Science.gov

Sample records for increased laser power

  1. Investigation into the absorptivity change in metals with increased laser power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blidegn, M. Sc. K.; Olsen, Flemming O.

    1997-04-01

    At first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG or carbon-dioxide lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However, it has been demonstrated that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser interaction. An increase which cannot be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing and when modeling processes the Drude free electron model or simplifications, such as the Hagen-Rubens relation, have often been used. This paper discusses the need to extend the Drude model taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect at low light intensities and a multiphoton absorption model in order to describe the increase in the absorptivity at high intensities. The model is compared with experimental results carried out at low power, and tested on experimental absorptivity measurements at high power YAG laser pulses, found in literature.

  2. Techniques for increasing output power from mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, A.; Vawter, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    Mode-locked semiconductor lasers have drawn considerable attention as compact, reliable, and relatively inexpensive sources of short optical pulses. Advances in the design of such lasers have resulted in vast improvements in pulsewidth and noise performance, at a very wide range of repetition rates. An attractive application for these lasers would be to serve as alternatives for large benchtop laser systems such as dye lasers and solid-state lasers. However, mode-locked semiconductor lasers have not yet approached the performance of such systems in terms of output power. Different techniques for overcoming the problem of low output power from mode-locked semiconductor lasers will be discussed. Flared and arrayed lasers have been used successfully to increase the pulse saturation energy limit by increasing the gain cross section. Further improvements have been achieved by use of the MOPA configuration, which utilizes a flared semiconductor amplifier s amplify pulses to energies of 120 pJ and peak powers of nearly 30W.

  3. Systemic increase in blood flow in conditions of disturbed microcirculation after low-power laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindl, Andreas; Schindl, Liesbeth

    1996-11-01

    As described earlier by our group, topical application of low power laser irradiation seems to have a systemic effect in terms of improving microcirculation in patients suffering from microangiopathic disorders. The aim of the presented study was to prove these clinical findings by measuring the skin temperature as a parameter of microcirculation suing an infrared-thermography-camera system. Patients who attended the Institute for Laser medicine between January and July 1996 and suffered from angiopathy of different origin were examined. The laser system used was a combined IR/HeNe- laser, power output 30mW, irradiation time was varied to keep the IED at a value of 20J/cm2. Irradiation was performed proximally to the affected area, the contralateral side being left untreated, IR-thermography was started after reaching adaption to the room temperature, with pictures of both extremities taken in 10 minute intervals during the irradiation and up to 45 minutes after stopping the irradiation. Results show a rise in temperature over the affected region as well as over the contralateral extremity, with maximal changes of up to + 3.0 degrees C. The improvement of blood flow started 15 min. after the onset of laser irradiation and persisted up to 45 min. after stopping the irradiation. The results obtained are in good accordance with findings of previously performed studies, undertaken with patients with autoimmune-angiopathies such as Buerger's disease. Therefore, we conclude that topical application of low power lasers is able to induce a systemic improvement of blood flow in conditions of disturbed microcirculation.

  4. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  5. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  6. Increased power of broad-area lasers (808nm/980nm) and applicability to 10-mm bars with up to 1000Watt QCW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, D.; Meusel, J.; Hennig, P.; Lorenzen, D.; Schröder, M.; Hülsewede, R.; Sebastian, J.

    2007-02-01

    The new packaging technology from JENOPTIK Laserdiode GmbH and the new chip technology from JENOPTIK Diode Lab GmbH increases the output power, the quality and durability of new broad area lasers. Tests with different pulse widths and duty cycles have been conducted. A maximum linear power density of 213mW/μm has been found for 808nm and 980nm laser, limited by thermal rollover. The tests were performed for duty cycles from 0.1% to 5% and pulse widths of 50μs and 100μm. Over 32W output power was reached for 150μm emitter at a 0.1 % duty cycle and 50μs pulse length. With the new diode laser technology 10mm bars with a 44% filling factor were produced. These laser bars, mounted on micro channel coolers, reached a maximum output power of 1000W. To our knowledge this is the highest power reported up to now for 980nm material with 100μs pulses and 0.1% duty cycle.

  7. Laser power transmission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Christiansen, W. H.; Hertzberg, A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of studies which have led to the design of a conceptual device in which the limitation of transforming heat into coherent radiation can be examined. By exploring the basic thermodynamic relationships controlling the operation of this device, it is concluded that a closed-cycle gasdynamic laser is possible in which all of the shaft energy supplied can be turned into laser radiation. Hence, it is possible in principle to convert heat into coherent radiation with approximately the same efficiency with which heat may be converted into electricity. By modifying the closed-cycle-gasdynamic-laser system, this system can be operated in reverse and the incoming radiation may be used to pump the gas in the loop so that shaft power can be extracted. By carefully controlling the temperature distribution in this machine, laser energy can be converted into useful shaft energy with an efficiency approaching 1 .

  8. High power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

  9. Power Play, Laser Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under a NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) SDL, Inc., has developed the TC40 Single-Frequency Continuously Tunable 500 mw Laser Diode System. This is the first commercially available single frequency diode laser system that offers the broad tunability and the high powers needed for atomic cooling and trapping as well as a variety of atomic spectroscopy techniques. By greatly decreasing both the equipment and the costs of entry, the TC40 enables researchers to pursue some of the most interesting areas of physical chemistry, biochemistry, and atomic physics.

  10. High Power Pulsed Gas Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteman, W. J.

    1987-09-01

    Gas lasers have shown to be capable of delivering tens of terrawatt aspeak power or tens of kilowatt as average power. The efficiencies of most high power gas lasers are relatively high compared with other types of lasers. For instance molecular lasers, oscillating on low lying vibrational levels, and excimer lasers may have intrinsic efficiencies above 10%.The wavelengths of these gas lasers cover the range from the far infrared to the ultra-violet region, say from 12000 to 193 nm. The most important properties are the scalability, optical homogeneity of the excited medium, and the relatively low price per watt of output power. The disadvantages may be the large size of the systems and the relatively narrow line width with limited tunability compared with solid state systems producing the same peak power. High power gas lasers group into three main categories depending on the waste-heat handling capacity.

  11. High-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1980-04-02

    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization.

  12. Laser powered interorbital vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. T.; Cooper, J. J.; Eggleston, G. P.; Farkas, M. A.; Hunt, D. C.; King, J.; Nguyen, H.; Rahal, G.; Saw, K.; Tipton, R.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design of a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an Earth space station and a lunar base is presented. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring eight days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional nine days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box-beam truss, a payload module, and propellant tanks. The total mass of the vehicle, fully loaded, is 63,300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables that allow the vehicle to thrust tangential to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of a 23-m-diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter, and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18,000 kg of cargo and is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35,000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks that allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing, and tracking system that can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. In addition, an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

  13. Laser power conversion system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Orbit to orbit and orbit to ground laser power conversion systems and power transfer are discussed. A system overview is presented. Pilot program parameters are considered: SLPS assumptions are listed, a laser SPS overview is presented, specifications are listed, and SLPS coats are considered.

  14. Direct nuclear-powered lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods of converting the energy of nuclear fission fragments to laser power are summarized. The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers was achieved. The basic processes involved in the production of a plasma by nuclear radiation were studied. Significant progress was accomplished in this area and a large amount of basic data on plasma formation and atomic and molecular processes leading to population inversions is available.

  15. Grating rhomb diode laser power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, Peter O.; Abshire, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A compact device for spectrally combining many laser-diode beams into a single multi-wavelength beam has been developed for use in NASA's intersatellite communications programs. The prototype device combines seven 30 milliwatt beams into a single beam with 70 percent efficiency producing an output of approximately 150 milliwatts. All beams are coaxial and can be collimated with a single transmitter optical system. The combining technique is relatively insensitive to drifts in the laser-diode wavelength and provides both increased power output and laser-diode source redundancy. Combination of more than 100 laser-diodes producing an output greater than 5 watts appears feasible with this technique.

  16. Metal vapor lasers with increased reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. N.; Sabotinov, N. V.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Shumeiko, A. S.; Kostadinov, I. K.; Vasilieva, A. V.; Reimer, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    Results of investigation and development of an excitation pulse generator with magnetic pulse compression by saturation chokes for pumping of active media of CuBr, Sr, and Ca vapor lasers are presented. A high-power IGBT transistor is used as a commutator. The generator can operate at excitation pulse repetition frequencies up to 20 kHz. The total average power for all laser lines of the CuBr laser pumped by this generator is ~6.0 W; it is ~1.3-1.7 W for the Sr and Ca lasers.

  17. The future of high power laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poprawe, Reinhart; Loosen, Peter; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter

    2007-05-01

    High Power Lasers have been used for years in corresponding applications. Constantly new areas and new processes have been demonstrated, developed and transferred to fruitful use in industry. With the advent of diode pumped solid state lasers in the multi-kW-power regime at beam qualities not far away from the diffraction limit, a new area of applicability has opened. In welding applications speeds could be increased and systems could be developed with higher efficiently leading also to new perspectives for increased productivity, e.g. in combined processing. Quality control is increasingly demanded by the applying industries, however applications still are rare. Higher resolution of coaxial process control systems in time and space combined with new strategies in signal processing could give rise to new applications. The general approach described in this paper emphasizes the fact, that laser applications can be developed more efficiently, more precisely and with higher quality, if the laser radiation is tailored properly to the corresponding application. In applying laser sources, the parameter ranges applicable are by far wider and more flexible compared to heat, mechanical or even electrical energy. The time frame ranges from several fs to continuous wave and this spans approximately 15 orders of magnitude. Spacewise, the foci range from several µm to cm and the resulting intensities suitable for materials processing span eight orders of magnitude from 10 3 to 10 11 W/cm2. In addition to space (power, intensity) and time (pulse) the wavelength can be chosen as a further parameter of optimization. As a consequence, the resulting new applications are vast and can be utilized in almost every market segment of our global economy (Fig. 1). In the past and only partly today, however, this flexibility of laser technology is not exploited in full in materials processing, basically because in the high power regime the lasers with tailored beam properties are not

  18. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  19. High-power fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Fibre lasers are now associated with high average powers and very high beam qualities. Both these characteristics are required by many industrial, defence and scientific applications, which explains why fibre lasers have become one of the most popular laser technologies. However, this success, which is largely founded on the outstanding characteristics of fibres as an active medium, has only been achieved through researchers around the world striving to overcome many of the limitations imposed by the fibre architecture. This Review focuses on these limitations, both past and current, and the creative solutions that have been proposed for overcoming them. These solutions have enabled fibre lasers to generate the highest diffraction-limited average power achieved to date by solid-state lasers.

  20. High power disk lasers: advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havrilla, David; Holzer, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Though the genesis of the disk laser concept dates to the early 90's, the disk laser continues to demonstrate the flexibility and the certain future of a breakthrough technology. On-going increases in power per disk, and improvements in beam quality and efficiency continue to validate the genius of the disk laser concept. As of today, the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over monolithic architectures. With well over 1000 high power disk lasers installations, the disk laser has proven to be a robust and reliable industrial tool. With advancements in running cost, investment cost and footprint, manufacturers continue to implement disk laser technology with more vigor than ever. This paper will explain important details of the TruDisk laser series and process relevant features of the system, like pump diode arrangement, resonator design and integrated beam guidance. In addition, advances in applications in the thick sheet area and very cost efficient high productivity applications like remote welding, remote cutting and cutting of thin sheets will be discussed.

  1. High Power Picosecond Laser Pulse Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M Y; Jovanovic, I; Semenov, V A; Betts, S M; Brown, C; Gibson, D J; Shuttlesworth, R M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate a nonlinear crystal-based short pulse recirculation cavity for trapping the second harmonic of an incident high power laser pulse. This scheme aims to increase the efficiency and flux of Compton-scattering based light sources. We demonstrate up to 36x average power enhancement of frequency doubled sub-millijoule picosecond pulses, and 17x average power enhancement of 177 mJ, 10 ps, 10 Hz pulses.

  2. High power excimer laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Paetzel, Rainer

    2006-02-01

    Today's excimer lasers are well-established UV laser sources for a wide variety of micromachining applications. The excimer's high pulse energy and average power at short UV wavelengths make them ideal for ablation of various materials, e. g., polyimide, PMMA, copper, and diamond. Excimer micromachining technology, driven by the ever-shrinking feature sizes of micro-mechanical and micro-electronic devices, is used for making semiconductor packaging microvias, ink jet nozzle arrays, and medical devices. High-power excimer laser systems are capable of processing large areas with resolution down to several microns without using wet chemical processes. For instance, drilling precise tapered holes and reel-to-reel manufacturing of disposable sensors have proven to be very cost-effective manufacturing techniques for volume production. Specifically, the new industrial excimer laser-the LAMBDA SX 315C-easily meets the high demands of cost-effective production. The stabilized output power of 315 watts at 300 Hz (308 nm) and its outstanding long-term stability make this laser ideal for high-duty-cycle, high-throughput micromachining. In this paper, high-power excimer laser technology, products, applications, and beam delivery systems will be discussed.

  3. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  4. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: LASER POWER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laser power abstract
    The reliability of the confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) to obtain intensity measurements and quantify fluorescence data is dependent on using a correctly aligned machine that contains a stable laser power. The laser power test appears to be one ...

  5. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    DOEpatents

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  6. High power semiconductor laser beam combining technology and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Tong, Cunzhu; Peng, Hangyu; Zhang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    With the rapid development of laser applications, single elements of diode lasers are not able to meet the increasing requirements on power and beam quality in the material processing and defense filed, whether are used as pumping sources or directly laser sources. The coupling source with high power and high beam quality, multiplexed by many single elements, has been proven to be a promising technical solution. In this paper, the authors review the development tendency of efficiency, power, and lifetime of laser elements firstly, and then introduce the progress of laser beam combining technology. The authors also present their recent progress on the high power diode laser sources developed by beam combining technology, including the 2600W beam combining direct laser source, 1000W fiber coupled semiconductor lasers and the 1000W continuous wave (CW) semiconductor laser sources with beam quality of 12.5×14[mm. mrad]2.

  7. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  8. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  9. Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, E. W.

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  10. INCREASING SCIENTIFIC POWER WITH STATISTICAL POWER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief survey of basic ideas in statistical power analysis demonstrates the advantages and ease of using power analysis throughout the design, analysis, and interpretation of research. he power of a statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis of the test...

  11. High power laser apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A high-power, continuous-wave laser was designed for use in power transmission and energy-collecting systems, and for producing incoherent light for pumping a laser material. The laser has a high repetitive pulsing rate per unit time, resulting in a high-power density beam. The laser is composed of xenon flash tubes powered by fast-charging capacitors flashed in succession by a high-speed motor connected to an automobile-type distributor.

  12. Potential converter for laser-power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Williams, Michael D.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Iles, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions, such as those associated with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), will require large amounts of power for operation of bases, rovers, and orbit transfer vehicles. One method for supplying this power is to beam power from a spaced based or Earth based laser power station to a receiver where laser photons can be converted to electricity. Previous research has described such laser power stations orbiting the Moon and beaming power to a receiver on the surface of the Moon by using arrays of diode lasers. Photovoltaic converters that can be efficiently used with these diode lasers are described.

  13. Bidirectional pumped high power Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Q; Yan, P; Li, D; Sun, J; Wang, X; Huang, Y; Gong, M

    2016-03-21

    This paper presents a 3.89 kW 1123 nm Raman all-fiber laser with an overall optical-to-optical efficiency of 70.9%. The system consists of a single-wavelength (1070nm) seed and one-stage bidirectional 976 nm non-wavelength-stabilized laser diodes (LDs) pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The unique part of this system is the application of non-wavelength-stabilized LDs in high power bidirectional pumping configuration fiber amplifier via refractive index valley fiber combiners. This approach not only increases the pump power, but also shortens the length of fiber by avoiding the usage of multi-stage amplifier. Through both theoretical research and experiment, the bidirectional pumping configuration presented in this paper proves to be able to convert 976 nm pump laser to 1070 nm laser via Yb3+ transfer, which is then converted into 1123 nm Raman laser via the first-order Raman effect without the appearance of any higher-order Raman laser. PMID:27136862

  14. High Power Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2004-04-12

    FEL Oscillators have been around since 1977 providing not only a test bed for the physics of Free Electron Lasers and electron/photon interactions but as a workhorse of scientific research. The characteristics that have driven the development of these sources are the desire for high peak and average power, high pulse energies, wavelength tunability, timing flexibility, and wavelengths that are unavailable from more conventional laser sources. User programs have been performed using such sources encompassing medicine, biology, solid state research, atomic and molecular physics, effects of non-linear fields, surface science, polymer science, pulsed laser vapor deposition, to name just a few. Recently the incorporation of energy recovery systems has permitted extension of the average power capabilities to the kW level and beyond. Development of substantially higher power systems with applications in defense and security is believed feasible with modest R&D efforts applied to a few technology areas. This paper will discuss at a summary level the physics of such devices, survey existing and planned facilities, and touch on the applications that have driven the development of these popular light sources.

  15. Benefits of low-power lasers on oral soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Cecchini, Silvia C.; Cecchini, Renata C.

    1996-04-01

    The last five years have represented a great advance in relation to laser development. Countries like Japan, United States, French, England, Israel and others, have been working on the association of researches and clinical applications, in the field of laser. Low power lasers like He-Ne laser, emitting at 632,8 nm and Ga-As-Al laser, at 790 nm, have been detached acting not only as a coadjutant but some times as an specific treatment. Low power lasers provide non thermal effect at wavelengths believed to stimulate circulation and cellular activity. These lasers have been used to promote wound healing and reduce inflammation edema and pain. This work presents a five year clinical study with good results related to oral tissue healing. Oral cavity lesions, like herpes and aphthous ulcers were irradiated with Ga-Al- As laser. In both cases, an excellent result was obtained. The low power laser application decrease the painful sintomatology immediately and increase the reparation process of these lesions. An excellent result was obtained with application of low power laser in herpetic lesions associated with a secondary infection situated at the lip commissure covering the internal tissue of the mouth. The healing occurred after one week. An association of Ga-Al-As laser and Nd:YAG laser have been also proven to be good therapy for these kind of lesions. This association of low and high power laser has been done since 1992 and it seems to be a complement of the conventional therapies.

  16. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The orbit-to-ground laser power conversion system analysis investigated the feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting solar energy into laser energy in space, and transmitting the laser energy to earth for conversion to electrical energy. The analysis included space laser systems with electrical outputs on the ground ranging from 100 to 10,000 MW. The space laser power system was shown to be feasible and a viable alternate to the microwave solar power satellite. The narrow laser beam provides many options and alternatives not attainable with a microwave beam.

  17. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  18. Master-Oscillator/Power-Amplifier Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Unger, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Master-oscillator/power-amplifier (MOPA) laser system operates in continuous-wave mode or in amplitude-modulation (e.g., pulse) mode by modulation of oscillator current. Power amplifier is laser-diode-pumped neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser; oscillator is laser diode. Offers relatively high efficiency and power. Because drive current to oscillator modulated, external electro-optical modulator not needed. Potential uses include free-space optical communications, coded laser ranging, and generation of high-power, mode-locked pulses.

  19. Independent assessment of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponikvar, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    Technical and architectural issues facing a laser power beaming system are discussed. Issues regarding the laser device, optics, beam control, propagation, and lunar site are examined. Environmental and health physics aspects are considered.

  20. System evaluations of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    1992-01-01

    The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

  1. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert J.; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the development of a high power 780 nm laser suitable for space applications of laser cooling. A possible solution is to use frequency doubling of high power 1560 nm telecom lasers. The presentation shows a diagram of the frequency conversion, and a graph of the second harmonic generation in one crystal, and the use of the cascading crystals. Graphs show the second harmonic power as a function of distance between crystals, second harmonic power vs. pump power, tunability of laser systems.

  2. Low Power Laser Stimulation Of Biochemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Robert F.; Rettmer, Rebecca L.; Davis, Holly

    1988-06-01

    Scattered clinical reports suggest that low power (LP) laser irradiation may induce a biostimulation of cell growth and/or metabolism, especially relating to healing processes. On the other hand, few basic science, in-depth reports relating to such effects have appeared. Hence, a mechanism of action of LP laser irradiation on cells is unknown. A systematic evaluation has been undertaken in order to define more clearly the experimental conditions for producing biostimulation and to provide some basis for action of LP laser irradiation. A Ga-Al-As diode laser emitting in the near infrared (904 nm) was used to effectively penetrate cells at energy levels that are in the mW range. The LP laser was pulsed at 50 ns and 200 hz. Human fibroblasts growing in culture served as the experimental model. Since LP laser irradiation has been reported to stimulate collagen synthesis, we first investigated the induction of hydroxyproline formation, a collagen precursor. This biosynthetic process could be increased two-fold at a twice daily energy input of 4.5 mJ. With proline supplementation, hydroxylation increased eight-fold. At approximately the same energy level and irradiation conditions, cells also had a three-fold increased uptake of ascorbic acid, a required cofactor for hydroxylation of proline. These findings considered together with published biochemical studies of collagen suggest that higher levels of intracellular ascorbate catalyze hydroxylation of proline and, concomitantly, induce collagen formation. Other data relevant to cell morphology and viability suggest that the LP laser irradiation had no effect on cell proliferation but rather was a transient effect on intermediary metabolism manifested as changes that may be unique to collagen.

  3. Dependence of terahertz power from laser-produced plasma on laser intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Jin, Z.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.

    2012-07-11

    Power of terahertz radiation from plasma which is generated from air irradiated by coupled ({omega}, 2{omega}) femtosecond laser pulses is analyzed for high laser intensities, for which non-linear plasma effects on the pulse propagation become essential, with multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations including the self-consistent plasma kinetics. The growth rate of THz power becomes slower as the laser intensity increases. A reason of such a lowering of efficiency in THz emission is found to be ionization of air by the laser pulse, which results in poor focusing of laser pulses.

  4. Innovations in high power fiber laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Eckhard; Mahrle, Achim; Lütke, Matthias; Standfuss, Jens; Brückner, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Diffraction-limited high power lasers represent a new generation of lasers for materials processing, characteristic traits of which are: smaller, cost-effective and processing "on the fly". Of utmost importance is the high beam quality of fiber lasers which enables us to reduce the size of the focusing head incl. scanning mirrors. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a lot of new applications. In the field of remote cutting and welding the beam quality is the key parameter. By reducing the size of the focusing head including the scanning mirrors we can reach scanning frequencies up to 1.5 kHz and in special configurations up to 4 kHz. By using these frequencies very thin and deep welding seams can be generated experienced so far with electron beam welding only. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a high potential for developing new applications from deep penetration welding to high speed cutting. Highly dynamic cutting systems with maximum speeds up to 300 m/min and accelerations up to 4 g reduce the cutting time for cutting complex 2D parts. However, due to the inertia of such systems the effective cutting speed is reduced in real applications. This is especially true if complex shapes or contours are cut. With the introduction of scanner-based remote cutting systems in the kilowatt range, the effective cutting speed on the contour can be dramatically increased. The presentation explains remote cutting of metal foils and sheets using high brightness single mode fiber lasers. The presentation will also show the effect of optical feedback during cutting and welding with the fiber laser, how those feedbacks could be reduced and how they have to be used to optimize the cutting or welding process.

  5. Excimer laser lead extraction catheter with increased laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, M. Sean; Taylor, Kevin D.; Lippincott, Rebecca A.; Sorokoumov, Oleg; Papaioannou, Thanassis

    2001-05-01

    A fiber optic catheter connected to a pulsed excimer laser (308 nm) is currently used to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads at Fluence of 60 mJ/mm2 and repetition rate of 40 Hz. The object of this study was to determine the effect of higher repetition rates (80 Hz) in the catheter's cutting performance. The penetration rate (micrometers /sec), and the associated mechanical and thermal effects were measured in soft (porcine myocardium) and hard tissue (bovine tendon) at 60 mJ/mm2-80 Hz, and were compared to the corresponding values at commercially available laser parameters (60 mJ/mm2-40 Hz). Ablation rates were measured with perforation experiments and the extent of thermal and mechanical damage was measured under polarized light microscopy. For hard (soft) tissue, the laser catheter demonstrated penetration speed of 106 +/- 32 (302 +/- 101) micrometers /sec at 40 Hz and 343 +/- 120 (830 +/- 364) micrometers /sec at 80 Hz. Maximum extent of thermal effects at 40 Hz and 80 Hz was 114 +/- 35 micrometers (72 +/- 18) and 233 +/- 63 micrometers (71 +/- 16) respectively. Maximum extent of mechanical effects at 40 Hz and 80 Hz was 188 +/- 63 micrometers (590 +/- 237) and 386 +/- 100 micrometers (767 +/- 160) respectively. In vitro testing of the laser catheter with 80 Hz laser parameters has demonstrated increased penetration speed in both soft and hard fibrous tissue, while maintaining associated thermal and mechanical effects within limited ranges.

  6. Laser beam application with high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Eckhard; Brenner, Berndt; Morgenthal, Lothar

    2007-05-01

    With the new industrial high power fiber lasers we have already stepped into a new generation of laser applications. These lasers are smaller, better, more cost-effective, and offer a processing "on the fly." Of utmost importance is their excellent beam quality which enables us to reduce the size of the focussing head including the scanning mirrors. With the reduced mass of the mirrors we can reach scanning frequencies up to 1.5 kHz and in special configurations up to 4 kHz. Using such mirrors with this high beam quality we can shape the key hole geometry, and thus it is possible to decrease the keyhole spiking, which always occur in the case of deep penetration welding. We can generate very thin and deep welding seams, which we have only experienced with electron beam welding. The excellent beam quality of the fiber lasers offers us a lot of new applications from deep penetration welding to high speed welding. By using beam scanning we are able to easily change the beam and the seam geometry. Furthermore, it is possible to work with this kind of laser from a distance of some meters between focussing/scanning head and the work piece. This technique is called remote processing or processing "on the fly." The excellent beam quality also enables us to cut very precisely, and due to the small cutting widths with a very high speed. In this case the main problem is that the roughness of the cutting edge increases a little bit. One reason for this is that we cannot blow out the mold as easily as we can do it with higher cutting widths. There are also polarized fiber lasers on the market where we can use the Brewster effect for different applications. The presentation will cover some physical basics including different industrial applications.

  7. High power laser beam delivery monitoring for laser safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, D. A.; Evans, D. R.; Tyrer, J. R.; Freeland, C. M.; Myler, J. K.

    1997-07-01

    The output of high power lasers used for material processing presents extreme radiation hazards. In normal operation this hazard is removed by the use of local shielding to prevent accidental exposure and system design to ensure efficient coupling of radiation into the workpiece. Faults in laser beam delivery or utilization can give rise to hazardous levels of laser radiation. A passive hazard control strategy requires that the laser system be enclosed such that the full laser power cannot burn through the housing under fault conditions. Usually this approach is too restrictive. Instead, active control strategies can be used in which a fault condition is detected and the laser cut off. This reduces the requirements for protective housing. In this work a distinction is drawn between reactive and proactive strategies. Reactive strategies rely on detecting the effects of an errant laser beam, whereas proactive strategies can anticipate as well as detect fault conditions. This can avoid the need for a hazardous situation to exist. A proactive strategy in which the laser beam is sampled at the final turning mirror is described in this work. Two control systems have been demonstrated; the first checks that beam power is within preset limits, the second monitors incoming beam power and position, and the radiation reflected back from the cutting head. In addition to their safety functions the accurate monitoring of power provides an additional benefit to the laser user.

  8. Laser Powered Launch Vehicle Performance Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the technical ground for modeling the physics of laser powered pulse detonation phenomenon. Laser powered propulsion systems involve complex fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer processes. Successful predictions of the performance of laser powered launch vehicle concepts depend on the sophisticate models that reflects the underlying flow physics including the laser ray tracing the focusing, inverse Bremsstrahlung (IB) effects, finite-rate air chemistry, thermal non-equilibrium, plasma radiation and detonation wave propagation, etc. The proposed work will extend the base-line numerical model to an efficient design analysis tool. The proposed model is suitable for 3-D analysis using parallel computing methods.

  9. Potential of laser for SPS power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

  10. Piezoelectric measurement of laser power

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method for measuring the energy of individual laser pulses or a series of laser pulses by reading the output of a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer which has received a known fraction of the total laser pulse beam. An apparatus is disclosed that reduces the incident energy on the PZ transducer by means of a beam splitter placed in the beam of the laser pulses.

  11. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; McDonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-02-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  12. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  13. Photovoltaic conversion of laser power to electrical power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic laser to electric converters are attractive for use with a space-based laser power station. The results of modeling studies for a silicon vertical junction converter used with a Nd laser are given. A computer code was developed for the model and this code was used to conduct a parametric study for a Si vertical junction converter consisting of one p-n junction irradiated with a Nd laser. These calculations predict an efficiency over 50 percent for an optimized converter.

  14. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-10-07

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced.

  15. The high-power iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Witte, K. J.

    The book provides a description of the present state of the art concerning the iodine laser, giving particular attention to the design and operation of pulsed high-power iodine lasers. The basic features of the laser are examined, taking into account aspects of spontaneous emission lifetime, hyperfine structure, line broadening and line shifts, stimulated emission cross sections, the influence of magnetic fields, sublevel relaxation, the photodissociation of alkyl iodides, flashlamp technology, excitation in a direct discharge, chemical excitation, and questions regarding the chemical kinetics of the photodissociation iodine laser. The principles of high-power operation are considered along with aspects of beam quality and losses, the design and layout of an iodine laser system, the scalability and prospects of the iodine laser, and the design of the single-beam Asterix III laser.

  16. Temporal response of laser power standards with natural convective cooling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Gan, Haiyong; Yu, Jing; Zang, Erjun

    2016-01-25

    Laser power detectors with natural convective cooling are convenient to use and hence widely applicable in a power range below 150 W. However, the temporal response characteristics of the laser power detectors need to be studied in detail for accurate measurement. The temporal response based on the absolute laser power standards with natural convective cooling is studied through theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and experimental verifications. Our results show that the response deviates from a single exponential function and that an ultimate response balance is difficult to achieve because the temperature rise of the heat sink leads to continuous increase of the response. To determine the measurement values, an equal time reading method is proposed and validated by the laser power calibrations. PMID:26832477

  17. Laser power beaming for satellite applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-09-22

    A serious consideration of laser power beaming for satellite applications appears to have grown out of a NASA mission analysis for transmitting power to lunar bases during the two week dark period. System analyses showed that laser power beaming to the moon in conjunction with efficient, large area solar cell collection panels, were an attractive alternative to other schemes such as battery storage and nuclear generators, largely because of the high space transportation costs. The primary difficulty with this scheme is the need for very high average power visible lasers. One system study indicated that lasers in excess of 10 MW at a wavelength of approximately 850 nm were required. Although such lasers systems have received much attention for military applications, their realization is still a long term goal.

  18. Solar powered blackbody-pumped lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Walter H.; Sirota, J. M.

    1991-02-01

    A concept for a solar-powered laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, typically CO or CO2 or possibly a solid state laser medium. High power cw blackbody- pumped lasers with efficiencies on the order of 20 percent or more are feasible. The physical basis of this idea is reviewed. Small scale experiments using a high temperature oven as the optical pump have been carried out with gas laser mixtures. Detailed calculations showing a potential efficiency of 35 percent for blackbody pumped Nd:YAG system are discussed.

  19. Power conversion efficiency of semiconductor injection lasers and laser arrays in CW operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of optimizing power conversion efficiency of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays and minimizing efficiency degradation due to temperature effects is treated. A method for calculating this efficiency is described and some calculated results are presented and discussed. Under some conditions, a small increase in the thermal resistance of the device can result in a large reduction of its efficiency. Temperature effects are important in high-power semiconductor laser, and in particular in laser arrays, where low thermal resistance heat sinking may be crucial to the device operation.

  20. High-power disk lasers: advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havrilla, David; Ryba, Tracey; Holzer, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Though the genesis of the disk laser concept dates to the early 90's, the disk laser continues to demonstrate the flexibility and the certain future of a breakthrough technology. On-going increases in power per disk, and improvements in beam quality and efficiency continue to validate the genius of the disk laser concept. As of today, the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over monolithic architectures. With about 2,000 high power disk lasers installations, and a demand upwards of 1,000 lasers per year, the disk laser has proven to be a robust and reliable industrial tool. With advancements in running cost, investment cost and footprint, manufacturers continue to implement disk laser technology with more vigor than ever. This paper will explain recent advances in disk laser technology and process relevant features of the laser, like pump diode arrangement, resonator design and integrated beam guidance. In addition, advances in applications in the thick sheet area and very cost efficient high productivity applications like remote welding, remote cutting and cutting of thin sheets will be discussed.

  1. High-power laser applications in Nippon Steel Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamida, Katsuhiro

    2000-02-01

    The laser, which was invented in 1960, has been developed using various substances of solids, liquids, gases and semiconductors as laser active media. Applications of laser utilizing the coherent properties of laser light and the high power density light abound in many industries and in heavy industries respectively. The full-scale use of lasers in the steel industry began nearly 23 years ago with their applications as controllable light sources. Its contribution to the increase in efficiency and quality of the steel making process has been important and brought us the saving of the energy, the resource and the labor. Laser applications in the steel making process generally require high input energy, so it is essential to consider the interaction between the laser beam and the irradiated material. In particular, the reflectivity of the laser beam on the surface of material and the quantity of the laser-induced plasma are critical parameters for high efficient processes with low energy losses. We have developed plenty of new laser systems for the steel making process with their considerations in mind. A review of the following high-power-laser applications is given in the present paper: (1) Use of plasma as a secondary heat source in CO2 laser welding for connecting steel sheets of various grades. (2) Laser-assisted electric resistance welding of pipes. (3) New type all-laser-welded honeycomb panels for high-speed transport. (4) Laser flying welder for continuous hot rolling mill using two 45 kW CO2 lasers.

  2. High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

    2001-05-23

    We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

  3. Application and the key technology on high power fiber-optic laser in laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Li, Qiushi; Meng, Haihong; Sui, Xin; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhai, Xuhua

    2014-12-01

    The soft-killing laser weapon plays an important role in photoelectric defense technology. It can be used for photoelectric detection, search, blinding of photoelectric sensor and other devices on fire control and guidance devices, therefore it draws more and more attentions by many scholars. High power fiber-optic laser has many virtues such as small volume, simple structure, nimble handling, high efficiency, qualified light beam, easy thermal management, leading to blinding. Consequently, it may be used as the key device of soft-killing laser weapon. The present study introduced the development of high power fiber-optic laser and its main features. Meanwhile the key technology of large mode area (LMA) optical fiber design, the beam combination technology, double-clad fiber technology and pumping optical coupling technology was stated. The present study is aimed to design high doping LMA fiber, ensure single mode output by increasing core diameter and decrease NA. By means of reducing the spontaneous emission particle absorbed by fiber core and Increasing the power density in the optical fiber, the threshold power of nonlinear effect can increase, and the power of single fiber will be improved. Meantime, high power will be obtained by the beam combination technology. Application prospect of high power fiber laser in photoelectric defense technology was also set forth. Lastly, the present study explored the advantages of high power fiber laser in photoelectric defense technology.

  4. The Way to Increased Airplane Engine Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vohrer, Eugen

    1939-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an outline of the present state of development and point out the possibilities available for the further increase in the power/displacement ratio, the economy, and the reliability of the engine. Some of the aspects discussed are methods of increasing take-off power, the various methods of preparation of the fuel mixture and their effect on power, economy, and safety.

  5. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The orbit-to-orbit laser energy conversion system analysis established a mission model of satellites with various orbital parameters and average electrical power requirements ranging from 1 to 300 kW. The system analysis evaluated various conversion techniques, power system deployment parameters, power system electrical supplies and other critical supplies and other critical subsystems relative to various combinations of the mission model. The analysis show that the laser power system would not be competitive with current satellite power systems from weight, cost and development risk standpoints.

  6. Deformable mirror for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrň; a, Libor; Sarbort, Martin; Hola, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    The modern trend in high power laser applications such as welding, cutting and surface hardening lies in the use of solid-state lasers. The output beam of these lasers is characterized by a Gaussian intensity distribution. However, the laser beams with different intensity distributions, e.g. top-hat, are preferable in various applications. In this paper we present a new type of deformable mirror suitable for the corresponding laser beam shaping. The deformation of the mirror is achieved by an underlying array of actuators and a pressurized coolant that also provides the necessary cooling. We describe the results of the surface shape measurement using a 3D scanner for different settings of actuators. Further, we show the achieved intensity distributions measured by a beam profiler for a low power laser beam reflected from the mirror.

  7. Actuator requirements for laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiders, G.W.

    1994-12-31

    Design considerations and working formulas and graphs are presented for estimating the actuator requirements for adaptive optics correction of global tilt and residual piston error arising from atmospheric turbulence along a ground-to-space path. Frequency characteristics are calculated for several important crosswind conditions for the case where the active segments are very small compared to the full aperture; it is shown that the velocity profile has a strong effect on the power spectra and that high slew rates significantly increase the required high-frequency response and accentuate the effects of high-attitude turbulence. Predictions are given for the SELENE laser power beaming system which uses active control of a segmented primary telescope mirror.

  8. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.D.; McKechnie, T.S.; Neal, D.R.

    1994-03-01

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, the authors investigate the basic system parameters and trade-offs of using reactor pumped laser technology to beam power from the Nevada Test Site. A first order argument is used to develop a consistent set of requirements for such a system.

  9. High-power single-frequency fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Weihua

    Single frequency laser sources are desired in many applications. Various architectures for achieving high power single frequency fiber laser outputs have been investigated and demonstrated. Axial gain apodization can affect the lasing threshold and spectral modal discrimination of DFB lasers. Modeling results show that if properly tailored, the lasing threshold can be reduced by 21% without sacrificing modal discrimination, while simultaneously increasing the differential output power between both ends of the laser. A dual-frequency 2 cm silica fiber laser with a wavelength spacing of 0.3 nm was demonstrated using a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) reflector. The output power reached 43 mW with the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) greater than 60 dB. By thermally tuning the overlap between the spectra of PM FBG and SM FBG, a single polarisation, single frequency fibre laser was also demonstrated with an output power of 35 mW. From the dual frequency fiber laser, dual frequency switching was achieved by tuning the pump power of the laser. The dual frequency switching was generated by the thermal effects of the absorbed pump in the ytterbium doped fiber. Suppression and elimination of self pulsing in a watt level, dual clad ytterbium doped fiber laser was demonstrated. Self pulsations are caused by the dynamic interaction between the photon population and the population inversion. The addition of a long section of passive fiber in the laser cavity makes the gain recovery faster than the self pulsation dynamics, allowing only stable continuous wave lasing. A single frequency, hybrid Brillouin/ytterbium fiber laser was demonstrated in a 12 m ring cavity The output power reached 40 mW with an OSNR greater than 50 dB. To scale up the output power, a dual clad hybrid Brillouin/ytterbium fiber laser was studied. A numerical model including third order SBS was used to calculate the laser power performance. Simulation shows that 5 W single

  10. Permeability-increasing effects of low-power light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemtsev, Igor Z.; Koudryavtsev, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The actions of physico-chemical mechanisms of low power light, applied in medicine are discussed. The investigations were prepared both in experiment on laboratory animals and in emergency-care clinics, where I worked with physicians as the theory-investigator. In this message I propose the theory of permeability increasing effects of low power light. Proton- permeability increasing effects on membranes go to the bioenergetic mechanism of low power light action. Sodium-permeability increasing effects on excitable membranes go to the reflex mechanism of low power light action. We suppose the medical mechanism of laser irradiation effects on the blood to be connected with water-permeability increasing effects because of blood cell membrane depolarization and shaking. We measured the dependence of red blood cell membrane water-permeability coefficient upon the low power light irradiation wavelength in the range 625 - 645 nm. So it was proved that He-Ne laser irradiation with 633 nm wavelength excites dissolved molecular oxygen from the ground triplet state to the singlet state. Fast relaxation of singlet oxygen to triplet state in water medium near membrane with the time 10-6 sec go to the membrane purification mechanism of low power light action.

  11. Solar-pumped laser for free space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.

    1989-01-01

    Laser power transmission; laser systems; space-borne and available lasers; 2-D and 1 MW laser diode array systems; technical issues; iodine solar pumped laser system; and laser power transmission applications are presented. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  12. Integration of high power lasers in bending tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bammer, F.; Holzinger, B.; Humenberger, G.; Schuöcker, D.; Schumi, T.

    The integration of high power lasers into bending tools creates a possibility to bend brittle materials with conventional presses. A diode laser, which is based on 200W-laser-bars and a solid state laser with 3 kW are used in this work. By heating the material within a narrow zone the ductility is increased and the forming process can be enabled. The assembly of the heat source within the bending tools is a prerequisite in order to feed energy into the workpiece before, during and after the forming process. As a result the heating and forming process can be optimized regarding any material.

  13. Early history of high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, George W.

    2002-02-01

    This paper gives the history of the invention and development of early high power lasers, to which the author contributed and had personal knowledge. The earliest hint that a high power laser could be built came from the electric CO2-N2-He laser of Javan. It happened that the director of the Avco-Everett Research Laboratory had written his Ph.D. dissertation on the deactivation of the vibrational excitation of N2 in an expanding flow under Edward Teller, then at Columbia Univ. The director then started an in-house project to determine if gain could be achieved in a mixture similar to Javan's by means of a shock tunnel where a shock heated mixture of N2, CO2, and He gas was expanded through a supersonic nozzle into a cavity. This concept was named by the author as the gasdynamic laser (GDL). The paper traces the history of the initial gain measurements, the Mark II laser, the RASTA laser, the Tri-Service laser, its troubles and solutions, the United Technology's XLD gasdynamic laser, and their ALL laser. The history of the coastal Crusader will also be mentioned. Also discussed are the early experiments on a combustion-driven chemical laser, and its subsequent rejection by the director.

  14. High average power lasers for future particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jay W.; Crane, John K.; Messerly, Michael J.; Prantil, Matthew A.; Pax, Paul H.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Allen, Graham S.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Phan, Henry H.; Heebner, John E.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Hartouni, Edward P.; Siders, Craig W.; Spinka, Thomas M.; Barty, C. P. J.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Haefner, Leon C.; Albert, Felicie; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Bonanno, Regina E.

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are of increasing interest to the accelerator community and include applications as diverse as stripping electrons from hydrogen atoms, sources for Compton scattering, efficient high repetition rate lasers for dielectric laser acceleration, peta-watt peak power lasers for laser wake field and high energy, short pulse lasers for proton and ion beam therapy. The laser requirements for these applications are briefly surveyed. State of the art of laser technologies with the potential to eventually meet those requirements are reviewed. These technologies include diode pumped solid state lasers (including cryogenic), fiber lasers, OPCPA based lasers and Ti:Sapphire lasers. Strengths and weakness of the various technologies are discussed along with the most important issues to address to get from the current state of the art to the performance needed for the accelerator applications. Efficiency issues are considered in detail as in most cases the system efficiency is a valuable indicator of the actual ability of a given technology to deliver the application requirements.

  15. Satellites Would Transmit Power By Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Walker, Gilbert H.; HUMES D. H.; Kwon, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Arrays of diode lasers concentrate power into narrow beams. Baseline design of system formulated with regard to two particular missions that differ greatly in power requirements, thus showing scalability and attributes of basic system. Satellite system features large-scale array amplifier of high efficiency, injection-locked amplifiers, coherent combination of beams, and use of advanced lithographic technology to fabricate diode lasers in array. Extremely rapid development of applicable technologies make features realizable within decade.

  16. Power scaling of semiconductor laser pumped Praseodymium-lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Heumann, E.; Huber, G.; Ostroumov, V.; Seelert, W.

    2007-04-01

    We report on efficient lasing of Pr-doped fluoride materials with cw output powers up to 600 mW in the visible spectral range. Praseodymium doped LiYF4 and LiLuF4 crystals were pumped either by an intracavity frequency doubled optically pumped semiconductor laser with output powers up to 1.6 W and nearly diffraction limited beam quality or by a multimode GaN-laser diode with an output power of about 370 mW. Furthermore, intracavity frequency doubling of the red Pr-laser radiation to 320 nm reaching output powers of more than 360 mW with a conversion efficiency of 61% and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 22% are presented.

  17. The Mercury Laser Advances Laser Technology for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C A; Caird, J; Moses, E

    2009-01-21

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is on target to demonstrate 'breakeven' - creating as much fusion-energy output as laser-energy input. NIF will compress a tiny sphere of hydrogen isotopes with 1.8 MJ of laser light in a 20-ns pulse, packing the isotopes so tightly that they fuse together, producing helium nuclei and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. The achievement of breakeven will culminate an enormous effort by thousands of scientists and engineers, not only at Livermore but around the world, during the past several decades. But what about the day after NIF achieves breakeven? NIF is a world-class engineering research facility, but if laser fusion is ever to generate power for civilian consumption, the laser will have to deliver pulses nearly 100,000 times faster than NIF - a rate of perhaps 10 shots per second as opposed to NIF's several shots a day. The Mercury laser (named after the Roman messenger god) is intended to lead the way to a 10-shots-per-second, electrically-efficient, driver laser for commercial laser fusion. While the Mercury laser will generate only a small fraction of the peak power of NIF (1/30,000), Mercury operates at higher average power. The design of Mercury takes full advantage of the technology advances manifest in its behemoth cousin (Table 1). One significant difference is that, unlike the flashlamp-pumped NIF, Mercury is pumped by highly efficient laser diodes. Mercury is a prototype laser capable of scaling in aperture and energy to a NIF-like beamline, with greater electrical efficiency, while still running at a repetition rate 100,000 times greater.

  18. The development of a high average power glass laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J. D.

    1984-05-01

    The subject contract has as its objective the development of a high average power glass laser by systematically improving the factors which influence the ability of a laser glass to handle large power levels. Based upon the availability of the thermal laser glass composition Q-100, the rationale used was toward the improvement of the efficiency of a glass laser by developing methods to increase the pumping efficiency and toward the improvement of the power handling capability of the glass laser rod itself. These incremental developments were broken down as follows: (1) Characterization of Q-100 Laser Glass: The measurement of its thermo-physical and thermo-optical properties to better define its engineering design parameters. (2) Improve Pumping Efficiency or Q-100: Primarily by cladding Q-100 with a matching cladding glass which would act as a lens and improve the transfer of pumping energy from the flashlamp. (3) Reduce thermal loading of Q-100 by Selective filtering of the flashlamp radiation and/or use energy transfer schemes to increase that portion of the flashlamp radiation corresponding to the neodymium pump bands. (4) Increase the rupture strength of Q-100 to directly increase its power-handling capability. (5) Investigate alternate pump sources to improve efficiency.

  19. High power diode pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.

    2008-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali lasers have developed rapidly since their first demonstration. These lasers offer a path to convert highly efficient, but relatively low brightness, laser diodes into a single high power, high brightness beam. General Atomics has been engaged in the development of DPALs with scalable architectures. We have examined different species and pump characteristics. We show that high absorption can be achieved even when the pump source bandwidth is several times the absorption bandwidth. In addition, we present experimental results for both potassium and rubidium systems pumped with a 0.2 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser. These data show slope efficiencies of 67% and 72% respectively.

  20. Laser beamed power: Satellite demonstration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Westerlund, Larry H.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to use a ground-based laser to beam light to the solar arrays of orbiting satellites, to a level sufficient to provide all or some of the operating power required. Near-term applications of this technology for providing supplemental power to existing satellites are discussed. Two missions with significant commercial pay-off are supplementing solar power for radiation-degraded arrays and providing satellite power during eclipse for satellites with failed batteries.

  1. Moderate-power cw fibre lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2004-10-31

    A review of the development and investigation of moderate-power (10{sup -1}-10{sup 2} W) cw fibre lasers is presented. The properties of optical fibres doped with rare-earth ions and methods for fabricating double-clad fibres are considered. The methods for fabrication of fibre Bragg gratings used as selective reflectors are discussed and the grating properties are analysed. The main pump schemes for double-clad fibre lasers are described. The properties of fibre lasers doped with neodymium, ytterbium, erbium, thulium, and holmium ions are also considered. The principles of fabrication of Raman converters of laser radiation based on optical fibres of different compositions are discussed and the main results of their studies are presented. It is concluded that fibre lasers described in the review can produce moderate-power radiation at any wavelength in the spectral range from 0.9 to 2 {mu}m. (review)

  2. Photovoltaic conversion of laser power to electrical power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Photovoltaic laser to electric converters are attractive for use with a space-based laser power station. This paper presents the results of modeling studies for a silicon vertical junction converter used with a Nd laser. A computer code was developed for the model and this code was used to conduct a parametric study for a Si vertical junction converter consisting of one p-n junction irradiated with a Nd laser. These calculations predict an efficiency over 50 percent for an optimized converter.

  3. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  4. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  5. High Power Lasers And Their Application In Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, W. L.

    1985-02-01

    The idea of using a laser for materials processing is more than 20 years old. Although the concept of a non-contact method for processing with a beam of light has been pursued with great interest and enthusiasm, the practical use of laser beam processing was slow to develop. The lasers available in the 1960's were fragile and of relatively low power. In the 1970's lasers in the multi-kilowatt range were developed but the problem of laser acceptance by the customer had to be overcome. Today, reliable Nd-Yag and CO2-lasers are available and laser processing is a fast growing market. An additional boost is expected with the development of the next generation of lasers and with increased knowledge of the physical phenomena that underlie laser material processing. This paper will review latest developments in laser technology and laser-workpiece interaction with special emphasis on the impact of high speed photography on the research work in these areas.

  6. High power gas laser - Applications and future developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.

    1977-01-01

    Fast flow can be used to create the population inversion required for lasing action, or can be used to improve laser operation, for example by the removal of waste heat. It is pointed out that at the present time all lasers which are capable of continuous high-average power employ flow as an indispensable aspect of operation. High power laser systems are discussed, taking into account the gasdynamic laser, the HF supersonic diffusion laser, and electric discharge lasers. Aerodynamics and high power lasers are considered, giving attention to flow effects in high-power gas lasers, aerodynamic windows and beam manipulation, and the Venus machine. Applications of high-power laser technology reported are related to laser material working, the employment of the laser in controlled fusion machines, laser isotope separation and photochemistry, and laser power transmission.

  7. Laser welding of polymers using high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Friedrich G.; Russek, Ulrich A.

    2002-06-01

    Laser welding of polymers using high power diode lasers offers specific process advantages over conventional technologies, such as short process times while providing optically and qualitatively valuable weld seams, contactless yielding of the joining energy, absence of process induced vibrations, imposing minimal thermal stress and avoiding particle generation. Furthermore, this method exhibits high integration capabilities and automatization potential. Moreover, because of the current favorable cost development within the high power diode laser market laser welding of polymers has become more and more an industrially accepted joining method. This novel technology permits both, reliable high quality joining of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive micro components and hermetic sealing of macro components. There are different welding strategies available, which are adaptable to the current application. Within the frame of this discourse scientific and also application oriented result concerning laser transmission welding of polymers using preferably diode lasers are presented. Besides the sue laser system the fundamental process strategies as well as decisive process parameters are illustrated. The importance of optical, thermal and mechanical properties is discussed. Applications at real technical components will be presented, demonstrating the industrial implementation capability and the advantages of a novel technology.

  8. Laser welding of polymers using high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Friedrich G.; Russek, Ulrich A.

    2003-09-01

    Laser welding of polymers using high power diode lasers offers specific process advantages over conventional technologies, such as short process times while providing optically and qualitatively valuable weld seams, contactless yielding of the joining energy, absence of process induced vibrations, imposing minimal thermal stress and avoiding particle generation. Furthermore this method exhibits high integration capabilities and automatization potential. Moreover, because of the current favorable cost development within the high power diode laser market laser welding of polymers has become more and more an industrially accepted joining method. This novel technology permits both, reliable high quality joining of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive micro components and hermetic sealing of macro components. There are different welding strategies available, which are adaptable to the current application. Within the frame of this discourse scientific and also application oriented results concerning laser transmission welding of polymers using preferably diode lasers are presented. Besides the used laser systems the fundamental process strategies as well as decisive process parameters are illustrated. The importance of optical, thermal and mechanical properties is discussed. Applications at real technical components will be presented, demonstrating the industrial implementation capability and the advantages of a novel technology.

  9. Systems analysis on laser beamed power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.

  10. Novel approaches to increasing the brightness of broad area lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, P.; Winterfeldt, M.; Decker, J.; Ekterai, M.; Fricke, J.; Knigge, S.; Maaßdorf, A.; Erbert, G.

    2016-03-01

    Progress in studies to increase the lateral brightness Blat of broad area lasers is reviewed. Blat=Pout/BPPlat is maximized by developing designs and technology for lowest lateral beam parameter product, BPPlat, at highest optical output power Pout. This can be achieved by limiting the number of guided lateral modes and by improving the beam quality of low-order lateral modes. Important effects to address include process and packaging induced wave-guiding, lateral carrier accumulation and the thermal lens profile. A careful selection of vertical design is also shown to be important, as are advanced techniques to filter out higher order modes.

  11. Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication.

    PubMed

    Arnon, S

    1999-05-20

    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the lines of sight of their optics must be aligned for the duration of the communication. The satellite pointing and tracking systems perform the alignment. The satellite pointing systems vibrate because of tracking noise and mechanical impacts (such as thruster operation, the antenna pointing mechanism, the solar array driver, navigation noise, tracking noise). These vibrations increase the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. An expression is derived for adaptive transmitter power that compensates for vibration effects in heterodyne laser satellite links. This compensation makes it possible to keep the link BER performance constant for changes in vibration amplitudes. The motivation for constant BER is derived from the requirement for future satellite communication networks with high quality of service. A practical situation of a two-low-Earth-orbit satellite communication link is given. From the results of the example it is seen that the required power for a given BER increases almost exponentially for linear increase in vibration amplitude. PMID:18319913

  12. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  13. A High Power Amplifier for a Single Mode 1064 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stites, R. W.; O'Hara, K. M.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the construction of a high power amplifier system for a single mode 1064 nm laser. At the heart of this device is a 0.27% neodymium doped yttrium orthovanadate crystal that is double end pumped by two 30 Watt broadband diode arrays at 808 nm. For a 50 Watt TEM00 single freqency seed laser, we have observed an amplified power output in excess of 60 Watts for single pass configuration. A further increase in output power can be attained by retroreflecting the beam back through the crystal a second time. Such a device has direct application in the construction of optical lattices where high power single frequency lasers are required.

  14. Increasing Laser Stability with Improved Electronic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxel, Daylin; Bennett, Aaron; Erickson, Christopher J.; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin S.

    2010-03-01

    We present several electronic instruments developed to implement an ultra-stable laser lock. These instruments include a high speed, low noise homodyne photo-detector; an ultrahigh stability, low noise current driver with high modulation bandwidth and digital control; a high-speed, low noise PID controller; a low-noise piezo driver; and a laser diode temperature controller. We will present the theory of operation for these instruments, design and construction techniques, and essential characteristics for each device.

  15. Transmyocardial laser revascularization with a high-power (800 W) CO2 laser: clinical report with 50 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhaoguang; Ye, Jianguang; Yu, Jianbo

    1999-09-01

    This paper reports the clinical experience in transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) with high power CO2 laser and evaluates the preliminary results of TMLR. TMLR may improve angina pectoris and myocardial perfusion significantly. To switch on the laser in proper order may be helpful to shorten duration of surgery. A gentle removal of fat on the apex may increase the successful transmyocardial penetration.

  16. Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; Yalisove, Steve

    2009-01-01

    An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/ele c t - rode assembly. The feasibility of the roughening technique was demonstrated in experiments in which proton-conducting membranes made of a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, protonconducting polymer were ablated by use of femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that when proper combinations of the pulse intensity, pulse-repetition rate, and number of repetitions was chosen, the initially flat, smooth membrane surfaces became roughened to such an extent as to be converted to networks of nodules interconnected by filaments (see Figure 1). In further experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on a pristine (smooth) membrane and on two laser-roughened membranes after the membranes were coated with platinum on both sides. Some preliminary EIS data were interpreted as showing that notwithstanding the potential for laser-induced damage, the bulk conductivities of the membranes were not diminished in the roughening process. Other preliminary EIS data (see Figure 2) were interpreted as signifying that the surface areas of the laser-roughened membranes were significantly greater than those of the smooth membrane. Moreover, elemental analyses showed that the sulfur-containing molecular groups necessary for proton conduction remained intact, even near the laser-roughened surfaces. These preliminary results can be taken

  17. Analytical Applications Of Laser Powered Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodin, R. L.; Kajkowski, K. A.

    1984-05-01

    The ability to rapidly heat samples using infrared laser radiation without the complicating effects of hot surfaces offers new opportunities for pyrolysis techniques in materials characterization and process control. By using pulsed radiation, timescales on the order of microseconds are achieved, restricting the chemistry primarily to initial reactions. The homogeneous nature of laser powered heating minimizes wall reactions and improves reproducibility by eliminating effects of surface contamination in the pyrolysis reactor. In Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis (LPHP), a pulsed CO2 laser (10μm) is used to rapidly heat a gas mixture to be pyrolyzed. If the mixture does not absorb 10um radiation, a chemically inert sensitizer such as SF6 or SiF4 must be added to couple energy into the mixture. Temperatures up to 1200K can be reached, with reaction times ranging from lOpsec to lOmsec. Product analysis is by gas chromatography after a sufficient number of laser pulses to generate detectable amounts of products. Applications of LPHP to hydrocarbon mixture analysis will be presented, as well as potential applications to process control. The short reaction times in LPHP will be illustrated by methane and ethane pyrolysis, which also provide information on the details of the temperature profile during laser powered pyrolysis.

  18. Power analysis of light source in laser projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jingyuan; Shi, Ancun; Zhang, Yunfang; Fang, Qing; Liu, Yuliang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we design a high power and small volume laser projector using the red laser diode, green laser diode, blue laser diode and green fluorescence as light source, which could improve the performance of the projector significantly with longer lifetime than lamps, higher reliability, and larger color gamut. According to the requirement of CIE Standard Illuminant D65 and light output, the power of red laser diode, green laser diode, blue laser diode and green fluorescence were calculated. The energy efficiency of four base-color optical path was also analyzed. It could be concluded that the blue laser and red laser have higher power requirements.

  19. Reliability of high power laser diodes with external optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsendorf, Dennis; Schneider, Stephan; Meinschien, Jens; Tomm, Jens W.

    2016-03-01

    Direct diode laser systems gain importance in the fields of material processing and solid-state laser pumping. With increased output power, also the influence of strong optical feedback has to be considered. Uncontrolled optical feedback is known for its spectral and power fluctuation effects, as well as potential emitter damage. We found that even intended feedback by use of volume Bragg gratings (VBG) for spectral stabilization may result in emitter lifetime reduction. To provide stable and reliable laser systems design, guidelines and maximum feedback ratings have to be found. We present a model to estimate the optical feedback power coupled back into the laser diode waveguide. It includes several origins of optical feedback and wide range of optical elements. The failure thresholds of InGaAs and AlGaAs bars have been determined not only at standard operation mode but at various working points. The influence of several feedback levels to laser diode lifetime is investigated up to 4000h. The analysis of the semiconductor itself leads to a better understanding of the degradation process by defect spread. Facet microscopy, LBIC- and electroluminescence measurements deliver detailed information about semiconductor defects before and after aging tests. Laser diode protection systems can monitor optical feedback. With this improved understanding, the emergency shutdown threshold can be set low enough to ensure laser diode reliability but also high enough to provide better machine usability avoiding false alarms.

  20. Materials working with low power CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    While the application of high power (50-5000 W) lasers to materials working is well known, the use of low power (1-5w) CO2 lasers has received little attention. This paper presents methods of utilizing low power CO2 lasers in materials processing, such as cutting, drilling, and welding of small organic (e.g., plastic) parts. Laser hardware is discussed and the waveguide laser is presented as an example of low-power materials working hardware. This paper also reports some of the applications which are ideally-handled by low power CO2 lasers, and reviews the factors which contribute to the successful use of these lasers.

  1. Effect of low power laser irradiation on macrophage phagocytic capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Song, Sheng; Tang, Yu; Zhou, Feifan

    2011-03-01

    Phagocytosis and subsequent degradation of pathogens by macrophages play a pivotal role in host innate immunity in mammals. Laser irradiation has been found to produce photobiological effects with evidence of interference with immunological functions. However, the effects of laser on the immune response have not been extensively characterized. In this study, we focused our attention on the effects of He-Ne laser on the phagocytic activity of macrophages by using flow cytometry (FCM). After irradiating at fluence of 0, 1, 2 J/cm2 with He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 3mw), the cells were incubated with microsphere and then subjected to FACS analysis. The results showed that Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) leads to an increase in phagocytosis on both mouse peritoneal macrophages and the murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7. In addition, we demonstrated that LPLI increased phagocytosis of microsphere in a dose-dependent manner, reaching a maximum at fluence of 2 J/cm2. Taken together, our results indicated that Low-power laser irradiation with appropriate dosage can enhance the phagocytosis of macrophage, and provided a theoretical base for the clinical use of the He-Ne laser.

  2. High speed micromachining with high power UV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rajesh S.; Bovatsek, James M.

    2013-03-01

    Increasing demand for creating fine features with high accuracy in manufacturing of electronic mobile devices has fueled growth for lasers in manufacturing. High power, high repetition rate ultraviolet (UV) lasers provide an opportunity to implement a cost effective high quality, high throughput micromachining process in a 24/7 manufacturing environment. The energy available per pulse and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of diode pumped solid state (DPSS) nanosecond UV lasers have increased steadily over the years. Efficient use of the available energy from a laser is important to generate accurate fine features at a high speed with high quality. To achieve maximum material removal and minimal thermal damage for any laser micromachining application, use of the optimal process parameters including energy density or fluence (J/cm2), pulse width, and repetition rate is important. In this study we present a new high power, high PRF QuasarR 355-40 laser from Spectra-Physics with TimeShiftTM technology for unique software adjustable pulse width, pulse splitting, and pulse shaping capabilities. The benefits of these features for micromachining include improved throughput and quality. Specific example and results of silicon scribing are described to demonstrate the processing benefits of the Quasar's available power, PRF, and TimeShift technology.

  3. Comparison of electrically driven lasers for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G.; Conway, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    High-power lasers in space could provide power for a variety of future missions such as spacecraft electric power requirements and laser propulsion. This study investigates four electrically pumped laser systems, all scaled to 1-MW laser output, that could provide power to spacecraft. The four laser systems are krypton fluoride, copper vapor, laser diode array, and carbon dioxide. Each system was powered by a large solar photovoltaic array which, in turn, provided power for the appropriate laser power conditioning subsystem. Each system was block-diagrammed, and the power and efficiency were found for each subsystem block component. The copper vapor system had the lowest system efficiency (6 percent). The CO2 laser was found to be the most readily scalable but has the disadvantage of long laser wavelength.

  4. High power laser applications in Nippon Steel Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamida, Katsuhiro

    2003-03-01

    The full-scale use of lasers in the steel industry began 25 years ago with their applications as controllable light sources. The laser systems contribute to increase efficiency and quality of the steel making processes, and also save energy of resources and labor. Laser applications in the steel making process generally require high input energy, however, it is essential to consider the interaction between the laser beam and materials. In particular, the reflectivity of the laser beam on the surface of material and the quantity of the laser-induced plasma are critical parameters for high efficient processes. We newly developed methods and systems of high power 45 kW CO2 laser welding of hot steel specimens with their applications as welding characteristics of hot steel specimens that temperature is about 1000 degree C, have been examined. Using laser induced plasma as a secondary heat source, the penetration depth improves about 30% compared to that at room temperature. The bead width is also enlarged by 10%. The maximum depth is 38 mm at 1m/min welding velocity at 40 kW. A beam weaving method is adopted for further enlargement of bead width without degrading fusion efficiency. It is also effective for suppressing the bead depth deviation. Additionally, several new applications, for example, new type all-laser-welded honeycomb panels for high- speed civil transport, will be talked.

  5. High power Nd:YAG spinning disk laser.

    PubMed

    Ongstad, Andrew P; Guy, Matthew; Chavez, Joeseph R

    2016-01-11

    We report on a high power Nd:YAG spinning disk laser. The eight cm diameter disk generated 200 W CW output with 323 W of absorbed pump in a near diffraction-limited beam. The power conversion efficiency was 64%. The pulsed result, 5 ms pulses at 10 Hz PRF, was nearly identical to the CW result indicating good thermal management. Rotated at 1200-1800 RPM with He impingement cooling the disk temperature increased by only 17 °C reaching a maximum temperature of ~31 °C. The thermal dissipation per unit of output power was 0.61 watt of heat generated per watt of laser output, which is below the typical range of 0.8-1.1 for 808 nm diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers. PMID:26832242

  6. Transmission Of Power Via Combined Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    Laser Diode Array (LDA) appears to be most efficient means of transferring power from Earth to satellites and between satellites, in terms of mass and size, of various laser configurations. To form large-scale-array amplifier (LSAA), element LDA's must generate well-defined diffraction-limited beams. Coherent matching of phases among LDA's enables system to generate good beam pattern in far field over thousands of kilometers. By passing beam from master laser through number of LDA amplifiers simultaneously, one realizes coherence among amplified output beams. LSAA used for transmission of power with efficiency of approximately 80 percent into receiver of moderate size at 5,000 km. Also transmits data at high rates by line-of-sight rather than fiber optics.

  7. Solutions for stability and astigmatism in high power laser resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narro, R.; Arronte, M.; de Posada, E.; Ponce, L.; Rodríguez, E.

    2009-09-01

    A method is proposed for the design of fundamental mode high power resonators, with joined stability zones. A parameter is created which gives the minimum length a laser resonator should have while having at the same time the broadest stabilities zones. For multimode and large mode volume resonators, a configuration is introduced for maximizing the laser overall efficiency due to the compensation of the astigmatism induced by the flash lamp pumping heating. The later configuration proposes a dual-active medium resonator, with 90 degree rotation around the optical axis between the astigmatic thermal lenses of the mediums. The reliability of this configuration is corroborated experimentally using a Nd:YAG dual-active medium resonator. It is found that in the pumping power range where the astigmatism compensation is possible, the overall efficiency is constant, even when increasing the excitation power with the consequent increase of the thermal lens dioptric power.

  8. Development of high coherence high power 193nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masaki; Fuchimukai, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yoichi; Onose, Takashi; Kamba, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hironori; Qu, Chen; Tamiya, Mitsuru; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinji; Kakizaki, Koji; Xuan, Hongwen; Zhao, Zhigang; Kobayashi, Yohei; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2016-03-01

    We have been developing a hybrid 193 nm ArF laser system that consists of a solid state seeding laser and an ArF excimer laser amplifier for power-boosting. The solid state laser consists of an Yb-fiber-solid hybrid laser system and an Er-fiber laser system as fundamentals, and one LBO and three CLBO crystals for frequency conversion. In an ArF power amplifier, the seed laser passes through the ArF gain media three times, and an average power of 110 W is obtained. As a demonstration of the potential applications of the laser, an interference exposure test is performed.

  9. Vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuo

    2015-02-01

    High power CO2 laser is widely used in various scientific, industrial and military applications. Vibration is a common phenomenon during laser working process, it will affect the working performance of high power CO2 laser, vibration must be strictly controlled in the condition where the laser pointing is required. This paper proposed a method to investigate the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser. An experiment device with vibration acceleration sensor was established to measure vibration signal of CO2 laser, the measured vibration signal was mathematically treated using space-frequency conversion, and then the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser can be obtained.

  10. Epitaxial design of ultra high power tunable laser gain section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaping; Benson, Trevor M.

    2005-09-01

    High power widely tunable lasers are extremely desirable for telecom applications as a replacement for distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems, due to their dynamic provision properties. They are also sought after for many other applications, such as phased radar systems, optical switching and routing. This paper introduces novel design ideas and approaches on how to achieve ultra high power in the design of an InGaAsP-InP based widely tunable laser gain section. The inventive ideas are basically composed of two parts. Firstly, to increase the facet optical output power by the inclusion of an InP spacer layer below the ridge and above the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) stack, in order to have extra freedom in the control of widening the single mode ridge width. Secondly, to reduce the free-carrier absorption loss by the inclusion of a bulk balance layer structure below the MQWs stack and above the buffer layer, so as to largely shift the optical mode distribution to the intrinsic and n-doped side of the epilayer structure where the free-carrier absorption loss is lower than that of the p-doped side. Simulation results show that the proposed epilayer designs of the ultra high power gain sections would greatly increase the facet optical output power of a tunable laser, by up to about 80%. It should be noted that these novel epilayer design ideas and approaches developed for the gain section are applicable to the designs of ultra high power DFB lasers and other InGaAsP-InP based lasers.

  11. High-Power Fiber Lasers Using Photonic Band Gap Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiDomenico, Leo; Dowling, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers (HPFLs) would be made from photonic band gap (PBG) materials, according to the proposal. Such lasers would be scalable in the sense that a large number of fiber lasers could be arranged in an array or bundle and then operated in phase-locked condition to generate a superposition and highly directed high-power laser beam. It has been estimated that an average power level as high as 1,000 W per fiber could be achieved in such an array. Examples of potential applications for the proposed single-fiber lasers include welding and laser surgery. Additionally, the bundled fibers have applications in beaming power through free space for autonomous vehicles, laser weapons, free-space communications, and inducing photochemical reactions in large-scale industrial processes. The proposal has been inspired in part by recent improvements in the capabilities of single-mode fiber amplifiers and lasers to produce continuous high-power radiation. In particular, it has been found that the average output power of a single strand of a fiber laser can be increased by suitably changing the doping profile of active ions in its gain medium to optimize the spatial overlap of the electromagnetic field with the distribution of active ions. Such optimization minimizes pump power losses and increases the gain in the fiber laser system. The proposal would expand the basic concept of this type of optimization to incorporate exploitation of the properties (including, in some cases, nonlinearities) of PBG materials to obtain power levels and efficiencies higher than are now possible. Another element of the proposal is to enable pumping by concentrated sunlight. Somewhat more specifically, the proposal calls for exploitation of the properties of PBG materials to overcome a number of stubborn adverse phenomena that have impeded prior efforts to perfect HPFLs. The most relevant of those phenomena is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which causes saturation of gain and power

  12. High power visible diode laser for the treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Harlander, Maximilian; Nussbaumer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    We present a high power visible diode laser enabling a low-cost treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation, including the two leading causes of blindness worldwide (diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration) as well as retinopathy of prematurely born children, intraocular tumors and retinal detachment. Laser coagulation requires the exposure of the eye to visible laser light and relies on the high absorption of the retina. The need for treatment is constantly increasing, due to the demographic trend, the increasing average life expectancy and medical care demand in developing countries. The World Health Organization reacts to this demand with global programs like the VISION 2020 "The right to sight" and the following Universal Eye Health within their Global Action Plan (2014-2019). One major point is to motivate companies and research institutes to make eye treatment cheaper and easily accessible. Therefore it becomes capital providing the ophthalmology market with cost competitive, simple and reliable technologies. Our laser is based on the direct second harmonic generation of the light emitted from a tapered laser diode and has already shown reliable optical performance. All components are produced in wafer scale processes and the resulting strong economy of scale results in a price competitive laser. In a broader perspective the technology behind our laser has a huge potential in non-medical applications like welding, cutting, marking and finally laser-illuminated projection.

  13. Application of Laser Ablation Processing in Electric Power System Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konagai, Chikara; Sano, Yuji; Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira

    The present status of laser ablation processing applied in electric power system industries is reviewed. High average power LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with Q-switch have been developed and currently introduced into various applications. Optical fiber based laser beam delivery systems for Q-switched pulse laser are also being developed these years. Based on such laser and beam delivery technology, laser ablation processes are gradually introduced in maintenance of nuclear power plant, thermal power plant and electrical power distribution system. Cost effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the process is highly required for wide utilization in these fields.

  14. Laser-Material Interaction of Powerful Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Komashko, A

    2003-01-06

    Laser-material interaction of powerful (up to a terawatt) ultrashort (several picoseconds or shorter) laser pulses and laser-induced effects were investigated theoretically in this dissertation. Since the ultrashort laser pulse (USLP) duration time is much smaller than the characteristic time of the hydrodynamic expansion and thermal diffusion, the interaction occurs at a solid-like material density with most of the light energy absorbed in a thin surface layer. Powerful USLP creates hot, high-pressure plasma, which is quickly ejected without significant energy diffusion into the bulk of the material, Thus collateral damage is reduced. These and other features make USLPs attractive for a variety of applications. The purpose of this dissertation was development of the physical models and numerical tools for improvement of our understanding of the process and as an aid in optimization of the USLP applications. The study is concentrated on two types of materials - simple metals (materials like aluminum or copper) and wide-bandgap dielectrics (fused silica, water). First, key physical phenomena of the ultrashort light interaction with metals and the models needed to describe it are presented. Then, employing one-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics code enhanced with models for laser energy deposition and material properties at low and moderate temperatures, light absorption was self-consistently simulated as a function of laser wavelength, pulse energy and length, angle of incidence and polarization. Next, material response on time scales much longer than the pulse duration was studied using the hydrocode and analytical models. These studies include examination of evolution of the pressure pulses, effects of the shock waves, material ablation and removal and three-dimensional dynamics of the ablation plume. Investigation of the interaction with wide-bandgap dielectrics was stimulated by the experimental studies of the USLP surface ablation of water (water is a model of

  15. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenkov, Valentin S.; Kiyko, Vadim V.; Vdovin, Gleb V.

    2015-03-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface heating with different approaches to make the heat distribution more uniform and the process more efficient. High-power lasers can in theory provide in-bulk heating which can sufficiently increase the uniformity of heat distribution thus making the process more efficient. We chose two media (vegetable fat and glucose) for feasibility experiments. First, we checked if the media have necessary absorption coefficients on the wavelengths of commercially available laser diodes (940-980 nm). This was done using spectrophotometer at 700-1100 nm which provided the dependences of transmission from the wavelength. The results indicate that vegetable fat has noticeable transmission dip around 925 nm and glucose has sufficient dip at 990 nm. Then, after the feasibility check, we did numerical simulation of the heat distribution in bulk using finite elements method. Based on the results, optimal laser wavelength and illuminator configuration were selected. Finally, we carried out several pilot experiments with high-power diodes heating the chosen media.

  16. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  17. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John L.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  18. Space power by laser illumination of PV arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the use of beamed power to support space exploration activities. The utility is examined of photovoltaics and problem and research areas are identified for photovoltaics in two beamed-power applications: to convert incident laser radiation to power at a remote receiving station, and as a primary power source on space based power station transmitting power to a remote user. A particular application of recent interest is to use a ground-based free electron laser as a power source for space applications. Specific applications include: night power for a moonbase by laser illumination of the moonbase solar arrays; use of a laser to provide power for satellites in medium and geosynchronous Earth orbit, and a laser powered system for an electrical propulsion orbital transfer vehicle. These and other applications are currently being investigated at NASA Lewis as part of a new program to demonstrate the feasibility of laser transmission of power for space.

  19. Tapered fiber based high power random laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwei; Du, Xueyuan; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-04-18

    We propose a novel high power random fiber laser (RFL) based on tapered fiber. It can overcome the power scaling limitation of RFL while maintaining good beam quality to a certain extent. An output power of 26.5 W has been achieved in a half-open cavity with one kilometer long tapered fiber whose core diameter gradually changes from 8 μm to 20 μm. The steady-state light propagation equations have been modified by taking into account the effective core area to demonstrate the tapered RFL through numerical calculations. The numerical model effectively describes the power characteristics of the tapered fiber based RFL, and both the calculating and experimental results show higher power exporting potential compared with the conventional single mode RFL. PMID:27137338

  20. Two photon absorption in high power broad area laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mehmet; Michael, Christopher P.; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Lin; Jacob, Jonah H.

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in thermal management and improvements in fabrication and facet passivation enabled extracting unprecedented optical powers from laser diodes (LDs). However, even in the absence of thermal roll-over or catastrophic optical damage (COD), the maximum achievable power is limited by optical non-linear effects. Due to its non-linear nature, two-photon absorption (TPA) becomes one of the dominant factors that limit efficient extraction of laser power from LDs. In this paper, theoretical and experimental analysis of TPA in high-power broad area laser diodes (BALD) is presented. A phenomenological optical extraction model that incorporates TPA explains the reduction in optical extraction efficiency at high intensities in BALD bars with 100μm-wide emitters. The model includes two contributions associated with TPA: the straightforward absorption of laser photons and the subsequent single photon absorption by the holes and electrons generated by the TPA process. TPA is a fundamental limitation since it is inherent to the LD semiconductor material. Therefore scaling the LDs to high power requires designs that reduce the optical intensity by increasing the mode size.

  1. Methods for determining optical power, for power-normalizing laser measurements, and for stabilizing power of lasers via compliance voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A method is disclosed for power normalization of spectroscopic signatures obtained from laser based chemical sensors that employs the compliance voltage across a quantum cascade laser device within an external cavity laser. The method obviates the need for a dedicated optical detector used specifically for power normalization purposes. A method is also disclosed that employs the compliance voltage developed across the laser device within an external cavity semiconductor laser to power-stabilize the laser mode of the semiconductor laser by adjusting drive current to the laser such that the output optical power from the external cavity semiconductor laser remains constant.

  2. High power laser and cathode structure thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, K. H.; Seguin, H. J.; Tulip, J.

    1981-09-08

    A cathode structure for gas lasers is disclosed that is comprised of a flat plate of non-conducting material positioned in the laser in spaced relation to the laser anode to define a discharge region therebetween, a two-dimensional array of metal sub-electrode rods passing through the plate and having their upper ends lying flush with the surface of the plate, a block of dielectric material positioned below the plate and containing a series of transverse channels therein, electric current conductors lying in the channels and adapted for connection to a power supply, the lower ends of the said rods passing through openings in the block into the channels to define a predetermined uniform gap between the ends of the rods and the electrical conductor, and a liquid electrolyte solution filling the channels and electrically connecting the sub-electrode rods and the conductors.

  3. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Quimby, D.; Nelson, L.; Christiansen, W.; Neice, S.; Cassady, P.; Pindroh, A.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the lasant. Efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20 percent are projected for these indirect optically pumped lasers.

  4. 2013 R&D 100 Award: New tech could mean more power for fiber lasers

    ScienceCinema

    Dawson, Jay

    2014-07-21

    An LLNL team of six physicists has developed a new technology that is a stepping stone to enable some of the limitations on high-power fiber lasers to be overcome. Their technology, dubbed "Efficient Mode-Converters for High-Power Fiber Amplifiers," allows the power of fiber lasers to be increased while maintaining high beam quality. Currently, fiber lasers are used in machining, on factory floors and in a number of defense applications and can produce tens of kilowatts of power.The conventional fiber laser design features a circular core and has fundamental limitations that make it impractical to allow higher laser power unless the core area is increased. LLNL researchers have pioneered a design to increase the laser's core area along the axis of the ribbon fiber. Their design makes it difficult to use a conventional laser beam, so the LLNL team converted the beam into a profile that propagates into the ribbon fiber and is converted back once it is amplified. The use of this LLNL technology will permit the construction of higher power lasers for lower costs and increase the power of fiber lasers from tens of kilowatts of power to about 100 kilowatts and potentially even higher.

  5. 2013 R&D 100 Award: New tech could mean more power for fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Jay

    2014-04-03

    An LLNL team of six physicists has developed a new technology that is a stepping stone to enable some of the limitations on high-power fiber lasers to be overcome. Their technology, dubbed "Efficient Mode-Converters for High-Power Fiber Amplifiers," allows the power of fiber lasers to be increased while maintaining high beam quality. Currently, fiber lasers are used in machining, on factory floors and in a number of defense applications and can produce tens of kilowatts of power.The conventional fiber laser design features a circular core and has fundamental limitations that make it impractical to allow higher laser power unless the core area is increased. LLNL researchers have pioneered a design to increase the laser's core area along the axis of the ribbon fiber. Their design makes it difficult to use a conventional laser beam, so the LLNL team converted the beam into a profile that propagates into the ribbon fiber and is converted back once it is amplified. The use of this LLNL technology will permit the construction of higher power lasers for lower costs and increase the power of fiber lasers from tens of kilowatts of power to about 100 kilowatts and potentially even higher.

  6. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Medical instruments based on high-power diode and fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gapontsev, V. P.; Minaev, V. P.; Savin, V. I.; Samartsev, I. E.

    2002-11-01

    The characteristics and possible applications of scalpels based on diode and fibre lasers emitting at 0.97, 1.06, 1.56, and 1.9 μm, which are produced and developed by the IRE-Polyus Co., are presented. The advantages of such devices and the possibilities for increasing their output power and extending their spectral range are shown.

  7. Flow lasers. [fluid mechanics of high power continuous output operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Russell, D. A.; Hertzberg, A.

    1975-01-01

    The present work reviews the fluid-mechanical aspects of high-power continuous-wave (CW) lasers. The flow characteristics of these devices appear as classical fluid-mechanical phenomena recast in a complicated interactive environment. The fundamentals of high-power lasers are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the N2-CO2 gas dynamic laser. Next, the HF/DF supersonic diffusion laser is described, and finally the CO electrical-discharge laser is discussed.

  8. Moonbase night power by laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

  9. Adaptive optics for laser power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed to use a high energy pulsed laser to beam power into space for satellites or a lunar base. The effects of atmospheric transmission are critical to such a system. Thermal blooming in the atmosphere can cause the beam to spread rapidly. Atmospheric turbulence can cause beam bending or beam spreading, resulting in the loss of transmitted energy that fails to hit the target receiver.

  10. Damage-controlled high power lasers and plasma mirror application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Nishikino, Masaharu; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Itakura, Ryoji; Sugiyama, Akira; Kando, Masaki; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Kondo, Kimonori; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2015-07-01

    Following three different types of high power lasers at Kansai Photon Science Institute are overviewed and controlling the laser damages in these laser systems are described: (1) PW-class Ti:sapphire laser for high field science, (2) zig-zag slab Nd:glass laser for x-ray laser pumping, and (3) high-repetition Yb:YAG thin-slab laser for THz generation. Also reported is the use of plasma mirror for characterization of short-wavelength ultrashort laser pulses. This new method will be useful to study evolution of plasma formation which leads to laser damages.

  11. Focusing effect of radially power-law channel on an intense laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rong-An; Hong, Xue-Ren; Gao, Ji-Ming; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2016-03-01

    To study the focusing effect of the power-law channel, the evolution equation of the laser spot size is derived for the laser propagation in a radially power-law channel by using variational method. It is found that there exists a small critical region of the ratio of the initial laser spot size to the channel radius. Below the critical region, the laser power for constant spot size varies dramatically with the increase of the power-law exponent of the channel and so do other focusing behaviors. Quite opposite behaviors are observed above the critical region.

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) laser studies. Volume 1: Laser environmental impact study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The environmental impact of space to Earth power transmission using space borne laser subsystems is emphasized. A laser system is defined, estimates of relevant efficiencies for laser power generation and atmospheric transmission are developed, and a comparison is made to a microwave system. Ancillary issues, such as laser beam spreading, safety and security, mass and volume estimates and technology growth are considered.

  13. Power scaling of high-power fiber lasers for micromachining and materials processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Stephen; Zervas, Mikhail; Appleyard, Andrew; Skull, Paul; Walker, Duncan; Turner, Paul; Crowe, Ian

    2006-02-01

    Fiber-integrated high power fiber lasers (HPFLs) have demonstrated remarkable levels of parametric performance, efficiency, operational stability and reliability, and are consequently becoming the technology of choice for a diverse range of materials processing applications in the "micro-machining" domain. The design and functional flexibility of such HPFLs enables a broad operational window from continuous wave in the 100W+ power range, to modulated CW (to 50kHz prf and above), and to quasi-pulsed operation (kW/μs/mJ regime) from a single design of laser system. A long-term qualification program has been successfully completed to demonstrate the robustness and longevity of this family of fiber lasers. In this paper we report for the first time on the power-scaling extension of SPI's proprietary side-coupled cladding-pumped GTWave TM technology platform to output power levels in the multi-hundred watt domain. Fiber and system design aspects are discussed for increasing both average power and peak power for CW and quasi-pulsed operation respectively whilst maintaining near-diffraction limited beam quality and mitigating non-linear effects such as Stimulated Raman Scattering. Performance data are presented for the new family of laser products with >200W CW output power, M2 ~ 1.1 and modulation performance to 50kHz: Furthermore, the modular, flexible approach provided by GTWave TM side-pumped technology has been extended to demonstrate a two-stage MOPA operating at >400W.

  14. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  15. Method and apparatus for tuning high power lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Vandersluis, Kenneth L.

    1977-04-19

    This invention relates to high power gas lasers that are adapted to be tuned to a desired lasing wavelength through the use of a gas cell to lower the gain at a natural lasing wavelength and "seeding" the laser with a beam from a low power laser which is lasing at the desired wavelength. This tuning is accomplished with no loss of power and produces a pulse with an altered pulse shape. It is potentially applicable to all gas lasers.

  16. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  17. Increased damage thresholds due to laser pulse modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M.D.; Musher, S.L.; Shapiro, E.G.; Rubenchik, A.M. |

    1995-05-30

    Nonlinear self-focusing in laser glass imposes limits on the energy fluence that can be safely transmitted without risking damage. For this reason, it is desirable to strictly limit the peak to average spatial variations of fluence by smoothing schemes such as Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD). While spatial variations are problematic, the same is not necessarily true of temporal variations since normal group velocity dispersion tends to smooth out temporal peaks caused by spatial self-focusing. Earlier work indicated that increased bandwidth can delay the onset of self focusing. The present work re-examines the question of self focusing threshold increases due to high bandwidth by investigating another source of such increase in three dimensional beam breakup--the bending instability. For simplicity, the authors consider the behavior of a single space-time speckle. Normal dispersion can lead to splitting of the pulse and delay of self focusing for short enough pulses as noted above. In addition to the self focusing instability, the laser beam is also subject to the so-called bending (sausage like) instability which can spatially disperse the field maxima over time. Because the bending instability breaks an initial axial symmetry, a full three dimensional numerical simulation is required to study it accurately. Such calculations are possible, but costly. The authors have used a modified 2D nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a high power nonlinearity since this mimics the 3D behavior of the competition between self focusing and bending. This study is relevant for inertial confinement conditions.

  18. Fabrication of microchannels on PMMA using a low power CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Muhammad; Rahman, Rosly A.; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Akhtar, Majid N.; Usman, Arslan; Sattar, Abdul

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a cheap and quick method for the formation of microchannels on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). A continuous wave CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm was used to inscribe periodic ripple structures on a PMMA substrate. A direct writing technique was employed for micromachining. As PMMA is very sensitive to such laser irradiations, a slightly low power CO2 laser was effective in inscribing such periodic structures. The results show that smooth and fine ripple structures can be fabricated by controlling the input laser parameters and interaction time of the laser beam. This direct laser writing technique is promising enough to prevent us from using complex optical arrangements. Laser power was tested starting from the ablation threshold and was gradually increased, together with the variation in scanning speed of the xy-translational stage, to observe the effects on the target surface in terms of depth and width of trenches. It was observed that the depth of the trenches increases on increasing the laser power, and the bulge formation on the outer sides of the trenches was also studied. It was evident that the formation of bulges across the trenches is dependent on the scanning speed and input laser power. The results depict that a focused laser beam with optimized parameters, such as controlling the scanning speed and laser power, results in fine, regular and tidy periodic structures.

  19. Progress of Power Laser and its Application to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    2004-03-01

    The progress of power laser is now opening new applications in science and industry. The laser for the inertial fusion requires the most advanced and heavy specifications, typically a few MJ in 10 ns pulse with 10Hz repetitive operation with the efficiency higher than 10%. The challenge to develop such a laser include basic and generic laser and photonics technologies as power diode laser, solid state laser material, nonlinear optical material, high efficiency energy conversion between the light and electricity, high power optical beam propagation and control, heat treatment of optical components. The power laser application to space is supported by these common technologies and gives us new dreams such as laser propulsion, laser energy network in space, energy supply to the ground energy system such as electricity and/or hydrogen fuel. The technical perspectives are reviewed.

  20. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V; Yaroslavskii, I V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-06-30

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%-40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  1. Extraction of power lines from mobile laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Qing; Li, Jonathan; Wen, Chenglu; Huang, Pengdi

    2016-03-01

    Modern urban life is becoming increasingly more dependent on reliable electric power supply. Since power outages cause substantial financial losses to producers, distributors and consumers of electric power, it is in the common interest to minimize failures of power lines. In order to detect defects as early as possible and to plan efficiently the maintenance activities, distribution networks are regularly inspected. Carrying out foot patrols or climbing the structures to visually inspect transmission lines and aerial surveys (e.g., digital imaging or most recent airborne laser scanning (ALS) are the two most commonly used methods of power line inspection. Although much faster in comparison to the foot patrol inspection, aerial inspection is more expensive and usually less accurate, in complex urban areas particularly. This paper presents a scientific work that is done in the use of mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds for automated extraction of power lines. In the proposed method, 2D power lines are extracted using Hough transform in the projected XOY plane and the 3D power line points are visualized after the point searching. Filtering based on an elevation threshold is applied, which is combined with the vehicle's trajectory in the horizontal section.

  2. High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman

    2014-05-15

    This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

  3. High-power fiber laser studies at the Polaroid Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muendel, Martin H.

    1998-06-01

    Current work on the Polaroid double-clad fiber laser is discussed. Experiments towards testing the upper power limits of fiber lasers are described. Models for the laser output in the rate-equation approximation, for the laser polarization state, and for the axial-mode-beating noise are presented and compared to experiment.

  4. Laser power beaming: an emerging technology for power transmission and propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Harold E.

    1997-05-01

    A ground based laser beam transmitted to space can be used as an electric utility for satellites. It can significantly increase the electric power available to operate a satellite or to transport it from low earth orbit (LEO) to mid earth or geosynchronous orbits. The increase in electrical power compared to that obtainable from the sun is as much as 1000% for the same size solar panels. An increase in satellite electric power is needed to meet the increasing demands for power caused by the advent of 'direct to home TV,' for increased telecommunications, or for other demands made by the burgeoning 'space highway.' Monetary savings as compared to putting up multiple satellites in the same 'slot' can be over half a billion dollars. To obtain propulsion, the laser power can be beamed through the atmosphere to an 'orbit transfer vehicle' (OTV) satellite which travels back and forth between LEO and higher earth orbits. The OTV will transport the satellite into orbit as does a rocket but does not require the heavy fuel load needed if rocket propulsion is used. Monetary savings of 300% or more in launch costs are predicted. Key elements in the proposed concept are a 100 to 200 kW free- electron laser operating at 0.84 m in the photographic infrared region of the spectrum and a novel adaptive optic telescope.

  5. Nuclear Powered Laser Driven Plasma Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.

    A relativistic plasma thruster that could open up the solar system to near-term human exploration is presented. It is based on recent experimental and theoretical research, which show that ultrafast (very short pulse length) lasers can accelerate charged particles to relativistic speeds. In table top-type experiments charge-neutral proton beams containing more than 1014 particles with mean energies of tens of MeV's have been produced when high intensity lasers with femtosecond (10-15 s) pulse lengths are made to strike thin solid targets. When viewed from a propulsion standpoint such systems can produce specific impulses of several million seconds albeit at modest thrusts and require nuclear power systems to drive them. Several schemes are proposed to enhance the thrust and make these systems suitable for manned interplanetary missions. In this paper we set forth the physics principles that make relativistic plasma driven by ultrafast lasers particularly attractive for propulsion applications. We introduce the “Laser Accelerated Plasma Propulsion System” LAPPS, and demonstrate its potential propulsive capability by addressing an interstellar mission to the Oort Cloud, and a planetary mission to Mars. We show that the first can be carried out in a human's lifetime and the second in a matter of months. In both instances we identify the major technological problems that must be addressed if this system is to evolve into a leading contender among the advance propulsion concepts currently under consideration.

  6. Passively cooled diode laser for high-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonati, Guido F.; Hennig, Petra; Schmidt, Karsten

    2004-06-01

    For the usage of diode lasers in industrial applications, customers ask today for expected lifetimes of more then 30.000 hours. To match the request for low costs per Watt as well, the output power has to be as high as possible. To achieve a maximum power out of a diode laser bar, heat removal must be extremely efficient. Today, micro channel heatsinks (MCHS) are the only way to achieve the high power level of 50W. But due to erosion/corrosion effects the lifetime of MCHS is limited at 15000...20.000 hours today. Finally we have to determine that for selected semiconductor materials not the semiconductor but the heatsink is limiting the expected lifetime of high power diode lasers today. Passive heat sinks based on solid copper are not limiting lifetime expectations in any way. But as cooling efficiency is lower, the power has to be reduced to a level of 30...40W. The first time ever, the JENOPTIK Laserdiode can present today a cooling technique that combines the passive cooling of a diode laser bar with the optical output a power of a bar, mounted on a MCHS. Using a special heat exchanger called DCB (patent pending) we were able to increase the power to 50W per bar while looking forward to extend the expected lifetime to more than 30.000 hours for selected materials. Restrictions on the quality of the water by means of deionization grade or PH- level are no longer necessary. The device is operating with regular water. The flow rate is as low as on MCHS, the pressure drop over the DCB is comparable. Additionally, the measurements will show an even lower thermal resistance compared to MCHS. The second generationof engineering samples is built up for pumping rows. A vertical stack design will be available for evaluating purposes soon. All these efforts are part of the JENOPTIK Laserdiode's LongLifeTechnology.

  7. Average power laser experiment (APLE) design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, C. G.; Rodenburg, R. E.; Dowell, D. H.; Greegor, R. B.; Kennedy, R. C.; Romero, J. B.; Siciliano, J. A.; Tong, K.-O.; Vetter, A. M.; Adamski, J. L.; Pistoresi, D. J.; Shoffstall, D. R.; Quimby, D. C.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the details and the design requirements for the 100 kW CW radio frequency free electron laser at 10 μm to be built at Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Division in Seattle with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. APLE is a single-accelerator master-oscillator and power-amplifier (SAMOPA) device. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate a fully operational RF-FEL at 10 μm with an average power of 100 kW. The approach and wavelength were chosen on the basis of maximum cost effectiveness, including utilization of existing hardware and reasonable risk, and potential for future applications. Current plans call for an initial oscillator power demonstration in the fall of 1994 and full SAMOPA operation by December 1995.

  8. High power tube solid-state laser with zigzag propagation of pump and laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savich, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A novel resonator and pumping design with zigzag propagation of pumping and laser beams permits to design an improved tube Solid State Laser (SSL), solving the problem of short absorption path to produce a high power laser beam (100 - 1000kW). The novel design provides an amplifier module and laser oscillator. The tube-shaped SSL includes a gain element fiber-optically coupled to a pumping source. The fiber optic coupling facilitates light entry at compound Brewster's angle of incidence into the laser gain element and uses internal reflection to follow a "zigzag" path in a generally spiral direction along the length of the tube. Optics are arranged for zigzag propagation of the laser beam, while the cryogenic cooling system is traditional. The novel method of lasing uses advantages of cylindrical geometry to reach the high volume of gain medium with compactness and structural rigidity, attain high pump density and uniformity, and reach a low threshold without excessive increase of the temperature of the crystal. The design minimizes thermal lensing and stress effects, and provides high gain amplification, high power extraction from lasing medium, high pumping and lasing efficiency and a high beam quality.

  9. High-average-power Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser that is face pumped by 10 laser diode bars.

    PubMed

    Lee, J R; Baker, H J; Friel, G J; Hilton, G J; Hall, D R

    2002-04-01

    A planar waveguide Nd:YAG laser is pumped with 430 W of power from 10 laser diode bars to produce a multimode output power of 150 W at an optical efficiency of 35%. Use of a hybrid resonator of the positive-branch confocal unstable type for the lateral axis and of one of the near-case I waveguide type for the transverse axis increased the laser brightness by a factor of ~26 with only 12% less power than in the multimode case. PMID:18007853

  10. Low peak-power laser ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, S. G.; Cleary, A.; Veres, I. A.; Culshaw, B.; Thursby, G.; McKee, C.; Swift, C.; Armstrong, I.

    2011-09-01

    Techniques for the successful excitation of guided ultrasonic waves using a low peak-power laser ultrasonic source are discussed and compared with more conventional Q-switched laser sources. The paper considers acoustic propagation in thin plates, in which the frequencies used, typically only the fundamental guided wave modes, are considered. Aspects of excitation and detection geometry are considered along with the physical mechanisms of photo-acoustic generation and the practical issues surrounding available source wavelengths and power outputs. Understanding of the effects of these constraints is critical for the successful application of the technique. Continuous wave excitation and fully arbitrary modulation schemes are compared, and a technique to control the bandwidth of Golay code modulation is introduced. It is shown that earlier work by the authors was capable of guided wave detection at peak-power densities of 104 W cm- 2. Later work has focussed on the use of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers combined with Golay code modulation to improve the recovered signal-to-noise ratio. Two key applications of the techniques are considered: material properties measurements (using inversion of dispersion curve data) and acoustic emission system calibration.

  11. Robust focusing optics for high-power laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Blake

    2014-02-01

    As available power levels from both fiber and disc lasers rapidly increase, so does the need for more robust beam delivery solutions. Traditional transmissive optics for 1 micron lasers have proven to be problematic in the presence of higher power densities and are more susceptible to focal shift. A new, fully-reflective, optical solution has been developed using mirrors rather than lenses and windows to achieve the required stable focal spot, while still protecting the delicate fiber end. This patent-approved beam focusing solution, referred to as high power reflective focusing optic (HPRFO), involves specialty mirrors and a flowing gas orifice that prevents ingress of contaminants into the optically sensitive region of the assembly. These mirrors also provide a unique solution for increasing the distance between the sensitive optics and the contamination-filled region at the work, without sacrificing spot size. Longer focal lengths and lower power densities on large mass, water-cooled, copper mirrors deliver the robustness needed at increasingly high power levels. The HPRFO exhibits excellent beam quality and minimal focal shift at a fraction of commercially available optics, and has demonstrated consistent reliability on applications requiring 15 kW with prolonged beam-on times.

  12. Overcoming the specific power limitations of nuclear electric propulsion by laser radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-07-01

    It is shown that the specific power of nuclear electric propulsion can be greatly increased by replacing black body radiators with laser radiators. In black body radiators the atomic oscillators have a random phase with the emission rate for black body radiators proportional to the sum of the squared amplitudes. In laser radiators the oscillators are all in phase with the emission rate proportional to the squared sum of the amplitudes, which is the reason for the much larger emission rate of laser radiators. In a laser radiator the low entropy low temperature laser beam removes the waste heat by resonance absorption and isotropic reemission of the laser radiation into space.

  13. ["Power bleaching" with the KTP laser].

    PubMed

    Vanderstricht, K; Nammour, S; De Moor, R

    2009-01-01

    The most important constituent of the bleaching process is the hydrogen peroxyde. The bleaching effect is the result of a change in the chemical structure of organic molecules in the teeth. Different bleaching techniques are described on the basis of the concentration of the hydrogen peroxyde used and on the basis of the different methods of application. It has been demonstrated that a faster change in colour can be obtained when bleaching is performed in combination with a light source i.e. power bleaching aiming for a more in depth change of colour. Different investigations have demonstrated that negative effects associated with bleaching agents are seen earlier when light sources have been used as accelerators. So, light activation may not lead to 'heating of the pulp'. Different types of laser bleaching have been described, though, not all of them will lead to the desired result. There is only one exception at present and this is the KTP-laser bleaching with the Smart Bleach gel. The specific laser-tissue interaction is the result of different activation processes of the hydrogen peroxyde in the gel: as a result of the interaction with the laser a photocatalytic effect is induced (i.e. the activation of the gel by means of light--this is also referred to as a photochemical reaction), a limited photothermal effect (light absorption may result in a certain heating of the gel). The light activated gel also has an alkaline pH, which favours the ionisation of the hydrogen peroxyde into perhydroxyl ions (these are the most reactive free radicals). It is also possible to directly cut the tetracycline molecules (a good absorption of light by the tetracycline molecules at 532 nm). This will result in better decolouration of tetracycline stained teeth. This last process is described as direct photobleaching. It also needs to be emphasized that bleaching with a laser can only be performed by a dentist who has acquired a substantial knowledge on laser-tissue interaction

  14. High power industrial picosecond laser from IR to UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saby, Julien; Sangla, Damien; Pierrot, Simonette; Deslandes, Pierre; Salin, François

    2013-02-01

    Many industrial applications such as glass cutting, ceramic micro-machining or photovoltaic processes require high average and high peak power Picosecond pulses. The main limitation for the expansion of the picosecond market is the cost of high power picosecond laser sources, which is due to the complexity of the architecture used for picosecond pulse amplification, and the difficulty to keep an excellent beam quality at high average power. Amplification with fibers is a good technology to achieve high power in picosecond regime but, because of its tight confinement over long distances, light undergoes dramatic non linearities while propagating in fibers. One way to avoid strong non linearities is to increase fiber's mode area. Nineteen missing holes fibers offering core diameter larger than 80μm have been used over the past few years [1-3] but it has been shown that mode instabilities occur at approximately 100W average output power in these fibers [4]. Recently a new fiber design has been introduced, in which HOMs are delocalized from the core to the clad, preventing from HOMs amplification [5]. In these so-called Large Pitch Fibers, threshold for mode instabilities is increased to 294W offering robust single-mode operation below this power level [6]. We have demonstrated a high power-high efficiency industrial picosecond source using single-mode Large Pitch rod-type fibers doped with Ytterbium. Large Pitch Rod type fibers can offer a unique combination of single-mode output with a very large mode area from 40 μm up to 100μm and very high gain. This enables to directly amplify a low power-low energy Mode Locked Fiber laser with a simple amplification architecture, achieving very high power together with singlemode output independent of power level or repetition rate.

  15. Near-term feasibility demonstration of laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    A mission to recharge batteries of satellites in geostationary orbits (geosats) may be a commercially viable application which could be achieved with laser systems somewhat larger than present state-of-the-art. The lifetime of batteries on geosats is limited by repetitive discharge cycles which occur when the satellites are eclipsed by the earth during the spring and fall equinoxes. By coupling high power lasers with modem, large aperture telescopes and laser guide star adaptive optics systems, present day communications satellites could be targeted. It is important that a near term demonstration of laser power beaming be accomplished using lasers in the kilowatt range so that issues associated with high average power be addressed. The Laser Guide Star Facility at LLNL has all the necessary subsystems needed for such a near term demonstration, including high power lasers for both the power beam and guide star, beam directors and satellite tracking system.

  16. Near-term feasibility demonstration of laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    A mission to recharge batteries of satellites in geostationary orbits (geosats) may be a commercially viable application which could be achieved with laser systems somewhat larger than present state-of-the-art. The lifetime of batteries on geosats is limited by repetitive discharge cycles which occur when the satellites are eclipsed by the earth during the spring and fall equinoxes. By coupling high power lasers with modern, large aperture telescopes and laser guide star adaptive optics systems, present day communications satellites could be targeted. It is important that a near term demonstration of laser power beaming be accomplished using lasers in the kilowatt range so that issues associated with high average power be addressed. The Laser Guide Star Facility at LLNL has all the necessary subsystems needed for such a near term demonstration, including high power lasers for both the power beam and guide star, beam directors and satellite tracking system.

  17. High power laser workover and completion tools and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-10-28

    Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  18. High power femtosecond lasers at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect

    Dabu, Razvan

    2015-02-24

    Specifications of the high power laser system (HPLS) designed for nuclear physics experiments are presented. Configuration of the 2 × 10 PW femtosecond laser system is described. In order to reach the required laser beam parameters, advanced laser techniques are proposed for the HPLS: parametric amplification and cross-polarized wave generation for the intensity contrast improvement and spectral broadening, acousto-optic programmable filters to compensate for spectral phase dispersion, optical filters for spectrum management, combined methods for transversal laser suppression.

  19. Coherent beam combiner for a high power laser

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    2002-01-01

    A phase conjugate laser mirror employing Brillouin-enhanced four wave mixing allows multiple independent laser apertures to be phase locked producing an array of diffraction-limited beams with no piston phase errors. The beam combiner has application in laser and optical systems requiring high average power, high pulse energy, and low beam divergence. A broad range of applications exist in laser systems for industrial processing, especially in the field of metal surface treatment and laser shot peening.

  20. Absence of amorphous phase in high power femtosecond laser-ablated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matthew S.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2009-01-05

    As femtosecond lasers emerge as viable tools for advanced microscale materials processing, it becomes increasingly important to understand the characteristics of materials resulting from femtosecond laser microablation or micromachining. We conducted transmission electron microscopy experiments to investigate crater structures in silicon produced by repetitive high power femtosecond laser ablation. Comparable experiments of nanosecond laser ablation of silicon were also performed. We found that an amorphous silicon layer that is typically produced in nanosecond laser ablation is absent when the material is irradiated by high power femtosecond laser pulses. Instead, only a defective single crystalline layer was observed in the high power femtosecond laser-ablated silicon crater. Possible mechanisms underlying the formation of the defective single crystalline phase are discussed.

  1. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOEpatents

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  2. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications.

    PubMed

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman; Ting, Antonio; Fischer, Richard

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we review and discuss the research programs at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications in the atmosphere. Physical processes affecting propagation include absorption/scattering, turbulence, and thermal blooming. The power levels needed for DE applications require combining a number of lasers. In atmospheric turbulence, there is a maximum intensity that can be placed on a target that is independent of the initial beam spot size and laser beam quality. By combining a number of kW-class fiber lasers, scientists at the NRL have successfully demonstrated high-power laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere and wireless recharging. In the NRL experiments, four incoherently combined fiber lasers having a total power of 5 kW were propagated to a target 3.2 km away. These successful high-power experiments in a realistic atmosphere formed the basis of the Navy's Laser Weapon System. We compare the propagation characteristics of coherently and incoherently combined beams without adaptive optics. There is little difference in the energy on target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams for multi-km propagation ranges and moderate to high levels of turbulence. Unlike incoherent combining, coherent combining places severe constraints on the individual lasers. These include the requirement of narrow power spectral linewidths in order to have long coherence times as well as polarization alignment of all the lasers. These requirements are extremely difficult for high-power lasers. PMID:26560609

  3. High power continuous wave injection-locked solid state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nabors, C.D.; Byer, R.L.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes an injection locked laser system. It comprises a master laser, the master laser including a solid state gain medium and having a continuous wave, single frequency output; a slave laser including a solid state gain medium located in a resonant cavity and having a continuous wave output at a power at least ten times greater than the master laser, with the output of the master laser being injected into the slave laser in order to cause the slave laser to oscillate at the same frequency as the output of the master laser; and means for actively stabilizing the slave laser so that its output frequency remains locked with the output frequency of the master laser.

  4. Beam quality and power scalability of fiber laser array in a S-F cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Haotong; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Zejin

    2009-11-01

    Coherent beam combination (CBC) of laser array has the potential to solve the power limitation in single fiber laser as well as maintaining good beam quality. Fiber laser array in self-Fourier (S-F) cavity presents a promising approach for CBC due to its compactness, simplicity, ease of alignment, and stability in phase locking, which have been under intense research recently. In this paper, we perform a system level analysis on the fiber laser array in S-F cavity. Analytical analysis on the beam quality and power scalability will be presented. By numerical calculation it is found that the total power contained in the laser array has linear relationship with the laser numbers. The total output power P of N laser in a S-F cavity can be expressed as P ~ 0.4× N. It is also revealed that power encircled in the diffraction-limited bucket will not increase with N, adding more laser elements in the laser cavity will result in more laser power contained in the sidelobes in the far-field pattern.

  5. Low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: effective optical power

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhao, Cheng-qiang; Ye, Gang; Liu, Can-dong; Xu, Wen-dong

    2016-01-01

    Low-power laser therapy has been used for the non-surgical treatment of mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, although its efficacy has been a long-standing controversy. The laser parameters in low-power laser therapy are closely related to the laser effect on human tissue. To evaluate the efficacy of low-power laser therapy, laser parameters should be accurately measured and controlled, which has been ignored in previous clinical trials. Here, we report the measurement of the effective optical power of low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome. By monitoring the backside reflection and scattering laser power from human skin at the wrist, the effective laser power can be inferred. Using clinical measurements from 30 cases, we found that the effective laser power differed significantly among cases, with the measured laser reflection coefficient ranging from 1.8% to 54%. The reflection coefficient for 36.7% of these 30 cases was in the range of 10–20%, but for 16.7% of cases, it was higher than 40%. Consequently, monitoring the effective optical power during laser irradiation is necessary for the laser therapy of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  6. High power laser diodes for the NASA direct detection laser transceiver experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seery, Bernard D.; Holcomb, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    High-power semiconductor laser diodes selected for use in the NASA space laser communications experiments are discussed. The diode selection rationale is reviewed, and the laser structure is shown. The theory and design of the third mirror lasers used in the experiments are addressed.

  7. High Power Fiber Lasers and Applications to Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Martin; McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas

    2008-09-01

    We summarize recent developments in high power fiber laser technologies and discuss future trends, particularly in their current and future use in manufacturing technologies. We will also describe our current research programs in fiber laser development, ultra-fast and new lasers, and will mention the expectations in these areas for the new Townes Laser Institute. It will focus on new core laser technologies and their applications in medical technologies, advanced manufacturing technologies and defense applications. We will describe a program on large mode area fiber development that includes results with the new gain-guiding approach, as well as high power infra-red fiber lasers. We will review the opportunities for high power fiber lasers in various manufacturing technologies and illustrate this with applications we are pursuing in the areas of femtosecond laser applications, advanced lithographies, and mid-IR technologies.

  8. Application of reactor-pumped lasers to power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Repetti, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    Power beaming is the concept of centralized power generation and distribution to remote users via energy beams such as microwaves or laser beams. The power beaming community is presently performing technical evaluations of available lasers as part of the design process for developing terrestrial and space-based power beaming systems. This report describes the suitability of employing a nuclear reactor-pumped laser in a power beaming system. Although there are several technical issues to be resolved, the power beaming community currently believes that the AlGaAs solid-state laser is the primary candidate for power beaming because that laser meets the many design criteria for such a system and integrates well with the GaAs photodiode receiver array. After reviewing the history and physics of reactor-pumped lasers, the advantages of these lasers for power beaming are discussed, along with several technical issues which are currently facing reactor-pumped laser research. The overriding conclusion is that reactor-pumped laser technology is not presently developed to the point of being technially or economically competitive with more mature solid-state technologies for application to power beaming. 58 refs.

  9. Application of reactor-pumped lasers to power beaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetti, T. E.

    1991-10-01

    Power beaming is the concept of centralized power generation and distribution to remote users via energy beams such as microwaves or laser beams. The power beaming community is presently performing technical evaluations of available lasers as part of the design process for developing terrestrial and space-based power beaming systems. This report describes the suitability of employing a nuclear reactor-pumped laser in a power beaming system. Although there are several technical issues to be resolved, the power beaming community currently believes that the AlGaAs solid-state laser is the primary candidate for power beaming because that laser meets the many design criteria for such a system and integrates well with the GaAs photodiode receiver array. After reviewing the history and physics of reactor-pumped lasers, the advantages of these lasers for power beaming are discussed, along with several technical issues which are currently facing reactor-pumped laser research. The overriding conclusion is that reactor-pumped laser technology is not presently developed to the point of being technically or economically competitive with more mature solid-state technologies for application to power beaming.

  10. Freeform beam shaping for high-power multimode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2014-03-01

    Widening of using high power multimode lasers in industrial laser material processing is accompanied by special requirements to irradiance profiles in such technologies like metal or plastics welding, cladding, hardening, brazing, annealing, laser pumping and amplification in MOPA lasers. Typical irradiance distribution of high power multimode lasers: free space solid state, fiber-coupled solid state and diodes lasers, fiber lasers, is similar to Gaussian. Laser technologies can be essentially improved when irradiance distribution on a workpiece is uniform (flattop) or inverse-Gauss; when building high-power pulsed lasers it is possible to enhance efficiency of pumping and amplification by applying super-Gauss irradiance distribution with controlled convexity. Therefore, "freeform" beam shaping of multimode laser beams is an important task. A proved solution is refractive field mapping beam shaper like Shaper capable to control resulting irradiance profile - with the same unit it is possible to get various beam profiles and choose optimum one for a particular application. Operational principle of these devices implies transformation of laser irradiance distribution by conserving beam consistency, high transmittance, providing collimated low divergent output beam. Using additional optics makes it possible to create resulting laser spots of necessary size and round, elliptical or linear shape. Operation out of focal plane and, hence, in field of lower wavefront curvature, allows extending depth of field. The refractive beam shapers are implemented as telescopes and collimating systems, which can be connected directly to fiber-coupled lasers or fiber lasers, thus combining functions of beam collimation and irradiance transformation.

  11. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, G.V.; Bass, I.L.; Hackel, R.P.; Jenkins, S.L.; Kanz, V.K.; Paisner, J.A.

    1993-09-21

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the second and third mirrors and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:sapphire rod is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers. For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter and an etalon are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors are disposed between the first and second mirrors to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers. 5 figures.

  12. High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Bass, Isaac L.; Hackel, Richard P.; Jenkins, Sherman L.; Kanz, Vernon K.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator (10) is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors (11-16) form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:Sapphire rod (17) is disposed between the second and third mirrors (12,13) and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:Sapphire rod (18) is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors (14,15) at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:Sapphire rod (17,18) is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers (21-22, 23-24). For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter (36) and an etalon (37) are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors (101, 192) are disposed between the first and second mirrors (11, 12) to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:Sapphire rod (103) is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors (101, 102) at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers (104, 105).

  13. Lasers of All Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcou, Philippe; Forget, Sébastien Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    * Introduction * The Laser in All Its Forms * Gas lasers * Dye lasers * Solid-state lasers * Lasers for Every Taste * The rise of lasers * Lasers of all sizes * The colors of the rainbow... and beyond * Shorter and shorter lasers * Increasingly powerful lasers * Lasers: A Universal Tool? * Cutting, welding, and cleaning * Communicating * Treating illnesses * Measuring * Supplying energy? * Entertaining * Understanding * Conclusion

  14. Improved low-power semiconductor diode lasers for photodynamic therapy in veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Susanne M.; Mueller, Eduard K.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Cryogenically cooling semiconductor diode lasers provides higher power output, longer device lifetime, and greater monochromaticity. While these effects are well known, such improvements have not been quantified, and thus cryogenically operated semiconductor lasers have not been utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report quantification of these results from laser power meter and photospectrometer data. The emission wavelengths of these low power multiple quantum well semiconductor lasers were found to decrease and become more monochromatic with decreasing temperature. Significant power output improvements also were obtained at cryogenic temperatures. In addition, the threshold current, i.e. the current at which lasing begins, decreased with decreasing temperature. This lower threshold current combined with the increased power output produced dramatically higher device efficiencies. It is proposed that cryogenic operation of semiconductor diode lasers will reduce the number of devices needed to produce the requisite output for many veterinary and medical applications, permitting significant cost reductions.

  15. A Nuclear-Powered Laser-Accelerated Plasma Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments at the University of Michigan and other laboratories throughout the world have demonstrated that ultrafast (very short pulse length) lasers can accelerate charged particles to relativistic speeds. The terrawatt laser at the University of Michigan has generated a beam of protons containing more than 1010 particles at a mean energy of over one Mev while the petawatt laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has produced proton beams containing more than 1014 particles with maximum energy of 58 Mev and a mean energy of about 6 Mev. Using the latter data as a basis for a present-day LAPPS (Laser Accelerated Plasma Propulsion System) propulsion device we show that it can produce a specific impulse of several million seconds albeit at a fraction of a Newton of thrust. We show that if the thrust can be increased to a modest 25 Newtons a fly-by robotic interstellar mission to 10,000 AU can be achieved in about 26 years, while a round trip to Mars will be accomplished in about 6 months. In both instances a one MWe nuclear power system with a mass of about 5 MT will be needed to drive the laser, and the recently announced NASA's Nuclear Space Initiative should be able to address such reactors in the near future.

  16. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  17. Non-intrusive beam power monitor for high power pulsed or continuous wave lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Scudiere, Matthew B.

    1993-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring the output of a laser is provided in which the output of a photodiode disposed in the cavity of the laser is used to provide a correlated indication of the laser power. The photodiode is disposed out of the laser beam to view the extraneous light generated in the laser cavity whose intensity has been found to be a direct correlation of the laser beam output power level. Further, the system provides means for monitoring the phase of the laser output beam relative to a modulated control signal through the photodiode monitor.

  18. Measuring laser power as a force: a new paradigm to accurately monitor optical power during laser-based machining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul; Simonds, Brian; Sowards, Jeffrey; Hadler, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    In laser manufacturing operations, accurate measurement of laser power is important for product quality, operational repeatability, and process validation. Accurate real-time measurement of high-power lasers, however, is difficult. Typical thermal power meters must absorb all the laser power in order to measure it. This constrains power meters to be large, slow and exclusive (that is, the laser cannot be used for its intended purpose during the measurement). To address these limitations, we have developed a different paradigm in laser power measurement where the power is not measured according to its thermal equivalent but rather by measuring the laser beam's momentum (radiation pressure). Very simply, light reflecting from a mirror imparts a small force perpendicular to the mirror which is proportional to the optical power. By mounting a high-reflectivity mirror on a high-sensitivity force transducer (scale), we are able to measure laser power in the range of tens of watts up to ~ 100 kW. The critical parameters for such a device are mirror reflectivity, angle of incidence, and scale sensitivity and accuracy. We will describe our experimental characterization of a radiation-pressure-based optical power meter. We have tested it for modulated and CW laser powers up to 92 kW in the laboratory and up to 20 kW in an experimental laser welding booth. We will describe present accuracy, temporal response, sources of measurement uncertainty, and hurdles which must be overcome to have an accurate power meter capable of routine operation as a turning mirror within a laser delivery head.

  19. Photovoltaic receivers for laser beamed power in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the use of beamed power to support space exploration activities. One of the most promising beamed power concepts uses a laser beam to transmit power to a remote photovoltaic array. Large lasers can be located on cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations and illuminate solar arrays to a level sufficient to provide operating power. Issues involved in providing photovoltaic receivers for such applications are discussed.

  20. High power diode laser stack development using gold-tin bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dong; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Pu; Cai, Lei; Dai, Ye; Li, Yingjie; Liu, Xingsheng

    2015-02-01

    High power diode lasers have increased application in many fields. In this work, a sophisticated high power and high performance conduction cooled diode laser stack has been developed for long pulse duration and high duty cycle using gold-tin (AuSn) bonding technology. The transient thermal behavior and optical simulation of the laser diode stack module are investigated to optimize the laser device structure. CTE-matched submount and AuSn hard solder are used for bonding the laser diode bar to achieve higher reliability and longer lifetime. Guided by the numerical simulation and analytical results, conduction cooled diode laser stack with high power, long pulse duration and high duty cycle is fabricated and characterized. Compared with the conventional indium bonding technology, the new design is a promising approach to obtain improved performance with high reliability and long lifetime.

  1. High power solid state laser modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    2004-04-27

    A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

  2. Power availability at terrestrial receptor sites for laser-power transmission from the satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    A statistical model was developed for relating the temporal transmission parameters of a laser beam from a solar power satellite to observable meteorological data to determine the influence of weather on power reception at the earth-based receiver. Sites within 100 miles of existing high voltage transmission lines were examined and the model was developed for clear-sky and clouded conditions. The cases of total transmission through clouds at certain wavelengths, no transmission, and partial transmission were calculated for the cloud portion of the model. The study covered cirriform, stratiform, cumiliform, and mixed type clouds and the possibility of boring holes through the clouds with the beam. Utilization of weapons-quality beams for hole boring, was found to yield power availability increases of 9-33%, although no beneficial effects could be predicted in regions of persistent cloud cover. An efficiency of 80% was determined as possible if several receptor sites were available within 200-300 miles of each other, thereby allowing changes of reception point in cases of unacceptable meteorological conditions.

  3. Research of large energy and high power Nd:Ce:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen-yu; Nie, Jin-song

    2011-06-01

    Currently, the output laser energy was enlarged mostly by using laser application technology and different pump styles were used, which made the laser volume large. In this thesis, the output laser energy was increased by improving the quality of laser crystal and using new style doped laser crystal, which can increase the capacity usage ratio of solid laser, and the beam quality was improved as well. In the paper, a new double-doped Nd:Ce:YAG laser crystal pumped by Xe-lamp and the plane-plane resonant was used as main oscillator of laser. There were two advantages using the method. Firstly, the absorption spectrum and emission band spectrum of Ce3+ were analyzed, which can create energy transition between Ce3+ and Nd3+. The Ce3+ ion in double-doped laser crystal can absorb pump light at ultraviolet band and create stimulated emission, which located at the absorption band of Nd3+ and made more Nd3+ ion create energy level transition. The inverted population increased. As result the capacity usage ratio of pumped energy was increased and the output energy of laser was enlarged. Secondly for the advantage of the limitation of plane-plane resonant to laser beam was strong, the angle of divergence was small at far field and the beam quality was good. Finally the pulsed laser energy was compressed to spike pulse by using passive Q-switched, and the peak power was increased. The experiments were carried out under the condition of passive Q-switched. When the input voltage was 800V, the laser beam was obtained at the oscillator stage, whose output energy was 651.5mJ. The pulse width was 20ns. The slope efficiency was 0.49%. Angle of divergence was better than 1.2 mrad. And peak power was 32.5KW. The experiment result is accordant with theoretical analyses. This solid laser has important potential application.

  4. Absolute measurement of F2-laser power at 157 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, Stefan; Brandt, Friedhelm; Kremling, Hans-Albert; Gottwald, Alexander; Hoehl, Arne; Richter, Mathias

    2006-05-10

    We report a comparison of laser power measurements at the F2-laser wavelength oaf nm made at two facilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute. At the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin, the scale for laser power was directly traced to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 157 nm, whereas at the PTB laser radiometry facility in Braunschweig the calibration of transfer detectors was performed with a newly developed standard for laser power at 157 nm, which is traceable in several steps to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 633 nm. The comparison was performed under vacuum conditions with laser pulse energies of?10 {mu}J, however with different average powers because different primary standard radiometers were used. The relative deviation for the responsivity of the transfer detector was 4.8% and thus within the combined standard uncertainty.

  5. Preliminary comparison of laser and solar space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Tepper, W. D.; Conway, E. J.; Humes, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Four laser receiver systems are compared to onboard solar photovoltaic power generation for spacecraft electrical requirements. The laser photovoltaic and laser MHD receivers were found to be lighter than a comparable planar solar photovoltaic system. The laser receiver also shows less drag at lower altitudes. Panel area is also reduced for the laser receiver allowing fewer Shuttle trips for construction. Finally, it is shown that a 1 megawatt laser and receiver system might be constructed with less weight than a comparable planar solar photovoltaic system.

  6. Development of High Average Power Lasers for the Photon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, Jeff; Stuart, Brent; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The laser and optics system for the photon collider seeks to minimize the required laser power by using an optical stacking cavity to recirculate the laser light. An enhancement of between 300 to 400 is desired. In order to achieve this the laser pulses which drive the cavity must precisely match the phase of the pulse circulating within the cavity. We report on simulations of the performance of a stacking cavity to various variations of the drive laser in order to specify the required tolerances of the laser system.

  7. Hybrid Laser Would Combine Power With Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Donald L., Jr

    1986-01-01

    Efficient laser system constructed by using two semiconductor lasers to pump neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) device. Hybrid concept allows digital transmission at data rates of several megabits per second with reasonably sized optical aperture of 20 cm. Beams from two GaAs lasers efficiently coupled for pumping Nd:YAG crystal. Combination of lasers exploits best features of each.

  8. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D

    2010-04-16

    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  9. High power semiconductor lasers for deep space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1981-01-01

    The parameters of semiconductor lasers pertaining to their application as optical emitters are discussed. Several methods to overcome their basic disadvantage, which is the low level of powers they emit, are reviewed. Most of these methods are based on a coherent power combining of several lasers.

  10. Overview of the NASA high power laser program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundholm, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    The overall objectives of the NASA High Power Laser Program are reviewed along with their structure and center responsibilities. Present and future funding, laser power transmission in space, selected program highlights, the research and technology schedule, and the expected pace of the program are briefly considered.

  11. High power cooled mini-DIL pump lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bo; Zayer, Nadhum; Chen, Bob; He, Dylan; Pliska, Tomas

    2009-11-01

    The miniature dual-inline (mini-DIL) pump laser becomes more attactive for compact optical amplifiers designs due to the advantage of smaller footprint, lower power consumption and lower cost. In this paper we report the development of a new generation of small form factor, high power "cooled" mini-DIL 980-nm pump lasers module for compact EDFA application.

  12. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  13. High Average Power Lasers for the Photon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B; Gronberg, J; Seryi, A

    2009-04-29

    The idea to convert an electron collider into a high energy photon collider has existed for several decades. A key technological limitation to realizing this idea is the need to create a large amount of laser power to drive the Compton back-scattering. A concept to reduce the required laser power using a recirculating cavity has been proposed. We describe a concept for a laser architecture that could drive such a cavity.

  14. High power diode laser Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier (MOPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, John R.; Mouroulis, P.; Wicks, G.

    1994-01-01

    High power multiple quantum well AlGaAs diode laser master oscillator - power amplifier (MOPA) systems were examined both experimentally and theoretically. For two pass operation, it was found that powers in excess of 0.3 W per 100 micrometers of facet length were achievable while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality. Internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies as high as 25 percent were observed at an internal amplifier gain of 9 dB. Theoretical modeling of multiple quantum well amplifiers was done using appropriate rate equations and a heuristic model of the carrier density dependent gain. The model gave a qualitative agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the model allowed exploration of a wider design space for the amplifiers. The model predicted that internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies in excess of 50 percent should be achievable with careful system design. The model predicted that no global optimum design exists, but gain, efficiency, and optical confinement (coupling efficiency) can be mutually adjusted to meet a specific system requirement. A three quantum well, low optical confinement amplifier was fabricated using molecular beam epitaxial growth. Coherent beam combining of two high power amplifiers injected from a common master oscillator was also examined. Coherent beam combining with an efficiency of 93 percent resulted in a single beam having diffraction-limited characteristics. This beam combining efficiency is a world record result for such a system. Interferometric observations of the output of the amplifier indicated that spatial mode matching was a significant factor in the less than perfect beam combining. Finally, the system issues of arrays of amplifiers in a coherent beam combining system were investigated. Based upon experimentally observed parameters coherent beam combining could result in a megawatt-scale coherent beam with a 10 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency.

  15. Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, Toshiyuki; Miranda, Martin; Inoue, Ryotaro; Kozuma, Mikio

    2015-07-15

    We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks.

  16. High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J

    2010-12-17

    Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

  17. Carbon dioxide laser vaporization: Relationship of scar formation to power density

    SciTech Connect

    Dobry, M.M.; Padilla, R.S.; Pennino, R.P.; Hunt, W.C.

    1989-07-01

    A direct relationship exists between the power density of a carbon dioxide laser and the thickness of scars it produces in rat skin. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between laser power and scar thickness at days 14, 21, and 32. The slope of the curve increased as the number of days elapsed. At day 32, the ratio of scar thickness to CO/sub 2/ laser power density delivered was 0.3 microns/W-cm/sup 2/. Scar formation took longer for completion at higher wattages of irradiation.

  18. Stabilized High Power Laser for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willke, B.; Danzmann, K.; Fallnich, C.; Frede, M.; Heurs, M.; King, P.; Kracht, D.; Kwee, P.; Savage, R.; Seifert, F.; Wilhelm, R.

    2006-03-01

    Second generation gravitational wave detectors require high power lasers with several 100W of output power and with very low temporal and spatial fluctuations. In this paper we discuss possible setups to achieve high laser power and describe a 200W prestabilized laser system (PSL). The PSL noise requirements for advanced gravitational wave detectors will be discussed in general and the stabilization scheme proposed for the Advanced LIGO PSL will be described. Special emphasis will be given to the most demanding power stabilization requiremets and new results (RIN <= 4×10-9/surdHz) will be presented.

  19. The NASA high power carbon dioxide laser: A versatile tool for laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancashire, R. B.; Alger, D. L.; Manista, E. J.; Slaby, J. G.; Dunning, J. W.; Stubbs, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A closed-cycle, continuous wave, carbon dioxide high power laser has been designed and fabricated to support research for the identification and evaluation of possible high power laser applications. The device is designed to generate up to 70 kW of laser power in annular shape beams from 1 to 9 cm in diameter. Electric discharge, either self sustained or electron beam sustained, is used for excitation. This laser facility provides a versatile tool on which research can be performed to advance the state-of-the-art technology of high power CO2 lasers in such areas as electric excitation, laser chemistry, and quality of output beams. The facility provides a well defined, continuous wave beam for various application experiments, such as propulsion, power conversion, and materials processing.

  20. Optimization of gas dynamic and power parameters for continuous nuclear pumped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzenev, A. N.; Sizov, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    Optimization studies of optical and power performances of nuclear pumped lasers are performed. It is shown that the laser mix pump rate speed-up from 7 to 30 m/s and laser channel width reduction from 2 to 1 cm allows increasing the average specific energy input by the factor of 1.6 and narrowing the refraction factor measuring interval for 4 times.

  1. High power KrF laser development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.; Cartwright, D.; Fenstermacher, C.; Figueira, J.; Goldstone, P.; Harris, D.; Mead, W.; Rosocha, L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the high power laser development program at Los Alamos is to appraise the potential of the KrF laser as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), ultimately at energy levels that will produce high target gain (gain of order 100). A KrF laser system prototype, the 10-kJ Aurora laser, which is nearing initial system operation, will serve as a feasibility demonstration of KrF technology and system design concepts appropriate to large scale ICF driver systems. The issues of affordable cost, which is a major concern for all ICF drivers now under development, and technology scaling are also being examined. It is found that, through technology advances and component cost reductions, the potential exists for a KrF driver to achieve a cost goal in the neighborhood of $100 per joule. The authors suggest that the next step toward a multimegajoule laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is an ''Intermediate Driver'' facility in the few hundred kilojoule to one megajoule range, which will help verify the scaling of driver technology and cost to an LMF size. An Intermediate Driver facility would also increase the confidence in the estimates of energy needed for an LMF and would reduce the risk in target performance. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Ground-Based and Space-Based Laser Beam Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, John M.

    1995-01-01

    A space power system based on laser beam power is sized to reduce mass, increase operational capabilities, and reduce complexity. The advantages of laser systems over solar-based systems are compared as a function of application. Power produced from the conversion of a laser beam that has been generated on the Earth's surface and beamed into cislunar space resulted in decreased round-trip time for Earth satellite electric propulsion tugs and a substantial landed mass savings for a lunar surface mission. The mass of a space-based laser system (generator in space and receiver near user) that beams down to an extraterrestrial airplane, orbiting spacecraft, surface outpost, or rover is calculated and compared to a solar system. In general, the advantage of low mass for these space-based laser systems is limited to high solar eclipse time missions at distances inside Jupiter. The power system mass is less in a continuously moving Mars rover or surface outpost using space-based laser technology than in a comparable solar-based power system, but only during dust storm conditions. Even at large distances for the Sun, the user-site portion of a space-based laser power system (e.g., the laser receiver component) is substantially less massive than a solar-based system with requisite on-board electrochemical energy storage.

  3. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 3: Laser SPS analysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential use of lasers for transmitting power to Earth from Solar Power Satellites was examined. Free electron lasers appear most promising and would have some benefits over microwave power transmission. Further research in laser technology is needed.

  4. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  5. Ex vivo efficacy evaluation of laser vaporization for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using a 300-W high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Junya; Honda, Norihiro; Hazama, Hisanao

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Laser vaporization of the prostate is considered to be a promising treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and efficiency of vaporization and hemostasis are both important parameters for such treatment. In this study, we used a high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm to obtain high vaporization efficiency with good hemostasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of laser vaporization for treatment of BPH in ex vivo experiments using a 300-W high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm quantitatively. Materials and Methods: An ex vivo experimental setup simulating clinical treatment situation was constructed. Bovine prostate tissue was used as a sample. The power setting was 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 W, and the irradiation time was 0.5, 1, or 2 s. After laser irradiation, vaporized and coagulated depths were measured. Results: The vaporized depth increased with the laser power and irradiation time, and the results confirmed that the high-power laser diode could efficiently vaporize the prostate tissue. Coagulated depth increased as the laser power became higher. Conclusions: Laser vaporization of prostate tissue using a high-power laser diode with a wavelength of 980 nm represents a promising treatment for BPH; this method exhibits high vaporization efficiency and good hemostasis. However, operators must be aware of the risk of postoperative perforation of the prostatic capsule caused by coagulation of deep regions that cannot be visualized by endoscopic observation. PMID:25368442

  6. Compact architecture for power scaling bounce geometry lasers.

    PubMed

    Chard, S P; Damzen, M J

    2009-02-16

    We demonstrate the compact high-power scaling of bounce geometry lasers with a new dual-pumped folded amplifier design. A Q-switched laser oscillator built with this amplifier is shown to produce over 30 W of average power from 80 W of pump power at up to 600 kHz repetition rate. In a master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration using the dual-pumped amplifier, we demonstrate over 100 W of output power from 250 W of pump power. We also demonstrate very high repetition rate Q-switching (1.7 MHz) of the master oscillator. PMID:19219125

  7. Space power by ground-based laser transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for providing power to space vehicles consists of using high-power CW lasers on the ground to beam power to photovoltaic receivers in space. Such large lasers could be located at cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations, and use large mirrors with adaptive optical correction to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. This can result in lower requirements for battery storage, due to continuous illumination of arrays even during periods of shadow by the earth, and higher power output, due to the higher efficiency of photovoltaic arrays under laser illumination compared to solar and the ability to achieve higher intensities of illumination. Applications include providing power for satellites during eclipse, providing power to resurrect satellites which are failing due to solar array degradation, powering orbital transfer vehicles or lunar transfer shuttles, and providing night power to a solar array on the moon.

  8. 1047 nm laser diode master oscillator Nd:YLF power amplifier laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, A. W.; Krainak, M. A.; Unger, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    A master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter system at 1047 nm wavelength using a semiconductor laser diode and a diode pumped solid state (Nd:YLF) laser (DPSSL) amplifier is described. A small signal gain of 23 dB, a near diffraction limited beam, 1 Gbit/s modulation rates and greater than 0.6 W average power are achieved. This MOPA laser has the advantage of amplifying the modulation signal from the laser diode master oscillator (MO) with no signal degradation.

  9. High-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Churin, D; Olson, J; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N; Kieu, K

    2015-06-01

    We report a high-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser operating in the normal dispersion regime. The Raman laser is pumped by a picosecond Yb(3+)-doped fiber laser. It produces highly chirped pulses with energy up to 18 nJ, average power of 0.76 W and 88% efficiency. The pulse duration is measured to be 147 fs after external compression. We observed two different regimes of operation of the laser: coherent and noise-like regime. Both regimes were experimentally characterized. Numerical simulations are in a good agreement with experimental results. PMID:26030549

  10. Laser photovoltaic power system synergy for SEI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hickman, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Solar arrays can provide reliable space power, but do not operate when there is no solar energy. Photovoltaic arrays can also convert laser energy with high efficiency. One proposal to reduce the required mass of energy storage required is to illuminate the photovoltaic arrays by a ground laser system. It is proposed to locate large lasers on cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations, and use large lenses or mirrors with adaptive optical correction to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. During the eclipse periods or lunar night, the lasers illuminate the solar arrays to a level sufficient to provide operating power.

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Laser Powered Carbon Nanotube Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Globus, Al; Han, Jie; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of laser powered carbon nanotube gears is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations with Brenner's hydrocarbon potential. We find that when the frequency of the laser electric field is much less than the intrinsic frequency of the carbon nanotube, the tube exhibits an oscillatory pendulam behavior. However, a unidirectional rotation of the gear with oscillating frequency is observed under conditions of resonance between the laser field and intrinsic gear frequencies. The operating conditions for stable rotations of the nanotube gears, powered by laser electric fields are explored, in these simulations.

  12. Micro-scanning mirrors for high-power laser applications in laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandner, Thilo; Kimme, Simon; Grasshoff, Thomas; Todt, Ulrich; Graf, Alexander; Tulea, Cristian; Lenenbach, Achim; Schenk, Harald

    2014-03-01

    We present two novel micro scanning mirrors with large aperture and HR dielectric coatings suitable for high power laser applications in a miniaturized laser-surgical instrument for neurosurgery to cut skull tissue. An electrostatic driven 2D-raster scanning mirror with 5x7.1mm aperture is used for dynamic steering of a ps-laser beam of the laser cutting process. A second magnetic 2D-beam steering mirror enables a static beam correction of a hand guided laser instrument. Optimizations of a magnetic gimbal micro mirror with 6 mm x 8 mm mirror plate are presented; here static deflections of 3° were reached. Both MEMS devices were successfully tested with a high power ps-laser at 532nm up to 20W average laser power.

  13. Optimal laser wavelength for efficient laser power converter operation over temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, O.; Walker, A. W.; Bett, A. W.; Helmers, H.

    2016-06-01

    A temperature dependent modeling study is conducted on a GaAs laser power converter to identify the optimal incident laser wavelength for optical power transmission. Furthermore, the respective temperature dependent maximal conversion efficiencies in the radiative limit as well as in a practically achievable limit are presented. The model is based on the transfer matrix method coupled to a two-diode model, and is calibrated to experimental data of a GaAs photovoltaic device over laser irradiance and temperature. Since the laser wavelength does not strongly influence the open circuit voltage of the laser power converter, the optimal laser wavelength is determined to be in the range where the external quantum efficiency is maximal, but weighted by the photon flux of the laser.

  14. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  15. 124. TV MESSAGE FROM WHITE HOUSE AUTHORIZING LWBR POWER INCREASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. TV MESSAGE FROM WHITE HOUSE AUTHORIZING LWBR POWER INCREASE TO 100%, DECEMBER 2, 1977 - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  16. Robotics For High Power Laser Beam Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Henry E.

    1989-03-01

    The research and development programs in manufacturing science at The Pennsylvania State University have a major emphasis on laser materials processing technology development. A major thrust of this program is the development of an intelligent robotic system which can manipulate a laser beam in three dimension with the precision required for welding. The robot is called LARS for Laser Articulated Robotic System. A gantry based robot was selected as the foundation for LARS and the system is divided into five major subsystems: robot, electronic control, vision, workhead, beam transport, and software. An overview of the Laser Robotics program including laser materials processing research programs will be provided.

  17. Atmospheric propagation and combining of high-power lasers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, W; Sprangle, P; Davis, C C

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze beam combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications. The large linewidths inherent in high-power fiber and slab lasers cause random phase and intensity fluctuations that occur on subnanosecond time scales. Coherently combining these high-power lasers would involve instruments capable of precise phase control and operation at rates greater than ∼10  GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this technology does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase lock high-power lasers that is not encountered when phase locking low-power lasers, for example, at milliwatt power levels. Regardless, we demonstrate that even if instruments are developed that can precisely control the phase of high-power lasers, coherent combining is problematic for DE applications. The dephasing effects of atmospheric turbulence typically encountered in DE applications will degrade the coherent properties of the beam before it reaches the target. Through simulations, we find that coherent beam combining in moderate turbulence and over multikilometer propagation distances has little advantage over incoherent combining. Additionally, in cases of strong turbulence and multikilometer propagation ranges, we find nearly indistinguishable intensity profiles and virtually no difference in the energy on the target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams. Consequently, we find that coherent beam combining at the transmitter plane is ineffective under typical atmospheric conditions. PMID:26974640

  18. Bright laser source with high-power single-mode-emitting diode laser stacked array assembly and fiber coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrer, M.; Moser, H.; Gisler, T.; Spinola Durante, G.; Pierer, J.; Bosshard, C.; Krejci, M.; Lichtenstein, N.

    2011-03-01

    Single-mode-emitting high-power diode laser arrays (SM-HPDLA) are available industrially with more than 50 W emission power per bar. Based on this platform an expandable prototype solution is realized for fiber coupling of a stacked array with more than 100 W to an optical fiber with diameter of 200 micron and NA of 0.11. Advanced methods of controlled assembly of micro-optics by infrared laser-soldering have been developed therefore. We present a compact and scalable concept with scalability on 2 internal and 2 external factors. Internal factors are the increasing beam quality and power stability of high-power single-mode-emitting arrays and the improved assembly accuracy for diode bar and micro-optics. External factors are the interlaced coupling of stacked beam emission from the stacked array and the further option to use optimized polarisation coupling with several diode laser stacks.

  19. Laser plasma influence on the space-time structure of powerful laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyin, O. B.; Bogdanov, G. S.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Gerasimov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.; Melekhov, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of laser plasma on the structure of the radiation field of a powerful Nd-glass laser with pulse energy up to 30 J and with the diameter of the output beam 45 mm. Laser plasma is generated by focusing the laser radiation on a low-density target such as nylon mesh and teflon or mylar films. Temporal profile of the laser pulse with a total duration of 25 ns consists of a several short pulse train. Duration of each pulse is about 2 ns. Notable smoothing of spatially non-uniform radiation structure was observed in the middle of the laser pulse.

  20. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Belenky, G.

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micron wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micron and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micron range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  1. Theoretical And Experimental Investigations On The Plasma Of A CO2 High Power Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, W.; Wallter, B.

    1984-03-01

    The CO2 high power laser is increasingly used in material processing. This application of the laser has to meet some requirements: at one hand the laser is a tool free of wastage, but at the other hand is to guarantee that the properties of that tool are constant in time. Therefore power, geometry and mode of the beam have to be stable over long intervalls, even if the laser is used in rough industrial environment. Otherwise laser material processing would not be competitive. The beam quality is affected by all components of the laser - by the CO2 plasma and its IR - amplification, by the resonator which at last generates the beam by optical feedback, and also by the electric power supply whose effects on the plasma may be measured at the laser beam. A transversal flow laser has been developed at the Technical University of Vienna in cooperation with VOest-Alpine AG, Linz (Austria). This laser produces 1 kW of beam power with unfolded resonator. It was subject to investigations presented in this paper.

  2. Studies of a repetitively-pulsed laser powered thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, D. I.; Kemp, N. H.; Miller, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this report we present results of continuing analytical and experimental investigations carried out to evaluate the concept of pulsed laser propulsion. This advanced propulsion scheme, which has been the subject of several previous studies, involves supplying propellant energy by beaming short, repetitive laser pulses to a thruster from a remote laser power station. The concept offers the advantages of a remote power source, high specific impulse, high payload to total mass ratio (a consequence of the first two features) and moderate to high thrust (limited primarily by the average laser power available). The present research addresses questions related to thruster performance and optical design. In the thruster scheme under consideration, parabolic nozzle walls focus the incoming laser beam to yield breakdown in a propellant at the focal point of the parabola. The resulting high pressure plasma is characteristic of a detonation wave initiation by high power laser-induced breakdown. With a short laser pulse, the detonation wave quickly becomes a blast wave which propagates to the nozzle exit plane converting the high pressure of the gas behind it to a force on the nozzle wall. Propellant is fed to the focal region from a plenum chamber. The laser-induced blast wave stops the propellant flow through the throat until the pressure at the throat decays to the sonic pressure; then the propellant flow restarts. The process is repeated with each successive laser pulse.

  3. Effect of laser power on the microstructural behaviour and strength of modified laser deposited Ti6Al4V+Cu alloy for medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erinosho, Mutiu F.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    The excellent biocompatibility property of Grade 5 titanium alloy has made its desirability largely increasing in the field of biomedical. The titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) was modified with the addition of 3 weight percent (wt %) copper via a laser deposition process using the Ytterbium fiber laser with a wavelength of 1.047 μm. Therefore, this paper presents the effect of laser power on the microstructural behaviour and strength of the modified Ti6Al4V+Cu alloy. The laser powers were varied between 600 W and 1600 W respectively while all other parameters such as the scanning speed, powder flow rates and gas flow rates were kept constant. The melt pool and width of the deposited alloy increases as the laser power was increased. The α-lamella was observed to be finer at low laser power, and towards the fusion zone, Widmanstettan structures were fused and become smaller; and showing an evidence of α-martensite phases. The strength of the modified alloy was derived from the hardness values. The strength was observed to increase initially to a point as the laser power increases and afterwards decreased as the laser power was further increased. The improved Ti6Al4V+Cu alloy can be anticipated for biomedical application.

  4. Enhanced peak power CO2 laser processing of PCB materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, C. J.; Villarreal, F.; Wendland, J. J.; Baker, H. J.; Hall, D. R.; Hand, D. P.

    2005-06-01

    Laser drilling has become a common processing step in the fabrication of printed circuit boards (PCB's). For this work, a recently developed enhanced peak power CO2 laser (~2.5 kW peak power, 200W average) or ultra-super pulse (USP) laser is used to drill alumina and copper coated dielectric laminate materials. The higher peak power and faster response times (than conventional CO2 lasers) produced by the USP laser are used to produce high speed alumina laser scribing and copper coated laminate microvia drilling processes. Alumina is a common PCB material used for applications, where its resistance to mechanical and thermal stresses is required. Here we present a comprehensive study of the melt eject mechanisms and recast formation to optimise the speed and quality of alumina laser scribing. Scribe speeds of up to 320 mms-1 (1.8 times current scribe rate) have been achieved using novel temporal pulse shapes unique to the USP laser. Also presented is the microvia drilling process of copper dielectric laminates, where the multi-level configuration presents different optical and thermal properties complicating their simultaneous laser ablation. In our experiments the USP laser has been used to drill standard thickness copper films (up to 50 μm thick) in a single shot. This investigation concentrates on understanding the mechanisms that determine the dielectric undercut dimensions.

  5. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

  6. Diamond optical components for high-power and high-energy laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoikin, Eugene; Muhr, Alexander; Bennett, Andrew; Twitchen, Daniel; de Wit, Henk

    2015-02-01

    High-power and high-energy laser systems have firmly established their industrial presence with applications that span materials processing; high - precision and high - throughput manufacturing; semiconductors, and defense. Along with high average power CO2 lasers operating at wavelengths of ~ 10 microns, solid state lasers and fiber lasers operating at ~ 1 micron wavelength are now increasingly being used, both in the high average power and high energy pulse regimes. In recent years, polycrystalline diamond has become the material of choice when it comes to making optical components for multi-kilowatt CO2 lasers at 10 micron, outperforming ZnSe due to its superior thermo-mechanical characteristics. For 1 micron laser systems, fused silica has to date been the most popular optical material owing to its outstanding optical properties. This paper characterizes high - power / high - energy performance of anti-reflection coated optical windows made of different grades of diamond (single crystal, polycrystalline) and of fused silica. Thermo-optical modeling results are also presented for water cooled mounted optical windows. Laser - induced damage threshold tests are performed and analyzed. It is concluded that diamond is a superior optical material for working with extremely high-power and high-energy laser beams at 1 micron wavelength.

  7. High-power pulsed laser diodes emitting in the range 1.5 – 1.6 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlachuk, P V; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Ladugin, M A; Padalitsa, A A; Marmalyuk, A A; Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V; Zhuravleva, O V; Romantsevich, V I; Chernov, R V; Ivanov, A V; Simakov, V A

    2013-09-30

    This paper examines approaches for increasing the output pulse power of laser diodes based on MOVPE InGaAs/AlGaInAs/InP heterostructures and emitting in the range 1.5 – 1.6 μm. We demonstrate that optimising waveguide layer parameters may ensure an increase in the quantum efficiency of the laser diodes and a reduction in their internal optical loss. Characterisation results are presented for laser diodes based on the proposed heterostructures. (lasers)

  8. Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belke, Steffen; Becker, Frank; Neumann, Benjamin; Ruppik, Stefan; Hefter, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated a linearly polarized cw all-in-fiber oscillator providing 1 kW of output power and a polarization extinction ratio (PER) of up to 21.7 dB. The design of the laser oscillator is simple and consists of an Ytterbium-doped polarization maintaining large mode area (PLMA) fiber and suitable fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in matching PLMA fibers. The oscillator has nearly diffraction-limited beam quality (M² < 1.2). Pump power is delivered via a high power 6+1:1 pump coupler. The slope efficiency of the laser is 75 %. The electro/optical efficiency of the complete laser system is ~30 % and hence in the range of Rofin's cw non-polarized fiber lasers. Choosing an adequate bending diameter for the Yb-doped PLMA fiber, one polarization mode as well as higher order modes are sufficiently supressed1. Resulting in a compact and robust linearly polarized high power single mode laser without external polarizing components. Linearly polarized lasers are well established for one dimensional cutting or welding applications. Using beam shaping optics radially polarized laser light can be generated to be independent from the angle of incident to the processing surface. Furthermore, high power linearly polarized laser light is fundamental for nonlinear frequency conversion of nonlinear materials.

  9. Space power by ground-based laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Reducing energy storage requirements of space power systems by illuminating the photovoltaic arrays with a remotely located laser system is addressed. It is proposed that large lasers be located on cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations and that large lenses or mirrors with adaptive optical correction be used to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. During the eclipse periods or lunar night, the lasers illuminate the solar arrays to a level sufficient to provide operating power. Two applications are discussed: illumination of geosynchronous orbit satellites and illumination of a moonbase power system. Issues for photovoltaic receivers for such a system are discussed.

  10. Degradation processes in high power multi-mode InGaAs strained quantum well lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongkun; Presser, Nathan; Foran, Brendan; Moss, Steven C.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, broad-area InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well (QW) lasers have attracted much attention because of their unparalleled high optical output power characteristics that narrow stripe lasers or tapered lasers can not achieve. However, broad-area lasers suffer from poor beam quality and their high reliability operation has not been proven for communications applications. This paper concerns reliability and degradation aspects of broad-area lasers. Good facet passivation techniques along with optimized structural designs have led to successful demonstration of reliable 980nm single-mode lasers, and the dominant failure mode of both single-mode and broadarea lasers is catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD), which limits maximum output powers and also determines operating output powers. Although broad-area lasers have shown characteristics unseen from singlemode lasers including filamentation, their effects on long-term reliability and degradation processes have not been fully investigated. Filamentation can lead to instantaneous increase in optical power density and thus temperature rise at localized areas through spatial-hole burning and thermal lensing which significantly reduces filament sizes under high power operation, enhancing the COMD process. We investigated degradation processes in commercial MOCVD-grown broad-area InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers at ~975nm with and without passivation layers by performing accelerated lifetests of these devices followed by failure mode analyses with various micro-analytical techniques. Since instantaneous fluctuations of filaments can lead to faster wear-out of passivation layer thus leading to facet degradation, both passivated and unpassivated broad-area lasers were studied that yielded catastrophic failures at the front facet and also in the bulk. Electron beam induced current technique was employed to study dark line defects (DLDs) generated in degraded lasers stressed under different test conditions and focused

  11. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    SciTech Connect

    Gayathri, S.; Sridharan, M. E-mail: m.sridharan@ece.sastra.edu; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R. E-mail: m.sridharan@ece.sastra.edu; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2013-12-15

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp{sup 2} bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp{sup 3} domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp{sup 2} fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm{sup 2}. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp{sup 2} and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm{sup 2} is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} hybridized structure.

  12. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, S.; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R.; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sridharan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp2 bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp3 domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp2 fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm2. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp2 and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm2 is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp2 to sp3 hybridized structure.

  13. A study of laser ablation propulsion using polyoxymethelyne and a high power diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesar, Michael D.

    With an increased interest by universities, government and commercial groups in using constellations of pico and nano satellites, the need for micro-thrusters to aid in the station-keeping capabilities has become strong. This report examines using polymers and a laser to ablate material as a potential propulsion option for station-keeping. Homopolymer polyoxymethelyne (POM), commonly known as Delrin(TM), was tested as a fuel for a high powered (20 Watt 980 nm) solid state diode laser ablation thruster to be used for station-keeping on pico and nano sized satellites. The experiments required a partial vacuum to reduce the effects of air decomposition and remove water vapor during the ablation event. The vacuum chamber, shadowgraph, and an impulse measurement system were all designed and built around the 20-Watt laser. Three different sample thicknesses were tested (.005", .010", and .020") to determine the behavior of the polymer. The laser was focused onto the POM sample, which was mounted to a load cell and calibrated to measure the impulse of the system imparted by the laser pulse. The calculated thrust values ranged from 600 microN to 1300 microN with a high uncertainty due to the small sample size. The exhaust plume from the ablation event was captured using a shadowgraph. A low velocity was recorded because the chamber was not a complete vacuum, causing the exhaust plume to collide with the air molecules in the test chamber. However the load cell results suggested that 1.30 mN per burst can be produced with an uncertainty of 30%. With the work outlined in this paper, POM shows the promise and challenge of being a good candidate as a fuel material. POM warrants further development and investment as a fuel to be used with a laser ablation micro-thruster.

  14. Comparisons of selected laser beam power missions to conventionally powered missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, John M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Stavnes, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    Earth-based laser sites beaming laser power to space assets have shown benefits over competing power system concepts for specific missions. Missions analyzed in this report that show benefits of laser beam power are low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) transfer, LEO to low lunar orbit (LLO) cargo missions, and lunar-base power. Both laser- and solar-powered orbit-transfer vehicles (OTV's) make a 'tug' concept viable, which substantially reduces cumulative initial mass to LEO in comparison to chemical propulsion concepts. Lunar cargo missions utilizing laser electric propulsion from Earth-orbit to LLO show substantial mass saving to LEO over chemical propulsion systems. Lunar-base power system options were compared on a landed-mass basis. Photovoltaics with regenerative fuel cells, reactor-based systems, and laser-based systems were sized to meet a generic lunar-base power profile. A laser-based system begins to show landed mass benefits over reactor-based systems when proposed production facilities on the Moon require power levels greater than approximately 300 kWe. Benefit/cost ratios of laser power systems for an OTV, both to GEO and LLO, and for a lunar base were calculated to be greater than 1.

  15. Diode pumped alkali vapor lasers for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.; Komashko, A.

    2008-02-01

    General Atomics has been engaged in the development of diode pumped alkali vapor lasers. We have been examining the design space looking for designs that are both efficient and easily scalable to high powers. Computationally, we have looked at the effect of pump bandwidth on laser performance. We have also looked at different lasing species. We have used an alexandrite laser to study the relative merits of different designs. We report on the results of our experimental and computational studies.

  16. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Prelas, M.A.

    1991-01-16

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  17. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  18. Ceramic tile grout removal & sealing using high power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.; Li, L.; Spencer, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    Work has been conducted using a Nd:YAG laser, a CO{sub 2} laser and a high power diode laser (HPDL) in order to determine the feasibility of removing contaminated tile grout from the void between adjoining vitrified ceramic tiles, and to seal the void permanently with a material having an impermeable surface glaze. Reported on in the paper are; the basic process phenomena, the process effectiveness, suitable vitrifiable material development, a heat affect study and a morphological and compositional analysis.

  19. Increase in the power of lasing on atomic and ion transitions in chemical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Klimkin, V M; Sokovikov, V G

    2007-02-28

    A method for increasing the power of pulsed lasing on atomic and ion transitions in chemical elements obtained by the conversion of the UV radiation of excimer lasers in cells with metal vapours is studied. A part of UV radiation transmitted through a cell with metal vapour is used for pumping a dye solution in such a way that the cell converter with metal vapour represents a master oscillator, while the dye cell represents an amplifier. The study is performed by the example of amplification of weak spectral components of radiation from a XeCl* laser converted in mercury and barium vapours. In the amplifying stage the longitudinal pumping of the dye is used and a scheme for suppressing self-excitation is employed. It is found by selecting dyes that the alcohol solution of uranin is nearly optimal for amplification of the 546.1-nm laser line of mercury, while the best results in amplification of the 533-nm and 648.2-nm laser lines of barium were obtained by using alcohol solutions of rhodamine 6G and oxazine 17, respectively. The power of the 546.1-nm mercury line was increased by an order of magnitude, while the power of the 533-nm and 648.2-nm lines of barium - almost by a factor of twenty-five. (lasers)

  20. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    SciTech Connect

    Valentino, L.; Valenzuela, V.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Conzelmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  1. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  2. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  3. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Kwon, J. H.; Walker, G. H.; Humes, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat radiator. Although the system can be adapted to missions at many locations in the solar system, only two are examined here: powering a lunar habitat; and powering a lunar rover. Power system components are described and their masses, dimensions, operating powers, and temperatures, are estimated using known or feasible component capabilities. The critical technologies involved are discussed and other potential missions are mentioned.

  4. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  5. Thermal Regime of High-power Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezotosnyi, V. V.; Krokhin, O. N.; Oleshchenko, V. A.; Pevtsov, V. F.; Popov, Yu. M.; Cheshev, E. A.

    We discuss the design and application perspectives of different crystal, ceramic and composite-type submounts with thermo-compensating properties as well as submounts from materials with high thermal conductivity for overcoming thermal problem in high-power laser diodes (LD) and improving thermal management of other high-power optoelectronic and electronic semiconductor devices. Thermal fields in high-power laser diodes were calculated in 3 D thermal model at CW operation for some heatsink designs taking into account the experimental dependence of laser total efficiency against pumping current in order to extend the range of reliable operation up to thermal loads 20-30 W and corresponding output optical power up to 15-20 W for 100 μm stripe laser diodes.

  6. Power Enhancement Cavity for Burst-Mode Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical cavity scheme and locking method that can realize the power enhancement of picosecond UV laser pulses operating at a burst mode with arbitrary burst (macropulse) lengths and repetition rates.

  7. High Power Laser Hybrid Welding - Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik

    High power industrial lasers at power levels up to 100 kW is now available on the market. Therefore, welding of thicker materials has become of interest for the heavy metal industry e.g. shipyards and wind mill producers. Further, the power plant industry, producers of steel pipes, heavy machinery and steel producers are following this new technology with great interest. At Lindø Welding Technology (LWT), which is a subsidiary to FORCE Technology, a 32-kwatt disc laser is installed. At this laser facility, welding procedures related to thick section steel applications are developed. Material thicknesses between 40 and 100 mm are currently of interest. This paper describes some of the challenges that are related to the development of the high power hybrid laser welding process as well as to the perspectives for the technology as a production tool for the heavy metal industry.

  8. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  9. Prophylaxis and treatment of acute radiation ulcers in rats with low-power infrared laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursova, Larisa V.; Kaplan, Michael A.; Nikitina, Rosa G.; Maligina, Antonina I.

    1999-12-01

    Exposure of radiation ulcers in rats to low-power infrared laser radiation (LPLR) (wavelength--890 nm, pulse power--6 W, frequency--150 and 300 Hz, irradiation time--10 min) noticeably accelerates their healing, reduces exudative processes, increases number of specialized cells in wound. Application of LPLR prior to radiation damage decreases ulcer dimensions.

  10. Passively cooled diode lasers in the cw power range of 120 to 200W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, Dirk; Meusel, Jens; Schröder, Dominic; Hennig, Petra

    2008-02-01

    Improvements of laser diode bar efficiency and mounting technology have boosted output powers of passively cooled diode lasers beyond the 100W cw limit. After an introduction about reliablity statements and reliability assessment, the performance increase by technology improvements is documented in current-step failure discrimination tests. Electro-optical parameters of improved diode lasers are subsequently presented in detail as well as the results of lifetime tests at different powers and in different operation modes - steady-state and repetitive/intermittent ("hard pulse") cw operation.

  11. High-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser cladding-pumped with a random distributed feedback fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaoxi; Du, Xueyuan; Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Zejin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 2153 nm with the output power exceeding 18 W and the slope efficiency of 25.5%. A random distributed feedback fiber laser with the center wavelength of 1173 nm was employed as pump source of Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. No amplified spontaneous emissions or parasitic oscillations were observed when the maximum output power reached, which indicates that employing 1173 nm random distributed feedback fiber laser as pump laser is a feasible and promising scheme to achieve high-power emission of long-wavelength Tm-doped fiber laser. The output power of this Tm-doped fiber laser could be further improved by optimizing the length of active fiber, reflectivity of FBGs, increasing optical efficiency of pump laser and using better temperature management. We also compared the operation of 2153 nm Tm-doped fiber lasers pumped with 793 nm laser diodes, and the maximum output powers were limited to ~2 W by strong amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic oscillation in the range of 1900–2000 nm. PMID:27416893

  12. High-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser cladding-pumped with a random distributed feedback fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaoxi; Du, Xueyuan; Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Zejin

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrated a high-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 2153 nm with the output power exceeding 18 W and the slope efficiency of 25.5%. A random distributed feedback fiber laser with the center wavelength of 1173 nm was employed as pump source of Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. No amplified spontaneous emissions or parasitic oscillations were observed when the maximum output power reached, which indicates that employing 1173 nm random distributed feedback fiber laser as pump laser is a feasible and promising scheme to achieve high-power emission of long-wavelength Tm-doped fiber laser. The output power of this Tm-doped fiber laser could be further improved by optimizing the length of active fiber, reflectivity of FBGs, increasing optical efficiency of pump laser and using better temperature management. We also compared the operation of 2153 nm Tm-doped fiber lasers pumped with 793 nm laser diodes, and the maximum output powers were limited to ~2 W by strong amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic oscillation in the range of 1900–2000 nm.

  13. High-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser cladding-pumped with a random distributed feedback fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoxi; Du, Xueyuan; Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Zejin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-power ultralong-wavelength Tm-doped silica fiber laser operating at 2153 nm with the output power exceeding 18 W and the slope efficiency of 25.5%. A random distributed feedback fiber laser with the center wavelength of 1173 nm was employed as pump source of Tm-doped fiber laser for the first time. No amplified spontaneous emissions or parasitic oscillations were observed when the maximum output power reached, which indicates that employing 1173 nm random distributed feedback fiber laser as pump laser is a feasible and promising scheme to achieve high-power emission of long-wavelength Tm-doped fiber laser. The output power of this Tm-doped fiber laser could be further improved by optimizing the length of active fiber, reflectivity of FBGs, increasing optical efficiency of pump laser and using better temperature management. We also compared the operation of 2153 nm Tm-doped fiber lasers pumped with 793 nm laser diodes, and the maximum output powers were limited to ~2 W by strong amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic oscillation in the range of 1900-2000 nm. PMID:27416893

  14. Beam-path conditioning for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.; Johnson, D.; Languirand, M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of mirrors and windows by high-power radiation from a laser transmitter produces turbulent density gradients in the gas near the optical surfaces. If the gradients are left uncontrolled, the resulting phase errors reduce the intensity on the target and degrade the signal returned to a receiver. Beam path conditioning maximizes the efficiency of the optical system by alleviating thermal turbulence within the beam path. Keywords: High power radiation, Beam path, Optical surface, Laser beams, Reprints. (JHD)

  15. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  16. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  17. High power, high efficiency diode pumped Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Dahan, Asaf; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Pattnaik, Radha K.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a high power high efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by a laser diode module at 976 nm. 80 Watts of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1020 nm with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 53%. When working quasi-CW, at a duty cycle of 30%, 85 W of peak power was produced with an efficiency of 60%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the 2nd Stokes. In addition, significant brightness enhancement of the pump beam is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power Raman fiber laser directly pumped by laser diodes, which also exhibits a record efficiency for such a laser. In addition, it is the highest power Raman fiber laser (regardless of pumping source) demonstrated based on a GRIN fiber.

  18. Generation of doughnut spot for high-power laser technologies using refractive beam shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-03-01

    Doughnut and inverse-Gauss intensity distributions of laser spot are required in laser technologies like welding, cladding where high power fiber coupled diode or solid-state lasers as well as fiber lasers are used. In comparison to Gaussian and flat-top distributions the doughnut and inverse-Gauss profiles provide more uniform temperature distribution on a work piece - this improves the technology, increase stability of processes and efficiency of using the laser energy, reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ). This type of beam shaping has become frequently asked by users of multimode lasers, especially multimode fiber coupled diode lasers. Refractive field mapping beam shapers are applied as one of solutions for the task to manipulate intensity distribution of multimode lasers. The operation principle of these devices presumes almost lossless transformation of laser beam irradiance from Gaussian to flat-top, doughnut or inverse-Gauss through controlled wavefront manipulation inside a beam shaper using lenses with smooth optical surfaces. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying with high-power multimode lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  19. High power metallic halide laser. [amplifying a copper chloride laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, T. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A laser amplification system is disclosed whereby a metallic halide vapor such as copper chloride is caused to flow through a laser amplifier and a heat exchanger in a closed loop system so that the flow rate is altered to control the temperature rise across the length of the laser amplifier. The copper atoms within the laser amplifier should not exceed a temperature of 3000 K, so that the number of copper atoms in the metastable state will not be high enough to prevent amplification in the amplifier. A molecular dissociation apparatus is provided at the input to the laser amplifier for dissociating the copper chloride into copper atoms and ions and chlorine atoms and ions. The dissociation apparatus includes a hollow cathode tube and an annular ring spaced apart from the tube end. A voltage differential is applied between the annular ring and the hollow cathode tube so that as the copper chloride flows through, it is dissociated into copper and chlorine ions and atoms.

  20. Recent advances in high-power tunable lasers (UV, visible, and near IR)

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, V.N.

    1981-05-01

    A review of the current technology of high-power tunable lasers is presented with the emphasis on dye lasers. Among the topics covered are color center lasers, excimer lasers, picosecond techniques, and nonlinear coherent sources. (AIP)

  1. Increased epidermal laser fluence through simultaneous ultrasonic microporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, Paul J. D.; Chininis, Jeff A.; Schellenberg, Mason W.; Qian, Chenxi; Hunt, Heather K.

    2016-03-01

    Lasers have demonstrated widespread applicability in clinical dermatology as minimally invasive instruments that achieve photogenerated responses within tissue. However, before reaching its target, the incident light must first transmit through the surface layer of tissue, which is interspersed with chromophores (e.g. melanin) that preferentially absorb the light and may also generate negative tissue responses. These optical absorbers decrease the efficacy of the procedures. In order to ensure that the target receives a clinically relevant dose, most procedures simply increase the incident energy; however, this tends to exacerbate the negative complications of melanin absorption. Here, we present an alternative solution aimed at increasing epidermal energy uence while mitigating excess absorption by unintended targets. Our technique involves the combination of a waveguide-based contact transmission modality with simultaneous high-frequency ultrasonic pulsation, which alters the optical properties of the tissue through the agglomeration of dissolved gasses into micro-bubbles within the tissue. Doing so effectively creates optically transparent pathways for the light to transmit unobstructed through the tissue, resulting in an increase in forward scattering and a decrease in absorption. To demonstrate this, Q-switched nanosecond-pulsed laser light at 532nm was delivered into pig skin samples using custom glass waveguides clad in titanium and silver. Light transmission through the tissue was measured with a photodiode and integrating sphere for tissue with and without continuous ultrasonic pulsation at 510 kHz. The combination of these techniques has the potential to improve the efficiency of laser procedures while mitigating negative tissue effects caused by undesirable absorption.

  2. Power Beamed Photon Sails: New Capabilities Resulting From Recent Maturation Of Key Solar Sail And High Power Laser Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Edward E. IV

    2010-05-06

    This paper revisits some content in the First International Symposium on Beamed Energy Propulsion in 2002 related to the concept of propellantless in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser to provide momentum to an ultralightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. The design and construction of the NanoSail-D solar sail demonstration spacecraft has demonstrated in space flight hardware the concept of small, very light--yet capable--spacecraft. The results of the Joint High Power Solid State Laser (JHPSSL) have also increased the effectiveness and reduced the cost of an entry level laser source. This paper identifies the impact from improved system parameters on current mission applications.

  3. Power Beamed Photon Sails: New Capabilities Resulting From Recent Maturation Of Key Solar Sail And High Power Laser Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.

    2010-05-01

    This paper revisits some content in the First International Symposium on Beamed Energy Propulsion in 2002 related to the concept of propellantless in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser to provide momentum to an ultralightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. The design and construction of the NanoSail-D solar sail demonstration spacecraft has demonstrated in space flight hardware the concept of small, very light—yet capable—spacecraft. The results of the Joint High Power Solid State Laser (JHPSSL) have also increased the effectiveness and reduced the cost of an entry level laser source. This paper identifies the impact from improved system parameters on current mission applications.

  4. Study on Interactions of Continuous Low Power CO2 Laser with Malaysian Molar Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A. L.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ramzun, M. R.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya; Ismail, N. E.; Houssien, Hend A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that CO2 lasers can successfully be used at low-energy densities in dentistry. The CO2 laser is effective for a dental hard tissue since it strongly absorbs light in certain regions of the infrared spectrum because of the carbonate and hydroxyl groups in the structure. In this study, nineteen samples of molars extracted human teeth were irradiated with low power CO2 laser. Laser power of 3W, 6W, 9W, 12W, 15W and 18W, with exposure time of 5 s and 10 s, and distance between laser aperture and sample of 4 cm were used. Laser power above 18W is seen to damage the teeth. The teeth compositions were analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). High laser power caused higher reflectance of the beam because the increased in temperature increasing the rate of chemical reaction, hence, the products after the irradiation. This situation can be explained by the Arrhenius equation [1].

  5. Heating power feedback control for CO2 laser fusion splicers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenxin; Sugawara, Hiroshi; Mizushima, Toshirou; Klimowych, William

    2013-02-01

    A novel feedback control method has been developed for an automated splicer using a CO2 laser as the heating element. The feedback method employs a sensor for laser beam power and CMOS cameras as sensors for fiber luminescence which is directly related to glass temperature. The CO2 laser splicer with this type of feedback system provides a consistent platform for the fiber laser and bio-medical industry for fabrication of fused glass components such as tapers, couplers, combiners, mode-field adaptors, and fusion splices. With such a closed loop feedback system, both splice loss and peak-to-peak taper ripple are greatly reduced.

  6. 100 W average power femtosecond laser at 343 nm.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, Jan; Rothhardt, Carolin; Müller, Michael; Klenke, Arno; Kienel, Marco; Demmler, Stefan; Elsmann, Tino; Rothhardt, Manfred; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-04-15

    We present a femtosecond laser system delivering up to 100 W of average power at 343 nm. The laser system employs a Yb-based femtosecond fiber laser and subsequent second- and third-harmonic generation in beta barium borate (BBO) crystals. Thermal gradients within these BBO crystals are mitigated by sapphire heat spreaders directly bonded to the front and back surface of the crystals. Thus, a nearly diffraction-limited beam quality (M2 < 1.4) is achieved, despite the high thermal load to the nonlinear crystals. This laser source is expected to push many industrial and scientific applications in the future. PMID:27082370

  7. Optimizing average power in low quantum defect lasers.

    PubMed

    Bowman, S R

    2015-11-01

    Waste heat generation is a generic problem in high-power solid-state laser systems. One way to reduce heat loading while improving efficiency is to reduce the laser's quantum defect. This paper presents a simple analysis of low quantum defect laser materials. In these laser materials, the effects of fluorescent cooling and weak loss processes should not be ignored. Simple expressions are developed for efficiency and heating in a steady-state purely radiative material. These expressions are then extended to include weak losses and fluorescence reabsorption. Evaluation of these relations using ytterbium-doped YAG is used to illustrate several optimization schemes and the impact of realistic losses. PMID:26560625

  8. Excimer laser annealing for low-voltage power MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Okada, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Takashi; Mazzamuto, Fulvio; Huet, Karim

    2016-08-01

    Excimer laser annealing of lumped beam was performed to form the P-base junction for high-performance low-voltage-power MOSFET. An equivalent shallow-junction structure for the P-base junction with a uniform impurity distribution is realized by adopting excimer laser annealing (ELA). The impurity distribution in the P-base junction can be controlled precisely by the irradiated pulse energy density and the number of shots of excimer laser. High impurity activation for the shallow junction has been confirmed in the melted phase. The application of the laser annealing technology in the fabrication process of a practical low-voltage trench gate MOSFET was also examined.

  9. Perspectives of powerful laser technique for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konov, Vitali I.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.

    1991-11-01

    The optimum laser-system parameters are being selected for several types of surgical operations using ablation techniques. The choice is based on the specific demands of the operation performed, knowledge of the ablation laws, limitations on laser-beam intensity which come from the necessity to transport high-intensity light through flexible fiber, and the peculiarities of different laser systems. At present it is more expedient to develop laser medical setups oriented to the solution of one task or a limited number of problems. The choice of a concrete installation should be based on the investigation results of interaction of radiation with biological tissues and its transmission through the fiber, the analysis of the level of development of laser and fiber technique, specificity of the operation, and compatibility of laser facilitates and traditional medical equipment. The paper illustrates such an approach by way of several concrete examples and notes the corresponding laser systems, which were developed or are in the developmental stage in the General Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences and in organizations connected with the Institute.

  10. Increasing Protein Charge State When Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Santosh; Flanigan, Paul M.; Perez, Johnny J.; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser vaporization is used to transfer cytochrome c, myoglobin, lysozyme, and ubiquitin from the condensed phase into an electrospray (ES) plume consisting of a mixture of a supercharging reagent, m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), acetic acid (AA), or formic acid (FA). Interaction of acid-sensitive proteins like cytochrome c and myoglobin with the highly charged ES droplets resulted in a shift to higher charge states in comparison with acid-stable proteins like lysozyme and ubiquitin. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) measurements showed an increase in both the average charge states (Zavg) and the charge state with maximum intensity (Zmode) for acid-sensitive proteins compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under equivalent solvent conditions. A marked increase in ion abundance of higher charge states was observed for LEMS in comparison with conventional electrospray for cytochrome c (ranging from 19+ to 21+ versus 13+ to 16+) and myoglobin (ranging from 19+ to 26+ versus 18+ to 21+) using an ES solution containing m-NBA and TFA. LEMS measurements as a function of electrospray flow rate yielded increasing charge states with decreasing flow rates for cytochrome c and myoglobin.

  11. Laser power and Scanning Speed Influence on the Mechanical Property of Laser Metal Deposited Titanium-Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.; Akinlabi, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the laser power and the scanning speed on the microhardness of the Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V, an aerospace Titanium-alloy, was studied. Ti6Al4V powder was deposited on the Ti6Al4V substrate using the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an Additive Manufacturing (AM) manufacturing technology. The laser power was varied between 1.8 kW 3 kW and the scanning speed was varied between 0.05 m/s and 0.1 m/s. The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were kept at constant values of 2 g/min and 2 l/min respectively. The full factorial design of experiment was used to design the experiment and to also analyze the results in the Design Expert 9 software environment. The microhardness profiling was studied using Microhardness indenter performed at a load of 500 g and at a dwelling time of 15 s. The distance between indentations was maintained at a distance of 15 μm. The study revealed that as the laser power was increased, the microhardness was found to decrease and as the scanning speed was increased, the microhardness was found to also increase. The results are presented and fully discussed.

  12. Fs-laser induced flexibility increase in the crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Fromm, M.; Lakharia, R.; Schaefer, M.; Oberheide, U.; Ripken, T.; Breitenfeld, P.; Gerten, G.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowksi, H.

    2007-02-01

    Presbyopia is one age related effect every human is suffering beginning at the age of about 45 years. Reading glasses are the conventional treatment so far. According to the Helmholtz theory the loss of accommodation in age is due to the hardening and the resulting loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens. However the ciliary muscle and the lens capsule stay active, respectively. Therefore a possible treatment concept is to regain the flexibility by inducing gliding planes in form of microcuts inside the lens. The increase of flexibility in young porcine lenses by different cutting patterns was shown by Ripken et al. 1, 2 who verified the increase in flexibility by the spinning test introduced by Fisher. 3 We will present our first measurements of flexibility increase of human donor lenses. Furthermore the influence of the laser cuts into the lens on the accommodation amplitude will be shown in a three dimensional finite-element simulation.

  13. Application of laser bar code technology in power fitting evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shuhuab

    2007-12-01

    In this work, an automatic encoding and management system on power fittings (PFEMS) is developed based on laser bar coding technology. The system can encode power fittings according to their types, structure, dimensions, materials, and technical characteristics. Both the character codes and the laser bar codes of power fittings can be produced from the system. The system can evaluate power fittings and search process-paper automatically. The system analyzes the historical values and technical information of congeneric fittings, and forms formulae of evaluation with recursive analytical method. And then stores the formulae and technical documents into the database for index. Scanning the bar code with a laser bar code reader, accurate evaluation and corresponding process-paper of the fittings can be produced. The software has already been applied in some power stations and worked very well.

  14. Solid-state power supply for gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, A.; Beverini, N.; Carelli, G.; Francesconi, M.; Nannizzi, M.; Strumia, F.; Ioli, N.; Moretti, A.

    2004-08-01

    A novel pulsed power supply for gas lasers is presented. The device uses only solid state components and is based on a capacitor bank discharge. Fast switching of the discharge is triggered by an insulated gate bipolar transistor. The terminal section of the power supply is a transformer designed to match the reactive capacitance of a gas discharge. Strokes up to 30 kV and 30 mA are achieved across the secondary windings of this transformer. The power supply delivers high voltage pulses with a duration between 0.5 and 50 μs and a repetition rate up to some kHz. The power supply has been tested on a longitudinal discharge quasi-cw regime CO2 laser. Laser pulses were generated with a duration down to the microseconds region, a peak power exceeding some kilowatts, and a repetition rate ranging from 200 Hz to a few kHz.

  15. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.

    1994-12-31

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  16. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.; Albrecht, G.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  17. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-01

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible. PMID:27314721

  18. Power supply for negative impedance gas discharge lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bees, G.L.

    1987-12-29

    An adjustable constant current power supply for a negative impedance gas discharge laser is described comprising: means for providing constant output of current, means connected between the constant current providing means and the gas discharge laser for matching the current output of the constant current providing means with lasing requirements of the gas discharge laser, the constant current providing means providing electrical energy to pump the gas discharge laser; and means electrically connected to the constant current providing means for feeding a variable controlled voltage to the constant current providing means the variable voltage altering the constant output of current over a preselected range feedback circuit means for providing a control signal to the variably controlled voltage feeding means; such that output power of the gas discharge laser varies with the output of current from the current providing means.

  19. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  20. High Power 938nm Cladding Pumped Fiber Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Beach, R; Brobshoff, A; Liao, Z; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Taylor, L; Hackenberg, W; Bonaccini, D

    2002-12-26

    We have developed a Nd:doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier, which operates at 938nm with greater than 2W of output power. The core co-dopants were specifically chosen to enhance emission at 938nm. The fiber was liquid nitrogen cooled in order to achieve four-level laser operation on a laser transition that is normally three level at room temperature, thus permitting efficient cladding pumping of the amplifier. Wavelength selective attenuation was induced by bending the fiber around a mandrel, which permitted near complete suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm. We are presently seeking to scale the output of this laser to 10W. We will discuss the fiber and laser design issues involved in scaling the laser to the 10W power level and present our most recent results.

  1. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  2. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-09-25

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels.

  3. Approaches to solar cell design for pulsed laser power receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a laser to beam power from Earth to a photovoltaic receiver in space could be a technology with applications to many space missions. Extremely high average-power lasers would be required in a wavelength range of 700-1000 nm. However, high-power lasers inherently operate in a pulsed format. Existing solar cells are not well designed to respond to pulsed incident power. To better understand cell response to pulsed illumination at high intensity, the PC-1D finite-element computer model was used to analyze the response of solar cells to continuous and pulsed laser illumination. Over 50 percent efficiency was calculated for both InP and GaAs cells under steady-state illumination near the optimum wavelength. The time-dependent response of a high-efficiency GaAs concentrator cell to a laser pulse was modeled, and the effect of laser intensity, wavelength, and bias point was studied. Three main effects decrease the efficiency of a solar cell under pulsed laser illumination: series resistance, L-C 'ringing' with the output circuit, and current limiting due to the output inductance. The problems can be solved either by changing the pulse shape or designing a solar cell to accept the pulsed input. Cell design possibilities discussed are a high-efficiency, light-trapping silicon cell, and a monolithic, low-inductance GaAs cell.

  4. Industrial Applications of High Power CO2 Lasers - System Descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukelberger, Armin

    1986-10-01

    The laser as a cutting tool for sheet metal cutting has beenl well accepted in industry for many years. Several hundreds of units are used for contour cutting of small and medium-sized series on plane metal sheets up to 6 mm thick. Within the last three years, cutting systems have been expanded in three ways: thicker material up to 12 mm can now be cut by using higher powered lasers (1500 W); with the introduction of flying optic systems which cover sheet dimensions up to 4 m x 3 m, the cutting of larger sized metal sheets is possible. In addition, the use of five or six axis systems allows cutting of three-dimensional plastic and metal material. Besides laser cutting, the acceptance of systems for laser welding applications is increa sing. Several systems have been running in production for a couple of years and laser wel ding will probably become the fastest growing market in laser material processing within the next five years. The laser technology is regarded as a beneficial tool for welding, whenever low heat input and, consequently, low heat distortion is requested. To day's main welding application areas are: components of car engines and transmissions, window spacer and stainless steel tube welding, and also car body welding with laser robots or five axis gantry type systems. The output power of CO2-lasers for welding applications is between 1 and 5 kw in most cases.

  5. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  6. Emission parameters and thermal management of single high-power 980-nm laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bezotosnyi, V V; Krokhin, O N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, V F; Popov, Yu M; Cheshev, E A

    2014-02-28

    We report emission parameters of high-power cw 980-nm laser diodes (LDs) with a stripe contact width of 100 μm. On copper heat sinks of the C-mount type, a reliable output power of 10 W is obtained at a pump current of 10 A. Using a heat flow model derived from analysis of calculated and measured overall efficiencies at pump currents up to 20 A, we examine the possibility of raising the reliable power limit of a modified high-power LD mounted on heat sinks of the F-mount type using submounts with optimised geometric parameters and high thermal conductivity. The possibility of increasing the maximum reliable cw output power to 20 W with the use of similar laser crystals is discussed. (lasers)

  7. New multiplexed all solid state pulser for high power wide aperture kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, D V; Muralikrishnan, K; Singh, Bijendra

    2013-11-01

    A novel multiplexed scheme is demonstrated to combine two or more pulsed solid state pulsers of moderate capabilities. Pulse power supply comprising of two solid state pulsers of ~6 kW rating each in multiplexed mode with common magnetic pulse compression stage was demonstrated and optimized for operating with a wide aperture kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser. Using this new configuration, the multiplexed pulsed power supply was capable of operating efficiently at net repetition-rate of ~13 kHz, 12 kW (wall plug average power), 18-20 kV discharge voltage and pulse rise-time of ~80 ns. The laser under multiplexed configuration delivered un-interrupted output power of about ~80 W with scope of further increase in laser output power in excess of 100 W. PMID:24289383

  8. Alpha high-power chemical laser program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordi, Anthony J.; Lurie, Henry; Callahan, David W.; Thomson, Matthew

    1993-06-01

    Alpha is a megawatt-class ground demonstration of a hydrogen fluoride, continuous wave, space-based chemical laser. The laser operates in the infrared at 2.8 microns. The basic device consists of a cylindrical combustion chamber that exhausts radially outward through circumferential nozzles into an annular lasing area. An annular ring resonator is used to extract the laser energy from this area. Technical firsts include: (1) use of aluminum combustion chamber/nozzle ring modules, (2) diamond turned, water-cooled optics made of molybdenum for low thermal distortion with good heat transfer, (3) use of uncooled silicon mirrors in a megawatt-class laser system, (4) an optical bench made of aluminum honeycomb, and (5) active controls to adjust alignment of selected mirrors and the optical bench.

  9. Illuminating the Hazards of Powerful Laser Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. The startling effect of a bright beam of light can cause serious accidents when aimed ... for Devices and Radiological Health. “A green laser beam could cause a larger startling or flash-blinding ...

  10. Method for splitting low power laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pierscionek, B.K. )

    1990-04-01

    A new method for producing parallel rays from a laser beam using a cylindrical lens and pinholes is presented. This method can produce a greater number of emergent rays than using a {ital beam} {ital splitter}.

  11. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, J. P.; Millet, F.; Divoky, M.; Rus, B.

    2013-11-01

    Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers) as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz). The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K-170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m-2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  12. Interaction between high power 532nm laser and prostatic tissue: in vivo evaluation for laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Reza; Kang, Hyun Wook; Peng, Steven Yihlih; Stinson, Douglas; Beck, Michael; Koullick, Ed

    2011-03-01

    A previous in vitro study demonstrated that 180W was the optimal power to reduce photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) time for larger prostate glands. In this study, we investigated anatomic and histologic outcomes and ablation parameters of 180W laser performed with a new 750-μm side-firing fiber in a survival study of living canines. Eight male canines underwent anterograde PVP with the 180W 532-nm laser. Four each animals were euthanized 3 hours or 8 weeks postoperatively. Prostates were measured and histologically analyzed after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), or Gomori trichrome (GT) staining. Compared to the previous 120W laser, PVP with the 180W laser bloodlessly created a 76% larger cavity (mean 11.8 vs. 6.7 cm3; p=0.014) and ablated tissue at a 77% higher rate (mean 2.3 vs. 1.3 cm3/min; p=0.03) while H&E- and TTC-staining demonstrated its 33% thicker mean coagulation zone (2.0+/-0.4 vs. 1.5+/-0.3 mm). H&E-stained cross-sectional prostatic tissue specimens from the 3-hour (acute) group showed histologic evolution of concentric non-viable coagulation zone, partially viable hyperemic transition zone of repair, and viable non-treated zone. H&E- and GT-stained specimens from the 8-week (chronic) group revealed healed circumferentially epithelialized, non-edematous, prostatic urethral channels with no increase in collagen in the subjacent prostatic tissue vis-á-vis the normal control. Our canine study demonstrates that 180W 532-nm laser PVP with its new fiber has a significantly higher ablation rate with a more hemostatic coagulation zone, but equally favorable tissue interaction and healing, compared with our previous 120W canine study.

  13. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handren, R. T.

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest was the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility was built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a greater than 90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities (approximately 3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory's safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  14. Beam Stop For High-Power Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, Iain S.; Williamson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite/aluminum plate absorbs most of light. Beam stop fits on standard optical mounting fixture. Graphite plate thick enough to absorb incident laser beam but thin enough to transfer heat quickly to heat sink. Device used for variety of blocking purposes. For example, blocks laser beam after it passes through experimental setup, or at each stage of setup so stages checked and tested in sequence. Negligible reflectance of device is valuable safety feature, protecting both users and equipment from reflections.

  15. Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Sherif

    2008-04-28

    The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

  16. Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Sherif

    2008-04-01

    The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

  17. Stretchers and compressors for ultra-high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, I V

    2014-05-30

    This review is concerned with pulse stretchers and compressors as key components of ultra-high power laser facilities that take advantage of chirped-pulse amplification. The potentialities, characteristics, configurations and methods for the matching and alignment of these devices are examined, with particular attention to the history of the optics of ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses before and after 1985, when the chirped-pulse amplification method was proposed, which drastically changed the view of the feasibility of creating ultra-high power laser sources. The review is intended primarily for young scientists and experts who begin to address the amplification and compression of chirped pulses, experts in laser optics and all who are interested in scientific achievements in the field of ultra-high power laser systems. (review)

  18. Generation of strongly coupled plasmas by high power excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongxiang; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Zhang, Jiyan; Zheng, Zhijian; Ye, Xisheng

    2013-05-01

    (ultraviolet). To generate strongly coupled plasmas (SCP) by high power excimer laser, an Au-CH-Al-CH target is used to make the Al sample reach the state of SCP, in which the Au layer transforms laser energy to X-ray that heating the sample by volume and the CH layers provides necessary constraints. With aid of the MULTI-1D code, we calculate the state of the Al sample and its relationship with peak intensity, width and wavelength of laser pulses. The calculated results suggest that an excimer laser with peak intensity of the magnitude of 1013W/cm2 and pulse width being 5ns - 10ns is suitable to generate SCP with the temperature being tens of eV and the density of electron being of the order of 1022/cm-3. Lasers with shorter wavelength, such as KrF laser, are preferable.

  19. Inertial fusion with ultra-powerful lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, M.; Hammer, J.; Glinsky, M.; Kruer, W.; Wilks, S.; Woodworth, J.; Campbell, E.M.; Perry, M.D.; Mason, R.

    1993-10-01

    Ultra-high intensity lasers can be used to ignite ICF capsules with a few tens of kilojoules of light and can lead to high gain with as little as 100 kilojoules of incident laser light. We propose a scheme with three phases. First, a capsule is imploded as in the conventional approach to inertial fusion to assemble a high density fuel configuration. Second, a hole is bored through capsule corona composed of ablated material, pushing critical density close to the high density core of the capsule, by employing the ponderomotive force associated with high intensity laser light. Finally, the fuel is ignited by suprathermal electrons, produced in the high intensity laser plasma interactions, which propagate from critical density to this high density core. This paper reviews two models of energy gain in ICF capsules and explains why ultra-high intensity lasers allow access to the model producing the higher gains. This new scheme also drastically reduces the difficulty of the implosion and thereby allows lower quality fabrication and less stringent beam quality and symmetry requirements from the implosion driver. The difficulty of the fusion scheme is transferred to the technological difficulty of producing the ultra-high-intensity laser and of transporting this energy to the fuel.

  20. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1985-11-15

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. We find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80 to 100 will be sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Automatic Railway Power Line Extraction Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Zhuang; Chen, Yiping; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis) combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  2. Advances in high power and high brightness laser bars with enhanced reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Haiyan; Jiang, Ching-Long (John); Xiong, Yihan; Inyang, Aloysius; Zhang, Qiang; Lewin, Alexander; Strohmaier, Stephan; Treusch, Georg

    2013-02-01

    The advances in laser-diode technology have enabled high efficiency direct diode base modules to emerge as a building block for industrial high power laser systems. Consequently, these systems have been implemented with advance robust, higher-brightness and reliable laser sources for material processing application. Here at the company, we use low-fill factor bars to build fiber-coupled and passively cooled modules, which form the foundation for "TruDiode," the series of TRUMPF direct diode laser systems that can perform in the multi-kilowatt arena with high beam quality. However, higher reliable output power, additional efficiency and greater slow axis beam quality of the high power laser bars are necessary to further increase the brightness and reduce the cost of the systems. In order to improve the slow axis beam quality, we have optimized the bar epitaxial structures as well as the lateral design. The detailed near field and far field studies of the slow axis for each individual emitters on the bar provide us with information about the dependency of beam quality as a function of the drive current. Based on these study results for direct diode application, we have optimized the high brightness bar designs at 900-1070nm wavelengths. In addition, high power and high efficiency laser bars with high fill factors have been used to build the pump sources for thin disc laser systems at TRUMPF Photonics. For better system performances with lower costs, we have further optimized bar designs for this application. In this paper, we will give an overview of our recent advances in high power and brightness laser bars with enhanced reliability. We will exhibit beam quality study, polarization and reliability test results of our laser bars in the 900-1070nm wavelengths region for coarse wavelength multiplexing. Finally, we will also present the performance and reliability results of the 200W bar, which will be used for our next generation thin disk laser pump source.

  3. Low Power Laser Irradiation Stimulates the Proliferation of Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing; Uygun, Basak; Banerjee, Ipsita; Nahmias, Yaakov; Zhang, Quan; Berthiaume, François; Latina, Mark; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low power laser irradiation on the proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Adult human RPE cells were artificially pigmented by preincubation with sepia melanin, and exposed to a single sublethal laser pulse (590 nm, 1 µs, <200 mJ/cm2). DNA synthesis, cell number, and growth factor activity in irradiated RPE cells were subsequently monitored. The effect of sublethal laser irradiation on the “wound” healing response of an RPE monolayer in an in vitro scratch assay was also investigated. Single pulsed laser irradiation increased DNA synthesis in pigmented RPE cells measured 6 h post-treatment. In the scratch assay, laser irradiation increased the rates of cell proliferation and wound closure. Conditioned medium, collected 48 h following laser treatment, increased cell proliferation of unirradiated cells. Irradiation increased RPE cell secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B chain, and increased mRNA levels of several growth factors and their receptors, including PDGF, transforming growth factor-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, as well as heat shock proteins. This demonstrates, for the first time, that low power single pulsed laser irradiation stimulates the proliferation of RPE cells, and upregulates growth factors that are mitogenic for RPE cells. PMID:26740823

  4. Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, D.; Shu, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Matlis, N. H.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Plateau, G.; Lin, C.; Toth, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10 m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  5. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-09-29

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  6. High-power quantum-dot tapered tunable external-cavity lasers based on chirped and unchirped structures.

    PubMed

    Haggett, Stephanie; Krakowski, Michel; Montrosset, Ivo; Cataluna, Maria Ana

    2014-09-22

    A high-power tunable external cavity laser configuration with a tapered quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier at its core is presented, enabling a record output power for a broadly tunable semiconductor laser source in the 1.2 - 1.3 µm spectral region. Two distinct optical amplifiers are investigated, using either chirped or unchirped quantum-dot structures, and their merits are compared, considering the combination of tunability and high output power generation. At 1230 nm, the chirped quantum-dot laser achieved a maximum power of 0.62 W and demonstrated nearly 100-nm tunability. The unchirped laser enabled a tunability range of 32 nm and at 1254 nm generated a maximum power of 0.97 W, representing a 22-fold increase in output power compared with similar narrow-ridge external-cavity lasers at the same current density. PMID:25321756

  7. Power and death: Mortality salience increases power seeking while feeling powerful reduces death anxiety.

    PubMed

    Belmi, Peter; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    According to Terror Management Theory, people respond to reminders of mortality by seeking psychological security and bolstering their self-esteem. Because previous research suggests that having power can provide individuals a sense of security and self-worth, we hypothesize that mortality salience leads to an increased motivation to acquire power, especially among men. Study 1 found that men (but not women) who wrote about their death reported more interest in acquiring power. Study 2A and Study 2B demonstrated that when primed with reminders of death, men (but not women) reported behaving more dominantly during the subsequent week, while both men and women reported behaving more prosocially during that week. Thus, mortality salience prompts people to respond in ways that help them manage their death anxiety but in ways consistent with normative gender expectations. Furthermore, Studies 3-5 showed that feeling powerful reduces anxiety when mortality is salient. Specifically, we found that when primed to feel more powerful, both men and women experienced less mortality anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26867106

  8. Recirculation of Laser Power in an Atomic Fountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, WIlliam M.; Moore, James D.

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for laser-cooling atoms in a cesium atomic fountain frequency standard relies on recirculation of laser light through the atom-collection region of the fountain. The recirculation, accomplished by means of reflections from multiple fixed beam-splitter cubes, is such that each of two laser beams makes three passes. As described below, this recirculation scheme offers several advantages over prior designs, including simplification of the laser system, greater optical power throughput, fewer optical and electrical connections, and simplification of beam power balancing. A typical laser-cooled cesium fountain requires the use of six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams to decelerate the atoms and hold them in a three-dimensional optical trap in vacuum. Typically, these trapping/cooling beams are linearly polarized and are positioned and oriented so that (1) counter-propagating beams in each pair have opposite linear polarizations and (2) three of the six orthogonal beams have the sum of their propagation directions pointing up, while the other three have the sum of their propagation directions pointing down. In a typical prior design, two lasers are used - one to generate the three "up" beams, the other to generate the three "down" beams. For this purpose, the output of each laser is split three ways, then the resulting six beams are delivered to the vacuum system, independently of each other, via optical fibers. The present recirculating design also requires two lasers, but the beams are not split before delivery. Instead, only one "up" beam and one oppositely polarized "down" beam are delivered to the vacuum system, and each of these beams is sent through the collection region three times. The polarization of each beam on each pass through the collection region is set up to yield the same combination of polarization and propagation directions as described above. In comparison with the prior design, the present

  9. High power, high efficiency, 2D laser diode arrays for pumping solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, A.; McShea, J.C.; Bogdan, A.R.; Petheram, J.C.; Rosen, A.

    1987-11-01

    This document reports the current performance of 2D laser diode arrays operating at 770 nm and 808 nm for pumping promethium and neodymium solid state lasers, respectively. Typical power densities are in excess of 2kw/cm/sup 2/ with overall efficiencies greater than 30%.

  10. Design of gas circulation system in the high power fast axial flow CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongyan; Wang, Youqing; Li, Qing; Jia, Xinting

    2009-08-01

    Increasing the output power of the fast axial flow CO2 laser requires a proportional growth of the mass flow with the laser power for convective cooling of the active laser medium. The previous research on high power CO2 laser was mostly focused on gas discharge. However, little attention was focused on the gas circulation system, which is also an essential technology to ensure the long time stable work of the high power fast axial flow CO2 laser. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the 7 KW fast axial flow CO2 laser, expounded the important role of the gas circulation system, and then analyzed the parameters, the structure and the design of the system. After that, this paper compared various types of blowers and heat exchangers, chose magnetic levitation radial turbine blower and rectangle finned heat exchanger, in light of the prominent performance and compact structure. Further more, this paper also supplied the methods of the blower and heat exchanger selection and design. The results indicate that the magnetic levitation radial turbine blower and rectangle finned heat exchanger which have been chosen are suitable to the 7 kW fast axial flow CO2 laser.

  11. High power continuous-wave Alexandrite laser with green pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Shirin; Major, Arkady

    2016-07-01

    We report on a continuous-wave (CW) Alexandrite (Cr:BeAl2O4) laser, pumped by a high power green source at 532 nm with a diffraction limited beam. An output power of 2.6 W at 755 nm, a slope efficiency of 26%, and wavelength tunability of 85 nm have been achieved using 11 W of green pump. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest CW output power of a high brightness laser pumped Alexandrite laser reported to date. The results obtained in this experiment can lead to the development of a high power tunable CW and ultrafast sources of the near-infrared or ultraviolet radiation through frequency conversion.

  12. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2004-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser compares with other lasers used in past experimental work, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. Variables investigated include laser power, beam intensity, external purging of cut materials, sample orientation, beam duration, beam shape, and beam frequency. The investigation also studied the thermal effects on the two sample rock types and their methods of destruction: spallation for sandstone, and thermal dissociation for limestone. Optimal operating conditions were identified for each rock type and condition. As a result of this experimental work, the HPFL has demonstrated a better capability of cutting and drilling limestone and sandstone when compared with other military and industrial lasers previously tested. Consideration should be given to the HPFL as the leading candidate for near term remote high power laser applications for well construction and completion.

  13. Holmium-doped 2.1 μm waveguide chip laser with an output power > 1 W.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, D G; Stevens, V J; Michaud-Belleau, V; Gross, S; Fuerbach, A; Monro, T M

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrate the increasing applicability of compact ultra-fast laser inscribed glass guided-wave lasers and report the highest-power glass waveguide laser with over 1.1 W of output power in monolithic operation in the short-infrared near 2070 nm achieved (51% incident slope efficiency). The holmium doped ZBLAN chip laser is in-band pumped by a 1945 nm thulium fiber laser. When operated in an extended-cavity configuration, over 1 W of output power is realized in a linearly polarized beam. Broad and continuous tunability of the extended-cavity laser is demonstrated from 2004 nm to 2099 nm. Considering its excellent beam quality of M² = 1.08, this laser shows potential as a flexible master oscillator for single frequency and mode-locking applications. PMID:26699055

  14. The NASA high-power carbon dioxide laser - A versatile tool for laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancashire, R. B.; Alger, D. L.; Manista, E. J.; Slaby, J. G.; Dunning, J. W.; Stubbs, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has designed and fabricated a closed-cycle, continuous wave (CW), carbon dioxide (CO2) high-power laser to support research for the identification and evaluation of possible high-power laser applications. The device is designed to generate up to 70 kW of laser power in annular-shape beams from 1 to 9 cm in diameter. Electric discharge, either self-sustained or electron-beam-sustained, is used for excitation. This laser facility can be used in two ways. First, it provides a versatile tool on which research can be performed to advance the state-of-the-art technology of high-power CO2 lasers in such areas as electric excitation, laser chemistry, and quality of output beams, all of which are important whether the laser application is government or industry oriented. Second, the facility provides a well-defined, continuous wave beam for various application experiments, such as propulsion, power conversion, and materials processing.

  15. Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.

  16. Power increase at first ProCure21 project.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    Throughout the UK, hospitals are embarking on new-build programmes to meet the needs of growing communities. However, site acreage and accommodation are often already under pressure, as Dale Power Solutions found when it was commissioned to increase standby power availability at the Friarage Hospital in Northallerton, North Yorkshire. PMID:17724955

  17. Power combining of semiconductor lasers: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods of coherent power combining are described and compared. A comparison is also made between coherent and incoherent power combining, and important operational characteristics are considered. It is found that in communication links with demanding requirements coherent power combining is necessary.

  18. Compact ultrahigh-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galvanauskas, A.

    1995-11-01

    Compact sources of high energy ultrashort pulses are described. Femtosecond and picosecond optical pulses with microjoule energies are obtained using chirped-pulse fiber amplifiers. Mode-locked fiber lasers and fast-tuned laser diodes are used to generate initial pulses for amplification. Efficient frequency conversion of amplified pulses is demonstrated and microjoule second-harmonic pulses are produced. The first all-fiber chirped pulse amplification circuit is demonstrated. It uses in-fiber chirped Bragg gratings, which replaces conventional diffraction-grating compressors and stretchers.

  19. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  20. Decreasing effective reflectivity of the output coupler in the power scaling of fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejaz, K.; Shayganmanesh, M.; Roohforouz, A.; Rezaei-Nasirabad, R.; Heidariazar, A.; Vatani, V.; Hassan Nabavi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Increasing power leads to the spectral broadening of fiber laser beams. In this effect the spectral line width of the laser beam becomes broader than that of the output coupler (OC) due to power scaling. Therefore, the effective reflectivity of the OC mirror decreases. In this paper, this phenomenon is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A Liekki Application Designer V3.3 was used for the theoretical investigation and the experiments were conducted during the fabrication of a 630W fiber laser. Given the excellent agreement between the simulation and the experimental results, a decrease in the effective reflectivity of the OC mirror was proved. The decrease in the effective reflectivity of the OC mirror changes some of the laser parameters, such as optical efficiency, longitudinal distribution of population inversion and the backward power inside the resonator. This may also lead to power instability. The effects of a decrease in the reflectivity of the OC on the mentioned parameters of the fiber laser are investigated in the present paper. Finally, recommendations for choosing appropriate OC mirror parameters in high-power (kW class) fiber lasers are suggested.

  1. Effects of laser power density on static and dynamic mechanical properties of dissimilar stainless steel welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yan-Peng; Li, Mao-Hui; Yu, Gang; Wu, Xian-Qian; Huang, Chen-Guang; Duan, Zhu-Ping

    2012-10-01

    The mechanical properties of laser welded joints under impact loadings such as explosion and car crash etc. are critical for the engineering designs. The hardness, static and dynamic mechanical properties of AISI304 and AISI316 L dissimilar stainless steel welded joints by CO2 laser were experimentally studied. The dynamic strain-stress curves at the strain rate around 103 s-1 were obtained by the split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). The static mechanical properties of the welded joints have little changes with the laser power density and all fracture occurs at 316 L side. However, the strain rate sensitivity has a strong dependence on laser power density. The value of strain rate factor decreases with the increase of laser power density. The welded joint which may be applied for the impact loading can be obtained by reducing the laser power density in the case of welding quality assurance.

  2. Process optimization in high-average-power ultrashort pulse laser microfabrication: how laser process parameters influence efficiency, throughput and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Loeschner, Udo

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, laser processing of technical grade stainless steel and copper using high-average-power ultrashort pulse lasers is studied in order to gain deeper insight into material removal for microfabrication. A high-pulse repetition frequency picosecond and femtosecond laser is used in conjunction with high-performance galvanometer scanners and an in-house developed two-axis polygon scanner system. By varying the processing parameters such as wavelength, pulse length, fluence and repetition rate, cavities of standardized geometry are fabricated and analyzed. From the depths of the cavities produced, the ablation rate and removal efficiency are estimated. In addition, the quality of the cavities is evaluated by means of scanning electron microscope micrographs or rather surface roughness measurements. From the results obtained, the influence of the machining parameters on material removal and machining quality is discussed. In addition, it is shown that both material removal rate and quality increase by using femtosecond compared to picosecond laser pulses. On stainless steel, a maximum throughput of 6.81 mm3/min is achieved with 32 W femtosecond laser powers; if using 187 W picosecond laser powers, the maximum is 15.04 mm3/min, respectively. On copper, the maximum throughputs are 6.1 mm3/min and 21.4 mm3/min, obtained with 32 W femtosecond and 187 W picosecond laser powers. The findings indicate that ultrashort pulses in the mid-fluence regime yield most efficient material removal. In conclusion, from the results of this analysis, a range of optimum processing parameters are derived feasible to enhance machining efficiency, throughput and quality in high-rate micromachining. The work carried out here clearly opens the way to significant industrial applications.

  3. High average power quasi-CW single-mode green and UV fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdokhin, Alexey; Gapontsev, Valentin; Kadwani, Pankaj; Vaupel, Andreas; Samartsev, Igor; Platonov, Nicholai; Yusim, Alex; Myasnikov, Daniil

    2015-02-01

    Kilowatt-level narrow-linewidth SM ytterbium fiber laser operating in high-repetition-rate QCW regime was used to obtain 700 W average power at 532 nm with single-mode beam quality and wall-plug efficiency of over 23 %. To the best of our knowledge, this is ~60 % higher power than previously reported for single-mode green lasers based on other platforms, and also is ~30 % increase comparing to the previous result obtained by our group on the base of similar fiber laser platform. We have also experimentally proved that the same type of fiber laser can be used for generating of world-record levels of power at other wavelengths of visible and UV spectral ranges by employing cascaded non-linear frequency conversion. Thus, utilizing frequency tripling in 2 LBO crystals, we achieved over 160 W average power of nearly single-mode UV light at 355 nm with THG efficiency of more than 25 %. As far as we know, this is the highest output power ever reported for UV laser with nearly diffraction limited beam quality. We also conducted some preliminary experiments to demonstrate suitability of our approach for generating longer wavelengths of the visible spectrum. By pre-shifting fundamental emission wavelength in fiber Raman converter, followed by frequency doubling in NCPM LBO, we obtained average powers of 36 W at 589 nm and 27 W at 615 nm. These proof-of-concept experiments were performed with low-power pump laser and were not fully optimized with respect to frequency conversion. Our analysis indicates that employing kW-level QCW ytterbium laser with optimized SRS and SHG converters we can achieve hundreds of Watts of average power in red and orange color with single-mode beam quality.

  4. Laser Microchemistry : A Powerful Tool For VLSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonneau, Didier; Guern, Yves; Pelous, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Interconnection direct writing on ICs is possible by localized laser-assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition. Recently we have developed and marketed a new laser microchemistry tool particularly designed for VLSI prototypes rewiring. By dissociating Ni(CO)4 molecules, Ni lines can be written at speeds higher than 5 gm/s under laser induced temperature as low as 400°C. At the same temperature tungsten stripes can be driven from decomposition of WF6-H2 mixtures. However the tungsten deposition rate is about two orders of magnitude lower than the nickel growth rate in the same temperature conditions. The resistivities of the deposits are in both cases around 10 μΩ.cm. Silicon dioxide layers can be promoted from dissociation of a Si2H6-N20 mixture under surface temperature around 500°C. These metal and insulator deposition basic steps have been integrated in a complete metal bridging process suitable for the last interconnection level of a VLSI circuit. This process has been firstly estimated from a functional point of view, by electrical characterizations realized on test patterns entirely drawn by laser chemistry. At least, by measuring the time necessary to perform a metal bridge, the process has been evaluated from an economical point of view.

  5. Low-power-laser therapy used in tendon damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupinska, Ewa

    1996-03-01

    The following paper covers evaluation of low-power laser therapy results in chronic Achilles tendon damage and external Epicondylalia (tennis elbow). Fifty patients with Achilles damage (18 women and 32 men, age average 30, 24 plus or minus 10, 39 years) and fifty patients having external Epicondyalgiae (31 women and 19 men, age average 44, 36 plus or minus 10, 88 years) have been examined. The patients were irradiated by semiconductor infrared laser wavelength 904 nm separately or together with helium-neon laser wavelength 632.8 nm. The results of therapy have been based on the patient's interviews and examinations of patients as well as on the Laitinen pain questionnaire. The results prove analgesic effects in usage of low- power laser radiation therapy can be obtained.

  6. Hypersonic Inlet for a Laser Powered Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrland, Alan; Doolan, Con; Wheatley, Vincent; Froning, Dave

    2011-11-01

    Propulsion within the lightcraft concept is produced via laser induced detonation of an incoming hypersonic air stream. This process requires suitable engine configurations that offer good performance over all flight speeds and angles of attack to ensure the required thrust is maintained. Stream traced hypersonic inlets have demonstrated the required performance in conventional hydrocarbon fuelled scramjet engines, and has been applied to the laser powered lightcraft vehicle. This paper will outline the current methodology employed in the inlet design, with a particular focus on the performance of the lightcraft inlet at angles of attack. Fully three-dimensional turbulent computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed on a variety of inlet configurations. The performance of the lightcraft inlets have been evaluated at differing angles of attack. An idealized laser detonation simulation has also been performed to validate that the lightcraft inlet does not unstart during the laser powered propulsion cycle.

  7. Power scaling of ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide lasers in chromium and iron doped zinc selenide.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Sean A; Lancaster, Adam; Evans, Jonathan W; Kar, Ajoy K; Cook, Gary

    2016-02-22

    We report demonstration of Watt level waveguide lasers fabricated using Ultrafast Laser Inscription (ULI). The waveguides were fabricated in bulk chromium and iron doped zinc selenide crystals with a chirped pulse Yb fiber laser. The depressed cladding structure in Fe:ZnSe produced output powers of 1 W with a threshold of 50 mW and a slope efficiency of 58%, while a similar structure produced 5.1 W of output in Cr:ZnSe with a laser threshold of 350 mW and a slope efficiency of 41%. These results represent the current state-of-the-art for ULI waveguides in zinc based chalcogenides. PMID:26907008

  8. Combinatorial pulse position modulation for power-efficient free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Vanderaar, M.; Wagner, P.; Bibyk, Steven

    1993-01-01

    A new modulation technique called combinatorial pulse position modulation (CPPM) is presented as a power-efficient alternative to quaternary pulse position modulation (QPPM) for direct-detection, free-space laser communications. The special case of 16C4PPM is compared to QPPM in terms of data throughput and bit error rate (BER) performance for similar laser power and pulse duty cycle requirements. The increased throughput from CPPM enables the use of forward error corrective (FEC) encoding for a net decrease in the amount of laser power required for a given data throughput compared to uncoded QPPM. A specific, practical case of coded CPPM is shown to reduce the amount of power required to transmit and receive a given data sequence by at least 4.7 dB. Hardware techniques for maximum likelihood detection and symbol timing recovery are presented.

  9. Combinatorial pulse position modulation for power-efficient free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, James M.; Vanderaar, Mark J.; Wagner, Paul K.; Bibyk, Steven B.

    1993-08-01

    A new modulation technique called combinatorial pulse position modulation (CPPM) is presented as a power-efficient alternating to quaternary pulse position modulation (QPPM) for direct-detection, free-space laser communications. The special case of 16C4PPM is compared to QPPM in terms of data throughput and bit error rate (BER) performance for similar laser power and pulse duty cycle requirements. The increased throughput from CPPM enables the use of forward error corrective (FEC) encoding for a net decrease in the amount of laser power required for a given data throughput compared to uncoded QPPM. A specific, practical case of coded CPPM is shown to reduce the amount of power required to transmit and receive a given data sequence by at least 4.7 dB. Novel hardware techniques for maximum likelihood detection and symbol timing recovery are presented.

  10. Low power cw-laser signatures on human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lihachev, A; Lesinsh, J; Jakovels, D; Spigulis, J

    2011-01-24

    Impact of cw laser radiation on autofluorescence features of human skin is studied. Two methods of autofluorescence detection are applied: the spectral method with the use of a fibreoptic probe and spectrometer for determining the autofluorescence recovery kinetics at a fixed skin area of {approx}12 mm{sup 2}, and the multispectral visualisation method with the use of a multispectral imaging camera for visualising long-term autofluorescence changes in a skin area of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The autofluorescence recovery kinetics after preliminary laser irradiation is determined. Skin autofluorescence images with visible long-term changes - 'signatures' of low power laser treatment are acquired. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  11. All solid-state high power visible laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, William M.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this Phase 2 effort was to develop and deliver to NASA a high repetition rate laser-diode-pumped solid-state pulsed laser system with output in the green portion of the spectrum. The laser is for use in data communications, and high efficiency, short pulses, and low timing jitter are important features. A short-pulse 1 micron laser oscillator, a new multi-pass amplifier to boost the infrared power, and a frequency doubler to take the amplified infrared pulsed laser light into the green. This produced 1.5 W of light in the visible at a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz in the laboratory. The pulses have a full-width at half maximum of near 1 ns. The results of this program are being commercialized.

  12. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2005-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation prototype tool. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of

  13. High-power IR laser in SMT package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritsch, Benedikt; Behringer, Martin; Arzberger, Markus; Wiesner, Christoph; Fehse, Robin; Heerlein, Jörg; Maric, Josip; Giziewicz, Wojciech

    2009-02-01

    Laser dies in an optical power range of 1-3 Watts are widely assembled in popular TO- packages. TO-packages suffer from high thermal resistance and limited output power. Bad thermal contact between circuit boards and TO-devices can cause overheating of laser chips, significantly reducing the operating life time. We developed a compact high heat-load SMT package for an optical power up to 7 Watts in CW operation with good life time results. The new package for high power laser chips combines highly efficient heat dissipation with Surface-mount technology. A Direct-Bonded-Copper (DBC) substrate acts as a base plate for the laser chip and heat sink. The attached frame is used for electrical contacting and acts as beam reflector where the laser light is reflected at a 45° mirror. In the application the DBC base plate of the SMT-Laser is directly soldered to a Metal-Core-PCB by reflow soldering. The overall thermal resistance from laser chip to the bottom of a MC-PCB was measured as low as 2.5 K/W. The device placement process can be operated by modern high-speed mounting equipment. The direct link between device and MC-PCB allows CW laser operation up to 6-7 watts at wavelengths of 808nm to 940nm without facing any overheating symptom like thermal roll over. The device is suitable for CW and QCW operation. In pulsed operation short rise and fall times of <2ns have been demonstrated. New application fields like infrared illumination for sensing purposes in the automotive industry and 3D imaging systems could be opened by this new technology.

  14. Laser remelting of Ti6AL4V using high power diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya-Vázquez, M. R.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Boukha, Z.; El Amrani, K.; Botana, F. J.

    2012-04-01

    Titanium alloys present excellent mechanical and corrosion properties, being widely employed in different industries such as medical, aerospace, automotive, petrochemical, nuclear and power generation, etc. Ti6Al4V is the α-β alloy most employed in industry. The modification of its properties can be achieved with convectional heat treatments and/or with laser processing. Laser remelting (LR) is a technology applied to Ti6Al4V by other authors with excimer and Nd-Yag laser with pure argon shielding gas to prevent risk of oxidation. In the present contribution, laser remelting has been applied for the first time to Ti6Al4V with a high power diode laser (with pure argon as shielding gas). Results showed that remelted samples (with medium energy densities) have higher microhardness and better corrosion resistance than Ti6Al4V base metal.

  15. Fission-activated laser as primary power for CW laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in the development of reactor-pumped lasers (RPL`s) have stimulated renewed interest in the concept of laser-powered propulsion. This paper surveys a number of laser propulsion concepts and identifies the one that is most promising from the standpoint of practicality. It is proposed that a ground-based FALCON (Fission-Activated Laser CONcept) RPL can provide primary power for this launch vehicle design. The laser-vehicle system could launch small payloads into low-earth orbit (LEO) with high repetition rates and at low costs per kilogram. For the favored design, thruster efficiencies are currently estimated to be about 500%, with 800% being seen as a potentially realizable goal after further design refinements. Laser launch system simulations indicate that, with a buy-in laser power of 10 MW, it will be possible to obtain specific impulses in the range of 600 to 800 seconds and payload-to-power ratios of 1 to 3 kg/MW.

  16. Investigation of Laser Output Power Saturation in the He-Cu+ IR Hollow Cathode Discharge Laser by Experiments and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, A.; Gijbels, R.; Grozeva, M.; Sabotinov, N.

    Saturation in the laser output power at high electrical currents is experimentally observed for a He-Cu+ IR HCD laser. To investigate which mechanisms might be responsible for the laser power saturation, a modeling network is developed for a helium-argon-copper hollow cathode discharge (HCD), and is applied to the conditions for which saturation is observed. Typical calculation results, such as the potential distribution, the densities of the various plasma species, the sputtering flux and the ionization degree of copper, are presented as a function of electrical current. The calculated densities of electrons, Cu atoms and Cu+ ions, as well as the sputtering flux and the ionization degree of copper, increase with electrical current, whereas the He+ ion density is found to be constant. The laser output power itself cannot yet be predicted by the model, due to insufficient knowledge about the relevant populating and depopulating processes of the upper and lower laser levels and the corresponding cross sections. However, the model can make predictions on the production of the upper laser level (by asymmetric charge transfer between Cu atoms and He+ ions). The latter is found to increase less rapidly with current at higher values of the electrical current, which is attributed to the rise in gas temperature at higher electrical currents, and it suggests a certain degree of saturation in the laser output power. However, full saturation in the production rate of the upper laser level was not obtained with our calculations. Hence, the observed laser power saturation at high currents is probably also due to (i) either increasing depopulation of the upper laser level, or (ii) increasing population of the lower laser level, resulting in a drop in the population inversion.

  17. An optically-triggered semiconductor switch for high power laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng W.; Warren, M.E.

    1995-04-01

    The work involves research leading to an optically triggered switch for a high power laser pulse. The switch uses a semiconductor heterostructure whose optical properties are modified by a low power laser trigger such as a laser diode. Potential applications include optical control of pulsed power systems, control of medical lasers and implementation of security features in optical warhead architectures.

  18. Low power laser therapy — an introduction and a review of some biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Haymo

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to the characteristics of therapeutic low power laser devices. Absorption, tissue penetration and physiological mechanisms of laser irradiation are discussed. The biological effects of low power laser light are reviewed in the areas of collagen metabolism, woundhealing, inflammation and pain control. Contraindications, precautions and side effects of low power laser irradiation are discussed.

  19. Physics of laser fusion. Volume III. High-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Eimerl, D.; George, E.V.; Trenholme, J.B.; Simmons, W.W.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-09-01

    High-power pulsed lasers can deliver sufficient energy on inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) time scales (0.1 to 10 ns) to heat and compress deuterium-tritium fuel to fusion-reaction conditions. Several laser systems have been examined, including Nd:glass, CO/sub 2/, KrF, and I/sub 2/, for their ICF applicability. A great deal of developmental effort has been applied to the Nd:glass laser and the CO/sub 2/ gas laser systems; these systems now deliver > 10/sup 4/ J and 20 x 10/sup 12/ W to ICF targets. We are constructing the Nova Nd:glass laser at LLNL to provide > 100 kJ and > 100 x 10/sup 12/ W of 1-..mu..m radiation for fusion experimentation in the mid-1980s. For ICF target gain > 100 times the laser input, we expect that the laser driver must deliver approx. 3 to 5 MJ of energy on a time scale of 10 to 20 ns. In this paper we review the technological status of fusion-laser systems and outline approaches to constructing high-power pulsed laser drivers.

  20. High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power.

    PubMed

    Rudin, B; Wittwer, V J; Maas, D J H C; Hoffmann, M; Sieber, O D; Barbarin, Y; Golling, M; Südmeyer, T; Keller, U

    2010-12-20

    High-power ultrafast lasers are important for numerous industrial and scientific applications. Current multi-watt systems, however, are based on relatively complex laser concepts, for example using additional intracavity elements for pulse formation. Moving towards a higher level of integration would reduce complexity, packaging, and manufacturing cost, which are important requirements for mass production. Semiconductor lasers are well established for such applications, and optically-pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) are most promising for higher power applications, generating the highest power in fundamental transverse mode (>20 W) to date. Ultrashort pulses have been demonstrated using passive modelocking with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), achieving for example 2.1-W average power, sub-100-fs pulse duration, and 50-GHz pulse repetition rate. Previously the integration of both the gain and absorber elements into a single wafer was demonstrated with the MIXSEL (modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser) but with limited average output power (<200 mW). We have demonstrated the power scaling concept of the MIXSEL using optimized quantum dot saturable absorbers in an antiresonant structure design combined with an improved thermal management by wafer removal and mounting of the 8-µm thick MIXSEL structure directly onto a CVD-diamond heat spreader. The simple straight cavity with only two components has generated 28-ps pulses at 2.5-GHz repetition rate and an average output power of 6.4 W, which is higher than for any other modelocked semiconductor laser. PMID:21197032

  1. Power-scaling of diode-end-pumped solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, Paul Joseph

    1999-11-01

    This thesis presents a strategy for power-scaling diode- end-pumped solid-state lasers to multiwatt output power whilst retaining the high-efficiency and diffraction- limited beam quality, that have been characteristic of operation at low powers. This strategy reduces the detrimental effect of energy-transfer upconversion (ETU), which can decrease the lifetime of the upper-laser-level and also increase the heat generated inside the laser material. An analytical description of the lifetime quenching and increased thermal lensing due to ETU is presented. Using this analytical model it is shown that ETU can be reduced by decreasing the absorption coefficient, by increasing the spot size or by decreasing the upconversion parameter, W. This strategy is applied to a Nd:YLF laser. Before designing the laser the published value of the upconversion parameter for Nd:YLF is confirmed as W = (1.7 +/- 1) × 10-16cm3s -1, by observing the fluorescence saturation with increasing pump power. Also, without applying the power-scaling strategy, the thermal lensing in Nd:YLF in a typical pump set-up is determined, under lasing and non-lasing conditions. A significant difference between the thermal lensing under non-lasing and lasing conditions is observed which is attributed to the increase in heat input caused by ETU. In a standing-wave cavity, under cw lasing conditions and at the maximum pump power (29.5 W incident, 27.4 W absorbed) an output power of 11.1 W is obtained. This laser has excellent beam quality (M2x,y < 1.1) throughout the pump power range. An intracavity-frequency doubled ring laser is also demonstrated. This laser produces >10W of single-frequency output with a 10% output coupler (~9.7 W at 1.053 μm and ~0.6 W at 526.5 nm) at the maximum pump power. With a high reflector, for 1.053 μm, 6.2 W of polarised output (8.3 W generated inside the LBO), at 526.5nm is obtained. This output has excellent beam quality (M2x,y < 1.2) and amplitude stability (<+/-0.5%). The mode

  2. Generation of high-power laser light with Gigahertz splitting.

    PubMed

    Unks, B E; Proite, N A; Yavuz, D D

    2007-08-01

    We demonstrate the generation of two high-power laser beams whose frequencies are separated by the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in (87)Rb. The system uses a single master diode laser appropriately shifted by high frequency acousto-optic modulators and amplified by semiconductor tapered amplifiers. This produces two 1 W laser beams with a frequency spacing of 6.834 GHz and a relative frequency stability of 1 Hz. We discuss possible applications of this apparatus, including electromagnetically induced transparency-like effects and ultrafast qubit rotations. PMID:17764314

  3. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application. These cells are known to be very radiation resistant and have a potential for high efficiency. Effects of cell series resistance, laser intensity, and temperature on cell performance have been discussed.

  4. Modeling of dynamic effects of a low power laser beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, George N.; Scholl, Marija S.; Khatib, AL

    1988-01-01

    Methods of modeling some of the dynamic effects involved in laser beam propagation through the atmosphere are addressed with emphasis on the development of simple but accurate models which are readily implemented in a physical optics code. A space relay system with a ground based laser facility is considered as an example. The modeling of such characteristic phenomena as laser output distribution, flat and curved mirrors, diffraction propagation, atmospheric effects (aberration and wind shear), adaptive mirrors, jitter, and time integration of power on target, is discussed.

  5. LDRD final report on high power broadly tunable Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers for improved chemical species detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.; Fuller, Charles T.; Samora, Sally; Klem, John Frederick; Young, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of our project was to examine a novel quantum cascade laser design that should inherently increase the output power of the laser while simultaneously providing a broad tuning range. Such a laser source enables multiple chemical species identification with a single laser and/or very broad frequency coverage with a small number of different lasers, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based chemical detection systems. In our design concept, the discrete states in quantum cascade lasers are replaced by minibands made of multiple closely spaced electron levels. To facilitate the arduous task of designing miniband-to-miniband quantum cascade lasers, we developed a program that works in conjunction with our existing modeling software to completely automate the design process. Laser designs were grown, characterized, and iterated. The details of the automated design program and the measurement results are summarized in this report.

  6. High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Yang, Jianlong; Huang, Chongyuan; Luo, Yongfeng; Wang, Shiwei; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-02-01

    We propose a cascaded tandem pumping technique and show its high power and high efficient operation in the 2-μm wavelength region, opening up a new way to scale the output power of the 2-μm fiber laser to new levels (e.g. 10 kW). Using a 1942 nm Tm(3+) fiber laser as the pump source with the co- (counter-) propagating configuration, the 2020 nm Tm(3+) fiber laser generates 34.68 W (35.15W) of output power with 84.4% (86.3%) optical-to-optical efficiency and 91.7% (92.4%) slope efficiency, with respect to launched pump power. It provides the highest slope efficiency reported for 2-μm Tm(3+)-doped fiber lasers, and the highest output power for all-fiber tandem-pumped 2-μm fiber oscillators. This system fulfills the complete structure of the proposed cascaded tandem pumping technique in the 2-μm wavelength region (~1900 nm → ~1940 nm → ~2020 nm). Numerical analysis is also carried out to show the power scaling capability and efficiency of the cascaded tandem pumping technique. PMID:25836159

  7. Applications of high power lasers in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisky, Yehoshua

    2009-09-01

    Laser weapon is currently considered as tactical as well as strategic beam weapons, and is considered as a part of a general layered defense system against ballistic missiles and short-range rockets. This kind of weapon can disable or destroy military targets or incoming objects used by small groups of terrorists or countries, at the speed of light. Laser weapon is effective at long or short distances, owing to beam's unique characteristics such as narrow bandwidth, high brightness, coherent both in time and space, and it travels at the speed of light. Unlike kinetic weapon, laser weapon converts the energy stored in an electromagnetic laser beam into a large amount of heat aimed on a small area spot at the skin of the missile, usually close to the liquid fuel storage tank, warhead case or engine area, following by a temperature increase and finally-catastrophic failure by material ablation or melt. The usefulness of laser light as a weapon has been studied for decades but only in recent years became feasible. There are two types of lasers being used: gas lasers and solid state lasers, including fiber lasers. All these types of lasers will be discussed below.

  8. Useful In-space Impulse Generation Powered by Laser Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Takahashi, T.; Sasoh, A.

    2004-03-30

    After a pulsed laser beam irradiation, the pressure behind a projectile is increased due to shock wave generated by the ablating gas, resulting in a propulsive impulse generation. This principle can be applied to orbiting space debris. As the first stage, a CO2 laser beam was shot on various ablated material in the atmosphere, and projectile launch performance was measured.

  9. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz

    2007-11-06

    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  10. Advances in tunable powerful lasers: The advanced free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.; Sheffield, R.

    1993-12-31

    In the past several decades, remarkable progress in laser science and technology has made it possible to obtain laser light from the ultra-violet to the far infra-red from a variety of laser types, and at power levels from milliwatts to kilowatts (and, some day, megawatts). However, the availability of tunable lasers at ``high`` power (above a few tens of watts) is more limited. Figure 1, an assessment of the availability of tunable lasers, shows the covered range to be about 400 to 2000 nanometers. A variety of dye lasers cover the visible and near infra red, each one of which is tunable over approximately a 10% range. In the same region, the TI:saphire laser is adjustable over a 20 to 25% range. And finally, optical parametric oscillators can cover the range from about 400 nanometers out to about 2000 nm (even farther at reduced energy output). The typical output energy per pulse may vary from a few to one hundred millijoules, and since repetition rates of 10 to 100 Hertz are generally attainable, average output powers of tens of watts are possible. In recent years, a new approach to powerful tunable lasers -- the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) -- has emerged. In this paper we will discuss advances in FEL technology which not only enable tunability at high average power over a very broad range of wavelengths, but also make this device more usable. At present, that range is about one micron to the far infra red; with extensions of existing technology, it should be extendable to the vacuum ultra violet region.

  11. Temperature dependence of optically dumped far-infrared (FIR) laser output power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the small signal gain and saturation power are derived using temperature-dependent rates in a four-level model. An expression is developed for the output power of a far-infrared oscillator as a function of temperature for both fixed pressure and fixed density. The results are valid in the regime of homogeneous broadening of the rotational transition and Doppler broadening of the pump transition. It is shown that, for most lasers, both the small signal gain and the saturation power decrease with increasing temperature. These effects have the overall result of increasing output power with decreasing temperatures.

  12. Powerful 2-μm all-fiber laser sources pumped by Raman fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Zhang, Hanwei; Jin, Xiaoxi; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-11-01

    We present novel and powerful pump schemes for fiber laser sources operating near 2 μm, which employing high power Raman fiber lasers (RFLs) to provide sufficient pump light. Firstly, we demonstrate a Tm-doped fiber laser (TDFL) pumped by two RFLs at 1173 nm. The output power of the TDFL reached 96 W with slope efficiency of 0.42, and the central wavelength located at 1943.3 nm. This is the first TDFL with 100 W-level output power pumped by RFLs around Tm3+ ions' ~1200 nm absorption band. Secondly, we demonstrate a Ho-doped fiber laser (HDFL) employing a 1150 nm RFL as pump source. The 1150 nm RFL provided 110 W pump power and the output power of the HDFL reached 42 W with slope efficiency of 0.37. The lasing wavelength covered from 2046.8 nm to 2049.5 nm with optical signal-to-noise ratio more than 30 dB. This is the first HDFL pumped by a 1150 nm RFL and the highest output power achieved at this pump band. In the last, we present a high power Ho-doped fiber (HDF) superfluorescent source (SS) pumped by a 1150 nm RFL. The SS's output power reached 1.5 W, and the full width at half maximum was about 30 nm. This is the highest output power achieved in HDF as far as we know. The results above indicate promising and powerful pump schemes to achieve higher power output in fiber lasers near 2 μm, which also can be further improved by optimizing the parameters of the sources.

  13. High-power laser source evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Simonson, G.F.; Suter, L.J.

    1997-07-01

    This document reports progress in these areas: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM NOVA: TAMPED XENON UNDERDENSE X-RAY EMITTERS; MODELING MULTI-KEV RADIATION PRODUCTION OF XENON-FILLED BERYLLIUM CANS; MAPPING A CALCULATION FROM LASNEX TO CALE; HOT X RAYS FROM SEEDED NIF CAPSULES; HOHLRAUM DEBRIS MEASUREMENTS AT NOVA; FOAM AND STRUCTURAL RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR NIF NEUTRON EXPOSURE SAMPLE CASE ASSEMBLY DESIGN; NON-IGNITION X-RAY SOURCE FLUENCE-AREA PRODUCTS FOR NUCLEAR EFFECTS TESTING ON NIF. Also appended are reprints of two papers. The first is on the subject of ``X-Ray Production in Laser-Heated Xe Gas Targets.`` The second is on ``Efficient Production and Applications of 2- to 10-keV X Rays by Laser-Heated Underdense Radiators.``

  14. High power diode lasers: technology and application in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, Martin; Eberhard, Franz; Herrmann, Gerhard; Luft, Johann; Maric, J.; Morgott, Stefan; Philippens, Marc; Teich, W.

    2003-03-01

    The application field of high power semiconductor lasers is growing rapidly and covers e.g. solid state laser pumping, metal and plastic welding, hard and soft soldering, suface treatment and others. Preferably those applications are attractive, which do not require extremely high beam quality. We have investigated high power diode-laser bars from 808 nm to 980 nm. The scope of this presentation is on focusability and beam quality. For better beam shaping structures with reduced fill factor of 25% to 30% were developed. They were operated in continuous wave operation at power levels of up to 55 W. Tests indicate extrapolated lifetimes of more than 100,000 hours at 40 W at 980 nm cw and about 10,000 hours at 45 W - 50 W at 940 nm and 808 nm. Monolithically stacked NonostacksR were investigated. Operation up to 100°C with excellent lifetimes could be demonstrated. New concepts and applications for low mode number high power diode lasers like tapered laser bars are presented. Examples for various current areas of interest in European research facilities will be given.

  15. Kilowatt average-power laser for subpicosecond materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Stephen V.; Neil, George R.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.; Biallas, George; Douglas, David; Dylla, H. Frederick; Fugitt, Jock; Jordan, Kevin; Krafft, Geoffrey; Merminga, Lia; Preble, Joe; Shinn, Michelle D.; Siggins, Tim; Walker, Richard; Yunn, Byung

    2000-04-01

    The performance of laser pulses in the sub-picosecond range for materials processing is substantially enhanced over similar fluences delivered in longer pulses. Recent advances in the development of solid state lasers have progressed significantly toward the higher average powers potentially useful for many applications. Nonetheless, prospects remain distant for multi-kilowatt sub-picosecond solid state systems such as would be required for industrial scale surface processing of metals and polymers. We present operation results from the world's first kilowatt scale ultra-fast materials processing laser. A Free Electron Laser (FEL) called the IR Demo is operational as a User Facility at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, USA. In its initial operation at high average power it is capable of wavelengths in the 2 to 6 micron range and can produce approximately 0.7 ps pulses in a continuous train at approximately 75 MHz. This pulse length has been shown to be nearly optimal for deposition of energy in materials at the surface. Upgrades in the near future will extend operation beyond 10 kW CW average power in the near IR and kilowatt levels of power at wavelengths from 0.3 to 60 microns. This paper will cover the design and performance of this groundbreaking laser and operational aspects of the User Facility.

  16. Photovoltaic cells for laser power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jain, Raj K.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand cell response to pulsed illumination at high intensity, the PC-1DC finite-element computer model was used to analyze the response of solar cells to pulsed laser illumination. Over 50% efficiency was calculated for both InP and GaAs cells under steady-state illumination near the optimum wavelength. The time-dependent response of a high-efficiency GaAs concentrator cell to a laser pulse was modelled, and the effect of laser intensity, wavelength, and bias point was studied. Designing a cell to accommodate pulsed input can be done either by accepting the pulsed output and designing a cell to minimize adverse effects due to series resistance and inductance, or to design a cell with a long enough minority carrier lifetime, so that the output of the cell will not follow the pulse shape. Two such design possibilities are a monolithic, low-inductance voltage-adding GaAs cell, or a high-efficiency, light-trapping silicon cell. The advantages of each design will be discussed.

  17. Improved Spatial Filter for high power Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, Kent G.; Celliers, Peter M.; Murray, James E.; DaSilva, Luiz; MacGowan, Brian J.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Manes, Kenneth R.; Drake, Robert P.; Afeyan, Bedros

    1998-06-01

    A new pinhole architecture incorporates features intended to reduce the rate of plasma generation in a spatial filter for high-energy laser pulse beams. An elongated pinhole aperture is provided in an apertured body for rejecting off-axis rays of the laser pulse beam. The internal surface of the elongated aperture has a diameter which progressively tapers from a larger entrance cross-sectional area at an inlet to a smaller output cross-sectional area at an outlet. The tapered internal surface causes off-axis rays to be refracted in a low density plasma layer that forms on the internal surface or specularly reflected at grazing incidence from the internal surface. Off-axis rays of the high-energy pulse beam are rejected by this design. The external surface of the apertured body adjacent to the larger entrance cross-sectional area at the inlet to the elongated aperture is angled obliquely with respect to the to direction of the path of the high-energy laser pulse beam to backscatter off-axis rays away from the high-energy pulse beam. The aperture is formed as a truncated cone or alternatively with a tapered square cross-section. The internal surface of the aperture is coated with an ablative material, preferably high-density material which can be deposited with an exploding wire.

  18. Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers.

    PubMed

    Holzrichter, J F; Campbell, E M; Lindl, J D; Storm, E

    1985-09-13

    Three high-temperature, high-density experments were conducted recently with the 10-terawatt, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous laser-plasma interaction experiments with long-wavelength (greater than 1 micrometer) lasers: (i) large-scale plasmas, with dimensions approaching those needed for high-gain inertial fusion targets, were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped; (ii) deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 grams per cubic centimeter and a pressure of 10(10) atmospheres under the improved laser conditions, and compression conditions (preheating and pressure) were consistent with code calculations that predict efficient (high-gain) burn of a large thermonuclear fuel mass when driven with a large, short-wavelength laser; and (iii) soft x-rays were amplified by a factor of 700 by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 angstroms (62 electron volts) from selenium ions in a laser-generated plasma. These small, short-pulse x-ray sources are 10(10) to 10(11) times brighter than the most powerful x-ray generators and synchrotron sources available today. The plasma conditions for these experiments were made possible by advances in Nd:glass laser technology, in techniques to generate efficiently its short-wavelength harmonics at 0.53, 0.35, and 0.26 micrometers, and in diagnostic and computational modeling. PMID:17753271

  19. An Integrated High Efficiency Switched Mode Laser Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, S. Spencer

    1987-05-01

    An ideal laser power supply should bring a capacitive storage medium to a programmable voltage level at a constant rate. This voltage level must be maintained until the laser is fired, at which time the charging source must be immune to severe transients. Considerations include efficiency, size, cost, and reliability. A switched mode charging source is described which has been in commercial production for several years, and which will transfer 5KW of average power to a value of capacitance ranging from 20 to 100nF at approximately 32KV with repetition rates to 500Hz.

  20. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  1. Cascaded combiners for a high power CW fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qirui; Ge, Tingwu; Zhang, Xuexia; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    We report cascaded combiners for a high power continuous wave (CW) fiber laser in this paper. The cascaded combiners are fabricated with an improved lateral splicing process. During the fusing process, there is no stress or tension between the pump fiber and the double-cladding fiber. Thus, the parameters of the combiner are better than those that have been reported. The coupling efficiency is 98.5%, and the signal insertion loss is 1%. The coupling efficiency of the cascaded combiners is 97.5%. The pump lights are individually coupled into the double-cladding fiber via five combiners. The thermal effects cannot cause damage to the combiners and the cascaded combiners can operate stably in high power CW fiber lasers. We also develop a high power CW fiber laser that generates a maximum 780 W of CW signal power at 1080 nm with 71% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. The fiber laser is pumped via five intra-cavity cascaded combiners and five extra-cavity cascaded combiners with a maximum pump power of 1096 W and a pump wavelength of 975 nm.

  2. Fission-activated laser as primary power for CW laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in the development of reactor-pumped lasers (RPL`s) have stimulated renewed interest in the concept of laser-powered propulsion. This paper surveys a number of laser propulsion concepts and identifies the one that is most promising from the standpoint of practicality. It is proposed that a ground-based FALCON (Fission-Activated Laser CONcept) RPL can provide primary for this launch vehicle design. The laser-vehicle system could launch small payloads into low-earth orbit (LEO) with high repetition rates and at low costs per kilogram. For the favored design, thruster efficiencies are currently estimated to be about 50%, with 80% being seen as a potentially realizable goal after further design refinements. Laser launch system simulations indicate that with a buy-in laser power of 10 MW, it will be possible to obtain specific impulses in the range of 600 to 800 seconds and payload-to-power ratios of 1 to 3 kg/MW.

  3. Electron accleration using high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmudin, Zulfikar

    1998-04-01

    The 30 TW Nd:Glass Vulcan laser has been used to extensively study the Forward Raman Scatter instability in plasmas. This instability is of interest since it produces large amplitude relativistic plasma waves, which can trap and accelerate plasma electrons to high energies. Recently we have accelerated particles up to 100 MeV with this process. This is beyond the expected classical dephasing energy, for the plasma waves in our experiment which have a Lorentz factor γ ≈ 7. The greater acceleration has been attributed to the dynamics of the beam loading process of the plasma waves due to wavebreaking. By imaging the small angle Thomson scattered light from an orthogonally injected probe beam, we observe the dimensions of the accelerating plasma wave. It is seen that electron energies are almost independent of the length of the plasma wave. This is because the dephasing length is of the order of the Rayleigh length (≈ 100 μm). However the plasma wave is seen to extend to lengths as great as 3.5 mm. This is indicative of a high intensity being present throughout the length of the gas jet used, and indicates the presence of channelling of the laser beam. However the unstable nature of FRS, means that it is unsuitable for next generation high energy particle acclerators. For this we require much more controllable acceleration over greater distances. This can be achieved with the laser wakefield accelerator. For this purpose we have also been performing experiments at the LULI short pulse facility at Ecole Polytechnique. In these experiments we have been able to accelerate large numbers of injected electrons at 3 MeV to 4 MeV and above, after carefully taking into consideration sources of noise.

  4. Effect of power distribution on the weld quality during hybrid laser welding of an Al-Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, P.; Renna, G.; Casalino, G.; Olabi, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper treats of the analysis of the effect of arc and laser powers on the quality of the arc assisted fiber laser welding of an Al-Mg alloy in the butt configuration. Grain size, weld geometry defects, porosity, and magnesium loss were measured. Magnesium content of the fused zone decreased as the laser power increased while the porosity increased with laser power. Microhardness profiles and tensile properties were explained on the basis of the joint microstructure and defects and related to the power distribution. The porosity level and Mg content in the fused zone affected both tensile strength and ductility. The power distribution that stabilized the welding process and minimize the weld porosity was defined.

  5. Thermal lensing compensation optics for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaggs, Michael; Haas, Gil

    2011-03-01

    Athermalization of focusing objectives is a common technique for optimizing imaging systems in the infrared where thermal effects are a major concern. The athermalization is generally done within the spectrum of interest and not generally applied to a single wavelength. The predominate glass used with high power infrared lasers in the near infrared of one micron, such as Nd:YAG and fiber lasers, is fused silica which has excellent thermal properties. All glasses, however, have a temperature coefficient of index of refraction (dn/dT) where as the glass heats up its index of refraction changes. Most glasses, fused silica included, have a positive dn/dT. A positive dn/dT will cause the focal length of the lens to decrease with a temperature rise. Many of the fluoride glasses, like CaF2, BaF2, LiF2, etc. have a negative dn/dT. By applying athermalization techniques of glass selection and optical design, the thermal lensing in a laser objective of a high power laser system can be substantially mitigated. We describe a passive method for minimizing thermal lensing of high power laser optics.

  6. High-power laser source evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Back, C. A.; Decker, C. D.; Davis, J. F.; Dixit, S.; Grun, J.; Managan, R. A.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Simonson, G. F.; Suter, L. J.; Wuest, C. R.; Ze, F.

    1998-07-01

    Robust Nuclear-Weapons-Effects Testing (NWET) capability will be needed for the foreseeable future to ensure the performance and reliability, in nuclear environments, of the evolving U.S. stockpile of weapons and other assets. Ongoing research on the use of high-energy lasers to generate environments of utility in nuclear weapon radiation effects simulations is addressed in the work described in this report. Laser-driven hohlraums and a variety of other targets have been considered in an effort to develop NWET capability of the highest possible fidelity in above-ground experiments. The envelope of large-system test needs is shown as the gray region in fig. 1. It does not represent the spectrum of any device; it is just the envelope of the spectral region of outputs from a number of possible devices. It is a goal of our laser-only and ignition-capsule source development work to generate x rays that fall somewhere in this envelope. One of the earlier appearances of this envelope is in ref. 1. The Defense Special Weapons Agency provided important support for the work described herein. A total of $520K was provided in the 1997 IACROs 97-3022 for Source Development and 97-3048 for Facilitization. The period of performance specified in the Statement of Work ran from 28 February 1997 until 30 November 1997. This period was extended, by agreement with DSWA, for two reasons: 1) despite the stated period of performance, funds were not available at LLNL to begin this work until somewhat later in the fiscal year, and 2) we agreed to stretch the current resources until follow-on funds were in hand, to minimize effects of ramping down and up again. The tasks addressed in this report are the following: 1) Non-ignition-source model benchmarking and design. This involves analysis of existing and new data on laser-only sources to benchmark LASNEX predictions 2) Non-ignition-source development experiments 3) Ignition capsule design to improve total x-ray output and simplify target

  7. Single mode 1018nm fiber laser with power of 230W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Yaakov; Sintov, Yoav; Zuitlin, Roey; Pearl, Shaul; Feldman, Revital; Horvitz, Zvi; Shafir, Noam

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a high power single-mode (SM) monolithic fiber laser at 1018 nm, producing 230 W CW, with an M2 of 1.17 and light to light efficiency of 75%. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power described in the open literature from a SM fiber laser at this wavelength. Careful simulations were employed which take into account the various wavelength dependent parameters such as the fiber absorption and emission as obtained from the fiber manufacturers, and the cavity mirrors' reflection, in addition to the fiber geometrical parameters. It was found that the major obstacle for increasing the power at 1018nm is the self-generation of amplified spontaneous emission at wavelengths of 1030-1040nm. If the laser is not designed properly these undesired wavelengths dominate the output spectrum.

  8. High power free-electron laser concepts and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) have long been thought to offer the potential of high average power operation. That potential exists because of several unique properties of FELs, such as the removal of ``waste heat`` at the velocity of light, the ``laser medium`` (the electron beam) is impervious to damage by very high optical intensitites, and the technology of generating very high average power relativistic electron beams. In particular, if one can build a laser with a power extraction efficiency 11 which is driven by an electron beam of average Power P{sub EB}, one expects a laser output power of P{sub L} = {eta} P{sub EB}. One approach to FEL devices with large values of {eta} (in excess of 10 %) is to use a ``tapered`` (or nonuniform) wiggler. This approach was followed at several laboratories during the FEL development Program for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) project. In this paper, we review some concepts and technical requirements for high-power tapered-wiggler FELs driven by radio-frequency linear accelerators (rf-linacs) which were developed during the SDI project. Contributions from three quite different technologies - rf-accelerators, optics, and magnets - are needed to construct and operate an FEL oscillator. The particular requirements on these technologies for a high-power FEL were far beyond the state of the art in those areas when the SDI project started, so significant advances had to be made before a working device could be constructed. Many of those requirements were not clearly understood when the project started, but were developed during the course of the experimental and theoretical research for the project. This information can be useful in planning future high-power FEL projects.

  9. Laser-power delivery using chalcogenide glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Albert R., Sr.; Hilton, A. R., Jr.; McCord, James; Loretz, Thomas J.

    1997-04-01

    During the last 15 years, numerous programs have been carried out in the U.S., UK, France, Japan, Israel and Russia aimed at providing a flexible chalcogenide glass fiber suited for delivery of power from a carbon dioxide laser emitting at 10.6 micrometer. The success of these programs has been modest at best with output power limited to 10 watts or less. The purpose of this paper is to examine chalcogenide glasses used for fiber from a thermal lensing standpoint.

  10. High power nd:glass laser for fusion applications.

    PubMed

    Soures, J; Kumpan, S; Hoose, J

    1974-09-01

    Experiments on laser-induced thermonuclear fusion require high brightness lasers capable of producing subnanosecond pulses with total energy content of several kilojoules. Of existing laser media, Nd:glass appears to be the best choice for meeting these criteria. In this paper we discuss the problems of designing a high power Nd:glass laser system. A detailed description of an operating two-beam system producing subnanosecond pulses with a maximum energy of 350 J per beam is presented, along with an extensive description of beam diagnostic techniques. A four beam version of this system became operational on 3 April 1974 and is now producing energies in excess of a kilojoule in subnanosecond pulses. PMID:20134633

  11. Micro-ablation with high power pulsed copper vapor lasers.

    PubMed

    Knowles, M

    2000-07-17

    Visible and UV lasers with nanosecond pulse durations, diffraction-limited beam quality and high pulse repetition rates have demonstrated micro-ablation in a wide variety of materials with sub-micron precision and sub-micron-sized heat-affected zones. The copper vapour laser (CVL) is one of the important industrial lasers for micro-ablation applications. Manufacturing applications for the CVL include orifice drilling in fuel injection components and inkjet printers, micro-milling of micromoulds, via hole drilling in printed circuit boards and silicon machining. Recent advances in higher power (100W visible, 5W UV), diffraction-limited, compact CVLs are opening new possibilities for manufacturing with this class of nanosecond laser. PMID:19404369

  12. High-power 1550 nm tapered DBR lasers fabricated using soft UV-nano-imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viheriälä, Jukka; Aho, Antti T.; Mäkelä, Jaakko; Salmi, Joel; Virtanen, Heikki; Leinonen, Tomi; Dumitrescu, Mihail; Guina, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    Paper reports the DBR-RWG surface grating design, the fabrication process, and the output characteristics of tapered DBR laser diodes for the applications, like for example LIDAR and range finding, that require eye-safe high-power single-mode coherent light sources. The fabricated regrowth-free DBR AlGaInAs/InP lasers exhibited a CW output power as high as 560 mW in single-mode operation at room temperature. At maximum output power the SMSR was 38 dB, proving the excellent behavior of the surface gratings. The tapered section enabled scaling the maximum CW power at room temperature from 125 mW to 560 mW, by increasing its length from 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm. The paper discusses the limitations and performance variation associated to the power scaling by using the tapered section length as a scaling parameter.

  13. Materials processing with a high power diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Lawrence, J.; Spencer, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on work exploring the feasibility of a range of materials processing applications using a Diomed 60W diode laser delivered through a 600{mu}m diameter optical fibre to a 3 axis CNC workstation. The applications studied include: marking/engraving natural stones (marble and granite), marking ceramic tiles, sealing tile grouts, cutting and marking glass, marking/engraving wood, stripping paint and lacquer, and welding metallic wires. The study shows that even at the present limited power level of diode lasers, many materials processing applications can be accomplished with satisfactory results. Through the study an initial understanding of interaction of high power diode laser (HPDL) beam with various materials has been gained. Also, within the paper basic beam characteristics, and current R&D activities in HPDL technology and materials processing applications are reviewed.

  14. Recent Accomplishments in Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Skinner, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Wireless power transmission can be accomplished over long distances using laser power sources and photovoltaic receivers. Recent research at AMOS has improved our understanding of the use of this technology for practical applications. Research by NASA, Boeing, the University of Alabama-Huntsville, the University of Colorado, Harvey Mudd College, and the Naval Postgraduate School has tested various commercial lasers and photovoltaic receiver configurations. Lasers used in testing have included gaseous argon and krypton, solid-state diodes, and fiber optic sources, at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infra-red. A variety of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic have been tested with these sources. Safe operating procedures have been established, and initial tests have been conducted in the open air at AMOS facilities. This research is progressing toward longer distance ground demonstrations of the technology and practical near-term space demonstrations.

  15. Microchannel heatsinks for high average power laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Benett, B.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Sperry, V.; Comaskey, B.; Emanuel, M.; Solarz, R.; Mundinger, D.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed performance results and fabrication techniques for an efficient and low thermal impedance laser diode array heatsink are presented. High duty factor or even CW operation of fully filled laser diode arrays is enabled at high average power. Low thermal impedance is achieved using a liquid coolant and laminar flow through microchannels. The microchannels are fabricated in silicon using a photolithographic pattern definition procedure followed by anisotropic chemical etching. A modular rack-and-stack architecture is adopted for the heatsink design allowing arbitrarily large two-dimensional arrays to be fabricated and easily maintained. The excellent thermal control of the microchannel cooled heatsinks is ideally suited to pump array requirements for high average power crystalline lasers because of the stringent temperature demands that result from coupling the diode light to several nanometers wide absorption features characteristic of leasing ions in crystals.

  16. Laser-powered MHD generators for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion systems of the pulsed laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave, plasma MHD, and liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) types are assessed for their potential as space-based laser-to-electrical power converters. These systems offer several advantages as energy converters relative to the present chemical, nuclear, and solar devices, including high conversion efficiency, simple design, high-temperature operation, high power density, and high reliability. Of these systems, the Brayton cycle liquid-metal MHD system appears to be the most attractive. The LMMHD technology base is well established for terrestrial applications, particularly with regard to the generator, mixer, and other system components. However, further research is required to extend this technology base to space applications and to establish the technology required to couple the laser energy into the system most efficiently. Continued research on each of the three system types is recommended.

  17. Laser-based K α X-ray emission characterization using a high contrast ratio and high-power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmaux, S.; Kieffer, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a laser-based K_α X-ray source produced onto a Mo solid target. We used a laser system with a high laser pulse contrast ratio (LPCR) and an instantaneous power ˜30 TW. We investigated simultaneously the K_α X-ray conversion efficiency, the X-ray source size, and the proton front surface emission. We found a high K_α X-ray conversion efficiency up to 2× 10^{-4} associated with an X-ray source size only ˜1.8 times larger than the laser focal spot for the highest intensities. We found that using a high LPCR laser pulse with 245 mJ per pulse is of interest to develop a laser-based X-ray imaging system as it can combine a high conversion efficiency with a small increase in the X-ray source size compared to the laser focal spot.

  18. High efficiency solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding solar cell response to pulsed laser outputs is important for the evaluation of power beaming applications. The time response of high efficiency GaAs and silicon solar cells to a 25 nS monochromatic pulse input is described. The PC-1D computer code is used to analyze the cell current during and after the pulse for various conditions.

  19. Average refractive powers of an alexandrite laser rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driedger, K. P.; Krause, W.; Weber, H.

    1986-04-01

    The average refractive powers (average inverse focal lengths) of the thermal lens produced by an alexandrite laser rod optically pumped at repetition rates between 0.4 and 10 Hz and with electrical flashlamp input pulse energies up to 500 J have been measured. The measuring setup is described and the measurement results are discussed.

  20. Schwinger limit attainability with extreme power lasers.

    PubMed

    Bulanov, Stepan S; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Thomas, Alexander G R; Koga, James K; Bulanov, Sergei V

    2010-11-26

    High intensity colliding laser pulses can create abundant electron-positron pair plasma [A. R. Bell and J. G. Kirk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 200403 (2008)], which can scatter the incoming electromagnetic waves. This process can prevent one from reaching the critical field of quantum electrodynamics at which vacuum breakdown and polarization occur. Considering the pairs are seeded by the Schwinger mechanism, it is shown that the effects of radiation friction and the electron-positron avalanche development in vacuum depend on the electromagnetic wave polarization. For circularly polarized colliding pulses, these effects dominate not only the particle motion but also the evolution of the pulses. For linearly polarized pulses, these effects are not as strong. There is an apparent analogy of these cases with circular and linear electron accelerators to the corresponding constraining and reduced roles of synchrotron radiation losses. PMID:21231373

  1. Solid-state laser-pumped high-power electric-discharge HF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Velikanov, S D; Garanin, Sergey G; Kodola, B E; Komarov, Yu N; Shchurov, V V; Efanov, V M; Efanov, M V; Yarin, P M; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Firsov, K N; Domazhirov, A P; Podlesnykh, S V; Sivachev, A A

    2010-08-03

    We report the possibility of creating high-power nonchain electric-discharge HF lasers with an all-solid-state pump source. The maximum energy stored in the pump source capacitors based on solid-state FID-switches is 990 J for the open-circuit voltage of 240 kV. The pulse energy of 30 J is obtained in the hydrogen-containing SF{sub 6} mixture at the electric efficiency of the order of 3%. (lasers)

  2. Novel cavities and functionality in high-power highbrightness semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessenius, Chris

    Ever since the first laser demonstration in 1960, applications for laser systems have increased to include diverse fields such as: national defense, biology and medicine, entertainment, imaging, and communications. In order to serve the growing demand, a wide range of laser types including solid-state, semiconductor, gas, and dye lasers have been developed. For most applications it is critical to have lasers with both high optical power and excellent beam quality. This has traditionally been difficult to simultaneously achieve in semiconductor lasers. In the mid 1990's, the advent of an optically pumped semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) led to the demonstration of high (multi-watt) output power with near diffraction limited (TEM00) beam quality. Since that time VECSELs covering large wavelength regions have been developed. It is the objective of this dissertation to investigate and explore novel cavity designs which can lead to increased functionality in high power, high brightness VECSELs. Optically pumped VECSELs have previously demonstrated their potential for high power, high brightness operation. In addition, the "open" cavity design of this type of laser makes intracavity nonlinear frequency conversion, linewidth narrowing, and spectral tuning very efficient. By altering the external cavity design it is possible to add additional functionality to this already flexible design. In this dissertation, the history, theory, design, and fabrication are first presented as VECSEL performance relies heavily on the design and fabrication of the chip. Basic cavities such as the linear cavity and v-shaped cavity will be discussed, including the role they play in wavelength tuning, transverse mode profile, and mode stability. The development of a VECSEL for use as a sodium guide star laser is presented including the theory and simulation of intracavity frequency generation in a modified v-cavity. The results show agreement with theory

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics on High Power Lasers and Pulsed Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2002-02-05

    Over the past decade a new genre of laboratory astrophysics has emerged, made possible by the new high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as large lasers, z-pinch generators, and high current particle accelerators. (Remington, 1999; 2000; Drake, 1998; Takabe, 2001) On these facilities, macroscopic collections of matter can be created in astrophysically relevant conditions, and its collective properties measured. Examples of processes and issues that can be experimentally addressed include compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiative shocks, radiation flow, high Mach-number jets, complex opacities, photoionized plasmas, equations of state of highly compressed matter, and relativistic plasmas. These processes are relevant to a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as supernovae and supernova remnants, astrophysical jets, radiatively driven molecular clouds, accreting black holes, planetary interiors, and gamma-ray bursts. These phenomena will be discussed in the context of laboratory astrophysics experiments possible on existing and future HED facilities.

  4. Fundamental-frequency-absorbed oxyfluoride glass in a high-power laser.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chaoqi; Li, Weinan; Wang, Pengfei; Lu, Min; Peng, Bo; Guo, Haitao; Gao, Fei; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-04-01

    A high-power third-harmonic laser faces challenges in the filtering remnant unconverted fundamental frequency, which is from the frequency converting crystal. In this work, a novel fundamental-frequency-absorbed oxyfluoride glass has been prepared, which provides a possible option to solve the problem. By being doped with Fe2+ ion, the glass shows strong absorption property at 1053 nm, and the glass's transmittances at 351 and 1053 nm are stable with changing the laser power or increasing the irradiation times under high-power laser irradiation. Meanwhile, the laser-induced damage threshold of the glass is 12.5  J/cm2 at 351 nm, which is two times higher than that of fused silica whose threshold is 6.2  J/cm2 in the same testing condition. The glass also exhibits a higher laser-induced damage threshold as well as 36.6  J/cm2 at its absorption wavelength of 1053 nm. The results indicate that this glass is promising as a color-separation optic, thus allowing a novel design for the final optics assembly in an inertial confinement fusion laser system. PMID:27139668

  5. Performance improvement of power-over-fiber system using noise-modulated laser diode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongning; Zhang, Mingjiang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Liu, Yi; Liu, Ruixia; Li, Yunting; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-03-01

    In a power-over-fiber system, the key limiting factor for transmission light power is the stimulated Brillouin scattering effect, which leads to a decrease in transmission light power at the end of the optical fiber. Therefore, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband laser generated by a noise-modulated distributed-feedback laser diode to suppress the stimulated Brillouin scattering effect in the optical fiber. Experimental results show that the linewidth of the noise-modulated distributed-feedback laser diode broadens from 2.43 to 379.89 MHz when the noise modulation amplitude is increased from 0 to 400 mV. Due to the broadening of the laser linewidth, the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold raises 7.19 dB, and the peak power of the Brillouin Stokes light is reduced by 40.90 dB. At the same time, the output electrical power at the end of the optical fiber increases 13.55 dB. PMID:26974621

  6. Increasing the operating distance of a phase-shift laser range-finding system by using an active reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengcheng; Yu, Liang; Mei, Jianting; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-12-01

    A new phase-shift laser ranging method is developed by combining the conventional phase-shift ranging and the concept of transponder, in which the passive mirror in a phase-shift laser range-finding system is replaced with an active reflector whose light source power is the same as that at the measurement terminal. As a result, the power of the returned light is inversely proportional to the 2nd instead of the 4th power of the distance being measured. Section 3 indicate that by using the active reflector, the operating distance is dramatically increased without increasing the laser power or lens aperture. With a transmitted power of 20 mW and an aperture of 100 mm, the operating distance increased from 1.5 km to 9.4 km, and a 15-fold range gain can be forecasted for a transmitted power of 1 W. This strongly confirms the suitability of the developed phase-shift method with an active reflector for measuring longer distances.

  7. 100 Hz repetition rate, high average power, plasma-based soft x-ray lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Brendan; Wernsing, Keith; Baumgarten, Cory; Berrill, Mark; Durivage, Leon; Furch, Federico; Curtis, Alden; Luther, Bradley; Patel, Dinesh; Menoni, Carmen; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Rocca, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    Numerous applications demand high average power / high repetition rate compact sources of coherent soft x-ray radiation. We report the demonstration table-top soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths ranging from 10.9 nm to 18.9 nm from plasmas created at 100 Hz repetition rate. Results includes a record average power of 0.15 mW at λ = 18.9 nm from a laser-produced Mo plasma and 0.1 mW average power at λ = 13.9 nm from a Ag plasma. These soft x-ray lasers are driven by collisional electron impact excitation in elongated line focus plasmas a few mm in length heated by a compact, directly diode-pumped, chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser that produces 1 J pulses of ps duration at 100 Hz repetition rate. Pulses from this laser irradiate the surface of polished metal targets producing transient population inversions on the 4d1S0 --> 4p1P1 transition of Ni-like ions. Tailoring of the temporal profile of the driver laser pulse is observed to significantly increase soft x-ray laser output power as well as allow the generation of shorter wavelength lasers with reduced pump energy. Work was supported by the NSF ERC for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology using equipment developed under NSF Award MRI-ARRA 09-561, and by the AMOS program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy.

  8. Power scalable semiconductor disk lasers for frequency conversion and mode-locking

    SciTech Connect

    Okhotnikov, O G

    2008-12-31

    The semiconductor disk laser, a relatively novel type of light oscillators, is now under intensive development. These lasers produce an excellent beam quality in conjunction with a scalable output power. This paper presents recent achievements in power scalability, mode-locking and frequency conversion with optically-pumped semiconductor disk lasers. A novel concept for power scaling described here allows the thermal load of the gain material to be reduced, increasing the threshold of rollover and extending the capability for boosting the output power without degradation in the beam quality. The proposed technique is based on the multiple gain scheme. The total power of over 8 W was achieved in dual-gain configuration, while one-gain lasers could produce separately up to 4 W, limited by the thermal rollover of the output characteristics. The results show that the reduced thermal load to a gain element in a dual-gain cavity allows extending the range of usable pump powers boosting the laser output. Orange-red radiation required for a number of challenging applications can be produced through frequency-doubling using a GaInNAs/GaAs laser. Using such a disk laser operating at a fundamental wavelength of 1224 nm, we demonstrate an output power of 2.68 W in the visible region with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 7.4%. The frequency-converted signal could be launched into a single-mode optical fibre with 70%-78% coupling efficiency, demonstrating good beam quality for the visible radiation. Using a Fabry-Perot glass etalon, the emission wavelength could be tuned over an 8-nm spectral range. We report on optically-pumped disk lasers passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror. The potential of harmonic mode-locking in producing pulse trains at multigigahertz repetition rates has been explored. The mode-locked disk laser is investigated for different designs of the gain medium that allow bistable mode-locking to be controlled. An

  9. Measurements of the critical power for self-injection of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Froula, D H; Clayton, C E; Döppner, T; Marsh, K A; Barty, C P J; Divol, L; Fonseca, R A; Glenzer, S H; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Martins, S F; Michel, P; Mori, W B; Palastro, J P; Pollock, B B; Pak, A; Ralph, J E; Ross, J S; Siders, C W; Silva, L O; Wang, T

    2009-11-20

    A laser wakefield acceleration study has been performed in the matched, self-guided, blowout regime producing 720 +/- 50 MeV quasimonoenergetic electrons with a divergence Deltatheta_{FWHM} of 2.85 +/- 0.15 mrad using a 10 J, 60 fs 0.8 microm laser. While maintaining a nearly constant plasma density (3 x 10{18} cm{-3}), the energy gain increased from 75 to 720 MeV when the plasma length was increased from 3 to 8 mm. Absolute charge measurements indicate that self-injection of electrons occurs when the laser power P exceeds 3 times the critical power P{cr} for relativistic self-focusing and saturates around 100 pC for P/P{cr} > 5. The results are compared with both analytical scalings and full 3D particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:20366048

  10. Measurements of the Critical Power for Self-Injection of Electrons in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froula, D. H.; Clayton, C. E.; Döppner, T.; Marsh, K. A.; Barty, C. P. J.; Divol, L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Martins, S. F.; Michel, P.; Mori, W. B.; Palastro, J. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Siders, C. W.; Silva, L. O.; Wang, T.

    2009-11-01

    A laser wakefield acceleration study has been performed in the matched, self-guided, blowout regime producing 720±50MeV quasimonoenergetic electrons with a divergence ΔθFWHM of 2.85±0.15mrad using a 10 J, 60 fs 0.8μm laser. While maintaining a nearly constant plasma density (3×1018cm-3), the energy gain increased from 75 to 720 MeV when the plasma length was increased from 3 to 8 mm. Absolute charge measurements indicate that self-injection of electrons occurs when the laser power P exceeds 3 times the critical power Pcr for relativistic self-focusing and saturates around 100 pC for P/Pcr>5. The results are compared with both analytical scalings and full 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B

    1999-10-01

    A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M{sup 2} = 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M{sup 2} value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M{sup 2} < 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods.

  12. Shannon entropy method of small-scale self-focusing assessment in high-power laser systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rende; Hu, Dongxia; Deng, Xuewei; Zhao, Junpu; Wang, Wenyi; Dai, Wanjun; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Min; Yang, Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Through analysis of near-field beam profiles, we propose a method using Shannon entropy to assess the development of small-scale self-focusing during laser propagation and amplification in high-power laser systems. In this method, the entropy curve that corresponds to increasing B integral displays an evident turning point at which small-scale self-focusing starts to rapidly develop. In contrast to classical methods using contrast, modulation, or power spectral density, the proposed method provides the B integral criterion more clearly and objectively. This approach is an optimization method that can be utilized in the design and operation of high-power laser systems. PMID:26906805

  13. Catastrophic optical degradation of the output facet of high-power single-transverse-mode diode lasers. 1. Physical model

    SciTech Connect

    Miftakhutdinov, D R; Bogatov, Alexandr P; Drakin, A E

    2010-09-10

    The physical model of catastrophic optical degradation (COD) of the output facet of high-power single- transverse-mode diode lasers is developed. The model excels other models both in completeness of the physical analysis of the processes leading to COD and in allowance for design feature of lasers used to increase the COD threshold - protective coating of the output facet and current limitations near it. (lasers)

  14. High-power LD end-pumped Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan; Fan, Xuliang; Yao, Weichao; Zhu, Heyuan; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan

    2015-03-01

    A high-power Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser is reported. Deliberate thermal management was made to dissipate the heat effectively and release the stress in ceramics. The influence of pump wavelength on laser performance was investigated. A maximum of 52 W output power was achieved, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 27.8 % with respect to the incident pump power. As to our knowledge, this is the highest 2-μm laser output power reported in Tm:YAG ceramic lasers. This result proves that Tm:YAG laser ceramic is a promising candidate for 2-μm high-power laser applications.

  15. Energy coupling and plume dynamics during high power laser heating of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. |

    1997-05-01

    High power laser heating of metals was studied utilizing experimental and numerical methods with an emphasis on the laser energy coupling with a target and on the dynamics of the laser generated vapor flow. Rigorous theoretical modeling of the heating, melting, and evaporation of metals due to laser radiation with a power density below the plasma shielding threshold was carried out. Experimentally, the probe beam deflection technique was utilized to measure the propagation of a laser induced shock wave. The effects of a cylindrical cavity in a metal surface on the laser energy coupling with a solid were investigated utilizing photothermal deflection measurements. A numerical calculation of target temperature and photothermal deflection was performed to compare with the measured results. Reflection of the heating laser beam inside the cavity was found to increase the photothermal deflection amplitude significantly and to enhance the overall energy coupling between a heating laser beam and a solid. Next, unsteady vaporization of metals due to nanosecond pulsed laser heating with an ambient gas at finite pressure was analyzed with a one dimensional thermal evaporation model for target heating and one dimensional compressible flow equations for inviscid fluid for the vapor flow. Lastly, the propagation of a shock wave during excimer laser heating of aluminum was measured with the probe beam deflection technique. The transit time of the shock wave was measured at the elevation of the probe beam above the target surface; these results were compared with the predicted behavior using ideal blast wave theory. The propagation of a gaseous material plume was also observed from the deflection of the probe beam at later times.

  16. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-02-01

    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  17. Design of stabilization system for medium wave infrared laser power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhong-kui; Wang, Lin; Shi, Xue-shun; Xu, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The 3~5um Medium Wave Infrared(MWIR) laser has gained a lot of attention for its important application values in remote sensing, medical, military and many other fields. However, there are many technical difficulties to fabricate those kind lasers, and the performance of their output power stabilities remain to be improved. In a practical application, the MWIR's output power will be instability when the temperature changes and the current varies. So a system of reducing MWIR power fluctuation should be established. In this paper, a photoelectric system of stabilizing the output power of He-Ne laser is developed, which is designed based on the theory of feedback control. Some primary devices and technologies are presented and the functions of each module are described in detail. Among of those, an auxiliary visible light path is designed to aid to adjust WMIR optical system. A converging lens as spatial filter is employed to eliminate stray light well. Dewar temperature control equipment is also used to reduce circuit noise in IR detector. The power supply of AD conversion circuit is independently designed to avoid the crosstalk caused by the analog section and digital section. Then the system has the advantages of good controllability, stability and high precision after above designation. Finally, the measurement precision of the system is also analyzed and verified.

  18. Thermoelectronic laser energy conversion for power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Yuen, C.

    1977-01-01

    Long distance transmission of power in space by means of laser beams is an attractive concept because of the very narrow beam divergence. Such a system requires efficient means to both generate the laser beam and to convert the light energy in the beam into useful electric output at the receiver. A plasma-type device known as a Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) has been studied as a method of converting a 10.6 micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. In the TELEC process, electromagnetic radiation is absorbed directly in the plasma electrons producing a high electron temperature. The energetic electrons diffuse out of the plasma striking two electrodes with different areas. Since more electrons are collected by the larger electrode there is a net transport of current, and an EMF is generated in the external circuit. The smaller electrode functions as an electron emitter to provide continuity of the current. Waste heat is rejected from the large electrode. A design for a TELEC system with an input 1 MW laser beam was developed as part of the study. The calculated performance of the system showed an overall efficiency of about 42%.

  19. Pulsed power conditioning system for the Magajoule laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexmain, Jean-Marc; Rubin de Cervens, D.; Marret, Jean-Pierre; Roos, V.; Cassany, B.; Eyl, P.; Pere, P.; Havre, Sierra S.; Fauvel, J.; Mathieu, P.; Benin, P.; Callu, G.; Vincent, C.; Michalczyk, Pierre

    2003-07-01

    The CEA is responsible for the Megajoule Laser (LMJ) facility. This facility is a large Flashlamp pump laser (1.8 MJ optical output). CEA entered into a contract with THALES to carry out the pulsed power conditioning system for the Megajoule Laser. The pulsed power conditioning system has a modular design which makes the facility more flexible and safer. This complete primary storage is a 450 MJ energy capacitor bank composed of 270 modules of 1.6 MJ energy. Each module is a stand-alone capacitor bank equipped with twelve 100 kJ capacitors and its embedded control/monitor and diagnostic system which is connected by an optical Ethernet link to the Command Control Supervisor of the facility. In the first step of the LMJ program, called "Line Integration Laser" (LIL), one laser chain will be built. The capacitor bank used to drive the LIL is comprised of 10 modules. This paper describes the design of the modules and the results of testing. The overall electrical performance meets the requirements.

  20. A NASA high-power space-based laser research and applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Walberg, G. D.; Conway, E. J.; Jones, L. W.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of high power lasers are discussed which might fulfill the needs of NASA missions, and the technology characteristics of laser research programs are outlined. The status of the NASA programs or lasers, laser receivers, and laser propulsion is discussed, and recommendations are presented for a proposed expanded NASA program in these areas. Program elements that are critical are discussed in detail.

  1. Meteorological effects on laser propagation for power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    An examination of possible laser operating parameters for power transmission to earth from solar power satellites is presented, with particular attention paid to assuring optimal delivery at midlatitudes. The degradation of beam efficiency due to molecular scattering, molecular absorption, aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption during beam propagation through the atmosphere can be alleviated by judicious choice of wavelength windows, elevating the receptor sites, using a vertical propagation path, or by hole boring, i.e., vaporizing the aerosol particles in the beam path. Analyses are given for the beam propagation through fog, haze, clouds, and snow using various transitions. Only weapons-quality lasers are seen as being capable of boring through clouds and aerosols, employing a CW beam with superimposed pulses at high power densities. It is concluded that further short wavelength transmission experiments be performed to demonstrate transmission feasibility with the CW/pulsed mode of beam propagation.

  2. Photon machines. [thermal gasdynamic lasers for power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Christiansen, W. H.; Johnston, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The basic thermodynamics of thermal lasers of the gas-dynamic type are reviewed, and it is shown that an efficient coherent photon generator can be developed on a closed-cycle principle. The efficiency limits of such a device are explored, and the results of the analysis indicate that the production efficiency of coherent radiation from heat can, in the limit of high component efficiency, be equal to that of the production of work. An indispensable element of any power transmission system also involves an engine capable of transforming the transmitted energy into useful shaft power. It is shown that a closed-cycle system may also be developed in principle which can transform the transmitted laser radiation into shaft power with an efficiency approaching one.

  3. High power rapidly tunable system for laser cooling.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, V M; Hernández, L; Gomez, E

    2012-01-01

    We present a laser configuration capable of fast frequency changes with a high power output and a large tuning range. The system integrates frequency tuning with an acousto-optic modulator with a double pass tapered amplifier. A compensation circuit keeps the seed power constant and prevents damage to the amplifier. A single mode fiber decouples the modulation and amplification sections and keeps the alignment fixed. The small power required to saturate the amplifier makes the system very reliable. We use the system to obtain a dipole trap that we image using a beam derived from the same configuration. PMID:22299990

  4. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, Joseph S.; Sapak, David L.; Ward, Julia M.

    1990-01-01

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis): the amounts of Li.sub.2 O and Na.sub.2 O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK and .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 can be replaced by other lasing species.

  5. Development of High Average Power Lasers for the Photon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Stuart, B; Seryi, A

    2010-05-17

    The laser and optics system for the photon collider seeks to minimize the required laser power by using an optical stacking cavity to recirculate the laser light. An enhancement of between 300 to 400 is desired. In order to achieve this the laser pulses which drive the cavity must precisely match the phase of the pulse circulating within the cavity. We report on simulations of the performance of a stacking cavity to various variations of the drive laser in order to specify the required tolerances of the laser system. We look at the behavior of a simple four mirror cavity as shown in Fig. 1. As a unit input pulse is applied to the coupling mirror a pulse begins to build up in the interior of the cavity. If the drive pulses and the interior pulse arrive at the coupling mirror in phase the interior pulse will build up to a larger value. The achievable enhancement is a strong function of the reflectivity of the cavities. The best performance if attained when the reflectivities of the input coupler is matched to the internal reflectivities of the cavity. In Fig. 2 we show the build up of the internal pulse after a certain number of drive pulses, assuming the input coupler has a reflectivity of 0.996 and the interior mirrors have 0.998 reflectivity. With these parameters the cavity will reach an enhancement factor of 450. Reducing the coupler reflectivity gives a faster cavity loading rate but with a reduced enhancement of the internal pulse. The enhancement as a function of coupler reflectivity and total internal cavity reflectivity is shown in Fig. 3. The best enhancement is achieved when the coupling mirror is matched to the reflectivity of the cavity. A coupler reflectivity just below the internal cavity reflectivity minimizes the required laser power.

  6. Hole-boring through clouds for laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.J.; Walter, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Power beaming to satellites with a ground-based laser can be limited by clouds. Hole-boring through the clouds with a laser has been proposed as a way to overcome this obstacle. This paper reviews the past work on laser hole-boring and concludes that hole-boring for direct beaming to satellites is likely to require 10--100 MW. However, it may be possible to use an airborne relay mirror at 10--25 km altitude for some applications in order to extend the range of the laser (e.g., for beaming to satellites near the horizon). In these cases, use of the relay mirror also would allow a narrow beam between the laser and the relay, as well as the possibility of reducing the crosswind if the plane matched speed with the cloud temporarily. Under these conditions, the power requirement to bore a hole through most cirrus and cirrostratus clouds might be only 500-kW if the hole is less than 1 m in diameter and if the crosswind speed is less than 10 m/s. Overcoming cirrus and cirrostratus clouds would reduce the downtime due to weather by a factor of 2. However, 500 kW is a large laser, and it may be more effective instead to establish a second power beaming site in a separate weather zone. An assessment of optimum wavelengths for hole boring also was made, and the best options were found to be 3.0--3.4 {mu}m and above 10 {mu}m.

  7. On the feasibility of increasing the energy of laser-accelerated protons by using low-density targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Optimal regimes of proton acceleration in the interaction of short high-power laser pulses with thin foils and low-density targets are determined by means of 3D numerical simulation. It is demonstrated that the maximum proton energy can be increased by using low-density targets in which ions from the front surface of the target are accelerated most efficiently. It is shown using a particular example that, for the same laser pulse, the energy of protons accelerated from a low-density target can be increased by one-third as compared to a solid-state target.

  8. On the feasibility of increasing the energy of laser-accelerated protons by using low-density targets

    SciTech Connect

    Brantov, A. V. Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2015-06-15

    Optimal regimes of proton acceleration in the interaction of short high-power laser pulses with thin foils and low-density targets are determined by means of 3D numerical simulation. It is demonstrated that the maximum proton energy can be increased by using low-density targets in which ions from the front surface of the target are accelerated most efficiently. It is shown using a particular example that, for the same laser pulse, the energy of protons accelerated from a low-density target can be increased by one-third as compared to a solid-state target.

  9. High-power diode lasers for optical communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, D. B.; Goldstein, B.; Channin, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    High-power, single-mode, double-heterojunction AlGaAs diode lasers are being developed to meet source requirements for both fiber optic local area network and free space communications systems. An individual device, based on the channeled-substrate-planar (CSP) structure, has yielded single spatial and longitudinal mode outputs of up to 90 mW CW, and has maintained a single spatial mode to 150 mW CW. Phase-locked arrays of closely spaced index-guided lasers have been designed and fabricated with the aim of multiplying the outputs of the individual devices to even higher power levels in a stable, single-lobe, anastigmatic beam. The optical modes of the lasers in such arrays can couple together in such a way that they appear to be emanating from a single source, and can therefore be efficiently coupled into optical communications systems. This paper will review the state of high-power laser technology and discuss the communication system implications of these devices.

  10. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  11. Electronic properties of solids excited with intermediate laser power densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotti, Fausto; Tempo Beamline Team

    Intermediate laser power density up to about 100 GW/cm2 is below the surface damage threshold is currently used to induce modification in the physical properties on short time scales. The absorption of a short laser pulse induces non-equilibrium electronic distributions followed by lattice-mediated equilibrium taking place only in the picosecond range. The role of the hot electrons is particularly important in several domains as for example fast magnetization and demagnetization processes, laser induced phase transitions, charge density waves. Angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measuring directly energy and momentum of electrons is the most adapted tool to study the electronic excitations at short time scales during and after fast laser excitations. The main technical problem is the space charge created by the pumping laser pulse. I will present angular resolved multiphoton photoemission results obtained with 800 nm laser pulses showing how space charge electrons emitted during fast demagnetization processes can be measured. Unable enter Affiliation: CNRS-SOLEIL Synchrotron L'Orme des Merisiers , Saint Aubin 91192 Gif sur Yvette France.

  12. Powerful laser pulse absorption in partly homogenized foam plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, M.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; De Angelis, R.; Andreoli, P.; Consoli, F.; Cristofari, G.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Rupasov, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The internal volume structure of a porous medium of light elements determines unique features of the absorption mechanism of laser radiation; the characteristics of relaxation and transport processes in the produced plasma are affected as well. Porous materials with an average density larger than the critical density have a central role in enhancing the pressure produced during the ablation by the laser pulse; this pressure can exceed the one produced by target direct irradiation. The problem of the absorption of powerful laser radiation in a porous material is examined both analytically and numerically. The behavior of the medium during the process of pore filling in the heated region is described by a model of viscous homogenization. An expression describing the time and space dependence of the absorption coefficient of laser radiation is therefore obtained from the model. A numerical investigation of the absorption of a nanosecond laser pulse is performed within the present model. In the context of numerical calculations, porous media with an average density larger than the critical density of the laser-produced plasma are considered. Preliminary results about the inclusion of the developed absorption model into an hydrodynamic code are presented.

  13. Optical power limiting for eye protection from tunable lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Golovlev, Valeri V.; Garrett, W. R.; Goedert, Robert V.; Whittaker, Thomas A., III; Templeton, Douglas W.

    1997-10-01

    Due to the extensive use of lasers in aiming devices, range fmders, and in remote sensing, the protection of eyes and sensors from laser beams becomes critically important. It has been a challenging task to provide protection from wave-length tunable lasers without the serious sacrifice of vision capability. In this work, we describe two different approaches which can significantly attenuate the laser beam through the whole visible region. One approach is to use specific geometric configuration with thin film aluminum mirrors"2. The other is to use the properties of reverse saturable absorption of fullerene3'4. The combination of these two approaches can possibly become an effective device for eye protection from high power tunable lasers. The principle and mechanism to achieve eye protection will also be discussed. The goal for eye and sensor protection is to attenuate the amount of incident light below the damage threshold. The ANSI standards indicate that for visible wavelengths and nanosecond pulse durations, the maximum permissible exposure on the surface of the comeas is about 0.2 J. The damage threshold by a nanosecond laser on a rhesus monkey was measured to be of the order of a few microjoules5.

  14. High-power CW diode-laser-array-pumped solid-state lasers and efficient nonlinear optical frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shine, Robert J.; Byer, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    During the interim period of this bridging contract, we have continued to work on the development of high-power cw diode-laser-array-pumped solid-state lasers. Towards that end, we have built lower power lasers in order to test individual components needed for the high-power laser, specifically we have built a 1 watt ring laser and a 5 watt slab laser. The 1 watt laser was used to study the injection locking process while assembling all the necessary electronics. We have demonstrated that it is possible to injection lock a diode-pumped laser using a single piezo-mounted mirror due to the lower intrinsic laser noise compared to an arc-lamp-pumped system. This allows us to optimize the injection locking servo loop and build a more stable locking system. The 5 watt laser was used as a test bed to find a practical way to mount the slab laser while minimizing the losses that occur at the total internal reflection (TIR) points in the slab. After trying many different means of protecting the TIR surfaces, we found that a new product from DuPont, Teflon AF 1600, has all the properties needed to provide a low loss protective coating. Using this material, the laser had a cavity loss of below 2%, which allowed for efficient operation of the laser in a side-pumped design. This laser produced 5 watts of output power with a slope efficiency near 20%.

  15. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1988-01-01

    Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar-simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell. The measured threshold was 20,000 solar constants (2.7 kW/sq cm) for the dye volume of 2 x 5 x 40 cu mm and the optimum dye concentration of 0.001 M. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator.

  16. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, J.S.; Sapak, D.L.; Ward, J.M.

    1990-05-29

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis Mole %): P[sub 2]O[sub 5], 45-70; Li[sub 2]O, 15-35; Na[sub 2]O, 0-10; Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], 10-15; Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0.01-6; La[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-6; SiO[sub 2], 0-8; B[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-8; MgO, 0-18; CaO, 0-15; SrO, 0-9; BaO, 0-9; ZnO, 0-15; the amounts of Li[sub 2]O and Na[sub 2]O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK and [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3] can be replaced by other lasing species. 3 figs.

  17. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.

    2012-10-01

    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  18. Injection of a Phase Modulated Source into the Z-Beamlet Laser for Increased Energy Extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Schwarz, Jens; Smith, Ian C; Shores, Jonathon; Speas, Christopher; Porter, John L.

    2014-11-01

    The Z-Beamlet laser has been operating at Sandia National Laboratories since 2001 to provide a source of laser-generated x-rays for radiography of events on the Z-Accelerator. Changes in desired operational scope have necessitated the increase in pulse duration and energy available from the laser system. This is enabled via the addition of a phase modulated seed laser as an alternative front-end. The practical aspects of deployment are discussed here.

  19. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOEpatents

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  20. Control system for high power laser drilling workover and completion unit

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S; Makki, Siamak; Faircloth, Brian O; DeWitt, Ronald A; Allen, Erik C; Underwood, Lance D

    2015-05-12

    A control and monitoring system controls and monitors a high power laser system for performing high power laser operations. The control and monitoring system is configured to perform high power laser operation on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  1. POWER RECYCLING OF BURST-MODE LASER PULSES FOR LASER PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    A number of laser-particle interaction experiments such as the laser assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping or X-/ -ray generations via inverse-Compton scattering involve light sources operating in a burst mode to match the tem-poral structure of the particle beam. To mitigate the laser power challenge, it is important to make the interaction inside an optical cavity to recycle the laser power. In many cases, conventional cavity locking techniques will not work since the burst normally has a very small duty factor and low repetition rate and it is impossible to gen-erate an effective control signal. This work reports on the development of a doubly-resonant optical cavity scheme and its locking techniques that enables a simultaneous resonance of two laser beams with different spectra and/or temporal structures. We demonstrate that such a cavity can be used to recycle burst-mode ultra-violet laser pulses with arbitrary burst lengths and repetition rates.

  2. Increased power density from a spiral wound microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Jia, Boyang; Hu, Dawei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Kun; Liu, Hong

    2013-03-15

    Using Microbial fuel cell (MFC) to convert organic and inorganic matter into electricity is of great interest for powering portable devices, which is now still limited by the output of MFC. In this study, a spiral wound MFC (SWMFC) with relatively large volume normalized surface area of separator (4.2 cm(2)/ml) was fabricated to enhance power generation. Compared with double-membrane MFC (DMMFC) and conventional double chamber MFC (DCMFC), the power density of SWMFC increased by 42% and 99% resulted from its lower internal resistance. Besides larger separator area, the better performance of SWMFC benefited from its structure sandwiching the cathodes between two separators. This point was proved again by a comparison of another DCMFC and a triple chamber MFC (TCMFC) as well as a simulation using finite element method. Moreover, the feature of SWMFC was more convenient and compact to scale up. Therefore, SWMFC provides a promising configuration for high power output as a portable power source. PMID:23116542

  3. On-shot laser beam diagnostics for high-power laser facility with phase modulation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Veetil, S. P.; Liu, C.; Tao, H.; Jiang, Y.; Lin, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.

    2016-05-01

    A coherent-modulation-imaging-based (CMI) algorithm has been employed for on-shot laser beam diagnostics in high-power laser facilities, where high-intensity short-pulsed lasers from terawatt to petawatt are designed to realize inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A single-shot intensity measurement is sufficient for wave-front reconstruction, both for the near-field and far-field at the same time. The iterative reconstruction process is computationally very efficient and was completed in dozens of seconds by the additional use of a GPU device to speed it up. The compact measurement unit—including a CCD and a piece of pre-characterized phase plate—makes it convenient for focal-spot intensity prediction in the target chamber. It can be placed almost anywhere in high-power laser facilities to achieve near-field wave-front diagnostics. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by conducting a series of experiments with diagnostic beams and seed pulses with deactivated amplifiers in our high-power laser system.

  4. An Efficient Microwave Power Source: Free-electron Laser Afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Sessler, Andrew M.

    1993-03-04

    A kind of microwave power source, called a free-electron laser afterburner (FEL afterburner) which consists of a free-electron laser buncher and a slow-wave output structure sharing a magnetic wiggler field with the buncher, is proposed. The buncher and the slow-wave structure can operate in either a travelling-wave state or a standing-wave state. In the buncher, the wiggler field together with the radiation field makes an electron beam bunched, and in the slow-wave structure the wiggler field keeps the beam bunched while the bunched beam interacts strongly with the slow-wave structure and so produces rf power. The bunching process comes from the free-electron laser mechanism and the generating process of rf power is in a slow-wave structure. A three-dimensional, time-dependent code is used to simulate a particular standing-wave FEL afterburner and it is shown that rf power of up to 1.57 GW can be obtained, at 17.12 GHz, from a l-kA, 5-MeV electron beam.

  5. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Major Constituent and Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, Siamak; Soibel, Alexander; Frez, Clifford; Qiu, Yueming; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Tsvid, G.; Belenky, G.; Franz, Kale J.; Gmachl, Claire; Scherer, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. The minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental frequency of the target gases which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micrometers wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micrometers and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micrometers range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  6. Laser assisted die bending: a new application of high power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuöcker, D.; Schumi, T.; Spitzer, O.; Bammer, F.; Schuöcker, G.; Sperrer, G.

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays high power lasers are mainly used for cutting of sheet metals, for welding, hardening and rapid prototyping. In the forming of sheet metals as bending or deep drawing lasers are not used. Nevertheless a few years ago a new application of high power lasers has been invented, where bending of materials that break at room temperature becomes possible by heating them along the bending edge with high power lasers thus allowing their treatment without cracks and rupture. For this purpose a large number of diode lasers are arranged in the bottom tool of a bending machine (a V-shaped die) which heat up the initially flat sheet metal during the bending process what is performed by pressing it into the die with a knife shaped upper tool where due to the laser heating the material is softened and thus cracks are avoided. For the technical realization of the new process of laser assisted die bending, modules equipped with numerous laser diodes and a total beam power of 2,5 kW are used. The light emitted by these modules enters a tool with a length of 15cm and is deflected towards the workpiece. By using ten of these modules with adjacent dies and by integrating those in a bending press a bending edge of sheet metals with a length of 1500mm can be realized. Such a bending press with laser assistance also needs energization with a power of practically 50kW, a respective water flow, a heat exchanger system and also a control for all functions of this system. Special measures have also been developed to avoid radiating of those tools that are not covered by a workpiece in the case of bending edges shorter than the full length of the bending tools whereas individual short circuiting of diode modules can be performed. Specific measures to ensure a safe operation without any harm to the operational person have been realized. Exploitation of the bending process has been carried out for titanium, where material thicknesses up to 3mm have been bent successfully.

  7. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  8. Sol-gel coatings for high power laser optics-past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, I.M.

    1993-12-21

    An investigation into the preparation of sol-gel coatings for high power lasers was started at LLNL in 1983 and AR coatings were successfully developed for use in the Nova laser in 1984. Several other large lasers now use these coatings. Subsequent work on HR coatings resulted in AlOOH/SiO{sub 2} and later ZrO{sub 2} or HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} systems of good optical performance. The use of organic polymer binders gave increased damage threshold and enhanced optical performance. We are in the process of scaling up HR fabrication for substrates approximately 38 cm square. Concurrently we are developing sol-gel random phase plates for laser beam smoothing. These have a patterned surface design of silica which induces phase shifts in the beam by variation in the optical path length. Plates of this type on 80 cm diameter substrates have been used successfully on the Nova.

  9. Efficiency limits of laser power converters for optical power transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, J.; Jarvis, S.; Perren, M.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2013-07-01

    We have developed III-V-based high-efficiency laser power converters (LPCs), optimized specifically for converting monochromatic laser radiation at the eye-safe wavelength of 1.55 µm into electrical power. The applications of these photovoltaic cells include high-efficiency space-based and terrestrial laser power transfer and subsequent conversion to electrical power. In addition, these cells also find use in fibre-optic power delivery, remote powering of subcutaneous equipment and several other optical power delivery applications. The LPC design is based on lattice-matched InGaAsP/InP and incorporates elements for photon-recycling and contact design for efficient carrier extraction. Here we compare results from electro-optical design simulations with experimental results from prototype devices studied both in the lab and in field tests. We analyse wavelength and temperature dependence of the LPC characteristics. An experimental conversion efficiency of 44.6% [±1%] is obtained from the prototype devices under monochromatic illumination at 1.55 µm (illumination power density of 1 kW m-2) at room temperature. Further design optimization of our LPC is expected to scale the efficiency beyond 50% at 1 kW m-2.

  10. Developments in laser joining and welding of plastics using high-power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoult, Tony; Ong, Raymond

    2002-02-01

    Diode lasers are now being employed in industry for a range of applications, in particular they are starting to be used as alternatives to conventional techniques for thermal joining of plastics. This is being assisted by the use of improved reliability aluminum-free diodes and diode laser systems, partly due to a better understanding of failure mechanisms. The laser welding and related techniques are dependent on transmission of part of an infra-red beam through the upper layer of a joint and semi-quantitative assessment of this is required for specific applications. The technique is applicable not only to high average powers, but also to very low average power, in this regime delicate thin-walled components may be joined. Recent developments using derivatives of this technique have shown that a wide range of similar and dissimilar material combinations may be joined.

  11. Laser driven nuclear science and applications: The need of high efficiency, high power and high repetition rate Laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2015-10-01

    Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is a pan European research initiative selected on the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures Roadmap that aims to close the gap between the existing laboratory-based laser driven research and international facility-grade research centre. The ELI-NP facility, one of the three ELI pillars under construction, placed in Romania and to be operational in 2018, has as core elements a couple of new generation 10 PW laser systems and a narrow bandwidth Compton backscattering gamma source with photon energies up to 19 MeV. ELI-NP will address nuclear photonics, nuclear astrophysics and quantum electrodynamics involving extreme photon fields. Prospective applications of high power laser in nuclear astrophysics, accelerator physics, in particular towards future Accelerator Driven System, as well as in nuclear photonics, for detection and characterization of nuclear material, and for nuclear medicine, will be discussed. Key issues in these research areas will be at reach with significant increase of the repetition rates and of the efficiency at the plug of the high power laser systems as proposed by the ICAN collaboration.

  12. Low Power Consumption Laser for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Belenky, G.

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 mu m wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 mu m and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 mu m range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft

  13. Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4–6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as γ band and an increase of the α power in a network of tinnitus-related brain areas. As yet, it remains unclear whether CR shifts the brain activity toward physiological levels or whether it induces clinically beneficial, but nonetheless abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, for example excessively decreased δ and/or γ. Here, we compared the patients' spontaneous EEG data at baseline as well as after 12 weeks of CR therapy with the spontaneous EEG of healthy controls by means of Brain Electrical Source Analysis source montage and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography techniques. The relationship between changes in EEG power and clinical scores was investigated using a partial least squares approach. In this way, we show that acoustic CR neuromodulation leads to a normalization of the oscillatory power in the tinnitus-related network of brain areas, most prominently in temporal regions. A positive association was found between the changes in tinnitus severity and the normalization of δ and γ power in the temporal, parietal, and cingulate cortical regions. Our findings demonstrate a widespread CR-induced normalization of EEG power, significantly associated with a reduction of tinnitus severity. PMID:23907785

  14. High Average Power Nd:YAG Slab Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Takeshi; Sindo, Yoshihiko; Haga, Keiji

    1989-07-01

    A slab geometry Nd:YAG laser with a zigzag optical path is described. The dimensions of the Nd:YAG slab are 5.6 x 18.4 x 153.9 mm, and Nei' ion concentration is 1.1 at.%. Two krypton flashlamps, one located on each side of the YAG slab, are used for pumping. The conditions for normal pulsed operation were as follows: the repetition rate was from 5 to 27 pps, and the pulse durations were 4 and 9.9 ms. With the above conditions, a maximum average output power of 500 W was obtained with an efficiency of 2 %, the slope efficiency being 2.4 %. The beam divergence was estimated to be 10x25 mrad. The stability of the laser output power was about +/-1.5 %. Another oscillator that includes intra-cavity cylindrical lenses, was also designed. Using this resonator configuration reduced the beam divergence to about 7.6 x8.2 mrad. The preliminary laser processing experiment was attemped using this laser oscillator.

  15. Laser beacon adaptive optics for power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, R.Q.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the laser beam control system requirements for power beaming applications. Power beaming applications include electric and thermal engine propulsion for orbit transfer, station changing, and recharging batteries. Beam control includes satellite acquisition, high accuracy tracking, higher order atmospheric compensation using adaptive optics, and precision point-ahead. Beam control may also include local laser beam clean-up with a low order adaptive optics system. This paper also presents results of tracking and higher-order correction experiments on astronomical objects. The results were obtained with a laser beacon adaptive optics system at Phillips Laboratory`s Starfire Optical Range near Albuquerque, NM. At a wavelength of 0.85 {mu}m, the author has achieved Strehl ratios of {approximately}0.50 using laser beacons and {approximately}0.65 using natural stars for exposures longer than one minute on objects of {approximately}8{sup th} magnitude. The resulting point spread function has a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 0.13 arcsec.

  16. Low-power laser efficacy in peripheral nerve lesion treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Nacu, Mihaela; Bruckner, Ion I.; Bunila, Daniela; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Ionescu, Elena

    1998-07-01

    In order to establish the low energy laser (LEL) effects on nervous tissue regeneration in clinical practice, we evaluated in double blind, placebo controlled study, the efficacy of LEL in the functional recovery of 46 patients with distal forearm post- traumatic nerve lesion, after surgical suture. The patients were divided into two groups: A-26 patients were treated with LEL; B- 20 patients, as control, were treated with placebo lasers and classical medical and physical therapy. Lasers used were: HeNe, 632.5 nm wavelength, 2 mW power, and GaAlAs diode laser, 880 nm wavelength, pulsed emission with an output power about 3 mW. Before, during and after the treatment, electromyography (EMG) and electroneurography (ENG) were done in order to measure objectively the efficacy of the treatment. We obtained good results after 4 - 5 months at 80.7% patients from group A and about the same results at 70% patients from group B, but after at least 8 months. The good results were noticed concerning the improvement of EMG and ENG registrations and on the involution of pain, inflammations, movements and force of the fingers. Finally we can say that the favorable results were obtained in at least half the time with LEL treatment faster than with classical therapy.

  17. High-power dual-rod Yb:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Honea, E C; Beach, R J; Mitchell, S C; Skidmore, J A; Emanuel, M A; Sutton, S B; Payne, S A; Avizonis, P V; Monroe, R S; Harris, D G

    2000-06-01

    We describe a diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser that produces 1080 W of power cw with 27.5% optical optical efficiency and 532 W Q-switched with M(2)=2.2 and 17% optical-optical efficiency. The laser uses two composite Yb:YAG rods separated by a 90 degrees quartz rotator for bifocusing compensation. A microlensed diode array end pumps each rod, using a hollow lens duct for pump delivery. By changing resonator parameters we can adjust the fundamental mode size and the output beam quality. Using a flattened Gaussian intensity profile to calculate the mode-fill efficiency and clipping losses, we compare experimental data with modeled output power versus beam quality. PMID:18064190

  18. High power narrowband 589 nm frequency doubled fibre laser source.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Luke; Feng, Yan; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2009-08-17

    We demonstrate high-power high-efficiency cavity-enhanced second harmonic generation of an in-house built ultra-high spectral density (SBS-suppressed) 1178 nm narrowband Raman fibre amplifier. Up to 14.5 W 589 nm CW emission is achieved with linewidth Delta nu(589) < 7 MHz in a diffraction-limited beam, with peak external conversion efficiency of 86%. The inherently high spectral and spatial qualities of the 589 nm source are particularly suited to both spectroscopic and Laser Guide Star applications, given the seed laser can be easily frequency-locked to the Na D(2a) emission line. Further, we expect the technology to be extendable, at similar or higher powers, to wavelengths limited only by the seed-pump-pair availability. PMID:19687946

  19. PCF based high power narrow line width pulsed fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Yan, P.; Xiao, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gong, M.

    2012-09-01

    Based on semiconductor diode seeded multi-stage cascaded fiber amplifiers, we have obtained 88-W average power of a 1063-nm laser with high repetition rate of up to 1.5 MHz and a constant 2-ns pulse duration. No stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse or optical damage occurred although the maximum pulse peak power has exceeded 112 kW. The output laser exhibits excellent beam quality (M2x = 1.24 and M2y = 1.18), associated with a spectral line width as narrow as 0.065 nm (FWHM). Additionally, we demonstrate high polarization extinction ratio of 18.4 dB and good pulse stabilities superior to 1.6 % (RMS).

  20. Computational design of an experimental laser-powered thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald; Keefer, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    An extensive numerical experiment, using the developed computer code, was conducted to design an optimized laser-sustained hydrogen plasma thruster. The plasma was sustained using a 30 kW CO2 laser beam operated at 10.6 micrometers focused inside the thruster. The adopted physical model considers two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the laser power absorption process, geometric ray tracing for the laser beam, and the thermodynamically equilibrium (LTE) assumption for the plasma thermophysical and optical properties. A pressure based Navier-Stokes solver using body-fitted coordinate was used to calculate the laser-supported rocket flow which consists of both recirculating and transonic flow regions. The computer code was used to study the behavior of laser-sustained plasmas within a pipe over a wide range of forced convection and optical arrangements before it was applied to the thruster design, and these theoretical calculations agree well with existing experimental results. Several different throat size thrusters operated at 150 and 300 kPa chamber pressure were evaluated in the numerical experiment. It is found that the thruster performance (vacuum specific impulse) is highly dependent on the operating conditions, and that an adequately designed laser-supported thruster can have a specific impulse around 1500 sec. The heat loading on the wall of the calculated thrusters were also estimated, and it is comparable to heat loading on the conventional chemical rocket. It was also found that the specific impulse of the calculated thrusters can be reduced by 200 secs due to the finite chemical reaction rate.

  1. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.; Miller, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  2. REVIEW High-power semiconductor separate-confinement double heterostructure lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, I. S.

    2010-10-01

    The review is devoted to high-power semiconductor lasers. Historical reference is presented, physical and technological foundations are considered, and the concept of high-power semiconductor lasers is formulated. Fundamental and technological reasons limiting the optical power of a semiconductor laser are determined. The results of investigations of cw and pulsed high-power semiconductor lasers are presented. Main attention is paid to inspection of the results of experimental studies of single high-power semiconductor lasers. The review is mainly based on the data obtained in the laboratory of semiconductor luminescence and injection emitters at the A.F. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute.

  3. Invisible visual stimuli elicit increases in alpha-band power.

    PubMed

    Bareither, Isabelle; Chaumon, Maximilien; Bernasconi, Fosco; Villringer, Arno; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The cerebral cortex responds to stimuli of a wide range of intensities. Previous studies have demonstrated that undetectably weak somatosensory stimuli cause a functional deactivation or inhibition in somatosensory cortex. In the present study, we tested whether invisible visual stimuli lead to similar responses, indicated by an increase in EEG alpha-band power-an index of cortical excitability. We presented subliminal and supraliminal visual stimuli after estimating each participant's detection threshold. Stimuli consisted of peripherally presented small circular patches that differed in their contrast to a background consisting of a random white noise pattern. We demonstrate that subliminal and supraliminal stimuli each elicit specific neuronal response patterns. Supraliminal stimuli evoked an early, strongly phase-locked lower-frequency response representing the evoked potential and induced a decrease in alpha-band power from 400 ms on. By contrast, subliminal visual stimuli induced an increase of non-phase-locked power around 300 ms that was maximal within the alpha-band. This response might be due to an inhibitory mechanism, which reduces spurious visual activation that is unlikely to result from external stimuli. PMID:24872526

  4. Status and future prospects of laser fusion and high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki

    2010-08-01

    In Asia, there are many institutes for the R&D of high power laser science and applications. They are 5 major institutes in Japan, 4 major institutes in China, 2 institutes in Korea, and 3 institutes in India. The recent achievements and future prospects of those institutes will be over viewed. In the laser fusion research, the FIREX-I project in Japan has been progressing. The 10kJ short pulse LFEX laser has completed and started the experiments with a single beam. About 1kJ pulse energy will be injected into a cone target. The experimental results of the FIREX experiments will be presented. As the target design for the experiments, a new target, namely, a double cone target was proposed, in which the high energy electrons are well confined and the heating efficiency is significantly improved. Together with the fusion experiments, Osaka University has carried out laboratory astrophysics experiments on photo ionizing plasmas to observe a unique X-ray spectrum from non-LTE plasmas. In 2008, Osaka university has started a new Photon research center in relation with the new program: Consortium for Photon Science and Technology: C-PhoST, in which ultra intense laser plasmas research and related education will be carried out for 10 years. At APRI, JAEA, the fundamental science on the relativistic laser plasmas and the applications of laser particle acceleration has been developed. The application of laser ion acceleration has been investigated on the beam cancer therapy since 2007. In China, The high power glass laser: Shenguan-II and a peta watt beam have been operated to work on radiation hydro dynamics at SIOFM Shanghai. The laser material and optics are developed at SIOFM and LFRC. The IAPCM and the IOP continued the studies on radiation hydrodynamics and on relativistic laser plasmas interactions. At LFRC in China, the construction of Shenguan III glass laser of 200kJ in blue has progressed and will be completed in 2012. Together with the Korean program, I will

  5. 3D Lasers Increase Efficiency, Safety of Moving Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Canadian company Neptec Design Group Ltd. developed its Laser Camera System, used by shuttles to render 3D maps of their hulls for assessing potential damage. Using NASA funding, the firm incorporated LiDAR technology and created the TriDAR 3D sensor. Its commercial arm, Neptec Technologies Corp., has sold the technology to Orbital Sciences, which uses it to guide its Cygnus spacecraft during rendezvous and dock operations at the International Space Station.

  6. Comparison reference etalon of unit laser radiation power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govor, I. N.; Kubarev, A. V.; Ozolin, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    An etalon was developed for comparing national secondary and governmental primary standards of laser radiation power. It contains, in addition to two reference instrument transducers operating by different principles and having different spectral characteristics, a laser source emitting at the 0.63 micron wavelength with high power stability, a recording instrument, a calibrating instrument, and signal shaping-checking circuits. The first reference transducer is a nonselective calorimetric one, a model of a black body consisting of two parallel conical copper shells with a 15 deg taper inserted one inside the other with two thin-film equivalent resistors between them. The second reference transducer is a precise photothermoelectric one for comparison of standard with similar spectral and space distributions of the radiation power, also for checking the performance of the calorimetric reference transducer. It consists of a photoelectric cell and a thermoelectric cell in thermal contact with one another through an integrating sphere on which they are placed not far apart. An auxiliary photodiode is provided for checking the radiation power level after it has stabilized. The instability of this etalon does not exceed 0.5 x 10 to the -4th power during 1 hour.

  7. Experimental Effects of Laser Power on the Writability and Pulse Width in a Heat Assisted Longitudinal Recording System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Tim; Bain, James A.; Stancil, Daniel D.; Schlesinger, Tuviah E.; Challener, William A.; McDaniel, Terry; Deeman, Neil; Brucker, Charles

    2003-02-01

    In this paper the effects of increasing laser power on the writability and pulse width at half max (PW50) were experimentally measured on a longitudinal CoCrPt recording medium in a heat assisted magnetic recording system. The dynamic coercivity, quantified by spin stand measurements, was found to decrease linearly with laser power. Furthermore, it was found that careful optimization of laser power and write current are required to minimize the PW50. By choosing an optimal combination of write current and laser power it was possible to achieve a PW50 with heat assistance that could not otherwise have been reached. The results of this study help to establish the viability of heat assisted magnetic recording technology as a potential solution to density limits set by superparamagnetism.

  8. Improving the efficiency of high-power diode lasers using diamond heat sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Parashchuk, Valentin V; Baranov, V V; Telesh, E V; Mien, Vu Doan; Luc, Vu Van; Truong, Pham Van; Belyaeva, A K

    2010-06-23

    Using multifunctional ion beam and magnetron sputtering systems, we have developed chemical and vacuum techniques for producing metallic coatings firmly adherent to various surfaces, with application to copper and diamond heat sinks for diode lasers. Conditions have been optimised for mounting diode lasers and bars using the proposed metallisation processes, and significant improvements in the output parameters of the devices have been achieved. The power output of cw laser diodes on diamond heat sinks increases by up to a factor of 2, the linear (working) portion of their power-current characteristic becomes markedly broader, and their slope efficiency increases by a factor of 1.5 - 2 relative to that of lasers on copper heat spreaders. The use of diamond heat sinks extends the drive current range of pulsed diode bars by a factor of 2 - 3 and enables them to operate at more than one order of magnitude longer pump pulse durations (up to milliseconds) when the pulse repetition rate is at least 10 Hz. (lasers)

  9. Increase in Central Retinal Edema after Subthreshold Diode Micropulse Laser Treatment of Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gawęcki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM) treatment is believed to be safe method of treating clinical entities involving retinal edema. We present a case of serous edematous reaction of the retina to SDM treatment. Methods. Case report. Results. A patient with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) was treated with SDM Yellow multispot laser. Procedure had been preceded by careful titration of the laser power, which after achieving of the threshold parameter was decreased by 50%. The follow-up visit two days after treatment revealed significant central retinal edema and subretinal fluid. Fundus autofluorescence image showed thermal reaction from the RPE in the form of small spots of hyperfluorescence corresponding to the laser multispot pattern used for treatment. Retinal edema resolved after topical bromfenac and single intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Slight pigmentary reaction from the RPE persisted. Conclusion. In the treatment of CSCR, there is a need to significantly reduce threshold SDM power parameters or simply use very low power without titration. PMID:26180649

  10. Advances in high-power 9XXnm laser diodes for pumping fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Jay; Peters, Matthew; Rossin, Victor; Guo, James; Xiao, Yan; Cheng, Jane; Shieh, Allen; Srinivasan, Raman; Singh, Jaspreet; Wei, Cailin; Duesterberg, Richard; Morehead, James J.; Zucker, Erik

    2016-03-01

    A multi-mode 9XXnm-wavelength laser diode was developed to optimize the divergence angle and reliable ex-facet power. Lasers diodes were assembled into a multi-emitter pump package that is fiber coupled via spatial and polarization multiplexing. The pump package has a 135μm diameter output fiber that leverages the same optical train and mechanical design qualified previously. Up to ~ 270W CW power at 22A is achieved at a case temperature ~ 30ºC. Power conversion efficiency is 60% (peak) that drops to 53% at 22A with little thermal roll over. Greater than 90% of the light is collected at < 0.12NA at 16A drive current that produces 3.0W/(mm-mr)2 radiance from the output fiber.

  11. Wavelength tunable high-power single-mode 1060-nm DBR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Kuksenkov, Dmitri V.; Liu, Wayne; Li, Yabo; Visovsky, Nick J.; Pikula, Dragan; Heberle, Albert P.; Brown, Gordon C.; Piech, Garrett A.; Butler, Douglas L.; Zah, Chung-en

    2012-03-01

    The wavelength tunable 1060-nm distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser chip consists of three sections: a gain section for lasing, and phase and DBR sections for wavelength control. A micro-heater is lithographically integrated on the top of the DBR section to tune the emission wavelength. The phase section is designed with either a top heater or by current injection to provide fine tuning of the wavelength. The wavelength tuning efficiency of our DBR laser is approximately 9 nm/W at the laser heat sink temperature of 25°C. Single-mode output powers of 686 mW and 605 mW were obtained at a CW gain drive current of 1.25 A and heat sink temperatures of 25°C and 60°C, respectively. Gain-switching by applying 1.1 GHz sinusoidal signal mixed with 600 mA DC injection current produced approximately 58 ps long optical pulses with 3.1 W peak power and 228 mW average power. The average power increased to 267 mW and pulse width broadened to 70 ps with DC bias of 700 mA. In CW operation, one of the applications for high-power single-mode DBR lasers is for non-linear frequency conversion. The light emitted from the 1060-nm DBR laser chip was coupled into a single-mode periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal waveguide. Up to 350 mW optical power at 530 nm with the wall-plug efficiency of up to 15% was demonstrated.

  12. High-power directly diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGW lasers with optimized parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. H.; Yang, J.; Kulik, A. V.; Sall, E. G.; Chizhov, S. A.; Yashin, V. E.; Kang, U.

    2014-02-01

    We report a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser that is capable of operating as a Q-switched oscillator or as a regenerative amplifier with average power of more than 20 W. The laser is based on a dual-crystal configuration where the pump thermal load is distributed over relatively long two crystals. It permits a sufficiently large number of passes with low passive losses and maximizes the energy extraction efficiency. The amplification bandwidth was extended by spectral combining of two Yb:KGW crystals with spectrally shifted gain maxima, that allows to mitigate spectral gain narrowing and provides pulse length down to 200 fs after compression in a stretcher-compressor module. The output power saturated with increasing pump power and output beam quality was defined by aberration of thermal lenses. Optimization of laser cavity allows us to compensate thermal lens partially and provide output beams with quality M2<1.2. Efficient frequency doubling and tripling of high-power femtosecond Yb:KGW laser is demonstrated in a nonlinear BBO crystal. Second or third harmonic generation with respective conversion efficiency of 55% or 24% was achieved in a single-pass configuration.

  13. Fiber laser pumped high power mid-infrared laser with picosecond pulse bunch output.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kaihua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Yang, Dingzhong; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2013-10-21

    We report a novel quasi-synchronously pumped PPMgLN-based high power mid-infrared (MIR) laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The pump laser is a linearly polarized MOPA structured all fiberized Yb fiber laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The output from a mode-locked seed fiber laser was directed to pass through a FBG reflector via a circulator to narrow the pulse duration from 800 ps to less than 50 ps and the spectral FWHM from 9 nm to 0.15 nm. The narrowed pulses were further directed to pass through a novel pulse multiplier through which each pulse was made to become a pulse bunch composing of 13 sub-pulses with pulse to pulse time interval of 1.26 ns. The pulses were then amplified via two stage Yb fiber amplifiers to obtain a linearly polarized high average power output up to 85 W, which were then directed to pass through an isolator and to pump a PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator via quasi-synchronization pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output. High MIR output with average power up to 4 W was obtained at 3.45 micron showing the feasibility of such pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output. PMID:24150378

  14. Evidence of thermal effects in a high-power Er3+-Yb3+ fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Canat, Guillaume; Mollier, Jean-Claude; Jaouën, Yves; Dussardier, Bernard

    2005-11-15

    We analyze the influence of heat generation caused by nonradiative transitions in a high-power 1.55 microm double-clad erbium-ytterbium fiber laser on the Stark level population. At strong pumping rates, 1 microm lasing can start as a result of parasitic reflections. We present a model that allows us to simulate the effect of self-generated heat on the Stark level population by using the MacCumber relation. Heat generation plays a significant role and improves the 1.5 microm laser's efficiency by increasing the 1 microm lasing threshold. PMID:16315711

  15. Control of lateral divergence in high-power, broad-area photonic crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Jiamin; Xing, Enbo; Wang, Lijie; Shu, Shili; Tian, Sicong; Tong, Cunzhu; Wang, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal (PBC) lasers have demonstrated ultra-low vertical divergence and record brightness; however, their future development is limited by their lateral beam quality. In this paper, a fishbone microstructure is proposed to control the lateral modes in broad-area PBC lasers. The findings reveal that the introduction of the microstructure improves the full width at half maximum of the lateral far field by 22.2% and increases the output power to a small extent. The detailed measurements show that the lateral beam parameter product decreases by 15.9%.

  16. AOM optimization with ultra stable high power CO2 lasers for fast laser engraving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus

    2015-05-01

    A new ultra stable CO2 laser in carbon fibre resonator technology with an average power of more than 600W has been developed especially as basis for the use with AOMs. Stability of linear polarisation and beam pointing stability are important issues as well as appropriate shaping of the incident beam. AOMs are tested close to the laser-induced damage threshold with pulses on demand close to one megahertz. Transversal and rotational optimization of the AOMs benefits from the parallel-kinematic principle of a hexapod used for this research.

  17. Caffeine Attenuates Decreases in Leg Power Without Increased Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Beatriz G; Morales, Anderson P; Sampaio-Jorge, Felipe; Barth, Thiago; de Oliveira, Marcio B C; Coelho, Gabriela M D O; Leite, Tiago C

    2016-08-01

    Ribeiro, BG, Morales, AP, Sampaio-Jorge, F, Barth, T, de Oliveira, MBC, Coelho, GMdO, and Leite, TC. Caffeine attenuates decreases in leg power without increased muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2354-2360, 2016-Caffeine ingestion has been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid in several sports. Caffeine administration may increase exercise capacity, which could lead to a greater degree of muscle damage after exercise. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Six male handball athletes ingested placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) (6 mg·kg body mass) capsules on 2 different occasions. Sixty minutes after ingestion of the capsules, serum CAF levels were evaluated. Thereafter, all participants performed a protocol of vertical jumps (VJs). The protocol consisted of 4 sets of 30 seconds of continuous VJs with 60 seconds of recovery between sets. Blood lactate (LAC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before and after the protocol. We found significant differences in serum CAF levels between PLA (0.09 ± 0.18 µg·ml) vs. CAF (6.59 ± 4.44 µg·ml) (p < 0.001). Caffeine elicited a 5.23% (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in the leg power compared with PLA. The CAF trial displayed higher LAC (p ≤ 0.05) compared with PLA (6.26 ± 2.01 vs. 4.39 ± 2.42 mmol·L, respectively) after protocol of VJs, whereas no difference in CK was observed between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that immediate ingestion of CAF (6 mg·kg body weight) can reduce the level of muscle fatigue and preserve leg power during the test, possibly resulting in increase in LAC. There was no increase in muscle damage, which indicates that immediate administration of (6 mg·kg body weight) CAF is safe. Thus, nutritional interventions with CAF could help athletes withstand a greater physiological overload during high-intensity training sessions. The results of this study would be applicable to sports and activities that require repetitive leg power. PMID

  18. Formation of secondary messengers by blood-formed elements in low-power laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Proshina, Olga V.; Zhigalina, Valentina N.; Filimonovskaya, Lyudmila S.; Romanova, Tatyana P.; Petrisheva, Svetlana G.; Zolotarjova, Tamara M.

    1995-05-01

    Irradiation of heparinized rat blood by He-Ne laser light ((lambda) - 632.8 nm, power density - 5 mW/cm2) during 15 or 30 min was performed in vitro experiments. The complex of biochemical parameters of erythrocytes, plasma and cytochemical parameters of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was studied. Laser irradiation was stated to cause different metabolic changes in red blood cells and neutrophils depending on the dose. In both doses of irradiation glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity lowers in erythrocytes, succinate dehydrogenase activity and lysosomal cationic proteins content increase in neutrophils. Stimulation of oxygen active forms production in cellular membranes of blood formed elements results in plasma malonic dialdehyde level increase and in the change of the balance between primary and secondary lipid peroxidation products. Cooperative interaction between different blood cells in the process of realization of system response to laser exposure is supposed to exist.

  19. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    DOEpatents

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  20. Discharge formation in a XеCl laser pumped by high specific power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.

    2013-02-01

    Stable glow of the discharge of various types in the gas mixture of a XeCl laser is investigated for specific pumping power in the range 1.2-4.6 MW/cm3 and pulse duration of 40 ns. It is demonstrated that formation of partially homogeneous plasma with many intensive cathode spots on the electrode allows the maximum energy and duration of the lasing pulse to be obtained with laser efficiency of 2.4%. It is revealed that for the specific pumping powers up to 1.5 MW/cm3, a very homogeneous volume discharge with a small number of lowintensive cathode spots is formed in the discharge gap. With further increase in the specific pumping power exceeding 4.5 MW/cm3, current microinhomogeneities are formed in the volume discharge of this type leading to lasing breakdown.

  1. Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ganghun; Dominguez-Caballero, Jose A; Lee, Howard; Friedman, Daniel J; Menon, Rajesh

    2013-03-22

    In this Letter, we report the preliminary demonstration of a new paradigm for photovoltaic power generation that utilizes a broadband diffractive-optical element (BDOE) to efficiently separate sunlight into laterally spaced spectral bands. These bands are then absorbed by single-junction photovoltaic cells, whose band gaps correspond to the incident spectral bands. We designed such BDOEs by utilizing a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. Gray scale lithography was used to fabricate these multilevel optics. They were experimentally characterized with an overall optical efficiency of 70% over a wavelength range of 350-1100 nm, which was in excellent agreement with simulation predictions. Finally, two prototype devices were assembled: one with a pair of copper indium gallium selenide based photovoltaic devices, and another with GaAs and c-Si photovoltaic devices. These devices demonstrated an increase in output peak electrical power of ∼ 42% and ∼ 22%, respectively, under white-light illumination. Because of the optical versatility and manufacturability of the proposed BDOEs, the reported spectrum-splitting approach provides a new approach toward low-cost solar power. PMID:25166805

  2. Increased efficiency of topping cycle PCFB power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.

    1996-05-01

    Pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) power plants offer the power industry significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions. When topping combustion is incorporated in the plant, these advantages are enhanced. In the plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates and a packed bed of emathelite pellets to remove alkali vapors. the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator combustor, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the PCFB and the exhaust gas passes through its own cyclone, ceramic barrier filter, and alkali getter and supports combustion of the fuel gas in the topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the PCFB drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant.

  3. Generation and use of high power 213 nm and 266 nm laser radiation and tunable 210-400 nm laser radiation with BBO crystal matrix array

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2000-01-01

    A 213 nm laser beam is capable of single photon ablative photodecomposition for the removal of a polymer or biological material substrate. Breaking the molecular bonds and displacing the molecules away from the substrate in a very short time period results in most of the laser photon energy being carried away by the displaced molecules, thus minimizing thermal damage to the substrate. The incident laser beam may be unfocussed and is preferably produced by quintupling the 1064 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG solid state laser, i.e., at 213 nm. In one application, the 213 nm laser beam is expanded in cross section and directed through a plurality of small beta barium borate (BBO) crystals for increasing the energy per photon of the laser radiation directed onto the substrate. The BBO crystals are arranged in a crystal matrix array to provide a large laser beam transmission area capable of accommodating high energy laser radiation without damaging the BBO crystals. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used with 266 nm laser radiation for carrying out single or multi photon ablative photodecomposition. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used in an optical parametric oscillator mode to generate high power tunable laser radiation in the range of 210-400 nm.

  4. Increasing corrosion resistance of carbon steels by surface laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsky, V. I.; Yakushin, V. L.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Petrovsky, V. N.; Safonov, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of investigation of the microstructure, elemental composition and corrosion resistance of the samples of low-alloy steel widely used in the engineering, after the application of laser cladding. The level of corrosion damage and the corrosion mechanism of cladded steel samples were established. The corrosion rate and installed discharge observed at the total destruction of cladding were obtained. The regularities of structure formation in the application of different powder compositions were obtained. The optimal powder composition that prevents corrosion of samples of low-carbon low-alloy steel was established.

  5. Effect of Laser Power on Atom Probe Tomography of Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parman, S. W.; Gorman, B.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.; Diercks, D.

    2011-12-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is an emerging analytical method that has the potential to produce nm-scale spatial resolution of atom positions with ppm-level detection limits. Until recently, APT has been limited to analysis of conducting samples due to the high pulsed electrical fields previously required. The recent development of laser-assisted APT now allows much lower laser powers to be used, opening the door to analysis of geologic minerals. The potential applications are many, ranging from diffusion profiles to the distribution of nano-phases to grain boundary chemical properties. We reported the first analysis of natural olivine using APT last year (Parman et al, 2010). While the spatial resolution was good (nm-scale), the accuracy of the compositional analysis was not. Two of the primary barriers to accurate ion identification in APT are: 1) Specimen overheating - This is caused by the interaction of the laser with the low thermal conductivity insulating specimens. Ions are assumed to have left the surface of the sample at the time the laser is pulsed during the analysis (laser pulse width = 12 ps). If the laser power is too high, the surface remains heated for an appreciable time (greater than 5 ns in some cases) after the laser pulse, causing atoms to field evaporate from the surface well after the laser pulse. Since they hit the detector later than the atoms that were released during the pulse, they are interpreted to be higher mass. Thus overheating appears in the analysis as a smearing of mass/charge peaks to higher mass/charge ratios (thermal tails). For well separated peaks, this is not a substantial problem, but for closely spaced peaks, overheating causes artificial mass interferences. 2) Molecular evaporation or clustering - This is also caused by overheating by the laser. Ideally, atoms are field evaporated individually from the surface of the cylindrical specimen. However, if the absorbed energy is high enough, clusters of atoms will be formed

  6. Laser processes and analytics for high power 3D battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleging, W.; Zheng, Y.; Mangang, M.; Bruns, M.; Smyrek, P.

    2016-03-01

    Laser processes for cutting, modification and structuring of energy storage materials such as electrodes, separator materials and current collectors have a great potential in order to minimize the fabrication costs and to increase the performance and operational lifetime of high power lithium-ion-batteries applicable for stand-alone electric energy storage devices and electric vehicles. Laser direct patterning of battery materials enable a rather new technical approach in order to adjust 3D surface architectures and porosity of composite electrode materials such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, Li(NiMnCo)O2, and Silicon. The architecture design, the increase of active surface area, and the porosity of electrodes or separator layers can be controlled by laser processes and it was shown that a huge impact on electrolyte wetting, lithium-ion diffusion kinetics, cell life-time and cycling stability can be achieved. In general, the ultrafast laser processing can be used for precise surface texturing of battery materials. Nevertheless, regarding cost-efficient production also nanosecond laser material processing can be successfully applied for selected types of energy storage materials. A new concept for an advanced battery manufacturing including laser materials processing is presented. For developing an optimized 3D architecture for high power composite thick film electrodes electrochemical analytics and post mortem analytics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy were performed. Based on mapping of lithium in composite electrodes, an analytical approach for studying chemical degradation in structured and unstructured lithium-ion batteries will be presented.

  7. High power 2 {mu}m diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Honea, E.C.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using a scaleable diode end-pumping technology developed at LLNL, we have demonstrated a compact Tm:YAG laser capable of generating more than 50 W of cw 2 {mu}m laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser, which was built originally for use in assessing laser surgical techniques, are discussed.

  8. Electrostatic-accelerator free-electron lasers for power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhasi, Y.; Yakover, I.M.; Gover, A.

    1995-12-31

    Novel concepts of electrostatic-accelerator free-electron lasers (EA-FELs) for energy transfer through the atmosphere are presented. The high average power attained from an EA-FEL makes it an efficient source of mm-wave for power beaming from a ground stations. General aspects of operating the FEL as a high power oscillator (like acceleration voltage, e-beam. current, gain and efficiency) are studied and design considerations are described. The study takes into account requirements of power beaming application such as characteristic dips in the atmospheric absorption spectrum, sizes of transmitting and receiving antennas and meteorological conditions. We present a conceptual design of a moderate voltage (.5-3 MeV) high current (1-10 Amp) EA-FEL operating at mm-wavelength bands, where the atmospheric attenuation allows efficient power beaming to space. The FEL parameters were calculated, employing analytical and numerical models. The performance parameters of the FEL (power, energy conversion efficiency average power) will be discussed in connection to the proposed application.

  9. Research and Design Problems Introduced by Increased Power Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Oskar

    1937-01-01

    In what follows the question of the number and geometrical arrangement of the cylinders so important in the design of high performance power units will be considered from various points of view. A discussion will be given of the possibilities of the various working processes and an investigation will be made of possible means for improving the continuous operation and take-off performance, particularly the methods of supercharging, increasing the r.p.m., and employing the two-stroke-cycle engine. Finally, the question of lowered fuel consumption will be gone over briefly. The subject will be treated under four headings: I) Considerations on the engine layout; II) Increase in output per given swept volume; III) Improvement in the take-off performance; IV) Lowering of the fuel consumption.

  10. High Power Laser Cutting of Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymers with cw- and Pulsed Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F.; Wolf, N.; Petring, D.

    Glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers with thermoplastic matrix enable high volume production with short cycle times. Cutting and trimming operations in these production chains require the use of high average laser power for an efficient cutting speed, but employment of high laser power runs the risk to induce a wide heat affected zone (HAZ). This paper deals with investigations with cw and ns-pulsed CO2-laser radiation in the kilowatt range in single-pass and multiple-pass processes. Using multi-pass processing at high processing speeds of 100 m/min and above a reduced heat affected zone in the range of 100 μm to 200 μm could be achieved by the ns-pulsed radiation. With cw radiation at the same average power of 1 kW however, the HAZ was 300-400 μm. Also employing ns-pulses in the kW-range average power leads to heat accumulation in the material. Small HAZ were obtained with sufficient break times between subsequent passes.

  11. CO2 laser-driven Stirling engine. [space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G.; Perry, R. L.; Carney, B.

    1978-01-01

    A 100-W Beale free-piston Stirling engine was powered remotely by a CO2 laser for long periods of time. The engine ran on both continuous-wave and pulse laser input. The working fluid was helium doped with small quantities of sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The CO2 radiation was absorbed by the vibrational modes of the sulfur hexafluoride, which in turn transferred the energy to the helium to drive the engine. Electrical energy was obtained from a linear alternator attached to the piston of the engine. Engine pressures, volumes, and temperatures were measured to determine engine performance. It was found that the pulse radiation mode was more efficient than the continuous-wave mode. An analysis of the engine heat consumption indicated that heat losses around the cylinder and the window used to transmit the beam into the engine accounted for nearly half the energy input. The overall efficiency, that is, electrical output to laser input, was approximately 0.75%. However, this experiment was not designed for high efficiency but only to demonstrate the concept of a laser-driven engine. Based on this experiment, the engine could be modified to achieve efficiencies of perhaps 25-30%.

  12. Optical metrology devices for high-power laser large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurios, J.; Bouillet, S.; Gaborit, G.; Poncetta, J. C.

    2007-06-01

    High power laser systems such as the LMJ laser or the LIL laser, its prototype, require large optical components with very strict and various specifications. Technologies used for the fabrication of these components are now usually compatible of such specifications, but need the implementation at the providers' sites of different kind of metrology like interferometry, photometry, surface inspection, etc., systematically performed on the components. So, during the production for the LIL and now for the LMJ, CEA has also equipped itself with a wide range of specific metrology devices used to verify the effective quality of these large optics. These various systems are now used to characterize and validate the LMJ vendors' processes or to perform specific controls dedicated to analyzes which are going further than the simple "quality control" of the component (mechanical mount effect, environment effect, ageing effect,...). After a short introduction on the LMJ laser and corresponding optical specifications for components, we will focus on different metrology devices concerning interferometry and photometry measurements or surface inspection. These systems are individually illustrated here by the mean of different results obtained during controls done in the last few years.

  13. Compact 2-J master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Gregg L.; Honig, John N.

    2000-04-01

    A compact, 2-J Master Oscillator, Power Amplifier (MOPA) laser system was designed and built to support a multiple- fiber injection experiment. The system was built in a breadboard configuration to support a risk-reduction/proof- of-concept effort. A common design approach for MOPA systems is to utilize a single-mode oscillator as the input source to the amplifier. However, to optimize this system for fiber injection, a multi-mode oscillator was chosen. A stable, multi-mode, 1053-nm, Nd:YLF laser oscillator was designed and built. A plano/concave resonator was utilized, with a 4.0-mm diameter Nd:YLF laser rod, pumped in a dual flashlamp, diffuse, close-coupled pump cavity. A lithium niobate (LiNbO3) Q-switch crystal was used in a quarter- wave scheme. This pump cavity design did not use any active cooling and was ideal for low duty cycle applications requiring no more than one shot every 60 seconds. The oscillator output was amplified using a neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser rod in a four-pass configuration. Two Joules of output energy with an output pulsewidth of 12 ns were obtained. The 9.53-mm diameter Nd:Glass amplifier rod was pumped in a dual flashlamp, diffuse, close-coupled pump cavity. Output energy, pulsewidth, far-field beam divergence and intensity profile results will be presented for a Schott LG750 amplifier rod.

  14. Numerical simulations of novel high-power high-brightness diode laser structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucke, Konstantin; Rogg, Joseph; Kelemen, Marc T.; Poprawe, Reinhart; Weimann, Guenter

    2001-07-01

    One of the key topics in today's semiconductor laser development activities is to increase the brightness of high-power diode lasers. Although structures showing an increased brightness have been developed specific draw-backs of these structures lead to a still strong demand for investigation of alternative concepts. Especially for the investigation of basically novel structures easy-to-use and fast simulation tools are essential to avoid unnecessary, cost and time consuming experiments. A diode laser simulation tool based on finite difference representations of the Helmholtz equation in 'wide-angle' approximation and the carrier diffusion equation has been developed. An optimized numerical algorithm leads to short execution times of a few seconds per resonator round-trip on a standard PC. After each round-trip characteristics like optical output power, beam profile and beam parameters are calculated. A graphical user interface allows online monitoring of the simulation results. The simulation tool is used to investigate a novel high-power, high-brightness diode laser structure, the so-called 'Z-Structure'. In this structure an increased brightness is achieved by reducing the divergency angle of the beam by angular filtering: The round trip path of the beam is two times folded using internal total reflection at surfaces defined by a small index step in the semiconductor material, forming a stretched 'Z'. The sharp decrease of the reflectivity for angles of incidence above the angle of total reflection leads to a narrowing of the angular spectrum of the beam. The simulations of the 'Z-Structure' indicate an increase of the beam quality by a factor of five to ten compared to standard broad-area lasers.

  15. Increasing Power of Groupwise Association Test with Likelihood Ratio Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sul, Jae Hoon; Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

    Sequencing studies have been discovering a numerous number of rare variants, allowing the identification of the effects of rare variants on disease susceptibility. As a method to increase the statistical power of studies on rare variants, several groupwise association tests that group rare variants in genes and detect associations between groups and diseases have been proposed. One major challenge in these methods is to determine which variants are causal in a group, and to overcome this challenge, previous methods used prior information that specifies how likely each variant is causal. Another source of information that can be used to determine causal variants is observation data because case individuals are likely to have more causal variants than control individuals. In this paper, we introduce a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that uses both data and prior information to infer which variants are causal and uses this finding to determine whether a group of variants is involved in a disease. We demonstrate through simulations that LRT achieves higher power than previous methods. We also evaluate our method on mutation screening data of the susceptibility gene for ataxia telangiectasia, and show that LRT can detect an association in real data. To increase the computational speed of our method, we show how we can decompose the computation of LRT, and propose an efficient permutation test. With this optimization, we can efficiently compute an LRT statistic and its significance at a genome-wide level. The software for our method is publicly available at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/rarevariants.

  16. Systems and assemblies for transferring high power laser energy through a rotating junction

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Ryan J.; McKay, Ryan P.; Fraze, Jason D.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-01-26

    There are provided high power laser devices and systems for transmitting a high power laser beam across a rotating assembly, including optical slip rings and optical rotational coupling assemblies. These devices can transmit the laser beam through the rotation zone in free space or within a fiber.

  17. High power-efficiency terahertz quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave (CW) high power-efficiency terahertz quantum cascade laser based on semi-insulating surface-plasmon waveguide with epitaxial-side down (Epi-down) mounting process. The performance of the device is analyzed in detail. The laser emits at a frequency of ∼ 3.27 THz and has a maximum CW operating temperature of ∼ 70 K. The peak output powers are 177 mW in pulsed mode and 149 mW in CW mode at 10 K for 130-μm-wide Epi-down mounted lasers. The record wall-plug efficiencies in direct measurement are 2.26% and 2.05% in pulsed and CW mode, respectively. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014CB339803 and 2013CB632801), the Special-funded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development, China (Grant No. 2011YQ13001802-04), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376051).

  18. Low-powered laser therapy associated with oral implantology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Ciconelli, Karen P. C.; Braga, Carlos A.; Berro, Renato J.

    1999-05-01

    The objective of this present work to evaluate in the level of pain and tumor the effect of the low-power density laser irradiation of GaAlAs 790 nm in implanted patients during the postoperative period. Forty five clinic situations were selected and divided in three different groups: Group I, control, without laser application, but with analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication; Group II, patients were irradiated on the day of the surgery, after the same concluded, and on the two subsequent days; and Group III, patients were irradiated on the day of the surgery, on the day of the surgery, before and after the end of the same, and in the two subsequent days after. All the applications were accomplished using the same energy parameters and by the same operator. The measures, with relationship to the pain and the tumor, they were accomplished in the immediate postoperative, in the postoperative (24 hours and also 72 hours after) always by the same examiner. The statistical analysis sustained the clinic observations. In our study, the low power density laser of GaAlAs 790 nm suggested the same clinical results when pain and tumor formation were controlled by analgesic and anti- inflammatory medication.

  19. High-power diode lasers in spray process diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjo, Jussi

    2005-03-01

    Spray processes are commonly employed in many kinds of surface treatment applications, most prominently in medical, material processing and manufacturing industries. While spraying is a well established technology, we still lack complete understanding of all interactions within a given spray process. This is because the physical models of many subprocesses, like turbulent gas flow, particle formation and gas-particle interaction, are limited and often provide only qualitative predictions on the real process. Imaging measurements are essential in gaining better understanding of a spray process. They offer a way to measure properties of both the complete spray plume and individual droplets. A spray analysis system typically requires a high-power stroboscopic light source; Xe flashlamps and Q-switched solid state lasers have been the most common choice until recently. The development of high-power diode lasers has provided a versatile, low-cost and easy to use light source for the analysis of spray processes. We present a real-time diode laser based imaging system to measure droplet density, size and velocity distributions in a spray, together with the spray plume geometry.

  20. Generation of high-power nanosecond pulses from laser diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kinpui

    1988-01-01

    Simulation results are used to compare the pulse energy levels and pulse energy widths that can be achieved with LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers for both the pulse-transmission mode (PTM) and pulse-reflection mode (PRM) Q-switching methods for pulse energy levels up to hundreds of microjoules and pulse widths as short as 1 ns. It is shown that high-power pulses with pulse widths as short as 1 ns can be generated with PTM Q-switched in LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. With the PRM Q-switching method, pulse widths as short as 2 ns and pulse energy at the level of a few hundred microjoules can also be achieved but require pumping with 8-10-mJ AlGaAs laser diode arrays.

  1. Advances in CO2 laser fabrication for high power fibre laser devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Keiron; Rees, Simon; Simakov, Nikita; Daniel, Jae M. O.; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W. A.; Haub, John

    2016-03-01

    CO2 laser processing facilitates contamination free, rapid, precise and reproducible fabrication of devices for high power fibre laser applications. We present recent progress in fibre end-face preparation and cladding surface modification techniques. We demonstrate a fine feature CO2 laser process that yields topography significantly smaller than that achieved with typical mechanical cleaving processes. We also investigate the side processing of optical fibres for the fabrication of all-glass cladding light strippers and demonstrate extremely efficient cladding mode removal. We apply both techniques to fibres with complex designs containing multiple layers of doped and un-doped silica as well as shaped and circularly symmetric structures. Finally, we discuss the challenges and approaches to working with various fibre and glass-types.

  2. Increasing the penetration depth for ultrafast laser tissue ablation using glycerol based optical clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Ilan; Subramanian, Kaushik G.; Martin, Chris; Yildirim, Murat; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-03-01

    Background: Deep tissue ablation is the next challenge in ultrafast laser microsurgery. By focusing ultrafast pulses below the tissue surface one can create an ablation void confined to the focal volume. However, as the ablation depth increases in a scattering tissue, increase in the required power can trigger undesired nonlinear phenomena out of focus that restricts our ability to ablate beyond a maximum ablation depth of few scattering lengths. Optical clearing (OC) might reduce the intensity and increase the maximal ablation depth by lowering the refractive index mismatch, and therefore reducing scattering. Some efforts to ablate deeper showed out of focus damage, while others used brutal mechanical methods for clearing. Our clinical goal is to create voids in the scarred vocal folds and inject a biomaterial to bring back the tissue elasticity and restore phonation. Materials and methods: Fresh porcine vocal folds were excised and applied a biocompatible OC agent (75% glycerol). Collimated transmittance was monitored. The tissue was optically cleared and put under the microscope for ablation threshold measurements at different depths. Results: The time after which the tissue was optically cleared was roughly two hours. Fitting the threshold measurements to an exponential decay graph indicated that the scattering length of the tissue increased to 83+/-16 μm, which is more than doubling the known scattering length for normal tissue. Conclusion: Optical clearing with Glycerol increases the tissue scattering length and therefore reduces the energy for ablation and increases the maximal ablation depth. This technique can potentially improve clinical microsurgery.

  3. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  4. Experimental studies of high average power CO2-laser-induced thermomechanical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1990-04-01

    Pulsed high average power CO2 lasers allow for a most efficient conversion of coherence IR laser radiation into thermal and mechanical energies. Investigations using a specially developed repetitively pulsed high energy CO2 laser are presented. This powerful device provides mean powers of several kW and peak powers of the individual pulses in the multi-MW range. Studies were performed to obtain information on the transient behavior of the fast energy transfer mechanisms that occur at peak power densities near or above the surface plasma ignition thresholds. As shown, these plasma waves are periodically building up, expanding and recombining during the short time intervals between subsequent pulses, even in the case of the highest repetition rates that are presently limited to 100 Hz. Besides the efficient thermal energy transfer through plasma enhanced thermal coupling mechanisms, the simultaneously induced mechanical pressure waves are providing an additional impulsive loading of the targets. These pressures were investigated by using PVDF gauges. The experiments reveal that these effects are also responsible for improvements, concerning the energy balance, in most manufacturing processes such as in cutting or in drilling, where these fast thermomechanically coupled processes, for example, contribute to increase the mass removal rates.

  5. Experimental studies of high-average-power pulsed CO2-laser-induced thermomechanical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1990-10-01

    Pulsed high average power C02-lasers allow for a most efficient conversion of coherent IR-laser radiation into thermal and mechanical energies. This paper is concerned with investigations using a specially developed repetitively pulsed high energy C02-laser. This powerful device provides mean powers of several kW and peak powers of the individual pulses in the multi-MW range. Studies were performed to obtain information on the transient behaviour of the fast energy transfer mechanisms that occur at peak power densities near or above the surface plasma ignition thresholds. As shown, these plasma waves are periodically building up, expanding and recombining during the short time intervals between subsequent pulses, even in case of the highest repetition rates that are presently limited to 100 Hz. Besides the efficient thermal energy transfer through plasma-enhanced thermal coupling mechanisms, the simultaneously induced mechanical pressure waves are providing an additional impulsive loading of the targets. These pressures were investigated by using PVDF gauges. The experiments reveal that these effects too are responsible for improvements, concerning the energy balance, in most manufacturing processes such as in cutting or in drilling, where these fast thermo-mechanically coupled processes, for example, contribute to increase the mass removal rates.

  6. Increased wheeze but not bronchial hyperreactivity near power stations.

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, J A; Henry, R L; Hankin, R G; Hensley, M J

    1993-01-01

    station town, but bronchial hyper-reactivity and skin test defined atopy were similar in the two communities. These results are consistent with the previous study and confirm the increased presence of reported symptomatic illness in the town near power stations. PMID:8228762

  7. Laser damage of dichroic coatings in a high average power laser vacuum resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P A; Berzins, L V; Chow, R; Erbert, G V

    1999-07-28

    In our application, dichroics in a high average power, near-infrared, laser system have short operating lifetimes. These dichroics were used as the resonator fold mirrors and permitted the transmission of the pumping argon (Ar) ion laser light. Representative samples of two different dichroic optics were taken off-line and the transmission performance monitored in various scenarios. Irradiating these optics under resonator vacuum conditions, ({le}1 mT, 11.7 kW/cm{sup 2}, Ar laser running all wavelengths) resulted in a degradation of transmission with time. Irradiating these optics in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (1 to 10 T of oxygen, 11.7 kW/cm{sup 2}, Ar laser running all wavelengths) the transmission remained steady over a period of days. The transmission loss observed in the optic tested in vacuum was somewhat reversible if the optic was subsequently irradiated in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere. This reversibility was only possible if the transmission degradation was not too severe. Further tests demonstrated that an atmosphere of 10 T of air also prevented the transmission degradation. In addition, tests were performed to demonstrate that the optic damage was not caused by the ultra-violet component in the Ar ion laser. Mechanisms that may account for this behavior are proposed.

  8. Laser-Powered, Vertical Flight Experiments at the High Energy Laser System Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Franklin B., Jr.; Larson, C. W.

    2000-11-01

    In 1996, the Air Force Research Laboratory's Propulsion Division at Edwards AFB initiated a program that had as its main objective to launch a laser-propelled vehicle into a suborbital trajectory within a period of 5 years in order to demonstrate the concept and its attractive features. The concept is a nanosatellite in which the laser propulsion engine and satellite hardware are intimately shared. The Lightcraft Technology Demonstration Program was planned in three phases. Phase I, Lightcraft Concept Demonstration, was to demonstrate the feasibility of the basic concept. This phase ended in December 1998. Phase II, Lightcraft Vertical Launches to Extreme Altitudes, was initiated in January 1999, and is a five-year effort designed to extend Lightcraft flights in sounding rocket trajectories to 30 km with a 100 kW CO2 laser. Phase III, Lightcraft Dual Mode Vehicle, is a two year effort designed to launch the first laser-propelled vehicle, fully functional, into space. This phase will require the construction of a megawatt class CO2 laser with appropriate optics to meet the power beam propagation requirements.

  9. High-resolution wavefront control of high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J; Brown, C; Carrano, C; Kartz, M; Olivier, S; Pennington, D; Silva, D

    1999-07-08

    Nearly every new large-scale laser system application at LLNL has requirements for beam control which exceed the current level of available technology. For applications such as inertial confinement fusion, laser isotope separation, laser machining, and laser the ability to transport significant power to a target while maintaining good beam quality is critical. There are many ways that laser wavefront quality can be degraded. Thermal effects due to the interaction of high-power laser or pump light with the internal optical components or with the ambient gas are common causes of wavefront degradation. For many years, adaptive optics based on thing deformable glass mirrors with piezoelectric or electrostrictive actuators have be used to remove the low-order wavefront errors from high-power laser systems. These adaptive optics systems have successfully improved laser beam quality, but have also generally revealed additional high-spatial-frequency errors, both because the low-order errors have been reduced and because deformable mirrors have often introduced some high-spatial-frequency components due to manufacturing errors. Many current and emerging laser applications fall into the high-resolution category where there is an increased need for the correction of high spatial frequency aberrations which requires correctors with thousands of degrees of freedom. The largest Deformable Mirrors currently available have less than one thousand degrees of freedom at a cost of approximately $1M. A deformable mirror capable of meeting these high spatial resolution requirements would be cost prohibitive. Therefore a new approach using a different wavefront control technology is needed. One new wavefront control approach is the use of liquid-crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology for the controlling the phase of linearly polarized light. Current LC SLM technology provides high-spatial-resolution wavefront control, with hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom, more

  10. Industrial applications of a fiber-based high-average-power picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, Colin

    2009-02-01

    Presently lasers are well established tools for materials processing due to advantages such as (i) the non-contact nature of the laser-material interaction, (ii) the high precision achievable and (iii) no requirement for high vacuum equipment or costly chemicals. Now, industrial laser users demand improvements in order to achieve higher quality features with reduced heat affected zones and so it is increasingly necessary to use shorter pulse durations. To satisfy these needs, there has been significant research into ultrafast laser technology for decades, however at this time, these lasers have yet to be adopted by industry for mass production. Recent developments have shown that the combination of a fibre seed oscillator and Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) amplifying technology can offer high average power, picosecond pulses (~10ps) in an industrially-rugged package. The significant laser design aspects are outlined here, along with the advantages this technology offers for applications such as silicon via drilling, thin film patterning and the machining of wide bandgap materials.

  11. Catastrophic degradation in high-power InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well lasers and InAs-GaAs quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongkun; LaLumondiere, Stephen; Foran, Brendan; Ives, Neil; Presser, Nathan; Lotshaw, William; Moss, Steven C.

    2013-03-01

    Reliability and degradation processes in broad-area InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well (QW) lasers are under investigation because these lasers are indispensible as pump lasers for fiber lasers and amplifiers that have found an increasing number of industrial applications in recent years. Extensive efforts by a number of groups to develop InAs-GaAs quantum dot (QD) lasers have recently led to significant improvement in performance characteristics, but due to a short history of commercialization, high power QD lasers lacks studies in reliability and degradation processes. For the present study, we investigated reliability and degradation processes in MOCVD-grown broad-area InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers as well as in MBE-grown broad-area InAs-GaAs QD lasers using various failure mode analysis (FMA) techniques. Dots for the QD lasers were formed via a self-assembly process during MBE growth. We employed two different methods to degrade lasers during accelerated life-testing: commercial lifetester and our newly developed time-resolved electroluminescence (TR-EL) set-up. Our TR-EL set-up allows us to observe formation of a hot spot and subsequent formation and progression of dark spots and dark lines through windowed n-contacts during entire accelerated life-tests. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) techniques were employed to study trap characteristics and carrier dynamics in pre- and post-stressed QW and QD lasers to identify the root causes of catastrophic degradation processes in these lasers. We also employed electron beam induced current (EBIC), focused ion beam (FIB), and high resolution TEM to study dark line defects and crystal defects in post-aged QW and QD lasers at different stages of degradation.

  12. New powerful metal vapor lasers oscillating in deep ultraviolet and middle infrared spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Sabotinov, N. V.

    2010-09-01

    Middle infrared and deep ultraviolet laser systems, which are based on high-power high-beam-quality stable-operating He-SrBr2 and Cu+ Ne-CuBr lasers excited in nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge, are developed, patented and studied. Optimal discharge conditions, such as active zone diameter, vapor pressure, buffer-gas pressure, electrical excitation scheme parameters, average input power, pulse repetition frequency, are found. The highest output laser parameters are obtained for the Sr atom and Cu+ lasers, respectively. These lasers equipped with optical systems for control of laser radiation parameters, such as laser beam divergence, laser intensity distribution, etc. are used in a large variety of applications, such as precise material microprocessing, including biological tissues, determination of linear optical properties of different materials newly developed, laser-induced modification of conductive polymers, laserinduced fluorescence in wide-gap semiconductors, instead of free electron and excimer lasers, respectively.

  13. Upper limit power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Weimin; Hu Zhidan; Chen Liming; Li Yutong; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Zeng Ming; Liu Yue; Kawata, Shigeo; Zheng Chunyang; Mori, Warren B.

    2012-10-29

    It is shown that there is an upper-limit laser power for self-focusing of a laser pulse in plasma in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical power set by the relativistic effect. This upper limit is caused by the transverse ponderomotive force of the laser, which tends to expel plasma electrons from the laser propagating area. Furthermore, there is a lower-limit plasma density for a given laser spot size, below which self-focusing does not occur for any laser power. Both the lower-limit density and the upper-limit power are derived theoretically and verified by two-dimensional and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is also found that plasma channels may be unfavorable for stable guiding of lasers above the upper-limit power.

  14. Soft x-ray power diagnostic improvements at the Omega Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, C.; Schein, J.; Weber, F.; Widmann, K.; Campbell, K.; Dewald, E.; Turner, R.; Landen, O.; Jacoby, K.; Torres, P.; Pellinen, D.

    2006-10-15

    Soft x-ray power diagnostics are essential for evaluating high temperature laser plasma experiments. The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer, a core diagnostic for radiation flux and temperature measurements of Hohlraums, installed on the Omega Laser Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics has recently undergone a series of upgrades. Work performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the development of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Dante spectrometer enables the Omega Dante to offer a total of 18 absolutely calibrated channels in the energy range from 50 eV to 20 keV. This feature provides Dante with the capability to measure higher, NIF relevant, radiation temperatures with increased accuracy including a differentiation of higher energy radiation such as the Au M and L bands. Diagnostic monitoring using experimental data from directly driven Au spherical shots is discussed.

  15. Performance projections for laser beam power to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Darryl P.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the requirements placed on an adaptive-optics system used to compensate atmospheric effects in propagating high-power lasers from ground to space. The particular application involves energy transfer from a ground station to a satellite. Our analysis explores performance associated with various beacon configurations, including satellite-based beacons, beacons in the lead-ahead direction, and synthetic beacons. Other system parameters are adjusted as well, including number of actuators in the deformable mirror and bandwidth of the servo system. We show that with an optimized system design it is possible to achieve collection efficiencies of 10-50 percent over zenith angles as great as 70 deg.

  16. High-power fiber-coupled diode lasers with superior brightness, efficiency, and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Keith; Hemenway, Marty; Urbanek, Wolfram; Hoener, Kylan; Price, Kirk; Bao, Ling; Dawson, David; Kanskar, Manoj; Haden, Jim

    2014-03-01

    Advances in high performance fiber coupled diode lasers continue to enable new applications as well as strengthen existing uses through progressive improvements in power and brightness [1]. These improvements are most notable in multi-kW direct diode systems and kW fiber laser platforms that effectively transform better beam quality into superior system performance and in DPSS (Diode pumped solid state) application striving to scale TEM00 (fundamental transverse mode) power. We report on our recent single-emitter based fiber-coupled product platform, the elementTM, that addressed these applications at 8xx/9xx nm with optical powers over 200W in a range of fiber core sizes down to 105um and 0.14NA (Numerical Aperture). The product is a culmination of numerous packaging improvements: improving wall plug efficiencies ( 50% electrical-to-optical) while improving volume manufacturability, enabling lower costs, improving usable chip brightness by, < 20% over previous generation chips, and increasing the reliable output power to 15W per chip. We additionally report on current developments to extend the power of the product platform to as high as 300W. This will be realized primarily through new chip architectures projected to further increase the useable chip brightness by an additional 20 % and correspondingly scaling reliable output powers. Second order improvements are proposed in packaging enhancements that capitalize on the increased chip power and brightness as well as expand the package's thermal capabilities. Finally, an extended performance roadmap will translate expected power advances and increasing volumes into a projection of relative $/W decreases over the next several years.

  17. Reliable high-power diode lasers: thermo-mechanical fatigue aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Gridish, Yaakov; Szafranek, Igor; Karni, Yoram

    2006-02-01

    High power water-cooled diode lasers are finding increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where repetitive cw (continuous wave) and pulsed cw operation modes are required. When operating in such modes, the lasers experience numerous complete thermal cycles between "cold" heat sink temperature and the "hot" temperature typical of thermally equilibrated cw operation. It is clearly demonstrated that the main failure mechanism directly linked to repetitive cw operation is thermo-mechanical fatigue of the solder joints adjacent to the laser bars, especially when "soft" solders are used. Analyses of the bonding interfaces were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that intermetallic compounds, formed already during the bonding process, lead to the solders fatigue both on the p- and n-side of the laser bar. Fatigue failure of solder joints in repetitive cw operation reduces useful lifetime of the stacks to hundreds hours, in comparison with more than 10,000 hours lifetime typically demonstrated in commonly adopted non-stop cw reliability testing programs. It is shown, that proper selection of package materials and solders, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and burn-in screening in the hard pulse operation mode allow considerable increase of lifetime and reliability, without compromising the device efficiency, optical power density and compactness.

  18. Composite Thin-Disk Laser Scaleable to 100 kW Average Power Output and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, L.; Beach, R.; Payne, S.

    2000-06-01

    By combining newly developed technologies to engineer composite laser components with state of the art diode laser pump delivery technologies, we are in a position to demonstrate high beam quality, continuous wave, laser radiation at scaleable high average powers. The crucial issues of our composite thin disk laser technology were demonstrated during a successful first light effort. The high continuous wave power levels that are now within reach make this system of high interest to future DoD initiatives in solid-state laser technology for the laser weapon arena.

  19. Satellite Power System (SPS) laser studies. Volume 2: Meteorological effects on laser beam propagation and direct solar pumped lasers for the SPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this research activity was to investigate the effect of the environment on laser power transmission/reception from space to ground. Potential mitigation techniques to minimize the environment effect by a judicious choice of laser operating parameters was investigated. Using these techniques, the availability of power at selected sites was determined using statistical meteorological data for each site.

  20. Combining high power diode lasers using fiber bundles for beam delivery in optoacoustic endoscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawali, Sandeep Babu; Leggio, Luca; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Dadrasnia, Ehsan; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-05-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) effect refers to the generation of the acoustic waves due to absorption of light energy in a biological tissue. The incident laser pulse is absorbed by the tissue, resulting in the generation of ultrasound that is typically detected by a piezoelectric detector. Compared to other techniques, the advantage of OA imaging (OAI) technique consists in combining the high resolution of ultrasound technique with the high contrast of optical imaging. Generally, Nd:YAG and OPO systems are used for the generation of OA waves but their use in clinical environment is limited for many aspects. On the other hand, high-power diode lasers (HPDLs) emerge as potential alternative. However, the power of HPDLs is still relatively low compared to solid-state lasers. We show a side-by-side combination of several HPDLs in an optical fiber bundle to increase the amount of power for OA applications. Initially, we combine the output optical power of several HPDLs at 905 nm using two 7 to 1 round optical fiber bundles featuring a 675 μm and 1.2 mm bundle aperture. In a second step, we couple the output light of these fiber bundles to a 600 μm core diameter endoscopic fiber, reporting the corresponding coupling efficiencies. The fiber bundles with reasonable small diameter are likely to be used for providing sufficient light energy to potential OA endoscopy (OAE) applications.