO define probiotics as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. However, dead bacteria and bacterial molecular components may also exhibit probiotic properties. The results of clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical potential of probiotics in many pathologies, such as allergic diseases, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and viral infection. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of probiotics, most of which involve gene expression regulation in specific tissues, particularly the intestine and liver. Therefore, the modulation of gene expression mediated by probiotics is an important issue that warrants further investigation. In the present paper, we performed a systematic review of the probiotic-mediated modulation of gene expression that is associated with the immune system and inflammation. Between January 1990 to February 2014, PubMed was searched for articles that were published in English using the MeSH terms “probiotics" and "gene expression" combined with “intestines", "liver", "enterocytes", "antigen-presenting cells", "dendritic cells", "immune system", and "inflammation". Two hundred and five original articles matching these criteria were initially selected, although only those articles that included specific gene expression results (77) were later considered for this review and separated into three major topics: the regulation of immunity and inflammatory gene expression in the gut, in inflammatory diseases of the gut and in the liver. Particular strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium, Bacillus and Saccharomyces influence the gene expression of mucins, Toll-like receptors, caspases, nuclear factor-κB, and interleukins and lead mainly to an anti-inflammatory response in cultured enterocytes. In addition, the interaction of commensal bacteria and probiotics with the surface of antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in the downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes that are linked to inflammatory signaling pathways, whereas other anti-inflammatory genes are upregulated. The effects of probiotics have been extensively investigated in animal models ranging from fish to mice, rats and piglets. These bacteria induce a tolerogenic and hyporesponsive immune response in which many genes that are related to the immune system, in particular those genes expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines, are upregulated. By contrast, information related to gene expression in human intestinal cells mediated by the action of probiotics is scarce. There is a need for further clinical studies that evaluate the mechanism of action of probiotics both in healthy humans and in patients with chronic diseases. These types of clinical studies are necessary for addressing the influence of these microorganisms in gene expression for different pathways, particularly those that are associated with the immune response, and to better understand the role that probiotics might have in the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:25400447

  7. Increased susceptibility to bladder inflammation in smokers: targeting the PAF-PAF receptor interaction to manage inflammatory cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Marentette, John; Kolar, Grant; McHowat, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Chronic bladder inflammation can result in a significant reduction in quality of life. Smoking remains a leading preventable risk factor in many diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence supporting the risks of smoking, roughly 45 million people in the United States remain smokers. The impact of cigarette smoking on inflammation is well established, but how smoking promotes bladder inflammation is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure impacts inflammatory cell adherence to bladder endothelial cells and if targeting the platelet-activating factor (PAF)-PAF receptor (PAFR) interaction could be beneficial in managing bladder inflammation. In response to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) incubation, bladder endothelial cells from human or mouse displayed increased PAF accumulation, decreased PAF-AH activity, and increased inflammatory cell adherence. Inhibition of endothelial cell calcium-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) with (S)-BEL, to block PAF production, prevented adherence of inflammatory cells. Pretreatment of inflammatory cells with PAFR antagonists, ginkgolide B or WEB2086 significantly reduced the number of adhered cells to bladder endothelium. Wild-type mice exposed to cigarette smoke displayed increased presence of inflammatory infiltration which was absent in iPLA2β(-/-) mice and those exposed to room air. In conclusion, cigarette smoke exposure increases endothelial cell PAF accumulation and increased inflammatory cell adherence. Inhibition of PAF accumulation or PAFR antagonism markedly attenuated inflammatory cell adherence to bladder endothelial cells. The results detailed in this study highlight to potential therapeutic targets for managing bladder inflammation. PMID:26660553

  8. GSK3β Is Increased in Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle from Women with Gestational Diabetes Where It Regulates the Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lappas, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Infection and inflammation, through their ability to increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and adhesion molecules, are thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) plays a central role in regulating this inflammation. There are, however, no studies on the role of GSK3 in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Thus, the aims of this study were (i) to determine whether GSK3 is increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from women with GDM; and (ii) to investigate the effect of GSK3 inhibition on inflammation in the presence of inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Human omental adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were obtained from normal glucose tolerant (NGT) women and BMI-matched women with diet-control GDM at the time of Caesarean section. Western blotting was performed to determine GSK3 protein expression. Tissue explants were performed to determine the effect of the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 on markers of inflammation. When compared to women with NGT, omental adipose tissue and skeletal muscle obtained from women with diet-controlled GDM had significantly higher GSK3β activity as evidenced by a decrease in the expression of GSK3β phosphorylated at serine 9. The GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 significantly reduced the gene expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; the pro-inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1; and the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in tissues stimulated with LPS or IL-1β. In conclusion, GSK3 activity is increased in GDM adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and regulates infection- and inflammation-induced pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:25541965

  9. The inflamed axis: the interaction between stress, hormones, and the expression of inflammatory-related genes within key structures comprising the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Hueston, Cara M; Deak, Terrence

    2014-01-30

    Acute stress increases the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory-related factors in the CNS, plasma, and endocrine glands, and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a key role in later stress sensitization. In addition to providing a summary of stress effects on neuroimmune changes within the CNS, we present a series of experiments that characterize stress effects on members of the interleukin-1β (IL-1) super-family and other inflammatory-related genes in key structures comprising the HPA axis (PVN, pituitary and adrenal glands), followed by a series of experiments examining the impact of exogenous hormone administration (CRH and ACTH) and dexamethasone on the expression of inflammatory-related genes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results demonstrated robust, time-dependent, and asynchronous expression patterns for IL-1 and IL-1R2 in the PVN, with substantial increases in IL-6 and COX-2 in the adrenal glands emerging as key findings. The effects of exogenous CRH and ACTH were predominantly isolated within the adrenals. Finally, pretreatment with dexamethasone severely blunted neuroimmune changes in the adrenal glands, but not in the PVN. These findings provide novel insight into the relationship between stress, the expression of inflammatory signaling factors within key structures comprising the HPA axis, and their interaction with HPA hormones, and provide a foundation for better understanding the role of cytokines as modulators of hypothalamic, pituitary and adrenal sensitivity. PMID:24184413

  10. Individuals with increased inflammatory response to ozone demonstrate muted signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to ozone activates innate immune function and causes neutrophilic (PMN) airway inflammation that in some individuals is robustly elevated. The interplay between immuno-inflammatory function and genomic signaling in those with heightened inflammatory responsiveness to ozone is not well understood. Objectives Determine baseline predictors and post exposure discriminators for the immuno-inflammatory response to ozone in inflammatory responsive adult volunteers. Methods Sputum induction was performed on 27 individuals before and after a two hour chamber exposure to 0.4?ppm ozone. Subjects were classified as inflammatory responders or non-responders to ozone based on their PMN response. Innate immune function, inflammatory cell and cytokine modulation and transcriptional signaling pathways were measured in sputum. Results Post exposure, responders showed activated innate immune function (CD16: 31,004 MFI vs 8988 MFI; CD11b: 44,986 MFI vs 24,770 MFI; CD80: 2236 MFI vs 1506 MFI; IL-8: 37,603?pg/ml vs 2828?pg/ml; and IL-1?: 1380 pg/ml vs 318 pg/ml) with muted signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways. In contrast, non-responders displayed decreased innate immune activity (CD16, CD80; phagocytosis: 2 particles/PMN vs 4 particles/PMN) post exposure that was accompanied by a heightened signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways. Conclusions Inflammatory responsive and non responsive individuals to ozone show an inverse relationship between immune cell trafficking and immuno-inflammatory functional responses to ozone. These distinct genomic signatures may further our understanding about ozone-induced morbidity in individuals with different levels of inflammatory responsiveness. PMID:23033980

  11. Overexpression of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulation of SOCS-1 in human PTC and in hypoxic BCPAP cells.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Elena; Di Vito, Maura; Perrone, Giulietta Anna; Mari, Emanuela; Osti, Maria; De Antoni, Enrico; Coppola, Luigi; Tafani, Marco; Carpi, Angelo; Russo, Matteo A

    2013-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is frequently overexpressed and activated in many cancer types. However, its regulation and function in thyroid carcinomas are only partially known. Aim of our study was to demonstrate that adaptation to the hypoxic micro-environment by human papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells, in the absence of leukocyte infiltrate, induces a "molecular inflammation" process characterized by the expression of a large set of genes normally involved in inflammation. To address this, tumor, peritumor or normal host tissue from eleven human PTC surgical samples, were separated by laser capture microdissection (LCMD) and studied by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. In such condition, we observed an increased expression and activation of HIF-1?, NF-kB and pro-inflammatory genes only in tumor tissues. Importantly, an anti-inflammatory gene such as SOCS-1 was markedly down-regulated in tumor tissue compared to surrounding normal host tissue. Similar results were found in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)-derived specimens from PTC and in hypoxic human papillary thyroid tumor cell line, BCPAP. Moreover, we also detected an elevated expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) both in solid tumor and in hypoxic-treated BCPAP cells. Our findings reveal that, in human PTC tumor, hypoxic conditions are accompanied by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, down-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes and increased expression of MMP9. We propose that a better understanding of the pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways involved in the "molecular inflammation" process even in the absence of leukocyte, may help to clarify progression toward malignancy and may prove useful for new anti-tumor strategy. PMID:23089475

  12. Knockout of the Bcmo1 gene results in an inflammatory response in female lung, which is suppressed by dietary beta-carotene

    PubMed Central

    van Helden, Yvonne G. J.; Heil, Sandra G.; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Kramer, Evelien; Hessel, Susanne; Amengual, Jaume; Ribot, Joan; Teerds, Katja; Wyss, Adrian; Lietz, Georg; Bonet, M. Luisa; von Lintig, Johannes; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Beta-carotene 15,15?-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1?/?) mice accumulate beta-carotene (BC) similarly to humans, whereas wild-type (Bcmo1+/+) mice efficiently cleave BC. Bcmo1?/? mice are therefore suitable to investigate BC-induced alterations in gene expression in lung, assessed by microarray analysis. Bcmo1?/? mice receiving control diet had increased expression of inflammatory genes as compared to BC-supplemented Bcmo1?/? mice and Bcmo1+/+ mice that received either control or BC-supplemented diets. Differential gene expression in Bcmo1?/? mice was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Histochemical analysis indeed showed an increase in inflammatory cells in lungs of control Bcmo1?/? mice. Supported by metabolite and gene-expression data, we hypothesize that the increased inflammatory response is due to an altered BC metabolism, resulting in an increased vitamin A requirement in Bcmo1?/? mice. This suggests that effects of BC may depend on inter-individual variations in BC-metabolizing enzymes, such as the frequently occurring human polymorphisms in BCMO1. PMID:20372966

  13. Elevated white cell count in acute coronary syndromes: relationship to variants in inflammatory and thrombotic genes

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Connie E; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Cannon, Christopher P; Fitzgerald, Desmond J; Shields, Denis C

    2004-01-01

    Background Elevated white blood cell counts (WBC) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) increase the risk of recurrent events, but it is not known if this is exacerbated by pro-inflammatory factors. We sought to identify whether pro-inflammatory genetic variants contributed to alterations in WBC and C-reactive protein (CRP) in an ACS population. Methods WBC and genotype of interleukin 6 (IL-6 G-174C) and of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN intronic repeat polymorphism) were investigated in 732 Caucasian patients with ACS in the OPUS-TIMI-16 trial. Samples for measurement of WBC and inflammatory factors were taken at baseline, i.e. Within 72 hours of an acute myocardial infarction or an unstable angina event. Results An increased white blood cell count (WBC) was associated with an increased C-reactive protein (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) and there was also a positive correlation between levels of ?-fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001). IL1RN and IL6 genotypes had no significant impact upon WBC. The difference in median WBC between the two homozygote IL6 genotypes was 0.21/mm3 (95% CI = -0.41, 0.77), and -0.03/mm3 (95% CI = -0.55, 0.86) for IL1RN. Moreover, the composite endpoint was not significantly affected by an interaction between WBC and the IL1 (p = 0.61) or IL6 (p = 0.48) genotype. Conclusions Cytokine pro-inflammatory genetic variants do not influence the increased inflammatory profile of ACS patients. PMID:15171792

  14. HMGA1 drives stem cell, inflammatory pathway, and cell cycle progression genes during lymphoid tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) gene is widely overexpressed in diverse cancers and portends a poor prognosis in some tumors, the molecular mechanisms that mediate its role in transformation have remained elusive. HMGA1 functions as a potent oncogene in cultured cells and induces aggressive lymphoid tumors in transgenic mice. Because HMGA1 chromatin remodeling proteins regulate transcription, HMGA1 is thought to drive malignant transformation by modulating expression of specific genes. Genome-wide studies to define HMGA1 transcriptional networks during tumorigenesis, however, are lacking. To define the HMGA1 transcriptome, we analyzed gene expression profiles in lymphoid cells from HMGA1a transgenic mice at different stages in tumorigenesis. Results RNA from lymphoid samples at 2 months (before tumors develop) and 12 months (after tumors are well-established) was screened for differential expression of > 20,000 unique genes by microarray analysis (Affymetrix) using a parametric and nonparametric approach. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in a subset of genes. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for cellular pathways and functions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Early in tumorigenesis, HMGA1 induced inflammatory pathways with NFkappaB identified as a major node. In established tumors, HMGA1 induced pathways involved in cell cycle progression, cell-mediated immune response, and cancer. At both stages in tumorigenesis, HMGA1 induced pathways involved in cellular development, hematopoiesis, and hematologic development. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that stem cell and immature T cell genes are enriched in the established tumors. To determine if these results are relevant to human tumors, we knocked-down HMGA1 in human T-cell leukemia cells and identified a subset of genes dysregulated in both the transgenic and human lymphoid tumors. Conclusions We found that HMGA1 induces inflammatory pathways early in lymphoid tumorigenesis and pathways involved in stem cells, cell cycle progression, and cancer in established tumors. HMGA1 also dyregulates genes and pathways involved in stem cells, cellular development and hematopoiesis at both early and late stages of tumorigenesis. These results provide insight into HMGA1 function during tumor development and point to cellular pathways that could serve as therapeutic targets in lymphoid and other human cancers with aberrant HMGA1 expression. PMID:22053823

  15. Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemia Increases Blood Pressure in Pregnant Rats Independent of Placental Antiangiogenic and Inflammatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although pregnancies associated with hyperinsulinemia and altered placental angiogenic and inflammatory factors are at increased risk for developing preeclampsia, the effects of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia on placental factors and blood pressure regulation during pregnancy are unclear. We hypothesized that chronic hyperinsulinemia results in increased placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1(sFlt-1) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF- ?) levels and hypertension in pregnant rats. METHODS On gestational day (GD) 14, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned as normal pregnant or pregnant + insulin. Insulin was infused subcutaneously by osmotic minipump for 5 days at a dose of 1.5 mU/kg/min. Those rats receiving insulin were supplemented with 20% glucose in drinking water to maintain euglycemia. On GD 19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in conscious rats by indwelling carotid catheters, followed by collections of blood, placentas, and fetuses. In addition to pl acental sFlt-1 and TNF-? levels, circulating insulin, glucose, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. RESULTS MAP was higher in pregnant + insulin vs. normal pregnant rats; however, HR was similar between groups. Although litter size and placental weight were comparable, fetuses from pregnant + insulin rats were heavier. Importantly, circulating insulin concentration was elevated in the pregnant + insulin group, with no change in glucose level. Moreover, circulating leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations were increased in the pregnant + insulin group. There were no differences in placental sFlt-1 and TNF-? concentrations between groups. CONCLUSIONS In summary, sustained euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, comparable with insulin levels in preeclamptic women, can raise blood pressure in pregnancy independent of recognized placental factors associated with preeclampsia. PMID:23955606

  16. Increasing Hospitalization in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Children in the United States, 19882011

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Kelly C.; Davis, Matthew M.; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Adler, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Background Our objective was to characterize national trends in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related hospitalizations for children. We hypothesized that over time, improvements in care would be associated with a decrease in hospitalization rates, similar to what has been observed in Canadian children with IBD. Methods Retrospective, serial, cross-sectional analysis of annual, nationally representative samples of children with IBD. Results Overall, discharges for all children irrespective of diagnosis decreased from 1988 to 2011 (P for trend <0.001). In contrast, discharges for children with IBD rose over the same time period from 6.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.08.2) to 8.2 (95% CI, 5.510.9) per 100,000 individuals per year (P for trend <0.001). More of this rise occurred in hospitalizations that did not have IBD-related endoscopy or surgery performed (P for trend <0.001). Although mean length of stay decreased over the study period (P for trend <0.001), total hospital days increased over the latter half of the study with a significant increase over the entire study period (P for trend <0.001). Conclusions Contrary to clinically informed hypotheses, nationally representative rates of hospitalization for pediatric patients with IBD have increased since the mid-1990s. This directly contrasts with stable rates over the preceding years. Most of the expansion in hospital care seems to be related to hospitalizations that do not include procedures. Several lines of future research may greatly facilitate a better understanding of the epidemiologic, therapeutic, and health care resource issues at play. PMID:25185689

  17. Association between polymorphisms in selected inflammatory response genes and the risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Xue-Ming; Huang, Xue-Ming; Huang, Peng; Yan, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation represents an important event which facilitates prostate carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in inflammatory response genes could affect the level and function of the protein products, resulting in the differential prostate cancer risk among carriers of different variants. This study attempted to investigate the association of IL-4 rs2243250, IL-6 rs10499563, IL-8 rs4073, as well as NFKBIA rs2233406 and rs3138053 polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk in the Chinese population. Genotyping of the polymorphisms was performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique on 439 prostate cancer patients and 524 controls, and the association of each polymorphic genotype with prostate cancer risk was evaluated by using logistic regression analysis based on allele, heterozygous, and homozygous comparison models, with adjustment to age and smoking status. We showed that the C allele of IL-4 rs2243250 polymorphism could increase prostate cancer risk (heterozygous comparison model: odds ratio [OR] =1.434, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.0921.881, P=0.009; homozygous comparison model: OR =2.301, 95% CI =1.4023.775, P=0.001; allele comparison model: OR =1.509, 95% CI =1.2281.853, P<0.001). On the other hand, the C allele of rs10499563 polymorphism could decrease prostate cancer risk (heterozygous comparison model: OR =0.694, 95% CI =0.5250.918, P=0.010; homozygous comparison model: OR =0.499, 95% CI =0.2690.926, P=0.028; allele comparison model: OR =0.692, 95% CI =0.5530.867, P=0.001). No association was observed for the other polymorphisms. In conclusion, IL-4 rs2243250 and IL-6 rs10499563 polymorphisms could serve as potential predictive biomarkers for prostate cancer risk in the Chinese population. PMID:26834482

  18. Reversibility of increased intestinal permeability to 51Cr-EDTA in patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.T.; Jones, D.B.; Goodacre, R.L.; Collins, S.M.; Coates, G.; Hunt, R.H.; Bienenstock, J.

    1987-11-01

    Intestinal permeability in adults with inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases was investigated by measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of orally administered /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. Eighty controls along with 100 patients with Crohn's disease, 46 patients with ulcerative colitis, 20 patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and 18 patients with other diseases were studied. In controls, the median 24-h excretion was 1.34%/24 h of the oral dose. Patients with Crohn's disease (median 2.96%/24 h), ulcerative colitis (median 2.12%/24 h), and untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy (median 3.56%/24 h) had significantly elevated urinary excretion of the probe compared to controls (p less than 0.0001). Increased 24-h urinary excretion of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA had a high association with intestinal inflammation (p less than 0.0001). Test specificity and sensitivity were 96% and 57%, respectively. A positive test has a 96% probability of correctly diagnosing the presence of intestinal inflammation, whereas a negative test has a 50% probability of predicting the absence of disease.

  19. Calcium Gluconate in Phosphate Buffered Saline Increases Gene Delivery with Adenovirus Type 5

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Marko T.; Diaconu, Iulia; Pesonen, Sari; Kanerva, Anna; Baumann, Marc; Parviainen, Suvi T.; Spiller, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy because of their stability in vivo and the possibility of production at high titers. Despite exciting preclinical data with various approaches, there are only a few examples of clear efficacy in clinical trials. Effective gene delivery to target cells remains the key variable determining efficacy and thus enhanced transduction methods are important. Methods/Results We found that heated serum could enhance adenovirus 5 mediated gene delivery up to twentyfold. A new protein-level interaction was found between fiber knob and serum transthyretin, but this was not responsible for the observed effect. Instead, we found that heating caused the calcium and phosphate present in the serum mix to precipitate, and this was responsible for enhanced gene delivery. This finding could have relevance for designing preclinical experiments with adenoviruses, since calcium and phosphate are present in many solutions. To translate this into an approach potentially testable in patients, we used calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline, both of which are clinically approved, to increase adenoviral gene transfer up to 300-fold in vitro. Gene transfer was increased with or without heating and in a manner independent from the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor. In vivo, in mouse studies, gene delivery was increased 2-, 110-, 12- and 13-fold to tumors, lungs, heart and liver and did not result in increased pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Antitumor efficacy of a replication competent virus was also increased significantly. Conclusion In summary, adenoviral gene transfer and antitumor efficacy can be enhanced by calcium gluconate in phosphate buffered saline. PMID:20927353

  20. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Gene Deficiency or Inhibition Attenuates Chronic Active Inflammatory bowel disease in IL-10(−/−) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wanying; Yang, Allison L.; Liao, Jie; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Chung, Yeon Tae; Bai, Han; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Background Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into their much less active dihydroxy derivatives dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). Thus, targeting sEH would be important for inflammation. Aims To determine whether knockout or inhibition of sEH would attenuate the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a mouse model of IBD in IL-10(−/−) mice. Methods Either the small molecule sEH inhibitor trans/-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB) or sEH knockout mice were used in combination with IL-10(−/−) mice. t-AUCB was administered to mice in drinking fluid. Extensive histopathologic, immunochemical and biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate effect of sEH inhibition or deficiency on chronic active inflammation and related mechanism in the bowel. Results Compared to IL-10 (−/−) mice, sEH inhibition or sEH deficiency in IL-10(−/−) mice resulted in significantly lower incidence of active ulcer formation and transmural inflammation, along with a significant decrease in myeloperoxidase-labeled neutrophil infiltration in the inflamed bowel. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and MCP-1, as well VCAM-1 and NF-kB/IKK-α signals were significantly decreased as compared to control animals. Moreover, an eicosanoid profile analysis revealed a significant increase in the ratio of EETs/DHET and EpOME/DiOME, and a slightly down-regulation of inflammatory mediators LTB4 and 5-HETE. Conclusion These results indicate that sEH gene deficiency or inhibition reduces inflammatory activities in the IL-10 (−/−) mouse model of IBD, and that sEH inhibitor could be a highly potential in the treatment of IBD. PMID:22588244

  1. Astragaloside IV Inhibits NF-κB Activation and Inflammatory Gene Expression in LPS-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Jian; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents purified from the Chinese medicinal herb Astragalus membranaceus, in LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses in mice in vivo and examined possible underlying mechanisms. Mice were assigned to four groups: vehicle-treated control animals; AS-IV-treated animals (10 mg/kg b.w. AS-IV daily i.p. injection for 6 days); LPS-treated animals; and AS-IV plus LPS-treated animals. We found that AS-IV treatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases in serum levels of MCP-1 and TNF by 82% and 49%, respectively. AS-IV also inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory gene expression in different organs. Lung mRNA levels of cellular adhesion molecules, MCP-1, TNFα, IL-6, and TLR4 were significantly attenuated, and lung neutrophil infiltration and activation were strongly inhibited, as reflected by decreased myeloperoxidase content, when the mice were pretreated with AS-IV. Similar results were observed in heart, aorta, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, AS-IV significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activities in lung and heart. In conclusion, our data provide new in vivo evidence that AS-IV effectively inhibits LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses by modulating NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. Our results suggest that AS-IV may be useful for the prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25960613

  2. Gene Expression Analysis of Peripheral Cells for Subclassification of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Remission

    PubMed Central

    van Lierop, Pieter P. E.; Swagemakers, Sigrid M.; de Bie, Charlotte I.; Middendorp, Sabine; van Baarlen, Peter; Samsom, Janneke N.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Escher, Johanna C.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In current clinical practice, optimal treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) aims at the induction and maintenance of clinical remission. Clinical remission is apparent when laboratory markers of inflammation are normal and clinical symptoms are absent. However, sub-clinical inflammation can still be present. A detailed analysis of the immune status during this inactive state of disease may provide a useful tool to categorize patients with clinical remission into subsets with variable states of immune activation. Design By using Affymetrix GeneChips, we analysed RNA gene expression profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from pediatric IBD patients in clinical remission and controls. We performed (un)supervised clustering analysis of IBD-associated genes and applied Ingenuity® pathway software to identify specific molecular profiles between patients. Results Pediatric IBD patients with disease in clinical remission display heterogeneously distributed gene expression profiles that are significantly distinct from controls. We identified three clusters of IBD patients, each displaying specific expression profiles of IBD-associated genes. Conclusion The expression of immune- and IBD-associated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes from pediatric IBD patients in clinical remission was different from healthy controls, indicating that sub-clinical immune mechanisms are still active during remission. As such, RNA profiling of peripheral blood may allow for non-invasive patient subclassification and new perspectives in treatment regimes of IBD patients in the future. PMID:24260248

  3. Individuals with increased inflammatory response to ozone demonstrate muted signaling of immune cell trafficking pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Exposure to ozone activates innate immune function and causes neutrophilic (PMN) airway inflammation that in some individuals is robustly elevated. The interplay between immunoinflammatory function and genomic signaling in those with heightened inflammatory responsive...

  4. Dietary DHA reduces downstream endocannabinoid and inflammatory gene expression and epididymal fat mass while improving aspects of glucose use in muscle in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Carlson, M E; Kuchel, G A; Newman, J W; Watkins, B A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Endocannabinoid system (ECS) overactivation is associated with increased adiposity and likely contributes to type 2 diabetes risk. Elevated tissue cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) derived from the n-6 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) occur in obese and diabetic patients. Here we investigate whether the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet can reduce ECS overactivation (that is, action of ligands, receptors and enzymes of EC synthesis and degradation) to influence glycemic control. This study targets the ECS tonal regulation of circulating glucose uptake by skeletal muscle as its primary end point. Design: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a semipurified diet containing DHA or the control lipid. Serum, skeletal muscle, epididymal fat pads and liver were collected after 62 and 118 days of feeding. Metabolites, genes and gene products associated with the ECS, glucose uptake and metabolism and inflammatory status were measured. Results: Dietary DHA enrichment reduced epididymal fat pad mass and increased ECS-related genes, whereas it reduced downstream ECS activation markers, indicating that ECS activation was diminished. The mRNA of glucose-related genes and proteins elevated in mice fed the DHA diet with increases in DHA-derived and reductions in AA-derived EC and EC-like compounds. In addition, DHA feeding reduced plasma levels of various inflammatory cytokines, 5-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammatory mediators and the vasoconstrictive 20-HETE. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that DHA feeding altered ECS gene expression to reduce CB1 activation and reduce fat accretion. Furthermore, the DHA diet led to higher expression of genes associated with glucose use by muscle in mice, and reduced those associated with systemic inflammatory status. PMID:26219414

  5. Inflammatory Pain Promotes Increased Opioid Self-Administration: Role of Dysregulated Ventral Tegmental Area μ Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Lucia; Wilson-Poe, Adrianne; Campos-Jurado, Yolanda; Zhong, Elaine; Gonzalez-Romero, Jose; Virag, Laszlo; Whittington, Robert; Comer, Sandra D.; Carlton, Susan M.; Walker, Brendan M.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Pain management in opioid abusers engenders ethical and practical difficulties for clinicians, often resulting in pain mismanagement. Although chronic opioid administration may alter pain states, the presence of pain itself may alter the propensity to self-administer opioids, and previous history of drug abuse comorbid with chronic pain promotes higher rates of opioid misuse. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory pain leads to increased heroin self-administration resulting from altered mu opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission. To this end, the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammation was used to assess the neurochemical and functional changes induced by inflammatory pain on MOR-mediated mesolimbic DA transmission and on rat intravenous heroin self-administration under fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In the presence of inflammatory pain, heroin intake under an FR schedule was increased for high, but attenuated for low, heroin doses with concomitant alterations in mesolimbic MOR function suggested by DA microdialysis. Consistent with the reduction in low dose FR heroin self-administration, inflammatory pain reduced motivation for a low dose of heroin, as measured by responding under a PR schedule of reinforcement, an effect dissociable from high heroin dose PR responding. Together, these results identify a connection between inflammatory pain and loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway that increases intake of high doses of heroin. These findings suggest that pain-induced loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic pathway may promote opioid dose escalation and contribute to opioid abuse-associated phenotypes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study provides critical new insights that show that inflammatory pain alters heroin intake through a desensitization of MORs located within the VTA. These findings expand our knowledge of the interactions between inflammatory pain and opioid abuse liability, and should help to facilitate the development of novel and safer opioid-based strategies for treating chronic pain. PMID:26338332

  6. A natural formulation (imoviral?) increases macrophage resistance to LPS-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Menghini, L; Leporini, L; Pintore, G; Ferrante, C; Recinella, L; Orlando, G; Vacca, M; Brunetti, L

    2014-01-01

    Imoviral? is a natural product formulation containing a mixture of uncaria, shiitake and ribes extracts. All ingredients are recognized as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent and immunomodulant. In order to evaluate the rational basis of extract mixture as immunomodulatory agent, we tested the effect of Imoviral? formulation on macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The effect was evaluated as variation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and as cytokine gene expression. The extract did not affect cell viability up to 250 ?g/ml. Treatment with extract (10-150 ?g/ml) reduced ROS and PGE2 production as well as IL-8 and TNF-? gene expression. A pre-treatment with extract blunted LPS-induced production of ROS and PGE2, markers of oxidative and inflammatory stress, as well as the gene expression of all cytokines tested, indicators, in vitro, of immune response activation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Imoviral? formulation could be a useful tool to modulate the immune function, reducing the oxidative and inflammatory markers related to bacterial attack. Experimental data suggest that Imoviral? extract mixture could also represent a preventive pharmacological strategy to enhance cell resistance to bacterial infections. PMID:25620186

  7. Shift Work in Rats Results in Increased Inflammatory Response after Lipopolysaccharide Administration: A Role for Food Consumption.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Vargas, Natal N; Guzmn-Ruiz, Mara; Fuentes, Rebeca; Garca, Joselyn; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Basualdo, Mara del Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Markus, Regina P; Buijs, Ruud M

    2015-08-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives circadian rhythms in behavioral and physiological variables, including the inflammatory response. Shift work is known to disturb circadian rhythms and is associated with increased susceptibility to develop disease. In rodents, circadian disruption due to shifted light schedules (jet lag) induced increased innate immune responses. To gain more insight into the influence of circadian disruption on the immune response, we characterized the inflammatory response in a model of rodent shift work and demonstrated that circadian disruption affected the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. Since food consumption is a main disturbing element in the shift work schedule, we also evaluated the inflammatory response to LPS in a group of rats that had no access to food during their working hours. Our results demonstrated that the shift work schedule decreased basal TNF-? levels in the liver but not in the circulation. Despite this, we observed that shift work induced increased cytokine response after LPS stimulation in comparison to control rats. Also, Kupffer cells (liver macrophages) isolated from shift work rats produced more TNF-? in response to in vitro LPS stimulation, suggesting important effects of circadian desynchronization on the functionality of this cell type. Importantly, the effects of shift work on the inflammatory response to LPS were prevented when food was not available during the working schedule. Together, these results show that dissociating behavior and food intake from the synchronizing drive of the SCN severely disturbs the immune response. PMID:26017928

  8. Use of Aspirin or Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Increases Risk for Diverticulitis and Diverticular Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Strate, Lisa L.; Liu, Yan L.; Huang, Edward S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, have been implicated in diverticular complications. We examined the influence of aspirin and NSAID use on risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding in a large prospective cohort. METHODS We studied 47,210 US men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort who were 4075 years old at baseline, in 1986. We assessed use of aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, and other risk factors biennially. We identified men with diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding based on responses to biennial and supplemental questionnaires. RESULTS We documented 939 cases of diverticulitis and 256 cases of diverticular bleeding during a 22-year period of follow-up. After adjustment for risk factors, men who used aspirin regularly (?2 times per week) had a multivariable relative risk (RR) of 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.051.47) for diverticulitis and RR of 1.70 (95% CI, 1.212.39) for diverticular bleeding, compared with non-users of aspirin and NSAIDs. Use of aspirin at intermediate doses (25.9 standard, 325 mg, tablets per week) and frequency (46 days per week) were associated with the highest risk of bleeding (multivariable RR=2.32; 95% CI, 1.344.02, and multivariable RR=3.13; 95% CI, 1.825.38, respectively). Regular users of non-aspirin NSAIDs also had an increased risk of diverticulitis (multivariable RR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.402.11) and diverticular bleeding (multivariable RR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.152.64), compared with men who denied use of these medications. CONCLUSIONS Regular use of aspirin or NSAIDs is associated with an increased risk for diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Patients at risk of diverticular complications should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using these medications. PMID:21320500

  9. Citral and eugenol modulate DNA damage and pro-inflammatory mediator genes in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marilia de Paula; da Silva, Glenda Nicioli; Luperini, Bruno Cesar Ottoboni; Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; de Castro Marcondes, Joo Paulo; Sforcin, Jos Maurcio; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fvero

    2014-11-01

    Citral and eugenol have been broadly studied because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiparasitic potentials. In this study, the effects of citral (25, 50 and 100g/mL) and eugenol (0.31, 0.62, 1.24 and 2.48g/mL) on the expression (RT-PCR) of the pro-inflammatory mediator genes NF-?B1, COX-2 and TNF-? were evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages with or without activation by a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, the genotoxic potentials of two compounds and their capacities to modulate the DNA damage induced by doxorubicin (DXR) were investigated using the comet assay. The data revealed that neither citral nor eugenol changed COX-2, NF-?B1 or TNF-? expression in resting macrophages. However, in LPS-activated cells, citral induced the hypoexpression of COX-2 (100g/mL) and TNF-? (50 and 100g/mL). Hypoexpression of TNF-? was also detected after cellular exposure to eugenol at the highest concentration (2.48g/mL). Both compounds exhibited genotoxic potential (citral at 50 and 100g/mL and eugenol at all concentrations) but also showed chemopreventive effects, in various treatment protocols. Both citral and eugenol might modulate inflammatory processes and DXR-induced DNA damage, but the use of these compounds must be viewed with caution because they are also able to induce primary DNA lesions. PMID:25103019

  10. Investigation of polymorphisms in anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in hematogenous osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Osman, A E; Mubasher, M; ElSheikh, N E; AlHarthi, H; AlAlallah, I A; Elbeshir, A A; Abashar, M; Elsidig, N; ElGhazali, G; Fadil, A-S A

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a progressive bone infection disease caused by destructive immunological inflammatory reactions following new bone formation. Anti-inflammatory cytokines are a series of immunoregulatory molecules that control the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. In this study, we investigated 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 different cytokine/cytokine receptor genes in hematogenous osteomyelitis (HO) patients, and compared their outcomes with normal healthy individuals. Sequence-specific forward and reverse primers and two TaqMan MGB probes with dyes (VIC and FAM) that specifically detect Allele 1 and Allele 2 of each SNP were utilized. The genotypes CC (P = 0.009) and CT (P = 0.041) of SNP rs2070874, and alleles A (P = 0.044) and G of SNP rs1800871 were significantly different between the patients and healthy controls. The expression of the CC genotype or C allele at rs2070874 was a risk factor for HO development, with higher frequencies of CT and T being found in the control samples. The expression of the A allele of rs1800871 was also significantly higher in patients than in controls, and was therefore considered a risk factor. PMID:26681045

  11. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines and Associated Genes in Human Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Yasmin, Rehana; Hassan, Amjad; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Abbasi, Rashda; Ahmad, Nafees

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a multifaceted defense response of immune system against infection. Chronic inflammation has been implicated as an imminent threat for major human malignancies and is directly linked to various steps involved in tumorigenesis. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukins, interferons, transforming growth factors, chemokines, and adhesion molecules have been associated with chronic inflammation. Numerous cytokines are reported to be aberrantly regulated by different epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone modifications in tumor tissues, contributing to pathogenesis of tumor in multiple ways. Some of these cytokines also work as epigenetic regulators of other crucial genes in tumor biology, either directly or indirectly. Such regulations are reported in lung, breast, cervical, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and head and neck cancers. Epigenetics of inflammatory mediators in cancer is currently subject of extensive research. These investigations may help in understanding cancer biology and to develop effective therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this paper is to have a brief view of the aberrant regulation of inflammatory cytokines in human malignancies. PMID:25814785

  12. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modulators from natural products as anti-cancer agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are rich source of gene modulators for prevention and treatment of cancer. In recent days, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene-1 (NAG-1) has been focused as a new target of diverse cancers like colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and breast. A variety of natural...

  13. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Anindita; Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 ; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was investigated. ► Serum markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were studied. ► Biomass using women had increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ► Indoor air pollution and observed changes were positively associated.

  14. Bcl3 regulates pro-survival and pro-inflammatory gene expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vancurova, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    The advanced stages of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) are characterized not only by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in high susceptibility to infections, but also by high constitutive activity of NF?B, which promotes cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The increased expression of the proto-oncogene Bcl3 belonging to I?B family is associated with the pathogenesis of the different types of human cancer, yet, the function and regulation of Bcl3 in CTCL have not been studied. Here, we show that Bcl3 is highly expressed in CTCL Hut-78 and HH cells. The suppression of Bcl3 levels decreases the expression of the pro-survival genes cIAP1 and cIAP2, reduces cell viability, and increases CTCL apoptosis. Interestingly, Bcl3 suppression concomitantly increases expression and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-17 in CTCL cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that Bcl3 regulates cIAP1, cIAP2, IL-8 and IL-17 gene expression through direct binding to their promoters. Bcl3 expression is regulated by bortezomib (BZ)-mediated proteasome inhibition, and BZ inhibits Bcl3 recruitment to its target promoters, resulting in decreased expression of cIAP1 and cIAP2, but increased expression of IL-8 and IL-17. The Bcl3 expression is regulated through NF?B subunit exchange on Bcl3 promoter. In untreated cells, the Bcl3 promoter is occupied predominantly by p65/p50 heterodimers, inducing Bcl3 expression; however, in BZ-treated cells, the p65/50 heterodimers are replaced by p52 subunits, resulting in Bcl3 transcriptional repression. These data provide the first insights into the function and regulation of Bcl3 in CTCL, and indicate that Bcl3 has an important pro-survival and immunosuppressive role in these cells. PMID:25089799

  15. Bcl3 regulates pro-survival and pro-inflammatory gene expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vancurova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    The advanced stages of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) are characterized not only by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in high susceptibility to infections, but also by high constitutive activity of NF?B, which promotes cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The increased expression of the proto-oncogene Bcl3 belonging to I?B family is associated with the pathogenesis of the different types of human cancer, yet, the function and regulation of Bcl3 in CTCL have not been studied. Here, we show that Bcl3 is highly expressed in CTCL Hut-78 and HH cells. The suppression of Bcl3 levels decreases the expression of the pro-survival genes cIAP1 and cIAP2, reduces cell viability, and increases CTCL apoptosis. Interestingly, Bcl3 suppression concomitantly increases expression and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-17 in CTCL cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that Bcl3 regulates cIAP1, cIAP2, IL-8 and IL-17 gene expression through direct binding to their promoters. Bcl3 expression is regulated by bortezomib (BZ)-mediated proteasome inhibition, and BZ inhibits Bcl3 recruitment to its target promoters, resulting in decreased expression of cIAP1 and cIAP2, but increased expression of IL-8 and IL-17. The Bcl3 expression is regulated through NF?B subunit exchange on Bcl3 promoter. In untreated cells, the Bcl3 promoter is occupied predominantly by p65/p50 heterodimers, inducing Bcl3 expression; however, in BZ-treated cells, the p65/50 heterodimers are replaced by p52 subunits, resulting in Bcl3 transcriptional repression. These data provide the first insights into the function and regulation of Bcl3 in CTCL, and indicate that Bcl3 has an important pro-survival and immunosuppressive role in these cells. PMID:25089799

  16. Analysis of Gene Expression in Experimental Pressure Ulcers in the Rat with Special Reference to Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Ozawa, Junya; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers have been investigated in a few animal models, but the molecular mechanisms of pressure ulcers are not well understood. We hypothesized that pressure results in up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and those cytokines contribute to the formation of pressure ulcers. We measured genome-wide changes in transcript levels after compression, and focused especially on inflammatory cytokines. The abdominal wall of rats was compressed at 100 mmHg for 4 hours by two magnets. Specimens were obtained 12 hours, 1, or 3 days after compression, and analyzed by light microscopy, microarray, Real-Time PCR, and ELISA. The skin and subcutaneous tissue in the compressed area were markedly thickened. The microarray showed that numerous genes were up-regulated after the compression. Up-regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, proteolysis, hypoxia, and so on. Real-Time PCR showed the up-regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon ? (IFN-?), interleukin 1? (IL-1?), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1Ra), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) at 12 hours, IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 at 1 day, and IFN-?, IL-6, and MMP-3 at 3 days. Some genes from subcutaneous tissue were up-regulated temporarily, and others were kept at high levels of expression. ELISA data showed that the concentrations of IL-1? and IL-6 proteins were most notably increased following compression. Prolonged up-regulation of IL-1?, and IL-6 might enhance local inflammation, and continuous local inflammation may contribute to the pressure ulcer formation. In addition, GM-CSF, IFN-?, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 were not reported previously in the wound healing process, and those genes may have a role in development of the pressure ulcers. Expression data from Real-Time PCR were generally in good agreement with those of the microarray. Our microarray data were useful for identifying genes involved in pressure ulcer formation. However, the expression levels of the genes didnt necessarily correspond with protein production. As such, the functions of these cytokines need to be further investigated. PMID:26177082

  17. Different oxygen treatment pressures alter inflammatory gene expression in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Whatmore, Jacqueline L; Harries, Lorna W; Winyard, Paul G; Eggleton, Paul; Smerdon, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen has proven to be a useful treatment for chronic wounds. However, therapeutic conditions vary between treatment centers, and we wished to investigate the effects of different treatment pressures on cells under inflammatory conditions. Endothelial cells were exposed to a chronic wound model comprising hypoxia (2% O2 at 1 atmosphere absolute (atm abs); PO2 approximately 2 kPa) in the presence of 0.5 microg/ml lipopolysaccharide and 1 ng/ml TNF-alpha for 24 hours, then treated with normobaric oxygen (NBO2; 95%O2/5%CO2 at 1.0 atm abs; PO2 approximately 96.3 kPa), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at 1.5 atm abs (1.5HBO2; 96.7%O2/3.3%CO2 at 1.5 atm abs; PO2 approximately 147 kPa), and HBO2 at 2.4 atm abs (2.4HBO2; 97.9%O2/2.1%CO2 at 2.4 atm abs; PO2 approximately 238 kPa). The mRNA expression of 92 inflammatory genes was then analyzed, and we identified changes in genes involved in adhesion molecule expression, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling, intracellular signaling, and cellular oxygen responses and redox signaling. We noted differences in expression between different treatment pressures, highlighting the need for further research into the use of different therapeutic protocols in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as chronic wounds. PMID:23682543

  18. Gene therapy targeting nuclear factor-kappaB: towards clinical application in inflammatory diseases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Sander W; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J B M; Tak, Paul P

    2009-06-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is regarded as one of the most important transcription factors and plays an essential role in the transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell proliferation and survival. NF-kappaB can be activated via two distinct NF-kappaB signal transduction pathways, the so-called canonical and non-canonical pathways, and has been demonstrated to play a key role in a wide range of inflammatory diseases and various types of cancer. Much effort has been put in strategies to inhibit NF-kappaB activation, for example by the development of pharmacological compounds that selectively inhibit NF-kappaB activity and therefore would be beneficial for immunotherapy of transplantation, autoimmune and allergic diseases, as well as an adjuvant approach in patients treated with chemotherapy for cancer. Gene therapy targeting NF-kappaB is a promising new strategy with the potential of long-term effects and has been explored in a wide variety of diseases, ranging from cancer to transplantation medicine and autoimmune diseases. In this review we discuss recent progress made in the development of NF-kappaB targeted gene therapy and the evolution towards clinical application. PMID:19519361

  19. Moyamoya disease susceptibility gene RNF213 links inflammatory and angiogenic signals in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Yasunari; Inoue, Hirosuke; Akamine, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Matsushita, Yuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Sardiello, Marco; Hara, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by occlusive lesions of the circle of Willis. To date, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated for pathogenesis of MMD. Allelic variations in RNF213 are known to confer the risk of MMD; however, functional roles of RNF213 remain to be largely elusive. We herein report that pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNG and TNFA, synergistically activated transcription of RNF213 both in vitro and in vivo. Using various chemical inhibitors, we found that AKT and PKR pathways contributed to the transcriptional activation of RNF213. Transcriptome-wide analysis and subsequent validation with quantitative PCR supported that endogenous expression of cell cycle-promoting genes were significantly decreased with knockdown of RNF213 in cultured endothelial cells. Consistently, these cells showed less proliferative and less angiogenic profiles. Chemical inhibitors for AKT (LY294002) and PKR (C16) disrupted their angiogenic potentials, suggesting that RNF213 and its upstream pathways cooperatively organize the process of angiogenesis. Furthermore, RNF213 down-regulated expressions of matrix metalloproteases in endothelial cells, but not in fibroblasts or other cell types. Altogether, our data illustrate that RNF213 plays unique roles in endothelial cells for proper gene expressions in response to inflammatory signals from environments. PMID:26278786

  20. Moyamoya disease susceptibility gene RNF213 links inflammatory and angiogenic signals in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Yasunari; Inoue, Hirosuke; Akamine, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Matsushita, Yuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Sardiello, Marco; Hara, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by occlusive lesions of the circle of Willis. To date, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated for pathogenesis of MMD. Allelic variations in RNF213 are known to confer the risk of MMD; however, functional roles of RNF213 remain to be largely elusive. We herein report that pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNG and TNFA, synergistically activated transcription of RNF213 both in vitro and in vivo. Using various chemical inhibitors, we found that AKT and PKR pathways contributed to the transcriptional activation of RNF213. Transcriptome-wide analysis and subsequent validation with quantitative PCR supported that endogenous expression of cell cycle-promoting genes were significantly decreased with knockdown of RNF213 in cultured endothelial cells. Consistently, these cells showed less proliferative and less angiogenic profiles. Chemical inhibitors for AKT (LY294002) and PKR (C16) disrupted their angiogenic potentials, suggesting that RNF213 and its upstream pathways cooperatively organize the process of angiogenesis. Furthermore, RNF213 down-regulated expressions of matrix metalloproteases in endothelial cells, but not in fibroblasts or other cell types. Altogether, our data illustrate that RNF213 plays unique roles in endothelial cells for proper gene expressions in response to inflammatory signals from environments. PMID:26278786

  1. Effects of ?-linolenic acid-enriched diets on gene expression of key inflammatory mediators in immune and milk cells obtained from Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezamand, Pedram; Hatch, Brent P; Carnahan, Kevin G; McGuire, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Immune system and inflammatory responses are affected by ?-linolenic acid (?LA: 18:3 ?-3). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ?LA-enriched rations on gene expression of systemic (blood) and local (mammary gland) inflammatory markers in Holstein dairy cattle. Further, the effect of dietary treatments was evaluated on the concentration of ?LA in serum phospholipids. Camelina (Camelina sativa) meal (containing 242% ?LA) was fed at 0, 3, 6, and 9% (dry matter basis) replacing canola meal (rich in 18:1 ?-9) to provide rations with incremental concentrations of ?LA. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 4 4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 16 d and milk and blood samples were collected during the final 2 d of each period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and milk cells (MC) were harvested, and RNA extracted and converted to complementary DNA for quantitative real time PCR analysis. The effect of dietary treatments (?LA) on the relative abundance of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in the PBMC and MC was tested by the MIXED procedure of SAS. Expression of pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? in MC was linearly reduced (up to 40%) as dietary ?LA increased. Expression of pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-8, and TNF-? was reduced (29, 20, and 27%, respectively) in PBMC isolated from cows fed 6% camelina meal ration as compared with cows fed 0% (control). Expression of IL-6 was, however, increased with inclusion of camelina meal. Greater dietary ?LA linearly increased serum phospholipids ?LA contents, and when fed up to 6% DM down-regulated expression of some of the local (milk) and systemic (blood) pro-inflammatory markers in vivo. PMID:26869108

  2. The Injectable-Only Contraceptive Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, Unlike Norethisterone Acetate and Progesterone, Regulates Inflammatory Genes in Endocervical Cells via the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Yashini; Avenant, Chanel; Verhoog, Nicolette J. D.; Ray, Roslyn M.; Grantham, Nicholas J.; Africander, Donita; Hapgood, Janet P.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that the injectable contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases susceptibility to infections such as HIV-1, unlike the injectable contraceptive norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN). We investigated the differential effects, molecular mechanism of action and steroid receptor involvement in gene expression by MPA as compared to NET and progesterone (P4) in the End1/E6E7 cell line model for the endocervical epithelium, a key point of entry for pathogens in the female genital mucosa. MPA, unlike NET-acetate (NET-A) and P4, increases mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory GILZ and I?B? genes. Similarly, MPA unlike NET-A, decreases mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES genes, and IL-6 and IL-8 protein levels. The predominant steroid receptor expressed in the End1/E6E7 and primary endocervical epithelial cells is the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and GR knockdown experiments show that the anti-inflammatory effects of MPA are mediated by the GR. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation results suggest that MPA, unlike NET-A and P4, represses pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in cervical epithelial cells via a mechanism involving recruitment of the GR to cytokine gene promoters, like the GR agonist dexamethasone. This is at least in part consistent with direct effects on transcription, without a requirement for new protein synthesis. Dose response analysis shows that MPA has a potency of ?24 nM for transactivation of the anti-inflammatory GILZ gene and ?420 nM for repression of the pro-inflammatory genes, suggesting that these effects are likely to be relevant at injectable contraceptive doses of MPA. These findings suggest that in the context of the genital mucosa, these GR-mediated glucocorticoid-like effects of MPA in cervical epithelial cells are likely to play a critical role in discriminating between the effects on inflammation caused by different progestins and P4 and hence susceptibility to genital infections, given the predominant expression of the GR in primary endocervical epithelial cells. PMID:24840644

  3. The WalKR system controls major staphylococcal virulence genes and is involved in triggering the host inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Delaun, Aurlia; Dubrac, Sarah; Blanchet, Charlne; Poupel, Olivier; Mder, Ulrike; Hiron, Aurlia; Leduc, Aurlie; Fitting, Catherine; Nicolas, Pierre; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Adib-Conquy, Minou; Msadek, Tarek

    2012-10-01

    The WalKR two-component system is essential for the viability of Staphylococcus aureus, playing a central role in controlling cell wall metabolism. We produced a constitutively active form of WalR in S. aureus through a phosphomimetic amino acid replacement (WalR(c), D55E). The strain displayed significantly increased biofilm formation and alpha-hemolytic activity. Transcriptome analysis was used to determine the full extent of the WalKR regulon, revealing positive regulation of major virulence genes involved in host matrix interactions (efb, emp, fnbA, and fnbB), cytolysis (hlgACB, hla, and hlb), and innate immune defense evasion (scn, chp, and sbi), through activation of the SaeSR two-component system. The impact on pathogenesis of varying cell envelope dynamics was studied using a murine infection model, showing that strains producing constitutively active WalR(c) are strongly diminished in their virulence due to early triggering of the host inflammatory response associated with higher levels of released peptidoglycan fragments. Indeed, neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine production were significantly increased when the constitutively active walR(c) allele was expressed, leading to enhanced bacterial clearance. Taken together, our results indicate that WalKR play an important role in virulence and eliciting the host inflammatory response by controlling autolytic activity. PMID:22825451

  4. Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barona, Jacqueline; Blesso, Christopher N.; Andersen, Catherine J.; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited and randomly allocated to consume daily either 46 g of lyophilized grape powder (GRAPE), equivalent to 252 g fresh grapes, or placebo with an identical macronutrient composition and caloric value as GRAPE for four weeks. After a three-week washout, participants followed the alternate treatment. We measured changes between placebo and GRAPE periods in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers both in circulation and in gene expression. Changes in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-10 (p < 0.005) and in mRNA expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.25) were increased in the GRAPE compared to the placebo period only in those individuals without dyslipidemia. Additionally, plasma IL-10 was negatively correlated with NOX2 expression, a marker of oxidative stress (r = ?0.55, p < 0.01), while iNOS expression was positively correlated with the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), a key anti-oxidative enzyme. Grape consumption displayed anti-oxidative and increased anti-inflammatory markers in the absence of the inflammatory milieu associated with dyslipidemias. PMID:23222963

  5. Grape consumption increases anti-inflammatory markers and upregulates peripheral nitric oxide synthase in the absence of dyslipidemias in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barona, Jacqueline; Blesso, Christopher N; Andersen, Catherine J; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited and randomly allocated to consume daily either 46 g of lyophilized grape powder (GRAPE), equivalent to 252 g fresh grapes, or placebo with an identical macronutrient composition and caloric value as GRAPE for four weeks. After a three-week washout, participants followed the alternate treatment. We measured changes between placebo and GRAPE periods in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers both in circulation and in gene expression. Changes in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-10 (p < 0.005) and in mRNA expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.25) were increased in the GRAPE compared to the placebo period only in those individuals without dyslipidemia. Additionally, plasma IL-10 was negatively correlated with NOX2 expression, a marker of oxidative stress (r = -0.55, p < 0.01), while iNOS expression was positively correlated with the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), a key anti-oxidative enzyme. Grape consumption displayed anti-oxidative and increased anti-inflammatory markers in the absence of the inflammatory milieu associated with dyslipidemias. PMID:23222963

  6. When maladaptive gene flow does not increase selection.

    PubMed

    Rolshausen, Gregor; Muttalib, Shahin; Kaeuffer, Renaud; Oke, Krista B; Hanson, Dieta; Hendry, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    Populations receiving high maladaptive gene flow are expected to experience strong directional selection-because gene flow pulls mean phenotypes away from local fitness peaks. We tested this prediction by means of a large and replicated mark-recapture study of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in two stream populations. One of the populations (outlet) experiences high gene flow from the lake population and its morphology is correspondingly poorly adapted. The other population (inlet) experiences very low gene flow from the lake population and its morphology is correspondingly well adapted. Contrary to the above prediction, selection was not stronger in the outlet than in the inlet, a result that forced us to consider potential reasons for why maladaptive gene flow might not increase selection. Of particular interest, we show by means of a simple population genetic model that maladaptive gene flow can-under reasonable conditions-decrease the strength of directional selection. This outcome occurs when immigrants decrease mean fitness in the resident population, which decreases the strength of selection against maladapted phenotypes. We argue that this previously unrecognized effect of gene flow deserves further attention in theoretical and empirical studies. PMID:26222781

  7. Pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin, constituents of an extract from the knot of Pinus sylvestris, reduce inflammatory gene expression and inflammatory responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Laavola, Mirka; Nieminen, Riina; Leppnen, Tiina; Eckerman, Christer; Holmbom, Bjarne; Moilanen, Eeva

    2015-04-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is known to be rich in phenolic compounds, which may have anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a knot extract from P. sylvestris and two stilbenes, pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin, isolated from the extract. Inflammation is characterized by increased release of pro-inflammatory and regulatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO) produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway. The knot extract (EC50 values of 3 and 3 ?g/mL) as well as two of its constituents, pinosylvin (EC50 values of 13 and 15 ?M) and monomethylpinosylvin (EC50 values of 8 and 12 ?M), reduced NO production and iNOS expression in activated macrophages. They also inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. More importantly, pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin exerted a clear anti-inflammatory effect (80% inhibition at the dose of 100 mg/kg) in the standard in vivo model, carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in the mouse, with the effect being comparable to that of a known iNOS inhibitor L-NIL. The results reveal that the Scots pine stilbenes pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin are potential anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25763469

  8. Sonicated Protein Fractions of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Induce Inflammatory Responses and Differential Gene Expression in a Murine Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Birhanu, Biruk Tesfaye; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2015-12-28

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is known to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), an important disease in swine production. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sonicated protein fractions of M. hyopneumoniae on inflammatory response and gene expression in the murine alveolar macrophage MH-S cell line. The effects of sonicated protein fractions and intact M. hyopneumoniae on the gene expression of cytokines and iNOS were assessed using RT-PCR. The Annealing Control Primer (ACP)-based PCR method was used to screen differentially expressed genes. Increased transcription of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, COX-2, and iNOS mRNA was observed after exposure to the supernatant (SPT), precipitant (PPT), and intact M. hyopneumoniae protein. A time-dependent analysis of the mRNA expression revealed an upregulation after 4 h for IL-6 and iNOS and after 12 h for IL-1? and TNF-?, for both SPT and PPT; the fold change in COX-2 expression was less. A dose- and time-dependent correlation was observed in nitrite (NO) production for both protein fractions; however, there was no significant difference between the effects of the two protein fractions. In a differential gene analysis, PCR revealed differential expression for nine gene bands after 3 h of stimulation - only one gene was downregulated, while the remaining eight were upregulated. The results of this study provide insights that help improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of and macrophage defenses against M. hyopneumoniae assault, and suggest targets for future studies on therapeutic interventions for M. hyopneumoniae infections. PMID:26370797

  9. Modulating inflammatory monocytes with a unique microRNA gene signature ameliorates murine ALS

    PubMed Central

    Butovsky, Oleg; Siddiqui, Shafiuddin; Gabriely, Galina; Lanser, Amanda J.; Dake, Ben; Murugaiyan, Gopal; Doykan, Camille E.; Wu, Pauline M.; Gali, Reddy R.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Lawson, Robert; Berry, James; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease associated with neuronal cell death that is thought to involve aberrant immune responses. Here we investigated the role of innate immunity in a mouse model of ALS. We found that inflammatory monocytes were activated and that their progressive recruitment to the spinal cord, but not brain, correlated with neuronal loss. We also found a decrease in resident microglia in the spinal cord with disease progression. Prior to disease onset, splenic Ly6Chi monocytes expressed a polarized macrophage phenotype (M1 signature), which included increased levels of chemokine receptor CCR2. As disease onset neared, microglia expressed increased CCL2 and other chemotaxis-associated molecules, which led to the recruitment of monocytes to the CNS by spinal cordderived microglia. Treatment with anti-Ly6C mAb modulated the Ly6Chi monocyte cytokine profile, reduced monocyte recruitment to the spinal cord, diminished neuronal loss, and extended survival. In humans with ALS, the analogous monocytes (CD14+CD16) exhibited an ALS-specific microRNA inflammatory signature similar to that observed in the ALS mouse model, linking the animal model and the human disease. Thus, the profile of monocytes in ALS patients may serve as a biomarker for disease stage or progression. Our results suggest that recruitment of inflammatory monocytes plays an important role in disease progression and that modulation of these cells is a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:22863620

  10. Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Postoperative Myocardial Infarction After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Podgoreanu, M.V.; White, W.D.; Morris, R.W.; Mathew, J.P.; Stafford-Smith, M.; Welsby, I.J.; Grocott, H.P.; Milano, C.A.; Newman, M.F.; Schwinn, D.A.; Genetics, Perioperative

    2007-01-01

    Background The inflammatory response triggered by cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a primary mechanism in the pathogenesis of postoperative myocardial infarction (PMI), a multifactorial disorder with significant inter-patient variability poorly predicted by clinical and procedural factors. We tested the hypothesis that candidate gene polymorphisms in inflammatory pathways contribute to risk of PMI after cardiac surgery. Methods and Results We genotyped 48 polymorphisms from 23 candidate genes in a prospective cohort of 434 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB. PMI was defined as creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme level ?10 upper limit of normal at 24 hours postoperatively. A 2-step analysis strategy was used: marker selection, followed by model building. To minimize false-positive associations, we adjusted for multiple testing by permutation analysis, Bonferroni correction, and controlling the false discovery rate; 52 patients (12%) experienced PMI. After adjusting for multiple comparisons and clinical risk factors, 3 polymorphisms were found to be independent predictors of PMI (adjusted P < 0.05; false discovery rate < 10%). These gene variants encode the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6 ?572G > C; odds ratio [OR], 2.47), and 2 adhesion molecules: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1 Lys469Glu; OR, 1.88), and E-selectin (SELE 98G > T; OR, 0.16). The inclusion of genotypic information from these polymorphisms improved prediction models for PMI based on traditional risk factors alone (C-statistic 0.764 versus 0.703). Conclusions Functional genetic variants in cytokine and leukocyteendothelial interaction pathways are independently associated with severity of myonecrosis after cardiac surgery. This may aid in preoperative identification of high-risk cardiac surgical patients and development of novel cardioprotective strategies. PMID:16820586

  11. Genetic association study of NF-?B genes in UK Caucasian adult and juvenile onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chinoy, Hector; Li, Charles K.-C.; Platt, Hazel; Fertig, Noreen; Varsani, Hemlata; Gunawardena, Harsha; Betteridge, Zoe; Oddis, Chester V.; McHugh, Neil J.; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Ollier, William E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Treatment-resistant muscle wasting is an increasingly recognized problem in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). TNF-? is thought to induce muscle catabolism via activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). Several genes share homology with the NF-?B family of proteins. This study investigated the role of NF-?B-related genes in disease susceptibility in UK Caucasian IIM. Methods. Data from 362 IIM cases [274 adults, 49 (14.0) years, 72% female; 88 juveniles, 6 (3.6) years, 73% female) were compared with 307 randomly selected Caucasian controls. DNA was genotyped for 63 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from NF-?B-related genes. Data were stratified by IIM subgroup/serotype. Results. A significant allele association was observed in the overall IIM group vs controls for the IKBL-62T allele (rs2071592, odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.21, 1.89, corrected P?=?0.0086), which strengthened after stratification by anti-Jo-1 or -PM-Scl antibodies. Genotype analysis revealed an increase for the AT genotype in cases under a dominant model. No other SNP was associated in the overall IIM group. Strong pairwise linkage disequilibrium was noted between IKBL-62T, TNF-308A and HLA-B*08 (D??=?1). Using multivariate regression, the IKBL-62T IIM association was lost after adjustment for TNF-308A or HLA-B*08. Conclusion. An association was noted between IKBL-62T and IIM, with increased risk noted in anti-Jo-1- and -PM-Scl antibody-positive patients. However, the IKBL-62T association is dependent on TNF-308A and HLA-B*08, due to strong shared linkage disequilibrium between these alleles. After adjustment of the 8.1 HLA haplotype, NF-?B genes therefore do not independently confer susceptibility in IIM. PMID:22210660

  12. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and leptin receptor genes with inflammatory mediators in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing L; Lu, Chun F

    2013-10-01

    Bone mass and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. We hypothesized that leptin and leptin receptor gene might be associated with osteoporosis by activating the inflammatory pathway. Therefore, we analyzed polymorphisms of the leptin (gene symbol, LEP) and leptin receptor (gene symbol, LEPR) genes and determined their associations with proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with osteoporosis. We assessed polymorphisms in LEP (-2548G > A) and LEPR (Lys109Arg, Gln223Arg, and Lys656Asn) and calculated odds ratios for the genotype and allele distributions between patients and controls. Serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and were verified by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays and ELISAs. We found a higher frequency of the A allele for LEP at -2548 in patients with osteoporosis compared with the control group. The A allele was associated with differences in serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF levels compared with the wild-type G allele (p < 0.05). The G allele in Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg was associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and with differences in serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF levels compared with the wild-type A allele (p < 0.05). The Lys656Asn genotype was not associated with the risk of osteoporosis. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays and ELISAs confirmed these results. Polymorphisms in LEP and LEPR are associated with increased risk of osteoporosis, possibly by increasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:23460508

  13. Gene Silencing and Haploinsufficiency of Csk Increase Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Moon; Ji, Su-Min; Park, So-Yon; Kim, Marina E.; Jigden, Baigalmaa; Lim, Ji Eun; Hwang, Sue-Yun; Lee, Young-Ho; Oh, Bermseok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 33 human genetic loci that influence blood pressure. The 15q24 locus is one such locus that has been confirmed in Asians and Europeans. There are 21 genes in the locus within a 1-Mb boundary, but a functional link of these genes to blood pressure has not been reported. We aimed to identify a causative gene for blood pressure change in the 15q24 locus. Methods and Results CSK and ULK3 were selected as candidate genes based on eQTL analysis studies that showed the association between gene transcript levels and the lead SNP (rs1378942). Injection of siRNAs for mouse homologs Csk, Ulk3, and Cyp1a2 (negative control) showed reduced target gene mRNA levels in vivo. However, Csk siRNA only increased blood pressure while Ulk3 and Cyp1a2 siRNA did not change it. Further, blood pressure in Csk+/- heterozygotes was higher than in wild-type, consistent with what we observed in Csk siRNA-injected mice. We confirmed that haploinsufficiency of Csk increased the active form of Src in Csk+/- mice aorta. We also showed that inhibition of Src by PP2, a Src inhibitor decreased high blood pressure in Csk+/- mice and the active Src in Csk+/- mice aorta and in Csk knock-down vascular smooth muscle cells, suggesting blood pressure regulation by Csk through Src. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that Csk is a causative gene in the 15q24 locus and regulates blood pressure through Src, and these findings provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26751575

  14. Inherited Inflammatory Response Genes Are Associated with B-Cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kaspar Ren; Steffensen, Rudi; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Baech, John; Haunstrup, Thure Mors; Bergkvist, Kim Steve; Schmitz, Alexander; Boedker, Julie Stoeveve; Johansen, Preben; Dybkaer, Karen; Boegsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant B-cell clones are affected by both acquired genetic alterations and by inherited genetic variations changing the inflammatory tumour microenvironment. Methods We investigated 50 inflammatory response gene polymorphisms in 355 B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (B-NHL) samples encompassing 216 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 139 follicular lymphoma (FL) and 307 controls. The effect of single genes and haplotypes were investigated and gene-expression analysis was applied for selected genes. Since interaction between risk genes can have a large impact on phenotype, two-way gene-gene interaction analysis was included. Results We found inherited SNPs in genes critical for inflammatory pathways; TLR9, IL4, TAP2, IL2RA, FCGR2A, TNFA, IL10RB, GALNT12, IL12A and IL1B were significantly associated with disease risk and SELE, IL1RN, TNFA, TAP2, MBL2, IL5, CX3CR1, CHI3L1 and IL12A were, associated with overall survival (OS) in specific diagnostic entities of B-NHL. We discovered noteworthy interactions between DLBCL risk alleles on IL10 and IL4RA and FL risk alleles on IL4RA and IL4. In relation to OS, a highly significant interaction was observed in DLBCL for IL4RA (rs1805010) * IL10 (rs1800890) (HR = 0.11 (0.020.50)). Finally, we explored the expression of risk genes from the gene-gene interaction analysis in normal B-cell subtypes showing a different expression of IL4RA, IL10, IL10RB genes supporting a pathogenetic effect of these interactions in the germinal center. Conclusions The present findings support the importance of inflammatory genes in B-cell lymphomas. We found association between polymorphic sites in inflammatory response genes and risk as well as outcome in B-NHL and suggest an effect of gene-gene interactions during the stepwise oncogenesis. PMID:26448050

  15. The glucocorticoid mometasone furoate is a novel FXR ligand that decreases inflammatory but not metabolic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bijsmans, Ingrid T G W; Guercini, Chiara; Ramos Pittol, Jos M; Omta, Wienand; Milona, Alexandra; Lelieveld, Daphne; Egan, David A; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gioiello, Antimo; van Mil, Saskia W C

    2015-01-01

    The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile salt, glucose and cholesterol homeostasis by binding to DNA response elements, thereby activating gene expression (direct transactivation). FXR also inhibits the immune response via tethering to NF-?B (tethering transrepression). FXR activation therefore has therapeutic potential for liver and intestinal inflammatory diseases. We aim to identify and develop gene-selective FXR modulators, which repress inflammation, but do not interfere with its metabolic capacity. In a high-throughput reporter-based screen, mometasone furoate (MF) was identified as a compound that reduced NF-?B reporter activity in an FXR-dependent manner. MF reduced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induction of direct FXR target genes in HepG2-GFP-FXR cells and intestinal organoids was minor. Computational studies disclosed three putative binding modes of the compound within the ligand binding domain of the receptor. Interestingly, mutation of W469A residue within the FXR ligand binding domain abrogated the decrease in NF-?B activity. Finally, we show that MF-bound FXR inhibits NF-?B subunit p65 recruitment to the DNA of pro-inflammatory genes CXCL2 and IL8. Although MF is not suitable as selective anti-inflammatory FXR ligand due to nanomolar affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor, we show that separation between metabolic and anti-inflammatory functions of FXR can be achieved. PMID:26369990

  16. The glucocorticoid mometasone furoate is a novel FXR ligand that decreases inflammatory but not metabolic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Bijsmans, Ingrid T. G. W.; Guercini, Chiara; Ramos Pittol, José M.; Omta, Wienand; Milona, Alexandra; Lelieveld, Daphne; Egan, David A.; Pellicciari, Roberto; Gioiello, Antimo; van Mil, Saskia W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile salt, glucose and cholesterol homeostasis by binding to DNA response elements, thereby activating gene expression (direct transactivation). FXR also inhibits the immune response via tethering to NF-κB (tethering transrepression). FXR activation therefore has therapeutic potential for liver and intestinal inflammatory diseases. We aim to identify and develop gene-selective FXR modulators, which repress inflammation, but do not interfere with its metabolic capacity. In a high-throughput reporter-based screen, mometasone furoate (MF) was identified as a compound that reduced NF-κB reporter activity in an FXR-dependent manner. MF reduced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induction of direct FXR target genes in HepG2-GFP-FXR cells and intestinal organoids was minor. Computational studies disclosed three putative binding modes of the compound within the ligand binding domain of the receptor. Interestingly, mutation of W469A residue within the FXR ligand binding domain abrogated the decrease in NF-κB activity. Finally, we show that MF-bound FXR inhibits NF-κB subunit p65 recruitment to the DNA of pro-inflammatory genes CXCL2 and IL8. Although MF is not suitable as selective anti-inflammatory FXR ligand due to nanomolar affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor, we show that separation between metabolic and anti-inflammatory functions of FXR can be achieved. PMID:26369990

  17. Impact of TREM-2 gene silencing on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dai; Dong, Yanting; Liu, Zhuola; Niu, Bo; Wang, Yaowei; Gao, Xiaoling

    2014-09-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the critical clinical respiratory diseases, of which infection is the main cause and the first risk factor. This study investigated the impact of triggering receptor of myeloid cells expression (TREM)-2 gene silencing on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced ALI in mice. Lentivirus-mediated TREM-2-shRNA was transfected into healthy male C57BL/6 mice, and the lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI model was established. The immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, fluorescence quantitative PCR, western blot, and ELISA were applied to detect the pathological changes of lung tissue and expressions of TREM-2, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lentivirus group, saline control group, ALI model group, blank control group, and negative control group were set up at the same time. Results found that, in lentivirus group, the pathological change of lung tissue was significantly lighter than ALI model group (P < 0.05), and the expression of TREM-2 was significantly reduced compared with all control groups (P < 0.05). The levels of TNF-? and IL-10 were significantly increased than all control groups (P < 0.05), while above indexes in negative control group and blank control group showed no significant difference with ALI group (P > 0.05). This study indicates that TREM-2 has a protective effect on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced ALI in mice, which has provided new potential targets for prevention and treatment of ALI. PMID:24916365

  18. Increased Plp1 gene expression leads to massive microglial cell activation and inflammation throughout the brain

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Carrie L; Appikatla, Sunita; Bessert, Denise A; Paintlia, Ajaib S; Singh, Inderjit; Skoff, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    PMD (Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that impairs motor and cognitive functions and is associated with a shortened lifespan. The cause of PMD is mutations of the PLP1 [proteolipid protein 1 gene (human)] gene. Transgenic mice with increased Plp1 [proteolipid protein 1 gene (non-human)] copy number model most aspects of PMD patients with duplications. Hypomyelination and demyelination are believed to cause the neurological abnormalities in mammals with PLP1 duplications. We show, for the first time, intense microglial reactivity throughout the grey and white matter of a transgenic mouse line with increased copy number of the native Plp1 gene. Activated microglia in the white and grey matter of transgenic mice are found as early as postnatal day 7, before myelin commences in normal cerebra. This finding indicates that degeneration of myelin does not cause the microglial response. Microglial numbers are doubled due to in situ proliferation. Compared with the jp (jimpy) mouse, which has much more oligodendrocyte death and hardly any myelin, microglia in the overexpressors show a more dramatic microglial reactivity than jp, especially in the grey matter. Predictably, many classical markers of an inflammatory response, including TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) and IL-6, are significantly up-regulated manyfold. Because inflammation is believed to contribute to axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation in mammals with increased Plp1 gene dosage may also contribute to axonal degeneration described in patients and rodents with PLP1 increased gene dosage. PMID:20885931

  19. Increased lipid peroxides and inflammatory parameters in the retina adjacent to choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, A J; Bker, T; Breipohl, W

    1994-01-01

    Oxidative tissue damage and inflammatory reaction were investigated in the neurosensory retina of five eyes with malignant choroidal melanoma and correlated to the distance from the tumour. The results showed elevated levels of both lipid peroxides (expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and myeloperoxidase in the retina adjacent to the tumour. The values declined with distance from the tumour. The results indicate that production of oxygen free radicals contributes to tumour associated retinopathy. PMID:8123621

  20. Inflammatory bowel diseases: A disease (s) of modern times? Is incidence still increasing?

    PubMed Central

    Gismera, Cristina Saro; Aladrén, Beatriz Sicilia

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a heterogeneous group of diseases, not always easy to diagnose, even more difficult to classify, and diagnostic criteria are not always uniform. Well done population-based studies are not abundant, and so comparisons among different geographical areas or populations are not always very reliable. In this article, we have reviewed epidemiological studies available on the world’s population while making a critical review of published data. PMID:18810764

  1. Mutation of cysteine 46 in IKK-beta increases inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi Hong; Jiang, Shui Ping; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ting Yu; Yao, Xiao Jun; Su, Xiao Hui; Yan, Feng Gen; Liu, Juan; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Yi, Xiao Qin; Wong, Yuen Fan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Activation of IκB kinase β (IKK-β) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling contributes to cancer pathogenesis and inflammatory disease; therefore, the IKK-β−NF-κB signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target. Current drug design strategies focus on blocking NF-κB signaling by binding to specific cysteine residues on IKK-β. However, mutations in IKK-β have been found in patients who may eventually develop drug resistance. For these patients, a new generation of IKK-β inhibitors are required to provide novel treatment options. We demonstrate in vitro that cysteine-46 (Cys-46) is an essential residue for IKK-β kinase activity. We then validate the role of Cys-46 in the pathogenesis of inflammation using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and an IKK-βC46A transgenic mouse model. We show that a novel IKK-β inhibitor, dihydromyricetin (DMY), has anti-inflammatory effects on WT DTH mice but not IKK-βC46A transgenic mice. These findings reveal the role of Cys-46 in the promotion of inflammatory responses, and suggest that Cys-46 is a novel drug-binding site for the inhibition of IKK-β. PMID:26378659

  2. Risk and prognosis of campylobacteriosis in relation to polymorphisms of host inflammatory cytokine genes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H; Steffensen, R; Ejlertsen, T

    2012-04-01

    The risk of infection with Campylobacter jejuni/coli as well as complications may be related to host genetics. We assessed six single-nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes in 105 patients with Campylobacter jejuni/coli gastroenteritis. The population distribution of the genes was determined in healthy subjects. The patients responded to mailed questionnaires with regard to reactive arthritis (RA) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in 6-month follow-up. The genotype INFG(+ 874A/A) was less frequent in patients than in controls (20% versus 33%; P = 0.015), whereas the distribution of the other five SNPs did not differ from controls. After 6 months, RA had developed in 15 subjects and IBS in 20 subjects. RA was significant more frequent in patients with IL-18(-137G/G) (22%) than IL-18(-137C/C) (0%), P = 0.03, with INFG(+874 T/T (32%) than INFG(+874A/A) (0%), P = 0.007, and with INFG(+2197 A/A) (22%) than INFG(+2197G/G) (0%), P = 0.02. The development of IBS was not linked to gene polymorphisms. In conclusion, the risk of acquiring clinical gastroenteritis with Campylobacter jejuni/coli is related to the INFG (+ 874A>T) of intron 1. Polymorphisms in IL-18 and INFG are linked to the risk of post-infectious reactive arthritis, but not to irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:22229864

  3. Circadian gene Bmal1 regulates diurnal oscillations of Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khoa D.; Fentress, Sarah J.; Qiu, Yifu; Yun, Karen; Cox, Jeffery S.; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks have evolved to regulate physiologic and behavioral rhythms in anticipation of changes in the environment. Although the molecular clock is present in innate immune cells, its role in monocyte homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we report that Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes exhibit diurnal variation, which controls their trafficking to sites of inflammation. This cyclic pattern of trafficking confers protection against Listeria monocytogenes and is regulated by the repressive activity of the circadian gene BMAL1. Accordingly, myeloid cell-specific deletion of BMAL1 induces expression of monocyte-attracting chemokines and disrupts rhythmic cycling of Ly6Chi monocytes, predisposing mice to development of pathologies associated with acute and chronic inflammation. These findings have unveiled a critical role for BMAL1 in controlling the diurnal rhythms in Ly6Chi monocyte numbers. PMID:23970558

  4. Polymorphisms of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene associated with malignancy in female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Tuguz, A R; Anokhina, E N; Muzhenya, D V; Rudenko, K A

    2015-03-01

    Association of three polymorphisms (1082G/A, 819C/T, and 592C/A) of the promotor region of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene with malignancy of female reproductive organs was revealed by SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) method in ethnic groups of Adygei Republic. Breast cancer, cervical cancer, and cancer of the uterine corpus are associated with allele 592A (р=0.042) in Circassians and with polymorphism 819T in Russians (р=0.046). Irrespective of the ethnicity, allele 819T was signifi cantly more often (р<0.05) detected in prevalent forms of breast cancer involving regional lymph nodes. 1082G polymorphism is associated with low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. In women of Adygei Republic, ATA/GCA gaplotypes are associated with high risk factors for breast cancer. PMID:25778657

  5. Progress in searching for susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease by positional cloning

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chang-Qing; Hu, Gang-Zheng; Zeng, Zhao-Shu; Lin, Lian-Jie; Gu, Gin-Ge

    2003-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes two clinical subtypes: Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The general prevalence is about 1.0%-2.0% in Western countries. It is predominantly regarded as a multifactorial disorder involving environmental factors and polygenic defects. The view was confirmed by a lot of evidences from clinical attributions and animal models, especially from epidemiological investigations. So the etiological study of IBD has been focused on searching for susceptibility genes by positional cloning, which consists of two steps: linkage analysis and association analysis. Linkage analysis has been an important method of searching for susceptibility genes to polygenic diseases as well as single-gene disorders. IBD, as a polygenic disease, has been widely investigated by linkage analysis for susceptibility gene since 1996. The paper reviewed 38 articles, which covered almost all original researches in relation to IBD and linkage analysis. So far, several loci, such as 16q, 12q, 6p and 3p, have been identified by the studies. The most striking is 16q12 (IBD1), which linked only with CD not UC in the majority of studies. Association analysis, as one essential step for positional cloning, is usually carried out by genotyping candidate genes selected by means of linkage analysis or other methods, for figuring out the frequencies of alleles and comparing the frequencies between IBD group and healthy control group to identify the specific allele. It has been established that IBD is implicated in immune disorder. So the studies were centered on the genes of NOD2/CARD15, HLA-II, cytokine, cytokine receptor and adhesion molecule. This paper reviewed 14 original articles on association between NOD2 and IBD that have been published since 2001. All results, with the exception of one report from a Japanese group, provide evidences that the three kinds of variants of NOD2 are susceptibility factors for IBD. This article also comprehensively analyzed 18 original researches of HLA gene polymorphism in IBD. We found extensive discrepancy among the conclusions and a novel hypothesis was put forward to explain the discordance. Most studies published recently on association between IBD and cytokine gene polymorphism were reviewed. PMID:12918095

  6. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Lis R V; Leoratti, Fabiana M S; Costa, Pedro A C; Rocha, Bruno C; Diniz, Suelen Q; Tada, Mauro S; Pereira, Dhelio B; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Golenbock, Douglas T; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2014-09-01

    Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+) were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+)CD16(+) cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. PMID:25233271

  7. The CD14+CD16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity and Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Lis R. V.; Leoratti, Fabiana M. S.; Costa, Pedro A. C.; Rocha, Bruno C.; Diniz, Suelen Q.; Tada, Mauro S.; Pereira, Dhelio B.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax–infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14+CD16− (classical), CD14+CD16+ (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16+ (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16+ cells, in particular the CD14+CD16+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14+CD16+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14+CD16+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection. PMID:25233271

  8. Increased protein O-GlcNAc modification inhibits inflammatory and neointimal responses to acute endoluminal arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dongqi; Feng, Wenguang; Nt, Laszlo G; Miller, Andrew P; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Majid-Hassan, Erum; Chatham, John C; Oparil, Suzanne

    2008-07-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in vascular disease. We have shown that leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory mediator expression contribute to vascular remodeling after endoluminal injury. This study tested whether increasing protein O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels with glucosamine (GlcN) and O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) inhibits acute inflammatory and neointimal responses to endoluminal arterial injury. Ovariectomized rats were treated with a single injection of GlcN (0.3 mg/g ip), PUGNAc (7 nmol/g ip) or vehicle (V) 2 h before balloon injury of the right carotid artery. O-GlcNAc-modified protein levels decreased markedly in injured arteries of V-treated rats at 30 min, 2 h, and 24 h after injury but returned to control (contralateral uninjured) levels after 14 days. Both GlcN and PUGNAc increased O-GlcNAc-modified protein levels in injured arteries compared with V controls at 30 min postinjury; the GlcN-mediated increase persisted at 24 h but was not evident at 14 days. Proinflammatory mediator expression increased markedly after injury and was reduced significantly (30-50%) by GlcN and PUGNAc. GlcN and PUGNAc also inhibited infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes in injured arteries. Chronic (14 days) treatment with GlcN reduced neointima formation in injured arteries by 50% compared with V controls. Acute GlcN and PUGNAc treatment increases O-GlcNAc-modified protein levels and inhibits acute inflammatory responses in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries; 14 day GlcN treatment inhibits neointima formation in these vessels. Augmenting O-GlcNAc modification of proteins in the vasculature may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective mechanism. PMID:18469144

  9. LincRNA-Cox2 Promotes Late Inflammatory Gene Transcription in Macrophages through Modulating SWI/SNF-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoku; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Ma, Shibin; Chen, Xiqiang; Chen, Jing; Su, Chun-Jen; Shibata, Annemarie; Strauss-Soukup, Juliane K; Drescher, Kristen M; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2016-03-15

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. One of the most highly induced lincRNAs in macrophages upon TLR ligation is lincRNA-Cox2, which was recently shown to mediate the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes in innate immune cells. We report that lincRNA-Cox2, located at chromosome 1 proximal to the PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2/Cox2) gene, is an early-primary inflammatory gene controlled by NF-κB signaling in murine macrophages. Functionally, lincRNA-Cox2 is required for the transcription of NF-κB-regulated late-primary inflammatory response genes stimulated by bacterial LPS. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 is assembled into the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex in cells after LPS stimulation. This resulting lincRNA-Cox2/SWI/SNF complex can modulate the assembly of NF-κB subunits to the SWI/SNF complex, and ultimately, SWI/SNF-associated chromatin remodeling and transactivation of the late-primary inflammatory-response genes in macrophages in response to microbial challenge. Therefore, our data indicate a new regulatory role for NF-κB-induced lincRNA-Cox2 as a coactivator of NF-κB for the transcription of late-primary response genes in innate immune cells through modulation of epigenetic chromatin remodeling. PMID:26880762

  10. Mechanisms Establishing TLR4-Responsive Activation States of Inflammatory Response Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kaikkonen, Minna U.; Lozach, Jean; Heinz, Sven; Spann, Nathan J.; Crotti, Andrea; Stender, Josh; Ghisletti, Serena; Reichart, Donna; Cheng, Christine S.; Luna, Rosa; Ludka, Colleen; Sasik, Roman; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Hoffmann, Alexander; Subramaniam, Shankar; Hardiman, Gary; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Glass, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    Precise control of the innate immune response is required for resistance to microbial infections and maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Because this response involves coordinate regulation of hundreds of genes, it provides a powerful biological system to elucidate the molecular strategies that underlie signal- and time-dependent transitions of gene expression. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the epigenetic and transcription status of the TLR4-induced transcriptional program in macrophages suggests that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent activation of nearly all immediate/early- (I/E) and late-response genes results from a sequential process in which signal-independent factors initially establish basal levels of gene expression that are then amplified by signal-dependent transcription factors. Promoters of I/E genes are distinguished from those of late genes by encoding a distinct set of signal-dependent transcription factor elements, including TATA boxes, which lead to preferential binding of TBP and basal enrichment for RNA polymerase II immediately downstream of transcriptional start sites. Global nuclear run-on (GRO) sequencing and total RNA sequencing further indicates that TLR4 signaling markedly increases the overall rates of both transcriptional initiation and the efficiency of transcriptional elongation of nearly all I/E genes, while RNA splicing is largely unaffected. Collectively, these findings reveal broadly utilized mechanisms underlying temporally distinct patterns of TLR4-dependent gene activation required for homeostasis and effective immune responses. PMID:22174696

  11. Progressive increase of inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sharain, Korosh; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Bansal, Vinod; Singh, Ajay; Fareed, Jawed

    2013-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic levels. It is a multisystem disease associated with elevated systemic inflammatory and hypercoagulable states. Most concerning are the cardiovascular risks associated with all stages of kidney disease. It is difficult to assess kidney disease stage progression and cardiovascular risk with current indicators such as estimated glomerular filtration rate and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. However, the use of biomarkers to assess the underlying pathological disease state may bridge the gap. This study evaluated biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, d-dimer, neuron-specific enolase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, tumor necrosis factor receptor I, and thrombomodulin in 3 groups of patients: CKD stages 2-4, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-matched controls. The study demonstrated a statistically significant progressive upregulation in mean concentration of all markers when comparing controls to CKD and ESRD. Therefore, biomarkers may be able to evaluate the inflammatory state in kidney disease and potentially predict the cardiovascular risk. PMID:22865783

  12. Intestinal CCL25 expression is increased in colitis and correlates with inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Palak J; Bruns, Tony; Ward, Stephen; Mai, Martina; Schmidt, Carsten; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Weston, Chris J; Adams, David H

    2016-04-01

    CCL25-mediated activation of CCR9 is critical for mucosal lymphocyte recruitment to the intestine. In immune-mediated liver injury complicating inflammatory bowel disease, intrahepatic activation of this pathway allows mucosal lymphocytes to be recruited to the liver, driving hepatobiliary destruction in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). However, in mice and healthy humans CCL25 expression is restricted to the small bowel, whereas few data exist on activation of this pathway in the inflamed colon despite the vast majority of PSC patients having ulcerative colitis. Herein, we show that colonic CCL25 expression is not only upregulated in patients with active colitis, but strongly correlates with endoscopic Mayo score and mucosal TNFα expression. Moreover, approximately 90% (CD4(+)) and 30% (CD8(+)) of tissue-infiltrating T-cells in colitis were identified as CCR9(+) effector lymphocytes, compared to <10% of T-cells being CCR9(+) in normal colon. Sorted CCR9(+) lymphocytes also demonstrated enhanced cellular adhesion to stimulated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium compared with their CCR9(-) counterparts when under flow. Collectively, these results suggest that CCR9/CCL25 interactions are not only involved in colitis pathogenesis but also correlate with colonic inflammatory burden; further supporting the existence of overlapping mucosal lymphocyte recruitment pathways between the inflamed colon and liver. PMID:26873648

  13. Increased expression of PIN1 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1), encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threonine residues preceding proline (pSer/Thr-Pro motifs); in this way, it has an influence on protein interactions and intracellular localizations of proteins. The aim of the study were: 1) an assessment of PIN1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions; 2) the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or tumour size, classified according to TNM classification of primary tumours (in case of PTC only); 3) the estimation of possible relationships between expression of the gene in question and patients' sex or age. Methods Seventy (70) tissue samples were analyzed: 32 cases of PTC, 7 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 7 cases of follicular adenoma (FA), and 24 cases of nodular goitre (NG). In real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), two-step RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) in an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System was employed. The PIN1 gene expression level was assessed, calculating the mean relative quantification rate (RQ rate) increase for each sample. Results The level of PIN1 gene expression (compared to that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue) was higher in PTC group than those in FA, MTC and/or NG groups, but the statistical significance was noted for difference between PTC and NG groups only. On the other hand, the differences of RQ rate value between different PTC variants were statistically insignificant. No correlations were found between RQ values and tumour size, as well as between RQ values and patients' sex or age in PTC group. Conclusions The PIN1 gene expression may have - in future - an important meaning in the diagnostics of PTC and in understanding its pathogenesis. However, our results - mostly due to the small number of cases - do not yet allow considering PIN1 gene as a prognostic molecular PTC marker. PMID:21219594

  14. Deletion of Rictor in brain and fat alters peripheral clock gene expression and increases blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Drgert, Katja; Bhattacharya, Indranil; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Seebeck, Petra; Azzi, Abdelhalim; Brown, Steven A; Georgiopoulou, Stavroula; Held, Ulrike; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Arras, Margarete; Humar, Rok; Hall, Michael N; Battegay, Edouard; Haas, Elvira

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) contains the essential protein RICTOR and is activated by growth factors. mTORC2 in adipose tissue contributes to the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In the perivascular adipose tissue, mTORC2 ensures normal vascular reactivity by controlling expression of inflammatory molecules. To assess whether RICTOR/mTORC2 contributes to blood pressure regulation, we applied a radiotelemetry approach in control and Rictor knockout (Rictor(aP2KO)) mice generated using adipocyte protein-2 gene promoter-driven CRE recombinase expression to delete Rictor. The 24-hour mean arterial pressure was increased in Rictor(aP2KO) mice, and the physiological decline in mean arterial pressure during the dark period was impaired. In parallel, heart rate and locomotor activity were elevated during the dark period with a pattern similar to blood pressure changes. This phenotype was associated with mild cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased cardiac natriuretic peptides, and their receptor expression in adipocytes. Moreover, clock gene expression was reduced or phase-shifted in perivascular adipose tissue. No differences in clock gene expression were observed in the master clock suprachiasmatic nucleus, although Rictor gene expression was also lower in brain of Rictor(aP2KO) mice. Thus, this study highlights the importance of RICTOR/mTORC2 for interactions between vasculature, adipocytes, and brain to tune physiological outcomes, such as blood pressure and locomotor activity. PMID:26101345

  15. Regulation of the NF-κB-Mediated Transcription of Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Dev; Ghosh, Sankar

    2014-01-01

    The NF-κB family of transcription factors plays a central role in the inducible expression of inflammatory genes during the immune response, and the proper regulation of these genes is a critical factor in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The chromatin environment at stimulus-responsive NF-κB sites is a major determinant in transcription factor binding, and dynamic alteration of the chromatin state to facilitate transcription factor binding is a key regulatory mechanism. NF-κB is in turn able to influence the chromatin state through a variety of mechanisms, including the recruitment of chromatin modifying co-activator complexes such as p300, the competitive eviction of negative chromatin modifications, and the recruitment of components of the general transcriptional machinery. Frequently, the selective interaction with these co-activators is dependent on specific post-translational modification of NF-κB subunits. Finally, the mechanisms of inducible NF-κB activity in different immune cell types seem to be largely conserved. The diversity of cell-specific NF-κB-mediated transcriptional programs is established at the chromatin level during cell differentiation by lineage-defining transcription factors. These factors generate and maintain a cell-specific chromatin landscape that is accessible to NF-κB, thus restricting the inducible transcriptional response to a cell-appropriate output. PMID:24611065

  16. Calcium oscillations increase the efficiency and specificity of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmetsch, Ricardo E.; Xu, Keli; Lewis, Richard S.

    1998-04-01

    Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) oscillations are a nearly universal mode of signalling in excitable and non-excitable cells. Although Ca2+ is known to mediate a diverse array of cell functions, it is not known whether oscillations contribute to the efficiency or specificity of signalling or are merely an inevitable consequence of the feedback control of [Ca2+]i. We have developed a Ca2+ clamp technique to investigate the roles of oscillation amplitude and frequency in regulating gene expression driven by the proinflammatory transcription factors NF-AT, Oct/OAP and NF-?B. Here we report that oscillations reduce the effective Ca2+ threshold for activating transcription factors, thereby increasing signal detection at low levels of stimulation. In addition, specificity is encoded by the oscillation frequency: rapid oscillations stimulate all three transcription factors, whereas infrequent oscillations activate only NF-?B. The genes encoding the cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-8 are also frequency-sensitive in a way that reflects their degree of dependence on NF-AT versus NF-?B. Our results provide direct evidence that [Ca2+]i oscillations increase both the efficacy and the information content of Ca2+ signals that lead to gene expression and cell differentiation.

  17. Markedly increased expression of interleukin-8 in the colorectal mucosa of inflammatory colorectal polyps in miniature dachshunds.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yu; Ohta, Hiroshi; Torisu, Shidow; Yuki, Masashi; Yokoyama, Nozomu; Murakami, Masahiro; Lim, Sue Yee; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Morishita, Keitaro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-11-15

    Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) in miniature dachshunds were recently recognized as a major cause of large bowel diarrhea in this dog breed in Japan. ICRPs are characterized by the formation of multiple small polyps and/or space-occupying large polyps in the colorectal area and are thought to be a novel form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To explore key mediators in the pathogenesis of ICRPs, we analyzed several pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-12p35, IL-12/23p40, and IL-23p19) mRNA expressions in colorectal polyps in ICRP dogs by quantitative PCR. Among these cytokines, IL-8 mRNA expression was markedly up-regulated in large polyps. To examine IL-8 protein expression, we analyzed IL-8 protein level and its location in colorectal mucosal specimens of ICRP dogs by ELISA and immunofluorescence microscopy. IL-8 protein was significantly increased in large polyps and serum in dogs with ICRPs compared to controls. By immunofluorescence microscopy, IL-8 was only localized in macrophages, but not in mucosal epithelial cells or neutrophils. IL-8-positive macrophages were significantly increased in large polyps compared to controls. These results suggest that IL-8 is produced mainly by macrophages and may induce neutrophil infiltration in the colorectal area of ICRP dogs. PMID:24148828

  18. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modulators from natural products as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Hye; Kim, Jinwoong; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-04-01

    Natural products are rich sources of gene modulators that may be useful in prevention and treatment of cancer. Recently, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene-1 (NAG-1) has been focused as a target of action against diverse cancers like colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and breast. A variety of natural agents have been reported to play a pivotal role in regulation of NAG-1 through multiple transcriptional mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to review the NAG-1 modulators derived from natural products including plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. Plant extracts belonging to the families of Fabaceae (Astragalus membranaceus), Ranunculaceae (Coptis chinensis), Menispermaceae (Coscinium fenestratum), Umbelliferae (Pleurospermum kamtschaticum), Lamiaceae (Marubium vulgare), and Rosaceae (Prunus serotina) increased the protein expression of NAG-1 in human colon cancer or hepatocarcinoma cells. Phytochemicals in the class of flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, and 2'-hydroxyflavanone), isoflavonoids (formononetin and genistein), catechins (epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate), stilbenoids (resveratrol and pinosylvin), phenolics (6-gingerol), phloroglucinols (rottlerin and aspidin PB), terpenoids (18 ?-glycyrrhetinic acid, platycodin D, pseudolaric acid B, and xanthorrhizol), alkaloids (berberine, capsaicin, and indole-3-carbinol), lignans (isochaihulactone), anthraquinones (damnacanthal), and allyl sulfides (diallyl disulfide) elicited NAG-1 overexpression in various cancer cells. Pectenotoxin-2 from marine organisms and prodigiosin and anisomycin from microorganisms were also reported as NAG-1 modulators. Several transcription factors including EGR-1, p53, ATF-3, Sp1 and PPAR? were involved in natural products-induced NAG-1 transcriptional signaling pathway. PMID:24530873

  19. Differential gene expression in multiple neurological, inflammatory and connective tissue pathways in a spontaneous model of human small vessel stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Emma L; McBride, Martin W; Beattie, Wendy; McClure, John D; Graham, Delyth; Dominiczak, Anna F; Sudlow, Cathie LM; Smith, Colin; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) causes a fifth of all strokes plus diffuse brain damage leading to cognitive decline, physical disabilities and dementia. The aetiology and pathogenesis of SVD are unknown, but largely attributed to hypertension or microatheroma. Methods We used the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP), the closest spontaneous experimental model of human SVD, and age-matched control rats kept under identical, non-salt-loaded conditions, to perform a blinded analysis of mRNA microarray, qRT-PCR and pathway analysis in two brain regions (frontal and mid-coronal) commonly affected by SVD in the SHRSP at age five, 16 and 21 weeks. Results We found gene expression abnormalities, with fold changes ranging from 2.5 to 59 for the 10 most differentially expressed genes, related to endothelial tight junctions (reduced), nitric oxide bioavailability (reduced), myelination (impaired), glial and microglial activity (increased), matrix proteins (impaired), vascular reactivity (impaired) and albumin (reduced), consistent with protein expression defects in the same rats. All were present at age 5 weeks thus predating blood pressure elevation. Neurological and inflammatory pathways were more affected than vascular functional pathways. Conclusions This set of defects, although individually modest, when acting in combination could explain the SHRSP's susceptibility to microvascular and brain injury, compared with control rats. Similar combined, individually modest, but multiple neurovascular unit defects, could explain susceptibility to spontaneous human SVD. PMID:24417612

  20. Preeclampsia is associated with an increased pro-inflammatory profile in newborns.

    PubMed

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Lacroix, Marilyn; Allard, Catherine; Patenaude, Julie; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Côté, Anne-Marie; Hivert, Marie-France

    2015-11-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) lead to high rates of maternal and fetal morbidity. Existing studies on inflammatory marker TNFα in HDP offspring are inconsistent. We performed a population-based cohort study of 636 pregnancies, including normotensive (NT) women and women with preeclampsia (PE) or gestational hypertension (GH). TNFα was measured in maternal blood in the first and second trimesters and in cord blood at the time of delivery. Cord blood TNFα was higher in offspring delivered of women with PE (6.53 [4.94-8.38]pg/mL) versus those delivered of NT women (5.13 [4.11-6.72]pg/mL; p=0.01), independent of confounders. Maternal TNFα levels were not different among groups (p>0.1) in either the first or second trimester. PMID:26454417

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease: lessons from the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Madsen, K L

    2001-10-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease likely involves multifactorial interactions between genetic factors and environmental triggers. The most recent studies suggest that luminal bacteria are a significant factor in the onset and chronicity of inflammation. In interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene-deficient mice a Crohn's-like colitis develops when the mice are raised under conventional animal care facilities but fails to develop when they are raised under germ-free conditions. These mice demonstrate significant alterations in the species and the levels of bacteria colonizing the colon, suggesting that genetic factors in the host may be critical in controlling bacterial colonization. In addition, early treatment of IL-10 gene-deficient mice with antibiotics can prevent the development of colitis in later life, suggesting that early events during the neonatal period can influence later disease progression. Recent work has focused on using probiotic bacterial mixtures to alter the microbial balance in the colon in attempts to reduce inflammation. The use of the VSL-3 probiotic mixture in the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse resulted in a complete normalization of physiological transport function and barrier integrity, in conjunction with a reduction in mucosal secretion of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Further, it would appear that a soluble factor is released from a bacterium found in the VSL-3 mixture that can act directly on the epithelium to enhance barrier integrity. Results from animal models of inflammatory bowel disease suggest that genetically susceptible hosts can mount a pathogenic cellular immune response to specific nonpathogenic bacterial species, as a consequence of defective immunologic tolerance and lack of appropriate mucosal defences. Probiotic bacteria appear to be a promising new alternative for the treatment of clinical conditions that are associated with alterations in gut barrier function, including Crohn' s disease. PMID:11603509

  2. Intake of Red Wine in Different Meals Modulates Oxidized LDL Level, Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Healthy People: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Laura; Valente, Roberto; Colica, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  3. Wnt11 Gene Therapy with Adeno-associated Virus 9 Improves Recovery from Myocardial Infarction by Modulating the Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Koichi; Klyachko, Ekaterina; Jujo, Kentaro; Maeda, Kengo; Losordo, Douglas W; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction induces activation of the acute phase response and infiltration of leukocytes to the infarcted area. Moreover, myocardium that is remote from ischemic area also becomes inflamed. Inflammatory reaction clears dead cells and matrix debris, while prolongation or expansion of the inflammatory response results in dysfunction following myocardial infarction. Wnt glycolipoproteins are best characterized as regulators of embryonic development. Recently several reports suggest that they also contribute to the inflammatory response in adult animals. However, the effects of Wnt proteins on myocardial infarction have not been explored. Here we show that Wnt11 expression leads to significant improvements of survival and cardiac function by suppressing infiltration of multiple kinds of inflammatory cells in infarcted heart. Wnt11 protein suppresses gene expression of inflammatory cytokines through the modulation of NF-?B in vitro. These results reveal a novel function of Wnt11 in the regulation of inflammatory response and provide a rationale for the use of Wnt11 to manipulate human diseases that are mediated by inflammation. PMID:26882996

  4. Wnt11 Gene Therapy with Adeno-associated Virus 9 Improves Recovery from Myocardial Infarction by Modulating the Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Koichi; Klyachko, Ekaterina; Jujo, Kentaro; Maeda, Kengo; Losordo, Douglas W.; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction induces activation of the acute phase response and infiltration of leukocytes to the infarcted area. Moreover, myocardium that is remote from ischemic area also becomes inflamed. Inflammatory reaction clears dead cells and matrix debris, while prolongation or expansion of the inflammatory response results in dysfunction following myocardial infarction. Wnt glycolipoproteins are best characterized as regulators of embryonic development. Recently several reports suggest that they also contribute to the inflammatory response in adult animals. However, the effects of Wnt proteins on myocardial infarction have not been explored. Here we show that Wnt11 expression leads to significant improvements of survival and cardiac function by suppressing infiltration of multiple kinds of inflammatory cells in infarcted heart. Wnt11 protein suppresses gene expression of inflammatory cytokines through the modulation of NF-κB in vitro. These results reveal a novel function of Wnt11 in the regulation of inflammatory response and provide a rationale for the use of Wnt11 to manipulate human diseases that are mediated by inflammation. PMID:26882996

  5. A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Giroux, M.J.; Shaw, J.; Hannah, L.C.

    1996-06-11

    The maize endosperm-specific gene shrunken2 (Sh2) encodes the large subunit of the heterotetrameric starch synthetic enzyme adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27). Here we exploit an in vivo, site-specific mutagenesis system to create short insertion mutations in a region of the gene known to be involved in the allosteric regulation of AGP. The site-specific mutagen is the transposable element dissociation (Ds). Approximately one-third (8 of 23) of the germinal revertants sequenced restored the wild-type sequence, whereas the remaining revertants contained insertions of 3 or 6 bp. All revertants retained the original reading frame 3 feet to the insertion site and involved the addition of tyrosine and/or serine. Each insertion revertant reduced total AGP activity and the amount of the SH2 protein. The revertant containing additional tyrosine and serine residues increased seed weight 11-18% without increasing or decreasing the percentage of starch. Other insertion revertants lacking an additional serine reduced seed weight. Reduced sensitivity to phosphate, a long-known inhibitor of AGP, was found in the high seed-weight revertant. This alteration is likely universally important since insertion of tyrosine and serine in the potato large subunit of AGP at the comparable position and expression in Escherichia coli also led to a phosphate-insensitive enzyme. These results show that single gene mutations giving rise to increased seed weight, and therefore perhaps yield, are clearly possible in a plant with a long history of intensive and successful breeding efforts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Inflammatory stimuli induce inhibitory S-nitrosylation of the deacetylase SIRT1 to increase acetylation and activation of p53 and p65

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Shohei; Chang, Kyungho; Sakai, Michihiro; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Marina; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Ichinose, Fumito; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Ishigami, Akihito; Ito, Hideki; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Starr, Marlene E.; Saito, Hiroshi; Shimokado, Kentaro; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Kaneki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation increases the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), leading to enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO), which can modify proteins by S-nitrosylation. Enhanced NO production increases the activities of the transcription factors p53 and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in several models of disease-associated inflammation. S-Nitrosylation inhibits the activity of the protein deacetylase SIRT1. SIRT1 limits apoptosis and inflammation by deacetylating p53 and p65 (also known as RelA), a subunit of NF-?B. We showed in multiple cultured mammalian cell lines that NO donors or inflammatory stimuli induced S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 within CXXC motifs, which inhibited SIRT1 by disrupting its ability to bind zinc. Inhibition of SIRT1 reduced deacetylation and promoted activation of p53 and p65, leading to apoptosis and increased expression of proinflammatory genes. In rodent models of systemic inflammation, Parkinsons disease, or aging-related muscular atrophy, S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 correlated with increased acetylation of p53 and p65 and activation of p53 and NF-?B target genes, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 may represent a proinflammatory switch common to many diseases and aging. PMID:25389371

  7. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection causes modulation of inflammatory and immune response genes in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anuj; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Puri, Raj K; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2008-01-01

    Background Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. VEEV is highly infectious when transmitted by aerosol and has been developed as a bio-warfare agent, making it an important pathogen to study from a military and civilian standpoint. Molecular mechanisms of VEE pathogenesis are poorly understood. To study these, the gene expression profile of VEEV infected mouse brains was investigated. Changes in gene expression were correlated with histological changes in the brain. In addition, a molecular framework of changes in gene expression associated with progression of the disease was studied. Results Our results demonstrate that genes related to important immune pathways such as antigen presentation, inflammation, apoptosis and response to virus (Cxcl10, CxCl11, Ccl5, Ifr7, Ifi27 Oas1b, Fcerg1,Mif, Clusterin and MHC class II) were upregulated as a result of virus infection. The number of over-expressed genes (>1.5-fold level) increased as the disease progressed (from 197, 296, 400, to 1086 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post infection, respectively). Conclusion Identification of differentially expressed genes in brain will help in the understanding of VEEV-induced pathogenesis and selection of biomarkers for diagnosis and targeted therapy of VEEV-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:18558011

  8. Increased urinary levels of podocyte glycoproteins, matrix metallopeptidases, inflammatory cytokines, and kidney injury biomarkers in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuping; Gu, Yang; Loyd, Susan; Jia, Xiuyue; Groome, Lynn J

    2015-12-15

    To investigate kidney injury in preeclampsia, we analyzed 14 biomarkers in urine specimen from 4 groups of pregnant women (normotensive pregnant women and those with pregnancy complicated with chronic hypertension or mild or severe preeclampsia). These biomarkers included 1) podocyte glycoproteins nephrin and podocalyxin, 2) matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and their inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, 3) inflammatory molecules and cytokines soluble VCAM-1, TNF-?, soluble TNF receptor receptor-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18, and 4) kidney injury biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1. Postpartum urine specimens (6-8 wk) from normotensive women and those with severe preeclampsia were also evaluated. We found that, first, urine levels of nephrin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and kidney injury molecule-1 were significantly higher before delivery in severe preeclampsia than normotensive groups. The increased levels were all reduced to levels similar to those of the normotensive control group in postpartum specimens from the severe preeclampsia group. Second, soluble VCAM-1, soluble TNF receptor-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the normotensive control group before delivery, but levels of these molecules were significantly reduced in postpartum specimens in both groups. Third, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were not different between preeclampsia and normotensive groups but significantly increased in pregnancy complicated with chronic hypertension. Finally, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and IL-18 levels were not different among the study groups before delivery but were significantly reduced in postpartum specimens from normotensive controls. Our results indicate that the kidney experiences an increased inflammatory response during pregnancy. Most interestingly, tubular epithelial cell injury may also occur in severe preeclampsia. These biomarkers could be used to assess podocyte or tubular injury and kidney inflammatory responses during pregnancy and to evaluate postpartum kidney injury recovery in pregnancy-complicated disorders. PMID:26671966

  9. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs. PMID:26422517

  10. Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M.; Hebert, Sebastien S.; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U.

    2008-08-01

    A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target 0011gen.

  11. Functional Genomics Reveals the Induction of Inflammatory Response and Metalloproteinase Gene Expression during Lethal Ebola Virus Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Cilloniz, Cristian; Ebihara, Hideki; Ni, Chester; Neumann, Gabriele; Korth, Marcus J.; Kelly, Sara M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Ebola virus is the etiologic agent of a lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with mortality rates of up to 90%. Previous studies with Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), mouse-adapted virus (MA-ZEBOV), and mutant viruses (ZEBOV-NPma, ZEBOV-VP24ma, and ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma) allowed us to identify the mutations in viral protein 24 (VP24) and nucleoprotein (NP) responsible for acquisition of high virulence in mice. To elucidate specific molecular signatures associated with lethality, we compared global gene expression profiles in spleen samples from mice infected with these viruses and performed an extensive functional analysis. Our analysis showed that the lethal viruses (MA-ZEBOV and ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma) elicited a strong expression of genes 72 h after infection. In addition, we found that although the host transcriptional response to ZEBOV-VP24ma was nearly the same as that to ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma, the contribution of a mutation in the NP gene was required for a lethal phenotype. Further analysis indicated that one of the most relevant biological functions differentially regulated by the lethal viruses was the inflammatory response, as was the induction of specific metalloproteinases, which were present in our newly identify functional network that was associated with Ebola virus lethality. Our results suggest that this dysregulated proinflammatory response increased the severity of disease. Consequently, the newly discovered molecular signature could be used as the starting point for the development of new drugs and therapeutics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that clearly defines unique molecular signatures associated with Ebola virus lethality. PMID:21734050

  12. Functional genomics reveals the induction of inflammatory response and metalloproteinase gene expression during lethal Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cilloniz, Cristian; Ebihara, Hideki; Ni, Chester; Neumann, Gabriele; Korth, Marcus J; Kelly, Sara M; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    Ebola virus is the etiologic agent of a lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with mortality rates of up to 90%. Previous studies with Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), mouse-adapted virus (MA-ZEBOV), and mutant viruses (ZEBOV-NP(ma), ZEBOV-VP24(ma), and ZEBOV-NP/VP24(ma)) allowed us to identify the mutations in viral protein 24 (VP24) and nucleoprotein (NP) responsible for acquisition of high virulence in mice. To elucidate specific molecular signatures associated with lethality, we compared global gene expression profiles in spleen samples from mice infected with these viruses and performed an extensive functional analysis. Our analysis showed that the lethal viruses (MA-ZEBOV and ZEBOV-NP/VP24(ma)) elicited a strong expression of genes 72 h after infection. In addition, we found that although the host transcriptional response to ZEBOV-VP24(ma) was nearly the same as that to ZEBOV-NP/VP24(ma), the contribution of a mutation in the NP gene was required for a lethal phenotype. Further analysis indicated that one of the most relevant biological functions differentially regulated by the lethal viruses was the inflammatory response, as was the induction of specific metalloproteinases, which were present in our newly identify functional network that was associated with Ebola virus lethality. Our results suggest that this dysregulated proinflammatory response increased the severity of disease. Consequently, the newly discovered molecular signature could be used as the starting point for the development of new drugs and therapeutics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that clearly defines unique molecular signatures associated with Ebola virus lethality. PMID:21734050

  13. Functional analysis of UMOD gene and its effect on inflammatory cytokines in serum of essential hypertension patients

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Liguo; Fa, Xianen; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to investigate the function of uromodulin (UMOD) gene and its effect on inflammatory cytokines in serum of essential hypertension patients. Methods: The online database and software of computer were used for bioinformatics analysis on UMOD gene as well as the structure and function of its encoding proteins. Moreover, radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was adopted to validate the content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients and their serum inflammatory cytokines. Results: As an alkaline and hydrophilic protein, UMOD has no transmembrane region, but it does have a signal peptide sequence. It is mainly located extracellularly, belonging to a secreted protein, whose secondary structure was based mainly on Random coil which account for 58.44%. According to function prediction, it is found that the UMOD protein has stress response which may be participate in the inflammatory reaction. It has been observed from the experiment which was designed on the basis of the correlation between inflammation reaction and essential hypertension that the content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients who is in stage I was (28.7110.53) mg/24 h and when compared with the control groups content (30.1514.10 mg/24 h), the difference was not obviously; The content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients whos in stage II and III was (18.246.12) mg/24 h and (9.433.16) mg/24 h, respectively, which were obviously lower than that of the control group (P<0.01). Additionally, the serum inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-?, IL-6 and IL1-? content of essential hypertension patients were all markedly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: For essential hypertension patients, theres a close relationship between the expression level of UMOD gene and inflammatory cytokines, which were manifested as the negative correlation between the level of the genes expression and inflammatory cytokines. That has certain reference value to realize the targeted treatment for essential hypertension through regulated blood pressure conversely in the view of expression level of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26617860

  14. Combinatorial gene therapy renders increased survival in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis ranks as the second cause of death in Mxico's productive-age population. This pathology is characterized by acummulation of fibrillar proteins in hepatic parenchyma causing synthetic and metabolic disfunction. Remotion of excessive fibrous proteins might result in benefit for subjects increasing survival index. The goal of this work was to find whether the already known therapeutical effect of human urokinase Plasminogen Activator and human Matrix Metalloprotease 8 extends survival index in cirrhotic animals. Methods Wistar rats (80 g) underwent chronic intoxication with CCl4: mineral oil for 8 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were injected with a combined dose of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 (3 1011 and 1.5 1011 vp/Kg, respectively) or with Ad-beta-Gal (4.5 1011) and were killed after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Then, liver and serum were collected. An additional set of cirrhotic animals injected with combined gene therapy was also monitored for their probability of survival. Results Only the cirrhotic animals treated with therapeutical genes (Ad-delta-huPA+Ad-MMP-8) showed improvement in liver fibrosis. These results correlated with hydroxyproline determinations. A significant decrement in alpha-SMA and TGF-beta1 gene expression was also observed. Cirrhotic rats treated with Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 had a higher probability of survival at 60 days with respect to Ad-beta-Gal-injected animals. Conclusion A single administration of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP-8 is efficient to induce fibrosis regression and increase survival in experimental liver fibrosis. PMID:20509929

  15. Cardiac-Restricted IGF-1Ea Overexpression Reduces the Early Accumulation of Inflammatory Myeloid Cells and Mediates Expression of Extracellular Matrix Remodelling Genes after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Colon, Enrique; Sampson, Robert D.; Sattler, Susanne; Schneider, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Nadia; Tonkin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to limit damage and improve repair after myocardial infarct remain a major therapeutic goal in cardiology. Our previous studies have shown that constitutive expression of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 Ea (IGF-1Ea) propeptide promotes functional restoration after cardiac injury associated with decreased scar formation. In the current study, we investigated the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms behind the enhanced functional recovery. We observed improved cardiac function in mice overexpressing cardiac-specific IGF-1Ea as early as day 7 after myocardial infarction. Analysis of gene transcription revealed that supplemental IGF-1Ea regulated expression of key metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), and collagen types (Col 1α1 and Col 1α3) in the first week after injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, which direct the remodelling process, was also altered; in particular there was a notable reduction in inflammatory Ly6C+ monocytes at day 3 and an increase in anti-inflammatory CD206+ macrophages at day 7. Taken together, these results indicate that the IGF-1Ea transgene shifts the balance of innate immune cell populations early after infarction, favouring a reduction in inflammatory myeloid cells. This correlates with reduced extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in collagen composition that may confer enhanced scar elasticity and improved cardiac function. PMID:26491228

  16. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene-diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2) METHODS: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3) RESULTS: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191)), but relative quantification (RQ) within the -0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all). (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene-diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. PMID:26999109

  17. Screening of Complement Inhibitors: Shielded Baculoviruses Increase the Safety and Efficacy of Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaikkonen, Minna U; Maatta, Antti I; Yl-Herttuala, Seppo; Airenne, Kari J

    2010-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in the use of baculovirus vectors for in vivo gene transfer is the virus inactivation by serum complement. In this study, we investigated the effect of decay-accelerating factor (DAF), factor H (FH)like protein-1 (FHL-1), C4b-binding protein (C4BP), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) on protection of baculovirus vectors from the complement-mediated inactivation. Complement regulatory proteins were displayed on baculovirus surface as fusions to membrane anchor of the vesicular stomatitis virus-G (VSV-G) protein. This strategy resulted in abundant expression of recombinant proteins on the viral envelope while viral titers comparable to control virus were reached. The surface-modified vectors exhibited complement resistance in vitro, DAF showing the highest level of protection. Intraportal delivery of DAF-displaying baculovirus resulted in increased survival and enhanced gene expression in immunocompetent mice. Mice receiving DAF-displaying baculovirus also exhibited lower level of liver inflammation as evidenced by aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In line with this, macrophages treated with DAF baculovirus produced lower levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-12p40 compared to control virus. These results suggest that DAF-display can protect the vector against complement inactivation but also reduce complement-mediated inflammation injury. In conclusion, complement shielded baculovirus vectors represent attractive tools for effective in vivo gene delivery. PMID:20179675

  18. Anti-inflammatory heat shock protein 70 genes are positively associated with human survival.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Klvraa, S; Bross, P; Christensen, K; Bathum, L; Gregersen, N; Tan, Q; Rattan, S I S

    2010-01-01

    A positive relationship between stress tolerance and longevity has been observed in several model systems. That the same correlation is applicable in humans and that it may be open to experimental manipulation for extending human lifespan requires studies on association of stress genes with longevity. The involvement of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cellular maintenance and repair mechanisms, including its role as an anti-inflammatory protein, makes it a suitable candidate for studying such associations. We have studied the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A (-110A>C), HSPA1B (1267A>G), and HSPA1L (2437T>C), present in the three HSP70 genes, with human survival, in a cohort of individuals born in the year 1905. This population cohort is a part of the longitudinal study of Danish nonagenarians. Since DNA samples were already collected in 1998, this gave us the opportunity to perform survival analysis on these subjects. Haplotype relative risk, and genotype relative risk were calculated to measure the effects of haplotypes and genotypes on human survival in a sex-specific manner. A significant association of HSPA1A-AA (RR=3.864; p=0.016) and HSPA1B-AA (RR=2.764; p=0.039) genotypes with poor survival was observed in female subjects. Also the female carriers of haplotype G-C-T had longer survival than the non-carriers (HRR=0.550; p=0.015). On an average, female carriers of the G-C-T haplotype live about one year longer than non-carriers. This result corroborates our previous observations from heat shock response (HSR) study where we had shown that after heat stimulation, mononuclear cells from the carriers of genotype HSPA1L-TT had better HSR than cells with the HSPA1L-CC genotype. PMID:20388090

  19. Exercise reverses OVA-induced inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor and increases anti-inflammatory cytokines in asthma.

    PubMed

    Silva, R A; Almeida, F M; Olivo, C R; Saraiva-Romanholo, B M; Martins, M A; Carvalho, C R F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise training (AT) on the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and anti-inflammatory cytokines in an asthma model. BALB/c mice were divided into groups control (CT; nonsensitized/nontrained), aerobic training (AT; nonsensitized/trained), ovalbumin (OVA; sensitized/not trained), and OVA+AT (sensitized/trained). OVA groups received OVA by inhalation, and the AT groups completed 1, 3, or 7 days of exercise (60 min/session). Expression of GR, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1ra, NF-κB, TGF-β, VEGF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1; eosinophils counting; and airway remodeling (AR) features [airway smooth muscle (ASM) and epithelial thickness and collagen fiber deposition] were quantified. OVA sensitization induced a decrease in the expression of GR and increases in the eosinophil, IL-4, IL-5, NF-κB, TGF-β, VEGF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and AR features (P < 0.05). After 3 days, AT reversed the OVA-induced reduction in the expression of GR, and subsequently induced increases in the expression of IL-10 and IL-1ra (seventh day). In contrast, the eosinophil migration, the expression of NF-κB, IL-4, IL-5, TGF-β, RANTES, VEGF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the AR features (P < 0.05) were reduced. AT increases the expression of GR and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1ra) and reduces the expression of inflammatory mediators and airway inflammation in an animal model of asthma. PMID:25652754

  20. Gene Expression-Genotype Analysis Implicates GSDMA, GSDMB, and LRRC3C as Contributors to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Sderman, Jan; Berglind, Linda; Almer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biological foundation of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, susceptibility locus rs2872507, we have investigated the expression of 13 genes using ileal and colonic biopsies from patients with IBD (inflamed and noninflamed mucosa) or from individuals without IBD (noninflamed mucosa). The susceptibility allele was consistently associated with reduced expression of GSDMB (P = 4.1 10?37.2 10?10). The susceptibility allele was also associated with the increased expression of GSDMA (P = 1.6 10?4) and LRRC3C (P = 7.8 10?6) in colon tissue from individuals without IBD and with the reduced expression of PGAP3 (IBD; P = 2.0 10?3) and ZPBP2 (Crohn's disease; P = 7.7 10?4) in noninflamed ileum. Inflammation resulted in the reduced colonic expression of ERBB2, GRB7, MIEN1, and PGAP3 (P = 1.0 10?41.0 10?9) and the increased colonic expression of IKZF3 and CSF3 (P = 2.4 10?73.5 10?8). Based on our results and published findings on GSDMA, GSDMB, LRRC3C, and related proteins, we propose that this locus in part affects IBD susceptibility via effects on apoptosis and cell proliferation and believe this hypothesis warrants further experimental investigation. PMID:26484354

  1. The Diverse Roles of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Activated Gene (NAG-1/GDF15) in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingya; Baek, Seung Joon; Eling, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene-1, NAG-1, is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) superfamily that plays a complex but poorly understood role in several human diseases including cancer. NAG-1 expression is substantially increased during cancer development and progression especially in gastrointestinal, prostate, pancreatic, colorectal, breast, melanoma, and glioblastoma brain tumors. Aberrant increases in the serum levels of secreted NAG-1 correlate with poor prognosis and patient survival rates in some cancers. In contrast, the expression of NAG-1 is up-regulated by several tumor suppressor pathways including p53, GSK-3?, and EGR-1. NAG-1 expression is also induced by many drugs and dietary compounds which are documented to prevent the development and progression of cancer in mouse models. Studies with transgenic mice expressing human NAG-1 demonstrated that the expression of NAG-1 inhibits the development of intestinal tumors and prostate tumors in animal models. Laboratory and clinical evidence suggest that NAG-1, like other TGF-? family members, may have different or pleiotropic functions in the early and late stages of carcinogenesis. Upon understanding the molecular mechanism and function of NAG-1 during carcinogenesis, NAG-1 may serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer and a therapeutic target for the inhibition and treatment of cancer development and progression. PMID:23220538

  2. The Stress-Regulated Transcription Factor CHOP Promotes Hepatic Inflammatory Gene Expression, Fibrosis, and Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DeZwaan-McCabe, Diane; Riordan, Jesse D.; Arensdorf, Angela M.; Icardi, Michael S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Rutkowski, D. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Viral hepatitis, obesity, and alcoholism all represent major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although these conditions also lead to integrated stress response (ISR) or unfolded protein response (UPR) activation, the extent to which these stress pathways influence the pathogenesis of HCC has not been tested. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence demonstrating that the ISR-regulated transcription factor CHOP promotes liver cancer. We show that CHOP expression is up-regulated in liver tumors in human HCC and two mouse models thereof. Chop-null mice are resistant to chemical hepatocarcinogenesis, and these mice exhibit attenuation of both apoptosis and cellular proliferation. Chop-null mice are also resistant to fibrosis, which is a key risk factor for HCC. Global gene expression profiling suggests that deletion of CHOP reduces the levels of basal inflammatory signaling in the liver. Our results are consistent with a model whereby CHOP contributes to hepatic carcinogenesis by promoting inflammation, fibrosis, cell death, and compensatory proliferation. They implicate CHOP as a common contributing factor in the development of HCC in a variety of chronic liver diseases. PMID:24367269

  3. The arthritis severity locus Cia5a regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators including Syk pathway genes and proteases in pristane-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cia5a is a locus on rat chromosome 10 that regulates disease severity and joint damage in two models of rheumatoid arthritis, collagen- and pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). In this study, we aimed to identify cellular and molecular processes regulated by Cia5a using microarray-based gene expression analysis of synovial tissues from MHC identical DA (severe erosive disease) and DA.F344(Cia5a) congenics (mild non-erosive disease) rats. Results Synovial tissues from six DA and eight DA.F344(Cia5a) rats were analyzed 21 days after the induction of PIA using the Illumina RatRef-12 BeadChip (21,922 genes) and selected data confirmed with qPCR. There was a significantly increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as Il1b (5-fold), Il18 (3.9-fold), Cxcl1 (10-fold), Cxcl13 (7.5-fold) and Ccl7 (7.9-fold), and proteases like Mmp3 (23-fold), Mmp9 (32-fold), Mmp14 (4.4-fold) and cathepsins in synovial tissues from DA, with reciprocally reduced levels in congenics. mRNA levels of 47 members of the Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) pathway were significantly increased in DA synovial tissues compared with DA.F344(Cia5a), and included Syk (5.4-fold), Syk-activating receptors and interacting proteins, and genes regulated by Syk such as NFkB, and NAPDH oxidase complex genes. Nuclear receptors (NR) such as Rxrg, Pparg and Rev-erba were increased in the protected congenics, and so was the anti-inflammatory NR-target gene Scd1 (54-fold increase). Tnn (72-fold decrease) was the gene most significantly increased in DA. Conclusions Analyses of gene expression in synovial tissues revealed that the arthritis severity locus Cia5a regulates the expression of key mediators of inflammation and joint damage, as well as the expression of members of the Syk pathway. This expression pattern correlates with disease severity and joint damage and along with the gene accounting for Cia5a could become a useful biomarker to identify patients at increased risk for severe and erosive disease. The identification of the gene accounting for Cia5a has the potential to generate a new and important target for therapy and prognosis. PMID:23249408

  4. Changes in colon gene expression associated with increased colon inflammation in interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice inoculated with Enterococcus species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inappropriate responses to normal intestinal bacteria may be involved in the development of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD, e.g. Crohn's Disease (CD), Ulcerative Colitis (UC)) and variations in the host genome may mediate this process. IL-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/-) mice develop CD-like colitis mainly in the colon, in part due to inappropriate responses to normal intestinal bacteria including Enterococcus strains, and have therefore been used as an animal model of CD. Comprehensive characterization of changes in cecum gene expression levels associated with inflammation in the Il10-/- mouse model has recently been reported. Our aim was to characterize changes in colonic gene expression levels in Il10-/- and C57BL/6J (C57; control) mice resulting from oral bacterial inoculation with 12 Enterococcus faecalis and faecium (EF) strains isolated from calves or poultry, complex intestinal flora (CIF) collected from healthy control mice, or a mixture of the two (EF·CIF). We investigated two hypotheses: (1) that oral inoculation of Il10-/- mice would result in greater and more consistent intestinal inflammation than that observed in Il10-/- mice not receiving this inoculation, and (2) that this inflammation would be associated with changes in colon gene expression levels similar to those previously observed in human studies, and these mice would therefore be an appropriate model for human CD. Results At 12 weeks of age, total RNA extracted from intact colon was hybridized to Agilent 44 k mouse arrays. Differentially expressed genes were identified using linear models for microarray analysis (Bioconductor), and these genes were clustered using GeneSpring GX and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Intestinal inflammation was increased in Il10-/- mice as a result of inoculation, with the strongest effect being in the EF and EF·CIF groups. Genes differentially expressed in Il10-/- mice as a result of EF or EF·CIF inoculation were associated with the following pathways: inflammatory disease (111 genes differentially expressed), immune response (209 genes), antigen presentation (11 genes, particularly major histocompatability complex Class II), fatty acid metabolism (30 genes) and detoxification (31 genes). Conclusions Our results suggest that colonic inflammation in Il10-/- mice inoculated with solutions containing Enterococcus strains is associated with gene expression changes similar to those of human IBD, specifically CD, and that with the EF·CIF inoculum in particular this is an appropriate model to investigate food-gene interactions relevant to human CD. PMID:20630110

  5. Modelling local gene networks increases power to detect trans-acting genetic effects on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rakitsch, Barbara; Stegle, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a widely used tool to study the genetics of gene expression. Confounding factors and the burden of multiple testing limit the ability to map distal trans eQTLs, which is important to understand downstream genetic effects on genes and pathways. We propose a two-stage linear mixed model that first learns local directed gene-regulatory networks to then condition on the expression levels of selected genes. We show that this covariate selection approach controls for confounding factors and regulatory context, thereby increasing eQTL detection power and improving the consistency between studies. GNet-LMM is available at: https://github.com/PMBio/GNetLMM . PMID:26911988

  6. Increased Recombination Between Active tRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    PRATT-HYATT, MATTHEW J.; KAPADIA, KEVIN M.; WILSON, THOMAS E.; ENGELKE, DAVID R.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer RNA genes are distributed throughout eukaryotic genomes, and are frequently found as multicopy families. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tRNA gene transcription by RNA polymerase III suppresses nearby transcription by RNA polymerase II, partially because the tRNA genes are clustered near the nucleolus. We have tested whether active transcription of tRNA genes might also suppress recombination, since recombination between identical copies of the repetitive tRNA genes could delete intervening genes and be detrimental to survival. The opposite proved to be the case. Recombination between active tRNA genes was elevated, but only when both genes are transcribed. We also tested the effects of tRNA genes on recombination between the direct terminal repeats of a neighboring retrotransposon, since most Ty retrotransposons reside next to tRNA genes, and the selective advantage of this arrangement is not known. PMID:16792506

  7. Gene expression profile in the muscles of patients with inflammatory myopathies: effect of therapy with IVIg and biological validation of clinically relevant genes.

    PubMed

    Raju, Raghavan; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2005-08-01

    To explore the biological significance of gene expression in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies, we performed microarray experiments followed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry on muscle biopsies obtained before and after therapy from patients with dermatomyositis (DM) who improved and patients with inclusion body myositis (sIBM) who did not improve after controlled trials with three monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) infusions. The pretreatment biopsies showed high expression of immunoglobulin, adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokine genes in both sIBM and DM (sIBM > DM). In the repeated biopsies of DM patients who clinically improved, 2206 genes were downregulated more than 1.5-fold; in contrast, 1700 of the same genes remained unchanged in sIBM patients who did not improve. Genes markedly downregulated in DM, but not sIBM, were interleukin 22, Kallmann syndrome 1 (KAL-1), an adhesion molecule shown for the first time in muscle, ICAM-1, complement C1q, and several structural protein genes. Because mRNA for KAL-1 was selectively upregulated in vitro by transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1, a fibrogenic cytokine immunolocalized in the endomysial connective tissue of pretreatment DM muscles, the downregulation of both TGF-beta and KAL-1 after IVIg only in DM suggests that these molecules have a functional role in connective tissue proliferation and fibrosis. The improved muscles of DM, but not sIBM, showed upregulation of chemokines CXCL9 (Mig) and CXCL11, and several immunoglobulin-related genes, suggesting an effect on muscle remodelling and regeneration. The results suggest that IVIg modulates several immunoregulatory or structural muscle genes, but only a subset of them associated with inflammatory mediators, fibrosis and muscle remodelling are connected with the clinical response. Gene arrays, when combined with clinical assessments, may provide important information in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. PMID:15857930

  8. Uncoupling of peripheral and master clock gene rhythms by reversed feeding leads to an exacerbated inflammatory response after polymicrobial sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Iwasaka, Hideo; Koga, Hironori; Shingu, Chihiro; Matsumoto, Shigekiyo; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    Reversed feeding uncouples peripheral and master clock gene rhythms and leads to an increased risk of disease development. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clock gene uncoupling on sepsis-induced inflammation using a mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. C57BL/6N mice were entrained to a 12-h light-dark cycle (lights on at 7 AM). Mice were permitted ad libitum feeding either during the night (7 PM-7 AM) or the nonphysiological light phase (7 AM-7 PM) for a week before CLP. In daytime-fed mice, phase inversion of clock gene expression was observed in the liver, but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Daytime-fed mice also had decreased body weight and food intake. Survival rate was significantly lower in daytime-fed mice (29%) compared with nighttime-fed mice (54%) 72 h after CLP (P = 0.03). Serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor ?, high mobility group box 1, IL-1?, IL-9, eotaxin, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor increased in daytime-fed mice compared with nighttime-fed mice after CLP. Baseline expression levels of sirtuin peroxisome 1 and proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? in the liver decreased in daytime-fed mice compared with nighttime-fed mice. Thus, daytime feeding induces clock gene uncoupling, which leads to decreased expression of longevity-related and energy metabolism proteins. Daytime feeding may also increase the levels of inflammatory cytokines, thereby increasing mortality in a mouse sepsis model. Our findings suggest that uncoupling of peripheral and master clock gene rhythms by reversed feeding exacerbates inflammatory responses. PMID:24300828

  9. HIV-Infection, Atherosclerosis and the Inflammatory Pathway: Candidate Gene Study in a Spanish HIV-Infected Population

    PubMed Central

    Ibez, Laura; Velli, Pablo Sebastin; Font, Roser; Jan, Angeles; Royo, Josep; Irigoyen, Daniel; Cair, Mireia; De la Sierra, Alejandro; Arranz, Mara Jess

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher prevalence of atherosclerosis and higher cardiovascular risk is observed in HIV-infected individuals. The biological mechanisms underlying these processes are unclear. Several studies have implicated genetic variants in the inflammatory genes in cardiovascular disease and in HIV natural course infection. Methods & Findings In this study we have tested the possible association between genetic variants in several inflammatory genes and asymptomatic cardiovascular disease measured by carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and atherosclerotic plaque presence as dependent variables in 213 HIV-infected individuals. A total of 101 genetic variants in 25 candidate genes have been genotyped. Results were analyzed using Plink and SPSS statistical packages. We have found several polymorphisms in the genes ALOX5 (rs2115819 p?=?0.009), ALOX5AP (rs9578196 p?=?0.007; rs4769873 p?=?0.004 and rs9315051 p?=?0.0004), CX3CL1 (rs4151117 p?=?0.040 and rs614230 p?=?0.015) and CCL5 (rs3817655 p?=?0.018 and rs2107538 p?=?0.018) associated with atherosclerotic plaque. cIMT mean has been associated with CRP (1130864 p?=?0.0003 and rs1800947 p?=?0.008), IL1RN (rs380092 p?=?0.002) and ALOX5AP (rs3885907 p?=?0.02) genetic variants. Conclusions In this study we have found modest associations between genetic variants in several inflammatory genes and atherosclerotic plaque or cIMT. Nevertheless, our study adds evidence to the association between inflammatory pathway genetic variants and the atherosclerotic disease in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25383745

  10. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene cluster are possibly involved in the increased risk for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Traks, Tanel; Koido, Kati; Eller, Triin; Maron, Eduard; Kingo, Külli; Vasar, Veiko; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev

    2008-01-01

    Background Innate immune inflammatory response is suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Interleukin (IL)-10 family cytokines IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24 are all implicated in the inflammatory processes and polymorphisms in respective genes have been associated with various immunopathological conditions. This study was carried out to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes are also associated with MDD. Methods Case-control association study was performed with seven SNPs from the IL10 gene cluster. 153 patients with MDD and 277 healthy control individuals were recruited. Results None of the selected SNPs were individually associated with MDD. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated the existence of two recombination sites in the IL10 gene cluster, thus confirming the formerly established LD pattern of this genomic region. This also created two haplotype blocks, both consisting of three SNPs. Additionally, the haplotype analysis detected a significantly higher frequency of block 2 (IL20 and IL24 genes) haplotype TGC in the patients group compared to healthy control individuals (P = 0.0097). Conclusion Our study established increased risk for MDD related to the IL20 and IL24 haplotype and suggests that cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of MDD. Since none of the block 2 SNPs were individually associated with MDD, it is possible that other polymorphisms linked to them contribute to the disease susceptibility. Future studies are needed to confirm the results and to find the possible functional explanation. PMID:19087313

  11. T cell antigen receptor V gene usage. Increases in V beta 8+ T cells in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Posnett, D N; Schmelkin, I; Burton, D A; August, A; McGrath, H; Mayer, L F

    1990-01-01

    Crohn's disease represents part of a spectrum of inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by immune regulatory defects and genetic predisposition. T cell antigen receptor V gene usage by T lymphocytes was investigated using four MAbs specific for various V gene products. One MAb (Ti3a), reactive with V beta 8 gene products, detected increased numbers of T cells in a subset of Crohn's disease patients as compared with normal controls and ulcerative colitis patients. In family studies there was no apparent inherited predisposition to the use of V beta 8 genes, and there was no association between a restriction fragment length polymorphism of the V beta 8.1 gene and Crohn's disease. The V beta 8+ T cells were concentrated in the mesenteric lymph nodes draining the inflammatory lesions and belonged to both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. In contrast, lamina propria and intraepithelial T cells were not enriched in V beta 8+ T cells, suggesting that these cells were participating in the afferent limb of a gut-associated immune response. The expanded V beta 8+ T cells in Crohn's disease appear to result from an immune response to an as yet unknown antigen. Images PMID:1971828

  12. Increase developmental plasticity of human keratinocytes with gene suppression.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengwen Calvin; Jin, Yangsun; Loudon, William G; Song, Yahui; Ma, Zhiwei; Weiner, Leslie P; Zhong, Jiang F

    2011-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates that p53 suppression increased the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation. This occurred even with the enforced expression of as few as two canonical transcription factors, Oct4 and Sox2. In this study, primary human keratinocytes were successfully induced into a stage of plasticity by transient inactivation of p53, without enforced expression of any of the transcription factors previously used in iPSC generation. These cells were later redifferentiated into neural lineages. The gene suppression plastic cells were morphologically indistinguishable from human ES cells. Gene suppression plastic cells were alkaline phosphatase-positive, had normal karyotypes, and expressed p53. Together with the accumulating evidence of similarities and overlapping mechanisms between iPSC generation and cancer formation, this finding sheds light on the emerging picture of p53 sitting at the crossroads between two intricate cellular potentials: stem cell vs. cancer cell generation. This finding further supports the crucial role played by p53 in cellular reprogramming and suggests an alternative method to switch the lineage identity of human cells. This reported method offers the potential for directed lineage switching with the goal of generating autologous cell populations for novel clinical applications for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21768375

  13. Increase developmental plasticity of human keratinocytes with gene suppression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengwen Calvin; Jin, Yangsun; Loudon, William G.; Song, Yahui; Ma, Zhiwei; Weiner, Leslie P.; Zhong, Jiang F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that p53 suppression increased the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation. This occurred even with the enforced expression of as few as two canonical transcription factors, Oct4 and Sox2. In this study, primary human keratinocytes were successfully induced into a stage of plasticity by transient inactivation of p53, without enforced expression of any of the transcription factors previously used in iPSC generation. These cells were later redifferentiated into neural lineages. The gene suppression plastic cells were morphologically indistinguishable from human ES cells. Gene suppression plastic cells were alkaline phosphatase-positive, had normal karyotypes, and expressed p53. Together with the accumulating evidence of similarities and overlapping mechanisms between iPSC generation and cancer formation, this finding sheds light on the emerging picture of p53 sitting at the crossroads between two intricate cellular potentials: stem cell vs. cancer cell generation. This finding further supports the crucial role played by p53 in cellular reprogramming and suggests an alternative method to switch the lineage identity of human cells. This reported method offers the potential for directed lineage switching with the goal of generating autologous cell populations for novel clinical applications for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21768375

  14. Early Involvement of Immune/Inflammatory Response Genes in Retinal Degeneration in DBA/2J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, W.; Li, X.; Wang, W.; Mo, J.S.; Kaplan, H.; Cooper, N.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The DBA/2J (D2) mouse carries mutations in two of its genes, Tyrp1 and Gpnmb. These alterations result in the development of an immune response in the iris, leading to iris atrophy and pigment dispersion. The development of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in this model of glaucoma is considered to be a significant factor leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Changes in gene expression in the retina have already been correlated with the appearance of elevated IOP in the D2 mouse. The purpose of the present study was to determine if any changes in gene expression occur prior to the development of IOP. Methods The IOP was measured monthly using a rebound tonometer in D2 and age-matched C57/BL6 (B6) mice (normal controls). D2 animals with normal IOP at 2 and 4 M were used. In addition, mice at the age of 67 M were included to look for any trends in gene expression that might develop during the progression of the disease. Separate RNA samples were prepared from each of three individual retinas for each age, and gene expression profiles were determined with the aid of mouse oligonucleotide arrays (Agilent). A subset of genes was examined with the aid of real-time PCR. Immunocytochemistry was used to visualize changes in the retina for some of the gene-products. Results Four hundred and thirteen oligonucleotide probes were differentially expressed in the retinas of 4 M versus 2 M old D2 mice. The most significantly up-regulated genes (181) were associated with immune responses including interferon signaling, the complement system and the antigen presentation pathway, whereas the down-regulated genes (232) were linked to pathways related to cell death and known neurological diseases/disorders. These particular changes were not revealed in the age-matched B6 mice. By 6 M, when IOP started to increase in many of the D2 mice, more robust changes of these same genes were observed. Changes in the levels of selected genes, representative of different functions/pathways, were validated with RT-PCR, and changes in glial responses were visualized in the retina with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions The results showed that the expression of genes related to the immune response and acute stress were altered independently of the development of elevated IOP, and indicated early involvement of the immune system in the onset of the disease. The later development of elevated IOP, observed in this animal model, was coincident with continued changes in expression of genes observed at earlier time points. Further studies are warranted to identify the roles of specific genes identified here with respect to the death of the RGCs. PMID:20352036

  15. Targeted adenovirus mediated inhibition of NF-?B-dependent inflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ku?do, J M; sgeirsdttir, S A; Zwiers, P J; Bellu, A R; Rots, M G; Schalk, J A C; Ogawara, K I; Trautwein, C; Banas, B; Haisma, H J; Molema, G; Kamps, J A A M

    2013-02-28

    In chronic inflammatory diseases the endothelium expresses mediators responsible for harmful leukocyte infiltration. We investigated whether targeted delivery of a therapeutic transgene that inhibits nuclear factor ?B signal transduction could silence the proinflammatory activation status of endothelial cells. For this, an adenovirus encoding dominant-negative I?B (dnI?B) as a therapeutic transgene was employed. Selectivity for the endothelial cells was achieved by introduction of antibodies specific for inflammatory endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin or VCAM-1 chemically linked to the virus via polyethylene glycol. In vitro, the retargeted adenoviruses selectively infected cytokine-activated endothelial cells to express functional transgene. The comparison of transductional capacity of both retargeted viruses revealed that E-selectin based transgene delivery exerted superior pharmacological effects. Targeted delivery mediated dnI?B transgene expression in endothelial cells inhibited the induced expression of several inflammatory genes, including adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. In vivo, in mice suffering from glomerulonephritis, E-selectin-retargeted adenovirus selectively homed in the kidney to microvascular glomerular endothelium. Subsequent downregulation of endothelial adhesion molecule expression 2 days after induction of inflammation demonstrated the pharmacological potential of this gene therapy approach. The data justify further studies towards therapeutic virus design and optimization of treatment schedules to investigate their capacity to interfere with inflammatory disease progression. PMID:23266453

  16. Maternal Supplementation with Oligofructose (10%) during Pregnancy and Lactation Leads to Increased Pro-Inflammatory Status of the 21-D-Old Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mennitti, Laís Vales; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Oliveira, Juliana Lopez; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; de Santana, Aline Alves; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha; Pisani, Luciana Pellegrini

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased endotoxemia in 21-d-old pups. The present study evaluated the effect of 10% oligofructose diet supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat on the pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring. On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was assessed using a specific kit. Protein expression was determined by Western Blotting, and the relative mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring’s IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group. Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET. These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group. In conclusion, supplementing the dam’s diet with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of hydrogenated vegetable fat addition, contributes to the increased pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring, possibly through the activation of the TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) pathway. PMID:26147005

  17. Transcription of the gene encoding TNF-? is increased by IL-1? in rat and human islets and ?-cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Susan J.; Lu, Danhong; Sparer, Tim E.; Karlstad, Michael D.; Collier, J. Jason

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis and secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, such as cytokines and chemokines, controls the inflammatory response within pancreatic islets. When this inflammation does not resolve, destruction of pancreatic islet ?-cells leads to diabetes mellitus. Production of the soluble mediators of inflammation, such as TNF-? and IL-1?, from resident and invading immune cells, as well as directly from islet ?cells, is also associated with suboptimal islet transplantation outcomes. In this study, we found that IL-1? induces rapid increases in TNF-? mRNA in rat and human islets and the 832/13 clonal ?-cell line. The surge in transcription of the TNF-? gene required the inhibitor of kappa B kinase beta (I?K?), the p65 subunit of the NF-?B and a signal-specific recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the gene promoter. Of note was the increased intracellular production of TNF-? protein in a manner consistent with mRNA accumulation in response to IL-1?, but no detectable secretion of TNF-? into the media. Additionally, TNF-? specifically induces expression of CD11b, but not CD11c, on neutrophils, which could contribute to the inflammatory milieu and diabetes progression. We conclude that activation of the NF-?B pathway in pancreatic ?-cells leads to rapid intracellular production of the pro-inflammatory TNF-? protein through a combination of specific histone covalent modifications and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:24972324

  18. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the increasing the incidence of colonic anastomosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chengdong; Xiong, Yuanchang; Pan, Xin; Guo, Xuan; Li, Zhen; Qian, Shuwen; Xu, Chang; Yu, De-Hua; Liao, Wan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anastomotic leakage is one of serious complications of colorectal surgery. Research is inconsistent about whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs influence the healing of colorectal anastomoses and increase the incidence of anastomotic leakage. Objective: To study the influence of NSAIDs on the healing of rat colonic anastomoses. Design: This was an animal randomized-control trial. This study was approved by the ethical committee of Yangpu Hospital, Tongji University. Intervention: 90 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 15 rats/group. Trail was performed in C (cotrol group) with no drugs, group M with morphine for analgesia, group F with flurbiprofen axeil, group L with lornoxicam, and group P with parecoxib sodium. Main outcome measures: The main outcomes measures were serological indexes including vascular endothelial growth factor, prostaglandin E2, hydroxyproline, and C reactive protein; histological specimens from the anastomotic stoma tissue including the collagen proportion, and hydroxyproline, cycloxygenase-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor content; physical indicators, including stoma fracture pressure, fracture strength and anastomotic leakage. Results: No significant difference was observed among the indices of each group (P > 0.05). A significant difference occurred after operation (P < 0.05), with the data for groups K and M being dramatically higher than those for group F. Limitation: The study was nonblinded. Conclusion: The postoperative usages of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can decrease the strength of anastomotic tissue, and increase the incidence of anastomotic leakage. PMID:26261490

  19. REG3?-deficient mice have altered mucus distribution and increased mucosal inflammatory responses to the microbiota and enteric pathogens in the ileum.

    PubMed

    Loonen, L M P; Stolte, E H; Jaklofsky, M T J; Meijerink, M; Dekker, J; van Baarlen, P; Wells, J M

    2014-07-01

    REG3? is considered to have a protective role against infection with Gram-positive bacteria due to its bactericidal activity, but evidence from in vivo studies is lacking. We generated a REG3?(-/-) mouse, and investigated the effect of lack of REG3? on intestinal mucus distribution, spatial compartmentalization of bacteria, and expression of innate immunity genes. Infection studies were also performed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens to investigate the antimicrobial role of REG3?. REG3?(-/-) mice display altered mucus distribution, increased bacterial contact with the epithelium, and elevated inflammatory markers in the ileum without histological evidence of pathology. Infection response pathway genes were differentially expressed in both Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis infected REG3?(-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice. Higher amounts of myeloperoxidase and interleukin-22 transcripts were present in the ileal mucosa of REG3?(-/-) than wt mice, but translocation to the organs was unaffected. We concluded that REG3? has a protective role against mucosal infection with pathogenic Listeria and Salmonella in vivo. REG3? is equally distributed throughout the mucus and its absence results in increased epithelial contact with the microbiota resulting in low-grade inflammation. REG3? can bind to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and influence mucus distribution in the ileum, properties which may contribute to mucosal protection. PMID:24345802

  20. Antisense expression increases gene expression variability and locus interdependency

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wu; Gagneur, Julien; Clauder-Mnster, Sandra; Smolik, Mi?osz; Huber, Wolfgang; Steinmetz, Lars M

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide transcription profiling has revealed extensive expression of non-coding RNAs antisense to genes, yet their functions, if any, remain to be understood. In this study, we perform a systematic analysis of senseantisense expression in response to genetic and environmental changes in yeast. We find that antisense expression is associated with genes of larger expression variability. This is characterized by more switching off' at low levels of expression for genes with antisense compared to genes without, yet similar expression at maximal induction. By disrupting antisense transcription, we demonstrate that antisense expression confers an on-off switch on gene regulation for the SUR7 gene. Consistent with this, genes that must respond in a switch-like manner, such as stressresponse and environment-specific genes, are enriched for antisense expression. In addition, our data provide evidence that antisense expression initiated from bidirectional promoters enables the spreading of regulatory signals from one locus to neighbouring genes. These results indicate a general regulatory effect of antisense expression on sense genes and emphasize the importance of antisense-initiating regions downstream of genes in models of gene regulation. PMID:21326235

  1. Thrombin promotes sustained signaling and inflammatory gene expression through the CDC25 and Ras-associating domains of phospholipase Cϵ.

    PubMed

    Dusaban, Stephanie S; Kunkel, Maya T; Smrcka, Alan V; Brown, Joan Heller

    2015-10-30

    Phospholipase C-epsilon (PLCϵ) plays a critical role in G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated inflammation. In addition to its ability to generate the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, PLCϵ, unlike the other phospholipase C family members, is activated in a sustained manner. We hypothesized that the ability of PLCϵ to function as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rap1 supports sustained downstream signaling via feedback of Rap1 to the enzyme Ras-associating (RA2) domain. Using gene deletion and adenoviral rescue, we demonstrate that both the GEF (CDC25 homology domain) and RA2 domains of PLCϵ are required for long term protein kinase D (PKD) activation and subsequent induction of inflammatory genes. PLCϵ localization is largely intracellular and its compartmentalization could contribute to its sustained activation. Here we show that localization of PLCϵ to the Golgi is required for activation of PKD in this compartment as well as for subsequent induction of inflammatory genes. These data provide a molecular mechanism by which PLCϵ mediates sustained signaling and by which astrocytes mediate pathophysiological inflammatory responses. PMID:26350460

  2. Epigenetic silencing of the human NOS2 gene: Rethinking the role of nitric oxide in human macrophage inflammatory responses1

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Thomas J.; Kremens, Karol; Powers, Linda S.; Brink, Brandi; Knutson, Tina; Domann, Frederick E.; Philibert, Robert A.; Milhem, Mohammed M.; Monick, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages, including alveolar macrophages, are primary phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. Many studies of macrophages and inflammation have been done in mouse models, where inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and nitric oxide (NO) are important components of the inflammatory response. Human macrophages, in contrast to mouse macrophages, express little detectable NOS2 and generate little NO in response to potent inflammatory stimuli. The human NOS2 gene is highly methylated around the NOS2 transcription start site. In contrast, mouse macrophages contain unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) proximal to the NOS2 transcription start site. Further analysis of chromatin accessibility and histone modifications demonstrated a closed conformation at the human NOS2 locus and an open conformation at the murine NOS2 locus. In examining the potential for CpG demethylation at the NOS2 locus, we found that the human NOS2 gene was resistant to the effects of demethylation agents both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrates that epigenetic modifications in human macrophages are associated with CpG methylation, chromatin compaction and histone modifications that effectively silence the NOS2 gene. Taken together, our findings suggest there are significant and under-appreciated differences in how murine and human macrophages respond to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:24477906

  3. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella are a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flocks’ natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of two pare...

  4. Immunoglobulin Gene Polymorphisms are Susceptibility Factors for Clinical and Autoantibody Subgroups of the Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    OHanlon, Terrance P.; Rider, Lisa G.; Schiffenbauer, Adam; Targoff, Ira N.; Malley, Karen; Pandey, Janardan P.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible associations of GM and KM markers in European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) with adult and juvenile forms of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Methods We performed serologic analyses of polymorphic determinants associated with immunoglobulin gamma heavy (GM) and kappa light chains (KM) in large populations of EA (n=514: 297 adults and 217 juveniles) and AA IIM patients (n=109: 73 adults and 50 juveniles) representing the major clinicopathologic and autoantibody groups. Results For EA dermatomyositis (DM) patients, the GM 3 23 5,13 phenotype was a risk factor for both adults (OR=2.2; Pc=0.020) and juveniles (OR=2.2; Pc=0.0013). Of interest, the GM 13 allotype was a risk factor for juvenile DM (JDM) for both EA (OR=3.9; Pc<0.0001) and AA (OR=4.8; Pc=0.033). However, the GM 1,3,17 5,13,21 phenotype was a risk factor for JDM in EA but not in AA. Among the IIM autoantibody groups, GM 3 23 5,13 was a risk factor for EA adults with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies (OR=3.4; Pc=0.0031), while the GM 3 allotype was protective for adults with anti-threonyl tRNA synthetase or anti-RNP autoantibodies (OR=0.1; Pc=0.047 and OR=0.2; Pc=0.034, respectively). In contrast, GM 6 was a risk factor for AA adults with anti-SRP autoantibodies (OR=7.5; Pc=0.041). Conclusions These data suggest that polymorphic alleles of GM and KM loci are differentially associated with IIM subgroups defined by age, ethnicity, clinical features and autoantibodies, and expand the list of immune response genes possibly important in the pathogenesis of myositis. PMID:18821675

  5. IL-17A is Essential for Cell Activation and Inflammatory Gene Circuits in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, James G.; Fretzin, Scott; Surez-Farias, Mayte; Haslett, Patrick A.; Phipps, Krista M.; Cameron, Gregory S.; McColm, Juliet; Katcherian, Artemis; Cueto, Inna; White, Traci; Banerjee, Subhashis; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background In psoriasis, inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia are thought to be controlled by T cell-derived cytokines. Evidence suggests that the Th17 cell cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Objective To understand the impact that neutralization of IL-17 has on the clinical features of psoriasis and to understand the role that IL-17 has in inflammatory pathways underlying psoriasis in human subjects. Methods We examined skin lesions obtained from 40 subjects participating in a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody, ixekizumab (previously LY2439821), in which subjects received subcutaneous 5mg, 15mg, 50mg or 150mg ixekizumab or placebo at weeks 0, 2, and 4. Results There were significant, dose-dependent reductions from baseline in keratinocyte proliferation, hyperplasia, epidermal thickness, infiltration into the dermis and epidermis by T cells and dendritic cells and keratinocyte expression of innate defense peptides at 2 weeks. By week 6, the skin appeared normal. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and microarrays revealed an ablation of the disease-defining mRNA expression profile by 2 weeks after the first dose of study drug. The effect of IL-17 blockade on expression of genes synergistically regulated by IL-17 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was of higher magnitude at 2 weeks than in prior studies with TNF antagonism. Conclusion Our data suggest that IL-17 is a key driver cytokine in psoriasis that activates pathogenic inflammation. Neutralizing IL-17 with ixekizumab may be a successful therapeutic strategy. PMID:22677045

  6. Sucrose Counteracts the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Fish Oil in Adipose Tissue and Increases Obesity Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tao; Liaset, Bjrn; Hao, Qin; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Fjre, Even; Ngo, Ha Thi; Lillefosse, Haldis Hauks; Ringholm, Stine; Sonne, Si Brask; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Pilegaard, Henriette; Fryland, Livar; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed C57BL/6J mice a protein- (casein) or sucrose-based high fat diet supplemented with fish oil or corn oil for 9 weeks. Irrespective of the fatty acid source, mice fed diets rich in sucrose became obese whereas mice fed high protein diets remained lean. Inclusion of sucrose in the diet also counteracted the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue, but did not impair the ability of fish oil to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver. Calculation of HOMA-IR indicated that mice fed high levels of proteins remained insulin sensitive, whereas insulin sensitivity was reduced in the obese mice fed sucrose irrespectively of the fat source. We show that a high fat diet decreased glucose tolerance in the mice independently of both obesity and dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs and sucrose. Of note, increasing the protein?sucrose ratio in high fat diets decreased energy efficiency irrespective of fat source. This was accompanied by increased expression of Ppargc1a (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, gamma, coactivator 1 alpha) and increased gluconeogenesis in the fed state. Conclusions/Significance The background diet influence the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against development of obesity, glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation. High levels of dietary sucrose counteract the anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue and increases obesity development in mice. PMID:21738749

  7. The Inflammatory Response to Social Defeat is Increased in Older Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Bailey, Michael T.; Sheridan, John F.; Padgett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that repeated social defeat of mice causes increased lymphocyte trafficking to the spleen, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production, and induced glucocorticoid insensitivity in splenocytes. Social defeat also causes increases in anxiety-like behavior. This study investigated whether repeated social defeat results in similar immunoregulatory and behavioral changes in older mice as those seen previously in young adult mice. The data revealed that, regardless of age, defeated mice had significantly more splenic CD11b+ Gr-1+ monocytes and neutrophils than controls. Supernatants harvested from cultured splenocytes from older mice contained comparatively higher IL-6 and TNF-? than supernatants from younger animals. In addition, those same cells derived from older defeated mice were hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and insensitive to glucocorticoids in vitro. As seen previously in young adult mice, social defeat caused an increase in anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, but had no effect on learned helplessness in the forced swim test. These data indicated that repeated social defeat results in a proinflammatory state that is exacerbated in older mice. The implications of these data are noteworthy, given the strong role of inflammation in many age-related diseases. PMID:18068740

  8. High Insulin and Leptin Increase Resistin and Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsiotra, Panayoula C.; Boutati, Eleni; Dimitriadis, George; Raptis, Sotirios A.

    2013-01-01

    Resistin and the proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, produced by adipocytes, and macrophages, are considered to be important modulators of chronic inflammation contributing to the development of obesity and atherosclerosis. Human monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells, from ten healthy individuals, were exposed to high concentrations of insulin, leptin, and glucose (alone or in combination) for 24 hours in vitro. Resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production was examined and compared to that in untreated cells. High insulin and leptin concentrations significantly upregulated resistin and the cytokines. The subsequent addition of high glucose significantly upregulated resistin and TNF-α mRNA and protein secretion, while it did not have any effect on IL-6 or IL-1β production. By comparison, exposure to dexamethasone reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production, while at this time point it increased resistin protein secretion. These data suggest that the expression of resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β from human mononuclear cells, might be enhanced by the hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and possibly by the hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the above increased production may contribute to detrimental effects of their increased adipocyte-derived circulating levels on systemic inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function of these patients. PMID:23484124

  9. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induces Gliosis and Increased Expression of the Pro-inflammatory Cytokine High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kentaro; Koide, Masayo; Dumont, Travis M.; Russell, Sheila R.; Tranmer, Bruce I.

    2011-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following cerebral aneurysm rupture is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Surviving SAH patients often suffer from neurological impairment, yet little is currently known regarding the influence of subarachnoid blood on brain parenchyma. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of subarachnoid blood on glial cells using a rabbit SAH model. The astrocyte-specific proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B, were up-regulated in brainstem from SAH model rabbits, consistent with the development of reactive astrogliosis. In addition to reactive astrogliosis, cytosolic expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) was increased in brain from SAH animals. We found that greater than 90% of cells expressing cytosolic HMGB1 immunostained positively for Iba1, a specific marker for microglia and macrophages. Further, the number of Iba1-positive cells was similar in brain from control and SAH animals, suggesting the majority of these cells were likely resident microglial cells rather than infiltrating macrophages. These observations demonstrate SAH impacts brain parenchyma by activating astrocytes and microglia, triggering up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB1. PMID:21479116

  10. Long-Term Home Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Increases Systemic Inflammatory Response in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Paone, Gregorino; Conti, Vittoria; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Mollica, Corrado; Monaco, Gianluca; Giannunzio, Gilda; Brunetti, Giuseppe; Schmid, Giovanni; Ranieri, V. Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background. Long-term home noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is beneficial in COPD but its impact on inflammation is unknown. We assessed the hypothesis that NIV modulates systemic and pulmonary inflammatory biomarkers in stable COPD. Methods. Among 610 patients referred for NIV, we shortlisted those undergoing NIV versus oxygen therapy alone, excluding subjects with comorbidities or non-COPD conditions. Sputum and blood samples were collected after 3 months of clinical stability and analyzed for levels of human neutrophil peptides (HNP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Patients underwent a two-year follow-up. Unadjusted, propensity-matched, and pH-stratified analyses were performed. Results. Ninety-three patients were included (48 NIV, 45 oxygen), with analogous baseline features. Sputum analysis showed similar HNP, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha levels (P > 0.5). Conversely, NIV group exhibited higher HNP and IL-6 systemic levels (P < 0.001) and lower IL-10 concentrations (P < 0.001). Subjects undergoing NIV had a significant reduction of rehospitalizations during follow-up compared to oxygen group (P = 0.005). These findings were confirmed after propensity matching and pH stratification. Conclusions. These findings challenge prior paradigms based on the assumption that pulmonary inflammation is per se detrimental. NIV beneficial impact on lung mechanics may overcome the potential unfavorable effects of an increased inflammatory state. PMID:24976687

  11. Can We Identify Genes with Increased Phylogenetic Reliability?

    PubMed

    Doyle, Vinson P; Young, Randee E; Naylor, Gavin J P; Brown, Jeremy M

    2015-09-01

    Topological heterogeneity among gene trees is widely observed in phylogenomic analyses and some of this variation is likely caused by systematic error in gene tree estimation. Systematic error can be mitigated by improving models of sequence evolution to account for all evolutionary processes relevant to each gene or identifying those genes whose evolution best conforms to existing models. However, the best method for identifying such genes is not well established. Here, we ask if filtering genes according to their clock-likeness or posterior predictive effect size (PPES, an inference-based measure of model violation) improves phylogenetic reliability and congruence. We compared these approaches to each other, and to the common practice of filtering based on rate of evolution, using two different metrics. First, we compared gene-tree topologies to accepted reference topologies. Second, we examined topological similarity among gene trees in filtered sets. Our results suggest that filtering genes based on clock-likeness and PPES can yield a collection of genes with more reliable phylogenetic signal. For the two exemplar data sets we explored, from yeast and amniotes, clock-likeness and PPES outperformed rate-based filtering in both congruence and reliability. PMID:26099258

  12. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile[S

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M.; Dharuri, Harish K.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Jnasdttir, Hulda S.; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. PMID:25320342

  13. Peripheral blood gene expression patterns discriminate among chronic inflammatory diseases and healthy controls and identify novel targets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) afflict millions of people worldwide, but their pathogenesis is still not well understood. It is also not well known if distinct changes in gene expression characterize these diseases and if these patterns can discriminate between diseased and control patients and/or stratify the disease. The main focus of our work was the identification of novel markers that overlap among the 3 diseases or discriminate them from each other. Methods Diseased (n = 13, n = 15 and n = 12 in IBD, psoriasis and RA respectively) and healthy patients (n = 18) were recruited based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria; peripheral blood samples were collected by clinicians (30 ml) in Venous Blood Vacuum Collection Tubes containing EDTA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation. RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent. Gene expression data was obtained using TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) containing 96 genes that were selected by an algorithm and the statistical analyses were performed in Prism by using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (P-values < 0.05). Results Here we show that using a panel of 96 disease associated genes and measuring mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells; we could identify disease-specific gene panels that separate each disease from healthy controls. In addition, a panel of five genes such as ADM, AQP9, CXCL2, IL10 and NAMPT discriminates between all samples from patients with chronic inflammation and healthy controls. We also found genes that stratify the diseases and separate different subtypes or different states of prognosis in each condition. Conclusions These findings and the identification of five universal markers of chronic inflammation suggest that these diseases have a common background in pathomechanism, but still can be separated by peripheral blood gene expression. Importantly, the identified genes can be associated with overlapping biological processes including changed inflammatory response. Gene panels based on such markers can play a major role in the development of personalized medicine, in monitoring disease progression and can lead to the identification of new potential drug targets in chronic inflammation. PMID:20444268

  14. Interactive roles of NPR1 gene-dosage and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels inmutantmice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Das, Subhankar; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to elucidate the interactive roles of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) gene (Npr1) and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II (ANG II), aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokines levels in Npr1 gene-targeted (1-copy, 2-copy, 3-copy, 4-copy) mice. Methods Npr1 genotypes included 1-copy gene-disrupted heterozygous (+/?), 2-copy wild-type (+/+), 3-copy gene-duplicated heterozygous (++/+) and 4-copy gene-duplicated homozygous (++/++) mice. Animals were fed low, normal and high-salt diets. Plasma and cardiac levels of ANG II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined. Results With a high-salt diet, cardiac ANG II levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (13.7 2.8 fmol/mg protein, 111%) compared with 2-copy mice (6.5 0.6), but decreased (?) in 4-copy (4.0 0.5, 38%) mice. Cardiac aldosterone levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (80 4 fmol/mg protein, 79%) compared with 2-copy mice (38 3). Plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha was increased (+) in 1-copy mice (30.27 2.32 pg/ml, 38%), compared with 2-copy mice (19.36 2.49, 24%), but decreased (?) in 3-copy (11.59 1.51, 12%) and 4-copy (7.13 0.52, 22%) mice. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1? levels were also significantly increased (+) in 1-copy compared with 2-copy mice but decreased (?) in 3-copy and 4-copy mice. Conclusion These results demonstrate that a high-salt diet aggravates cardiac ANG II, aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokine levels in Npr1 gene-disrupted 1-copy mice, whereas, in Npr1 gene-duplicated (3-copy and 4-copy) mice, high salt did not render such elevation, suggesting the potential roles of Npr1 against salt loading. PMID:23188418

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 Strain Protects against Oxidative Stress and Increases Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Grompone, Gianfranco; Martorell, Patricia; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzlez, Nria; Genovs, Salvador; Mulet, Ana Paula; Fernndez-Calero, Tamara; Tiscornia, Ins; Bollati-Fogoln, Mariela; Chambaud, Isabelle; Folign, Benoit; Montserrat, Agustn; Ramn, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that resistance to oxidative stress is crucial to stay healthy and to reduce the adverse effects of aging. Accordingly, nutritional interventions using antioxidant food-grade compounds or food products are currently an interesting option to help improve health and quality of life in the elderly. Live lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administered in food, such as probiotics, may be good antioxidant candidates. Nevertheless, information about LAB-induced oxidative stress protection is scarce. To identify and characterize new potential antioxidant probiotic strains, we have developed a new functional screening method using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as host. C. elegans were fed on different LAB strains (78 in total) and nematode viability was assessed after oxidative stress (3 mM and 5 mM H2O2). One strain, identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690, protected worms by increasing their viability by 30% and, also, increased average worm lifespan by 20%. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of C. elegans fed with this strain showed that increased lifespan is correlated with differential expression of the DAF-16/insulin-like pathway, which is highly conserved in humans. This strain also had a clear anti-inflammatory profile when co-cultured with HT-29 cells, stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and co-culture systems with HT-29 cells and DC in the presence of LPS. Finally, this Lactobacillus strain reduced inflammation in a murine model of colitis. This work suggests that C. elegans is a fast, predictive and convenient screening tool to identify new potential antioxidant probiotic strains for subsequent use in humans. PMID:23300685

  16. Increased expression of long noncoding RNAs LOC100652951 and LOC100506036 in T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis facilitates the inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Yu, Hui-Chun; Yu, Chia-Li; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs could promote T cell inflammatory responses in patients with RA. The expression levels of 10 potential aberrantly expressed lncRNAs were evaluated in T cells from 39 patients with RA and 17 controls using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The aberrantly expressed lncRNAs were measured in Jurkat cells co-cultured with or without ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Transfection studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) were conducted for biological functions, and microarray analysis was performed to search for target genes of specific lncRNAs. We confirmed that the expression levels of LOC100652951 and LOC100506036 were higher in RA T cells compared with controls. RA patients treated with biologic agents had lower expression levels of LOC100652951, and female RA patients had lower LOC100506036 expression levels after multivariate analysis. After activation, the expression levels of LOC100506036, but not LOC100652951, increased in Jurkat cells. Transfection of siRNA targeting LOC100506036 inhibited interferon gamma production and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells in activated Jurkat cells. After the microarray analysis with validation, inhibition of LOC100506036 expression by siRNA leaded to the decreased expression of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1). In conclusion, the expression levels of LOC100652951 and LOC100506036 were increased in RA T cells. Treatment with biologic agents could lower the expression of LOC100652951 in RA T cells. LOC100506036 could regulate the expression of SMPD1 and NFAT1 and could contribute to the inflammatory responses in RA. PMID:26616293

  17. Implication of inflammatory macrophages, nuclear receptors, and interferon regulatory factors in increased virulence of pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus after host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Josset, Laurence; Belser, Jessica A; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Chang, Jean H; Chang, Stewart T; Belisle, Sarah E; Tumpey, Terrence M; Katze, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    While pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses were responsible for numerous severe infections in humans, these viruses do not typically cause corresponding severe disease in mammalian models. However, the generation of a virulent 2009 H1N1 virus following serial lung passage in mice has allowed for the modeling of human lung pathology in this species. Genetic determinants of mouse-adapted 2009 H1N1 viral pathogenicity have been identified, but the molecular and signaling characteristics of the host response following infection with this adapted virus have not been described. Here we compared the gene expression response following infection of mice with A/CA/04/2009 (CA/04) or the virulent mouse-adapted strain (MA-CA/04). Microarray analysis revealed that increased pathogenicity of MA-CA/04 was associated with the following: (i) an early and sustained inflammatory and interferon response that could be driven in part by interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and increased NF-?B activation, as well as inhibition of the negative regulator TRIM24, (ii) early and persistent infiltration of immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages, and (iii) the absence of activation of lipid metabolism later in infection, which may be mediated by inhibition of nuclear receptors, including PPARG and HNF1A and -4A, with proinflammatory consequences. Further investigation of these signatures in the host response to other H1N1 viruses of various pathogenicities confirmed their general relevance for virulence of influenza virus and suggested that lung response to MA-CA/04 virus was similar to that following infection with lethal H1N1 r1918 influenza virus. This study links differential activation of IRFs, nuclear receptors, and macrophage infiltration with influenza virulence in vivo. PMID:22532695

  18. ACUTE OZONE-INDUCED INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION IN THE RAT LUNG IS NOT RELATED TO LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE LAVAGE FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Ozone causes oxidative stress and lung inflammation. We hypothesized that rat strains with or without genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular disease will have different antioxidant levels in alveolar lining, and that ozone induced inflammatory gene expression wil...

  19. Induction of Nrf2-mediated genes by Antrodia salmonea inhibits ROS generation and inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Shu-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Chen; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Liao, Chun-Huei; Yang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Hui-Min; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Chi-Rei; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia salmonea (AS), a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant genes in RAW264.7 macrophages by the fermented culture broth of AS, studied the resulting protection against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation, and revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective effects. We found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of AS (25-100 μg mL⁻¹) protected macrophages from LPS-induced cell death and ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant potential of AS was directly correlated with the increased expression of the antioxidant genes HO-1, NQO-1, and γ-GCLC, as well as the level of intracellular GSH followed by an increase in the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown diminished the protective effects of AS, as evidenced by the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including PGE₂, NO, TNF-α, and IL-1β, in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Notably, AS treatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 expression in macrophages. Our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory potential of Antrodia salmonea is mediated by the activation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense mechanisms. Results support the traditional usage of this beneficial mushroom for the treatment of free radical-related diseases and inflammation. PMID:25380370

  20. Exposure To An Organic PM Component Induces Inflammatory And Adaptive Gene Expression Through Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE. Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects including inflammatory responses in the lung. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous contributor to the fine and ultrafine PM burden in ambient air. Toxicological studi...

  1. Long-term type 1 diabetes influences haematopoietic stem cells by reducing vascular repair potential and increasing inflammatory monocyte generation in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, S.; Jarajapu, Y. P. R.; Stepps, V.; Caballero, S.; Thinschmidt, J. S.; Sautina, L.; Bengtsson, N.; LiCalzi, S.; Dominguez, J.; Kern, T. S.; Segal, M. S.; Ash, J. D.; Saban, D. R.; Bartelmez, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to determine the impact of longstanding type 1 diabetes on haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC) number and function and to examine the impact of modulating glycoprotein (GP)130 receptor in these cells. Methods Wild-type, gp130−/− and GFP chimeric mice were treated with streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes. Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells were used for colony-formation assay, quantification of side population (SP) cells, examination of gene expression, nitric oxide measurement and migration studies. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a population of vascular precursors derived from HSCs, were compared in diabetic and control mice. Cytokines were measured in BM supernatant fractions by ELISA and protein array. Flow cytometry was performed on enzymatically dissociated retina from gfp+ chimeric mice and used to assess BM cell recruitment to the retina, kidney and blood. Results BM cells from the 12-month-diabetic mice showed reduced colony-forming ability, depletion of SP-HSCs with a proportional increase in SP-HSCs residing in hypoxic regions of BM, decreased EPC numbers, and reduced eNos (also known as Nos3) but increased iNos (also known as Nos2) and oxidative stress-related genes. BM supernatant fraction showed increased cytokines, GP130 ligands and monocyte/macrophage stimulating factor. Retina, kidney and peripheral blood showed increased numbers of CD11b+/CD45hi/CCR2+/Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes. Diabetic gp130−/− mice were protected from development of diabetes-induced changes in their HSCs. Conclusions/interpretation The BM microenvironment of type 1 diabetic mice can lead to changes in haematopoiesis, with generation of more monocytes and fewer EPCs contributing to development of microvascular complications. Inhibition of GP130 activation may serve as a therapeutic strategy to improve the key aspects of this dysfunction. PMID:23192694

  2. Inhibition of COX-2 reduces the age-dependent increase of hippocampal inflammatory markers, corticosterone secretion, and behavioral impairments in the rat.

    PubMed

    Casolini, Paola; Catalani, Assia; Zuena, Anna R; Angelucci, Luciano

    2002-05-01

    Brain aging as well as brain degenerative processes with accompanying cognitive impairments are generally associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the end product of which, the glucocorticoid hormone, has been warranted the role of cell damage primum movens ("cascade hypothesis"). However, chronic inflammatory activity occurs in the hippocampus of aged rats as well as in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. The concomitant increase in the secretion of the glucocorticoid hormone, the endogenous anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory markers, has prompted us to investigate the two phenomena in the aging rat, and to work out its meaning. This study shows that: (I) interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) increase with age in the rats hippocampus, and (II) chronic oral treatment with celecoxib, a selective cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is able to contrast the age-dependent increase in hippocampal levels of pro-inflammatory markers and circulating anti-inflammatory corticosterone, provided that it is started at an early stage of aging. Under these conditions, age-related impairments in cognitive ability may be ameliorated. Taken together, these results indicate that there is a natural tendency to offset the age-dependent increase in brain inflammatory processes via the homeostatic increase of the circulating glucocorticoid hormone. PMID:12111864

  3. Eubacterium limosum ameliorates experimental colitis and metabolite of microbe attenuates colonic inflammatory action with increase of mucosal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kanauchi, Osamu; Fukuda, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Shino; Ozawa, Toyokazu; Shimizu, Makiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Andoh, Akira

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of Eubacterium limosum (E.limosum) on colonic epithelial cell line in vitro, and to evaluate the effect of E.limosum on experimental colitis. METHODS: E.limosum was inoculated anaerobically and its metabolites were obtained. The growth stimulatory effect of the E.limosum metabolites on T84 cells was evaluated by SUDH activity, and the anti-inflammatory effect by IL-6 production. The change in mRNA of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) was evaluated by real time PCR. Colitis was induced by feeding BALB/C mice with 2.0% dextran sodium sulfate. These mice received either 5% lyophilized E.limosum (n = 7) or control diet (n = 7). Seven days after colitis induction, clinical and histological scores, colon length, and cecal organic acid levels were determined. RESULTS: The E.limosum produced butyrate, acetate, propionate, and lactate at 0.25, 1.0, 0.025 and 0.07 mmol/L, respectively in medium. At this concentration, each acid had no growth stimulating activity on T84 cells; however, when these acids were mixed together at the above levels, it showed significantly high activity than control. Except for lactate, these acids significantly attenuated IL-6 production at just 0.1 mmol/L. In addition, under TNF-α stimulation, butyrate attenuated the production of TLR4 mRNA. The treatment with E.limosum significantly attenuated clinical and histological scores of colitis with an increase of cecal butyrate levels, compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: E.limosum can ameliorate experimental colonic inflammation. In part, the metabolite of E.limosum, butyrate, increases mucosal integrity and shows anti-inflammatory action modulation of mucosal defense system via TLR4. PMID:16534848

  4. Isolation rearing impaired sensorimotor gating but increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and disrupted metabolic parameters in both sexes of rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Social isolation rearing (SIR) is an early stress paradigm of deprivation of the social contact since weaning. SIR has been used to investigate the mechanisms behind certain mental illnesses with neurodevelopmental origins, including schizophrenia. In schizophrenia, metabolic dysfunction has become a critical issue with increasing evidence for a possible connection between metabolism and immune systems in which metabolic changes are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels. The present study employed a rat model of SIR with both sexes to examine behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)], inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon-gamma], and metabolism-related variables (body weight, blood pressure, and the profiles of glycemia and lipid). Our results revealed that around puberty, SIR rats of both sexes exhibited behaviorally a higher locomotor activity and a lower PPI performance. Biochemically, SIR rats had an elevated level of pro-CKs (IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma), and metabolic abnormalities (increased insulin resistance, decreased insulin sensitivity, and high blood pressure) in a time-dependent manner. The relationships between pro-CKs and metabolism were sex specific as IL-1 beta and interferon-gamma were correlated to glycemia metabolic indexes in males. The present study demonstrated SIR-induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-CKs and metabolic abnormalities, implying a more direct role of these two things in mental dysfunctions with a developmental origin. PMID:25770703

  5. An LXR-NCOA5 gene regulatory complex directs inflammatory crosstalk-dependent repression of macrophage cholesterol efflux.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Mark A; Gold, Elizabeth S; Ramsey, Stephen A; Podolsky, Irina; Aderem, Alan; Ranish, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    LXR-cofactor complexes activate the gene expression program responsible for cholesterol efflux in macrophages. Inflammation antagonizes this program, resulting in foam cell formation and atherosclerosis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this antagonism remain to be fully elucidated. We use promoter enrichment-quantitative mass spectrometry (PE-QMS) to characterize the composition of gene regulatory complexes assembled at the promoter of the lipid transporter Abca1 following downregulation of its expression. We identify a subset of proteins that show LXR ligand- and binding-dependent association with the Abca1 promoter and demonstrate they differentially control Abca1 expression. We determine that NCOA5 is linked to inflammatory Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and establish that NCOA5 functions as an LXR corepressor to attenuate Abca1 expression. Importantly, TLR3-LXR signal crosstalk promotes recruitment of NCOA5 to the Abca1 promoter together with loss of RNA polymerase II and reduced cholesterol efflux. Together, these data significantly expand our knowledge of regulatory inputs impinging on the Abca1 promoter and indicate a central role for NCOA5 in mediating crosstalk between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways that results in repression of macrophage cholesterol efflux. PMID:25755249

  6. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries (BBs) can reduce the deleterious effects o...

  7. Identification of a Network of Inflammatory Genes Associated with Differences in Skin Tumor Promotion Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Erika L.; Riggs, Penny K.; Repass, John; Hensley, Sean C.; Schroeder, Lisa J.; Temple, Angelina; Chau, Alexander; McClellan, S. Alex; Ward, Michael D.; Semmes, O. John; Person, Maria D.; Angel, Joe M.; DiGiovanni, John; Shen, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to two-stage skin carcinogenesis is known to vary significantly among different stocks and strains of mice. In an effort to identify specific protein changes or altered signaling pathways associated with skin tumor promotion susceptibility, a proteomic approach of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to examine and identify proteins that were differentially expressed in epidermis between promotion-sensitive DBA/2 and promotion-resistant C57BL/6 mice following treatment with the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. We identified 19 differentially expressed proteins of which 5 were the calcium-binding proteins including annexin A1, parvalbumin a, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A11. The differential expression of two of these calcium-binding proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, was further examined and validated by the following methods: i) one-dimensional (1-D) Western blot analysis; ii) 2-D Western blot analysis; iii) immunohistochemical analysis; and iv) quantitative real-time PCR. Further analyses revealed that S100A8 and S100A9 protein levels were also similarly differentially up-regulated in epidermis of DBA/2 vs C57BL/6 mice following topical treatment with two other skin tumor promoters, okadaic acid and chrysarobin. Pathway analysis of all 19 identified proteins from the present study suggested that these proteins were components of several networks that included inflammation associated proteins known to be involved in skin tumor promotion (e.g. TNF-a, NFkB). Follow-up studies revealed that Tnf, Nfkb1, Il22, and Il1a mRNAs were highly expressed in epidermis of TPA-treated DBA/2 (>2-fold, P <0.001) compared with TPA-treated C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, the present data suggest that differential expression of genes involved in inflammatory pathways in epidermis may play a key role in genetic differences in susceptibility to skin tumor promotion in DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice.

  8. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amitabh; Chai, Jin Choul; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Das, Nando Dulal; Kang, Sung Chul; Lee, Young Seek; Seo, Hyemyung; Chai, Young Gyu

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup −/−} NE4C cells. • Finding JMJD2A-based molecular targets and crucial pathways in p53{sup −/−} NE4C cells.

  9. Smoking-induced expression of the GPR15 gene indicates its potential role in chronic inflammatory pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kõks, Gea; Uudelepp, Mari-Liis; Limbach, Maia; Peterson, Pärt; Reimann, Ene; Kõks, Sulev

    2015-11-01

    Despite the described clear epigenetic effects of smoking, the effect of smoking on genome-wide gene expression in the blood is obscure. We therefore studied the smoking-induced changes in the gene-expression profile of the peripheral blood. RNA was extracted from the whole blood of 48 individuals with a detailed smoking history (24 never-smokers, 16 smokers, and 8 ex-smokers). Gene-expression profiles were evaluated with RNA sequencing, and results were analyzed separately in 24 men and 24 women. In the male smokers, 13 genes were statistically significantly (false-discovery rate <0.1) differentially expressed; in female smokers, 5 genes. Although most of the differentially expressed genes were different between the male and female smokers, the G-protein-coupled receptor 15 gene (GPR15) was differentially expressed in both male and female smokers compared with never-smokers. Analysis of GPR15 methylation identified significantly greater hypomethylation in smokers compared with that in never-smokers. GPR15 is the chemoattractant receptor that regulates T-cell migration and immunity. Up-regulation of GPR15 could explain to some extent the health hazards of smoking with regard to chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26348578

  10. Angiotensin II modulates interleukin-1{beta}-induced inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via interfering with ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shanqin; Zhi, Hui; Hou, Xiuyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine how angiotensin II modulates ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk and gene expression. {yields} Angiotensin II suppresses IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} ERK-RSK1 signaling is required for IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} Angiotensin II modulates NF-{kappa}B responsive genes via regulating ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk. {yields} ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk is a novel mechanism regulating inflammatory gene expression. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with a role in increasing vascular inflammation. The present study investigated how angiotensin II modulates vascular inflammatory signaling and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. In cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II suppressed interleukin-1{beta}-induced prolonged phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-1, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, leading to decreased iNOS but enhanced VCAM-1 expression, associated with an up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression. Knock-down of RSK1 selectively down regulated interleukin-1{beta}-induced iNOS expression without influencing VCAM-1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that interleukin-1{beta}, iNOS, and VCAM-1 expression were detectable in the aortic arches of both wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice. VCAM-1 and iNOS expression were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than in wild type mouse aortic arches. Angiotensin II infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day, for 6 days, via subcutaneous osmotic pump) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice enhanced endothelial and adventitial VCAM-1 and iNOS expression, but reduced medial smooth muscle iNOS expression associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and RSK-1. These results indicate that angiotensin II can differentially modulate inflammatory gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells through influencing ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk, which may contribute to angiotensin II-induced inflammatory disorders related to cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Deletion of the DNA Ligase IV Gene in Candida glabrata Significantly Increases Gene-Targeting Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yuke; Fiori, Alessandro; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in the United States. Over the last decades, its incidence increased, whereas that of Candida albicans decreased slightly. One of the main reasons for this shift is attributed to the inherent tolerance of C. glabrata toward the commonly used azole antifungal drugs. Despite a close phylogenetic distance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologous recombination works with poor efficiency in C. glabrata compared to baker's yeast, in fact limiting targeted genetic alterations of the pathogen's genome. It has been shown that nonhomologous DNA end joining is dominant over specific gene targeting in C. glabrata. To improve the homologous recombination efficiency, we have generated a strain in which the LIG4 gene has been deleted, which resulted in a significant increase in correct gene targeting. The very specific function of Lig4 in mediating nonhomologous end joining is the reason for the absence of clear side effects, some of which affect the ku80 mutant, another mutant with reduced nonhomologous end joining. We also generated a LIG4 reintegration cassette. Our results show that the lig4 mutant strain may be a valuable tool for the C. glabrata research community. PMID:26048009

  12. Deletion of the DNA Ligase IV Gene in Candida glabrata Significantly Increases Gene-Targeting Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yuke; Fiori, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in the United States. Over the last decades, its incidence increased, whereas that of Candida albicans decreased slightly. One of the main reasons for this shift is attributed to the inherent tolerance of C. glabrata toward the commonly used azole antifungal drugs. Despite a close phylogenetic distance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologous recombination works with poor efficiency in C. glabrata compared to baker's yeast, in fact limiting targeted genetic alterations of the pathogen's genome. It has been shown that nonhomologous DNA end joining is dominant over specific gene targeting in C. glabrata. To improve the homologous recombination efficiency, we have generated a strain in which the LIG4 gene has been deleted, which resulted in a significant increase in correct gene targeting. The very specific function of Lig4 in mediating nonhomologous end joining is the reason for the absence of clear side effects, some of which affect the ku80 mutant, another mutant with reduced nonhomologous end joining. We also generated a LIG4 reintegration cassette. Our results show that the lig4 mutant strain may be a valuable tool for the C. glabrata research community. PMID:26048009

  13. Elevated Inflammatory Markers in Response to Prolonged Sleep Restriction Are Associated With Increased Pain Experience in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Monika; Sanchez, Elsa; Mullington, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Sleep disturbances, pain, and inflammation co-occur in various medical conditions, but their interrelationships are poorly understood. Objective: We investigated the effects of reduced sleep duration (by approximately 50%) to 4 h/night across 10 days, on peripherally circulating inflammatory mediators. In addition, we tested the prediction that degree of inflammation is quantitatively related to the extent to which pain is increased in response to prolonged sleep restriction. Design: Randomized, 16 day controlled in-laboratory study conducted in GCRC. Methods: Eighteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either 12 days of sleeping 8 h/night or 4 h/night. Participants rated mood and pain symptoms throughout experimental days. Urine was collected and blood was drawn frequently on the baseline day and after the 10th experimental day for 25 hours. Outcome Measures: Levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-6, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 (sTNF-R p55), urinary levels of prostaglandin (PG) metabolites D2 and E2, subjective assessment of pain and tiredness-fatigue. Results: IL-6 levels were elevated in the 4-h sleep condition over the 8-h sleep condition (P <0.05). CRP levels showed the same trend as IL-6, but did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.11). Levels of sTNF-R p55 were unchanged in both groups. PG E2 and 11?-F2? metabolite increased in 4-h sleepers, but did not differ significantly from the 8-h sleepers. Elevated IL-6 levels were strongly associated with increased pain ratings in response to sleep restriction (r = 0.67, P <0.01), and this association could not be explained by elevations in tiredness-fatigue. Conclusion: Insufficient sleep quantity may facilitate and/or exacerbate pain through elevations of IL-6. In disorders where sleep disturbances are common, insufficient sleep quantity itself may establish and maintain its co-occurrence with pain and increased inflammation. Citation: Haack M; Sanchez E; Mullington JM. Elevated inflammatory markers in response to prolonged sleep restriction are associated with increased pain experience in healthy volunteers. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1145-1152. PMID:17910386

  14. Dual Activation of TRIF and MyD88 Adaptor Proteins by Angiotensin II Evokes Opposing Effects on Pressure, Cardiac Hypertrophy, and Inflammatory Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu V; Cicha, Michael Z; Meyerholz, David K; Chapleau, Mark W; Abboud, Franois M

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is recognized as an immune disorder whereby immune cells play a defining role in the genesis and progression of the disease. The innate immune system and its component toll-like receptors are key determinants of the immunologic outcome through their proinflammatory response. Toll-like receptor-activated signaling pathways use several adaptor proteins of which adaptor proteins myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) and toll-interleukin receptor domain-containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon-? (TRIF) define 2 major inflammatory pathways. In this study, we compared the contributions of MyD88 and TRIF adaptor proteins to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Deletion of MyD88 did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy and the pressor response to Ang II tended to increase. Moreover, the increase in inflammatory gene expression (Tnfa, Nox4, and Agtr1a) was significantly greater in the heart and kidney of MyD88-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice. Thus, pathways involving MyD88 may actually restrain the inflammatory responses. However, in mice with nonfunctional TRIF (Trif(mut) mice), Ang II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated, and proinflammatory gene expression in heart and kidneys was unchanged or decreased. Our results indicate that Ang II induces activation of a proinflammatory innate immune response, causing hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. These effects require functional adaptor protein TRIF-mediated pathways. However, the common MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, which is also activated simultaneously by Ang II, paradoxically exerts a negative regulatory influence on these responses. PMID:26195481

  15. Differential expression of hypothalamic, metabolic and inflammatory genes in response to short-term calorie restriction in juvenile obese- and lean-prone JCR rats

    PubMed Central

    Diane, A; Pierce, W D; Mangat, R; Borthwick, F; Nelson, R; Russell, J C; Heth, C D; Jacobs, R L; Vine, D F; Proctor, S D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is an important early predictor of adult obesity and associated comorbidities. Common forms of obesity are underpinned by both environmental and genetic factors. However, the rising prevalence of obesity in genetically stable populations strongly suggests that contemporary lifestyle is a premier factor to the disease. In pediatric population, the current treatment/prevention options for obesity are lifestyle interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) and increase physical activity. In obese individuals, CR improves many metabolic parameters in peripheral tissues. Little is known about the effect of CR on the hypothalamus. This study aimed to assess the effect of CR on hypothalamic metabolic gene expression of young obese- and lean-prone animals. Methods: Male juvenile JCR:LA-cp obese-prone rats were freely fed (Obese-FF) or pair fed (Obese-FR) to lean-prone, free-feeding animals (Lean-FF). A group of lean-prone rats (Lean-FR) were matched for relative average degree of CR to Obese-FR rats. Results: In free-feeding conditions, obese-prone rats consumed more energy than lean-prone rats (P<0.001) and showed greater increases in body weight, fat mass, plasma glucose, insulin and lipids (P<0.01). These metabolic differences were associated with alterations of feeding-related neuropeptides expression in the hypothalamus, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. When submitted to the same degree of CR, the two genotypes responded differently; hypothalamic inflammatory and oxidative stress gene expression was improved in Obese-FR, while it was worsened in Lean-FR rats. Conclusions: We demonstrate in JCR rats that the metabolic and inflammatory response of the brain to CR is genotype dependent. PMID:26302065

  16. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, S.B. ); Williams, P.H. ); Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P. ); Murofushi, Noboru ); Mander, L.N. )

    1990-07-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode (ein/ein)) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A{sub 3} (GA{sub 3}) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3} were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using ({sup 2}H)GA{sub 1} as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1}, and the rate of GA{sub 19} metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 20} were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1} were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA{sub 1} biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to ({sup 3}H) GA{sub 1} was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA{sub 1} biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}.

  17. Sustained Interleukin-1β Exposure Modulates Multiple Steps in Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Promoting Split-Resistance to the Transactivation of Prominent Anti-Inflammatory Genes by Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Clinical treatment with glucocorticoids (GC) can be complicated by cytokine-induced glucocorticoid low-responsiveness (GC-resistance, GCR), a condition associated with a homogeneous reduction in the expression of GC-receptor- (GR-) driven anti-inflammatory genes. However, GR level and phosphorylation changes modify the expression of individual GR-responsive genes differently. As sustained IL-1β exposure is key in the pathogenesis of several major diseases with prevalent GCR, we examined GR signaling and the mRNA expression of six GR-driven genes in cells cultured in IL-1β and afterwards challenged with GC. After a GC challenge, sustained IL-1β exposure reduced the cytoplasmic GR level, GRSer203 and GRSer211 phosphorylation, and GR nuclear translocation and led to selective GCR in the expression of the studied genes. Compared to GC alone, in a broad range of GC doses plus sustained IL-1β, FKBP51 mRNA expression was reduced by 1/3, TTP by 2/3, and IRF8 was completely knocked down. In contrast, high GC doses did not change the expression of GILZ and DUSP1, while IGFBP1 was increased by 5-fold. These effects were cytokine-selective, IL-1β dose- and IL-1R1-dependent. The integrated gain and loss of gene functions in the “split GCR” model may provide target cells with a survival advantage by conferring resistance to apoptosis, chemotherapy, and GC. PMID:25977599

  18. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Atrayee; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT) or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH) (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals) or dextrose (Control). Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART. PMID:26484872

  19. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Atrayee; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT) or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH) (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals) or dextrose (Control). Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART. PMID:26484872

  20. Escin attenuates cognitive deficits and hippocampal injury after transient global cerebral ischemia in mice via regulating certain inflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiming; Fu, Fenghua; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhu, Mei; Wang, Tian; Fan, Huaying

    2010-09-01

    Considerable evidence has been accumulated demonstrating an important role for inflammation in ischemic brain injury and its contribution to greater cerebral damage after ischemia. Blocking the inflammatory reaction promotes neuroprotection and shows therapeutic potential for clinical treatment of ischemic brain injury. Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, demonstrates antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effects. Here we assessed neuroprotective effects of escin with a transient global cerebral ischemia model. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries and withdrawing 0.3ml of blood from the tail vein in mice. Treatment with escin was initiated 0.5h after ischemia induction and given once a day for three consecutive days. Then animals were assessed using the Morris water-maze test and step-down passive avoidance test. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, histological pathology, and expression of inflammatory genes in the hippocampus were determined. The results showed escin significantly improved learning and memory recovery and reduced hippocampal damage in the cerebral ischemic mice. However, donepezil merely improved learning and memory recovery but did not ameliorate hippocampal damage in the cerebral ischemic mice. Furthermore, we found escin significantly downregulated certain inflammatory gene expression and upregulated expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which was recently reported as a neuroprotective protein in the brain. Our results indicate that inhibition of inflammation and protection of hippocampal neurons by escin may be a potentially useful therapy for ischemic brain injury. PMID:20466027

  1. The effect of PrP(Sc) accumulation on inflammatory gene expression within sheep peripheral lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Anton G; Hopkins, John

    2015-12-31

    Accumulation of the misfolded prion protein, PrP(Sc) in the central nervous system (CNS) is strongly linked to progressive neurodegenerative disease. For many transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), peripheral lymphoid tissue is an important site of PrP(Sc) amplification but without gross immunological consequence. Susceptible VRQ homozygous New Zealand Cheviot sheep were infected with SSBP/1 scrapie by inoculation in the drainage area of the prescapular lymph nodes. The earliest time that PrP(Sc) was consistently detected by immunohistology in these nodes was D50 post infection. This transcriptomic study of lymph node taken before (D10) and after (D50) the detection of PrP(Sc), aimed to identify the genes and physiological pathways affected by disease progression within the nodes as assessed by PrP(Sc) detection. Affymetrix Ovine Gene arrays identified 75 and 80 genes as differentially-expressed at D10 and D50, respectively, in comparison with control sheep inoculated with uninfected brain homogenate. Approximately 70% of these were repressed at each time point. RT-qPCR analysis of seven genes showed statistically significant correlation with the array data, although the results for IL1RN and TGIF were different between the two technologies. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and general low level of repression of gene expression in lymphoid tissue, including many inflammatory genes, contrasts with the pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic events that occur within the CNS at equivalent stages of disease progression as assessed by PrP(Sc) accumulation. PMID:26507419

  2. Interactions between inflammatory signals and the progesterone receptor in regulating gene expression in pregnant human uterine myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun; Sooranna, Suren R; Terzidou, Vasso; Christian, Mark; Brosens, Jan; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Poutanen, Matti; Barton, Geraint; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R

    2012-01-01

    The absence of a fall in circulating progesterone levels has led to the concept that human labour is associated with functional progesterone withdrawal caused through changes in the expression or function of progesterone receptor (PR). At the time of labour, the human uterus is heavily infiltrated with inflammatory cells, which release cytokines to create a myometrial inflammation via NF-?B activation. The negative interaction between NF-?B and PR, may represent a mechanism to account for functional progesterone withdrawal at term. Conversely, PR may act to inhibit NF-?B function and so play a role in inhibition of myometrial inflammation during pregnancy. To model this inter-relationship, we have used small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knock-down of PR in human pregnant myocytes and whole genome microarray analysis to identify genes regulated through PR. We then activated myometrial inflammation using IL-1? stimulation to determine the role of PR in myometrial inflammation regulation. Through PR-knock-down, we found that PR regulates gene networks involved in myometrial quiescence and extracellular matrix integrity. Activation of myometrial inflammation was found to antagonize PR-induced gene expression, of genes normally upregulated via PR. We found that PR does not play a role in repression of pro-inflammatory gene networks induced by IL-1? and that only MMP10 was significantly regulated in opposite directions by IL-1? and PR. We conclude that progesterone acting through PR does not generally inhibit myometrial inflammation. Activation of myometrial inflammation does cause functional progesterone withdrawal but only in the context of genes normally upregulated via PR. PMID:22435466

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of inflammatory response gene TNF-? and its influence on sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors predisposition risk.

    PubMed

    Karakaxas, Dimitrios; Gazouli, Maria; Coker, Ahmet; Agalianos, Christos; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Patapis, Pavlos; Liakakos, Theodoros; Dervenis, Christos

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosed incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) is increasing; however, their etiology remains poorly understood. PNETs are a rare, heterogeneous group of tumors arising from the endocrine cells of the pancreas, and genetic risk factors for sporadic pNETs are inadequately understood. It is known that pNETs secrete biogenic amines, hormones and growth factors, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-?) being one of them. Furthermore, cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators have been implicated in inflammatory pancreatic diseases including pancreatitis and cancer. The aim of our study was to analyze TNF-? promoter gene polymorphisms as risk factors for pNETs using germline DNA collected in a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer [42 pNET cases, 78 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases, 17 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and 98 healthy controls] conducted in the Athens, Greece and Izmir, Turkey areas. For subsequent analysis, we excluded cases and controls with known genetic syndromes. The CC genotype at the -1031 position was more frequent in pNET and IPMN patients (p=0.0002 and p=0.009, respectively), suggesting its possible role in pNET development. Furthermore, the AA genotype at the -308 position was overrepresented in IPMN cases (p=0.03), and AA genotype at the -238 position was more frequent in PDAC cases (p=0.03) compared to healthy individuals. With regard to tumor characteristics, no statistically significant association was detected. Our findings suggest the putative role of TNF-? -1031 polymorphism in the development of pNET and IPMN, whereas the -308 polymorphism seems to be overrepresented among IPMN cases and -238 polymorphism among PDAC cases. PMID:25213764

  4. Akirin2 is critical for inducing inflammatory genes by bridging I?B-? and the SWI/SNF complex

    PubMed Central

    Tartey, Sarang; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Vandenbon, Alexis; Ori, Daisuke; Imamura, Tomoko; Mino, Takashi; Standley, Daron M; Hoffmann, Jules A; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Akira, Shizuo; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-?B, and chromatin modifiers. However, it remains unclear how microbial sensing initiates chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that Akirin2, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein, bridges NF-?B and the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex by interacting with BRG1-Associated Factor 60 (BAF60) proteins as well as I?B-?, which forms a complex with the NF-?B p50 subunit. These interactions are essential for Toll-like receptor-, RIG-I-, and Listeria-mediated expression of proinflammatory genes including Il6 and Il12b in macrophages. Consistently, effective clearance of Listeria infection required Akirin2. Furthermore, Akirin2 and I?B-? recruitment to the Il6 promoter depend upon the presence of I?B-? and Akirin2, respectively, for regulation of chromatin remodeling. BAF60 proteins were also essential for the induction of Il6 in response to LPS stimulation. Collectively, the I?B-?Akirin2BAF60 complex physically links the NF-?B and SWI/SNF complexes in innate immune cell activation. By recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers to I?B-?, transcriptional coactivator for NF-?B, the conserved nuclear protein Akirin2 stimulates pro-inflammatory gene promoters in mouse macrophages during innate immune responses to viral or bacterial infection. PMID:25107474

  5. Transforming growth factor β (CiTGF-β) gene expression is induced in the inflammatory reaction of Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Aiti; Di Falco, Felicia; Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Cammarata, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a well-known component of a regulatory cytokines superfamily that has pleiotropic functions in a broad range of cell types and is involved, in vertebrates, in numerous physiological and pathological processes. In the current study, we report on Ciona intestinalis molecular characterisation and expression of a transforming growth factor β homologue (CiTGF-β). The gene organisation, phylogenetic tree and modelling supported the close relationship with the mammalian TGF suggesting that the C. intestinalis TGF-β gene shares a common ancestor in the chordate lineages. Functionally, real-time PCR analysis showed that CiTGF-β was transcriptionally upregulated in the inflammatory process induced by LPS inoculation, suggesting that is involved in the first phase and significant in the secondary phase of the inflammatory response in which cell differentiation occurs. In situ hybridisation assays revealed that the genes transcription was upregulated in the pharynx, the main organ of the ascidian immune system, and expressed by cluster of hemocytes inside the pharynx vessels. These data supported the view that CiTGF-β is a potential molecule in immune defence systems against bacterial infection. PMID:26493014

  6. Chlamydophila pneumonia and increased TLR4 gene expression in leukocytes are associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lima-Neto, L G; Hirata, R D C; Luchessi, A D; Silbiger, V N; Cavichioli, D; Dos Santos, E S; Sousa, A G M; Sprovieri, S R S; De Sousa Junior, E B; Dos Santos, F C P; Colombo, S; Hirata, M H

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of the positivity for Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cpn) and Mycoplasma pneumonia (Mpn), inflammatory and metabolic markers, and mRNA expression and polymorphisms of the TLR2, TLR4, IL-6 and TNFA genes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Two hundred and eighteen individuals (98 AMI and 120 non-AMI) were selected at two Clinical Centers. Blood samples were drawn to extract DNA and RNA and to measure laboratory variables including anti-Cpn IgM and IgG. Cpn and Mpn genomic DNA as well as TLR2, TLR4, IL-6 and TNFA mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Gene polymorphisms were detected by PCR-HRM. AMI patients had higher positivity for Cpn-DNA (17.3%) than non-AMI group (6.7%, p=0.018). In addition, Cpn-DNA positivity was an independent predictor of risk for AMI (OR: 2.56, CI: 1.08 - 6.04, p=0.031). Positivity for anti-Cpn IgG and Mpn-DNA was similar between AMI and non-AMI (> 0.05). TLR4 mRNA expression was higher in AMI than non-AMI individuals (p=0.005). CD14 -260C> T, TNFA -308A> G, TLR2 c.2258G> A, TLR4 c.896A> G and TLR4 c.1196> T variants were not associated with increased risk for AMI (p> 0.05). In the AMI group, individuals carrying CD14 -260CC genotype had higher hsCRP levels than CT/TT carriers (p=0.041). These results are suggestive that Cpn-DNA positivity and increased TLR4 mRNA expression in blood leukocytes may be associated with AMI and could be useful markers to evaluate the severity and progression of the atherosclerotic disease in AMI patients. PMID:25316132

  7. Intermittent neonatal hypoxia elicits the upregulation of inflammatory-related genes in adult male rats through long-lasting programming effects.

    PubMed

    Gehrand, Ashley L; Kaldunski, Mary L; Bruder, Eric D; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Raff, Hershel

    2015-12-01

    The long-term effects of neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH), an accepted model of apnea-induced hypoxia, are unclear. We have previously shown lasting "programming" effects on the HPA axis in adult rats exposed to neonatal IH. We hypothesized that neonatal rat exposure to IH will subsequently result in a heightened inflammatory state in the adult. Rat pups were exposed to normoxia (control) or six cycles of 5% IH or 10% IH over one hour daily from postnatal day 2-6. Plasma samples from blood obtained at 114days of age were analyzed by assessing the capacity to induce transcription in a healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population and read using a high-density microarray. The analysis of plasma from adult rats previously exposed to neonatal 5% IH versus 10% IH resulted in 2579 significantly regulated genes including increased expression of Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Ccl3, Il1a, and Il1b. We conclude that neonatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia elicits a long-lasting programming effect in the adult resulting in an upregulation of inflammatory-related genes. PMID:26660555

  8. AAV serotype 2/1-mediated gene delivery of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 enhances neurogenesis and cognitive function in APP+PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Kiyota, Tomomi; Ingraham, Kaitlin L.; Swan, Russell J.; Jacobsen, Michael T.; Andrews, Scott J.; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2011-01-01

    Brain inflammation is a double-edged sword: it is required for brain repair in acute damage, whereas chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders are neuropathogenic. Certain pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are closely related to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Representative anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-10, can suppress neuroinflammation and have significant therapeutic potentials in ameliorating neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2/1 hybrid-mediated neuronal expression of the mouse IL-10 gene ameliorates cognitive dysfunction in APP+PS1 bigenic mice. AAV2/1 infection of hippocampal neurons resulted in sustained expression of IL-10 without its leakage into the blood, reduced astro/microgliosis, enhanced plasma amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) levels, and enhanced neurogenesis. Moreover, increased levels of IL-10 improved spatial learning as determined by the radial arm water maze. Finally, IL-10-stimulated microglia enhanced proliferation but not differentiation of primary neural stem cells in the co-culture system, while IL-10 itself had no effect. Our data suggest that IL-10 gene delivery has a therapeutic potential for a non-Aβ-targeted treatment of AD. PMID:21918553

  9. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with RANBP2 and ALK gene rearrangement with bland cytological features mimicking desmoid-type fibromatosis: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YU-HUA; TIAN, YU-FENG; LI, CHIEN-FENG

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present an uncommon case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) involving the mesentery. The tumor was composed of loosely arranged round-to-spindle-shaped tumor cells with amphophilic cytoplasm in an inflammatory and myxoid background. The mitotic activity was low (1 per 50 high-power fields) and the tumor cells lacked cellular atypism. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells demonstrated strong nuclear membranous staining with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). In situ hybridization for ALK gene rearrangement revealed a splitting apart of the two signals within the tumor cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the tumor harbored a ran-binding protein 2 (RANBP2)-ALK rearrangement. IMTs are usually characterized by epithelioid-to-round cells featuring increased mitotic activity, occasionally demonstrating unusual tumor cells and more aggressive clinical behavior. To date, 23 IMTs have been reported with RANBP2 and ALK gene rearrangements. However, the present case demonstrated indolent cytological features, leading to a difficulty in differentiating it from desmoid-type fibromatosis. PMID:26893756

  10. Control of Pro-Inflammatory Gene Programs by Regulated Trimethylation and Demethylation of Histone H4K20

    PubMed Central

    Stender, Joshua D.; Pascual, Gabriel; Liu, Wen; Kaikkonen, Minna U.; Do, Kevin; Spann, Nathanael J; Boutros, Michael; Perrimon, Norbert; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Glass, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Regulation of genes that initiate and amplify inflammatory programs of gene expression is achieved by signal-dependent exchange of co-regulator complexes that function to read, write and erase specific histone modifications linked to transcriptional activation or repression. Here, we provide evidence for the role of trimethylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me3) as a repression checkpoint that restricts expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) target genes in macrophages. H4K20me3 is deposited at the promoters of a subset of these genes by the SMYD5 histone methyltransferase through its association with NCoR corepressor complexes. Signal-dependent erasure of H4K20me3 is required for effective gene activation and is achieved by NF-?B-dependent delivery of the histone demethylase PHF2. Liver X receptors antagonize TLR4-dependent gene activation by maintaining NCoR/SMYD5-mediated repression. These findings reveal a histone H4K20 tri-methylation/de-methylation strategy that integrates positive and negative signaling inputs that control immunity and homeostasis. PMID:22921934

  11. Genetic Evidence Supporting the Association of Protease and Protease Inhibitor Genes with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Nüesch, Eveline; Mendes, Camila T.; Schmied, Stefanie; Wyder, Stefan; Kellen, Eliane; Villiger, Peter M.; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine; Lottaz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    As part of the European research consortium IBDase, we addressed the role of proteases and protease inhibitors (P/PIs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects 2.2 million people in Europe and 1.4 million people in North America. We systematically reviewed all published genetic studies on populations of European ancestry (67 studies on Crohn's disease [CD] and 37 studies on ulcerative colitis [UC]) to identify critical genomic regions associated with IBD. We developed a computer algorithm to map the 807 P/PI genes with exact genomic locations listed in the MEROPS database of peptidases onto these critical regions and to rank P/PI genes according to the accumulated evidence for their association with CD and UC. 82 P/PI genes (75 coding for proteases and 7 coding for protease inhibitors) were retained for CD based on the accumulated evidence. The cylindromatosis/turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD) on chromosome 16 ranked highest, followed by acylaminoacyl-peptidase (APEH), dystroglycan (DAG1), macrophage-stimulating protein (MST1) and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4), all located on chromosome 3. For UC, 18 P/PI genes were retained (14 proteases and 4protease inhibitors), with a considerably lower amount of accumulated evidence. The ranking of P/PI genes as established in this systematic review is currently used to guide validation studies of candidate P/PI genes, and their functional characterization in interdisciplinary mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo as part of IBDase. The approach used here overcomes some of the problems encountered when subjectively selecting genes for further evaluation and could be applied to any complex disease and gene family. PMID:21931648

  12. Genetic evidence supporting the association of protease and protease inhibitor genes with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Jni, Peter; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Nesch, Eveline; Mendes, Camila T; Schmied, Stefanie; Wyder, Stefan; Kellen, Eliane; Villiger, Peter M; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Sverine; Lottaz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    As part of the European research consortium IBDase, we addressed the role of proteases and protease inhibitors (P/PIs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects 2.2 million people in Europe and 1.4 million people in North America. We systematically reviewed all published genetic studies on populations of European ancestry (67 studies on Crohn's disease [CD] and 37 studies on ulcerative colitis [UC]) to identify critical genomic regions associated with IBD. We developed a computer algorithm to map the 807 P/PI genes with exact genomic locations listed in the MEROPS database of peptidases onto these critical regions and to rank P/PI genes according to the accumulated evidence for their association with CD and UC. 82 P/PI genes (75 coding for proteases and 7 coding for protease inhibitors) were retained for CD based on the accumulated evidence. The cylindromatosis/turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD) on chromosome 16 ranked highest, followed by acylaminoacyl-peptidase (APEH), dystroglycan (DAG1), macrophage-stimulating protein (MST1) and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4), all located on chromosome 3. For UC, 18 P/PI genes were retained (14 proteases and 4 protease inhibitors), with a considerably lower amount of accumulated evidence. The ranking of P/PI genes as established in this systematic review is currently used to guide validation studies of candidate P/PI genes, and their functional characterization in interdisciplinary mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo as part of IBDase. The approach used here overcomes some of the problems encountered when subjectively selecting genes for further evaluation and could be applied to any complex disease and gene family. PMID:21931648

  13. Vitamin D sufficiency associates with an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines after intense exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Martins, Thomas B; Hill, Harry R; Kjeldsberg, Carl R; Dixon, Brian M; Schneider, Erik D; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of vitamin D status (insufficient vs. sufficient) on circulating cytokines and skeletal muscle strength after muscular injury. To induce muscular injury, one randomly selected leg (SSC) performed exercise consisting of repetitive eccentric-concentric contractions. The other leg served as the control. An averaged serum 25(OH)D concentration from two blood samples collected before exercise and on separate occasions was used to establish vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL, n=6) and sufficiency (>30ng/mL, n=7) in young, adult males. Serum cytokine concentrations, single-leg peak isometric force, and single-leg peak power output were measured before and during the days following the exercise protocol. The serum IL-10 and IL-13 responses to muscular injury were significantly (both p<0.05) increased in the vitamin D sufficient group. The immediate and persistent (days) peak isometric force (p<0.05) and peak power output (p<0.05) deficits in the SSC leg after the exercise protocol were not ameliorated with vitamin D sufficiency. We conclude that vitamin D sufficiency increases the anti-inflammatory cytokine response to muscular injury. PMID:24388225

  14. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: Are inflammatory bowel disease patients at increased risk? A retrospective study on a prospective database

    PubMed Central

    Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Caprio, Francesca; Candilio, Giuseppe; De Fatico, G. Serena; Reginelli, Alfonso; Canonico, Silvestro; Selvaggi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients receiving oral hormonal contraceptives. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) often affect young patients and represent a pro-coagulant condition. This could result from active inflammation, but a potential role for genetic and molecular factors has been suggested. Hormonal contraceptives have also been associated with increased risk of VTE and the risk may be greater in IBD patients that already are in a pro-coagulant status, but no definitive data are available in this population. The purpose of our study was to seek for differences of the risk of VTE in IBD patients receiving hormonal contraceptives compared with controls. This is a retrospective study. We interrogated a prospectively maintained database of IBD patients observed at our outpatient clinic between 2000 and 2014. All female patients managed conservatively, with no active disease, who were taking oral hormone contraceptives in the study period, were included. Patients observed for other-than-IBD conditions at our Unit and at the Unit of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, receiving contraceptives, served as controls (ratio 1:2). Patients with cancer, those receiving hormonal therapy, and those with known genetic predisposition to VTE were excluded. We included 146 six IBD patients and 290 controls. One patient in each group developed VTE. Overall, the incidence of VTE associated with oral contraceptives was 0.5%. IBD was associated with increased risk of VTE (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.1232.12, p>0.99). Active smokers since 10 years (17.2%) had higher risks of VTE (OR 8.6, 95%CI 1.1619.25, p=0.03). Our data show that patients with IBD in remission are not at higher risk of VTE due to oral oestrogen-containing contraceptives compared with non-IBD controls. Smokers are at increased risk, irrespective of the baseline disease. PMID:26779335

  15. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: Are inflammatory bowel disease patients at increased risk? A retrospective study on a prospective database.

    PubMed

    Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Caprio, Francesca; Candilio, Giuseppe; De Fatico, G Serena; Reginelli, Alfonso; Canonico, Silvestro; Selvaggi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies showed an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients receiving oral hormonal contraceptives. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) often affect young patients and represent a pro-coagulant condition. This could result from active inflammation, but a potential role for genetic and molecular factors has been suggested. Hormonal contraceptives have also been associated with increased risk of VTE and the risk may be greater in IBD patients that already are in a pro-coagulant status, but no definitive data are available in this population. The purpose of our study was to seek for differences of the risk of VTE in IBD patients receiving hormonal contraceptives compared with controls. This is a retrospective study. We interrogated a prospectively maintained database of IBD patients observed at our outpatient clinic between 2000 and 2014. All female patients managed conservatively, with no active disease, who were taking oral hormone contraceptives in the study period, were included. Patients observed for other-than-IBD conditions at our Unit and at the Unit of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, receiving contraceptives, served as controls (ratio 1:2). Patients with cancer, those receiving hormonal therapy, and those with known genetic predisposition to VTE were excluded. We included 146 six IBD patients and 290 controls. One patient in each group developed VTE. Overall, the incidence of VTE associated with oral contraceptives was 0.5%. IBD was associated with increased risk of VTE (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.12-32.12, p>0.99). Active smokers since 10 years (17.2%) had higher risks of VTE (OR 8.6, 95%CI 1.16-19.25, p=0.03). Our data show that patients with IBD in remission are not at higher risk of VTE due to oral oestrogen-containing contraceptives compared with non-IBD controls. Smokers are at increased risk, irrespective of the baseline disease. PMID:26779335

  16. Increases in free radicals and cytoskeletal protein oxidation and nitration in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzian, A; Banan, A; Farhadi, A; Komanduri, S; Mutlu, E; Zhang, Y; Fields, J Z

    2003-01-01

    Background: Overproduction of colonic oxidants contributes to mucosal injury in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the mechanisms are unclear. Our recent findings using monolayers of intestinal cells suggest that the mechanism could be oxidant induced damage to cytoskeletal proteins. However, oxidants and oxidative damage have not been well characterised in IBD mucosa. Aims: To determine whether there are increases in oxidants and in tissue and cytoskeletal protein oxidation in IBD mucosa. Methods: We measured nitric oxide (NO) and markers of oxidative injury (carbonylation and nitrotyrosination) to tissue and cytoskeletal proteins in colonic mucosa from IBD patients (ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, specific colitis) and controls. Outcomes were correlated with IBD severity score. Results: Inflamed mucosa showed the greatest increases in oxidants and oxidative damage. Smaller but still significant increases were seen in normal appearing mucosa of patients with active and inactive IBD. Tissue NO levels correlated with oxidative damage. Actin was markedly (>50%) carbonylated and nitrated in inflamed tissues of active IBD, less so in normal appearing tissues. Tubulin carbonylation occurred in parallel; tubulin nitration was not observed. NO and all measures of oxidative damage in tissue and cytoskeletal proteins in the mucosa correlated with IBD severity. Disruption of the actin cytoarchitecture was primarily within the epithelial cells and paracellular area. Conclusions: Oxidant levels increase in IBD along with oxidation of tissue and cytoskeletal proteins. Oxidative injury correlated with disease severity but is also present in substantial amounts in normal appearing mucosa of IBD patients, suggesting that oxidative injury does not necessarily lead to tissue injury and is not entirely a consequence of tissue injury. Marked actin oxidation (>50%)which appears to result from cumulative oxidative damagewas only seen in inflamed mucosa, suggesting that oxidant induced cytoskeletal disruption is required for tissue injury, mucosal disruption, and IBD flare up. PMID:12692059

  17. Anti-inflammatory loaded poly-lactic glycolic acid nanoparticle formulations to enhance myocardial gene transfer: an in-vitro assessment of a drug/gene combination therapeutic approach for direct injection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac gene therapy for heart disease is a major translational research area with potential, yet problems with safe and efficient gene transfer into cardiac muscle remain unresolved. Existing methodology to increase vector uptake include modifying the viral vector, non-viral particle encapsulation and or delivery with device systems. These advanced methods have made improvements, however fail to address the key problem of inflammation in the myocardium, which is known to reduce vector uptake and contribute to immunogenic adverse events. Here we propose an alternative method to co-deliver anti-inflammatory drugs in a controlled release polymer with gene product to improve therapeutic effects. Methods A robust, double emulsion production process was developed to encapsulate drugs into nanoparticles. Briefly in this proof of concept study, aspirin and prednisolone anti-inflammatory drugs were encapsulated in various poly-lactic glycolic acid polymer (PLGA) formulations. The resultant particle systems were characterized, co-delivered with GFP plasmid, and evaluated in harvested myocytes in culture for uptake. Results High quality nanoparticles were harvested from multiple production runs, with an average 64??10mg yield. Four distinct particle drug system combinations were characterized and evaluated in vitro: PLGA(50:50) Aspirin, PLGA(65:35) Prednisolone, PLGA(65:35) Aspirin and PLGA(50:50) Prednisolone Particles consisted of spherical shape with a narrow size distribution 265??104nm as found in scanning electron microscopy imaging. Prednisolone particles regardless of PLGA type were found on average???100nm smaller than the aspirin types. All four groups demonstrated high zeta potential stability and re-constitution testing prior to in vitro. In vitro results demonstrated co uptake of GFP plasmid (green) and drug loaded particles (red) in culture with no incidence of toxicity. Conclusions Nano formulated anti-inflammatories in combination with standalone gene product therapy may offer a clinical solution to maximize cardiac gene therapy product effects while minimizing the risk of the host response in the inflammatory myocardial environment. PMID:24934216

  18. NOD2/CARD15 gene mutations in North Algerian patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukercha, Aziza; Mesbah-Amroun, Hamida; Bouzidi, Amira; Saoula, Houria; Nakkemouche, Mhamed; Roy, Maryline; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyse allelic frequency of NOD2 gene variants and to assess their correlation with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Algeria. METHODS: We studied 132 unrelated patients diagnosed with IBD, 86 with Crohns disease (CD) and 46 with ulcerative colitis (UC). Data was prospectively collected between January 2011 and December 2013. The demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded for all the patients. A group of 114 healthy unrelated individuals were selected as controls. All groups studied originated from different regions of North Algeria and confirmed the Algerian origin of their parents and grandparents. Informed and written consent was obtained from each of the participants. All individuals were genotyped for the three CD-associated NOD2 variants (p.Arg702Trp, p.Gly908Arg and p.Leu1007fsinsC mutations) using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Allele and genotype frequencies in patients and control subjects were compared by ?2 test and Fishers exact test where appropriate. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were also estimated. Association analyses were performed to study the influence of these variants on IBD and on clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: The p.Arg702Trp mutation showed the highest frequency in CD patients (8%) compared to UC patients (2%) (P = 0.09, OR = 3.67, 95%CI: 0.48-4.87) and controls (5%) (P = 0.4, OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 0.65-3.31). In CD patients allelic frequencies of p.Gly908Arg and p.Leu1007fsinsC variants compared to HC were 3% vs 2% (P = 0.5, OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.44-6.34); 2% vs 1% (P = 0.4 OR = 2.69 95%CI: 0.48-14.87 respectively). In UC patients, allelic frequencies of p.Gly908Arg and p.Leu1007fsinsC variants compared to HC were 1% vs 2% (P = 1, OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 0.17-4.74) and 2% vs 1% (P = 0.32, OR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.05-2.87). The total frequency of the mutated NOD2 chromosomes was higher in CD (13%), than in HC (8%) and UC (5%). In addition, NOD2 variants were linked to a particular clinical sub-phenotype in CD in this Algerian cohort. As expected, the three NOD2 variants showed a significant association with CD but did not reach statistical significance, despite the fact that the allele frequency of NOD2 variants was in the range found in most of the European populations. This might be due to the non-exposure of the NOD2 carriers to environmental factors, required for the expression of the disease. CONCLUSION: Further analyses are necessary to study genetic and environmental factors in IBD in the Algerian population, using larger patient groups. PMID:26167078

  19. Acute Effects of Dietary Fat on Inflammatory Markers and Gene Expression in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pietraszek, Anna; Gregersen, Sren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their relatives (REL) carry an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low-grade inflammation, an independent risk factor for CVD, is modifiable by diet. Subjects with T2D show elevated postprandial inflammatory responses to fat-rich meals, while information on postprandial inflammation in REL is sparse. AIM: To clarify whether medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have differential acute effects on low-grade inflammation in REL compared to controls (CON). METHODS: In randomized order, 17 REL and 17 CON ingested two fat-rich meals, with 72 energy percent from MUFA and 79 energy percent from mainly medium-chain SFA, respectively. Plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adiponectin, and leptin were measured at baseline, 15 min, 60 min, and 240 min postprandially. Muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were taken at baseline and 210 min after the test meal, and expression of selected genes was analyzed. RESULTS: Plasma IL-6 increased (p < 0.001) without difference between REL and CON and between the meals, whereas plasma adiponectin and plasma hs-CRP were unchanged during the 240 min observation period. Plasma leptin decreased slightly in response to medium-chain SFA in both groups, and to MUFA in REL. Several genes were differentially regulated in muscle and adipose tissue of REL and CON. CONCLUSIONS: MUFA and medium-chain SFA elicit similar postprandial circulating inflammatory responses in REL and CON. Medium-chain SFA seems more proinflammatory than MUFA, judged by the gene expression in muscle and adipose tissue of REL and CON. PMID:22580729

  20. Maternal high-fat diet-induced programing of gut taste receptor and inflammatory gene expression in rat offspring is ameliorated by CLA supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation influences later life predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease in offspring. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined, but one potential target that has received scant attention and is likely pivotal to disease progression is that of the gut. The present study examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on offspring metabolic profile and gut expression of taste receptors and inflammatory markers. We speculate that preventing high-fat diet-induced metainflammation improved maternal metabolic parameters conferring beneficial effects on adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA) throughout gestation and lactation. Plasma/tissues were taken at day 24 and RT-PCR was carried out on gut sections. Offspring from HF mothers were significantly heavier at weaning with impaired insulin sensitivity compared to controls. This was associated with increased plasma IL-1β and TNFα concentrations. Gut Tas1R1, IL-1β, TNFα, and NLRP3 expression was increased and Tas1R3 expression was decreased in male offspring from HF mothers and was normalized by maternal CLA supplementation. Tas1R1 expression was increased while PYY and IL-10 decreased in female offspring of HF mothers. These results suggest that maternal consumption of a HF diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring predisposition to obesity and metabolic dysregulation. This may be associated with dysregulation of taste receptor, incretin, and inflammatory gene expression in the gut. PMID:26493953

  1. Maternal high-fat diet-induced programing of gut taste receptor and inflammatory gene expression in rat offspring is ameliorated by CLA supplementation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation influences later life predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease in offspring. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined, but one potential target that has received scant attention and is likely pivotal to disease progression is that of the gut. The present study examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on offspring metabolic profile and gut expression of taste receptors and inflammatory markers. We speculate that preventing high-fat diet-induced metainflammation improved maternal metabolic parameters conferring beneficial effects on adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA) throughout gestation and lactation. Plasma/tissues were taken at day 24 and RT-PCR was carried out on gut sections. Offspring from HF mothers were significantly heavier at weaning with impaired insulin sensitivity compared to controls. This was associated with increased plasma IL-1? and TNF? concentrations. Gut Tas1R1, IL-1?, TNF?, and NLRP3 expression was increased and Tas1R3 expression was decreased in male offspring from HF mothers and was normalized by maternal CLA supplementation. Tas1R1 expression was increased while PYY and IL-10 decreased in female offspring of HF mothers. These results suggest that maternal consumption of a HF diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring predisposition to obesity and metabolic dysregulation. This may be associated with dysregulation of taste receptor, incretin, and inflammatory gene expression in the gut. PMID:26493953

  2. The RNA editor gene ADAR1 is induced in myoblasts by inflammatory ligands and buffers stress response.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Micah; Long, Kimberly; Nie, Yongzhan; Gupta, Mayetri; Yang, Jinghua; Montano, Monty

    2010-06-01

    Muscle atrophy remains a significant concern in multiple inflammatory conditions, including injury, sepsis, cachexia, and HIV-associated wasting. Herein, we show that inflammatory stressors, including TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, or lipopolysaccharide, potently induced the novel expression of the RNA editor ADAR1, an observation not previously described in muscle cells. We also observed that cytokine stimulation suppressed muscle-associated microRNAs, an observation also not previously demonstrated. To map potential effects of ADAR1 induction in the muscle program, we conducted knockdown and overexpression studies in the mouse C2C12 muscle precursor cell (MPC) line and in primary human MPCs. We show that knockdown of stress-induced ADAR1 increased inflammation-mediated declines in the muscle differentiation markers Myogenin and myosin heavy chain, and knockdown reduced levels of active phosphorylated Akt (phospho-Akt), but had no effect on microRNA transcript levels, suggesting a role for ADAR1 in buffering inflammatory stress effects on myogenic transcription and protein synthesis pathways. In addition, overexpression of recombinant ADAR1 suppressed active phosphorylated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (phospho-PKR), consistent with a role for ADAR1 in limiting inflammation-driven catabolic atrophy pathways. Collectively, these data identify a novel regulatory role for ADAR1 activation under inflammatory stress to both promote muscle protein synthesis pathways and limit atrophy pathways. PMID:20590675

  3. The RNA Editor Gene Adar1 is Induced in Myoblasts by Inflammatory Ligands and Buffers Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Micah; Long, Kimberly; Nie, Yongzhan; Gupta, Mayetri; Yang, Jinghua

    2010-01-01

    Muscle atrophy remains a significant concern in multiple inflammatory conditions, including injury, sepsis, cachexia and HIV associated wasting. Herein, we show that inflammatory stressors, including TNF?, IFN? or LPS, potently induced the novel expression of the RNA editor ADAR1, an observation not previously described in muscle cells. We also observed that cytokine stimulation suppressed muscle associated microRNAs, an observation also not previously demonstrated. To map potential effects of ADAR1 induction in the muscle program, we conducted knockdown and over-expression studies in the mouse C2C12 muscle precursor cell (MPC) line and in primary human MPCs. We show that knockdown of stress-induced ADAR1 increased inflammation-mediated declines in the muscle differentiation markers myogenin and myosin heavy chain, and knockdown reduced levels of active phosphorylated Akt (phospho-Akt), but had no effect on microRNA transcript levels, suggesting a role for ADAR1 in buffering inflammatory stress effects on myogenic transcription and protein synthesis pathways. Additionally, over-expression of recombinant ADAR1 suppressed active phosphorylated dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (phospho-PKR), consistent with a role for ADAR1 in limiting inflammation driven catabolic atrophy pathways. Collectively, these data identify a novel regulatory role for ADAR1 activation under inflammatory stress to both promote muscle protein synthesis pathways and limit atrophy pathways. PMID:20590675

  4. Older Age and Steroid Use Are Associated with Increasing Polypharmacy and Potential Medication Interactions Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parian, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity and polypharmacy, more prevalent among older persons, may impact the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aims of this study were to assess the frequency of polypharmacy and medication interactions within a cohort of older patients with IBD and describe IBD treatment patterns. Methods: Cohort study of 190 patients with IBD 65 years or older followed at a tertiary IBD referral center from 2006 to 2012. Data collected included demographics, IBD-specific characteristics including disease activity, and comorbidity. Medication histories were extracted from medical records, and data were used to classify polypharmacy, frequency, and severity of potential medication interactions and inappropriate medication use. Results: Older patients with IBD were prescribed an average of 9 routine medications. Severe polypharmacy (≥10 routine medications) was present in 43.2% of studied patients and associated with increasing age, greater comorbidity, and steroid use. Overall, 73.7% of patients had at least 1 potential medication interaction, including 40% of patients with potential IBD medication-associated interactions. Chronic steroids were prescribed to 40% of the older patients including 24% who were in remission or with mild disease activity. Only 39.5% of patients were on immunomodulators and 21.1% on biologics. Approximately, 35% of patients were given at least 1 Beers inappropriate medication and almost 10% were receiving chronic narcotics. Conclusions: Older patients with IBD are at increased risk for severe polypharmacy and potential major medication interactions especially with increasing comorbidity and chronic steroid use. Steroid-maintenance therapies are prevalent among the older patients with IBD with lower utilization of steroid-sparing regimens. PMID:25856768

  5. Increased Epithelial Gaps in the Small Intestine Are Predictive of Hospitalization and Surgery in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Jean-Francois; Wong, Karen; Mah, Stephanie J; Dieleman, Levinus A; Kao, Dina; Kroeker, Karen; Claggett, Brian; Saltzman, John R; Wine, Eytan; Fedorak, Richard N; Liu, Julia J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epithelial gaps resulting from intestinal cell extrusions can be visualized with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) during colonoscopy and increased in normal-appearing terminal ileum of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Cell-shedding events on CLE were found to be predictive of disease relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of epithelial gap densities for major clinical events (hospitalization or surgery) in follow-up. METHODS: We prospectively followed IBD patients undergoing colonoscopy with probe-based CLE (pCLE) for clinical events including symptom flares, medication changes, hospitalization, or surgery. Survival analysis methods were used to compare event times for the composite outcome of hospitalization or surgery using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. We also examined the relationship of gap density with IBD flares, need for anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, disease duration, gender and endoscopic disease severity, and location. RESULTS: A total of 21 Crohn's disease and 20 ulcerative colitis patients with a median follow-up of 14 (1131) months were studied. Patients with elevated gap density were at significantly higher risk for hospitalization or surgery (log-rank test P=0.02). Gap density was a significant predictor for risk of major events, with a hazard ratio of 1.10 (95% confidence interval=1.01, 1.20) associated with each increase of 1% in gap density. Gap density was also correlated with IBD disease duration (Spearman's correlation coefficient rho=0.44, P=0.004), and was higher in male patients (9.0 vs. 3.6 gaps per 100 cells, P=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Increased epithelial gaps in the small intestine as determined by pCLE are a predictor for future hospitalization or surgery in IBD patients. PMID:23238291

  6. Psychological factors and DNA methylation of genes related to immune/inflammatory system markers: the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Kubzansky, Laura D; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although psychological factors have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), the underlying pathways for these associations have yet to be elucidated. DNA methylation has been posited as a mechanism linking psychological factors to CHD risk. In a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, we explored the associations between positive and negative psychological factors with DNA methylation in promoter regions of multiple genes involved in immune/inflammatory processes related to atherosclerosis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants Samples of 538 to 669 men participating in the Normative Aging Study cohort with psychological measures and DNA methylation measures, collected on 1–4 visits between 1999 and 2006 (mean age=72.7 years at first visit). Outcome measures We examined anxiety, depression, hostility and life satisfaction as predictors of leucocyte gene-specific DNA methylation. We estimated repeated measures linear mixed models, controlling for age, smoking, education, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes, % lymphocytes, % monocytes and plasma folate. Results Psychological distress measured by anxiety, depression and hostility was positively associated, and happiness and life satisfaction were inversely associated with average Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and coagulation factor III (F3) promoter methylation levels. There was some evidence that hostility was positively associated with toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) promoter methylation, and that life satisfaction was inversely associated with TLR-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter methylation. We observed less consistent and significant associations between psychological factors and average methylation for promoters of the genes for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Conclusions These findings suggest that positive and negative psychological factors affect DNA methylation of selected genes involved in chronic immune/inflammatory processes and inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction. Such epigenetic changes may represent biological pathways that mediate the effects of psychological factors on CHD. PMID:26733571

  7. Genome-wide Pathway Analysis Using Gene Expression Data of Colonic Mucosa in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Creanza, Teresa M.; Bossa, Fabrizio; Palumbo, Orazio; Maglietta, Rosalia; Ancona, Nicola; Corritore, Giuseppe; Latiano, Tiziana; Martino, Giuseppina; Biscaglia, Giuseppe; Scimeca, Daniela; De Petris, Michele P.; Carella, Massimo; Annese, Vito; Andriulli, Angelo; Latiano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) share some pathogenetic features. To provide new steps on the role of altered gene expression, and the involvement of gene networks, in the pathogenesis of these diseases, we performed a genome-wide analysis in 15 patients with CD and 14 patients with UC by comparing the RNA from inflamed and noninflamed colonic mucosa. Methods: Two hundred ninety-eight differentially expressed genes in CD and 520 genes in UC were identified. By bioinformatic analyses, 34 pathways for CD, 6 of them enriched in noninflamed and 28 in inflamed tissues, and 19 pathways for UC, 17 in noninflamed and 2 in inflamed tissues, were also highlighted. Results: In CD, the pathways included genes associated with cytokines and cytokine receptors connection, response to external stimuli, activation of cell proliferation or differentiation, cell migration, apoptosis, and immune regulation. In UC, the pathways were associated with genes related to metabolic and catabolic processes, biosynthesis and interconversion processes, leukocyte migration, regulation of cell proliferation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusions: In UC, the pattern of inflammation of colonic mucosa is due to a complex interaction network between host, gut microbiome, and diet, suggesting that bacterial products or endogenous synthetic/catabolic molecules contribute to impairment of the immune response, to breakdown of epithelial barrier, and to enhance the inflammatory process. In patients with CD, genes encoding a large variety of proteins, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules may lead to uncontrolled inflammation with ensuing destruction of epithelial cells, inappropriate stimulation of antimicrobial and T cells differentiation, and inflammasome events. PMID:25901971

  8. Gene Expression Profiling of Human Vaginal Cells In Vitro Discriminates Compounds with Pro-Inflammatory and Mucosa-Altering Properties: Novel Biomarkers for Preclinical Testing of HIV Microbicide Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Zalenskaya, Irina A.; Joseph, Theresa; Bavarva, Jasmin; Yousefieh, Nazita; Jackson, Suzanne S.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Settlage, Robert; Fichorova, Raina N.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation and immune activation of the cervicovaginal mucosa are considered factors that increase susceptibility to HIV infection. Therefore, it is essential to screen candidate anti-HIV microbicides for potential mucosal immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects prior to further clinical development. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro method for preclinical evaluation of the inflammatory potential of new candidate microbicides using a microarray gene expression profiling strategy. Methods To this end, we compared transcriptomes of human vaginal cells (Vk2/E6E7) treated with well-characterized pro-inflammatory (PIC) and non-inflammatory (NIC) compounds. PICs included compounds with different mechanisms of action. Gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data processing was performed using GeneSpring 11.5 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA). Results Microarraray comparative analysis allowed us to generate a panel of 20 genes that were consistently deregulated by PICs compared to NICs, thus distinguishing between these two groups. Functional analysis mapped 14 of these genes to immune and inflammatory responses. This was confirmed by the fact that PICs induced NFkB pathway activation in Vk2 cells. By testing microbicide candidates previously characterized in clinical trials we demonstrated that the selected PIC-associated genes properly identified compounds with mucosa-altering effects. The discriminatory power of these genes was further demonstrated after culturing vaginal cells with vaginal bacteria. Prevotella bivia, prevalent bacteria in the disturbed microbiota of bacterial vaginosis, induced strong upregulation of seven selected PIC-associated genes, while a commensal Lactobacillus gasseri associated to vaginal health did not cause any changes. Conclusions In vitro evaluation of the immunoinflammatory potential of microbicides using the PIC-associated genes defined in this study could help in the initial screening of candidates prior to entering clinical trials. Additional characterization of these genes can provide further insight into the cervicovaginal immunoinflammatory and mucosal-altering processes that facilitate or limit HIV transmission with implications for the design of prevention strategies. PMID:26052926

  9. Evaluation of the systemic acute phase response and endometrial gene expression of serum amyloid A and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in mares with experimentally induced endometritis.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mette; Mette, Christoffersen; Baagoe, Camilla Dooleweerdt; Camilla Dooleweerdt, Baagoe; Jacobsen, Stine; Stine, Jacobsen; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Anders Miki, Bojesen; Petersen, Morten Roenn; Morten Roenn, Petersen; Lehn-Jensen, Henrik; Henrik, Lehn-Jensen

    2010-11-15

    Infectious infertility in the mare is clinically well described, little is however known about the systemic acute phase reaction (APR) and local immunological responses accompanying equine endometritis. The aim of this study was to monitor selected markers of the APR in the systemic circulation and to correlate them to the local innate immune response in the uterus during infectious endometritis. Six adult standard bred mares received an intrauterine infusion of 10(9)CFU Escherichia coli. Blood samples were obtained before (0 h) and 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post inoculation (pi), and endometrial biopsies were sampled before, and 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h pi. The infectious endometritis elicited a systemic APR with significantly increased concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs) serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen. Relative gene expression analyses were performed on extracted RNA from endometrial biopsies using quantitative real-time PCR and specific primers for SAA and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Expression of SAA was significantly up-regulated at 3 and 12h pi, and a significant up-regulated expression of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8 and IL-10 was observed at 3h pi. Plasma concentration of SAA was significantly correlated to endometrial SAA expression. The results of the present study demonstrate that endometritis gives rise to a systemic APR and an up-regulated endometrial gene expression of SAA and several pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Understanding endometrial expression of acute phase proteins and selected cytokines contributing to uterine immunity in equine endometritis could improve understanding of events leading to infertility in the mare and help identify candidate genes of mediators/markers for diagnostic use. PMID:20728224

  10. Genetic Investigation of Complement Pathway Genes in Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy: An Inflammatory Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming Ming; Wang, Jun; Ren, Hong; Sun, Yun Duan; Fan, Jiao Jie; Teng, Yan; Li, Yan Bo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has complex multifactorial pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the association of complement pathway genes with susceptibility to DR. Eight haplotype-tagging SNPs of SERPING1 and C5 were genotyped in 570 subjects with type 2 diabetes: 295 DR patients (138 nonproliferative DR [NPDR] and 157 proliferative DR [PDR]) and 275 diabetic controls. Among the six C5 SNPs, a marginal association was first detected between rs17611 and total DR patients (P = 0.009, OR = 0.53 for recessive model). In stratification analysis, a significant decrease in the frequencies of G allele and GG homozygosity for rs17611 was observed in PDR patients compared with diabetic controls (Pcorr = 0.032, OR = 0.65 and Pcorr = 0.016, OR = 0.37, resp.); it was linked with a disease progression. A haplotype AA defined by the major alleles of rs17611 and rs1548782 was significantly predisposed to PDR with increased risk of 1.54 (Pcorr = 0.023). Regarding other variants in C5 and SERPING1, none of the tagging SNPs had a significant association with DR and its subgroups (all P > 0.05). Our study revealed an association between DR and C5 polymorphisms with clinical significance, whereas SERPING1 is not a major genetic component of DR. Our data suggest a link of complement pathway with DR pathogenesis. PMID:26989329

  11. Increased Drought Tolerance through the Suppression of ESKMO1 Gene and Overexpression of CBF-Related Genes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fuhui; Liu, Zhixue; Xie, Hongyan; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Juren; Kraus, Josef; Blaschnig, Tasja; Nehls, Reinhard; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Improved drought tolerance is always a highly desired trait for agricultural plants. Significantly increased drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia-0) has been achieved in our work through the suppression of ESKMO1 (ESK1) gene expression with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression of CBF genes with constitutive gene expression. ESK1 has been identified as a gene linked to normal development of the plant vascular system, which is assumed directly related to plant drought response. By using siRNA that specifically targets ESK1, the gene expression has been reduced and drought tolerance of the plant has been enhanced dramatically in the work. However, the plant response to external abscisic acid application has not been changed. ICE1, CBF1, and CBF3 are genes involved in a well-characterized plant stress response pathway, overexpression of them in the plant has demonstrated capable to increase drought tolerance. By overexpression of these genes combining together with suppression of ESK1 gene, the significant increase of plant drought tolerance has been achieved in comparison to single gene manipulation, although the effect is not in an additive way. Accompanying the increase of drought tolerance via suppression of ESK1 gene expression, the negative effect has been observed in seeds yield of transgenic plants in normal watering conditions comparing with wide type plant. PMID:25184213

  12. PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine gene interactions contribute to the susceptibility to leprosy: a casecontrol study of North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytokines and related molecules in immune-response pathways seem important in deciding the outcome of the hostpathogen interactions towards different polar forms in leprosy. We studied the role of significant and functionally important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, published independently from our research group, through combined interaction with an additional analysis of the in silico network outcome, to understand how these impact the susceptibility towards the disease, leprosy. Design The study was designed to assess an overall combined contribution of significantly associated individual SNPs to reflect on epistatic interactions and their outcome in the form of the disease, leprosy. Furthermore, in silico approach was adopted to carry out proteinprotein interaction study between PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Setting Population-based casecontrol study involved the data of North India. Proteinprotein interaction networks were constructed using cytoscape. Participants Study included the data available from 2305 Northern Indians samples (829 patients with leprosy; 1476 healthy controls), generated by our research group. Primary and secondary outcome measures For genotype interaction analysis, all possible genotype combinations between selected SNPs were used as an independent variable, using binary logistic regression with the forward likelihood ratio method, keeping the gender as a covariate. Results Interaction analysis between PARK2 and significant SNPs of anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory cytokine genes, including BAT1 to BTNL2-DR spanning the HLA (6p21.3) region in a casecontrol comparison, showed that the combined analysis of: (1) PARK2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), BTNL2-DR, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and TGFBR2 increased the risk towards leprosy (OR=2.54); (2) PARK2, BAT1, NFKBIL1, LTA, TNF-LTB, IL12B and IL10RB provided increased protection (OR=0.26) in comparison with their individual contribution. Conclusions Epistatic SNPSNP interactions involving PARK2 and cytokine genes provide an additive risk towards leprosy susceptibility. Furthermore, in silico proteinprotein interaction of PARK2 and important proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory molecules indicate that PARK2 is central to immune regulation, regulating the production of different cytokines on infection. PMID:24578538

  13. Increasing the Inflammatory Competence of Macrophages with IL-6 or with Combination of IL-4 and LPS Restrains the Invasiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salmiheimo, Aino N.E.; Mustonen, Harri K.; Vainionp, Sanna A.A.; Shen, Zhanlong; Kemppainen, Esko A.J.; Seppnen, Hanna E.; Puolakkainen, Pauli A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that pro-inflammatory type M1 macrophages inhibit tumor progression and that anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages enhance it. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of type M1 and M2 macrophages with pancreatic cancer cells. We studied the migration rate of fluorescein stained pancreatic cancer cells on Matrigel cultured alone or with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) differentiated macrophages or with Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) differentiated macrophages, skewing the phenotype towards pro- and anti-inflammatory direction, respectively. Macrophage differentiation was assessed with flow cytometry and the cytokine secretion in cell cultures with cytokine array. Both GM-CSF and M-CSF differentiated macrophages increased the migration rate of primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (MiaPaCa-2) and metastatic cell line (HPAF-II). Stimulation with IL6 or IL4+LPS reversed the macrophages' increasing effect on the migration rate of MiaPaCa-2 completely and partly of HPAF-II. Co-culture with MiaPaCa-2 reduced the inflammatory cytokine secretion of GM-CSF differentiated macrophages. Co-culture of macrophages with pancreatic cancer cells seem to change the inflammatory cytokine profile of GM-CSF differentiated macrophages and this might explain why also GM-CSF differentiated macrophages promoted the invasion. Adding IL6 or IL4+LPS to the cell culture with MiaPaCa-2 and GM-CSF or M-CSF differentiated macrophages increased the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and this could contribute to the reversion of the macrophage induced increase of cancer cell migration rate. PMID:26722359

  14. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Marín-Prida, Javier; Riva, Federica; Pentón-Arias, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy.

  15. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leon, Alberto J.; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S.H.; Farooqui, Amber; and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  16. Polymorphism in the Alpha Cardiac Muscle Actin 1 Gene Is Associated to Susceptibility to Chronic Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Amanda Farage; Teixeira, Priscila Camilo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Pissetti, Cristina Wide; Saba, Bruno; Wang, Lin Hui Tzu; Kuramoto, Andria; Nogueira, Luciana Gabriel; Buck, Paula; Dias, Fabrcio; Giniaux, Helene; Llored, Agnes; Alves, Sthefanny; Schmidt, Andre; Donadi, Eduardo; Marin-Neto, Jos Antonio; Hirata, Mario; Sampaio, Marcelo; Fragata, Ablio; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Stolf, Antonio Noedir; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inacio; Santos, Ronaldo Honorato Barros; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Chevillard, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Aims Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America, and may lead to a life-threatening inflammatory dilated, chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). One third of T. cruzi-infected individuals progress to CCC while the others remain asymptomatic (ASY). A possible genetic component to disease progression was suggested by familial aggregation of cases and the association of markers of innate and adaptive immunity genes with CCC development. Since mutations in multiple sarcomeric genes, including alpha-cardiac actin (ACTC1) have been involved in hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy, we investigated the involvement of the ACTC1 gene in CCC pathogenesis. Methods and Results We conducted a proteomic and genetic study on a Brazilian study population. The genetic study was done on a main cohort including 118 seropositive asymptomatic subjects and 315 cases and the replication was done on 36 asymptomatic and 102 CCC cases. ACTC1 protein and mRNA levels were lower in myocardial tissue from patients with end-stage CCC than those found in hearts from organ donors. Genotyping a case-control cohort of CCC and ASY subjects for all informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ACTC1 gene identified rs640249 SNP, located at the 5 region, as associated to CCC. Associations are borderline after correction for multiple testing. Correlation and haplotype analysis led to the identification of a susceptibility haplotype. Functional assays have shown that the rs640249A/C polymorphism affects the binding of transcriptional factors in the promoter regions of the ACTC1 gene. Confirmation of the detected association on a larger independent replication cohort will be useful. Conclusions Genetic variations at the ACTC1 gene may contribute to progression to chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy among T. cruzi-infected patients, possibly by modulating transcription factor binding to ACTC1 promoter regions. PMID:24367596

  17. Familial aggregation in inflammatory bowel disease: Is it genes or environment?

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Tiago; Fiorino, Gionata; Danese, Silvio; Sans, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develops in genetically susceptible individuals due to the influence of environmental factors, leading to an abnormal recognition of microbiota antigens by the innate immune system which triggers an exaggerated immune response and subsequent bowel tissue damage. IBD has been more frequently found in families, an observation that could be due to either genetic, environmental or both types of factors present in these families. In addition to expanding our knowledge on IBD pathogenesis, defining the specific contribution to familial IBD of each one of these factors might have also clinical usefulness. We review the available evidence on familial IBD pathogenesis. PMID:21734779

  18. ALK Gene Translocation in Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Kimiaki; Takai, Manabu; Kameyama, Koji; Horie, Kengo; Kikuchi, Mina; Kato, Taku; Mizutani, Kosuke; Seike, Kensaku; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Suzui, Natsuko; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with gross hematuria was seen in a previous hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a tumor at the dome of the urinary bladder with invasion outside of the bladder wall. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-BT). From the result of the pathological examination, the tumor was suggested to be carcinosarcoma of the bladder. The patient was then referred to our hospital for treatment. We performed radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. Pathological examination of the excised specimen revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor as the basis for immunostaining of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). PMID:26793530

  19. Familial aggregation in inflammatory bowel disease: is it genes or environment?

    PubMed

    Nunes, Tiago; Fiorino, Gionata; Danese, Silvio; Sans, Miquel

    2011-06-14

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develops in genetically susceptible individuals due to the influence of environmental factors, leading to an abnormal recognition of microbiota antigens by the innate immune system which triggers an exaggerated immune response and subsequent bowel tissue damage. IBD has been more frequently found in families, an observation that could be due to either genetic, environmental or both types of factors present in these families. In addition to expanding our knowledge on IBD pathogenesis, defining the specific contribution to familial IBD of each one of these factors might have also clinical usefulness. We review the available evidence on familial IBD pathogenesis. PMID:21734779

  20. NSAID-induced acute phase response is due to increased intestinal permeability and characterized by early and consistent alterations in hepatic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tugendreich, Stuart; Pearson, Cecelia I; Sagartz, John; Jarnagin, Kurt; Kolaja, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Toxicogenomics using a reference database can provide a better understanding and prediction of toxicity, largely by creating biomarkers that tie gene expression to actual pathology events. During the course of building a toxicogenomic database, an observation was made that a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAIDs) at supra-pharmacologic doses induced an acute phase response (APR) and displayed hepatic gene expression patterns similar to that of intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since NSAIDs are known to cause injury along the gastrointestinal tract, it has been suggested that NSAIDs increase intestinal permeability, allowing LPS and/or bacteria into the systemic circulation and stimulating an APR detectable in the liver. A short term study was subsequently conducted examining the effects of aspirin, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and rofecoxib to rats and a variety of endpoints were examined that included serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, histologic evaluation, and hepatic gene expression. Both indomethacin and ibuprofen injured the gastrointestinal tract, induced an APR, and increased serum levels of LPS, while rofecoxib and aspirin did not affect the GI tract or induce an APR. In treatments that eventually showed a systemic inflammatory response, hepatic expression of many inflammatory genes was noted as early as 6 hours after treatment well before alterations in traditional clinical pathology markers were detected. This finding led to the creation of a hepatic gene expression biomarker of APR that was effectively shown to be an early identifier of imminent inflammatory injury. In terms of the relative gastrointestinal safety and the NSAIDs studied, an important safety distinction can be made between the presumptive efficacious dose and the APR-inducing dose for indomethacin (1-2-fold), ibuprofen (5-fold), and rofecoxib (approximately 250-fold). Our data support the notion that NSAID-induced intestinal injury results in leakage of commensural bacteria and/or LPS into the circulation, provoking a systemic inflammatory response and that hepatic gene expression-based biomarkers can be used as early and sensitive biomarkers of APR onset. PMID:16642600

  1. Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in the female reproductive tract are associated with altered expression of proteases, mucosal barrier proteins, and an influx of HIV-susceptible target cells.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kelly B; Burgener, Adam; Birse, Kenzie; Romas, Laura; Dunphy, Laura J; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Abou, Max; Westmacott, Garrett R; McCorrister, Stuart; Kwatampora, Jessie; Nyanga, Billy; Kimani, Joshua; Masson, Lindi; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Kaul, Rupert; McKinnon, Lyle R

    2016-01-01

    Elevated inflammatory cytokines (EMCs) at mucosal surfaces have been associated with HIV susceptibility, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We characterized the soluble mucosal proteome associated with elevated cytokine expression in the female reproductive tract. A scoring system was devised based on the elevation (upper quartile) of at least three of seven inflammatory cytokines in cervicovaginal lavage. Using this score, HIV-uninfected Kenyan women were classified as either having EMC (n=28) or not (n=68). Of 455 proteins quantified in proteomic analyses, 53 were associated with EMC (5% false discovery rate threshold). EMCs were associated with proteases, cell motility, and actin cytoskeletal pathways, whereas protease inhibitor, epidermal cell differentiation, and cornified envelope pathways were decreased. Multivariate analysis identified an optimal signature of 16 proteins that distinguished the EMC group with 88% accuracy. Three proteins in this signature were neutrophil-associated proteases that correlated with many cytokines, especially GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), IL-1? (interleukin-1?), MIP-3? (macrophage inflammatory protein-3?), IL-17, and IL-8. Gene set enrichment analyses implicated activated immune cells; we verified experimentally that EMC women had an increased frequency of endocervical CD4(+) T cells. These data reveal strong linkages between mucosal cytokines, barrier function, proteases, and immune cell movement, and propose these as potential mechanisms that increase risk of HIV acquisition. PMID:26104913

  2. Age-related switch of bone mass in p47phox deficient mice through increased inflammatory milieu in bone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone remodeling is age-dependently regulated and changes dramatically during the course of development. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals, has been suggested to be the leading cause of many inflammatory and degener...

  3. Emerging role of long noncoding RNAs as regulators of innate immune cell development and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Elling, Roland; Chan, Jennie; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system represents the first line of defense during infection and is initiated by the detection of conserved microbial products by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Sensing through PRRs induces broad transcriptional changes that elicit powerful inflammatory responses. Tight regulation of these processes depends on multiple regulatory checkpoints, including noncoding RNA species such as microRNAs. In addition, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently gained attention as important regulators of gene expression acting through versatile interactions with DNA, RNA, or proteins. As such, these RNAs have a multitude of mechanisms to modulate gene expression. Here, we summarize recent advances in this rapidly moving and evolving field. We highlight the contribution of lncRNAs to both the development and activation of innate immune cells, whether it is in the nucleus, where lncRNAs alter the transcription of target genes through interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complexes or heterogenous ribonucleoprotein complexes, or in the cytosol where they can control the stability of target mRNAs. In addition, we discuss experimental approaches required to comprehensively investigate the function of a candidate noncoding RNA locus, including loss-of-function approaches encompassing genomic deletions, RNA interference, locked nucleic acids, and various adaptions of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. PMID:26820238

  4. Variation in Human Genes Encoding Adhesion and Pro-inflammatory Molecules are Associated with Severe Malaria in the Vietnamese

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Sarah J; Rockett, Kirk A; Ngoc Quyen, Nguyen Thi; Teo, Yik Y; Thai, Cao Quang; Hang, Nguyen Thuy; Jeffreys, Anna; Clark, Taane G; Small, Kerrin S; Simmons, Cameron P; Day, Nicholas; ORiordan, Sean E; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Farrar, Jeremy; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis for susceptibility to malaria has been studied widely in African populations but less is known of the contribution of specific genetic variants in Asian populations. We genotyped 67 SNPs in 1030 severe malaria cases and 2840 controls from Vietnam. After data quality control, genotyping data of 956 cases and 2350 controls were analysed for 65 SNPs (3 gender confirmation, 62 positioned in/near 42 malarial candidate genes). 14 SNPs were monomorphic and 2 (rs8078340 and rs33950507) were not in HWE in controls (P<0.01). 7/46 SNPs in 6 genes (ICAM1, IL1A, IL17RC, IL13, LTA and TNF) were associated with severe malaria, with 3/7 SNPs in the TNFA/LTA region . Genotype phenotype correlations between SNPs and clinical parameters revealed that genotypes of rs708567 (IL17RC) correlate with parasitemia (P=0.028, r2=0.0086), with GG homozygotes having the lowest parasite burden. Additionally, rs708567 GG homozygotes had a decreased risk of severe malaria [P=0.007, OR=0.78 (95% CI; 0.65-0.93)] and death [P=0.028, OR=0.58 (95% CI; 0.37-0.93)] than those with AA and AG genotypes. In summary, variants in 6 genes encoding adhesion and pro-inflammatory molecules are associated with severe malaria in the Vietnamese. Further replicative studies in independent populations will be necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:22673309

  5. Effect of intense THz pulses on expression of genes associated with skin cancer and inflammatory skin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Ayesheshim, Ayesheshim K.; Purschke, David; Golubov, Andrey; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Woycicki, Rafal; Hegmann, Frank A.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-03-01

    The growing experimental evidence suggests that broadband, picosecond-duration THz pulses may influence biological systems and functions. While the mechanisms by which THz pulse-induced biological effects are not yet known, experiments using in vitro cell cultures, tissue models, as well as recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that THz pulses can elicit cellular and molecular changes in exposed cells and tissues in the absence of thermal effects. Recently, we demonstrated that intense, picosecond THz pulses induce phosphorylation of H2AX, indicative of DNA damage, and at the same time activate DNA damage response in human skin tissues. We also find that intense THz pulses have a profound impact on global gene expression in human skin. Many of the affected genes have important functions in epidermal differentiation and have been implicated in skin cancer and inflammatory skin conditions. The observed THzinduced changes in expression of these genes are in many cases opposite to disease-related changes, suggesting possible therapeutic applications of intense THz pulses.

  6. The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes NOD1 and NOD2 have conserved anti-bacterial roles in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Oehlers, Stefan H; Flores, Maria Vega; Hall, Chris J; Swift, Simon; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the form of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), is a debilitating chronic immune disorder of the intestine. A complex etiology resulting from dysfunctional interactions between the intestinal immune system and its microflora, influenced by host genetic susceptibility, makes disease modeling challenging. Mutations in NOD2 have the highest disease-specific risk association for CD, and a related gene, NOD1, is associated with UC. NOD1 and NOD2 encode intracellular bacterial sensor proteins acting as innate immune triggers, and represent promising therapeutic targets. The zebrafish has the potential to aid in modeling genetic and environmental aspects of IBD pathogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of the Nod signaling components in the zebrafish larval intestine. The nod1 and nod2 genes are expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and neutrophils together with the Nod signaling pathway genes ripk2, a20, aamp, cd147, centaurin b1, erbin and grim-19. Using a zebrafish embryo Salmonella infection model, morpholino-mediated depletion of Nod1 or Nod2 reduced the ability of embryos to control systemic infection. Depletion of Nod1 or Nod2 decreased expression of dual oxidase in the intestinal epithelium and impaired the ability of larvae to reduce intracellular bacterial burden. This work highlights the potential use of zebrafish larvae in the study of components of IBD pathogenesis. PMID:21729873

  7. Systemic Sclerosis is a Complex Disease Associated Mainly with Immune Regulatory and Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingxiao; Chou, Chou; Lima, Maria; Zhou, Danielle; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic and autoimmune disease characterized clinically by skin and internal organ fibrosis and vascular damage, and serologically by the presence of circulating autoantibodies. Although etiopathogenesis is not yet well understood, the results of numerous genetic association studies support genetic contributions as an important factor to SSc. In this paper, the major genes of SSc are reviewed. The most recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are taken into account along with robust candidate gene studies. The literature search was performed on genetic association studies of SSc in PubMed between January 2000 and March 2014 while eligible studies generally had over 600 total participants with replication. A few genetic association studies with related functional changes in SSc patients were also included. A total of forty seven genes or specific genetic regions were reported to be associated with SSc, although some are controversial. These genes include HLA genes, STAT4, CD247, TBX21, PTPN22, TNFSF4, IL23R, IL2RA, IL-21, SCHIP1/IL12A, CD226, BANK1, C8orf13-BLK, PLD4, TLR-2, NLRP1, ATG5, IRF5, IRF8, TNFAIP3, IRAK1, NFKB1, TNIP1, FAS, MIF, HGF, OPN, IL-6, CXCL8, CCR6, CTGF, ITGAM, CAV1, MECP2, SOX5, JAZF1, DNASEIL3, XRCC1, XRCC4, PXK, CSK, GRB10, NOTCH4, RHOB, KIAA0319, PSD3 and PSOR1C1. These genes encode proteins mainly involved in immune regulation and inflammation, and some of them function in transcription, kinase activity, DNA cleavage and repair. The discovery of various SSc-associated genes is important in understanding the genetics of SSc and potential pathogenesis that contribute to the development of this disease. PMID:25328554

  8. Intestinal Protease-Activated Receptor-2 and Fecal Serine Protease Activity are Increased in Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease and May Contribute to Intestinal Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, Shingo; OHNO, Koichi; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; IGARASHI, Hirotaka; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; FUJINO, Yasuhito; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serine proteases elicit cellular responses via protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) which is known to regulate inflammation and the immune response. Although the gastrointestinal tract is exposed to large amounts of proteolytic enzymes, the role of PAR-2 in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PAR-2 activation on inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in canine intestine and the expression of intestinal PAR-2 and fecal serine protease activity in dogs with IBD. Duodenal biopsies from healthy dogs were cultured and treated ex vivo with trypsin or PAR-2 agonist peptide, and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the tissues was then quantified by real-time PCR. PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the duodenal mucosa were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Fecal serine protease activity was determined by azocasein assay. In ex vivo-cultured duodenum, trypsin and PAR-2 agonist peptide induced significant up-regulation of mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1?), IL-8, mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC) and fractalkine, and this up-regulation was inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor. Duodenal PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in dogs with IBD than in healthy control dogs. Fecal serine protease activity was significantly elevated in dogs with IBD, and the level of activity correlated positively with the clinical severity score. These results suggest that PAR-2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of canine IBD by inducing expression of inflammatory mediators in response to luminal serine proteases. PMID:24829081

  9. Intestinal protease-activated receptor-2 and fecal serine protease activity are increased in canine inflammatory bowel disease and may contribute to intestinal cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Hirotaka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2014-08-01

    Serine proteases elicit cellular responses via protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) which is known to regulate inflammation and the immune response. Although the gastrointestinal tract is exposed to large amounts of proteolytic enzymes, the role of PAR-2 in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PAR-2 activation on inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in canine intestine and the expression of intestinal PAR-2 and fecal serine protease activity in dogs with IBD. Duodenal biopsies from healthy dogs were cultured and treated ex vivo with trypsin or PAR-2 agonist peptide, and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the tissues was then quantified by real-time PCR. PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the duodenal mucosa were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Fecal serine protease activity was determined by azocasein assay. In ex vivo-cultured duodenum, trypsin and PAR-2 agonist peptide induced significant up-regulation of mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1?), IL-8, mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC) and fractalkine, and this up-regulation was inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor. Duodenal PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in dogs with IBD than in healthy control dogs. Fecal serine protease activity was significantly elevated in dogs with IBD, and the level of activity correlated positively with the clinical severity score. These results suggest that PAR-2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of canine IBD by inducing expression of inflammatory mediators in response to luminal serine proteases. PMID:24829081

  10. Increased leucocyte adhesiveness/aggregation is a most useful indicator of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Arber, N; Berliner, S; Hallak, A; Bujanover, Y; Dotan, I; Liberman, E; Santo, M; Moshkowitz, M; Ratan, J; Dotan, G

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers, in evaluating disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Disease activity was assessed by the Mayo Clinic score for ulcerative colitis, and Harvey-Bradshaw score for Crohn's disease. Five hundred normal blood donors who had no underlying inflammatory condition served as controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet and white blood cell count, C reactive protein, and the leucocyte adhesiveness/aggregation test (LAAT) were determined in each patient. One hundred and twenty four patients with inflammatory bowel disease were tested while in remission and 128 in relapse. Their mean (SD) per cent of aggregated white blood cells in the peripheral blood was 8 (5) and 17 (10) respectively compared with controls 6 (4) (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the LAAT could effectively discriminate between various grades of disease activity, the values in patients with active disease being 13 (6)% in mild, 17 (10)% in moderate, and 26 (10)% in severe disease (p < 0.0001). Other acute phase reactants including the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the white blood cell count, the platelet count, neutrophil count, as well as, the C reactive protein concentration did not differentiate as well between the various groups. Using logistic regression analysis to differentiate between inflammatory bowel disease patients in remission or relapse, the LAAT was the single best indicator. The addition of any other test did not contribute to the discrimination. Among the different laboratory variables tested only the LAAT significantly discriminated between the five different subgroups of controls, remission and mild, moderate or severe disease activity. Images p77-a PMID:7672686

  11. A Splice Site Variant in the Bovine RNF11 Gene Compromises Growth and Regulation of the Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Druet, Tom; Michaux, Charles; Fasquelle, Corinne; Géron, Sarah; Tamma, Nico; Zhang, Zhiyan; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2012-01-01

    We report association mapping of a locus on bovine chromosome 3 that underlies a Mendelian form of stunted growth in Belgian Blue Cattle (BBC). By resequencing positional candidates, we identify the causative c124-2A>G splice variant in intron 1 of the RNF11 gene, for which all affected animals are homozygous. We make the remarkable observation that 26% of healthy Belgian Blue animals carry the corresponding variant. We demonstrate in a prospective study design that approximately one third of homozygous mutants die prematurely with major inflammatory lesions, hence explaining the rarity of growth-stunted animals despite the high frequency of carriers. We provide preliminary evidence that heterozygous advantage for an as of yet unidentified phenotype may have caused a selective sweep accounting for the high frequency of the RNF11 c124-2A>G mutation in Belgian Blue Cattle. PMID:22438830

  12. Regulation of inflammatory and lipid metabolism genes by eicosapentaenoic acid-rich oil[S

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Peter J.; Bhatia, Sujata K.; Belcher, Leigh A; Hannon, Daniel B.; Thompson, Jerry T.; Vanden Heuvel, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3-PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with prevention of various aspects of metabolic syndrome. In the present studies, the effects of oil rich in EPA on gene expression and activation of nuclear receptors was examined and compared with other ω3-PUFAs. The EPA-rich oil (EO) altered the expression of FA metabolism genes in THP-1 cells, including stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) and FA desaturase-1 and -2 (FASDS1 and -2). Other ω3-PUFAs resulted in a similar gene expression response for a subset of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation. In reporter assays, EO activated human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARβ/γ with minimal effects on PPARγ, liver X receptor, retinoid X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and retinoid acid receptor γ (RARγ); these effects were similar to that observed for purified EPA. When serum from a 6 week clinical intervention with dietary supplements containing olive oil (control), DHA, or two levels of EPA were applied to THP-1 cells, the expression of SCD and FADS2 decreased in the cells treated with serum from the ω3-PUFA-supplemented individuals. Taken together, these studies indicate regulation of gene expression by EO that is consistent with treating aspects of dyslipidemia and inflammation. PMID:22556214

  13. From Genes to Mechanisms: The Expanding Spectrum of Monogenic Disorders Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Holm H; Schwerd, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Inborn errors of the intestinal epithelial barrier function as well as the innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses toward the intestinal microbiota are a group of genetic disorders that confer susceptibility to monogenic and syndromal forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is a continuous spectrum of genetic susceptibility from monogenic causative variants with complete Mendelian inheritance, over NOD2 variants with moderate penetrance to minute penetrance in most common susceptibility variants predisposing to conventional polygenic IBD. We discuss advances to understand monogenic IBD and review recently identified genetic defects. We describe an integrative model for genetic susceptibility variants of conventional IBD and monogenic IBD-like intestinal inflammation in the context of microbial commensal colonization and infection susceptibility. PMID:26512716

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) locus 12: is glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) the relevant gene?

    PubMed

    Huser, F; Rossmann, H; Laubert-Reh, D; Wild, P S; Zeller, T; Mller, C; Neuwirth, S; Blankenberg, S; Lackner, K J

    2015-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified and repeatedly confirmed the association of rs3197999 in MST1 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. rs3197999 is a non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism which modifies the function of macrophage stimulating protein-1 (MST1). We show by haplotyping that rs3197999 is in linkage disequilibrium with rs1050450 in GPX1, with almost complete cosegregation of the minor alleles. As shown by immunoassay, rs3197999 influences the MST-1 level in serum. But also rs1050450 causes an amino acid exchange in glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) and reduced activity of this antioxidant enzyme. The association of GPx deficiency and IBD in mice was already shown. We propose that GPx-1 is a better candidate than MST1 for the pathophysiologic link between IBD locus 12 and IBD. PMID:26355565

  15. DNA methylation-mediated silencing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1/GDF15) in glioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Mitsutoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Kamitani, Hideki; Watanabe, Takashi; Wade, Paul A.; Eling, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene, NAG-1, a transforming growth factor-β member, is involved in tumor progression and development. The association between NAG-1 expression and development and progression of glioma has not been well defined. Glioblastoma cell lines have lower basal expression of NAG-1 than other gliomas and normal astrocytes. Most primary human gliomas have very low levels of NAG-1 expression. NAG-1 basal expression appeared to inversely correlate with tumor grade in glioma. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism for silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. In glioblastoma cell lines, NAG-1 expression was increased by the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine. To investigate whether the NAG-1 gene was silenced by hypermethylation in glioblastoma, we examined DNA methylation status using genomic bisulfite sequencing. The NAG-1 promoter was densely methylated in several glioblastoma cell lines as well as in primary oligodendroglioma tumor samples, which have low basal expression of NAG-1. DNA methylation at two specific sites (−53 and +55 CpG sites) in the NAG-1 promoter was strongly associated with low NAG-1 expression. The methylation of the NAG-1 promoter at the −53 site blocks Egr-1 binding and thereby suppresses Nag-1 induction. Treatment of cells with low basal NAG-1 expression with NAG-1 inducer also did not increase NAG-1. Incubation with a demethylation chemical increased Nag-1 basal expression and subsequent incubation with a NAG-1 inducer increased NAG-1 expression. We concluded from these data that methylation of specific promoter sequences causes transcriptional silencing of the NAG-1 locus in glioma and may ultimately contribute to tumor progression. PMID:21437897

  16. [Hypercoagulable state is associated with NF-kappa B activation and increased inflammatory factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingheng; Liu, Jian; Tan, Bing; Zhu, Fubing; Fang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of hypercoagulable state based on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Thirty-five RA patients were enrolled as well as 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, IL-4, IL-17, NF-κB activator 1 (Act1), p50, p65, IκBα, platelet activating factor (PAF), PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) were detected using ELISA. The number of platelet (PLT) was detected using Sysmex XT-2000i automated hematology analyzer. The levels of D-dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FBG), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were detected using Sysmex CA-1500 automatic coagulation analyzer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was detected using Westergren method. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor (RF) were detected using Hitachi 7060 automatic biochemical analyzer. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of Act1, p65, p50, IκBα and IκB kinase α (IKKα) were detected using semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The expressions of p65, p50 and IκBα proteins were examined using Western blotting. The correlations of the above indexes were analyzed by Spearman correlation test. Results Compared with the normal group, the levels of DD, FBG, PLT significantly increased in the peripheral blood of RA patients, TT decreased, while APTT and PT were not significantly changed. IL-4, IL-10 and PAF-AH were significantly reduced in the sera of RA patients, while IL-6, IL-17, Act1, p50, p65, IκBα, IKKα and PAF were significantly elevated. Spearman correlation analysis showed that coagulant and fibrinolytic indexes were significantly correlated with cytokines, NF-κB, activity indexes and clinical symptoms and signs. Conclusion The hypercoagulable state is common in the peripheral blood of RA patients, and it is closely related to inflammatory factors, activity indexes and abnormal activation of NF-κB. PMID:26927557

  17. Activated immune-inflammatory pathways are associated with long-standing depressive symptoms: Evidence from gene-set enrichment analyses in the Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Taipale, Tuukka; Seppl, Ilkka; Mononen, Nina; Raitoharju, Emma; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Rback, Laura; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsa, Taina; Kivimki, Mika; Khnen, Mika; Keltikangas-Jrvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimki, Terho

    2015-12-01

    We used genome wide expression (GWE) data of circulating blood cells and pathway analysis to investigate the inflammatory and other molecular pathways that may be associated with long-standing depressive symptoms. Participants were 607 women and 316 men (mean age 42 years) from the Young Finns Study who participated in three consecutive study phases in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Using Gene-set enrichment analyses (GSEA) we focused our analyses to pathways (available in MSigDB database) that are likely to affect immunological and inflammatory processes. GSEA were performed for blood cell GWE data in 2012. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a modified 21-item Beck Depression Inventory in each of the three study phases. Participants who scored in the top quartile of depressive symptoms in each of the three measurement points (n=191) differed from other participants (n=732) in several gene-set pathways related to inflammatory processes or immune-inflammatory signaling including interleukin (IL-1) pathway, and pathways related to various immuno-inflammatory processes, such as toll-like, the NEF protein, the nuclear factor kB, the kinase AKT and the mature B cell antigen receptor pathway (false discovery rates, FDRs<0.12). The results provide novel genome wide molecular evidence that support the association between chronic depressive symptoms and altered immune-inflammatory regulation. PMID:26473696

  18. Roles for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase, DUSP1, in feedback control of inflammatory gene expression and repression by dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Shah, Suharsh; King, Elizabeth M; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Newton, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids act on the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) to repress inflammatory gene expression. This is central to their anti-inflammatory effectiveness and rational improvements in therapeutic index depend on understanding the mechanism. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells were used to study the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), in the dexamethasone repression of 11 inflammatory genes induced, in a MAPK-dependent manner, by interleukin-1? (IL1B). Adenoviral over-expression of DUSP1 inactivated MAPK pathways and reduced expression of all 11 inflammatory genes. IL1B rapidly induced DUSP1 expression and RNA silencing revealed a transient role in feedback inhibition of MAPKs and inflammatory gene expression. With dexamethasone, which induced DUSP1 expression, plus IL1B (co-treatment), DUSP1 expression was further enhanced. At 1 h, this was responsible for the dexamethasone inhibition of IL1B-induced MAPK activation and CXCL1 and CXCL2 mRNA expression, with a similar trend for CSF2. Whereas, CCL20 mRNA was not repressed by dexamethasone at 1 h, repression of CCL2, CXCL3, IL6, and IL8 was unaffected, and PTGS2 repression was partially affected by DUSP1 knockdown. At later times, dexamethasone repression of MAPKs was unaffected by DUSP1 silencing. Likewise, 6 h post-IL1B, dexamethasone repression of all 11 mRNAs was essentially unaffected by DUSP1 knockdown. Qualitatively similar data were obtained for CSF2, CXCL1, IL6, and IL8 release. Thus, despite general roles in feedback inhibition, DUSP1 plays a transient, often partial, role in the dexamethasone-dependent repression of certain inflammatory genes. Therefore this also illustrates key roles for DUSP1-independent effectors in mediating glucocorticoid-dependent repression. PMID:24692548

  19. Dual TNF-?/Cyclin D1 Gene Silencing With an Oral Polymeric Microparticle System as a Novel Strategy for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Christina; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: RNA silencing utilizing short interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a new and exciting means to overcome the limitations of current treatment options of many diseases. However, delivery of these molecules still poses a great challenge to date. METHODS: In the present study, a multicompartmental biodegradable polymer-based nanoparticles-in-microsphere oral system (NiMOS) using gelatin nanoparticles encapsulating a combination of siRNA duplexes specifically targeted against tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) was employed to study its effects on a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis mouse model mimicking inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DSS colitis-bearing animals were divided into several control and treatment groups and received either no treatment, blank NiMOS, NiMOS-encapsulating inactive (scrambled), active TNF-? silencing, CyD1 silencing siRNA, or a combination of both active siRNAs by repeated oral administration of three NiMOS doses. RESULTS: Successful gene silencing with the aid of dual siRNA treatment led to decreased colonic levels of TNF-? or CyD1, suppressed expression of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1? and -?, interferon-?), an increase in body weight, and reduced tissue myeloperoxidase activity, while the silencing effect of CyD1 siRNA or the dual treatment was more potent than that of TNF-? siRNA alone. CONCLUSION: Results of this study demonstrate the therapeutic potential of a NiMOS-based oral combined TNF-? and CyD1 gene silencing system for the treatment of IBD as shown in an acute colitis model. PMID:23237848

  20. GLP-1 secretion is increased by inflammatory stimuli in an IL-6-dependent manner, leading to hyperinsulinemia and blood glucose lowering.

    PubMed

    Kahles, Florian; Meyer, Christina; Möllmann, Julia; Diebold, Sebastian; Findeisen, Hannes M; Lebherz, Corinna; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Tacke, Frank; Marx, Nikolaus; Lehrke, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are both predictors for adverse outcome in critically ill patients. Hyperinsulinemia is induced by inflammatory stimuli as a relevant mechanism for glucose lowering in the critically ill. The incretine hormone GLP-1 was currently found to be induced by endotoxin, leading to insulin secretion and glucose lowering under inflammatory conditions in mice. Here, we describe GLP-1 secretion to be increased by a variety of inflammatory stimuli, including endotoxin, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. Although abrogation of IL-1 signaling proved insufficient to prevent endotoxin-dependent GLP-1 induction, this was abolished in the absence of IL-6 in respective knockout animals. Hence, we found endotoxin-dependent GLP-1 secretion to be mediated by an inflammatory cascade, with IL-6 being necessary and sufficient for GLP-1 induction. Functionally, augmentation of the GLP-1 system by pharmacological inhibition of DPP-4 caused hyperinsulinemia, suppression of glucagon release, and glucose lowering under endotoxic conditions, whereas inhibition of the GLP-1 receptor led to the opposite effect. Furthermore, total GLP-1 plasma levels were profoundly increased in 155 critically ill patients presenting to the intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison with 134 healthy control subjects. In the ICU cohort, GLP-1 plasma levels correlated with markers of inflammation and disease severity. Consequently, GLP-1 provides a novel link between the immune system and the gut with strong relevance for metabolic regulation in context of inflammation. PMID:24947356

  1. Absence of IFNγ Increases Brain Pathology in EAE-susceptible DRB1*0301.DQ8 HLA Transgenic Mice Through Secretion of Pro-inflammatory Cytokine IL-17 and Induction of Pathogenic Monocytes/Microglia into the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Mangalam, Ashutosh; Luo, Ningling; Luckey, David; Papke, Louisa; Hubbard, Alyssa; Wussow, Arika; Smart, Michele; Giri, Shailendra; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of presumed autoimmune origin. Of all the genetic factors linked with MS, MHC class-II molecules have the strongest association. Generation of HLA class-II transgenic mice has helped to elucidate the role of HLA class-II genes in chronic inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. We have shown that the human HLA-DRB1*0301 gene predisposes to proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced EAE, whereas HLA-DQβ1*0601 (DQ6) was resistant. We also showed that the DQ6 molecule protects from EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ6 double transgenic mice by producing anti-inflammatory interferon gamma (IFNγ). HLA-DQβ1*0302 (DQ8) transgenic mice were also resistant to PLP91-110-induced EAE, but production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 exacerbated disease in DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. To further confirm the role of IFNγ in protection, we generated DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice lacking IFNγ (DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFNγ−/−). Immunization with PLP91-110 peptide caused atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFNγ−/− mice characterized by ataxia, spasticity and dystonia, hallmarks of brain-specific disease. Severe brain specific inflammation and demyelination in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFNγ−/− mice with minimal spinal cord pathology further confirmed brain-specific pathology. Atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFNγ−/− mice was associated with increased encephalitogenicity of CD4 T cells and their ability to produce higher levels of IL-17 and GM-CSF compared to DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. Further, areas with demyelination showed increased presence of CD68+ inflammatory cells, suggesting an important role for monocytes/microglia in causing brain pathology. Thus, our study supports a protective role for IFNγ in the demyelination of brain through down regulation of IL-17/GM-CSF and induction of neuro-protective factors in the brain by monocytes/microglial cells. PMID:25339670

  2. The effect of allopurinol administration on mitochondrial respiration and gene expression of xanthine oxidoreductase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inflammatory cytokines in selected tissues of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Settle, T; Falkenstein, E; Klandorf, H

    2015-10-01

    Birds have a remarkable longevity for their body size despite an increased body temperature, higher metabolic rate, and increased blood glucose concentrations compared to most mammals. As the end-product of purine degradation, uric acid (UA) is generated in the xanthine/hypoxanthine reactions catalyzed by xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). In the first study, Cobb × Cobb broilers (n = 12; 4 weeks old) were separated into 2 treatments (n = 6); control (CON) and allopurinol (AL) 35 mg/kg BW (ALLO). The purpose of this study was to assess mitochondrial function in broiler chickens in response to potential oxidative stress generated from the administration of AL for 1 wk. There was a significant reduction in state 3 respiration (P = 0.01) and state 4 respiration (P = 0.007) in AL-treated birds compared to the controls. The purpose of the second study was to assess the effect of AL on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN)-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p35, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and XOR in liver tissue. Cobb × Cobb broilers were separated into two groups at 4 wk age (n = 10); CON and ALLO. After 1 wk AL treatment, half of the birds in each group (CON 1 and ALLO 1) were euthanized while the remaining birds continued on AL treatment for an additional week (CON 2 and ALLO 2). A significant increase in gene expression of XOR, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-12p35 in ALLO 2 birds as compared to birds in CON 2 was detected. Liver UA content was significantly decreased in both ALLO 1(P = 0.003) and ALLO 2 (P = 0.012) birds when compared to CON 1 and CON 2, respectively. The AL reduced liver UA concentrations and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Additional studies are needed to determine if AL causes a direct effect on mitochondria or if mitochondrial dysfunction observed in liver mitochondria was due indirectly through increased oxidative stress or increased inflammation. PMID:26316336

  3. Application of increased temperature from an exogenous source to enhance gene electrotransfer.

    PubMed

    Donate, Amy; Burcus, Niculina; Schoenbach, Karl; Heller, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The presence of increased temperature for gene electrotransfer has largely been considered negative. Many reports have published on the lack of heat from electrotransfer conditions to demonstrate that their effects are from the electrical pulses and not from a rise in temperature. Our hypothesis was to use low levels of maintained heat from an exogenous source to aid in gene electrotransfer. The goal was to increase gene expression and/or reduce electric field. In our study we evaluated high and low electric field conditions from 90 V to 45 V which had been preheated to 40 °C, 43 °C, or 45 °C. Control groups of non-heated as well as DNA only were included for comparison in all experiments. Luciferase gene expression, viability, and percent cell distribution were measured. Our results indicated a 2-4 fold increase in gene expression that is temperature and field dependent. In addition levels of gene expression can be increased without significant decreases in cell death and in the case of high electric fields no additional cell death. Finally, in all conditions percent cell distribution was increased from the application of heat. From these results, we conclude that various methods may be employed depending on the end user's desired goals. Electric field can be reduced 20-30% while maintaining or slightly increasing gene expression and increasing viability or overall gene expression and percent cell distribution can be increased with low viability. PMID:25193443

  4. Profile of Steroid Receptors and Increased Aromatase Immunoexpression in Canine Inflammatory Mammary Cancer as a Potential Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    De Andrés, P J; Cáceres, S; Clemente, M; Pérez-Alenza, M D; Illera, J C; Peña, L

    2016-04-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) has been proposed as a model for the study of human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The aims of this study were to compare the immunohistochemical expression of aromatase (Arom) and several hormone receptors [estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR)], in 21 IMC cases vs 19 non-IMC; and to study the possible effect of letrozole on canine IMC and human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) in vitro using IPC-366 and SUM-149 cell lines. Significant elevations of the means of Arom Total Score (TS), ERβ TS and PR TS were found in the IMC group (p = 0.025, p = 0.038 and p = 0.037, respectively). Secondary IMC tumours expressed higher levels of Arom than primary IMC (p = 0.029). Non-IMC PR- tumours contained higher levels of Arom than non-IMC PR+ tumours (p = 0.007). After the addition of letrozole, the number of IMC and IBC cells dropped drastically. The overexpression of Arom found and the results obtained in vitro further support canine IMC as a model for the study of IBC and future approaches to the treatment of dogs with mammary cancer, and especially IMC, using Arom inhibitors. PMID:26899138

  5. The stretch responsive microRNA miR-148a-3p is a novel repressor of IKBKB, NF-?B signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in human aortic valve cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vishal; Carrion, Katrina; Hollands, Andrew; Hinton, Andrew; Gallegos, Thomas; Dyo, Jeffrey; Sasik, Roman; Leire, Emma; Hardiman, Gary; Mohamed, Salah A.; Nigam, Sanjay; King, Charles C.; Nizet, Victor; Nigam, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valves calcify at a significantly higher rate than normal aortic valves, a process that involves increased inflammation. Because we have previously found that bicuspid aortic valve experience greater stretch, we investigated the potential connection between stretch and inflammation in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Microarray, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and protein assays performed on AVICs exposed to cyclic stretch showed that stretch was sufficient to increase expression of interleukin and metalloproteinase family members by more than 1.5-fold. Conditioned medium from stretched AVICs was sufficient to activate leukocytes. microRNA sequencing and qPCR experiments demonstrated that miR-148a-3p was repressed in both stretched AVICs (43% repression) and, as a clinical correlate, human bicuspid aortic valves (63% reduction). miR-148a-3p was found to be a novel repressor of IKBKB based on data from qPCR, luciferase, and Western blot experiments. Furthermore, increasing miR-148a-3p levels in AVICs was sufficient to decrease NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) signaling and NF-?B target gene expression. Our data demonstrate that stretch-mediated activation of inflammatory pathways is at least partly the result of stretch-repression of miR-148a-3p and a consequent failure to repress IKBKB. To our knowledge, we are the first to report that cyclic stretch of human AVICs activates inflammatory genes in a tissue-autonomous manner via a microRNA that regulates a central inflammatory pathway.Patel, V., Carrion, K., Hollands, A., Hinton, A., Gallegos, T., Dyo, J., Sasik, R., Leire, E., Hardiman, G., Mohamed, S. A., Nigam, S., King, C. C., Nizet, V., Nigam V. The stretch responsive microRNA miR-148a-3p is a novel repressor of IKBKB, NF-?B signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in human aortic valve cells. PMID:25630970

  6. Colonic mucosa-associated diffusely adherent afaC+ Escherichia coli expressing lpfA and pks are increased in inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prorok-Hamon, Maelle; Friswell, Melissa K; Alswied, Abdullah; Roberts, Carol L; Song, Fei; Flanagan, Paul K; Knight, Paul; Codling, Caroline; Marchesi, Julian R; Winstanley, Craig; Hall, Neil; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Colonic mucosa-associated Escherichia coli are increased in Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). They variously haemagglutinate, invade epithelial cell lines, replicate within macrophages, translocate across M (microfold) cells and damage DNA. We investigated genes responsible for these effects and their co-association in colonic mucosal isolates. Design A fosmid library yielding 968 clones was prepared in E coli EPI300-T1 using DNA from a haemagglutinating CRC isolate, and resulting haemagglutinating clones were 454-pyrosequenced. PCR screening was performed on 281 colonic E coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (35 patients), CRC (21) and controls (24; sporadic polyps or irritable bowel syndrome). Results 454-Pyrosequencing of fosmids from the haemagglutinating clones (n=8) identified the afimbrial adhesin afa-1 operon. Transfection of afa-1 into E coli K-12 predictably conferred diffuse adherence plus invasion of HEp-2 and I-407 epithelial cells, and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. E coli expressing afaC were common in CRC (14/21, p=0.0009) and CD (9/14, p=0.005) but not ulcerative colitis (UC; 8/21) compared with controls (4/24). E coli expressing both afaC and lpfA (relevant to M-cell translocation) were common in CD (8/14, p=0.0019) and CRC (14/21, p=0.0001), but not UC (6/21) compared with controls (2/24). E coli expressing both afaC and pks (genotoxic) were common in CRC (11/21, p=0.0015) and UC (8/21, p=0.022), but not CD (4/14) compared with controls (2/24). All isolates expressed dsbA and htrA relevant to intra-macrophage replication, and 242/281 expressed fimH encoding type-1 fimbrial adhesin. Conclusions IBD and CRC commonly have colonic mucosal E coli that express genes that confer properties relevant to pathogenesis including M-cell translocation, angiogenesis and genotoxicity. PMID:23846483

  7. Increased Levels of Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins Result in Resistance to R5-Tropic HIV-1 in a Subset of Elite Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Wendy E.; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Joshi, Samit; Lopez, Charlie A.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Barakat, Lydia; Francis, John; Fisher, Ann; Kozal, Michael; Zapata, Heidi; Shaw, Albert; Lifton, Richard; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elite controllers (ECs) are a rare group of HIV seropositive individuals who are able to control viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms responsible for this phenotype, however, have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined CD4+ T cell resistance to HIV in a cohort of elite controllers and explored transcriptional signatures associated with cellular resistance. We demonstrate that a subgroup of elite controllers possess CD4+ T cells that are specifically resistant to R5-tropic HIV while remaining fully susceptible to X4-tropic and vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses. Transcriptome analysis revealed 17 genes that were differentially regulated in resistant elite controllers relative to healthy controls. Notably, the genes encoding macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?), CCL3 and CCL3L1, were found to be upregulated. The MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and RANTES chemokines are natural ligands of CCR5 and are known to interfere with HIV replication. For three elite controllers, we observed increased production of MIP-1? and/or MIP-1? at the protein level. The supernatant from resistant EC cells contained MIP-1? and MIP-1? and was sufficient to confer R5-tropic resistance to susceptible CD4+ T cells. Additionally, this effect was reversed by using inhibitory anti-MIP antibodies. These results suggest that the T cells of these particular elite controllers may be naturally resistant to HIV infection by blocking R5-tropic viral entry. IMPORTANCE HIV is a pandemic health problem, and the majority of seropositive individuals will eventually progress to AIDS unless antiretroviral therapy (ART) is administered. However, rare patients, termed elite controllers, have a natural ability to control HIV infection in the absence of ART, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this phenotype have not been fully explored. This paper identifies one mechanism that may contribute to this natural resistance: some elite controllers have CD4+ T cells that produce high levels of MIP chemokines, which block R5-tropic HIV entry. This mechanism could potentially be exploited to achieve a therapeutic effect in other HIV-seropositive individuals. PMID:25740989

  8. Digesting the Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Insights from Studies of Autophagy Risk Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kabi, Amrita; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The success of genetic analyses identifying multiple loci associated with IBD susceptibility has resulted in the identification of several risk genes linked to a common cellular process called autophagy. Autophagy is a process involving the encapsulation of cytosolic cellular components in double membraned vesicles, their subsequent lysosomal degradation, and recycling of the degraded components for use by the cell. It plays an important part in the innate immune response to a variety of intracellular pathogens, and it is this component of autophagy that appears to be defective in IBD. This has lead to the hypothesis that CD may result from an impaired anti-bacterial response, which leads to ineffective control of bacterial infection, dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, and chronic inflammation. Several recurrent themes have surfaced from studies examining the function of autophagy-related genes in the context of IBD - with cellular context, disease status, risk variant effect and risk gene interplay all affecting the interpretation of these studies. The identification of autophagy as a major risk pathway in IBD is a significant step forward and may lead to pathway-focused therapy in the future, however there is more to understand in order to unravel the complexity of this disease. PMID:21936032

  9. Differential Roles of Hydrogen Peroxide in Adaptive and Inflammatory Gene Expression Induced by Exposure of Human Airway Epithelial Cells to Zn2+

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidant stress is believed to play an important role in particulate matter (PM)mediated toxicity in the respiratory tract. Zinc (Zn2+) is a ubiquitous component of PM that has been shown to induce adverse responses such as inflammatory and adaptive gene expression in airway epit...

  10. Differential Roles of Hydrogen Peroxide in Adaptive and Inflammatory Gene Expression Induced by Exposure of Human Airway Epithelial Cells to Zn2+

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidant stress is believed to play an important role in particulate matter (PM)–mediated toxicity in the respiratory tract. Zinc (Zn2+) is a ubiquitous component of PM that has been shown to induce adverse responses such as inflammatory and adaptive gene expression in airway epit...

  11. Multiple sclerosis: the increased frequency of the ICAM-1 exon 6 gene point mutation genetic type K469.

    PubMed

    Mycko, M P; Kwinkowski, M; Tronczynska, E; Szymanska, B; Selmaj, K W

    1998-07-01

    Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in the cascade of adhesion events in the homing of inflammatory cells to the central nervous system (CNS) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in multiple sclerosis (MS). Two single-base ICAM-1 polymorphisms have been described, in exons 4 and 6, changing codons 241 and 469 in the ICAM-1 gene, respectively. Both polymorphisms result in amino acid changes and can potentially lead to different interactions of ICAM-1 with its ligands. To detect ICAM-1 gene polymorphisms in MS, we have developed a highly sensitive and site-specific, two-stage, nested polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood cells of 79 MS patients and 68 control subjects. The results were confirmed by direct dideoxy chain termination sequencing. The frequency of exon 6 allele T was found to be significantly higher in MS patients than in controls (68% vs 49%). Most interesting, the frequency of exon 6 homozygote K469 was significantly higher in MS patients than in controls (53% vs 34%). Higher frequency of the K469 genotype was found to be independent of possible linkage with the previously described MS susceptibility factor, the HLA class II DR2 allele. In the present study, we have shown for the first time the ICAM-1 gene polymorphisms in MS. The results indicate increased frequency of ICAM-1 exon 6 allele T in MS patients, which may contribute to the MS genetics background. PMID:9667594

  12. Verbascoside down-regulates some pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways by increasing the activity of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in the U937 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Mirko; Franceschelli, Sara; Ferrone, Alessio; De Lutiis, Maria Anna; Patruno, Antonia; Grilli, Alfredo; Felaco, Mario; Speranza, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are the major components of many traditional herbal remedies, which exhibit several beneficial effects including anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties. Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is a redox sensitive protein tyrosine phosphatase that negatively influences downstream signalling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, thereby inhibiting inflammatory signalling induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because a role of transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) in the upstream regulation of JNK molecule has been well demonstrated, we conjectured that SHP-1 could mediate the anti-inflammatory effect of verbascoside through the regulation of TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 signalling in the U937 cell line. Our results demonstrate that verbascoside increased the phosphorylation of SHP-1, by attenuating the activation of TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 signalling. This leads to a reduction in the expression and activity of both COX and NOS. Moreover, SHP-1 depletion deletes verbascoside inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory molecules induced by LPS. Our data confirm that SHP-1 plays a critical role in restoring the physiological mechanisms of inducible proteins such as COX2 and iNOS, and that the down-regulation of TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 signalling by targeting SHP-1 should be considered as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25807993

  13. Gene Deletion of VIP Leads to Increased Mortality Associated with Progressive Right Ventricular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M.; Hamidi, Sayyed A.

    2014-01-01

    Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) knockout mice exhibit asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular wall thinning. Humans with these disorders have premature death. We show here that VIP KO mice have reduced survival (100% mortality at 20 months), vs. 100% survival among WT C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the ratios of weights of right ventricle divided by left ventricle plus septum were progressively increased in VIP KO mice with age. Core temperatures were lower in VIP KO mice when compared to WT littermates, with an associated pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. Overall, our results indicate that VIP is important for survival in mice. Its absence leads to increased mortality, with progressive right ventricular hypertrophy as a surrogate of pulmonary hypertension, lower body weight, hypothermia, and pro-inflammatory milieu. These studies support VIP as a novel therapeutic agent in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24860842

  14. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on hormones and genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis, and reproduction of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyunghee; Liu, Xiaoshan; Lee, Saeram; Kang, Sungeun; Kho, Younglim; Giesy, John P; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted in two experiments, to identify non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with high endocrine disruption potentials, and to understand consequences of exposure to such NSAIDs in fish. In the first experiment, the effects of five NSAIDs on hormones and gene transcriptions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis were evaluated after 14 d exposure of adult zebrafish. Ibuprofen and mefenamic acids were identified to increase the concentrations of 17?-estradiol and testosterone in females significantly, while decreased those of testosterone among male fish. Significant up-regulation of fsh?, lh?, fshr and lhr were observed in females, whereas down-regulation was observed in males exposed to each NSAID. In the second experiment, ibuprofen was chosen as a model chemical. Adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to ibuprofen for 21 d, and the effects on reproduction and development of offspring were examined. The egg production was significantly decreased at ?1 ?g/L ibuprofen, and parental exposure resulted in delayed hatching even when they were transferred to clean water for hatching. The results demonstrated that ibuprofen could modulate hormone production and related gene transcription of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. PMID:23611805

  15. Whole blood transcriptional profiling in ankylosing spondylitis identifies novel candidate genes that might contribute to the inflammatory and tissue-destructive disease aspects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A number of genetic-association studies have identified genes contributing to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) susceptibility but such approaches provide little information as to the gene activity changes occurring during the disease process. Transcriptional profiling generates a 'snapshot' of the sampled cells' activity and thus can provide insights into the molecular processes driving the disease process. We undertook a whole-genome microarray approach to identify candidate genes associated with AS and validated these gene-expression changes in a larger sample cohort. Methods A total of 18 active AS patients, classified according to the New York criteria, and 18 gender- and age-matched controls were profiled using Illumina HT-12 whole-genome expression BeadChips which carry cDNAs for 48,000 genes and transcripts. Class comparison analysis identified a number of differentially expressed candidate genes. These candidate genes were then validated in a larger cohort using qPCR-based TaqMan low density arrays (TLDAs). Results A total of 239 probes corresponding to 221 genes were identified as being significantly different between patients and controls with a P-value <0.0005 (80% confidence level of false discovery rate). Forty-seven genes were then selected for validation studies, using the TLDAs. Thirteen of these genes were validated in the second patient cohort with 12 downregulated 1.3- to 2-fold and only 1 upregulated (1.6-fold). Among a number of identified genes with well-documented inflammatory roles we also validated genes that might be of great interest to the understanding of AS progression such as SPOCK2 (osteonectin) and EP300, which modulate cartilage and bone metabolism. Conclusions We have validated a gene expression signature for AS from whole blood and identified strong candidate genes that may play roles in both the inflammatory and joint destruction aspects of the disease. PMID:21470430

  16. Angiotensin AT2 receptor stimulation is anti-inflammatory in lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 macrophages via increased interleukin-10 production.

    PubMed

    Dhande, Isha; Ma, Wanshu; Hussain, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages have an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and associated end-organ damage via the activation of the Toll-like receptors, such as Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Accumulating evidence suggests that the angiotensin AT2 receptor (AT2R) has a protective role in pathological conditions involving inflammation and tissue injury. We have recently shown that AT(2)R stimulation is renoprotective, which occurs in part via increased levels of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in renal epithelial cells; however, the role of AT(2)R in the inflammatory activity of macrophages is not known. The present study was designed to investigate whether AT(2)R activation stimulates an anti-inflammatory response in TLR4-induced inflammation. The effects of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms that occurred following pre-treatment with the AT(2)R agonist Compound 21 (C21) (1 ?mol ml(-1)) on the cytokine profiles of THP-1 macrophages after activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 ?g ml(-1)) were studied. The AT(2)R agonist dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and IL-6 production but increased IL-10 production. IL-10 was critical for the anti-inflammatory effects of AT(2)R stimulation because the IL-10-neutralizing antibody dose-dependently abolished the AT(2)R-mediated decrease in TNF-? levels. Further, enhanced IL-10 levels were associated with a sustained, selective increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Blocking the activation of ERK1/2 before C21 pre-treatment completely abrogated this increased IL-10 production in response to the AT(2)R agonist C21, while there was a partial reduction in IL-10 levels following the inhibition of p38. We conclude that AT(2)R stimulation exerts a novel anti-inflammatory response in THP-1 macrophages via enhanced IL-10 production as a result of sustained, selective ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which may have protective roles in hypertension and associated tissue injury. PMID:25209104

  17. Neonatal intrahippocampal HIV-1 protein Tat1-86 injection: Neurobehavioral alterations in the absence of increased inflammatory cytokine activation

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Landhing M.; Fitting, Sylvia; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Webb, Katy M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric AIDS caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains one of the leading worldwide causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. HIV-1 proteins, such as Tat and gp120, are believed to play a crucial role in the neurotoxicity of pediatric HIV-1 infection. Detrimental effects on development, behavior, and neuroanatomy follow neonatal exposure to the HIV-1 viral toxins Tat1-72 and gp120. The present study investigated the neurobehavioral effects induced by the HIV-1 neurotoxic protein Tat1-86, which encodes the first and second exons of the Tat protein. In addition, the potential effects of HIV-1 toxic proteins Tat1-86 and gp120 on inflammatory pathways were examined in neonatal brains. Vehicle, 25 ?g Tat1-86 or 100 ng gp120 was injected into the hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley pups on postnatal day 1 (PD1). Tat1-86 induced developmental neurotoxic effects, as witnessed by delays in eye opening, delays in early reflex development and alterations in prepulse inhibition (PPI) and between-session habituation of locomotor activity. Overall, the neurotoxic profile of Tat1-86 appeared more profound in the developing nervous system in vivo relative to that seen with the first exon encoded Tat1-72 (Fitting et al., 2008b), as noted on measures of eye opening, righting reflex, and PPI. Neither the direct PD1 CNS injection of the viral HIV-1 protein variant Tat1-86, nor the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, at doses sufficient to induce neurotoxicity, necessarily induced significant expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1? or inflammatory factors NF?-? and I?-?. The findings agree well with clinical observations that indicate delays in developmental milestones of pediatric HIV-1 patients, and suggest that activation of inflammatory pathways is not an obligatory response to viral protein-induced neurotoxicity that is detectable with behavioral assessments. Moreover, the amino acids encoded by the second tat exon may have unique actions on the developing hippocampus. PMID:25285887

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms of Multidrug Resistance Gene-1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Glutathione S-Transferase Gene and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease among Moroccan Patients

    PubMed Central

    Senhaji, Nezha; Kassogue, Yaya; Fahimi, Mina; Serbati, Nadia; Badre, Wafaa; Nadifi, Sellama

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are multifactorial disorders resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Polymorphisms in MDR1 and GSTs genes might explain individual differences in susceptibility to IBD. We carried out a case-control study to examine the association of MDR1 (C1236T and C3435T), GSTT1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms with the risk of IBD. Subjects were genotyped using PCR-RFLP for MDR1 gene and multiplex PCR for GSTT1 and GSTM1. Meta-analysis was performed to test the association of variant allele carriage with IBD risk. We report that GSTT1 null genotype is significantly associated with the risk of CD (OR: 2.5, CI: 1.2–5, P = 0.013) and UC (OR: 3.5, CI: 1.5–8.5, P = 0.004) and can influence Crohn's disease behavior. The interaction between GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes showed that the combined null genotypes were associated with the risk of UC (OR: 3.1, CI: 1.1–9, P = 0.049). Furthermore, when compared to combined 1236CC/CT genotypes, the 1236TT genotype of MDR1 gene was associated with the risk of UC (OR: 3.7, CI: 1.3–10.7, P = 0.03). Meta-analysis demonstrated significantly higher frequencies of 3435T carriage in IBD patients. Our results show that GSTT1 null and MDR1 polymorphisms could play a role in susceptibility to IBD. PMID:26604430

  19. The Diamine Oxidase Gene Is Associated with Hypersensitivity Response to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Agndez, Jos A. G.; Ayuso, Pedro; Cornejo-Garca, Jos A.; Blanca, Miguel; Torres, Mara J.; Doa, Inmaculada; Salas, Mara; Blanca-Lpez, Natalia; Canto, Gabriela; Rondon, Carmen; Campo, Paloma; Laguna, Jos J.; Fernndez, Javier; Martnez, Carmen; Garca-Martn, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs most frequently involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions. Histamine is released in the allergic response to NSAIDs and is responsible for some of the clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical association of functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes involved in histamine homeostasis with hypersensitivity response to NSAIDs. We studied a cohort of 442 unrelated Caucasian patients with hypersensitivity to NSAIDs. Patients who experienced three or more episodes with two or more different NSAIDs were included. If this requirement was not met diagnosis was established by challenge. A total of 414 healthy unrelated controls ethnically matched with patients and from the same geographic area were recruited. Analyses of the SNPs rs17740607, rs2073440, rs1801105, rs2052129, rs10156191, rs1049742 and rs1049793 in the HDC, HNMT and DAO genes were carried out by means of TaqMan assays. The detrimental DAO 16 Met allele (rs10156191), which causes decreased metabolic capacity, is overrepresented among patients with crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs with an OR ?=?1.7 (95% CI ?=?1.32.1; Pc ?=?0.0003) with a gene-dose effect (P?=?0.0001). The association was replicated in two populations from different geographic areas (Pc ?=?0.008 and Pc ?=?0.004, respectively). Conclusions and implications The DAO polymorphism rs10156191 which causes impaired metabolism of circulating histamine is associated with the clinical response in crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs and could be used as a biomarker of response. PMID:23152756

  20. Increase in the Inflammatory Marker GlycA over 13 Years in Young Adults Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Manheim, Irit; Doniger, Glen M.; Sinnreich, Ronit; Simon, Ely S.; Pinchas-Mizrachi, Ronit; Otvos, James D.; Kark, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammatory markers are elevated in patients with dementia. Evidence for an association between inflammation and cognitive function in dementia-free individuals is sparse, inconsistent, and predominantly restricted to the elderly. Assessment of inflammatory markers in young adults as predictors of cognitive function in midlife, well before the onset of overt dementia, is lacking. Furthermore, rarely has the relation with longitudinal change in inflammatory markers been examined. Objective To examine the association of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC) and GlycA, a novel NMR-determined biomarker of systemic inflammation, measured in young adulthood and of GlycA change over 13 years follow-up with cognitive function in midlife. Methods 507 participants of the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) study were assessed at 3 time points over 18–22 years. First, the inflammatory variables GlycA, CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC were measured in blood samples drawn at ages 28–32. Then, in blood samples drawn a mean 13 years later (range, 12–16 years) at ages 41–46, GlycA was again measured (in 484 individuals). Subsequently at ages 48–52, on average 7 years later, global cognitive function and its five specific component domains were assessed with a NeuroTrax computerized test battery. Multiple regression and multivariable logistic models were applied. Results Inverse unadjusted associations were shown for baseline levels and longitudinal change in inflammatory markers and measures of cognition. Multiple regression models were adjusted for age at cognitive assessment, sex, socio-demographic characteristics, baseline measures of leisure-time vigorous activity, smoking status and body mass index (BMI) at ages 28–32, change in smoking status and BMI between ages 28–32 and 41–46, and depression assessed at the time of cognitive testing. The highest quintile of GlycA change, but not the baseline inflammation measures, was inversely related to global cognition (standardized β = -.109, p = .011) as well as to the information processing speed and memory domains (standardized β = -.124, p = .008 and-.117, p = .014, respectively). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for low ranked global cognitive function (lowest fifth) comparing the extreme quintiles of GlycA change was 4.8 (95%CI, 1.7–13.5, p = .003; p for trend = .031). Conclusions In this longitudinal study of a novel systemic inflammatory marker in a population-based cohort of young adults, GlycA increase over 13 years, but not baseline measures of inflammation, was associated with poorer cognitive function in midlife. PMID:26406330

  1. Early left ventricular gene expression profile in response to increase in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Rys, Jaana; Aro, Jani; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2006-01-01

    The heart adapts to increased pressure overload by hypertrophic growth of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. At the genetic level, the hypertrophic response is characterized by the reprogramming of gene expression, i.e. upregulation of immediate early genes, natriuretic peptide genes and genes encoding structural proteins. In the present study, we characterized the early changes in gene expression with cDNA expression arrays in response to increase in blood pressure produced by arginine8-vasopressin infusion (0.05 microg/kg/min, i.v.) for 30 min and 4 h in conscious normotensive rats. Expression profiling revealed differential expression of 14 genes in the left ventricle, and several novel factors of immediate early genetic response to pressure overload were identified, such as growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein 45 (GADD45alpha), epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) and Bcl-X. Administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) for 6 h by osmotic minipumps also increased left ventricular GADD45alpha, E-FABP and Bcl-X gene expression. Furthermore, the induction of GADD45alpha and Bcl-X gene expression by Ang II was blocked by angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. In summary, our analysis provided new insights into the pathogenesis of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy by suggesting the existence of novel regulators of the immediate early gene expression program. PMID:17472029

  2. The Ro60 Autoantigen Binds Endogenous Retroelements and Regulates Inflammatory Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hung, T.; Pratt, G.; Sundararaman, B.; Townsend, M. J.; Chaivorapol, C.; Bhangale, T.; Graham, R. R.; Ortmann, W.; Criswell, L. A.; Yeo, G.; Behrens, T. W.

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies target the RNA binding protein Ro60 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjgrens syndrome. However, whether Ro60 and its associated RNAs contribute to disease pathogenesis is unclear. We catalogued the Ro60-associated RNAs in human cell lines and found that among other RNAs, Ro60 bound an RNA motif derived from endogenous Alu retroelements. Alu transcripts were induced by type I interferon and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood cells. Ro60 deletion resulted in enhanced expression of Alu RNAs and interferon-regulated genes. Anti-Ro60 positive SLE immune complexes contained Alu RNAs, and Alu transcripts were upregulated in SLE whole blood samples compared to controls. These findings establish a link between the lupus autoantigen Ro60, Alu retroelements and type I interferon. PMID:26382853

  3. The Ro60 autoantigen binds endogenous retroelements and regulates inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hung, T; Pratt, G A; Sundararaman, B; Townsend, M J; Chaivorapol, C; Bhangale, T; Graham, R R; Ortmann, W; Criswell, L A; Yeo, G W; Behrens, T W

    2015-10-23

    Autoantibodies target the RNA binding protein Ro60 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjgren's syndrome. However, it is unclear whether Ro60 and its associated RNAs contribute to disease pathogenesis. We catalogued the Ro60-associated RNAs in human cell lines and found that among other RNAs, Ro60 bound an RNA motif derived from endogenous Alu retroelements. Alu transcripts were induced by type I interferon and stimulated proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood cells. Ro60 deletion resulted in enhanced expression of Alu RNAs and interferon-regulated genes. Anti-Ro60-positive SLE immune complexes contained Alu RNAs, and Alu transcripts were up-regulated in SLE whole blood samples relative to controls. These findings establish a link among the lupus autoantigen Ro60, Alu retroelements, and type I interferon. PMID:26382853

  4. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Induces a Unique Pulmonary Inflammatory Response: Role of Bacterial Gene Expression in Temporal Regulation of Host Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Kathie-Anne; Olsufka, Rachael; Kuestner, Rolf E.; Cho, Ji Hoon; Li, Hong; Zornetzer, Gregory A.; Wang, Kai; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Ozinsky, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to Francisella tularensis is associated with severe lung pathology and a high mortality rate. The lack of induction of classical inflammatory mediators, including IL1-? and TNF-?, during early infection has led to the suggestion that F. tularensis evades detection by host innate immune surveillance and/or actively suppresses inflammation. To gain more insight into the host response to Francisella infection during the acute stage, transcriptomic analysis was performed on lung tissue from mice exposed to virulent (Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis SchuS4). Despite an extensive transcriptional response in the lungs of animals as early as 4 hrs post-exposure, Francisella tularensis was associated with an almost complete lack of induction of immune-related genes during the initial 24 hrs post-exposure. This broad subversion of innate immune responses was particularly evident when compared to the pulmonary inflammatory response induced by other lethal (Yersinia pestis) and non-lethal (Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) pulmonary infections. However, the unique induction of a subset of inflammation-related genes suggests a role for dysregulation of lymphocyte function and anti-inflammatory pathways in the extreme virulence of Francisella. Subsequent activation of a classical inflammatory response 48 hrs post-exposure was associated with altered abundance of Francisella-specific transcripts, including those associated with bacterial surface components. In summary, virulent Francisella induces a unique pulmonary inflammatory response characterized by temporal regulation of innate immune pathways correlating with altered bacterial gene expression patterns. This study represents the first simultaneous measurement of both host and Francisella transcriptome changes that occur during in vivo infection and identifies potential bacterial virulence factors responsible for regulation of host inflammatory pathways. PMID:23690939

  5. Nociception and inflammatory hyperalgesia evaluated in rodents using infrared laser stimulation after Trpv1 gene knockout or resiniferatoxin lesion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kendall; Lebovitz, Evan E; Keller, Jason M; Mannes, Andrew J; Nemenov, Michael I; Iadarola, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of myelinated A? and unmyelinated C-fibers. TRPV1+ fibers are essential for the transmission of nociceptive thermal stimuli and for the establishment and maintenance of inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have previously shown that high-power, short-duration pulses from an infrared diode laser are capable of predominantly activating cutaneous TRPV1+ A?-fibers. Here we show that stimulating either subtype of TRPV1+ fiber in the paw during carrageenan-induced inflammation or following hind-paw incision elicits pronounced hyperalgesic responses, including prolonged paw guarding. The ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) dose-dependently deactivates TRPV1+ fibers and blocks thermal nociceptive responses in baseline or inflamed conditions. Injecting sufficient doses of RTX peripherally renders animals unresponsive to laser stimulation even at the point of acute thermal skin damage. In contrast, Trpv1-/- mice, which are generally unresponsive to noxious thermal stimuli at lower power settings, exhibit withdrawal responses and inflammation-induced sensitization using high-power, short duration A? stimuli. In rats, systemic morphine suppresses paw withdrawal, inflammatory guarding, and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent fashion using the same A? stimuli. The qualitative intensity of A? responses, the leftward shift of the stimulus-response curve, the increased guarding behaviors during carrageenan inflammation or after incision, and the reduction of A? responses with morphine suggest multiple roles for TRPV1+ A? fibers in nociceptive processes and their modulation of pathological pain conditions. PMID:24434730

  6. Nociception and inflammatory hyperalgesia evaluated in rodents using infrared laser stimulation after Trpv1 gene knockout or resiniferatoxin lesion

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kendall; Lebovitz, Evan E.; Keller, Jason M.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Nemenov, Michael I.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of myelinated A? and unmyelinated C-fibers. TRPV1+ fibers are essential for the transmission of nociceptive thermal stimuli and for the establishment and maintenance of inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have previously shown that high-power, short-duration pulses from an infrared diode laser are capable of predominantly activating cutaneous TRPV1+ A?-fibers. Here we show that stimulating either subtype of TRPV1+ fiber in the paw during carrageenan-induced inflammation or following hind-paw incision elicits pronounced hyperalgesic responses, including prolonged paw guarding. The ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) dose-dependently deactivates TRPV1+ fibers and blocks thermal nociceptive responses in baseline or inflamed conditions. Injecting sufficient doses of RTX peripherally renders animals unresponsive to laser stimulation even at the point of acute thermal skin damage. In contrast, Trpv1?/? mice, which are generally unresponsive to noxious thermal stimuli at lower power settings, exhibit withdrawal responses and inflammation-induced sensitization using high-power, short duration A? stimuli. In rats, systemic morphine suppresses paw withdrawal, inflammatory guarding, and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent fashion using the same A? stimuli. The qualitative intensity of A? responses, the leftward shift of the stimulus-response curve, the increased guarding behaviors during carrageenan inflammation or after incision, and the reduction of A? responses with morphine suggest multiple roles for TRPV1+ A? fibers in nociceptive processes and their modulation of pathological pain conditions. PMID:24434730

  7. Inflammatory mechanisms of endometritis.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Troedsson, M H T

    2015-07-01

    Transient post breeding endometritis is a normal physiological reaction in the mare, as it is believed that an inflammatory response is necessary for the effective removal of contaminating bacteria and excess spermatozoa introduced into the uterus. While most mares can clear endometritis within a reasonable amount of time, persistent endometritis caused by either bacteria or spermatozoa can threaten the success of a pregnancy. A subpopulation of mares is susceptible to persistent endometritis, and these mares are a concern in equine reproductive medicine. Research has identified several factors that contribute to susceptibility; however, the exact mechanisms of the progression of the disease are still being elucidated. Current research focuses on endometrial gene expression during endometritis in an attempt to understand the timing of specific inflammatory processes involved with the development of susceptibility to persistent endometritis. With an increased understanding of the mechanisms involved with the disease, current treatments can be improved upon, and new treatments can be developed to target affected pathways. PMID:25537084

  8. Down-regulation of IKKβ expression in glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages is associated with defective inflammatory/immune gene responses in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowski, Jakub; Kocyk, Marta; Nauman, Pawel; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Sielska, Małgorzata; Przanowski, Piotr; Maleszewska, Marta; Rajan, Wenson D; Pszczolkowska, Dominika; Tykocki, Tomasz; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Roszkowski, Marcin; Kostkiewicz, Boguslaw; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-10-20

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with profound host immunosuppression. Microglia and macrophages infiltrating GBM acquire the pro-tumorigenic, M2 phenotype and support tumor invasion, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and block immune responses both locally and systematically. Mechanisms responsible for immunological deficits in GBM patients are poorly understood. We analyzed immune/inflammatory gene expression in five datasets of low and high grade gliomas, and performed Gene Ontology and signaling pathway analyses to identify defective transcriptional responses. The expression of many immune/inflammatory response and TLR signaling pathway genes was reduced in high grade gliomas compared to low grade gliomas. In particular, we found the reduced expression of the IKBKB, a gene coding for IKKβ, which phosphorylates IκB proteins and represents a convergence point for most signal transduction pathways leading to NFκB activation. The reduced IKBKB expression and IKKβ levels in GBM tissues were demonstrated by qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IKKβ expression was down-regulated in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma. NFκB activation, prominent in microglia/macrophages infiltrating low grade gliomas, was reduced in microglia/macrophages in glioblastoma tissues. Down-regulation of IKBKB expression and NFκB signaling in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma correlates with defective expression of immune/inflammatory genes and M2 polarization that may result in the global impairment of anti-tumor immune responses in glioblastoma. PMID:26427514

  9. Down-regulation of IKKβ expression in glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages is associated with defective inflammatory/immune gene responses in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Nauman, Pawel; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Sielska, Małgorzata; Przanowski, Piotr; Maleszewska, Marta; Rajan, Wenson D.; Pszczolkowska, Dominika; Tykocki, Tomasz; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Roszkowski, Marcin; Kostkiewicz, Boguslaw; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with profound host immunosuppression. Microglia and macrophages infiltrating GBM acquire the pro-tumorigenic, M2 phenotype and support tumor invasion, proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and block immune responses both locally and systematically. Mechanisms responsible for immunological deficits in GBM patients are poorly understood. We analyzed immune/inflammatory gene expression in five datasets of low and high grade gliomas, and performed Gene Ontology and signaling pathway analyses to identify defective transcriptional responses. The expression of many immune/inflammatory response and TLR signaling pathway genes was reduced in high grade gliomas compared to low grade gliomas. In particular, we found the reduced expression of the IKBKB, a gene coding for IKKβ, which phosphorylates IκB proteins and represents a convergence point for most signal transduction pathways leading to NFκB activation. The reduced IKBKB expression and IKKβ levels in GBM tissues were demonstrated by qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IKKβ expression was down-regulated in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma. NFκB activation, prominent in microglia/macrophages infiltrating low grade gliomas, was reduced in microglia/macrophages in glioblastoma tissues. Down-regulation of IKBKB expression and NFκB signaling in microglia/macrophages infiltrating glioblastoma correlates with defective expression of immune/inflammatory genes and M2 polarization that may result in the global impairment of anti-tumor immune responses in glioblastoma. PMID:26427514

  10. Anaplasma phagocytophilum up-regulates some anti-apoptotic genes in neutrophils and pro-inflammatory genes in mononuclear cells of sheep.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Z; Yavari, C

    2014-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to selectively infect and multiply within the hostile environment of the neutrophil. Previous studies have shown that sheep with TBF are more susceptible to other infections and that infected neutrophils have reduced phagocytic ability and delayed apoptosis. This suggests that survival of A. phagocytophilum in these short-lived cells involves the ability to subvert or resist their bacterial killing, but also to modify the host cells such that the host cells survive long after infection. The present study shows that infection of sheep by A. phagocytophilum is characterized by up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR) in neutrophils and up-regulation of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in mononuclear cells during the period of bacteraemia. Infection with A. phagocytophilum was also characterized by significant up-regulation of CYBB, which is associated with the respiratory burst of neutrophils. PMID:24602324

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do I have a higher chance of getting colon cancer? Can my inflammatory bowel disease make it harder ... do I have a higher chance of getting colon cancer? Yes. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can increase your ...

  12. Vitamin E-gene interactions in aging and inflammatory age-related diseases: implications for treatment. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Malavolta, Marco; Basso, Andrea; Piacenza, Francesco; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Gonos, Efstathios S; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2014-03-01

    Aging is a complex biological phenomenon in which the deficiency of the nutritional state combined with the presence of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the development of many age-related diseases. Under this profile, the free radicals produced by the oxidative stress lead to a damage of DNA, lipids and proteins with subsequent altered cellular homeostasis and integrity. In young-adult age, the cell has a complex efficient system to maintain a proper balance between the levels of free radicals and antioxidants ensuring the integrity of cellular components. In contrast, in old age this balance is poorly efficient compromising cellular homeostasis. Supplementation with Vitamin E can restore the balance and protect against the deteriorating effects of oxidative stress, progression of degenerative diseases, and aging. Experiments in cell cultures and in animals have clearly shown that Vitamin E has a pivotal role as antioxidant agent against the lipid peroxidation on cell membranes preserving the tissue cells from the oxidative damage. Such a role has been well documented in immune, endothelial, and brain cells from old animals describing how the Vitamin E works both at cytoplasmatic and nuclear levels with an influence on many genes related to the inflammatory/immune response. All these findings have supported a lot of clinical trials in old humans and in inflammatory age-related diseases with however contradictory and inconsistent results and even indicating a dangerous role of Vitamin E able to affect mortality. Various factors can contribute to all the discrepancies. Among them, the doses and the various isoforms of Vitamin E family (?,?,?,? tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) used in different trials. However, the more plausible gap is the poor consideration of the Vitamin E-gene interactions that may open new roadmaps for a correct and personalized Vitamin E supplementation in aging and age-related diseases with satisfactory results in order to reach healthy aging and longevity. In this review, this peculiar nutrigenomic and/or nutrigenetic aspect is reported and discussed at the light of specific polymorphisms affecting the Vitamin E bioactivity. PMID:24418256

  13. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Alter, Mark D; Kharkar, Rutwik; Ramsey, Keri E; Craig, David W; Melmed, Raun D; Grebe, Theresa A; Bay, R Curtis; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Jones, Josh J; Turner, J Blake; Hen, Rene; Stephan, Dietrich A

    2011-01-01

    A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of children with autism (n?=?82) and controls (n?=?64). Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:21379579

  14. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  15. Mycoplasma gallisepticum Lipid Associated Membrane Proteins Up-regulate Inflammatory Genes in Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Cells via TLR-2 Ligation through an NF-κB Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Sanjukta; Zappulla, Frank; Silbart, Lawrence K.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated respiratory inflammation in chickens is associated with accumulation of leukocytes in the tracheal submucosa. However the molecular mechanisms underpinning these changes have not been well described. We hypothesized that the initial inflammatory events are initiated upon ligation of mycoplasma lipid associated membrane proteins (LAMP) to TLRs expressed on chicken tracheal epithelial cells (TEC). To test this hypothesis, live bacteria or LAMPs isolated from a virulent (Rlow) or a non-virulent (Rhigh) strain were incubated with primary TECs or chicken tracheae ex vivo. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of several inflammatory and chemokine genes in TECs as early as 1.5 hours post-exposure. Kinetic analysis using RT-qPCR identified the peak of expression for most genes to be at either 1.5 or 6 hours. Ex-vivo exposure also showed up-regulation of inflammatory genes in epithelial cells by 1.5 hours. Among the commonly up-regulated genes were IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, CCL-20, and NOS-2, all of which are important immune-modulators and/or chemo-attractants of leukocytes. While these inflammatory genes were up-regulated in all four treatment groups, Rlow exposed epithelial cells both in vitro and ex vivo showed the most dramatic up-regulation, inducing over 100 unique genes by 5-fold or more in TECs. Upon addition of a TLR-2 inhibitor, LAMP-mediated gene expression of IL-1β and CCL-20 was reduced by almost 5-fold while expression of IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-8 and NOS-2 mRNA was reduced by about 2–3 fold. Conversely, an NF-κB inhibitor abrogated the response entirely for all six genes. miRNA-146a, a negative regulator of TLR-2 signaling, was up-regulated in TECs in response to either Rlow or Rhigh exposure. Taken together we conclude that LAMPs isolated from both Rhigh and Rlow induced rapid, TLR-2 dependent but transient up-regulation of inflammatory genes in primary TECs through an NF-κB dependent pathway. PMID:25401327

  16. Mycoplasma gallisepticum lipid associated membrane proteins up-regulate inflammatory genes in chicken tracheal epithelial cells via TLR-2 ligation through an NF-?B dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Sanjukta; Zappulla, Frank; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated respiratory inflammation in chickens is associated with accumulation of leukocytes in the tracheal submucosa. However the molecular mechanisms underpinning these changes have not been well described. We hypothesized that the initial inflammatory events are initiated upon ligation of mycoplasma lipid associated membrane proteins (LAMP) to TLRs expressed on chicken tracheal epithelial cells (TEC). To test this hypothesis, live bacteria or LAMPs isolated from a virulent (R(low)) or a non-virulent (R(high)) strain were incubated with primary TECs or chicken tracheae ex vivo. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of several inflammatory and chemokine genes in TECs as early as 1.5 hours post-exposure. Kinetic analysis using RT-qPCR identified the peak of expression for most genes to be at either 1.5 or 6 hours. Ex-vivo exposure also showed up-regulation of inflammatory genes in epithelial cells by 1.5 hours. Among the commonly up-regulated genes were IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, CCL-20, and NOS-2, all of which are important immune-modulators and/or chemo-attractants of leukocytes. While these inflammatory genes were up-regulated in all four treatment groups, R(low) exposed epithelial cells both in vitro and ex vivo showed the most dramatic up-regulation, inducing over 100 unique genes by 5-fold or more in TECs. Upon addition of a TLR-2 inhibitor, LAMP-mediated gene expression of IL-1? and CCL-20 was reduced by almost 5-fold while expression of IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-8 and NOS-2 mRNA was reduced by about 2-3 fold. Conversely, an NF-?B inhibitor abrogated the response entirely for all six genes. miRNA-146a, a negative regulator of TLR-2 signaling, was up-regulated in TECs in response to either R(low) or R(high) exposure. Taken together we conclude that LAMPs isolated from both R(high) and R(low) induced rapid, TLR-2 dependent but transient up-regulation of inflammatory genes in primary TECs through an NF-?B dependent pathway. PMID:25401327

  17. Increased Gene Expression by the First Intron of Maize Shrunken-1 Locus in Grass Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasil, Vimla; Clancy, Maureen; Ferl, Robert J.; Vasil, Indra K.; Hannah, L. Curtis

    1989-01-01

    The first intron of the shrunken-1 (Sh1) locus of maize was incorporated into constructs containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (CAT) coupled with the nopaline synthase 3? polyadenylation signal. Transcription was driven with the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the Sh1 promoter of maize. Transient gene expression was monitored following electroporation into protoplasts of Panicum maximum (guineagrass), Pennisetum purpureum (napiergrass), or Zea mays (maize). The 1028 base pair intron increased gene expression in cells of each species when transcription was driven with the 35S promoter. Eleven to 91-fold increases were observed. Expression levels observed in maize were two and eight times those observed in napiergrass and guineagrass, respectively. The 35S promoter gave CAT activity 10 to 100 times that observed with the Sh1 promoter. Whereas expression driven by the 35S promoter was reproducible, that observed with the Sh1 promoter proved quite variable. In similar constructs the first intron of the alcohol dehydrogenase-1 (Adh1) gene of maize led to increased gene expression of only 7 to 10% of that observed with the Sh1 first intron. The increased level of gene expression caused by the Sh1 first intron is approximately 10 times higher than that caused by any other plant introns that have been used. Thus, the Sh1 first intron may prove quite useful in increasing expression of foreign genes in monocots and possibly other plants. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667219

  18. Anti-inflammatory IgG production requires functional P1 promoter in β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6Gal-1) gene.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark B; Nasirikenari, Mehrab; Lugade, Amit A; Thanavala, Yasmin; Lau, Joseph T Y

    2012-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties associated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy require the sialic acid modification of the N-glycan of the Fc domain of IgG. Sialylation of the Fc fragment is mediated by β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6Gal-1), acting on the Gal(β4)GlcNAc terminal structure of the biantennary N-glycans on the Fc domain. However, little is known regarding the in vivo regulation of Fc sialylation and its role in the progression of inflammatory processes. Here, we report that decreased Fc sialylation of circulatory IgG accompanies the acute phase response elicited by turpentine exposure or upon acute exposure to either nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae or ovalbumin. However, Fc sialylation was increased 3-fold from the base line upon transition to chronic inflammation by repeated exposure to challenge. The P1 promoter of the ST6Gal-1 gene is critical for Fc sialylation, but P1 does not drive ST6Gal-1 expression in B cells. The Siat1ΔP1 mouse, with a dysfunctional P1 promoter, was unable to produce sialylated Fc in the systemic circulation, despite the presence of Gal(β4)GlcNAc termini on the Fc glycans. The major contribution of P1 action is to synthesize ST6Gal-1 enzymes that are deposited into the systemic circulation. The data strongly indicate that this pool of extracellular ST6Gal-1 in the blood impacts the sialylation of IgG Fc and that defective Fc sialylation is likely a major contributing mechanism for the proinflammatory tendencies previously noted in Siat1ΔP1 animals. PMID:22427662

  19. Comparison of Whole Blood and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression for Evaluation of the Perioperative Inflammatory Response in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Nicholas; Maque, Jetrina; Chittoor, Jay; Chang, Eleanor; Bakir, Maral; Starling, Charlotte; Shahzad, Khurram; Ping, Peipei; Reed, Elaine; Deng, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) prevalence is increasing in the United States. Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS) therapy is an option for Advanced HF (AdHF) patients. Perioperatively, multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) is linked to the effects of device implantation, augmented by preexisting HF. Early recognition of MOD allows for better diagnosis, treatment, and risk prediction. Gene expression profiling (GEP) was used to evaluate clinical phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptomes obtained from patients' blood samples. Whole blood (WB) samples are clinically more feasible, but their performance in comparison to PBMC samples has not been determined. Methods We collected blood samples from 31 HF patients (5715 years old) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery and 7 healthy age-matched controls, between 2010 and 2011, at a single institution. WB and PBMC samples were collected at a single timepoint postoperatively (median day 8 postoperatively) (2575% IQR 714 days) and subjected to Illumina single color Human BeadChip HT12 v4 whole genome expression array analysis. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was used to characterize the severity of MOD into low (? 4 points), intermediate (511), and high (? 12) risk categories correlating with GEP. Results Results indicate that the direction of change in GEP of individuals with MOD as compared to controls is similar when determined from PBMC versus WB. The main enriched terms by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis included those involved in the inflammatory response, apoptosis, and other stress response related pathways. The data revealed 35 significant GO categories and 26 pathways overlapping between PBMC and WB. Additionally, class prediction using machine learning tools demonstrated that the subset of significant genes shared by PBMC and WB are sufficient to train as a predictor separating the SOFA groups. Conclusion GEP analysis of WB has the potential to become a clinical tool for immune-monitoring in patients with MOD. PMID:25517110

  20. Impact of Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms on Developing Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Children Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Masetti, Riccardo; Astolfi, Annalisa; Libri, Virginia; Vendemini, Francesca; Rondelli, Roberto; Prete, Arcangelo; Pession, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gene encoding pro- and anti-inflammatory factors have been associated with the occurrence of aGvHD. We retrospectively tested a wide panel of 38 polymorphisms in 19 immunoregulatory genes, aiming to first establish, in a pediatric HSCT setting, which SNPs were significantly associated with the development of aGvHD. A significant association was found between aGvHD grades IIIV and SNPs of donor IL10-1082GG, and Fas-670CC + CT and recipient IL18-607 TT + TG genotype. aGvHD grades III-IV resulted associated with donor IL10-1082GG, Fas-670CC + CT, and TLR4-3612TT as well as the use of peripheral CD34+ cells as stem cell source. The multivariate analysis confirmed the association between donor IL10-1082GG and Fas-670CC + CT and aGvHD grades IIIV and between donor IL10-1082GG and TLR4-3612TT and aGvHD grades III-IV. In conclusion we found an association between IL10, FAS, and TLR4 in the donor and IL18 in the recipient and an increased risk of developing aGvHD in transplanted children. Knowledge of the SNPs of cytokine genes associated with aGvHD represents a useful tool for an integrated pretransplantation risk assessment and could guide the physicians to an optimal and more accurate HSCT planning. PMID:25973432

  1. Overexpression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene could increase cellulose content in Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyang; Qi, Jianmin; Xu, Jiantang; Niu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yujia; Tao, Aifen; Zhang, Liwu; Fang, Pingping; Lin, Lihui

    2013-12-13

    In this study, the full-length cDNA of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene was isolated from jute by homologous cloning (primers were designed according to the sequence of UGPase gene of other plants) and modified RACE techniques; the cloned gene was designated CcUGPase. Using bioinformatic analysis, the gene was identified as a member of the UGPase gene family. Real-time PCR analysis revealed differential spatial and temporal expression of the CcUGPase gene, with the highest expression levels at 40 and 120d. PCR and Southern hybridization results indicate that the gene was integrated into the jute genome. Overexpression of CcUGPase gene in jute revealed increased height and cellulose content compared with control lines, although the lignin content remained unchanged. The results indicate that the jute UGPase gene participates in cellulose biosynthesis. These data provide an important basis for the application of the CcUGPase gene in the improvement of jute fiber quality. PMID:24269810

  2. CD4? T cell cytokine gene and protein expression in duodenal mucosa of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroshi; Takada, Kanae; Sunden, Yuji; Tamura, Yu; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Lim, Sue Yee; Murakami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Noboru; Wickramasekara Rajapakshage, Bandula Kumara; Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs in dogs. In humans, T helper cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. In contrast, no specific involvement of a distinct T cell subset has been described in canine IBD. The present study evaluated the gene and protein expression of cytokines of T cell subsets in duodenal mucosa from dogs with IBD. Relative quantification of interleukin (IL)-17A, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA transcription was performed using duodenal mucosa from 27 IBD dogs and 8 controls. Duodenal mucosal IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein levels were determined by ELISA in 15 IBD dogs and 8 controls. There was no significant difference in each cytokines mRNA transcription level between groups. There was no significant difference in IL-17A, IFN-? and IL-10 protein expression levels between groups. Thus, there is no clear evidence for the involvement of distinct Th cytokine in the pathogenesis of canine IBD. PMID:24270804

  3. The Oct1 homolog Nubbin is a repressor of NF-κB-dependent immune gene expression that increases the tolerance to gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Innate immune responses are evolutionarily conserved processes that provide crucial protection against invading organisms. Gene activation by potent NF-κB transcription factors is essential both in mammals and Drosophila during infection and stress challenges. If not strictly controlled, this potent defense system can activate autoimmune and inflammatory stress reactions, with deleterious consequences for the organism. Negative regulation to prevent gene activation in healthy organisms, in the presence of the commensal gut flora, is however not well understood. Results We show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Oct1/POU2F1 transcription factor, called Nubbin (Nub), is a repressor of NF-κB/Relish-driven antimicrobial peptide gene expression in flies. In nub1 mutants, which lack Nub-PD protein, excessive expression of antimicrobial peptide genes occurs in the absence of infection, leading to a significant reduction of the numbers of cultivatable gut commensal bacteria. This aberrant immune gene expression was effectively blocked by expression of Nub from a transgene. We have identified an upstream regulatory region, containing a cluster of octamer sites, which is required for repression of antimicrobial peptide gene expression in healthy flies. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that Nub binds to octamer-containing promoter fragments of several immune genes. Gene expression profiling revealed that Drosophila Nub negatively regulates many genes that are involved in immune and stress responses, while it is a positive regulator of genes involved in differentiation and metabolism. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a large number of genes that are activated by NF-κB/Relish in response to infection are normally repressed by the evolutionarily conserved Oct/POU transcription factor Nub. This prevents uncontrolled gene activation and supports the existence of a normal gut flora. We suggest that Nub protein plays an ancient role, shared with mammalian Oct/POU transcription factors, to moderate responses to immune challenge, thereby increasing the tolerance to biotic stress. PMID:24010524

  4. Transient increase in obese gene expression after food intake or insulin administration.

    PubMed

    Saladin, R; De Vos, P; Guerre-Millo, M; Leturque, A; Girard, J; Staels, B; Auwerx, J

    1995-10-12

    Obesity is a disorder of energy balance, indicating a chronic disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Recently, the mouse ob gene, and subsequently its human and rat homologues, have been cloned. The ob gene product, leptin, is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue, and appears to be a signalling factor regulating body-weight homeostasis and energy balance. Because the level of ob gene expression might indicate the size of the adipose depot, we suggest that it is regulated by factors modulating adipose tissue size. Here we show that ob gene exhibits diurnal variation, increasing during the night, after rats start eating. This variation was linked to changes in food intake, as fasting prevented the cyclic variation and decreased ob messenger RNA. Furthermore, refeeding fasted rats restored ob mRNA within 4 hours to levels of fed animals. A single insulin injection in fasted animals increased ob mRNA to levels of fed controls. Experiments to control glucose and insulin independently in animals, and studies in primary adipocytes, showed that insulin regulates ob gene expression directly in rats, regardless of its glucose-lowering effects. Whereas the ob gene product, leptin, has been shown to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure, our data demonstrate that ob gene expression is increased after food ingestion in rats, perhaps through a direct action of insulin on the adipocyte. PMID:7566150

  5. Gene activities that mediate increased life span of C. elegans insulin-like signaling mutants

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Andrew V.; Carr, Christopher E.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and RNA interference (RNAi) screens for life span regulatory genes have revealed that the daf-2 insulin-like signaling pathway plays a major role in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. This pathway converges on the DAF-16 transcription factor and may regulate life span by controlling the expression of a large number of genes, including free-radical detoxifying genes, stress resistance genes, and pathogen resistance genes. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes necessary for the extended life span of daf-2 mutants and identified ?200 gene inactivations that shorten daf-2 life span. Some of these gene inactivations dramatically shorten daf-2 mutant life span but less dramatically shorten daf-2; daf-16 mutant or wild-type life span. Molecular and behavioral markers for normal aging and for extended life span in low insulin/IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) signaling were assayed to distinguish accelerated aging from general sickness and to examine age-related phenotypes. Detailed demographic analysis, molecular markers of aging, and insulin signaling mutant test strains were used to filter progeric gene inactivations for specific acceleration of aging. Highly represented in the genes that mediate life span extension in the daf-2 mutant are components of endocytotic trafficking of membrane proteins to lysosomes. These gene inactivations disrupt the increased expression of the DAF-16 downstream gene superoxide dismutase sod-3 in a daf-2 mutant, suggesting trafficking between the insulin-like receptor and DAF-16. The activities of these genes may normally decline during aging. PMID:18006689

  6. Gene activities that mediate increased life span of C. elegans insulin-like signaling mutants.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Andrew V; Carr, Christopher E; Ruvkun, Gary

    2007-11-15

    Genetic and RNA interference (RNAi) screens for life span regulatory genes have revealed that the daf-2 insulin-like signaling pathway plays a major role in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. This pathway converges on the DAF-16 transcription factor and may regulate life span by controlling the expression of a large number of genes, including free-radical detoxifying genes, stress resistance genes, and pathogen resistance genes. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes necessary for the extended life span of daf-2 mutants and identified approximately 200 gene inactivations that shorten daf-2 life span. Some of these gene inactivations dramatically shorten daf-2 mutant life span but less dramatically shorten daf-2; daf-16 mutant or wild-type life span. Molecular and behavioral markers for normal aging and for extended life span in low insulin/IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) signaling were assayed to distinguish accelerated aging from general sickness and to examine age-related phenotypes. Detailed demographic analysis, molecular markers of aging, and insulin signaling mutant test strains were used to filter progeric gene inactivations for specific acceleration of aging. Highly represented in the genes that mediate life span extension in the daf-2 mutant are components of endocytotic trafficking of membrane proteins to lysosomes. These gene inactivations disrupt the increased expression of the DAF-16 downstream gene superoxide dismutase sod-3 in a daf-2 mutant, suggesting trafficking between the insulin-like receptor and DAF-16. The activities of these genes may normally decline during aging. PMID:18006689

  7. Chronic Knockdown of the NTS AT1R Increases Blood Inflammatory-Endothelial Progenitor Cells Ratio and Exacerbates Hypertension in the SHR

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Zhiying; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Shi, Peng; Jun, Joo Yun; Dong, Ying; Murça, Tatiane M.; Lamont, Gwyneth J.; Cuadra, Adolfo; Yuan, Wei; Qi, Yanfei; Li, Qiuhong; Paton, Julian FR; Katovich, Michael J; Sumners, Colin; Raizada, Mohan K.

    2014-01-01

    AT1 receptor subtype a (AT1R1a) expression is increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. However, the chronic role of AT1Ra in the NTS for cardiovascular control is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that the NTS AT1Ra is involved in neural regulation of the peripheral inflammatory status, and linked with hypertension. Transduction of brain neuronal cultures with AAV2-AT1R-shRNA resulted in a 72% decrease in AT1Ra mRNA, and attenuated AngII-induced increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and neuronal firing. Specific NTS microinjection of AAV2-AT1R-shRNA vector in the SHR resulted in a ~30 mmHg increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to control vector injected animals (Sc-shRNA: 154±4; AT1R-shRNA: 183±10 mmHg), and induced a resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate to higher MAP. In addition, AAV2-AT1R-shRNA-treated SHRs exhibited a 74% decrease in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, CD90+, CD4−/5−/8−), and a 300% increase in the circulating inflammatory cells (IC) including CD4+/CD8+, CD45+/3+ T lymphocytes, and macrophages (CD68+). As a result, the EPC/IC ratio was decreased by 8~15 fold in the AT1R-shRNA-treated SHR. However, identical injection of AAV2-AT1R-shRNA into the NTS of WKY had no effect on MAP and ICs. These observations suggest that increased expression of the AT1Ra in SHR NTS may present a counter-hypertensive mechanism involving inflammatory/angiogenic cells. PMID:23547238

  8. A Model of Gene-Environment Interaction Reveals Altered Mammary Gland Gene Expression and Increased Tumor Growth following Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Bertha; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tretiakova, Maria; Krausz, Thomas; Pan, Deng; He, Jane; McClintock, Martha K.; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have revealed that social support improves the outcome of cancer patients, whereas epidemiologic studies suggest that social isolation increases the risk of death associated with several chronic diseases. However, the precise molecular consequences of an unfavorable social environment have not been defined. To do so, robust, reproducible preclinical models are needed to study the mechanisms whereby an adverse environment affects gene expression and cancer biology. Because random assignment of inbred laboratory mice to well-defined social environments allows accurate and repeated measurements of behavioral and endocrine parameters, transgenic mice provide a preclinical framework with which to begin to determine gene-environment mechanisms. In this study, we found that female C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen mice deprived of social interaction from weaning exhibited increased expression of genes encoding key metabolic pathway enzymes in the premalignant mammary gland. Chronic social isolation was associated with up-regulated lipid synthesis and glycolytic pathway gene expressionboth pathways are known to contribute to increased breast cancer growth. Consistent with the expression of metabolic genes in premalignant mammary tissue, isolated mice subsequently developed a significantly larger mammary gland tumors burden compared with group-housed mice. Endocrine evaluation confirmed that isolated mice developed a heightened corticosterone stress response compared with group-housed mice. Together, these transdisciplinary studies show for the first time that an adverse social environment is associated with altered mammary gland gene expression and tumor growth. Moreover, the identification of specific alterations in metabolic pathways gene expression favoring tumor growth suggests potential molecular biomarkers and/or targets (e.g., fatty acid synthesis) for preventive intervention in breast cancer. PMID:19789294

  9. Infections Are Not Increased in Scleroderma Compared to Non-Inflammatory Musculoskeletal Disorders Prior to Disease Onset

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Janet E; Goodwin, Jodi L; Ouimet, Janine M; Krizova, Adriana; Laskin, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of scleroderma (SSc) is unknown; immunogenic stimuli such as infections and vaccinations could theoretically be risk factors for scleroderma. Our objective was to assess the relationship between viral and bacterial infec-tions, and vaccinations, prior to diagnosis of SSc compared to non-inflammatory controls. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to individuals with SSc (n =83) and controls (n=351) with non-inflammatory musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders (os-teoarthritis, n = 204; tendonitis, n = 58; fibromyalgia, n= 89) from a rheumatology practice. Questions ascertained past in-fections, exposure to infectious agents and vaccination history. Results: The response rate was 78% (SSc) and 56% (MSK controls). The mean age was 56 1.6 (SSc) and 58 0.9 (MSK); 88% (SSc) and 82% (MSK) were female. No association between prior infections and SSc was observed. In fact, controls were more likely than SSc subjects to report any infec-tion within 1-year prior to disease diagnosis (35% vs. 16%, p<0.006), or to have suffered a trauma to affected joints prior to diagnosis (44% vs. 19%, p<0.0002). Within the 1-year prior to disease diagnosis, controls reported slightly more strep-tococcal infections (p<0.2), infections with diarrhea and vomiting (p<0.3), and antibiotic use (p<0.09), although none of these results were statistically significant. Histories of any hepatitis, rubella, any bacterial infection, and having had a pre-vious positive tuberculosis skin test were not significantly different between groups and were actually more often reported by the control subjects. SSc reported slightly more hepatitis B (p<0.08), more rheumatic fever (p<0.8) in past, and herpes zoster (p<0.4), although no differences reached significance. Conclusion: This study does not support that self-report of symptomatic infections are more likely to occur ever (prior to diagnosis) or within 1-year prior to symptom onset of SSc, or that vaccinations in adulthood trigger SSc. PMID:19088895

  10. Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Bustos, Israel; Serna, Manuel; Tescucano, Alonso; Alcantara-Farfan, Veronica; Ibanez, Miguel; Montanez, Cecilia; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2010-05-28

    Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.

  11. The Insect Peptide CopA3 Increases Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucosal Barrier Function to Prevent Inflammatory Responses in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Li Fang; Lee, Junguee; Seok, Heon; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Lamont, John Thomas; Kim, Ho

    2016-02-12

    The epithelial cells of the gut form a physical barrier against the luminal contents. The collapse of this barrier causes inflammation, and its therapeutic restoration can protect the gut against inflammation. EGF enhances mucosal barrier function and increases colonocyte proliferation, thereby ameliorating inflammatory responses in the gut. Based on our previous finding that the insect peptide CopA3 promotes neuronal growth, we herein tested whether CopA3 could increase the cell proliferation of colonocytes, enhance mucosal barrier function, and ameliorate gut inflammation. Our results revealed that CopA3 significantly increased epithelial cell proliferation in mouse colonic crypts and also enhanced colonic epithelial barrier function. Moreover, CopA3 treatment ameliorated Clostridium difficile toxin As-induced inflammation responses in the mouse small intestine (acute enteritis) and completely blocked inflammatory responses and subsequent lethality in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of chronic colitis. The marked CopA3-induced increase of colonocyte proliferation was found to require rapid protein degradation of p21(Cip1/Waf1), and an in vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that CopA3 directly facilitated ubiquitin ligase activity against p21(Cip1/Waf1). Taken together, our findings indicate that the insect peptide CopA3 prevents gut inflammation by increasing epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal barrier function. PMID:26655716

  12. Methotrexate treatment causes early onset of disease in a mouse model of Ross River virus-induced inflammatory disease through increased monocyte production.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Herrero, Lara J; Chen, Weiqiang; Rulli, Nestor E; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Part of the Togaviridae family, alphaviruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Sindbis virus (SINV) and Ross River virus (RRV), are able to cause significant inflammatory pathologies ranging from arthritis to encephalitis. Following symptomatic infection with arthritis-associated alphaviruses, patients often experience severe joint pain, affecting distal and small joints, which can last six months or longer. Recently, methotrexate (MTX), a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD), was used to treat patients experiencing chronic rheumatic symptoms following infection with CHIKV. Here, the effect of MTX on Ross River virus disease (RRVD) in mice was examined to better understand its therapeutic potential for alphaviral-induced musculoskeletal disease and to further our knowledge of the development of alphaviral pathologies. Using a mouse model, we analyzed the effect of MTX on RRVD. RRV disease pathogenesis in response to MTX treatment was determined by measuring levels of proinflammatory factors, cellular infiltrates, viral titer and histological analysis of infected tissues. RRV-infected mice receiving MTX treatment rapidly developed musculoskeletal disease, which correlated with a significant influx of inflammatory cell infiltrates into the skeletal muscle tissue. Although no difference was observed in the level of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the viral load increased at early time points post infection in the serum and quadriceps of MTX treated mice, possibly contributing to disease pathogenesis. Results suggest that MTX treatment of acute RRVD in mice provides no therapeutic benefit and underline the importance of inflammatory monocytes in alphaviral induced arthritides. PMID:23951095

  13. Exploiting natural variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes for increased ethanol resistance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey A; Elkon, Isaac M; McGee, Mick A; Higbee, Alan J; Gasch, Audrey P

    2010-12-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass holds promise as an alternative fuel. However, industrial stresses, including ethanol stress, limit microbial fermentation and thus prevent cost competitiveness with fossil fuels. To identify novel engineering targets for increased ethanol tolerance, we took advantage of natural diversity in wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We previously showed that an S288c-derived lab strain cannot acquire higher ethanol tolerance after a mild ethanol pretreatment, which is distinct from other stresses. Here, we measured acquired ethanol tolerance in a large panel of wild strains and show that most strains can acquire higher tolerance after pretreatment. We exploited this major phenotypic difference to address the mechanism of acquired ethanol tolerance, by comparing the global gene expression response to 5% ethanol in S288c and two wild strains. Hundreds of genes showed variation in ethanol-dependent gene expression across strains. Computational analysis identified several transcription factor modules and known coregulated genes as differentially expressed, implicating genetic variation in the ethanol signaling pathway. We used this information to identify genes required for acquisition of ethanol tolerance in wild strains, including new genes and processes not previously linked to ethanol tolerance, and four genes that increase ethanol tolerance when overexpressed. Our approach shows that comparative genomics across natural isolates can quickly identify genes for industrial engineering while expanding our understanding of natural diversity. PMID:20855568

  14. Exploiting Natural Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Identify Genes for Increased Ethanol Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Elkon, Isaac M.; McGee, Mick A.; Higbee, Alan J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass holds promise as an alternative fuel. However, industrial stresses, including ethanol stress, limit microbial fermentation and thus prevent cost competitiveness with fossil fuels. To identify novel engineering targets for increased ethanol tolerance, we took advantage of natural diversity in wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We previously showed that an S288c-derived lab strain cannot acquire higher ethanol tolerance after a mild ethanol pretreatment, which is distinct from other stresses. Here, we measured acquired ethanol tolerance in a large panel of wild strains and show that most strains can acquire higher tolerance after pretreatment. We exploited this major phenotypic difference to address the mechanism of acquired ethanol tolerance, by comparing the global gene expression response to 5% ethanol in S288c and two wild strains. Hundreds of genes showed variation in ethanol-dependent gene expression across strains. Computational analysis identified several transcription factor modules and known coregulated genes as differentially expressed, implicating genetic variation in the ethanol signaling pathway. We used this information to identify genes required for acquisition of ethanol tolerance in wild strains, including new genes and processes not previously linked to ethanol tolerance, and four genes that increase ethanol tolerance when overexpressed. Our approach shows that comparative genomics across natural isolates can quickly identify genes for industrial engineering while expanding our understanding of natural diversity. PMID:20855568

  15. Critical COPD respiratory illness is linked to increased transcriptomic activity of neutrophil proteases genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiling (GEP) in cells obtained from peripheral blood has shown that this is a very useful approach for biomarker discovery and for studying molecular pathogenesis of prevalent diseases. While there is limited literature available on gene expression markers associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the transcriptomic picture associated with critical respiratory illness in this disease is not known at the present moment. Findings By using Agilent microarray chips, we have profiled gene expression signatures in the whole blood of 28 COPD patients hospitalized with different degrees of respiratory compromise.12 of them needed of admission to the ICU, whilst 16 were admitted to the Respiratory Medicine Service. GeneSpring GX 11.0 software was used for performing statistical comparisons of transcript levels between ICU and non-ICU patients. Ingenuity pathway analysis 8.5 (IPA) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to select, annotate and visualize genes by function and pathway (gene ontology). T-test showed evidence of 1501 genes differentially expressed between ICU and non-ICU patients. IPA and KEGG analysis of the most representative biological functions revealed that ICU patients had increased levels of neutrophil gene transcripts, being [cathepsin G (CTSG)], [elastase, neutrophil expressed (ELANE)], [proteinase 3 (PRTN3)], [myeloperoxidase (MPO)], [cathepsin D (CTSD)], [defensin, alpha 3, neutrophil-specific (DEFA3)], azurocidin 1 (AZU1)], and [bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI)] the most representative ones. Proteins codified by these genes form part of the azurophilic granules of neutrophils and are involved in both antimicrobial defence and tissue damage. This neutrophil signature was paralleled by the necessity of advanced respiratory and vital support, and the presence of bacterial infection. Conclusion Study of transcriptomic signatures in blood suggests an essential role of neutrophil proteases in COPD patients with critical respiratory illness. Measurement and modulation of the expression of these genes could present an option for clinical monitoring and treatment of severe COPD exacerbations. PMID:22852767

  16. Polymorphism of inflammatory genes and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chia-Chang; Huang, Yung-Kai; Chung, Chi-Jung; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Lai, Li-An; Lin, Ying-Chin; Su, Chien-Tien; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic can generate reactive oxidative species, which can induce certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. This study aimed to investigate the joint effect of the polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C, IL-8 − 251 T/A and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. This study evaluated 300 pathologically-confirmed cases of UC and 594 cancer-free controls. Urinary arsenic species were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of TNF-α − 308 G/A, IL-6 − 174 G/C and IL-8 − 251 T/A was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The joint effects on UC risk were estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression. We found that the TNF-α − 308 A/A and IL-8 − 251 T/T polymorphisms were significantly associated with UC. Moreover, significant dose–response joint effect of TNF-α − 308 A/A or IL-8 − 251 T/T genotypes and arsenic methylation indices were seen to affect UC risk. The present results also showed a significant increase in UC risk in subjects with the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in urinary total arsenic and MMA%. In contrast, a significant decrease in UC risk was found in subjects who carried the IL-8 − 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in DMA%. - Highlights: • Joint effect of the TNF-α -308 A/A genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Joint effect of the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Urinary total arsenic level, TNF-α -308 A/A and IL-8 -251 T/T genotype affected UC.

  17. Arvelexin from Brassica rapa suppresses NF-κB-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression by inhibiting activation of IκB kinase

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Noh, Young-Su; Lee, Yong Sup; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Eunkyung; Chung, Hae-Gon; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Brassica rapa species constitute one of the major sources of food. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of arvelexin, isolated from B. rapa, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and on a model of septic shock induced by LPS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The expression of Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were determined by Western blot and/or RT-PCR respectively. To elucidate the underlying mechanism(s), activation of NF-κB activation and its pathways were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, reporter gene and Western blot assays. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of arvelexin were evaluated in endotoxaemia induced with LPS. KEY RESULTS Promoter assays for iNOS and COX-2 revealed that arvelexin inhibited LPS-induced NO and prostaglandin E2 production through the suppression of iNOS and COX-2 at the level of gene transcription. In addition, arvelexin inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by modulating a series of intracellular events of IκB kinase (IKK)-inhibitor κBα (IκBα)-NF-κB signalling. Moreover, arvelexin inhibited IKKβ-elicited NF-κB activation as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression. Serum levels of NO and inflammatory cytokines and mortality in mice challenged injected with LPS were significantly reduced by arvelexin. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Arvelexin down-regulated inflammatory iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β gene expression in macrophages interfering with the activation of IKKβ and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and thus, preventing NF-κB activation. PMID:21434881

  18. HDAC inhibitor increases histone H3 acetylation and reduces microglia inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; West, Eric J.; Van, Ken C.; Gurkoff, Gene G.; Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces a rapid and robust inflammatory response in the brain characterized in part by activation of microglia. A novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, 4-dimethylamino-N-[5-(2-mercaptoacetylamino)pentyl]benzamide (DMA-PB), was administered (0, 0.25, 2.5, 25 mg/kg) systemically immediately after lateral fluid percussion TBI in rats. Hippocampal CA2/3 tissue was processed for acetyl-histone H3 immunolocalization, OX-42 immunolocalization (for microglia), and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence (for degenerating neurons) at 24 h after injury. Vehicle-treated TBI rats exhibited a significant reduction in acetyl-histone H3 immunostaining in the ipsilateral CA2/3 hippocampus compared to the sham TBI group (p<0.05). The reduction in acetyl-histone H3 immunostaining was attenuated by each of the DMA-PB dosage treatment groups. Vehicle-treated TBI rats exhibited a high density of phagocytic microglia in the ipsilateral CA2/3 hippocampus compared to sham TBI in which none were observed. All doses of DMA-PB significantly reduced the density of phagocytic microglia (p<0.05). There was a trend for DMA-PB to reduce the number of degenerating neurons in the ipsilateral CA2/3 hippocampus (p = 0.076). We conclude that the HDAC inhibitor DMA-PB is a potential novel therapeutic for inhibiting neuroinflammation associated with TBI. PMID:18582446

  19. Novel angiogenin mutants with increased cytotoxicity enhance the depletion of pro-inflammatory macrophages and leukemia cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Christian; Braun, Hanna; Mladenov, Radoslav; Schenke, Lea; Cong, Xiaojing; Jost, Edgar; Brmmendorf, Tim H; Fischer, Rainer; Carloni, Paolo; Barth, Stefan; Nachreiner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Immunotoxins are fusion proteins that combine a targeting component such as an antibody fragment or ligand with a cytotoxic effector component that induces apoptosis in specific cell populations displaying the corresponding antigen or receptor. Human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs) are less immunogenic than conventional immunotoxins because they contain human pro-apoptotic enzymes as effectors. However, one drawback of hCFPs is that target cells can protect themselves by expressing endogenous inhibitor proteins. Inhibitor-resistant enzyme mutants that maintain their cytotoxic activity are therefore promising effector domain candidates. We recently developed potent variants of the human ribonuclease angiogenin (Ang) that were either more active than the wild-type enzyme or less susceptible to inhibition because of their lower affinity for the ribonuclease inhibitor RNH1. However, combining the mutations was unsuccessful because although the enzyme retained its higher activity, its susceptibility to RNH1 reverted to wild-type levels. We therefore used molecular dynamic simulations to determine, at the atomic level, why the affinity for RNH1 reverted, and we developed strategies based on the introduction of further mutations to once again reduce the affinity of Ang for RNH1 while retaining its enhanced activity. We were able to generate a novel Ang variant with remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells and pro-inflammatory macrophages. We also demonstrated the pro-apoptotic potential of Ang-based hCFPs on cells freshly isolated from leukemia patients. PMID:26472728

  20. Variation in the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Gamma Gene Affects Plasma HDL-Cholesterol without Modification of Metabolic or Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kächele, Martin; Hennige, Anita M.; Machann, Jürgen; Hieronimus, Anja; Lamprinou, Apostolia; Machicao, Fausto; Schick, Fritz; Fritsche, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Nürnberg, Bernd; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is a G-protein-coupled receptor-activated lipid kinase mainly expressed in leukocytes and cells of the cardiovascular system. PI3Kγ plays an important signaling role in inflammatory processes. Since subclinical inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, obesity-related insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell failure, we asked whether common genetic variation in the PI3Kγ gene (PIK3CG) contributes to body fat content/distribution, serum adipokine/cytokine concentrations, alterations in plasma lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, insulin release, and glucose homeostasis. Study Design Using a tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, we analyzed genotype-phenotype associations in 2,068 German subjects genotyped for 10 PIK3CG SNPs and characterized by oral glucose tolerance tests. In subgroups, data from hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the liver, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, and intravenous glucose tolerance tests were available, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for gene expression analysis. Results After appropriate adjustment, none of the PIK3CG tagging SNPs was significantly associated with body fat content/distribution, adipokine/cytokine concentrations, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or blood glucose concentrations (p>0.0127, all; Bonferroni-corrected α-level: 0.0051). However, six non-linked SNPs displayed at least nominal associations with plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations, two of them (rs4288294 and rs116697954) reaching the level of study-wide significance (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0004, respectively). More precisely, rs4288294 and rs116697954 influenced HDL2-, but not HDL3-, cholesterol. With respect to the SNPs’ in vivo functionality, rs4288294 was significantly associated with PIK3CG mRNA expression in PBMCs. Conclusions We could demonstrate that common genetic variation in the PIK3CG locus, possibly via altered PIK3CG gene expression, determines plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Since HDL2-, but not HDL3-, cholesterol is influenced by PIK3CG variants, PI3Kγ may play a role in HDL clearance rather than in HDL biogenesis. Even though the molecular pathways connecting PI3Kγ and HDL metabolism remain to be further elucidated, this finding could add a novel aspect to the pathophysiological role of PI3Kγ in atherogenesis. PMID:26658747

  1. An underlying mechanism for the increased mutagenesis of lagging-strand genes in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Million-Weaver, Samuel; Samadpour, Ariana N; Moreno-Habel, Daniela A; Nugent, Patrick; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Weiss, Eli; Hayden, Hillary S; Miller, Samuel I; Liachko, Ivan; Merrikh, Houra

    2015-03-10

    We previously reported that lagging-strand genes accumulate mutations faster than those encoded on the leading strand in Bacillus subtilis. Although we proposed that orientation-specific encounters between replication and transcription underlie this phenomenon, the mechanism leading to the increased mutagenesis of lagging-strand genes remained unknown. Here, we report that the transcription-dependent and orientation-specific differences in mutation rates of genes require the B. subtilis Y-family polymerase, PolY1 (yqjH). We find that without PolY1, association of the replicative helicase, DnaC, and the recombination protein, RecA, with lagging-strand genes increases in a transcription-dependent manner. These data suggest that PolY1 promotes efficient replisome progression through lagging-strand genes, thereby reducing potentially detrimental breaks and single-stranded DNA at these loci. Y-family polymerases can alleviate potential obstacles to replisome progression by facilitating DNA lesion bypass, extension of D-loops, or excision repair. We find that the nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC, but not RecA, are required for transcription-dependent asymmetry in mutation rates of genes in the two orientations. Furthermore, we find that the transcription-coupling repair factor Mfd functions in the same pathway as PolY1 and is also required for increased mutagenesis of lagging-strand genes. Experimental and SNP analyses of B. subtilis genomes show mutational footprints consistent with these findings. We propose that the interplay between replication and transcription increases lesion susceptibility of, specifically, lagging-strand genes, activating an Mfd-dependent error-prone NER mechanism. We propose that this process, at least partially, underlies the accelerated evolution of lagging-strand genes. PMID:25713353

  2. Compound K induces expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 gene in transformed human keratinocytes and increases hyaluronan in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujong; Kang, Byung Young; Cho, Si Yong; Sung, Dae Suk; Chang, Hui Kyung; Yeom, Myung Hun; Kim, Duk Hee; Sim, Young Chul; Lee, Yong Sung

    2004-04-01

    Ginsenosides, the major active ingredients of ginseng, have a variety of biomedical efficacies such as anti-aging, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammatory activities. To understand the effects of compound K (20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol), one of the major metabolites of ginsenosides, on the skin, we assessed the expression levels of about 100 transcripts in compound K-treated HaCaT cells using cDNA microarray analysis. One gene up-regulated by compound K was hyaluronan synthase2 (HAS2). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that compound K increased HAS2 mRNA in time- and dose-dependent manners. ELISA and immunocytochemistry using hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein showed that compound K effectively increased HA production in HaCaT cells. Finally, treatment of compound K on hairless mouse skin increased the amount of HA in the epidermis and papillary dermis. Our study suggests that topical application of compound K might prevent or improve the deteriorations, such as xerosis and wrinkles, partly ascribed to the age-dependent decrease of the HA content in human skin. PMID:15020224

  3. Immune Responsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Promotes Endotoxin Tolerance by Increasing A20 Expression in Macrophages through Reactive Oxygen Species*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingke; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chengcai; Han, Chaofeng; Meng, Jun; Liu, Xingguang; Xu, Sheng; Li, Nan; Wang, Qingqing; Shi, Xueyin; Cao, Xuetao

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis-associated immunosuppression (SAIS) is regarded as one of main causes for the death of septic patients at the late stage because of the decreased innate immunity with a more opportunistic infection. LPS-tolerized macrophages, which are re-challenged by LPS after prior exposure to LPS, are regarded as the common model of hypo-responsiveness for SAIS. However, the molecular mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance and SAIS remain to be fully elucidated. In addition, negative regulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered innate inflammatory response needs further investigation. Here we show that expression of immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) was highly up-regulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of septic patients and in LPS-tolerized mouse macrophages. IRG1 significantly suppressed TLR-triggered production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and IFN-? in LPS-tolerized macrophages, with the elevated expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and A20. Moreover, ROS enhanced A20 expression by increasing the H3K4me3 modification of histone on the A20 promoter domain, and supplement of the ROS abrogated the IRG1 knockdown function in breaking endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression. Our results demonstrate that inducible IRG1 promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression through ROS, indicating a new molecular mechanism regulating hypoinflammation of sepsis and endotoxin tolerance. PMID:23609450

  4. Lack of Interleukin-10-Mediated Anti-Inflammatory Signals and Upregulated Interferon Gamma Production Are Linked to Increased Intestinal Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in Pathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Diganta; Kenway-Lynch, Carys S.; Lala, Wendy; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Das, Arpita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that is important for maintenance of epithelial cell (EC) survival and anti-inflammatory responses (AIR). The majority of HIV infections occur through the mucosal route despite mucosal epithelium acting as a barrier to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, understanding the role of IL-10 in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis during HIV infection is of interest for better characterization of the pathogenesis of HIV-mediated enteropathy. We demonstrated here changes in mucosal IL-10 signaling during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques. Disruption of the epithelial barrier was manifested by EC apoptosis and loss of the tight-junction protein ZO-1. Multiple cell types, including a limited number of ECs, produced IL-10. SIV infection resulted in increased levels of IL-10; however, this was associated with increased production of mucosal gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), suggesting that IL-10 was not able to regulate AIR. This observation was supported by the downregulation of STAT3, which is necessary to inhibit production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and the upregulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3, which are important regulatory molecules in the IL-10-mediated AIR. We also observed internalization of the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) in mucosal lymphocytes, which could limit cellular availability of IL-10 for signaling and contribute to the loss of a functional AIR. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that internalization of IL-10R with the resultant impact on IL-10 signaling and dysregulation of the IL-10-mediated AIR might play a crucial role in EC damage and subsequent SIV/HIV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an important immunomodulatory cytokine plays a key role to control inflammatory function and homeostasis of the gastrointestinal mucosal immune system. Despite recent advancements in the study of IL-10 and its role in HIV infection, the role of mucosal IL-10 in SIV/HIV infection in inducing enteropathy is not well understood. We demonstrated changes in mucosal IL-10 signaling during SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier was evident along with the increased levels of mucosal IL-10 production. Increased production of mucosal IFN-γ and TNF-α during SIV infection suggested that the increased level of mucosal IL-10 was not able to regulate anti-inflammatory responses. Our findings demonstrate that internalization of IL-10R with the resultant impact on IL-10 signaling and dysregulation of the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory responses might play a crucial role in epithelial cell damage and subsequent SIV/HIV pathogenesis. PMID:25165117

  5. Premature arrest of myelin formation in transgenic mice with increased proteolipid protein gene dosage.

    PubMed

    Readhead, C; Schneider, A; Griffiths, I; Nave, K A

    1994-03-01

    Proteolipid protein (PLP) is an integral membrane protein of CNS myelin. Mutations of the X chromosome-linked PLP gene cause glial cell death and myelin deficiency in jimpy mice and other neurological mutants. As part of an attempt to rescue these mutants by transgenic complementation, we generated normal mouse lines expressing autosomal copies of the entire wild-type PLP gene. Surprisingly, increase of the PLP gene dosage in nonmutant mice with only 2-fold transcriptional overexpression results in a novel phenotype characterized by severe hypomyelination and astrocytosis, seizures, and premature death. This demonstrates that precise control of the PLP gene is a critical determinant of terminal oligodendrocyte differentiation. Dysmyelination of PLP transgenic mice provides experimental evidence that Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, previously associated with a partial duplication of the human X chromosome, can be caused by doubling of the PLP gene dosage. PMID:7512350

  6. Increased Cellular Free Cholesterol in Macrophage-specific Abca1 Knock-out Mice Enhances Pro-inflammatory Response of Macrophages*S?

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuewei; Lee, Ji-Young; Timmins, Jenelle M.; Brown, J. Mark; Boudyguina, Elena; Mulya, Anny; Gebre, Abraham K.; Willingham, Mark C.; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M.; Mishra, Nilamadhab; Maeda, Nobuyo; Parks, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out (Abca1M/M) mice were generated to determine the role of macrophage ABCA1 expression in plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the innate immune response of macrophages. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in chow-fed Abca1M/M and wild-type (WT) mice were indistinguishable. Compared with WT macrophages, Abca1M/M macrophages had a >95% reduction in ABCA1 protein, failed to efflux lipid to apoA-I, and had a significant increase in free cholesterol (FC) and membrane lipid rafts without induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Abca1M/M macrophages exhibited enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased activation of the NF-?B and MAPK pathways, which could be diminished by silencing MyD88 or by chemical inhibition of NF-?B or MAPK. In vivo LPS injection also resulted in a higher pro-inflammatory response in Abca1M/M mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion of macrophages with methyl-?-cyclodextrin normalized FC content between the two genotypes and their response to LPS; cholesterol repletion of macrophages resulted in increased cellular FC accumulation and enhanced cellular response to LPS. Our results suggest that macrophage ABCA1 expression may protect against atherosclerosis by facilitating the net removal of excess lipid from macrophages and dampening pro-inflammatory MyD88-dependent signaling pathways by reduction of cell membrane FC and lipid raft content. PMID:18552351

  7. Increased Eotaxin and MCP-1 Levels in Serum from Individuals with Periodontitis and in Human Gingival Fibroblasts Exposed to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Sulniute, Rima; Palmqvist, Py; Majster, Mirjam; Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Zwicker, Stephanie; Clark, Reuben; Önell, Sebastian; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lerner, Ulf H.; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in periodontal tissue destruction, which may ultimately lead to tooth loss. The disease is characterized by continuous leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated by local chemokine production but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. There are no reliable serologic biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis, which is today based solely on the degree of local tissue destruction, and there is no available biological treatment tool. Prompted by the increasing interest in periodontitis and systemic inflammatory mediators we mapped serum cytokine and chemokine levels from periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. We used multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeling and identified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin as clearly associated with periodontitis along with C-reactive protein (CRP), years of smoking and age, whereas the number of remaining teeth was associated with being healthy. Moreover, body mass index correlated significantly with serum MCP-1 and CRP, but not with eotaxin. We detected higher MCP-1 protein levels in inflamed gingival connective tissue compared to healthy but the eotaxin levels were undetectable. Primary human gingival fibroblasts displayed strongly increased expression of MCP-1 and eotaxin mRNA and protein when challenged with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), key mediators of periodontal inflammation. We also demonstrated that the upregulated chemokine expression was dependent on the NF-κΒ pathway. In summary, we identify higher levels of CRP, eotaxin and MCP-1 in serum of periodontitis patients. This, together with our finding that both CRP and MCP-1 correlates with BMI points towards an increased systemic inflammatory load in patients with periodontitis and high BMI. Targeting eotaxin and MCP-1 in periodontitis may result in reduced leukocyte infiltration and inflammation in periodontitis and maybe prevent tooth loss. PMID:26241961

  8. Biological therapy increases the health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Holdam, Anne Sofie Krogh; Bager, Palle; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

    2016-06-01

    Objective Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have a considerable impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of biological therapy on HRQoL in IBD patients followed in an out-patient clinical setting and to compare the HRQoL scores to that of IBD patients without disease activity. Materials Observational and retrospective study in patients treated with biologics. A Short Health Scale (SHS) questionnaire on HRQoL consisting of four items (bowel symptoms, interference in daily life, worry, and general well-being) was completed and registered in each patient's medical journal. Data on HRQoL was collected at the beginning of treatment and every 3 months thereafter. The biologically treated group was compared with a control group of IBD patients without disease activity. Results We identified 114 patients who began a new round of biological treatment. These were either naïve to biologics or had a break in treatment for more 3 months. After 3 months of therapy, significant improvements in HRQoL compared to baseline were observed for every item on the SHS (p value < 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed a poorer HRQoL performance in women, patients with Crohn's disease, and smokers. The median HRQoL score regarding bowel symptoms and interference in daily life was similar to the control group after 6 months of treatment. Conclusion Treatment with biological therapy leads to a statistically and