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Sample records for increased saccharification yields

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, X.; Moates, G.K.; Elliston, A.; Wilson, D.R.; Coleman, M.J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210 °C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g−1 substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g−1 substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0 × 107 cells mL−1). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  2. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Elliston, A; Wilson, D R; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210°C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g(-1) substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g(-1) substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0×10(7) cells mL(-1)). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  3. Mapping and candidate genes associated with saccharification yield in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potentially high-yielding hardy energy crop to produce lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification is a process by which hydrolytic enzymes break down lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Mapping and identifying genes und...

  4. Evaluation of nanoparticle-immobilized cellulase for improved ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lupoi, Jason; Smith, Emily

    2011-12-01

    Ethanol yields were 2.1 (P = 0.06) to 2.3 (P = 0.01) times higher in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions of microcrystalline cellulose when cellulase was physisorbed on silica nanoparticles compared to enzyme in solution. In SSF reactions, cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase while yeast simultaneously ferments glucose to ethanol. The 35 C temperature and the presence of ethanol in SSF reactions are not optimal conditions for cellulase. Immobilization onto solid supports can stabilize the enzyme and promote activity at non-optimum reaction conditions. Mock SSF reactions that did not contain yeast were used to measure saccharification products and identify the mechanism for the improved ethanol yield using immobilized cellulase. Cellulase adsorbed to 40 nm silica nanoparticles produced 1.6 times (P = 0.01) more glucose than cellulase in solution in 96 h at pH 4.8 and 35 C. There was no significant accumulation (<250 {mu}g) of soluble cellooligomers in either the solution or immobilized enzyme reactions. This suggests that the mechanism for the immobilized enzyme's improved glucose yield compared to solution enzyme is the increased conversion of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis products to soluble cellooligomers at 35 C and in the presence of ethanol. The results show that silica-immobilized cellulase can be used to produce increased ethanol yields in the conversion of lignocellulosic materials by SSF.

  5. Simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification: green technology for enhanced sugar yields from biomass using a fungal consortium.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Haw, Jung-Rim; Kalyani, Dayanand; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-03-01

    Two different biomasses were subjected to simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification (SPS) using a cocktail of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes. Application of a novel laccase as a detoxifying agent caused the removal of 49.8% and 32.6% of phenolic contents from the soaked rice straw and willow, respectively. Hydrolysis of soaked substrates using a newly developed fungal consortium resulted in saccharification yield of up to 74.2% and 63.6% for rice straw and willow, respectively. A high saccharification yield was obtained with soaked rice straw and willow without using any hazardous chemicals. The efficiency of each step related to SPS was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The suitability of the developed SPS process was further confirmed by converting the hydrolysate from the process into bioethanol with 72.4% sugar conversion efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of a less tedious, single-pot, and eco-friendly SPS methodology. PMID:25514402

  6. Improved saccharification and ethanol yield from field-grown transgenic poplar deficient in cinnamoyl-CoA reductase

    PubMed Central

    Van Acker, Rebecca; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Aerts, Dirk; Storme, Véronique; Goeminne, Geert; Ivens, Bart; Légée, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Piens, Kathleen; Van Montagu, Marc C. E.; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Clifton E.; Ralph, John; Soetaert, Wim; Pilate, Gilles; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is one of the main factors determining recalcitrance to enzymatic processing of lignocellulosic biomass. Poplars (Populus tremula x Populus alba) down-regulated for cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), the enzyme catalyzing the first step in the monolignol-specific branch of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, were grown in field trials in Belgium and France under short-rotation coppice culture. Wood samples were classified according to the intensity of the red xylem coloration typically associated with CCR down-regulation. Saccharification assays under different pretreatment conditions (none, two alkaline, and one acid pretreatment) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assays showed that wood from the most affected transgenic trees had up to 161% increased ethanol yield. Fermentations of combined material from the complete set of 20-mo-old CCR–down-regulated trees, including bark and less efficiently down-regulated trees, still yielded ∼20% more ethanol on a weight basis. However, strong down-regulation of CCR also affected biomass yield. We conclude that CCR down-regulation may become a successful strategy to improve biomass processing if the variability in down-regulation and the yield penalty can be overcome. PMID:24379366

  7. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana by ectopic expression of the rice SUB1A-1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-López, Lizeth; Aguirre-Cruz, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of polysaccharides releases monosaccharides that can be used by ethanol-producing microorganisms in biofuel production. To improve plant biomass as a raw material for saccharification, factors controlling the accumulation and structure of carbohydrates must be identified. Rice SUB1A-1 is a transcription factor that represses the turnover of starch and postpones energy-consuming growth processes under submergence stress. Arabidopsis was employed to test if heterologous expression of SUB1A-1 or SUB1C-1 (a related gene) can be used to improve saccharification. Cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymatic treatments confirmed that SUB1A-1 transgenics had better saccharification yield than wild-type (Col-0), mainly from accumulated starch. This improved saccharification yield was developmentally controlled; when compared to Col-0, young transgenic vegetative plants yielded 200–300% more glucose, adult vegetative plants yielded 40–90% more glucose and plants in reproductive stage had no difference in yield. We measured photosynthetic parameters, starch granule microstructure, and transcript abundance of genes involved in starch degradation (SEX4, GWD1), juvenile transition (SPL3-5) and meristematic identity (FUL, SOC1) but found no differences to Col-0, indicating that starch accumulation may be controlled by down-regulation of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T by SUB1A-1 as previously reported. SUB1A-1 transgenics also offered less resistance to deformation than wild-type concomitant to up-regulation of AtEXP2 expansin and BGL2 glucan-1,3,-beta-glucosidase. We conclude that heterologous SUB1A-1 expression can improve saccharification yield and softness, two traits needed in bioethanol production. PMID:25780769

  8. Increase in cellulose accumulation and improvement of saccharification by overexpression of arabinofuranosidase in rice.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Minako; Nakamura, Atsuko; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Hakata, Makoto; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass is available for the production of biofuel, with saccharification of the cell wall being a key process. We investigated whether alteration of arabinoxylan, a major hemicellulose in monocots, causes an increase in saccharification efficiency. Arabinoxylans have β-1,4-D-xylopyranosyl backbones and 1,3- or 1,4-α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues linked to O-2 and/or O-3 of xylopyranosyl residues as side chains. Arabinose side chains interrupt the hydrogen bond between arabinoxylan and cellulose and carry an ester-linked feruloyl substituent. Arabinose side chains are the base point for diferuloyl cross-links and lignification. We analyzed rice plants overexpressing arabinofuranosidase (ARAF) to study the role of arabinose residues in the cell wall and their effects on saccharification. Arabinose content in the cell wall of transgenic rice plants overexpressing individual ARAF full-length cDNA (OsARAF1-FOX and OsARAF3-FOX) decreased 25% and 20% compared to the control and the amount of glucose increased by 28.2% and 34.2%, respectively. We studied modifications of cell wall polysaccharides at the cellular level by comparing histochemical cellulose staining patterns and immunolocalization patterns using antibodies raised against α-(1,5)-linked l-Ara (LM6) and β-(1,4)-linked d-Xyl (LM10 and LM11) residues. However, they showed no visible phenotype. Our results suggest that the balance between arabinoxylan and cellulose might maintain the cell wall network. Moreover, ARAF overexpression in rice effectively leads to an increase in cellulose accumulation and saccharification efficiency, which can be used to produce bioethanol. PMID:24223786

  9. Increase in Cellulose Accumulation and Improvement of Saccharification by Overexpression of Arabinofuranosidase in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Hakata, Makoto; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass is available for the production of biofuel, with saccharification of the cell wall being a key process. We investigated whether alteration of arabinoxylan, a major hemicellulose in monocots, causes an increase in saccharification efficiency. Arabinoxylans have β-1,4-D-xylopyranosyl backbones and 1,3- or 1,4-α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues linked to O-2 and/or O-3 of xylopyranosyl residues as side chains. Arabinose side chains interrupt the hydrogen bond between arabinoxylan and cellulose and carry an ester-linked feruloyl substituent. Arabinose side chains are the base point for diferuloyl cross-links and lignification. We analyzed rice plants overexpressing arabinofuranosidase (ARAF) to study the role of arabinose residues in the cell wall and their effects on saccharification. Arabinose content in the cell wall of transgenic rice plants overexpressing individual ARAF full-length cDNA (OsARAF1-FOX and OsARAF3-FOX) decreased 25% and 20% compared to the control and the amount of glucose increased by 28.2% and 34.2%, respectively. We studied modifications of cell wall polysaccharides at the cellular level by comparing histochemical cellulose staining patterns and immunolocalization patterns using antibodies raised against α-(1,5)-linked l-Ara (LM6) and β-(1,4)-linked d-Xyl (LM10 and LM11) residues. However, they showed no visible phenotype. Our results suggest that the balance between arabinoxylan and cellulose might maintain the cell wall network. Moreover, ARAF overexpression in rice effectively leads to an increase in cellulose accumulation and saccharification efficiency, which can be used to produce bioethanol. PMID:24223786

  10. Aspen pectate lyase PtxtPL1-27 mobilizes matrix polysaccharides from woody tissues and improves saccharification yield

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wood cell walls are rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Hence, they are important sources of renewable biomass for producing energy and green chemicals. However, extracting desired constituents from wood efficiently poses significant challenges because these polymers are highly cross-linked in cell walls and are not easily accessible to enzymes and chemicals. Results We show that aspen pectate lyase PL1-27, which degrades homogalacturonan and is expressed at the onset of secondary wall formation, can increase the solubility of wood matrix polysaccharides. Overexpression of this enzyme in aspen increased solubility of not only pectins but also xylans and other hemicelluloses, indicating that homogalacturonan limits the solubility of major wood cell wall components. Enzymatic saccharification of wood obtained from PL1-27-overexpressing trees gave higher yields of pentoses and hexoses than similar treatment of wood from wild-type trees, even after acid pretreatment. Conclusions Thus, the modification of pectins may constitute an important biotechnological target for improved wood processing despite their low abundance in woody biomass. PMID:24450583

  11. Improvement in Saccharification Yield of Mixed Rumen Enzymes by Identification of Recalcitrant Cell Wall Constituents Using Enzyme Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yu-Xi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim A.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of recalcitrant factors that limit digestion of forages and the development of enzymatic approaches that improve hydrolysis could play a key role in improving the efficiency of meat and milk production in ruminants. Enzyme fingerprinting of barley silage fed to heifers and total tract indigestible fibre residue (TIFR) collected from feces was used to identify cell wall components resistant to total tract digestion. Enzyme fingerprinting results identified acetyl xylan esterases as key to the enhanced ruminal digestion. FTIR analysis also suggested cross-link cell wall polymers as principal components of indigested fiber residues in feces. Based on structural information from enzymatic fingerprinting and FTIR, enzyme pretreatment to enhance glucose yield from barley straw and alfalfa hay upon exposure to mixed rumen-enzymes was developed. Prehydrolysis effects of recombinant fungal fibrolytic hydrolases were analyzed using microassay in combination with statistical experimental design. Recombinant hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes initiated degradation of plant structural polysaccharides upon application and improved the in vitro saccharification of alfalfa and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes. The validation results showed that microassay in combination with statistical experimental design can be successfully used to predict effective enzyme pretreatments that can enhance plant cell wall digestion by mixed rumen enzymes. PMID:26180803

  12. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid

    PubMed Central

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A.

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  13. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50°C, respectively, after 24h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  14. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. PMID:26255602

  15. Optimization of Enzymatic Saccharification of Alkali Pretreated Parthenium sp. Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Pandiyan, K.; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Singh, Surender; Nain, Pawan K. S.; Rana, Sarika; Arora, Anju; Singh, Shashi B.; Nain, Lata

    2014-01-01

    Parthenium sp. is a noxious weed which threatens the environment and biodiversity due to its rapid invasion. This lignocellulosic weed was investigated for its potential in biofuel production by subjecting it to mild alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification which resulted in significant amount of fermentable sugar yield (76.6%). Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme, and substrate loading was carried out using central composite design (CCD) in response to surface methodology (RSM) to achieve the maximum saccharification yield. Data obtained from RSM was validated using ANOVA. After the optimization process, a model was proposed with predicted value of 80.08% saccharification yield under optimum conditions which was confirmed by the experimental value of 85.80%. This illustrated a good agreement between predicted and experimental response (saccharification yield). The saccharification yield was enhanced by enzyme loading and reduced by temperature and substrate loading. This study reveals that under optimized condition, sugar yield was significantly increased which was higher than earlier reports and promises the use of Parthenium sp. biomass as a feedstock for bioethanol production. PMID:24900917

  16. Optimization of steam explosion as a method for increasing susceptibility of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Morjanoff, P.J.; Gray, P.P.

    1987-04-01

    The technique of autohydrolysis steam explosion was examined as a means for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Treatment conditions were optimized so that following enzymatic hydrolysis, pretreated bagasse would give 65.1 g sugars/100 g starting bagasse. Released sugars comprised 38.9 g glucose, 0.6 g cellobiose, 22.1 g xylose, and 3.5 g arabinose, and were equivalent to 83% of the anhydroglucan and 84% of the anhydroxylan content of untreated bagasse. Optimum conditions were treatment for 30 s with saturated steam at 220/sup 0/C with a water-to-solids ratio of 2 and the addition of 1 g H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//100 g dry bagasse. Bagasse treated in this manner was not inhibitory to fermentation by Saccharomyces uvarum except at low inoculum levels when fermentation time was extended by up to 24 h. Pretreated saccharified bagasse was inhibitory to Pachysolen tannophilus and this was attributed to the formation of acetate from the hydrolysis of acetyl groups present in the hemicullulose. The major advantage of the pretreatment is the achievement of high total sugar yield with moderate enzyme requirement and only minor losses due to sugar decomposition.

  17. Sorghum mutant RG displays antithetic leaf shoot lignin accumulation resulting in improved stem saccharification properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving saccharification efficiency in bioenergy crop species remains an important challenge. Here, we report the characterization of a Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) mutant, named REDforGREEN (RG), as a bioenergy feedstock. Results It was found that RG displayed increased accumulation of lignin in leaves and depletion in the stems, antithetic to the trend observed in wild type. Consistent with these measurements, the RG leaf tissue displayed reduced saccharification efficiency whereas the stem saccharification efficiency increased relative to wild type. Reduced lignin was linked to improved saccharification in RG stems, but a chemical shift to greater S:G ratios in RG stem lignin was also observed. Similarities in cellulose content and structure by XRD-analysis support the correlation between increased saccharification properties and reduced lignin instead of changes in the cellulose composition and/or structure. Conclusion Antithetic lignin accumulation was observed in the RG mutant leaf-and stem-tissue, which resulted in greater saccharification efficiency in the RG stem and differential thermochemical product yield in high lignin leaves. Thus, the red leaf coloration of the RG mutant represents a potential marker for improved conversion of stem cellulose to fermentable sugars in the C4 grass Sorghum. PMID:24103129

  18. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides. PMID:27099712

  19. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process. PMID:26869115

  20. Rapid saccharification for production of cellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Seok; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Yoon-Gyo; Kim, Yeong-Suk; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2014-04-01

    The economical production of biofuels is hindered by the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to processing, causing high consumption of processing enzymes and impeding hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. We determined the major rate-limiting factor in the hydrolysis of popping pre-treated rice straw (PPRS) by examining cellulase adsorption to lignin and cellulose, amorphogenesis of PPRS, and re-hydrolysis. Based on the results, equivalence between enzyme loading and the open structural area of cellulose was required to significantly increase productive adsorption of cellulase and to accelerate enzymatic saccharification of PPRS. Amorphogenesis of PPRS by phosphoric acid treatment to expand open structural area of the cellulose fibers resulted in twofold higher cellulase adsorption and increased the yield of the first re-hydrolysis step from 13% to 46%. The total yield from PPRS was increased to 84% after 3h. These results provide evidence that cellulose structure is one of major effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24607460

  1. Amphipathic lignin derivatives to accelerate simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of unbleached softwood pulp for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ningning; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2014-12-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) were already demonstrated to improve enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose. Based on this knowledge, two kinds of A-LDs prepared from black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar were applied to a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for unbleached soda pulp of Japanese cedar to produce bioethanol. Both lignin derivatives slightly accelerated yeast fermentation of glucose but not inhibited it. In addition, ethanol yields based on the theoretical maximum ethanol production in the fed-batch SSF process was increased from 49% without A-LDs to 64% in the presence of A-LDs. PMID:25291627

  2. DMSO Increases Radioiodination Yield of Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.

    2007-01-01

    A high-yield radioiodination method for various types of molecules is described. The approach employs DMSO as precursor solvent, a reaction ratio of 2–5 precursor molecules per iodine atom, 5–10 μg oxidant, and a 10–25-μl reaction volume. The solution is vortexed at room temperature for 1–5 min and progress of the reaction is assessed by HPLC. Radioiodinated products are obtained in ≥95% yield and meet the requirements for radiotracer imaging, biodistribution studies, and molecular and cellular biology research. PMID:17931872

  3. Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

  4. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Daniel F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  5. Pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose flakes with CaCl2 increases the surface area, and thus improves enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Tokuyasu, Ken; Tabuse, Mine; Miyamoto, Maki; Matsuki, Junko; Yoza, Koichi

    2008-05-19

    Glucose production from cellulose flakes with cellulases was improved after pretreatment with saturated CaCl2 at room temperature. When pretreated microcrystalline cellulose flakes (Funacel II, Funakoshi Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) were saccharified with the cellulases, 76.8% of the substrate was converted into glucose within 5 h, whereas the corresponding conversion rate of water-pretreated cellulose flakes was 33.8%. To clarify the mechanism of the promotion, cellobiohydrolase I purified from Trichoderma longibrachiatum was used as the model cellulase, which degraded CaCl2-pretreated cellulose more quickly than the water-pretreated cellulose under tested conditions. The maximum amount of the enzyme bound to CaCl2-pretreated cellulose at 37 degrees C was estimated as 1.14 nmol/mg of cellulose, whereas that to water-pretreated cellulose was 0.527 nmol/mg of cellulose. The specific activity of the bound enzyme greatly decreased with the increase of the surface density (rho) of the bound enzyme, and no significant positive effects of the CaCl2-pretreatment on the specific activity could be observed at the same rho value, suggesting that the promotion was attributed mainly to the increase of the surface area of cellulose. The effect was also observed with dewaxed cotton or filter paper, but not with nata de coco cellulose or bagasse cellulose as the substrates. This suggests that the CaCl2-pretreatment serves to increase the surface area of cellulose flakes via liberation of cellulose particles which were artificially aggregated during harsh drying processes of the flakes. PMID:18384760

  6. Enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from Cynara cardunculus pretreated by steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria C; Ferro, Miguel D; Paulino, Ana F C; Mendes, Joana A S; Gravitis, Janis; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2015-06-01

    The correct choice of the specific lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment allows obtaining high biomass conversions for biorefinery implementations and cellulosic bioethanol production from renewable resources. Cynara cardunculus (cardoon) pretreated by steam explosion (SE) was involved in second-generation bioethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. Steam explosion pretreatment led to partial solubilisation of hemicelluloses and increased the accessibility of residual polysaccharides towards enzymatic hydrolysis revealing 64% of sugars yield against 11% from untreated plant material. Alkaline extraction after SE pretreatment of cardoon (CSEOH) promoted partial removal of degraded lignin, tannins, extractives and hemicelluloses thus allowing to double glucose concentration upon saccharification step. Bioethanol fermentation in SSF mode was faster than SHF process providing the best results: ethanol concentration 18.7 g L(-1), fermentation efficiency of 66.6% and a yield of 26.6g ethanol/100 g CSEOH or 10.1 g ethanol/100 g untreated cardoon. PMID:25836040

  7. Addition of alkali to the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus enhances its enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    The effects of alkali on hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment (hydrothermal treatment combined with wet-milling) were examined with the aim of improving pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass before enzymatic saccharification. After enzymatic saccharification, the highest glucose yield was obtained by autoclaving at 170°C in the presence of 20% NaOH per substrate weight. The wood fiber was unraveled into finer nanofibers by hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment, thus increasing the specific surface area of the substrate from 11 to 132m(2)/g. Adding 20% NaOH to the treatment further increased the specific surface area of the already fibrillated substrate by 76% (232m(2)/g) due to lignin removal and ester bond cleavage between lignin and hemicellulose. This increase in specific surface area was closely related to the increase in enzymatic digestibility; therefore, NaOH addition may have enhanced the effect of hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment. PMID:24378778

  8. Dilute acid saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, M.H.; Hashimoto, A.G.

    1995-12-01

    Aqueous dilute sulfuric acid solutions have been evaluated in terms of their effectiveness for the saccharification of the insoluble xylan fraction of poplar and switchgrass feedstocks. Acid concentrations ranging from .6 to 1.2% have been tested at temperatures ranging from 120 to 160{degrees}C. Treatments at optimum time, temperature, and acid combinations provided xylose yields of approximately 90% theoretical. Rate constants associated with xylan hydrolysis and xylose degradation for each of the feed-stocks have been evaluated. In general, optimum yields were associated with high temperature treatments for relatively short reaction times. Results from our laboratory will be presented with reference to previously published studies on hemicellulose saccharification and in the general context of converting lignocellulosic biomass to useful products.

  9. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  10. Increasing yield gap of Brazilian pasturelands and implications for intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. H.; Santos, A. B.; Dias, L. C. P.; Pimenta, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has 213 M cattle heads (AUs) and 152 M ha of pasturelands, most with very low yields (average stocking rate in 2013 was 1.39 AU/ha). We merged Landsat imagery with municipal level agricultural census data for the period 1974-2013, to produce 30 arc-second resolution (1 km x 1 km) yearly datasets of pasturelands and cattle stocking rate (see Dias et al poster in this same session). Our analysis of this dataset indicates that, in the period 1993-2013, the total pastureland area in the country has decreased at a rate of 1.4 M ha/yr, while average stocking rate is increasing at the rate of 0.025 AU/(ha.yr). Moreover, we calculated the stocking rate of the top 5% and top 10% hectares, and the yield gap, or the difference between these top rates and the average. The yield gap is the productivity difference between what is largely possible with current technology and climate (top 5% or top 10%) and the typical cattle raiser, represented by the average. Closing the yield gap is often considered as a standard form of increasing agricultural output in general. Our results indicate that, in the same period, the top 10% are increasing at the rate of 0.040 AU/(ha.yr), while the top 5% are increasing at the rate of 0.048 AU/(ha.yr), twice as high as the average. The yield gap is widening and the rate of separation is increasing in recent years. These data suggest that top yield cattle raisers in Brazil are investing in technology significantly more than the average. Regional analysis indicates that this is happening mainly in southern and northern Brazil, while in Central, Southeast and Northeast Brazil, high productivities are not increasing as fast. Since top yields are far from stabilizing, there is a very large potential for intensification, increasing cattle size and total cattle output in Brazil.

  11. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  12. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  13. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  14. Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar. PMID:24365739

  15. What Causes Runoff and Sediment Yields to Increase After Wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, I. J.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, E.; Rough, D.; Welsh, M. J.; Pietraszek, J. H.; Libohova, Z.; Schaffrath, K.

    2007-12-01

    Runoff and sediment yields can increase by several orders or magnitude after high severity wildfires. These increases have been attributed to soil water repellency, loss of surface cover, and soil sealing by either mineral or ash particles, but the relative effects of these factors have rarely been isolated. The objectives of this study were hillslopes burned in high-severity wildfires, 13-34 unburned hillslopes, and 3 hillslopes where the surface cover was removed by raking; and 2) use rainfall simulations to determine whether surface sealing is more prevalent on bare soils or soils covered with varying amounts of ash. The field measurements were made over a five-year period in ponderosa pine forests in the Colorado Front Range. The burned hillslopes generally had stronger soil water repellency than the unburned hillslopes only for the first summer after burning, but the mean cumulative sediment yield from the burned hillslopes was 31 Mg ha-1 as compared to minimal sediment yields from the unburned hillslopes. The raked hillslopes had very similar sediment yields to the burned hillslopes when they had comparable surface cover, rainfall erosivity, and soil water repellency. The rainfall simulations on bare soil generated much more runoff and sediment than the simulations on ash-covered soil, and both bare soils developed a thin, structural soil seal. Runoff and sediment yields decreased as ash thickness increased, but successive simulations quickly eroded the ash cover and increased runoff rates to the levels observed for bare soil. The results indicate that: 1) post-fire sediment yields are primarily due to the loss of percent cover rather than fire-enhanced soil water repellency; 2) surface cover is important because it controls the extent of soil sealing; and 3) ash temporarily prevents soil sealing and reduces post-fire runoff and sediment yields. The results have important implications for forest management and mitigating post-fire erosion.

  16. Efficacy of acidic pretreatment for the saccharification and fermentation of alginate from brown macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Damao; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Do Hyoung; Seo, Nari; An, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jae-Han; Cheong, Nam Yong; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of acidic pretreatment in increasing the enzymatic digestibility of alginate from brown macroalgae. Pretreatment with 1 % (w/v) sulfuric acid at 120 °C for 30 min produced oligosaccharides, mannuronic acid, and guluronic acid. Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated alginate by alginate lyases produced 52.2 % of the theoretical maximal sugar yield, which was only 7.5 % higher than the sugar yield obtained with unpretreated alginate. Mass spectrometric analyses of products of the two reactions revealed that acidic pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification produced saturated monomers (i.e., mannuronic and guluronic acid) with saturated oligosaccharides and unsaturated monomers (i.e., 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid; DEH), respectively. While DEH is further metabolized by microorganisms, mannuronic acid and guluronic acid are not metabolizable. Because of the poor efficacy in increasing enzymatic digestibility and owing to the formation of non-fermentable saturated monomers, acidic pretreatment cannot be recommended for enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of alginate. PMID:26923145

  17. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOEpatents

    Hennessey, Susan M.; Seapan, Mayis; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2010-10-05

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  18. Artificial lighting during winter increases milk yield in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Tilbrook, A J

    2008-11-01

    In Australia, the supply of sheep milk is reduced during the winter. Housing dairy animals under lights during winter is a simple technique to increase milk yield; however, it is difficult to predict the magnitude of this increase in dairy ewes, because there are few corroborating data. We studied 220 East Friesian crossbred ewes (50 primiparous and 170 multiparous ewes, respectively) that lambed in April to May 2007 (late autumn, southern hemisphere) and were weaned from their lambs within 24 h of parturition and milked exclusively by machine. These ewes were ranked according to their milk production, and ewes producing > or =1,000 mL/d of milk were allocated to 1 of 2 groups. One group of ewes was kept indoors under a long-day photoperiod (16 h of light), whereas the other group was kept indoors under a naturally declining day length. Ewes were maintained under these conditions for 8 wk. Milk yield was measured twice weekly, and ewe weight and condition were measured at weekly intervals. From a subset of ewes (n = 20 per group), milk samples were collected twice weekly at the morning milking to measure milk lipid, protein, and lactose, and blood samples were collected once a week to measure plasma prolactin concentrations. Mean daily milk yield was analyzed as a percentage of preexperimental milk yield because the milk yield of ewes housed under the long photoperiod was lower than that of ewes under a declining day length when the treatments began. Thus, the ewes under a long photoperiod yielded 91.7% of their starting yield by wk 8 of treatment, whereas ewes under a declining day length yielded 76.25% of their initial value (LSD = 5.1), and this divergence in milk yield was apparent by wk 2 of treatment. Mean plasma prolactin levels were greater in ewes housed under the long-day photoperiod (n = 20) compared with control ewes (n = 20) at wk 6 (168 +/- 27 vs. 72 +/- 19 ng/mL, respectively), wk 7 (125 +/- 28 vs. 37 +/- 7 ng/mL, respectively), and wk 8 of the

  19. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. PMID:24131776

  20. Effect of steam explosion on waste copier paper alone and in a mixed lignocellulosic substrate on saccharification and fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R.; Wellner, Nikolaus; Collins, Samuel R.A.; Roberts, Ian N.; Waldron, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated steam (SE) explosion on the saccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of waste copier paper. SE resulted in a colouration, a reduction in fibre thickness and increased water absorption. Changes in chemical composition were evident at severities greater than 4.24 resulting in a loss of xylose and the production of breakdown products known to inhibit fermentation (particularly formic acid and acetic acid). SE did not improve final yields of glucose or ethanol, and at severities 4.53 and 4.83 reduced yields probably due to the effect of breakdown products and fermentation inhibitors. However, at moderate severities of 3.6 and 3.9 there was an increase in initial rates of hydrolysis which may provide a basis for reducing processing times. Co-steam explosion of waste copier paper and wheat straw attenuated the production of breakdown products, and may also provide a basis for improving SSF of lignocellulose. PMID:25846183

  1. Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, R.F.H.; Wallis, A.F.A.

    1983-12-01

    Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a commercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after 24 h at 50 degrees C (pH 5.0) in enzymic digests containing 10% (w/v) bagasse pulps and 20 filter paper cellulase units (FPU). Saccharifications could be increased to more than 80% at 24 h by the addition of exogeneous ..beta..-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. The crystallinity of cellulose in bagasse remained unchanged following autohydrolysis-explosion and did not appear to hinder the rate or extent of hydrolysis of cellulose. Autohydrolysis-exploded pulps extracted with alkali or ethanol to remove lignin resulted in lower conversions of cellulose (28-36% after 25 h) than unextracted pulps. Alkali extracted pulps arising from autohydrolysis times of more than 10 min at 200 degrees C were less susceptible to enzymic hydrolysis than unextracted pulps and alkali-extracted pulps arising from short autohydrolysis times (e.g., 2 min at 200 degrees C). Autohydrolysis-explosion was as effective a pretreatment method as 0.25M NaOH (70 degrees C/2 h); both yielded pulps that resulted in high cellulose conversions with T. reesei cellulase preparations and Meicelase. Supplementation of T. reesei C-30 cellulase preparations with A. niger ..beta..-glucosidases was effective in promoting the conversion of cellulose into glucose. A ratio of FPU to ..beta..-glucosidase of 1:1.25 was the minimum requirement to achieve more than 80% conversion of cellulose into glucose within 24 h. Other factors which influenced the extent of saccharification were the enzyme-substrate ratio, the substrate concentration, and the saccharification mode. (Refs. 30).

  2. Lignosulfonate and elevated pH can enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonspecific (nonproductive) binding (adsorption) of cellulase by lignin has been identified as a key barrier to reduce cellulase loading for economical sugar and biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) is a relatively new process, but demonstrated robust performance for sugar and biofuel production from woody biomass especially softwoods in terms of yields and energy efficiencies. This study demonstrated the role of lignin sulfonation in enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses – lignosulfonate from SPORL can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses, contrary to the conventional belief that lignin inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis due to nonspecific binding of cellulase. Results The study found that lignosulfonate from SPORL pretreatment and from a commercial source inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulosic substrates at low concentrations due to nonspecific binding of cellulase. Surprisingly, the reduction in enzymatic saccharification efficiency of a lignocellulosic substrate was fully recovered as the concentrations of these two lignosulfonates increased. We hypothesize that lignosulfonate serves as a surfactant to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis at higher concentrations and that this enhancement offsets its inhibitive effect from nonspecific binding of cellulase, when lignosulfonate is applied to lignocellulosic solid substrates. Lignosulfonate can block nonspecific binding of cellulase by bound lignin on the solid substrates, in the same manner as a nonionic surfactant, to significantly enhance enzymatic saccharification. This enhancement is linearly proportional to the amount of lignosulfonate applied which is very important to practical applications. For a SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine solid, 90% cellulose saccharification was achieved at cellulase loading of 13 FPU/g glucan with the application of its corresponding pretreatment hydrolysate

  3. Saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse using enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 for sugars release and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Josiani de Cassia; Travaini, Rodolfo; Marques, Natalia Paganini; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Martins, Daniela Alonso Bocchini

    2016-03-01

    The saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was studied. Fungal enzymes provided slightly higher sugar release than commercial enzymes, working at 50°C. Sugar release increased with temperature increase. Kinetic studies showed remarkable glucose release (4.99 g/L, 3%w/w dry matter) at 60°C, 8 h of hydrolysis, using an enzyme load of 10 FPU (filter paper unit). FPase and β-glucosidase activities increased during saccharification (284% and 270%, respectively). No further significant improvement on glucose release was observed increasing the enzyme load above 7.5 FPU per g of cellulose. Higher dry matter contents increased sugars release, but not yields. The fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided glucose-to-ethanol conversions around to 63%. PMID:26773948

  4. Optimization of cellulase production by Enhydrobacter sp. ACCA2 and its application in biomass saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, Nagaiah; Gopal, Nellaiappan O.; Jose, Polpass Arul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2015-01-01

    Cellulase finds use in saccharification of lignocellulosic agroresidues to fermentable sugars which can be used for production of commercially important metabolites. This study reports endoglucanase (CMCase) production by Enhydrobacter sp. ACCA2. The CMCase activity of the strain ACCA2 was successively improved by optimization of range of physical and nutritional parameter in a set of non-statistical and statistical experiments. Initial non-statistical selection of carbon source, incubation time, temperature and pH resulted in 1.07 fold increase of CMCase activity. In a subsequent statistical method, response surface methodology, optimization of medium components such as carboxymethylcellulose, peptone, NaCl, MgSO4, K2HPO4, and (NH4)2SO4 yielded further increase up to 2.39 fold CMCase activity. The cellulolytic potential was evaluated in biomass saccharification with different plant materials and the results revealed that the enzyme produced by strain may have significant commercial values for industrial saccharification process. Moreover, this is the first report of cellulase production by an Enhydrobacter spp. PMID:26500615

  5. Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

    2011-11-01

    A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

  6. Saccharification of bamboo carbohydrates for the production of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    De Menezes, T.J.B.; Azzini, A.; Dos Santos, C.L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Bamboo carbohydrates were hydrolyzed with commercial amylases and a mixture of fungal culture broths containing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The effects of cooking temperature and the size of fiber particles were also investigated. It was found that the higher the cooking temperature, the higher the rate of sugar formation and the lower the viscosity of the slurry. Additions of cellulose and hemicellulose digesting enzymes increased the sugar yield and decreased the viscosity of both the cooked and noncooked slurries. A smaller size of particle appeared to favor the average saccharification rate. Although glucose, xylose, and cellobiose were present in the hydrolysates, only 50% of the total carbohydrate was digested, and 78.9% of this was converted to reducing sugars. The alcohol efficiency for the fermentation of cooked and noncooked mashes by Saccharomyces was about 85%.

  7. Photon up-conversion increases biomass yield in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Menon, Kavya R; Jose, Steffi; Suraishkumar, Gadi K

    2014-12-01

    Photon up-conversion, a process whereby lower energy radiations are converted to higher energy levels via the use of appropriate phosphor systems, was employed as a novel strategy for improving microalgal growth and lipid productivity. Photon up-conversion enables the utilization of regions of the solar spectrum, beyond the typical photosynthetically active radiation, that are usually wasted or are damaging to the algae. The effects of up-conversion of red light by two distinct sets of up-conversion phosphors were studied in the model microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Up-conversion by set 1 phosphors led to a 2.85 fold increase in biomass concentration and a 3.2 fold increase in specific growth rate of the microalgae. While up-conversion by set 2 phosphors resulted in a 30% increase in biomass and 12% increase in specific intracellular neutral lipid, while the specific growth rates were comparable to that of the control. Furthermore, up-conversion resulted in higher levels of specific intracellular reactive oxygen species in C. vulgaris. Up-conversion of red light (654 nm) was shown to improve biomass yields in C. vulgaris. In principle, up-conversion can be used to increase the utilization range of the electromagnetic spectrum for improved cultivation of photosynthetic systems such as plants, algae, and microalgae. PMID:25155721

  8. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery.

    PubMed

    Donaj, Pawel J; Kaminsky, W; Buzeto, F; Yang, W

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl(4)/MgCl(2) for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46%wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30%wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24%wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650°C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730°C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7%wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9%wt. at 650 and 730°C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5%wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8%wt. at 500 and 650°C, respectively. At 650°C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6%wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management. PMID:22093704

  9. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Donaj, Pawel J.; Kaminsky, W.; Buzeto, F.; Yang, W.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of mixed polyolefins in fluidized bed has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta catalyst (Z-N: TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst has a strong influence on product distribution, increasing gas fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% when the catalyst was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed the concept of treatment of mixed polyolefins without a need of separation. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2} for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46% wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30% wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24% wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3 kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7% wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9% wt. at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5% wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8% wt. at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C, respectively. At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6% wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained

  10. Comparison of separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated wheat straw to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y- 2034 from wheat straw (WS) by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pretreated WS (86 g L-1) after enzymatic saccharification was 2...

  11. The optimization of saccharification of desulfurated red seaweed-derived polysaccharides and analysis of their composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Li, Yinping; Mou, Haijin; Gao, Yan; Hwang, Hueymin; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Currently processes of ethanol production from desulfurated red seaweed derived polysaccharides (De-RSDP) are well established. However, the optimization of the enzymatic saccharification process has not been reported. In this study, De-RSDP from Kappaphycus alvarezii was subjected to saccharification by different enzymes, including pectinase, cellobiase, cellulase, and hemicellulase. The best saccharification enzyme was determined as pectinase. In order to obtain more reducing sugar (RS), the single-factor experiment followed by central composite rotatable design (CCD) was used to optimize the parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimal saccharification parameters of De-RSDP were 4400 U/g pectinase dosage, 96 hr, and 55.5°C, respectively, and the yield of RS reached 81.3%. Subsequently, the saccharification liquids of De-RSDP were isolated and purified with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to separate saccharides with different molecular weights. Simultaneously, the composition of saccharification liquids was analyzed by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone high-pressure liquid chromatography (PMP-HPLC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The result showed that the content is mainly composed of galactose (65.2%) with the average molecular mass in the fourth peak 181.1 Da. The saccharification liquids of De-RSDP inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae L-4 for ethanol fermentation produced 0.3 g ethanol/g De-RSDP, which corresponded to 71.8% of the theoretical yield (0.38 g ethanol/g). PMID:24117151

  12. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus: steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C; Eugenio, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Steam explosion and steam pre-treatment have proved capable of enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. However, until now, these methods had not been compared under the same operational conditions and using the same raw material. Both pre-treatments lead to increased yields in the saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus; but results have been better with steam pre-treatments, despite the more accessible surface of exploded samples. The reason for this finding could be enzymatic inhibition: steam explosion causes a more extensive extraction of hemicelluloses and releases a greater amount of degradation products which can inhibit enzymatic action. Enzymatic inhibition is also dependent on the amount and chemical structure of lignin, which was also a contributing factor to the lower enzymatic yields obtained with the most severe pre-treatment. Thus, the highest yields (46.7% glucose and 73.4% xylose yields) were obtained after two cycle of steam treatment, of 5 and 3 min, at 183°C. PMID:24980031

  13. PUTATIVE ALLELES FOR INCREASED YIELD FROM SOYBEAN PLANT INTRODUCTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving seed yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars is an important goal of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate two soybean plant introductions (PIs) as sources of alleles for the enhancement of seed yield in North American cultivars. A soybean population ...

  14. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    DOEpatents

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  15. Expanding Genetic Diversity to Increase Soybean Seed Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, fewer than 100 ancestral lines have contributed to currently grown cultivars and more than 50% of that contribution comes from only 5 lines. Based on national production statistics, the average rate of yield improvement from 1924 to 1978 is nearly identical to the rate of from ...

  16. Soil health for increasing sugarcane yield and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of the soil to continually produce high yields of sugarcane. Soil organic matter, native fertility, adequate moisture and drainage, soil workability, and high levels of beneficial microorganisms all contribute to soil health. Sugarcane growers in Louisiana ...

  17. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016. PMID:26701152

  18. How to increase the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA)?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a relatively sensitive, accurate, and safe technique in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. There are many factors influencing the yield of TBNA, such as location and the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLN), types of the needle used and the experience of the bronchoscopist. Furthermore, knowledge of anatomy, guidance, availability of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) and the number of aspirates, preparation of specimen and interpretations of the cytology and histology of specimens all play important roles. Especially, whether an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is required for TBNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses is currently a disputed subject.

  19. Study of chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for producing fermentable sugars from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated a cost-effective approach for the conversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars. The composition of rice straw pretreated with 1 % sulfuric acid or 1 % sodium hydroxide solution was compared to rice straw with no chemical pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification experiments on non-pretreated rice straw (NPRS), pretreated rice straw (PRS), and pretreated rice straw with acid hydrolysate (PRSAH) were conducted in a series of batch reactors. The results indicated that pretreating the rice straw with dilute acid and base increased the cellulose content from 38 % to over 50 %. During enzymatic saccharification, straight aliphatic cellulose was hydrolyzed before branched hemicellulose, and glucose was the major hydrolysis product. The glucose yield was 0.52 g glucose/g for NPRS and was comparable to the yields of 0.50 g glucose/g for PRS and 0.58 g glucose/g for PRSAH. The hydrolysis of rice straw to produce glucose can be described by a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 0.0550 d(-1) for NPRS, 0.0653 d(-1) for PRSAH, and 0.0654 d(-1) for PRS. Overall, the production of fermentable sugars from ground rice straw will be more cost effective if the straw is not pretreated with chemicals. PMID:24346765

  20. Grape marc as a source of carbohydrates for bioethanol: Chemical composition, pre-treatment and saccharification.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Kendall R; Hsieh, Yves S Y; Betts, Natalie S; Byrt, Caitlin S; Henderson, Marilyn; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-10-01

    Global grape production could generate up to 13 Mt/yr of wasted biomass. The compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon (red marc) and Sauvignon Blanc (white marc) were analyzed with a view to using marc as raw material for biofuel production. On a dry weight basis, 31-54% w/w of the grape marc consisted of carbohydrate, of which 47-80% was soluble in aqueous media. Ethanol insoluble residues consisted mainly of polyphenols, pectic polysaccharides, heteroxylans and cellulose. Acid and thermal pre-treatments were investigated for their effects on subsequent cellulose saccharification. A 0.5M sulfuric acid pre-treatment yielded a 10% increase in the amount of liberated glucose after enzymatic saccharification. The theoretical amount of bioethanol that could be produced by fermentation of grape marc was up to 400 L/t. However, bioethanol from only soluble carbohydrates could yield 270 L/t, leaving a polyphenol enriched fraction that may be used in animal feed or as fertilizer. PMID:26117238

  1. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Cangmei; Sun, Lili; Ali, Imran; Huang, Linli; Yu, Chunyan; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gan, Yinbo; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS) analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties. PMID:27415441

  2. Linkage Mapping of Stem Saccharification Digestibility in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bohan; Gómez, Leonardo D; Hua, Cangmei; Sun, Lili; Ali, Imran; Huang, Linli; Yu, Chunyan; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gan, Yinbo; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of almost half of the world population, and in excess 90% of it is grown and consumed in Asia, but the disposal of rice straw poses a problem for farmers, who often burn it in the fields, causing health and environmental problems. However, with increased focus on the development of sustainable biofuel production, rice straw has been recognized as a potential feedstock for non-food derived biofuel production. Currently, the commercial realization of rice as a biofuel feedstock is constrained by the high cost of industrial saccharification processes needed to release sugar for fermentation. This study is focused on the alteration of lignin content, and cell wall chemotypes and structures, and their effects on the saccharification potential of rice lignocellulosic biomass. A recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between the lowland rice variety IR1552 and the upland rice variety Azucena with 271 molecular markers for quantitative trait SNP (QTS) analyses was used. After association analysis of 271 markers for saccharification potential, 1 locus and 4 pairs of epistatic loci were found to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility phenotype, and an inverse relationship between reducing sugar and lignin content in these recombinant inbred lines was identified. As a result of QTS analyses, several cell-wall associated candidate genes are proposed that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding and may aid breeders to produce potential high saccharification rice varieties. PMID:27415441

  3. Technique for increasing yield of trifluoroni-trosomethane-tetrafluoro- ethylene copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glickman, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    Polymerization technique using equimolar amounts of trifluoronitrosomethane and tetrafluoroethylene to increase yield of copolymer is described. Yields were increased by ninety percent and final product displayed better physical properties. Test equipment and chemical reactions for process are described.

  4. Retain can increase nutmeat yield of pecan trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient fruit-set can limit profitability of specific pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. The present study examined efficacy of ReTain® (Valent BioSciences, Libertyville, IL), a natural ethylene inhibitor, for increasing fruit-set in pecan trees grown at three distinct l...

  5. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved. PMID:26961713

  6. Comparative study of sulfite pretreatments for robust enzymatic saccharification of corn cob residue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corn cob residue (CCR) is a kind of waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. The moderated sulphite processes were used to enhance the hydrophily of the material by sulfonation and hydrolysis. The composition, FT-IR spectra, and conductometric titrations of the pretreated materials were measured to characterize variations of the CCR in different sulfite pretreated environments. And the objective of this study is to compare the saccharification rate and yield of the samples caused by these variations. Results It was found that the lignin in the CCR (43.2%) had reduced to 37.8%, 38.0%, 35.9%, and 35.5% after the sulfite pretreatment in neutral, acidic, alkaline, and ethanol environments, respectively. The sulfite pretreatments enhanced the glucose yield of the CCR. Moreover, the ethanol sulfite sample had the highest glucose yield (81.2%, based on the cellulose in the treated sample) among the saccharification samples, which was over 10% higher than that of the raw material (70.6%). More sulfonic groups and weak acid groups were produced during the sulfite pretreatments. Meanwhile, the ethanol sulfite treated sample had the highest sulfonic group (0.103 mmol/g) and weak acid groups (1.85 mmol/g) in all sulfite treated samples. In FT-IR spectra, the variation of bands at 1168 and 1190 cm-1 confirmed lignin sulfonation during sulfite pretreatment. The disappearance of the band at 1458 cm-1 implied the methoxyl on lignin had been removed during the sulfite pretreatments. Conclusions It can be concluded that the lignin in the CCR can be degraded and sulfonated during the sulfite pretreatments. The pretreatments improve the hydrophility of the samples because of the increase in sulfonic group and weak acid groups, which enhances the glucose yield of the material. The ethanol sulfite pretreatment is the best method for lignin removal and with the highest glucose yield. PMID:23206858

  7. Saccharification of sunflower stalks using lignocellulases from a fungal consortium comprising Pholiota adiposa and Armillaria gemina.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Kim, Tae-Su; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Li, Jinglin; Park, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Joon-Ho; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-09-01

    Lignocellulases from Armillaria gemina and Pholiota adiposa are efficient in hydrolyzing aspen and poplar biomass, respectively. In the present study, lignocellulosic enzymes obtained from a fungal consortium comprising P. adiposa and A. gemina were used for the saccharification of sunflower stalks. Sunflower stalks were thermochemically pretreated using 2 % NaOH at 50 °C for 24 h. The saccharification process parameters including substrate concentration, enzyme loading, pH, and temperature were optimized using response surface methodology to improve the saccharification yield. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis (84.3 %) was obtained using the following conditions: enzyme loading 10 FPU/g-substrate, substrate 5.5 %, temperature 50 °C, and pH 4.5. The hydrolysis yield obtained using the enzymes from the fungal consortium was equivalent to that obtained using a mixture of commercial enzymes Celluclast and Novozyme β-glucosidase. Addition of up to 500 ppm of heavy metal ions (As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) during saccharification did not significantly affect the saccharification yield. Thus, the biomass grown for phytoremediation of heavy metals can be used for the production of reducing sugars followed by ethanol fermentation. PMID:25924967

  8. Simultaneous Cellulase Production, Saccharification and Detoxification Using Dilute Acid Hydrolysate of S. spontaneum with Trichoderma reesei NCIM 992 and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sateesh, Lanka; Rodhe, Adivikatla Vimala; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Yadav, Kothagauni Srilekha; Prasad, Yenumulagerard; Rao, Linga Venkateswar

    2012-06-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials has several limitations. One aspect is the high production cost of cellulases used for saccharification of substrate and inhibition of fermenting yeast due to inhibitors released in acid hydrolysis. In the present work we have made an attempt to achieve simultaneous cellulases production, saccharification and detoxification using dilute acid hydrolysate of Saccharum spontaneum with and without addition of nutrients, supplemented with acid hydrolyzed biomass prior to inoculation in one set and after 3 days of inoculation in another set. Organisms used were T. reesei NCIM 992, and Aspergillus niger isolated in our laboratory. Cellulase yield obtained was 0.8 IU/ml on fourth day with T. reesei. Sugars were found to increase from fourth to fifth day, when hydrolysate was supplemented with nutrients and acid hydrolyzed biomass followed by inoculation with T. reesei. Phenolics were also found to decrease by 67%. PMID:23729891

  9. Conversion of steam-exploded cedar into ethanol using simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification process.

    PubMed

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Takamatsu, Tomoki; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification SSDF process of steam-exploded cedar using a detoxification microorganism, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus A1, to facilitate efficient ethanol production. Steam explosion was applied as a pretreatment before enzymatic saccharification followed by alcohol fermentation. The highest glucose conversion rate was observed in the sample pretreated with a steam pressure of 45atm for 5min. Alcohol production by a heat-tolerant yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA11, was inhibited strongly by inhibitory materials present in the steam-exploded cedar, such as formic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. The maximum amount of ethanol, i.e., 0.155g ethanol/g dry steam-exploded cedar, which corresponded to 74% of the theoretical ethanol yield, was obtained using the SSDF when U. thermosphaericus A1 degraded the inhibitory materials. A fed batch SSDF culture, in which U. thermosphaericus A1 was used to maintain low concentrations of inhibitory materials, was effective for increasing the ethanol concentration. PMID:25461004

  10. Thermo-chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for enhancing saccharification of catalpa sawdust.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Li, Fan; Fan, Shiyang; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    To improve the reducing sugar production from catalpa sawdust, thermo-chemical pretreatments were examined and the chemicals used including NaOH, Ca(OH)2, H2SO4, and HCl. The hemicellulose solubilization and cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) were significantly increased after thermo-alkaline pretreatments, and the thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment showed the best improvement for reducing sugar production comparing to other three pretreatments. The conditions of thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were systematically optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the reducing sugar yield increased by 1185.7% comparing to the control. This study indicates that the thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment is ideal for the saccharification of catalpa sawdust and that catalpa sawdust is a promising raw material for biofuel. PMID:26802185

  11. Recombinant hosts suitable for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Zhou, Shengde

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides recombinant host cells containing at least one heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polysaccharase under the transcriptional control of a surrogate promoter capable of increasing the expression of the polysaccharase. In addition, the invention further provides such hosts with genes encoding secretory protein/s to facilitate the secretion of the expressed polysaccharase. Preferred hosts of the invention are ethanologenic and capable of carrying out simultaneous saccharification fermentation resulting in the production of ethanol from complex cellulose substrates.

  12. Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.

    PubMed

    Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2013-02-15

    Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements. PMID:23194550

  13. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass using glycerol thermal processing (GTP).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Barone, Justin R; Renneckar, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Biomass was heated (200-240°C) in the presence of glycerol, for 4-12 min, under shear to disrupt the native cell wall architecture. The impact of this method, named glycerol thermal processing (GTP), on saccharification efficiency of the hardwood Liquidambar styraciflua, and a control cellulose sample was studied as a function of treatment severity. Furthermore, the enzymatic conversion of samples with varying compositions was studied after extraction of the structural polymers. Interestingly, the sweet gum processed materials crystallinity index increased by 10% of the initial value. The experiments revealed that the residual lignin was not a barrier to limiting the digestibility of cellulose after pretreatment yielding up to 70% glucose based on the starting wood material. Further xylan removal greatly improved the cellulose hydrolysis rate, converting nearly 70% of the cellulose into glucose within 24h, and reaching 78% of ultimate glucan digestibility after 72 h. PMID:26384086

  14. Comparison of Dilute Acid and Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass: Biomass Recalcitrance, Delignification and Enzymatic Saccharification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficiency of two biomass pretreatment technologies, dilute acid hydrolysis and dissolution in an ionic liquid, are compared in terms of delignification, saccharification efficiency and saccharide yields with switchgrass serving as a model bioenergy crop. When subject to ionic liquid pretreatme...

  15. ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF ALKALINE PEROXIDE PRETREATED RICE HULLS TO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice hulls used in this study contained 35.62 +/- 0.12% cellulose and 11.96 +/- 0.73% hemicellulose. Alkaline H2O2 pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of rice hull cellulose and hemicellulose to simple sugars. The yield of sugars from diluted alkaline ...

  16. Industrial evaluation of a dynamic controller for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dry grind corn industry is the largest ethanol producer in the US. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is one of the most critical process steps that determines the ethanol yields and conversion efficiency of the whole process. Due to its complexity, the SSF process is not compl...

  17. Fast Enzymatic Saccharification of Switchgrass After Pretreatment with Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Cowins, Janet V.

    2010-01-01

    The pretreatment of cellulose using ionic liquids (ILs) has been shown to be an effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; this technique affords a fast and complete saccharification of cellulose into reducing sugars (Dadi et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006; 95:904 910; Liu and Chen, Chinese Sci Bull. 2006; 51:2432 2436; Zhao et al., J Biotechnol. 2009; 139:47 54). Motivated by these advances, this study examines the effect of IL-pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of purified xylan (as a model system of hemicellulose) and switchgrass (as a real lignocellulose). The IL-pretreatment resulted in no improvement in the hydrolysis of xylan. The likely reason is that pure xylan has a low degree of polymerization (DP), and is readily biodegraded even without any pretreatment. However, in real cellulosic materials (such as switchgrass), xylan is entrapped within the cellulosic matrix, and cannot be conveniently accessed by enzymes. Our data demonstrate that the IL-pretreatment of switchgrass significantly improved the enzymatic saccharification of both cellulose (96% D-glucose yield in 24 h) and xylan (63% D-xylose yield in 24 h). The compositional analysis of switchgrass suggests a lower lignin content after IL-pretreatment. In addition, the infrared spectrum of regenerated switchgrass indicates a lower substrate crystallinity, whereas the enzyme adsorption isotherm further implies that the regenerated substrate is more accessible to enzymes. This study has further confirmed that ILpretreatment is an effective tool in enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass, and allowing a more complete saccharification.

  18. Greater sensitivity to drought accompanies maize yield increase in the U.S. Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lobell, David B; Roberts, Michael J; Schlenker, Wolfram; Braun, Noah; Little, Bertis B; Rejesus, Roderick M; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-05-01

    A key question for climate change adaptation is whether existing cropping systems can become less sensitive to climate variations. We use a field-level data set on maize and soybean yields in the central United States for 1995 through 2012 to examine changes in drought sensitivity. Although yields have increased in absolute value under all levels of stress for both crops, the sensitivity of maize yields to drought stress associated with high vapor pressure deficits has increased. The greater sensitivity has occurred despite cultivar improvements and increased carbon dioxide and reflects the agronomic trend toward higher sowing densities. The results suggest that agronomic changes tend to translate improved drought tolerance of plants to higher average yields but not to decreasing drought sensitivity of yields at the field scale. PMID:24786079

  19. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining availability in Asia, due to lower yields and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quali...

  20. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  1. African crop yield reductions due to increasingly unbalanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus consumption.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Marijn; Folberth, Christian; Balkovič, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Fritz, Steffen; Janssens, Ivan A; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Skalský, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-04-01

    The impact of soil nutrient depletion on crop production has been known for decades, but robust assessments of the impact of increasingly unbalanced nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application rates on crop production are lacking. Here, we use crop response functions based on 741 FAO maize crop trials and EPIC crop modeling across Africa to examine maize yield deficits resulting from unbalanced N : P applications under low, medium, and high input scenarios, for past (1975), current, and future N : P mass ratios of respectively, 1 : 0.29, 1 : 0.15, and 1 : 0.05. At low N inputs (10 kg ha(-1)), current yield deficits amount to 10% but will increase up to 27% under the assumed future N : P ratio, while at medium N inputs (50 kg N ha(-1)), future yield losses could amount to over 40%. The EPIC crop model was then used to simulate maize yields across Africa. The model results showed relative median future yield reductions at low N inputs of 40%, and 50% at medium and high inputs, albeit with large spatial variability. Dominant low-quality soils such as Ferralsols, which are strongly adsorbing P, and Arenosols with a low nutrient retention capacity, are associated with a strong yield decline, although Arenosols show very variable crop yield losses at low inputs. Optimal N : P ratios, i.e. those where the lowest amount of applied P produces the highest yield (given N input) where calculated with EPIC to be as low as 1 : 0.5. Finally, we estimated the additional P required given current N inputs, and given N inputs that would allow Africa to close yield gaps (ca. 70%). At current N inputs, P consumption would have to increase 2.3-fold to be optimal, and to increase 11.7-fold to close yield gaps. The P demand to overcome these yield deficits would provide a significant additional pressure on current global extraction of P resources. PMID:24470387

  2. African crop yield reductions due to increasingly unbalanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Folberth, Christian; Balkovič, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Fritz, Steffen; Janssens, Ivan A.; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Skalský, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Peñuealas, Josep

    2014-05-01

    The impact of soil nutrient depletion on crop production has been known for decades, but robust assessments of the impact of increasingly unbalanced nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application rates on crop production are lacking. Here, we use crop response functions based on 741 FAO maize crop trials and EPIC crop modeling across Africa to examine maize yield deficits resulting from unbalanced N:P applications under low, medium, and high input scenarios, for past (1975), current, and future N:P mass ratios of respectively, 1:0.29, 1:0.15, and 1:0.05. At low N inputs (10 kg/ha), current yield deficits amount to 10% but will increase up to 27% under the assumed future N:P ratio, while at medium N inputs (50 kg N/ha), future yield losses could amount to over 40%. The EPIC crop model was then used to simulate maize yields across Africa. The model results showed relative median future yield reductions at low N inputs of 40%, and 50% at medium and high inputs, albeit with large spatial variability. Dominant low-quality soils such as Ferralsols, which are strongly adsorbing P, and Arenosols with a low nutrient retention capacity, are associated with a strong yield decline, although Arenosols show very variable crop yield losses at low inputs. Optimal N:P ratios, i.e. those where the lowest amount of applied P produces the highest yield (given N input) where calculated with EPIC to be as low as 1:0.5. Finally, we estimated the additional P required given current N inputs, and given N inputs that would allow Africa to close yield gaps (ca. 70%). At current N inputs, P consumption would have to increase 2.3-fold to be optimal, and to increase 11.7-fold to close yield gaps. The P demand to overcome these yield deficits would provide a significant additional pressure on current global extraction of P resources.

  3. Wildlife-friendly farming increases crop yield: evidence for ecological intensification.

    PubMed

    Pywell, Richard F; Heard, Matthew S; Woodcock, Ben A; Hinsley, Shelley; Ridding, Lucy; Nowakowski, Marek; Bullock, James M

    2015-10-01

    Ecological intensification has been promoted as a means to achieve environmentally sustainable increases in crop yields by enhancing ecosystem functions that regulate and support production. There is, however, little direct evidence of yield benefits from ecological intensification on commercial farms growing globally important foodstuffs (grains, oilseeds and pulses). We replicated two treatments removing 3 or 8% of land at the field edge from production to create wildlife habitat in 50-60 ha patches over a 900 ha commercial arable farm in central England, and compared these to a business as usual control (no land removed). In the control fields, crop yields were reduced by as much as 38% at the field edge. Habitat creation in these lower yielding areas led to increased yield in the cropped areas of the fields, and this positive effect became more pronounced over 6 years. As a consequence, yields at the field scale were maintained--and, indeed, enhanced for some crops--despite the loss of cropland for habitat creation. These results suggested that over a 5-year crop rotation, there would be no adverse impact on overall yield in terms of monetary value or nutritional energy. This study provides a clear demonstration that wildlife-friendly management which supports ecosystem services is compatible with, and can even increase, crop yields. PMID:26423846

  4. Wildlife-friendly farming increases crop yield: evidence for ecological intensification

    PubMed Central

    Pywell, Richard F.; Heard, Matthew S.; Woodcock, Ben A.; Hinsley, Shelley; Ridding, Lucy; Nowakowski, Marek; Bullock, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological intensification has been promoted as a means to achieve environmentally sustainable increases in crop yields by enhancing ecosystem functions that regulate and support production. There is, however, little direct evidence of yield benefits from ecological intensification on commercial farms growing globally important foodstuffs (grains, oilseeds and pulses). We replicated two treatments removing 3 or 8% of land at the field edge from production to create wildlife habitat in 50–60 ha patches over a 900 ha commercial arable farm in central England, and compared these to a business as usual control (no land removed). In the control fields, crop yields were reduced by as much as 38% at the field edge. Habitat creation in these lower yielding areas led to increased yield in the cropped areas of the fields, and this positive effect became more pronounced over 6 years. As a consequence, yields at the field scale were maintained—and, indeed, enhanced for some crops—despite the loss of cropland for habitat creation. These results suggested that over a 5-year crop rotation, there would be no adverse impact on overall yield in terms of monetary value or nutritional energy. This study provides a clear demonstration that wildlife-friendly management which supports ecosystem services is compatible with, and can even increase, crop yields. PMID:26423846

  5. Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions. PMID:25358745

  6. Improving yield of industrial biomass propagation by increasing the Trx2p dosage

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The beneficial effect of improving yeast redox response by increasing thioredoxin levels has been shown. Decreased lipid and protein oxidation is reflected in an increased biomass yield. In addition, increased redox defenses like glutathione and ROS scavenging enzymes are observed. Furthermore, the wine produced with the modified strain presented more aromatic compounds than the control strain, and its organoleptic properties increased. Here, we hypothesize that reduced glycolytic enzyme carbonylation can increase not only the glycolytic flux but also, and consequently, the biomass yield in the industrial biomass propagation process. The commercial use of the thioredoxin bioengineered yeast as an antioxidant dietetic supplement is also discussed. PMID:21326836

  7. Comparison of simultaneous and separate processes: saccharification and thermophilic L-lactate fermentation of catch crop and aquatic plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Akao, Satoshi; Maeda, Koutaro; Nakatani, Shingo; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Nagare, Hideaki; Maeda, Morihiro; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Catch crop candidates (corn, guinea grass) for recovering nutrients from farm soil and aquatic plants (water caltrop, water hyacinth) were utilized to produce L-lactic acid. The efficiencies ofpre-treatment methods for enzymatic saccharification and L-lactate production of two fermentation processes, thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), as well as separate saccharification and fermentation, were compared. Conditions were set at 55 degrees C and pH 5.5 for non-sterile fermentation. Alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment proved the most effective for saccharification in pre-treated corn, guinea grass, water caltrop and water hyacinth with glucose yields of 0.23, 0.20, 0.11 and 0.14 g/g-dry native biomass (24-hour incubation period), respectively. Examination of the two types of thermophilic L-lactate fermentation employed following alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment and saccharification demonstrated that the L-lactate yield obtained using SSF (0.15 g/g in the case of corn) was lower than that obtained using separate saccharification and fermentation (0.28 g/g in the case of corn). The lower yield obtained from SSF is likely to have resulted from the saccharification conditions used in the present study, as the possibility of cellulase deactivation during SSF by thermophilic L-lactate producing bacteria existed. A cellulase that retains high activity levels under non-sterile conditions and a L-lactate producer without cellulose hydrolysis activity would be required in order for SSF to serve as an effective method of L-lactate production. PMID:22988611

  8. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility. PMID:26080104

  9. Enhanced biological straw saccharification through coculturing of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Al-Hothaly, Khalid; Mouradov, Aidyn; Smith, Andrew T; Ball, Andrew S; Adetutu, Eric M

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic waste (LCW) is an abundant, low-cost, and inedible substrate for the induction of lignocellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic bioethanol production using an efficient, environmentally friendly, and economical biological approach. In this study, 30 different lignocellulose-degrading bacterial and 18 fungal isolates were quantitatively screened individually for the saccharification of four different ball-milled straw substrates: wheat, rice, sugarcane, and pea straw. Rice and sugarcane straws which had similar Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy profiles were more degradable, and resulted in more hydrolytic enzyme production than wheat and pea straws. Crude enzyme produced on native straws performed better than those on artificial substrates (such as cellulose and xylan). Four fungal and five bacterial isolates were selected (based on their high strawase activities) for constructing dual and triple microbial combinations to investigate microbial synergistic effects on saccharification. Combinations such as FUNG16-FUNG17 (Neosartorya fischeri-Myceliophthora thermophila) and RMIT10-RMIT11 (Aeromonas hydrophila-Pseudomonas poae) enhanced saccharification (3- and 6.6-folds, respectively) compared with their monocultures indicating the beneficial effects of synergism between those isolates. Dual isolate combinations were more efficient at straw saccharification than triple combinations in both bacterial and fungal assays. Overall, co-culturing can result in significant increases in saccharification which may offer significant commercial potential for the use of microbial consortia. PMID:25724976

  10. Improvement of saccharification process for bioethanol production from Undaria sp. by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Recently, many research works have reported on improvements to the saccharification process that increase bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. Gamma irradiation has been studied as an effective method for the depolymerization of complex polysaccharides. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on saccharification of Undaria biomass for bioethanol production was investigated. The Undaria biomass was irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy and then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid. The effects of gamma irradiation were measured through microscopic analysis to determine morphological changes and concentration of the reducing sugar of hydrolysates. Microscopic images show that gamma irradiation causes structure breakage of the Undaria cell wall. The concentration of reducing sugar of hydrolysates significantly increased as a result of gamma irradiation, with or without acid hydrolysis. These results indicate that the combined method of gamma irradiation with acid hydrolysis can significantly improve the saccharification process for bioethanol production from marine algae materials.

  11. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  13. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    PubMed

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  14. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Vial, Eric; Gebhardt, Mary; Lacher, Craig; Kumar, Shiv; Combs, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining area of production in South East Asia, due to lower yields, and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quality (both seed Se concentration and speciation). Selenium was provided to five lentil accessions as selenate or selenite by foliar or soil application at rates of 0, 10, 20, or 30 kg Se/ha and the resulting lentil biomass, grain yield, seed Se concentration, and Se speciation was determined. Seed Se concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Seed Se speciation was measured using ICP-mass spectrometry with a high performance liquid chromatography (ICP-MS-LC) system. Foliar application of Se significantly increased lentil biomass (5586 vs. 7361 kg/ha), grain yield (1732 vs. 2468 kg /ha), and seed Se concentrations (0.8 vs. 2.4 μg/g) compared to soil application. In general, both application methods and both forms of Se increased concentrations of organic Se forms (selenocysteine and selenomethionine) in lentil seeds. Not surprisingly, the high yielding CDC Redberry had the highest levels of biomass and grain yield of all varieties evaluated. Eston, ILL505, and CDC Robin had the greatest responses to Se fertilization with respect to both grain yield, seed Se concentration and speciation; thus, use of these varieties in areas with low-Se soils might require Se fertilization to reach yield potentials. PMID:26042141

  15. Expression of fungal acetyl xylan esterase in Arabidopsis thaliana improves saccharification of stem lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Chong, Sun-Li; Gómez, Leonardo D; Miedes, Eva; Banasiak, Alicja; Ratke, Christine; Gaertner, Cyril; Mouille, Grégory; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Molina, Antonio; Sellstedt, Anita; Tenkanen, Maija; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall hemicelluloses and pectins are O-acetylated at specific positions, but the significance of these substitutions is poorly understood. Using a transgenic approach, we investigated how reducing the extent of O-acetylation in xylan affects cell wall chemistry, plant performance and the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to saccharification. The Aspergillus niger acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 was expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either the constitutively expressed 35S CAMV promoter or a woody-tissue-specific GT43B aspen promoter, and the protein was targeted to the apoplast by its native signal peptide, resulting in elevated acetyl esterase activity in soluble and wall-bound protein extracts and reduced xylan acetylation. No significant alterations in cell wall composition were observed in the transgenic lines, but their xylans were more easily digested by a β-1,4-endoxylanase, and more readily extracted by hot water, acids or alkali. Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose after hot water and alkali pretreatments produced up to 20% more reducing sugars in several lines. Fermentation by Trametes versicolor of tissue hydrolysates from the line with a 30% reduction in acetyl content yielded ~70% more ethanol compared with wild type. Plants expressing 35S:AnAXE1 and pGT43B:AnAXE1 developed normally and showed increased resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, probably due to constitutive activation of defence pathways. However, unintended changes in xyloglucan and pectin acetylation were only observed in 35S:AnAXE1-expressing plants. This study demonstrates that postsynthetic xylan deacetylation in woody tissues is a promising strategy for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. PMID:25960248

  16. Irrigation with desalinated water: A step toward increasing water saving and crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Avner; Israeli, Yair; Elingold, Idan; Levi, Menashe; Levkovitch, Irit; Russo, David; Assouline, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of two different approaches to managing irrigation water salinity: salt leaching from the field ("conventional" management) and water desalination before field application ("alternative" management). Freshwater commonly used for irrigation (FW) and desalinated water (DS) were applied to the high-water-demanding crop banana at four different rates. Both irrigation rate and water salinity significantly affected yield. DS application consistently produced higher yields than FW, independently of irrigation rate. The highest yield for FW-irrigation was achieved with the highest irrigation rate, whereas the same yield was obtained in the case of DS-irrigation with practically half the amount of water. Yield decreased with FW-irrigation, even when the water salinity, ECi, was lower than the limit considered safe for soil and crops. Irrigating with FW provided a massive amount of salt which accumulated in the rhizosphere, inducing increased osmotic potential of the soil solution and impairing plant water uptake. Furthermore, applying the "conventional" management, a significant amount of salt is leached from the rhizosphere, accumulating in deeper soil layers, and eventually reaching groundwater reservoirs, thus contributing to the deterioration of both soil and water quality. Removal of salt excess from the water before it reaches the field by means of DS-irrigation may save significant amounts of irrigation water by reducing the salt leaching requirements while increasing yield and improving fruit quality, and decreasing salt load in the groundwater.

  17. Multigene manipulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation increases CO2 fixation and biomass yield in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Andrew J; McAusland, Lorna; Headland, Lauren R; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A

    2015-07-01

    Over the next 40 years it has been estimated that a 50% increase in the yield of grain crops such as wheat and rice will be required to meet the food and fuel demands of the increasing world population. Transgenic tobacco plants have been generated with altered combinations of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and the cyanobacterial putative-inorganic carbon transporter B, ictB, of which have all been identified as targets to improve photosynthesis based on empirical studies. It is shown here that increasing the levels of the three proteins individually significantly increases the rate of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, leaf area, and biomass yield. Furthermore, the daily integrated measurements of photosynthesis showed that mature plants fixed between 12-19% more CO2 than the equivalent wild-type plants. Further enhancement of photosynthesis and yield was observed when sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and ictB were over-expressed together in the same plant. These results demonstrate the potential for the manipulation of photosynthesis, using multigene-stacking approaches, to increase crop yields. PMID:25956882

  18. Multigene manipulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation increases CO2 fixation and biomass yield in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Andrew J.; McAusland, Lorna; Headland, Lauren R.; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the next 40 years it has been estimated that a 50% increase in the yield of grain crops such as wheat and rice will be required to meet the food and fuel demands of the increasing world population. Transgenic tobacco plants have been generated with altered combinations of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and the cyanobacterial putative-inorganic carbon transporter B, ictB, of which have all been identified as targets to improve photosynthesis based on empirical studies. It is shown here that increasing the levels of the three proteins individually significantly increases the rate of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, leaf area, and biomass yield. Furthermore, the daily integrated measurements of photosynthesis showed that mature plants fixed between 12–19% more CO2 than the equivalent wild-type plants. Further enhancement of photosynthesis and yield was observed when sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and ictB were over-expressed together in the same plant. These results demonstrate the potential for the manipulation of photosynthesis, using multigene-stacking approaches, to increase crop yields. PMID:25956882

  19. Blocking miR396 increases rice yield by shaping inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Kun; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yunping; Chen, Pian; Shi, Zhenying; Luo, Jie; Jiang, Daqing; Fan, Fengfeng; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to increase rice productivity to meet the global demand have been the main concern of breeders around the world. Although a growing number of functional genes related to crop yield have been characterized, our understanding of its associated regulatory pathways is limited. Using rice as a model, we find that blocking miR396 greatly increases grain yield by modulating development of auxiliary branches and spikelets through direct induction of the growth regulating factor 6 (OsGRF6) gene. The upregulation of OsGRF6 results in the coordinated activation of several immediate downstream biological clades, including auxin (IAA) biosynthesis, auxin response factors, and branch and spikelet development-related transcription factors. This study describes a conserved microRNA (miRNA)-dependent regulatory module that integrates inflorescence development, auxin biosynthesis and signalling pathways, and could potentially be used in engineering high-yield crop plants. PMID:27250748

  20. Mild pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of cellulose with recycled ionic liquids towards one-batch process.

    PubMed

    Auxenfans, Thomas; Buchoux, Sébastien; Djellab, Karim; Avondo, Carine; Husson, Eric; Sarazin, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    The development of second-generation bioethanol involves minimizing the energy input throughout the processing steps. We report here that efficient ionic liquid pretreatments of cellulose can be achieved with short duration times (20 min) at mild temperature (45°C) with [Emim](+)[MeO(H)PO(2)](-) and at room temperature (25 °C) with [Emim](+)[CH(3)COO](-). In these conditions, yields of glucose were increased by a factor of 3. In addition, the recycling of these two imidazolium-based ILs can be performed in maintaining their efficiency to pretreat cellulose. The short time and mild temperature of cellulose solubilization allowed a one-batch processing of [Emim](+)[MeO(H)PO(2)](-) IL-pretreatment and saccharification. In the range from 0 to 100% IL in an aqueous enzymatic medium, the glucose yields were improved at IL proportions between 10 and 40%. The maximum yield at 10% IL is very promising to consider one batch process as efficient as two-step process. PMID:22840005

  1. Food security: the challenge of increasing wheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, T; Halford, N G

    2014-01-01

    Current wheat yield and consumption is considered in the context of the historical development of wheat, from early domestication through to modern plant breeding, the Green Revolution and wheat’s place as one of the world’s most productive and important crops in the 21st Century. The need for further improvement in the yield potential of wheat in order to meet current and impending challenges is discussed, including rising consumption and the demand for grain for fuel as well as food. Research on the complex genetics underlying wheat yield is described, including the identification of quantitative trait loci and individual genes, and the prospects of biotechnology playing a role in wheat improvement in the future are discussed. The challenge of preparing wheat to meet the problems of drought, high temperature and increasing carbon dioxide concentration that are anticipated to come about as a result of climate change is also reviewed. Wheat yield must be increased while not compromising food safety, and the emerging problem of processing contaminants is reviewed, focussing in particular on acrylamide, a contaminant that forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during high temperature cooking and processing. Wheat breeders are strongly encouraged to consider the contaminant issue when breeding for yield. PMID:25540461

  2. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, James E.; Lasswell, Patrick G.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  3. Increasing yield of deficit irrigated cotton and corn with conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage retains residue and increases precipitation capture, which could reduce irrigation from the Ogallala Aquifer. Our objective was to quantify disk, stubble-mulch, and no -tillage effects on water use and yield of deficit irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum ...

  4. Inoculation of strawberries with AM fungi produced on-farm increased yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculation of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi has the potential to increase or maintain yields and allow for reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, thereby enhancing agricultural sustainability. We inoculated strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv Chandler) prior to o...

  5. Optimization of composition of bizeolitic cracking catalyst in order to increase naphtha yield and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, V.Y.; Kaliko, M.A.; Maslova, A.A.

    1983-11-01

    It is necessary to develop high-selectivity zeolite-containing catalysts that will increase the yield of olefinic hydrocarbons in cracked gas. This paper reports on work aimed at selecting the optimal composition of a bizeolitc zatalyst system to minimize the yield of naphtha cut and improve its octane characteristics. Several series of catalysts samples were prepared. It is found that the optimal composition of the bizeolitic catalyst can be best regulated by gradual introduction of the catalyst containing the SHS zeolite into zeolite-containing catalyst circulating in an operating cracker.

  6. Transgenic alteration of ethylene biosynthesis increases grain yield in maize under field drought-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Habben, Jeffrey E; Bao, Xiaoming; Bate, Nicholas J; DeBruin, Jason L; Dolan, Dennis; Hasegawa, Darren; Helentjaris, Timothy G; Lafitte, Renee H; Lovan, Nina; Mo, Hua; Reimann, Kellie; Schussler, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    A transgenic gene-silencing approach was used to modulate the levels of ethylene biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) and determine its effect on grain yield under drought stress in a comprehensive set of field trials. Commercially relevant transgenic events were created with down-regulated ACC synthases (ACSs), enzymes that catalyse the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. These events had ethylene emission levels reduced approximately 50% compared with nontransgenic nulls. Multiple, independent transgenic hybrids and controls were tested in field trials at managed drought-stress and rain-fed locations throughout the US. Analysis of yield data indicated that transgenic events had significantly increased grain yield over the null comparators, with the best event having a 0.58 Mg/ha (9.3 bushel/acre) increase after a flowering period drought stress. A (genotype × transgene) × environment interaction existed among the events, highlighting the need to better understand the context in which the down-regulation of ACSs functions in maize. Analysis of secondary traits showed that there was a consistent decrease in the anthesis-silking interval and a concomitant increase in kernel number/ear in transgene-positive events versus nulls. Selected events were also field tested under a low-nitrogen treatment, and the best event was found to have a significant 0.44 Mg/ha (7.1 bushel/acre) yield increase. This set of extensive field evaluations demonstrated that down-regulating the ethylene biosynthetic pathway can improve the grain yield of maize under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:24618117

  7. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments of tomato seeds increase the growth and yield of plants.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A; Garcí, D; Sueiro, L; Gilart, F; Porras, E; Licea, L

    2006-05-01

    The effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on growth and yield of tomato (cv Campbell-28) were investigated under field conditions. Tomato seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 100 mT (rms) for 10 min and at 170 mT (rms) for 3 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental plots (30.2 m(2)) and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During the vegetative and generative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses, and the resistance of plants to geminivirus and early blight was evaluated. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each plot and the yield and yield parameters were determined. In the vegetative stage, the treatments led to a significant increase in leaf area, leaf dry weight, and specific leaf area (SLA) per plant. Also, the leaf, stem, and root relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically treated seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. In the generative stage, leaf area per plant and relative growth rates of fruits from plants from magnetically exposed seeds were greater than those of the control plant fruits. At fruit maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (P < .05) the mean fruit weight, the fruit yield per plant, the fruit yield per area, and the equatorial diameter of fruits in comparison with the controls. At the end of the experiment, total dry matter was significantly higher for plants from magnetically treated seeds than that of the controls. A significant delay in the appearance of first symptoms of geminivirus and early blight and a reduced infection rate of early blight were observed in the plants from exposed seeds to MFs. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and yield of tomato crop. PMID:16511881

  8. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of dilute alkaline-pretreated corn stover for enhanced butanol production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Ding, Ji-Cai; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Li; Xu, Guo-Chao; Han, Rui-Zhi; Ni, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process was applied for biobutanol production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 from corn stover (CS). The key influential factors in SSF process, including corn steep liquor concentration, dry biomass and enzyme loading, SSF temperature, inoculation size and pre-hydrolysis time were optimized. In 5-L bioreactor with SSF process, butanol titer and productivity of 12.3 g/L and 0.257 g/L/h were achieved at 48 h, which were 20.6% and 21.2% higher than those in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), respectively. The butanol yield reached 0.175 g/g pretreated CS in SSF, representing 50.9% increase than that in SHF (0.116 g/g pretreated CS). This study proves the feasibility of efficient and economic production of biobutanol from CS by SSF. PMID:26764423

  9. Short-Term Complete Submergence of Rice at the Tillering Stage Increases Yield

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Zhensheng; Li, Lei; Zhou, Qun; Xiao, Yao; Wei, Xing; Zhou, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is a major threat to agricultural production. Most studies have focused on the lower water storage limit in rice fields, whereas few studies have examined the upper water storage limit. This study aimed to explore the effect of waterlogging at the rice tillering stage on rice growth and yield. The early-ripening late japonica variety Yangjing 4227 was selected for this study. The treatments included different submergence depths (submergence depth/plant height: 1/2 (waist submergence), 2/3 (neck submergence), and 1/1 (complete submergence)) and durations (1, 3, and 5 d). The control group was treated with the conventional alternation of drying and wetting. The effects of waterlogging at the tillering stage on root characteristics, dry matter production, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation, yield, yield components, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene expression were explored. Compared with the control group, the 1/1 group showed significant increases in yield, seed-setting rate, photosynthetically efficient leaf area, and OS-ACS3 gene expression after 1 d of submergence. The grain number per panicle, dry weight of the aboveground and belowground parts, and number of adventitious roots also increased. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the panicle number and nitrogen content; however, no significant correlation was found for phosphorus content. If a decrease in rice yield of less than 10% is acceptable, half, 2/3, and complete submergence of the plants can be performed at the tillering stage for 1-3 d; this treatment will increase the space available for rice field water management/control and will improve rainfall resource utilization. PMID:26001084

  10. High-Solids Enzymatic Saccharification Screening Method for Lignocellulosic Biomass (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, C. M.; Stickel, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    The ability to screen new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions is key to developing economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. While much research is being invested in developing pretreatment technologies and enzyme systems that will more efficiently convert cellulosic biomass to sugars, the current standard reactor vessel, a shake flask, that is used for screening enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass is inadequate at high-solids conditions. Shake flasks do not provide adequate mixing at high solids conditions. In this work, a roller bottle reactor was identified as a small-scale high-solids saccharification reaction vessel, and a method was developed for use in screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. This new method addresses mixing issues observed in high-solids saccharifications. In addition, yield calculations from sugar concentrations on a mass basis were used to account for the two-phase nature of the saccharification slurry, which eliminates discontinuities in comparing high-solids to low-solids saccharifications that occur when using concentrations on a volume basis. The roller bottle reactors out-performed the shake flasks by 5% for an initial insoluble solids loading of 15% and 140% for an initial soluble solids loading of 30%. The reactor system and method was compared at bench and floor scales and determined to be scalable for initial insoluble solids loading in the range of 15% to 30%. Pretreatment and enzyme screening results indicate that mid severity pretreated biomass is more digestible than the low and high severity biomass and GC220 is a superior enzyme to Spezyme CP.

  11. Lime pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation of rice hulls to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice hulls used in this study contained 35.6±0.1% cellulose and 12.0±0.7% hemicellulose. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from rice hulls (15.0%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg g**-1 hulls, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic saccharification (45 deg C, pH 5.0, 72 h) using a cocktail of three com...

  12. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Ambika; Huff, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.)] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle)] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses. PMID:27135522

  13. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  14. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Papanek, Beth; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, a mutant strain of C. thermocellum was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. With the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26369438

  15. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

    1987-02-03

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

  16. Improved endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography brush increases diagnostic yield of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Frederick K; Luong-Player, Adelina; Khara, Harshit S; Liu, Haiyan; Lin, Fan; Shellenberger, Matthew J; Johal, Amitpal S; Diehl, David L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine if a new brush design could improve the diagnostic yield of biliary stricture brushings. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed of all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures with malignant biliary stricture brushing between January 2008 and October 2012. A standard wire-guided cytology brush was used prior to protocol implementation in July 2011, after which, a new 9 French wire-guided cytology brush (Infinity sampling device, US Endoscopy, Mentor, OH) was used for all cases. All specimens were reviewed by blinded pathologists who determined whether the sample was positive or negative for malignancy. Cellular yield was quantified by describing the number of cell clusters seen. RESULTS: Thirty-two new brush cases were compared to 46 historical controls. Twenty-five of 32 (78%) cases in the new brush group showed abnormal cellular findings consistent with malignancy as compared to 17 of 46 (37%) in the historical control group (P = 0.0003). There was also a significant increase in the average number of cell clusters of all sizes (21.1 vs 9.9 clusters, P = 0.0007) in the new brush group compared to historical controls. CONCLUSION: The use of a new brush design for brush cytology of biliary strictures shows increased diagnostic accuracy, likely due to improved cellular yield, as evidenced by an increase in number of cellular clusters obtained. PMID:25031790

  17. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of whole slurry (pretreated lignocellulose) saccharification and fermentation for producing ethanol from maleic acid-pretreated rice straw. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to treat rice straw at a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short duration (3 min ramping to 190 °C and 3 min holding at 190 °C). Enzymatic digestibility (based on theoretical glucose yield) of cellulose in the pretreated rice straw was 91.5 %. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated rice straw resulted in 83.2 % final yield of ethanol based on the initial quantity of glucan in untreated rice straw. These findings indicate that maleic acid pretreatment results in a high yield of ethanol from fermentation of whole slurry even without conditioning or detoxification of the slurry. Additionally, the separation of solids and liquid is not required; therefore, the economics of cellulosic ethanol fuel production are significantly improved. We also demonstrated whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulose, which has rarely been reported. PMID:25930209

  18. Enzymatic production of glucose from different qualities of grain sorghum and application of ultrasound to enhance the yield.

    PubMed

    Shewale, Satish D; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to add value to three different qualities of grain sorghum namely normal healthy, germinated, and blackened through production of glucose, and to intensify glucose production (yield) by means of ultrasound treatment. Liquefaction (using Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase) and saccharification (using amyloglucosidase) processes were optimized with use of normal sorghum flour as a starting material for the production of glucose. The effect of ultrasound treatment on the sorghum slurry prior to liquefaction was studied on the processes of liquefaction and saccharification under optimized conditions. Due to ultrasound treatment, liquefact DE increased by 10-25% depending upon sonication time and the intensity. Ultrasound treatment of 1 min at 100% amplitude was found to decrease the average particle size of the slurry from 302 microm to 115 microm, which resulted in an increased percentage of saccharification by about 8%. The reason for the increase in the percentage of saccharification was attributed to the availability of additional starch for hydrolysis due to ultrasound-assisted disruption of the protein matrix (surrounding starch granules) and the amylose-lipid complex. Integration of ultrasound treatment in the state of art of the production of glucose from dry-milled sorghum and its possible subsequent use in the bioethanol production may improve the overall economics of the process. PMID:18995846

  19. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, Lisa M.; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. Methods In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. Key Results In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches. PMID:21325025

  20. Increase of onion yield through low dose of gamma irradiation of its seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendl, F. M.; Wiendl, F. W.; Wiendl, J. A.; Vedovatto, A.; Arthur, V.

    1995-02-01

    The increase of onions' yield could be achieved by the common farmer through the use of nuclear techniques. This report describes the results obtained with the irradiation of onion seeds, with low doses of gamma radiations (Cobalt-60), at doses of 0 (control), 150, 400 and 700 Gy. Beyond the proper onion's variety also the use of low dose rates of 13.1, 39.2 and 52.3 Gy per hour were of the great importance during irradiation. The results showed to be promising, both in laboratory studies and in the field, resulting in an increase of onions production: A greater number of seedlings, bulbs and a higher yield in weight per hectar were planted. In the field the most promising dose and dose rate to the variety "Super-X" were respectively 150 Gy and 13.1 Gy per hour, yielding an 24.9 percent heavier weight of onions than the control. The other tested variety was "Granex-33", which did not respond so favorable to irradiation. However, also with this variety we harvested a 2.1 percent heavier weight than its control, if the onion seeds were irradiated with the dose of 700 Gy at a dose dose rate of 13.1 Gy per hour.

  1. Range of cell-wall alterations enhance saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon mutants.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Poppy E; Sibout, Richard; Lapierre, Catherine; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Hofte, Herman; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2014-10-01

    Lignocellulosic plant biomass is an attractive feedstock for the production of sustainable biofuels, but the commercialization of such products is hampered by the high costs of processing this material into fermentable sugars (saccharification). One approach to lowering these costs is to produce crops with cell walls that are more susceptible to hydrolysis to reduce preprocessing and enzyme inputs. To deepen our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of lignocellulose recalcitrance, we have screened a mutagenized population of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon for improved saccharification with an industrial polysaccharide-degrading enzyme mixture. From an initial screen of 2,400 M2 plants, we selected 12 lines that showed heritable improvements in saccharification, mostly with no significant reduction in plant size or stem strength. Characterization of these putative mutants revealed a variety of alterations in cell-wall components. We have mapped the underlying genetic lesions responsible for increased saccharification using a deep sequencing approach, and here we report the mapping of one of the causal mutations to a narrow region in chromosome 2. The most likely candidate gene in this region encodes a GT61 glycosyltransferase, which has been implicated in arabinoxylan substitution. Our work shows that forward genetic screening provides a powerful route to identify factors that impact on lignocellulose digestibility, with implications for improving feedstock for cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:25246540

  2. Range of cell-wall alterations enhance saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon mutants

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Poppy E.; Sibout, Richard; Lapierre, Catherine; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Willats, William G. T.; Hofte, Herman; Gómez, Leonardo D.; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic plant biomass is an attractive feedstock for the production of sustainable biofuels, but the commercialization of such products is hampered by the high costs of processing this material into fermentable sugars (saccharification). One approach to lowering these costs is to produce crops with cell walls that are more susceptible to hydrolysis to reduce preprocessing and enzyme inputs. To deepen our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of lignocellulose recalcitrance, we have screened a mutagenized population of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon for improved saccharification with an industrial polysaccharide-degrading enzyme mixture. From an initial screen of 2,400 M2 plants, we selected 12 lines that showed heritable improvements in saccharification, mostly with no significant reduction in plant size or stem strength. Characterization of these putative mutants revealed a variety of alterations in cell-wall components. We have mapped the underlying genetic lesions responsible for increased saccharification using a deep sequencing approach, and here we report the mapping of one of the causal mutations to a narrow region in chromosome 2. The most likely candidate gene in this region encodes a GT61 glycosyltransferase, which has been implicated in arabinoxylan substitution. Our work shows that forward genetic screening provides a powerful route to identify factors that impact on lignocellulose digestibility, with implications for improving feedstock for cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:25246540

  3. Increased Biomass Yield of Lactococcus lactis by Reduced Overconsumption of Amino Acids and Increased Catalytic Activities of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Seiman, Andrus; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-01-01

    Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome) are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol−1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h−1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h−1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine) until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine) were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus). Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times). Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism) by varying the growth conditions. PMID:23133574

  4. Enforced ATP futile cycling increases specific productivity and yield of anaerobic lactate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hädicke, Oliver; Bettenbrock, Katja; Klamt, Steffen

    2015-10-01

    The manipulation of cofactor pools such as ATP or NAD(P)H has for long been recognized as key targets for metabolic engineering of microorganisms to improve yields and productivities of biotechnological processes. Several works in the past have shown that enforcing ATP futile cycling may enhance the synthesis of certain products under aerobic conditions. However, case studies demonstrating that ATP wasting may also have beneficial effects for anaerobic production processes are scarce. Taking lactic acid as an economically relevant product, we demonstrate that induction of ATP futile cycling in Escherichia coli leads to increased yields and specific production rates under anaerobic conditions, even in the case where lactate is already produced with high yields. Specifically, we constructed a high lactate producer strain KBM10111 (= MG1655 ΔadhE::Cam ΔackA-pta) and implemented an IPTG-inducible overexpression of ppsA encoding for PEP synthase which, together with pyruvate kinase, gives rise to an ATP consuming cycle. Under induction of ppsA, KBM10111 exhibits a 25% higher specific lactate productivity as well as an 8% higher lactate yield. Furthermore, the specific substrate uptake rate was increased by 14%. However, trade-offs between specific and volumetric productivities must be considered when ATP wasting strategies are used to shift substrate conversion from biomass to product synthesis and we discuss potential solutions to design optimal processes. In summary, enforced ATP futile cycling has great potential to optimize a variety of production processes and our study demonstrates that this holds true also for anaerobic processes. PMID:25899755

  5. Carbon monoxide improves neuronal differentiation and yield by increasing the functioning and number of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    The process of cell differentiation goes hand-in-hand with metabolic adaptations, which are needed to provide energy and new metabolites. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and improve mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal differentiation processes were studied using the NT2 cell line, which is derived from human testicular embryonic teratocarcinoma and differentiates into post-mitotic neurons upon retinoic acid treatment. CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1) was used do deliver CO into cell culture. CO treatment improved NT2 neuronal differentiation and yield, since there were more neurons and the total cell number increased following the differentiation process. CO supplementation enhanced the mitochondrial population in post-mitotic neurons derived from NT2 cells, as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial DNA. CO treatment during neuronal differentiation increased the extent of the classical metabolic change that occurs during neuronal differentiation, from glycolytic to more oxidative metabolism, by decreasing the ratio of lactate production and glucose consumption. The expression of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenases was higher, indicating an augmented oxidative metabolism. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by an increased percentage of (13) C incorporation from [U-(13) C]glucose into the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites malate and citrate, and also glutamate and aspartate in CO-treated cells. Finally, under low levels of oxygen (5%), which enhances glycolytic metabolism, some of the enhancing effects of CO on mitochondria were not observed. In conclusion, our data show that CO improves neuronal and mitochondrial yield by stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and thus oxidative metabolism of NT2 cells during the process of neuronal differentiation. The process of cell differentiation is coupled with metabolic adaptations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective

  6. Inoculant of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Rhizophagus clarus) Increase Yield of Soybean and Cotton under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cely, Martha V T; de Oliveira, Admilton G; de Freitas, Vanessa F; de Luca, Marcelo B; Barazetti, André R; Dos Santos, Igor M O; Gionco, Barbara; Garcia, Guilherme V; Prete, Cássio E C; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability is an important factor in crop production, and regular addition of chemical fertilizers is the most common practice to improve yield in agrosystems for intensive crop production. The use of some groups of microorganisms that have specific activity providing nutrients to plants is a good alternative, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant nutrition by providing especially phosphorus, improving plant growth and increasing crop production. Unfortunately, the use of AMF as an inoculant on a large scale is not yet widely used, because of several limitations in obtaining a large amount of inoculum due to several factors, such as low growth, the few species of AMF domesticated under in vitro conditions, and high competition with native AMF. The objective of this work was to test the infectivity of a Rhizophagus clarus inoculum and its effectiveness as an alternative for nutrient supply in soybean (Glycine max L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) when compared with conventional chemical fertilization under field conditions. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: Fertilizer, AMF, AMF with Fertilizer, AMF with 1/2 Fertilizer, and the Control with non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants. The parameters evaluated were AMF root colonization and effect of inoculation on plant growth, nutrient absorption and yield. The results showed that AMF inoculation increased around 20 % of root colonization in both soybean and cotton; nutrients analyses in vegetal tissues showed increase of P and nitrogen content in inoculated plants, these results reflect in a higher yield. Our results showed that, AMF inoculation increase the effectiveness of fertilizer application in soybean and reduce the fertilizer dosage in cotton. PMID:27303367

  7. Inoculant of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Rhizophagus clarus) Increase Yield of Soybean and Cotton under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cely, Martha V. T.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; de Freitas, Vanessa F.; de Luca, Marcelo B.; Barazetti, André R.; dos Santos, Igor M. O.; Gionco, Barbara; Garcia, Guilherme V.; Prete, Cássio E. C.; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability is an important factor in crop production, and regular addition of chemical fertilizers is the most common practice to improve yield in agrosystems for intensive crop production. The use of some groups of microorganisms that have specific activity providing nutrients to plants is a good alternative, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant nutrition by providing especially phosphorus, improving plant growth and increasing crop production. Unfortunately, the use of AMF as an inoculant on a large scale is not yet widely used, because of several limitations in obtaining a large amount of inoculum due to several factors, such as low growth, the few species of AMF domesticated under in vitro conditions, and high competition with native AMF. The objective of this work was to test the infectivity of a Rhizophagus clarus inoculum and its effectiveness as an alternative for nutrient supply in soybean (Glycine max L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) when compared with conventional chemical fertilization under field conditions. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: Fertilizer, AMF, AMF with Fertilizer, AMF with 1/2 Fertilizer, and the Control with non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants. The parameters evaluated were AMF root colonization and effect of inoculation on plant growth, nutrient absorption and yield. The results showed that AMF inoculation increased around 20 % of root colonization in both soybean and cotton; nutrients analyses in vegetal tissues showed increase of P and nitrogen content in inoculated plants, these results reflect in a higher yield. Our results showed that, AMF inoculation increase the effectiveness of fertilizer application in soybean and reduce the fertilizer dosage in cotton. PMID:27303367

  8. Increased Phytochrome B Alleviates Density Effects on Tuber Yield of Field Potato Crops1

    PubMed Central

    Boccalandro, Hernán E.; Ploschuk, Edmundo L.; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Sánchez, Rodolfo A.; Gatz, Christiane; Casal, Jorge J.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility that reduced photomorphogenic responses could increase field crop yield has been suggested often, but experimental support is still lacking. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis PHYB (phytochrome B) gene, a photoreceptor involved in detecting red to far-red light ratio associated with plant density, can increase tuber yield in field-grown transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops. Surprisingly, this effect was larger at very high densities, despite the intense reduction in the red to far-red light ratios and the concomitant narrowed differences in active phytochrome B levels between wild type and transgenics at these densities. Increased PHYB expression not only altered the ability of plants to respond to light signals, but they also modified the light environment itself. This combination resulted in larger effects of enhanced PHYB expression on tuber number and crop photosynthesis at high planting densities. The PHYB transgenics showed higher maximum photosynthesis in leaves of all strata of the canopy, and this effect was largely due to increased leaf stomatal conductance. We propose that enhanced PHYB expression could be used in breeding programs to shift optimum planting densities to higher levels. PMID:14605224

  9. HEMICELLULASES FOR MEDIATING BIOMASS SACCHARIFICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose offers the potential of producing high yields of monosaccharides for fermentation to fuel ethanol and other bioproducts, minimizing monosaccharide degradation and associated byproducts that can be toxic to fermenting organisms. In this work, we review studies th...

  10. Overexpression of GA20-OXIDASE1 impacts plant height, biomass allocation and saccharification efficiency in maize.

    PubMed

    Voorend, Wannes; Nelissen, Hilde; Vanholme, Ruben; De Vliegher, Alex; Van Breusegem, Frank; Boerjan, Wout; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Muylle, Hilde; Inzé, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Increased biomass yield and quality are of great importance for the improvement of feedstock for the biorefinery. For the production of bioethanol, both stem biomass yield and the conversion efficiency of the polysaccharides in the cell wall to fermentable sugars are of relevance. Increasing the endogenous levels of gibberellic acid (GA) by ectopic expression of GA20-OXIDASE1 (GA20-OX1), the rate-limiting step in GA biosynthesis, is known to affect cell division and cell expansion, resulting in larger plants and organs in several plant species. In this study, we examined biomass yield and quality traits of maize plants overexpressing GA20-OX1 (GA20-OX1). GA20-OX1 plants accumulated more vegetative biomass than control plants in greenhouse experiments, but not consistently over two years of field trials. The stems of these plants were longer but also more slender. Investigation of GA20-OX1 biomass quality using biochemical analyses showed the presence of more cellulose, lignin and cell wall residue. Cell wall analysis as well as expression analysis of lignin biosynthetic genes in developing stems revealed that cellulose and lignin were deposited earlier in development. Pretreatment of GA20-OX1 biomass with NaOH resulted in a higher saccharification efficiency per unit of dry weight, in agreement with the higher cellulose content. On the other hand, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion was slower upon HCl or hot-water pretreatment, presumably due to the higher lignin content. This study showed that biomass yield and quality traits can be interconnected, which is important for the development of future breeding strategies to improve lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production. PMID:26903034

  11. Synergistic interactions of ecosystem services: florivorous pest control boosts crop yield increase through insect pollination.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias

    2016-02-10

    Insect pollination and pest control are pivotal functions sustaining global food production. However, they have mostly been studied in isolation and how they interactively shape crop yield remains largely unexplored. Using controlled field experiments, we found strong synergistic effects of insect pollination and simulated pest control on yield quantity and quality. Their joint effect increased yield by 23%, with synergistic effects contributing 10%, while their single contributions were 7% and 6%, respectively. The potential economic benefit for a farmer from the synergistic effects (12%) was 1.8 times greater than their individual contributions (7% each). We show that the principal underlying mechanism was a pronounced pest-induced reduction in flower lifetime, resulting in a strong reduction in the number of pollinator visits a flower receives during its lifetime. Our findings highlight the importance of non-additive interactions among ecosystem services (ES) when valuating, mapping or predicting them and reveal fundamental implications for ecosystem management and policy aimed at maximizing ES for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26865304

  12. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao

    2015-01-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. PMID:26504138

  13. Holographic lens spectrum splitting photovoltaic system for increased diffuse collection and annual energy yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Yuechen; Ayala, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating and spectrum splitting photovoltaic (PV) modules have a limited acceptance angle and thus suffer from optical loss under off-axis illumination. This loss manifests itself as a substantial reduction in energy yield in locations where a significant portion of insulation is diffuse. In this work, a spectrum splitting PV system is designed to efficiently collect and convert light in a range of illumination conditions. The system uses a holographic lens to concentrate shortwavelength light onto a smaller, more expensive indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV cell. The high efficiency PV cell near the axis is surrounded with silicon (Si), a less expensive material that collects a broader portion of the solar spectrum. Under direct illumination, the device achieves increased conversion efficiency from spectrum splitting. Under diffuse illumination, the device collects light with efficiency comparable to a flat-panel Si module. Design of the holographic lens is discussed. Optical efficiency and power output of the module under a range of illumination conditions from direct to diffuse are simulated with non-sequential raytracing software. Using direct and diffuse Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) irradiance measurements, annual energy yield of the module is calculated for several installation sites. Energy yield of the spectrum splitting module is compared to that of a full flat-panel Si reference module.

  14. Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.

    PubMed

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

    2011-01-01

    This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w. PMID:21178310

  15. SLUDGE BATCH SUPPLEMENTAL SRAT RUNS EFFECTS OF YIELD STRESS AND CYCLE TIME INCREASE

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-08-10

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

  16. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation evaluation of oil palm fronds for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Sooah; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2012-11-01

    Oil palm fronds are the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. In this study, fronds were tested as the potential renewable biomass for ethanol production. The soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment was applied, and the fermentability of pretreated fronds was evaluated using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 7 % (w/w) ammonia, 80 °C, 20 h of pretreatment, and 1:12 S/L ratio, where the enzymatic digestibility was 41.4 % with cellulase of 60 FPU/g-glucan. When increasing the cellulase loading in the hydrolysis of pretreated fronds, the enzymatic digestibility increased until the enzyme loading reached 60 FPU/g-glucan. With 3 % glucan loading in the SSF of pretreated fronds, the ethanol concentration and yield based on the theoretical maximum after 12 and 48 h of the SSF were 7.5 and 9.7 g/L and 43.8 and 56.8 %, respectively. The ethanol productivities found at 12 and 24 h from pretreated fronds were 0.62 and 0.36 g/L/h, respectively. PMID:22644062

  17. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; et al

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolatemore » catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.« less

  18. Increased dry season water yield in burned watersheds in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Alicia M.; Hogue, Terri S.

    2015-01-01

    The current work evaluates the effects of the 2003 Old Fire on semi-arid systems in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Pre- and post-fire daily streamflow are used to analyze flow regimes in two burned watersheds. The average pre-fire runoff ratios in Devil Canyon and City Creek are 0.14 and 0.26, respectively, and both increase to 0.34 post-fire. Annual flow duration curves are developed for each watershed and the low flow is characterized by a 90% exceedance probability threshold. Post-fire low flow is statistically different from the pre-fire values (α = 0.05). In Devil Canyon the annual volume of pre-fire low flow increases on average from 2.6E + 02 to 3.1E + 03 m3 (1090% increase) and in City Creek the annual low flow volume increases from 2.3E + 03 to 5.0E + 03 m3 (118% increase). Predicting burn system resilience to disturbance (anthropogenic and natural) has significant implications for water sustainability and ultimately may provide an opportunity to utilize extended and increased water yield.

  19. Increase in the positronium emission yield from polycrystalline tungsten surfaces by sodium coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terabe, Hiroki; Iida, Shimpei; Yamashita, Takashi; Tachibana, Takayuki; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Yagishita, Akira; Hyodo, Toshio; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The study of positronium emission from metal surfaces bombarded by slow positrons provides information on the topmost layer of the metals such as electron and positron energy levels because positronium atoms are formed as the result of the interactions between the positrons and the electrons there. In the present work, time-of-flight spectra of ortho-positronium atoms emitted from polycrystalline tungsten surfaces with and without a sodium coating have been measured. The data shows a significant increase on coating in the yield of the 5 eV component due to positronium formed from thermalized positrons and conduction electrons. An attempt is made to explain the increase by an emission model based on the formation of positronium in a low electron density surface layer extended by the coating.

  20. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops. PMID:23913002

  1. Ionic liquid/ultrasound pretreatment and in situ enzymatic saccharification of bagasse using biocompatible cholinium ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Kohori, Asami; Tatsumi, Mai; Osawa, Koji; Endo, Takatsugu; Kakuchi, Ryohei; Ogino, Chiaki; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Choline acetate (ChOAc), a cholinium ionic liquid (IL), showed almost the same bagasse pretreatment capability as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc), a conventional imidazolium IL used for biomass pretreatment. Moreover, ChOAc showed less of an inhibitory effect on cellulase than EmimOAc. Thus, ChOAc was used for IL/ultrasound-assisted pretreatment and in situ enzymatic saccharification, where IL was not washed out from the pretreated bagasse but diluted with the addition of a buffer solution. When in situ saccharification was performed for 48h in the presence of 10% ChOAc, the cellulose and hemicellulose saccharification percentages were 80% and 72%, respectively. When ChOAc was increased to 20%, the saccharification percentages were 72% and 53%, respectively. However, the values were just 28% and 2%, respectively, in case of 20% EmimOAc. A glucose/xylose solution free from IL and ChOAc aqueous solution without these sugars could be recovered separately by electrodialysis of the hydrolysate of in situ saccharification. PMID:25460999

  2. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, Christina L; Pevzner, Igal Y; Kogut, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flock's natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of 2 parental broiler lines and F1 reciprocal crosses and showed that increased heterophil function and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators corresponds with increased resistance against diverse pathogens. A preliminary selection trial showed that individual sires had varying inherent levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and selection based on a high or low phenotype was passed onto progeny. Based on these results, we hypothesized selection of broilers for higher levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-6, CXCLi2, and CCLi2 would produce progeny with increased resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis. Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated from 75 commercial broiler sires, screened, and 10 naturally high and low expressing sires were selected and mated to randomly selected dams to produce the first generation of "high" and "low" progeny. The mRNA expression of CXCLi2 and CCLi2 were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) higher in the high progeny and were more resistant to liver and spleen organ invasion by Salmonella Enteritidis compared with low progeny. Production of the second generation yielded progeny that had differences (P ≤ 0.03) in all 3 mediators and further improved resistance against Salmonella Enteritidis. Feed conversion ratio and percent breast meat yield were calculated and were equal, whereas the high birds weighed slightly, but significantly, less than the low birds. These data clearly demonstrate that selection based on a higher phenotype of key pro-inflammatory mediators is a novel means to produce broilers that are naturally more resistant to Salmonella, one of the most important foodborne pathogens affecting the poultry industry. PMID:24604845

  3. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation for improving the xylose utilization of steam exploded corn stover at high solid loading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of steam exploded corn stover (SECS) was investigated at 5-25% solid loadings compared with other conversion processes. SECS was washed with a 15-fold excess of deionized water to remove inhibitors of hydrolysis and fermentation. The concentration, yield, and productivity of ethanol was 34.3g/L, 90.0%, 2.61g/L/h in the co-fermentation of 60g/L glucose and 10g/L xylose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IPE003. Ethanol concentration and productivity increased with increasing solid loading while ethanol yield decreased in all conversion processes of SECS. Glucan and xylan conversion was 82.0% and 82.1% in SSCF at 20% solid loading, respectively, while the concentration, yield and productivity of ethanol was 60.8g/L, 75.3% and 0.63g/L/h. The feeding strategy of SECS addition within 24h improved the SSCF performance. Therefore, SSCF increased ethanol productivity and was an effective conversion process for ethanol production at high solid loading. PMID:26615497

  4. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  5. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  6. Pretreatment with laccase and a phenolic mediator degrades lignin and enhances saccharification of Eucalyptus feedstock

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biofuel production from lignocellulosic material is hampered by biomass recalcitrance towards enzymatic hydrolysis due to the compact architecture of the plant cell wall and the presence of lignin. The purpose of this work is to study the ability of an industrially available laccase-mediator system to modify and remove lignin during pretreatment of wood (Eucalyptus globulus) feedstock, thus improving saccharification, and to analyze the chemical modifications produced in the whole material and especially in the recalcitrant lignin moiety. Results Up to 50% lignin removal from ground eucalypt wood was attained by pretreatment with recombinant Myceliophthora thermophila laccase and methyl syringate as mediator, followed by alkaline peroxide extraction in a multistage sequence. The lignin removal directly correlated with increases (approximately 40%) in glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment using laccase alone (without mediator) removed up to 20% of lignin from eucalypt wood. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the pretreated wood revealed modifications of the lignin polymer, as shown by lignin markers with shortened side chains and increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio. Additional information on the chemical modifications produced was obtained by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of the whole wood swollen in dimethylsulfoxide-d6. The spectra obtained revealed the removal of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units, although with a preferential removal of the former, and the lower number of aliphatic side-chains per phenylpropane unit (involved in main β-O-4ʹ and β-βʹ inter-unit linkages), in agreement with the pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results, without a substantial change in the wood polysaccharide signals. However, the most noticeable modification observed in the spectra was the formation of Cα-oxidized syringyl lignin units during the enzymatic treatment. Further insight into

  7. Deep eutectic solvent pretreatment and subsequent saccharification of corncob.

    PubMed

    Procentese, Alessandra; Johnson, Erin; Orr, Valerie; Garruto Campanile, Anna; Wood, Jeffery A; Marzocchella, Antonio; Rehmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Ionic liquid (ILs) pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted broad scientific interest, despite high costs, possible toxicity and energy intensive recycling. An alternative group of ionic solvents with similar physicochemical properties are deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Corncob residues were pretreated with three different DES systems: choline chloride and glycerol, choline chloride and imidazole, choline chloride and urea. The pretreated biomass was characterised in terms of lignin content, sugars concentration, enzymatic digestibility and crystallinity index. A reduction of lignin and hemicellulose content resulted in increased crystallinity of the pretreated biomass while the crystallinity of the cellulose fraction could be reduced, depending on DES system and operating conditions. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification was enhanced in terms of rate and extent. A total of 41 g fermentable sugars (27 g glucose and 14 g xylose) could be recovered from 100g corncob, representing 76% (86% and 63%) of the initially available carbohydrates. PMID:26005926

  8. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  9. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  10. Effect of non-enzymatic proteins on enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of different lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Mochidzuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Non-enzymatic proteins were added during hydrolysis of cellulose and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of different biomass materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model non-enzymatic protein, increased cellulose and xylose conversion efficiency and also enhanced the ethanol yield during SSF of rice straw subjected to varied pretreatments. Corn steep liquor, yeast extract, and peptone also exerted a similar effect as BSA and enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Compared to the glucose yields obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw in the absence of additives, the glucose yields after 72h of hydrolysis increased by 12.7%, 13.5%, and 13.7% after addition of the corn steep liquor, yeast extract, and peptone, respectively. This study indicated the use of BSA as an alternative to intensive pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for enhancing enzymatic digestibility. The utilization of non-enzymatic protein additives is promising for application in glucose and ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25974351

  11. Influence of fiber degradation and concentration of fermentable sugars on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of high-solids spruce slurry to ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, such as spruce, should be performed at high solids contents in order to reduce the cost of the produced bioethanol. However, this has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields or a complete lack of ethanol production. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results when prehydrolysis is performed at a higher temperature prior to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. In some cases, a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was reported, while in others, a slight decrease in ethanol yield was observed. In order to investigate the influence of prehydrolysis on high-solids SSF of steam-pretreated spruce slurry, in the present study, the presence of fibers and inhibitors, degree of fiber degradation and initial fermentable sugar concentration has been studied. Results SSF of whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry at a solids content of 13.7% water-insoluble solids (WIS) resulted in a very low overall ethanol yield, mostly due to poor fermentation. The yeast was, however, able to ferment the washed slurry and the liquid fraction of the pretreated slurry. Performing prehydrolysis at 48°C for 22 hours prior to SSF of the whole pretreated slurry increased the overall ethanol yield from 3.9 to 62.1%. The initial concentration of fermentable sugars in SSF could not explain the increase in ethanol yield in SSF with prehydrolysis. Although the viscosity of the material did not appear to decrease significantly during prehydrolysis, the degradation of the fibers prior to the addition of the yeast had a positive effect on ethanol yield when using whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that the increase in ethanol yield from SSF when performing prehydrolysis is a result of fiber degradation rather than a decrease in viscosity. The increased concentration of fermentable

  12. Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Back ground For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. Results A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and α-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12–24 h, at the range of 40–80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5–8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and α-amylase, except of lactose decreased α-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, α-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. Conclusions The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and

  13. Production and characterization of multi-polysaccharide degrading enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus BCC199 for saccharification of agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Arnthong, Jantima; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2014-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is a key step in the conversion of agricultural by-products to biofuels and value-added chemicals. Utilization of a robust microorganism for on-site production of biomass-degrading enzymes has gained increasing interest as an economical approach for supplying enzymes to biorefinery processes. In this study, production of multi-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus BCC199 by solid-state fermentation was improved through the statistical design approach. Among the operational parameters, yeast extract and soybean meal as well as the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 and initial pH were found as key parameters for maximizing production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. Under the optimized condition, the production of FPase, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, and β-xylosidase was achieved at 23, 663, 88, 1,633, and 90 units/g of dry substrate, respectively. The multi-enzyme extract was highly efficient in the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw, corn cob, and corn stover. In comparison with commercial cellulase preparations, the BCC199 enzyme mixture was able to produce remarkable yields of glucose and xylose, as it contained higher relative activities of β-glucosidase and core hemicellulases (xylanase and β-xylosidase). These results suggested that the crude enzyme extract from A. aculeatus BCC199 possesses balanced cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities required for the efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, and supplementation of external β-glucosidase or xylanase was dispensable. The work thus demonstrates the high potential of A. aculeatus BCC199 as a promising producer of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes for the biomass conversion industry. PMID:25001556

  14. Does Integration Help Adapt to Climate Change? Case of Increased US Corn Yield Volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    In absence of of new crop varieties or significant shifts in the geography of corn production, US national corn yields variation could double by the year 2040 as a result of climate change and without adaptation this could lead the variability in US corn prices to quadruple (Diffenbaugh et al. 2012). In addition to climate induced price changes, analysis of recent commodity price spikes suggests that interventionist trade policies are partly to blame. Assuming we cannot much influence the future climate outcome, what policies can we undertake to adapt better? Can we use markets to blunt this edge? Diffenbaugh et al. find that sale of corn- ethanol for use in liquid fuel, when governed by quotas such as US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), could make US corn prices even more variable; in contrast the same food-fuel market link (we refer to it as intersectoral link) may well dampen price volatility when the sale of corn to ethanol industry is driven by higher future oil prices. The latter however comes at the cost of exposing corn prices to the greater volatility in oil markets. Similarly intervention in corn trade can make US corn prices less or more volatile by distorting international corn price transmission. A negative US corn yield shock shows that domestic corn supply falls and domestic prices to go up irrespective of whether or not markets are integrated. How much the prices go up depends on how much demand adjusts to accommodate the supply shock. Based on the forgoing analysis, one should expect that demand would adjust more readily when markets are integrated and therefore reduce the resulting price fluctuation. Simulation results confirm this response of corn markets. In terms of relative comparisons however a policy driven intersectoral integration is least effective and prices rise much more. Similarly, a positive world oil price shock makes the US oil imports expensive and with oil being used to produce gasoline blends, it increases the price of gasoline

  15. Ethanol from a biorefinery waste stream: Saccharification of amylase, protease and xylanase treated wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ian P; Cook, Nicola M; Wilson, David R; Ryden, Peter; Robertson, James A; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    Biorefining aims to exploit the full value of plant material by sequentially extracting and valorising its components. Many studies focus on the saccharification of virgin biomass sources, but it may be more efficient to pre-extract high-value components before hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. In the current study, a bran residue from de-starched, protein depleted and xylanase treated wheat bran has been subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation procedures to convert the residue to ethanol. The most effective pretreatment conditions (>190 °C, 10 min) and saccharification conditions were identified following bench-scale liquid hot water pretreatment. Pre-extraction of enzymatically-hydrolysable starch and xylan reduced the release of furfural production, particularly when lower pretreatment severities were used. Pilot-scale steam explosion of the lignocellulosic residue followed by cellulase treatment and conversion to ethanol at a high substrate concentration (19%) gave an ethanol titre of ≈ 25 g/L or a yield of 93% of the theoretical maximum. PMID:26769514

  16. Enzymatic saccharification of high pressure assist-alkali pretreated cotton stalk and structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang-kui; Su, Xia; Yang, Weihua; Wang, Yanqin; Kuang, Meng; Ma, Lei; Fang, Dan; Zhou, Dayun

    2016-04-20

    Cotton stalk is a potential biomass for bioethanol production, while the conversion of direct saccharification or biotransformation of cotton stalk is extremely low due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose. To enhance the enzymatic conversion of cotton stalks, the enzymatic saccharification parameters of high pressure assist-alkali pretreatment (HPAP) cotton stalk were optimized in the present study. Results indicated that a maximum reducing sugar yield of 54.7g/100g dry biomass cellulose was achieved at a substrate concentration of 2%, 100rpm agitation, 0.6g/g enzyme loading, 40°C hydrolysis temperature, 50h saccharification time, and pH 5.0. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify structural changes in native, pretreated biomass and hydrolyzed residues. Structural analysis revealed large part of amorphous cellulose and partial crystalline cellulose in the HPAP cotton stalk were hydrolyzed during enzymatic treatment. HPAP cotton stalk can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production. PMID:26876855

  17. Saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from new isolated Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Jun; Xia, Jin-Lan; Nie, Zhen-Yuan; Shan, Yang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from Aspergillus japonicus PJ01. Pretreated orange peel powder was hydrolyzed by submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) crude enzymes, the results showed that 4 % (w/v) of solid loading, undiluted crude enzymes, and 45 °C were suitable saccharification conditions. The hydrolysis kinetics showed that the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant [Formula: see text] and maximal reaction rate [Formula: see text] were 73.32 g/L and 0.118 g/(L min) for SmF enzyme, and 41.45 g/L and 0.116 g/(L min) for SSF enzyme, respectively. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the saccharification yields were 58.5 and 78.7 %, the reducing sugar concentrations were 14.9 and 20.1 mg/mL by SmF and SSF enzymes. Material balance showed that the SmF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > arabinose > galactose > xylose, and the SSF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > xylose > galactose > arabinose. PMID:26718204

  18. Overexpression of a pH-sensitive nitrate transporter in rice increases crop yields

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaorong; Tang, Zhong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Bingbing; Yang, Meng; Lian, Xingming; Shen, Qirong; Miller, Anthony John; Xu, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Cellular pH homeostasis is fundamental for life, and all cells adapt to maintain this balance. In plants, the chemical form of nitrogen supply, nitrate and ammonium, is one of the cellular pH dominators. We report that the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3 is transcribed into two spliced isoforms with a natural variation in expression ratio. One splice form, OsNRT2.3b is located on the plasma membrane, is expressed mainly in the phloem, and has a regulatory motif on the cytosolic side that acts to switch nitrate transport activity on or off by a pH-sensing mechanism. High OsNRT2.3b expression in rice enhances the pH-buffering capacity of the plant, increasing N, Fe, and P uptake. In field trials, increased expression of OsNRT2.3b improved grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by 40%. These results indicate that pH sensing by the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3b is important for plant adaption to varied N supply forms and can provide a target for improving NUE. PMID:27274069

  19. Overexpression of a pH-sensitive nitrate transporter in rice increases crop yields.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaorong; Tang, Zhong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Bingbing; Yang, Meng; Lian, Xingming; Shen, Qirong; Miller, Anthony John; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-28

    Cellular pH homeostasis is fundamental for life, and all cells adapt to maintain this balance. In plants, the chemical form of nitrogen supply, nitrate and ammonium, is one of the cellular pH dominators. We report that the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3 is transcribed into two spliced isoforms with a natural variation in expression ratio. One splice form, OsNRT2.3b is located on the plasma membrane, is expressed mainly in the phloem, and has a regulatory motif on the cytosolic side that acts to switch nitrate transport activity on or off by a pH-sensing mechanism. High OsNRT2.3b expression in rice enhances the pH-buffering capacity of the plant, increasing N, Fe, and P uptake. In field trials, increased expression of OsNRT2.3b improved grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by 40%. These results indicate that pH sensing by the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3b is important for plant adaption to varied N supply forms and can provide a target for improving NUE. PMID:27274069

  20. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation. Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.

  1. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  2. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  3. A Defect Reduction Methodology For Increased Sort Yield Using Automated Defect Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radin, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    experiments using data generated by the KLA-2020 which successively narrowed down the portion of the process responsible. The problem was solved and a corresponding yield increase was seen.

  4. Biomimetic cell wall model studies to identify new lignin bioengineering targets for improving biomass susceptibility to pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly, bioengineering of lignin to contain atypical building blocks from other metabolic pathways is being pursued to custom-design lignin that is easier to remove by chemical pretreatments and less inhibitory toward polysaccharide saccharification. Because plants produce such a diverse array...

  5. Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw and biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, A.; D'Souza, J.

    1986-10-01

    A comparative study on the saccharification of pretreated rice straw was brought about by using cellulase enzyme produced by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 52430 and its mutant strain UNGI-40. The effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the saccharification rate at 24 and 48 were studied. A syrup with 7% sugar concentration was obtained with a 10% substrate concentration for the mutant case, whereas a syrup with 6.8% sugar concentration was obtained with 3.5 times concentrated enzyme from the wild strain. A high saccharification value was obtained with low substrate concentration; the higher the substrate concentration used, the lower the percent saccharification. The glucose content in the hydrolysate comprised 80-82% of total reducing sugars; the remainder was cellobiose and xylose together. The hydrolysate supported the growth of yeasts Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 52431. A biomass with a 48% protein content was obtained. The essential amino acid composition of yeast biomass was determined.

  6. Heat tolerance around flowering in wheat identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change.

    PubMed

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2015-06-01

    To deliver food security for the 9 billon population in 2050, a 70% increase in world food supply will be required. Projected climatic and environmental changes emphasize the need for breeding strategies that delivers both a substantial increase in yield potential and resilience to extreme weather events such as heat waves, late frost, and drought. Heat stress around sensitive stages of wheat development has been identified as a possible threat to wheat production in Europe. However, no estimates have been made to assess yield losses due to increased frequency and magnitude of heat stress under climate change. Using existing experimental data, the Sirius wheat model was refined by incorporating the effects of extreme temperature during flowering and grain filling on accelerated leaf senescence, grain number, and grain weight. This allowed us, for the first time, to quantify yield losses resulting from heat stress under climate change. The model was used to optimize wheat ideotypes for CMIP5-based climate scenarios for 2050 at six sites in Europe with diverse climates. The yield potential for heat-tolerant ideotypes can be substantially increased in the future (e.g. by 80% at Seville, 100% at Debrecen) compared with the current cultivars by selecting an optimal combination of wheat traits, e.g. optimal phenology and extended duration of grain filling. However, at two sites, Seville and Debrecen, the grain yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes were substantially lower (by 54% and 16%) and more variable compared with heat-tolerant ideotypes, because the extended grain filling required for the increased yield potential was in conflict with episodes of high temperature during flowering and grain filling. Despite much earlier flowering at these sites, the risk of heat stress affecting yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes remained high. Therefore, heat tolerance in wheat is likely to become a key trait for increased yield potential and yield stability in southern Europe in the

  7. Heat tolerance around flowering in wheat identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    To deliver food security for the 9 billon population in 2050, a 70% increase in world food supply will be required. Projected climatic and environmental changes emphasize the need for breeding strategies that delivers both a substantial increase in yield potential and resilience to extreme weather events such as heat waves, late frost, and drought. Heat stress around sensitive stages of wheat development has been identified as a possible threat to wheat production in Europe. However, no estimates have been made to assess yield losses due to increased frequency and magnitude of heat stress under climate change. Using existing experimental data, the Sirius wheat model was refined by incorporating the effects of extreme temperature during flowering and grain filling on accelerated leaf senescence, grain number, and grain weight. This allowed us, for the first time, to quantify yield losses resulting from heat stress under climate change. The model was used to optimize wheat ideotypes for CMIP5-based climate scenarios for 2050 at six sites in Europe with diverse climates. The yield potential for heat-tolerant ideotypes can be substantially increased in the future (e.g. by 80% at Seville, 100% at Debrecen) compared with the current cultivars by selecting an optimal combination of wheat traits, e.g. optimal phenology and extended duration of grain filling. However, at two sites, Seville and Debrecen, the grain yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes were substantially lower (by 54% and 16%) and more variable compared with heat-tolerant ideotypes, because the extended grain filling required for the increased yield potential was in conflict with episodes of high temperature during flowering and grain filling. Despite much earlier flowering at these sites, the risk of heat stress affecting yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes remained high. Therefore, heat tolerance in wheat is likely to become a key trait for increased yield potential and yield stability in southern Europe in the

  8. Midkine Increases Diagnostic Yield in AFP Negative and NASH-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vongsuvanh, Roslyn; van der Poorten, David; Iseli, Tristan; Strasser, Simone I.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Robust biomarkers for population-level hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance are lacking. We compared serum midkine (MDK), dickkopf-1 (DKK1), osteopontin (OPN) and AFP for HCC diagnosis in 86 HCC patients matched to 86 cirrhotics, 86 with chronic liver disease (CLD) and 86 healthy controls (HC). Based on the performance of each biomarker, we assessed a separate longitudinal cohort of 28 HCC patients, at and before cancer diagnosis. Serum levels of MDK and OPN were higher in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis, CLD and HC groups. DKK1 was not different between cases and controls. More than half of HCC patients had normal AFP. In this AFP-negative HCC cohort, 59.18% (n = 29/49) had elevated MDK, applying the optimal cut-off of 0.44 ng/ml. Using AFP ≥ 20 IU/ml or MDK ≥ 0.44 ng/ml, a significantly greater number (76.7%; n = 66/86) of HCC cases were detected. The area under the receiver operating curve for MDK was superior to AFP and OPN in NASH-HCC diagnosis. In the longitudinal cohort, MDK was elevated in 15/28 (54%) of HCC patients at diagnosis, of whom 67% had elevated MDK 6 months prior. Conclusion: AFP and MDK have a complementary role in HCC detection. MDK increases the diagnostic yield in AFP-negative HCC and has greater diagnostic performance than AFP, OPN and DKK-1 in the diagnosis of NASH-HCC. Additionally, MDK has a promising role in the pre-clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:27219517

  9. Incorporation of deoxyuridine monophosphate into DNA increases the sister-chromatid exchange yield

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, E.G.; Hernandez, P.; Gutierrez, C.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of a treatment with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) in combination with 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd) on cell proliferation, incorporation of DNA precursors into DNA and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been analyzed in Allium cepa meristem cells. FdUrd in the range 10/sup -9/-5 x 10/sup -7/ M produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the amount of cells in mitosis. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by 70-80% in short-term (6 h) experiments, by exogenously supplied dUrd at a concentration of 10/sup -1/ M. However, at the highest FdUrd dose tested (10/sup -7/ M), 10/sup -4/ M dUrd could not reverse the FdUrd effect in long-term experiments as shown by analyzing the kinetics of synchronous cell populations. DNA extracted from cells pulsed with (6-/sup 3/H)dUrd in the presence of FdUrd and 6-amino-uracil (6-AU), an inhibitor of uracil-DNA glycosylase, contained a small amount of label in the form of (6-/sup 3/H)dUMP. Thus the authors conclude that under the experimental conditions, exogenously supplied dUrd may be metabolized intracellularly to 2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) and that this deoxynucleotide may eventually be mis-incorporated into DNA. By analyzing SCE levels in third division chromosomes of cells treated with FdUrd and dUrd during their second cycle, they has scored a 6-fold increase in the reciprocal SCE level which demonstrates that the replication of a dUMP-containing DNA template leads to a higher SCE yield.

  10. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future. PMID:26403242

  11. Accelerating the domestication of a bioenergy crop: identifying and modelling morphological targets for sustainable yield increase in Miscanthus

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Kerrie

    2013-01-01

    To accelerate domestication of Miscanthus, an important energy crop, 244 replicated genotypes, including two different species and their hybrids, were analysed for morphological traits and biomass yield over three growing seasons following an establishment phase of 2 years in the largest Miscanthus diversity trial described to date. Stem and leaf traits were selected that contributed both directly and indirectly to total harvested biomass yield, and there was variation in all traits measured. Morphological diversity within the population was correlated with dry matter yield (DMY) both as individual traits and in combination, in order to determine the respective contributions of the traits to biomass accumulation and to identify breeding targets for yield improvement. Predictive morphometric analysis was possible at year 3 within Miscanthus sinensis genotypes but not between M. sinensis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and interspecific hybrids. Yield is a complex trait, and no single simple trait explained more than 33% of DMY, which varied from 1 to 5297g among genotypes within this trial. Associating simple traits increased the power of the morphological data to predict yield to 60%. Trait variety, in combination, enabled multiple ideotypes, thereby increasing the potential diversity of the crop for multiple growth locations and end uses. Both triploids and interspecific hybrids produced the highest mature yields, indicating that there is significant heterosis to be exploited within Miscanthus that might be overlooked in early selection screens within years 1–3. The potential for optimizing biomass yield by selecting on the basis of morphology is discussed. PMID:24064927

  12. Comparison of alkali treatments for efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kankan; Li, Lulu; Long, Liangkun; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-05-01

    Two separate temperature and time ranges were respectively conducted for optimizing release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith by NaOH pretreatment using response surface methodology. Two desirable pretreatment conditions were selected as follows: 37°C, 2% NaOH and 12h, and 100°C, 1.75% NaOH and 37min in the low and high temperature ranges, respectively. Under these conditions, the enzymatic glucose yields were 85.6% and 90.4% respectively, whereas p-coumaric acid yields were 95.1% and 98.1% respectively. The final recovery of esterified p-coumaric acid reached 82.8% and 87.4% respectively after further separation with HP-20 resin. Interestingly, strong linear correlations exist between p-coumaric acid release with glucan saccharification yield and lignin dissolution. These results indicate that sorghum pith could be an attractive source for natural p-coumaric acid and efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith can be achieved by mild NaOH pretreatment. PMID:26868149

  13. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated woody crops to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, D.D.; Wyman, C.E.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-12-31

    Four promising woody crops (Populus maximowiczii x nigra (NE388), P. trichocarpa x deltoides (N11), P. tremuloides, and Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua) were pretreated by dilute sulfuric acid and evaluated in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for ethanol production. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in the fermentations alone, and in mixed cultures with {beta}-glucosidase producing Brettanomyces clausenii. Commercial Genencor 150L cellulose enyme was either employed alone or supplemented with {beta}-glucosidase. All SSFs were run at 37{degrees}C for 8 d and compared to saccharifications at 45{degrees}C under the same enzyme loadings. S. cerevisiae alone achieved the highest ethanol yields and rates of hydrolysis at the higher enzyme loadings, whereas the mixed culture performed better at the lower enzyme loadings without {beta}-glucosidase supplementation. The best overall rates of fermentation (3 d) and final theoretical ethanol yields (86-90%) were achieved with P. maximowiczii x nigra (NE388) and Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua, followed by P. tremuloides and P. trichocarpa x deltoides (N11) with slightly slower rates and lower yields. Although there were some differences in SSF performance, all these pretreated woody crops show promise as substrates for ethanol production.

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required. PMID:25732688

  15. Increasing yields: Research opportunities and challenges. Role of the Sunflower Research Unit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Sunflower Research Unit in Fargo, ND, conducts research to enhance sunflower yield by reducing losses to insects and diseases. The unit is composed of seven research scientists, each with expertise in a different scientific discipline. The disciplines are genetics, cytogenetics, molec...

  16. Raised seedbeds for soybean in twin rows increase yields over flat seedbeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) grown using raised beds often produces higher yields than crops grown on flat surfaces. However, research confirming this is limited. Two soybean cultivars were grown at Stoneville, MS in 25 cm twin-rows, spaced 102 cm between centers on raised beds and fla...

  17. Blends of Soft Red Winter Wheat Varieties Increased Yield in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed mixtures, or blends, of small grain cultivars have been widely used to manage foliar fungal diseases and stabilize yield. However, blends are unknown in eastern U.S. wheat production, where numerous diseases and abiotic stresses often take a toll. In 2004-05 and 2005-06, a field experiment wa...

  18. Do Advance Yield Markings Increase Safe Driver Behaviors at Unsignalized, Marked Midblock Crosswalks? Driving Simulator Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Radhameris A.; Samuel, Siby; Gerardino, Luis Roman; Romoser, Matthew R. E.; Collura, John; Knodler, Michael; Fisher, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, 78% of pedestrian crashes occur at noninter-section crossings. As a result, unsignalized, marked midblock crosswalks are prime targets for remediation. Many of these crashes occur under sight-limited conditions in which the view of critical information by the driver or pedestrian is obstructed by a vehicle stopped in an adjacent travel or parking lane on the near side of the crosswalk. Study of such a situation on the open road is much too risky, but study of the situation in a driving simulator is not. This paper describes the development of scenarios with sight limitations to compare potential vehicle–pedestrian conflicts on a driving simulator under conditions with two different types of pavement markings. Under the first condition, advance yield markings and symbol signs (prompts) that indicated “yield here to pedestrians” were used to warn drivers of pedestrians at marked, midblock crosswalks. Under the second condition, standard crosswalk treatments and prompts were used to warn drivers of these hazards. Actual crashes as well as the drivers' point of gaze were measured to determine if the drivers approaching a marked midblock crosswalk looked for pedestrians in the crosswalk more frequently and sooner in high-risk scenarios when advance yield markings and prompts were present than when standard markings and prompts were used. Fewer crashes were found to occur with advance yield markings. Drivers were also found to look for pedestrians much more frequently and much sooner with advance yield markings. The advantages and limitations of the use of driving simulation to study problems such as these are discussed. PMID:23082040

  19. Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual

  20. The yield of mechanically harvested rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) can be increased by optimum plant density and row spacing

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Jie; Sun, Yingying; Zuo, Qingsong; Huang, Haidong; Liao, Qingxi; Wu, Chongyou; Lu, Jianwei; Wu, Jiangsheng; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of plant density and row spacing on the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), field experiments were conducted. Higher plant density produced fewer pods and reduced the yield per plant. Wider row spacing at higher plant densities increased seeds per pod and the 1000-seed weight, resulting in a higher yield per plant. The highest yields were achieved at a density of 45 × 104 plants ha−1 (D45) in combination with 15 cm row spacing (R15) because mortality associated with competition increased as both the plant density and row spacing increased. The leaf area index (LAI) and pod area index (PAI) showed similar relations to the yield per hectare, and they were positively correlated with the percentage of intercepted light, whereas the radiation use efficiency (RUE) was positively correlated with population biomass. Reduced plant height and increased root/shoot ratios led to a decreased culm lodging index. Improved resistance to pod shattering was also observed as plant density and row spacing increased. The angle of the lowest 5 branches decreased as row spacing increased under D30 and D45. All of these structural changes influenced the mechanical harvesting operations, resulting in the highest yield of mechanically harvesting rapeseed under D45R15. PMID:26686007

  1. The yield of mechanically harvested rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) can be increased by optimum plant density and row spacing.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Jie; Sun, Yingying; Zuo, Qingsong; Huang, Haidong; Liao, Qingxi; Wu, Chongyou; Lu, Jianwei; Wu, Jiangsheng; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of plant density and row spacing on the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), field experiments were conducted. Higher plant density produced fewer pods and reduced the yield per plant. Wider row spacing at higher plant densities increased seeds per pod and the 1000-seed weight, resulting in a higher yield per plant. The highest yields were achieved at a density of 45 × 10(4) plants ha(-1) (D45) in combination with 15 cm row spacing (R15) because mortality associated with competition increased as both the plant density and row spacing increased. The leaf area index (LAI) and pod area index (PAI) showed similar relations to the yield per hectare, and they were positively correlated with the percentage of intercepted light, whereas the radiation use efficiency (RUE) was positively correlated with population biomass. Reduced plant height and increased root/shoot ratios led to a decreased culm lodging index. Improved resistance to pod shattering was also observed as plant density and row spacing increased. The angle of the lowest 5 branches decreased as row spacing increased under D30 and D45. All of these structural changes influenced the mechanical harvesting operations, resulting in the highest yield of mechanically harvesting rapeseed under D45R15. PMID:26686007

  2. Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. . Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

    1994-06-20

    Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

  3. Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields for switchgrass strains using NIRS analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes such as simultanteous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) requires expensive, complex fermentation assays and extensive compositional analyses of the biomass sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS...

  4. Whole Genome Sequencing Increases Molecular Diagnostic Yield Compared with Current Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Retinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ellingford, Jamie M.; Barton, Stephanie; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Williams, Simon G.; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; O'Sullivan, James; Lamb, Janine A.; Perveen, Rahat; Hall, Georgina; Newman, William G.; Bishop, Paul N.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Leach, Rick; Tearle, Rick; Bayliss, Stuart; Ramsden, Simon C.; Nemeth, Andrea H.; Black, Graeme C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of whole genome sequencing (WGS) with targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the diagnosis of inherited retinal disease (IRD). Design Case series. Participants A total of 562 patients diagnosed with IRD. Methods We performed a direct comparative analysis of current molecular diagnostics with WGS. We retrospectively reviewed the findings from a diagnostic NGS DNA test for 562 patients with IRD. A subset of 46 of 562 patients (encompassing potential clinical outcomes of diagnostic analysis) also underwent WGS, and we compared mutation detection rates and molecular diagnostic yields. In addition, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the 2 techniques to identify known single nucleotide variants (SNVs) using 6 control samples with publically available genotype data. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic yield of genomic testing. Results Across known disease-causing genes, targeted NGS and WGS achieved similar levels of sensitivity and specificity for SNV detection. However, WGS also identified 14 clinically relevant genetic variants through WGS that had not been identified by NGS diagnostic testing for the 46 individuals with IRD. These variants included large deletions and variants in noncoding regions of the genome. Identification of these variants confirmed a molecular diagnosis of IRD for 11 of the 33 individuals referred for WGS who had not obtained a molecular diagnosis through targeted NGS testing. Weighted estimates, accounting for population structure, suggest that WGS methods could result in an overall 29% (95% confidence interval, 15–45) uplift in diagnostic yield. Conclusions We show that WGS methods can detect disease-causing genetic variants missed by current NGS diagnostic methodologies for IRD and thereby demonstrate the clinical utility and additional value of WGS. PMID:26872967

  5. Increasing the creation yield of shallow single defects in diamond by surface plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Osterkamp, Christian; Scharpf, Jochen; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan; Diemant, Thomas; Jürgen Behm, Rolf

    2013-11-04

    Single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond close to the crystal surface are very promising magnetic field sensors with very high sensitivity. Here, we report the enhanced creation of very shallow (less than 3 nm below the diamond surface) NV centers by using fluorine and oxygen plasma treatment. We observe a four fold increase—from 0.11% to about 0.45% in the production yield when the sample surface is terminated with fluorine or oxygen atoms. This effect is explained by the stabilization of the NV's negative charge state which is influenced by the various defects present on the diamond surface.

  6. Addition of metal ions to a (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic cocktail produced in-house improves its activity, thermostability, and efficiency in the saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, V M; Tardioli, P W; Giordano, R L C; Farinas, C S

    2016-05-25

    High activity and stability are essential for (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes used in biomass conversion, while non-productive binding of cellulases to lignin reduces saccharification efficiency and needs to be avoided. One potential strategy is the addition of inexpensive metal ions. This paper describes the influence of divalent metal ions on the activity, thermostability, and saccharification efficiency of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes produced in-house by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The use of Mn(2+) provided the best (hemi)cellulolytic activity and stability, with an increase in endoglucanase activity of up to 57%. The use of Mn(2+) was then investigated in the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse submitted to acid, steam-explosion, and hydrothermal pretreatments. The addition of Mn(2+) ions at 10mM in the saccharification of acid-pretreated bagasse resulted in a 34% increase in glucose release. These positive effects appeared to be due to a reduction in non-productive enzyme adsorption. The findings suggest that the addition of inexpensive metal ions can help to improve activity, thermostability, and saccharification efficiency of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes. PMID:26709004

  7. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  8. CO₂ enrichment can produce high red leaf lettuce yield while increasing most flavonoid glycoside and some caffeic acid derivative concentrations.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2016-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment is a common practice in greenhouses to increase crop yields up to 30%. Yet, reports on the effect on foliar phenolic compounds vary. We studied the effect on two red leaf lettuce cultivars, grown for 25 days in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 200 or 1,000 ppm, with some plants exchanged between treatments after 11 days. As expected, head mass increased with higher CO2 concentration. Regression analysis, corrected for head mass, showed increased concentrations of most flavonoid glycosides at high CO2 concentrations while only some caffeic acid derivatives were increased, and not uniformly in both cultivars. Sugar concentrations increased with CO2 concentration. Generally, conditions in the 10 days before harvest determined concentrations. We suspect that phenolic compounds were mainly accumulated because plenty of precursors were available. The results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in high yields of red leaf lettuce rich in phenolic compounds. PMID:26776031

  9. Strong RNAi-inhibition of 4CL expression alters lignification, saccharification potential and productivity of field-grown poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Gunter, Lee E; Strauss, S

    2007-01-01

    RNAi-associated down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been proposed as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls, and thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplars (Populus) we employed RNAi gene suppression of 4CL to generate 14 transgenic events and compared them to a non-transgenic control. After a two-year field trial we characterized the consequences of 4CL down-regulation on wood biochemistry and tree productivity. Lignin reductions correlated well with 4CL RNA expression, with a sharp decrease in lignin observed for RNA expression levels below ~50%. Lignin reductions greater than ~10% of the control value were associated with reduced productivity, decreased wood S/G (syringyl/guaiacyl) lignin monomer ratios, and increased incorporation of H-monomers (p-hydroxyphenyl) into cell walls. Strongly affected transgenic events were also characterized by patches of brown, discolored wood with about twice the extractive (complex polyphenolic) content of controls. There was no support for the hypothesis that reduced lignin would increase saccharification potential. The data presented suggest that a threshold of lignin reduction exists, beyond which there are large changes in wood chemistry and plant metabolism that affect productivity and potential ethanol yield.

  10. Epigallocatechin gallate incorporation into lignin enhances the alkaline delignification and enzymatic saccharification of cell walls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lignin is an integral component of the plant cell wall matrix but impedes the conversion of biomass into biofuels. The plasticity of lignin biosynthesis should permit the inclusion of new compatible phenolic monomers such as flavonoids into cell wall lignins that are consequently less recalcitrant to biomass processing. In the present study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was evaluated as a potential lignin bioengineering target for rendering biomass more amenable to processing for biofuel production. Results In vitro peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization experiments revealed that both gallate and pyrogallyl (B-ring) moieties in EGCG underwent radical cross-coupling with monolignols mainly by β–O–4-type cross-coupling, producing benzodioxane units following rearomatization reactions. Biomimetic lignification of maize cell walls with a 3:1 molar ratio of monolignols and EGCG permitted extensive alkaline delignification of cell walls (72 to 92%) that far exceeded that for lignified controls (44 to 62%). Alkali-insoluble residues from EGCG-lignified walls yielded up to 34% more glucose and total sugars following enzymatic saccharification than lignified controls. Conclusions It was found that EGCG readily copolymerized with monolignols to become integrally cross-coupled into cell wall lignins, where it greatly enhanced alkaline delignification and subsequent enzymatic saccharification. Improved delignification may be attributed to internal trapping of quinone-methide intermediates to prevent benzyl ether cross-linking of lignin to structural polysaccharides during lignification, and to the cleavage of ester intra-unit linkages within EGCG during pretreatment. Overall, our results suggest that apoplastic deposition of EGCG for incorporation into lignin would be a promising plant genetic engineering target for improving the delignification and saccharification of biomass crops. PMID:22889353

  11. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    PubMed

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate. PMID:24803713

  12. Plant-Based Assessment of Inherent Soil Productivity and Contributions to China’s Cereal Crop Yield Increase since 1980

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Mingsheng; Lal, Rattan; Cao, Jian; Qiao, Lei; Su, Yansen; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-01-01

    Objective China’s food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution’s technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. Methods The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. Results Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s — the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China’s major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. Conclusions Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the ‘Agricultural Miracle in China’ would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving inherent soil

  13. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rebetzke, G. J.; Bonnett, D. G.; Reynolds, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned–awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38–7.93 t ha−1) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned–awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (–5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains (‘screenings’) to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced

  14. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Rebetzke, G J; Bonnett, D G; Reynolds, M P

    2016-04-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned-awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38-7.93 t ha(-1)) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned-awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (-5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains ('screenings') to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced screenings. PMID

  15. Ultrasonic pretreatment for enhanced saccharification and fermentation of ethanol production from corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalbo-Lomboy, Melissa T.

    during pretreatment. Ultrasonication of sugary-2 corn was also investigated in the study. Results similar to those for commodity corn (dent corn) were found, in terms of glucose yield and starch conversion. SEM and polarized-light microscope pictures showed the partial gelatinization of corn slurry due to ultrasound. In the 96-h saccharification time, a model was formulated to fit the sugar release curve. The results have shown 17-21% increase in the extent of sugar production from sonicated samples relative to the control group. Additionally, the reaction rates of the sonicated samples were 2- to 10-fold higher than the reaction rates for the control group. In comparing sugary-2 corn with commodity corn, it was found that sonicated sugary-2 corn saccharified faster than sonicated commodity corn. It is important to note, without ultrasonic treatment, sugary-2 corn released more reducing sugar than commodity corn during saccharification. To further investigate the potential of ultrasonics for scale-up, a continuous flow system was studied. An ultrasonic continuous flow system was tested using Branson's flow-through "donut" horn. The donut horn, which vibrates radially, was placed inside a 5.5 L stainless steel reactor. The amplitude was maintained at 12 mumpp and the feed flow rate was varied from 8-27 L/min (2-7 gal/min) with reactor retention times varying from 12-40 seconds. Samples sonicated in continuous flow system showed lower reducing sugar yield than batch ultrasonication. However, considering the ultrasonic energy density of batch and continuous systems, the continuous systems proved to be more energy efficient in terms of glucose production compared with the batch system. It was also seen that particle size disintegration was proportional to energy density regardless of the type of ultrasonic system used. To compare ultrasonics with jet cooking, fermentation experiments were conducted. There were only marginal differences between jet cooked samples and the

  16. Physiological responses related to increased grain yield under drought in the first biotechnology-derived drought-tolerant maize.

    PubMed

    Nemali, Krishna S; Bonin, Christopher; Dohleman, Frank G; Stephens, Mike; Reeves, William R; Nelson, Donald E; Castiglioni, Paolo; Whitsel, Joy E; Sammons, Bernard; Silady, Rebecca A; Anstrom, Donald; Sharp, Robert E; Patharkar, Osric R; Clay, David; Coffin, Marie; Nemeth, Margaret A; Leibman, Mark E; Luethy, Michael; Lawson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) is highly susceptible to drought stress. This work focused on whole-plant physiological mechanisms by which a biotechnology-derived maize event expressing bacterial cold shock protein B (CspB), MON 87460, increased grain yield under drought. Plants of MON 87460 and a conventional control (hereafter 'control') were tested in the field under well-watered (WW) and water-limited (WL) treatments imposed during mid-vegetative to mid-reproductive stages during 2009-2011. Across years, average grain yield increased by 6% in MON 87460 compared with control under WL conditions. This was associated with higher soil water content at 0.5 m depth during the treatment phase, increased ear growth, decreased leaf area, leaf dry weight and sap flow rate during silking, increased kernel number and harvest index in MON 87460 than the control. No consistent differences were observed under WW conditions. This indicates that MON 87460 acclimated better under WL conditions than the control by lowering leaf growth which decreased water use during silking, thereby eliciting lower stress under WL conditions. These physiological responses in MON 87460 under WL conditions resulted in increased ear growth during silking, which subsequently increased the kernel number, harvest index and grain yield compared to the control. PMID:25210866

  17. Ectopic expression of SlAGO7 alters leaf pattern and inflorescence architecture and increases fruit yield in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongbo; Xiang, Ya; Xian, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhengguo

    2016-08-01

    ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7), a key regulator of the trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNA) pathway, plays a conserved role in controlling leaf pattern among species. However, little is known about the ta-siRNA pathway in regulating inflorescence architecture and fruit yield. In this study, we characterized the expression pattern, subcellular localization and developmental functions of SlAGO7 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Overexpressing SlAGO7 in tomato exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including improved axillary bud formation, altered leaf morphology and inflorescence architecture, and increased fruit yield. Cross-sectioning of leaves showed that the number of vascular bundles was significantly increased in 35:SlAGO7 lines. Overexpression of SlAGO7 increased the production of ta-siRNA, and repressed the expression ta-siRNA-targeted genes (SlARF2a, SlARF2b, SlARF3 and SlARF4). Further analysis showed that overexpression of SlAGO7 alters the expression of key genes implicated in leaf morphology, inflorescence architecture, auxin transport and signaling. In addition, the altered auxin response of 35:SlAGO7 lines were also investigated. These results suggested that SlAGO7 plays a positive role in determining inflorescence architecture and fruit yield though the ta-siRNA pathway. Therefore, SlAGO7 represents a useful gene that can be incorporated in tomato breeding programs for developing cultivars with yield potential. PMID:26847714

  18. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  19. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  20. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  1. Twelve years of stover removal increases soil erosion potential without impacting yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover (non-grain aboveground biomass) in the U.S. Corn Belt is used increasingly for livestock grazing and co-feed and also is the primary feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production. Continuous stover removal, however, could alter long-term agricultural productivity by affect...

  2. Federal Rule Yields Hope for Science: Testing Mandate Is Expected to Increase Time for Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Some proponents of science education say they have faced no greater foe over the past few years than federally mandated tests in reading and mathematics, which have forced teachers to devote increasingly bigger chunks of class time to building students' skills in those two subjects. But if testing has squeezed science out, can testing also bring…

  3. Ozone and increased nitrogen supply effects on the yield and nutritive quality of Trifolium subterraneum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, J.; Muntifering, R. B.; Bermejo, V.; Gimeno, B. S.; Elvira, S.

    The influence of ambient ozone (O 3) concentrations and nitrogen (N) fertilization, singly and in combination, on the growth and nutritive quality of Trifolium subterraneum was assessed. This is an important O 3-sensitive species of great pastoral value in Mediterranean areas. Plant material was enclosed in open-top chambers (OTCs). Three O 3 levels were established: Filtered air with O 3 concentrations below 15 ppb (CFA), non-filtered air with O 3 concentrations in the range of ambient levels (NFA), and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 ppb O 3 over ambient levels (NFA+). Similarly, three N levels were defined: 5, 15 and 30 kg ha -1. The increase in O 3 exposure induced a reduction of the clover aerial green biomass and an increase of senescent biomass. Ozone effects were more adverse in the root system, inducing an impairment of the aerial/subterranean biomass ratio. Compared with the CFA treatment, nutritive quality of aerial biomass was 10 and 20% lower for NFA and NFA+ treatments, respectively, due to increased concentrations of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and lignin. The latter effect appears to be related to senescence acceleration. The increment in N supplementation enhanced the increase of ADF concentrations in those plants simultaneously exposed to ambient and above-ambient O 3 concentrations, and reduced the incremental rate of foliar senescence induced by the pollutant.

  4. Plant mortality and natural selection may increase biomass yield in switchgrass swards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important candidate for bioenergy feedstock production, prompting significant efforts to increase the number of breeding programs and the output of those programs. The objective of this experiment was to determine the potential utility of natural selection for...

  5. Residue management increases fallow water conservation and yield deficit irrigated crops grown in rotation with wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-tillage (NT) residue management provides cover to increase precipitation capture compared with disk tillage (DT) or in the absence of a cover crop. Therefore, NT has the potential to reduce irrigation withdrawals from the declining Ogallala Aquifer. In a 4-year study, we quantified DT and NT effe...

  6. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators yields chickens with increased resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella are a leading cause of foodborne illness and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated poultry; therefore, increasing a flocks’ natural resistance to Salmonella could improve food safety. Previously, we characterized the heterophil-mediated innate immune response of two pare...

  7. Utilising biohydrogen to increase methane production, energy yields and process efficiency via two stage anaerobic digestion of grass.

    PubMed

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Shipley, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Real time measurement of gas production and composition were used to examine the benefits of two stage anaerobic digestion (AD) over a single stage AD, using pelletized grass as a feedstock. Controlled, parallel digestion experiments were performed in order to directly compare a two stage digestion system producing hydrogen and methane, with a single stage system producing just methane. The results indicated that as well as producing additional energy in the form of hydrogen, two stage digestion also resulted in significant increases to methane production, overall energy yields, and digester stability (as indicated by bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile fatty acid removal). Two stage AD resulted in an increase in energy yields from 10.36 MJ kg(-1) VS to 11.74 MJ kg(-1) VS, an increase of 13.4%. Using a two stage system also permitted a much shorter hydraulic retention time of 12 days whilst maintaining process stability. PMID:25913885

  8. Increasing the production yield of recombinant protein in transgenic seeds by expanding the deposition space within the intracellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seeds must maintain a constant level of nitrogen in order to germinate. When recombinant proteins are produced while endogenous seed protein expression is suppressed, the production levels of the foreign proteins increase to compensate for the decreased synthesis of endogenous proteins. Thus, exchanging the production of endogenous seed proteins for that of foreign proteins is a promising approach to increase the yield of foreign recombinant proteins. Providing a space for the deposition of recombinant protein in the intracellular compartment is critical, at this would lessen any competition in this region between the endogenous seed proteins and the introduced foreign protein. The production yields of several recombinant proteins have been greatly increased by this strategy. PMID:23563599

  9. Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves beef yield, changes palatability traits, and increases calpain-calpastatin gene expression in Nellore heifers.

    PubMed

    Cônsolo, Nara Regina Brandão; Ferrari, Viviane Borba; Mesquita, Ligia Garcia; Goulart, Rodrigo Silva; Silva, Luis Felipe Prada E

    2016-11-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the beta-agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass traits, subprimal yield, meat quality, palatability traits, and gene expression in Nellore heifers. Zilpaterol increased Longissimus lumborum area and did not change back fat thickness, meat color, and cooking loss. Heifers fed ZH had greater hindquarter weight and carcass percentage. Muscles from hindquarter were heavier for animals fed ZH. Forequarter (% of carcass) decreased and brisket did not change with ZH supplementation. There were no differences between treatments for steak aroma, beef flavor, and off-flavor. However, tenderness and juiciness were reduced by ZH, depending on postmortem aging. Zilpaterol increased Calpain-1, Calpain-2, and calpastatin mRNA expression, with no effect of day of slaughter or ZH×Day interaction. In conclusion, ZH supplementation improved hypertrophy, meat production, and debone yield in Nellore heifers, which led to decreased tenderness and to increased mRNA expression in the calpain-calpastatin system. PMID:27427783

  10. Integration of mild acid hydrolysis in γ-valerolactone/water system for enhancement of enzymatic saccharification from cotton stalk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miao; Yan, Zhong Ya; Zhang, Xue Ming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run Cang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mild acid hydrolysis using γ-valerolactone (GVL)/water system integrated with enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out for the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification efficiency. The quantitative analysis of soluble carbohydrates and structural characterizations of solid residues were conducted. Results showed that the soluble carbohydrates in the water-phase were mainly composed of monomers and oligomers from xylose and glucose, while the contents of which were depended on the ratio of GVL to water. Moreover, the inhibitors were hardly detected due to the moderate pretreatment severity. Compared with the untreated feedstock, the yields of enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated samples increased by two-fold with the mixture of 80/20 GVL/H2O. Combined with the amount of glucose (14.6%) dissolved in the water-phase, over 92.6% of glucose in cotton stalk was released and recovered. Based on the comprehensive analysis, treatment with GVL/H2O system provided us a more effective approach for sugar production from biomass. PMID:26476160

  11. High concentrations of cellulosic ethanol achieved by fed batch semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of waste-paper

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Adam; Collins, Samuel R.A.; Wilson, David R.; Roberts, Ian N.; Waldron, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental goal of second generation ethanol production is to increase the ethanol concentration to 10% (v/v) or more to optimise distillation costs. Semi simultaneous saccharification and fermentations (SSSF) were conducted at small pilot scale (5 L) utilising fed-batch additions of solid shredded copier paper substrate. Early addition of Accellerase® 1500 at 16 FPU/g substrate and 30 U/g β-glucosidase followed by substrate only batch addition allowed low final equivalent enzyme concentrations to be achieved (3.7 FPU/g substrate) whilst maintaining digestion. Batch addition resulted in a cumulative substrate concentration equivalent to 65% (w/v). This in turn resulted in the production of high concentrations of ethanol (11.6% v/v). The success of this strategy relied on the capacity of the bioreactor to perform high shear mixing as required. Further research into the timing and number of substrate additions could lead to further improvement in overall yields from the 65.5% attained. PMID:23500568

  12. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes

    PubMed Central

    Creissen, Henry E.; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Brown, James K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming. PMID:27375312

  13. Saccharification and ethanol fermentation from cholinium ionic liquid-pretreated bagasse with a different number of post-pretreatment washings.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Omote, Sayuri; Ogino, Chiaki; Kuroda, Kosuke; Noguchi, Mana; Endo, Takatsugu; Kakuchi, Ryohei; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Choline acetate (ChOAc), a cholinium ionic liquid (IL), was compared with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc) with regard to biomass pretreatment, inhibition on cellulase and yeast, residuals in pretreated biomass, and saccharification and fermentation of pretreated biomass. Irrespective of ChOAc and EmimOAc, cellulose and hemicellulose saccharification of the IL-pretreated bagasse were over 90% and 60%, respectively. Median effective concentrations (EC50) based on cellulase activity were 32 wt% and 16 wt% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively. The EC50 based on yeast growth were 3.1 wt% and 0.3 wt% for ChOAc and EmimOAc respectively. The residuals in IL-pretreated bagasse were 10% and 23% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively, when washed 2 times after pretreatment. Ethanol yield on a bagasse basis were 60% and 24% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively, in the saccharification and fermentation of IL-pretreated bagasse when washed 2 times. ChOAc-pretreated bagasse could be saccharified and fermented with fewer wash times than EmimOAc-pretreated bagasse. PMID:25898080

  14. Application of a new xylanase activity from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XR44A in brewer's spent grain saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Amore, Antonella; Parameswaran, Binod; Kumar, Ramesh; Birolo, Leila; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Marcolongo, Loredana; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Pandey, Ashok; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Cellulases and xylanases are the key enzymes involved in the conversion of lignocelluloses into fermentable sugars. Western Ghat region (India) has been recognized as an active hot spot for the isolation of new microorganisms. The aim of this work was to isolate new microorganisms producing cellulases and xylanases to be applied in brewer's spent grain saccharification. Results 93 microorganisms were isolated from Western Ghat and screened for the production of cellulase and xylanase activities. Fourteen cellulolytic and seven xylanolytic microorganisms were further screened in liquid culture. Particular attention was focused on the new isolate Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XR44A, producing xylanase activity up to 10.5 U mL−1. A novel endo-1,4-beta xylanase was identified combining zymography and proteomics and recognized as the main enzyme responsible for B. amyloliquefaciens XR44A xylanase activity. The new xylanase activity was partially characterized and its application in saccharification of brewer's spent grain, pretreated by aqueous ammonia soaking, was investigated. Conclusion The culture supernatant of B. amyloliquefaciens XR44A with xylanase activity allowed a recovery of around 43% xylose during brewer's spent grain saccharification, similar to the value obtained with a commercial xylanase from Trichoderma viride, and a maximum arabinose yield of 92%, around 2-fold higher than that achieved with the commercial xylanase. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25866429

  15. Increasing viscosity and yields of bacterial exopolysaccharides by repeatedly exposing strains to ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ou; Liu, Ao; Lu, Cui; Zheng, Dao-qiong; Qian, Chao-dong; Wang, Pin-Mei; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2014-09-22

    A universal method to enhance productivity and viscosity of bacterial exopolysaccharides was developed. The technique was based on the principle that ampicillin can inhibit the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, which shares a common synthetic pathway with that of bacterial exopolysaccharides. Serial passages of three typical representatives of bacterial EPS-producing strains, namely Sphingomonas elodea, Xanthomonas campestris, and Paenibacillus elgii, were subjected to ampicillin, which was used as a stressor and a mutagen. These mutant strains are advantageous over other strains because of two major factors. First, all of the resulting strains were almost mutants with increase in EPS productivity and viscosity. Second, isolated serial strains showed different levels of increase in EPS production and viscosity to satisfy the different requirements of practical applications. No differences were observed in the monosaccharide composition produced by the mutant and parent strains; however, high-viscosity mutant strains exhibited higher molecular weights. The results confirmed that the developed method is a controlled universal one that can improve exopolysaccharides productivity and viscosity. PMID:24906747

  16. Simultaneous multiple-excitation multiphoton microscopy yields increased imaging sensitivity and specificity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) offers many advantages over conventional wide-field and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for imaging biological samples such as 3D resolution of excitation, reduced phototoxicity, and deeper tissue imaging. However, adapting MPM for critical multi-color measurements presents a challenge because of the largely overlapping two-photon absorption (TPA) peaks of common biological fluorophores. Currently, most multi-color MPM relies on the absorbance at one intermediate wavelength of multiple dyes, which introduces problems such as decreased and unequal excitation efficiency across the set of dyes. Results Here we describe an MPM system incorporating two, independently controlled sources of two-photon excitation whose wavelengths are adjusted to maximally excite one dye while minimally exciting the other. We report increased signal-to-noise ratios and decreased false positive emission bleed-through using this novel multiple-excitation MPM (ME-MPM) compared to conventional single-excitation MPM (SE-MPM) in a variety of multi-color imaging applications. Conclusions Similar to the tremendous gain in popularity of CLSM after the introduction of multi-color imaging, we anticipate that the ME-MPM system will further increase the popularity of MPM. In addition, ME-MPM provides an excellent tool to more rapidly design and optimize pairs of fluorescence probes for multi-color two-photon imaging, such as CFP/YFP or GFP/DsRed for CLSM. PMID:21366923

  17. High levels of β-xylosidase in Thermomyces lanuginosus: potential use for saccharification.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Juliana Moço; Christi, Divair; Torre, Carla Lieko Della; Henn, Caroline; da Conceição-Silva, José Luis; Kadowaki, Marina Kimiko; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2016-01-01

    A new strain of Thermomyces lanuginosus was isolated from the Atlantic Forest biome, and its β-xylosidases optimization in response to agro-industrial residues was performed. Using statistical approach as a strategy for optimization, the induction of β-xylosidases activity was evaluated in residual corn straw, and improved so that the optimum condition achieved high β-xylosidases activities 1003U/mL. According our known, this study is the first to show so high levels of β-xylosidases activities induction. In addition, the application of an experimental design with this microorganism to induce β-xylosidases has not been reported until the present work. The optimal conditions for the crude enzyme extract were pH 5.5 and 60°C showing better thermostability at 55°C. The saccharification ability of β-xylosidase in the presence of hemicellulose obtained from corn straw raw and xylan from beechwood substrates showed a xylo-oligosaccharide to xylose conversion yield of 80 and 50%, respectively, at 50°C. Our data strongly indicated that the β-xylosidases activities was not subjected to the effects of potential enzyme inhibitors often produced during fermentation process. These data suggest the application of this enzyme studied for saccharification of hemicellulose, an abundant residue in the American continents, thus providing an interesting alternative for future tests for energy production. PMID:27256169

  18. Optimization of pretreatment and saccharification for the production of bioethanol from water hyacinth by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Deuk Joo; Kim, Se Kyung; Yun, Hyun Shik

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline-oxidative (A/O) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were optimized for bioethanol fermentation from water hyacinth by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Water hyacinth was subjected to A/O pretreatment at various NaOH and H(2)O(2) concentrations and reaction temperatures for the optimization of bioethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The most effective condition for A/O pretreatment was 7% (w/v) NaOH at 100 °C and 2% (w/v) H(2)O(2). The carbohydrate content was analyzed after reaction at various enzyme concentrations and enzyme ratios using Celluclast 1.5 L and Viscozyme L to determine the effective conditions for enzymatic saccharification. After ethanol fermentation using S. cerevisiae KCTC 7928, the concentration of glucose, ethanol and glycerol was analyzed by HPLC using a RI detector. The yield of ethanol in batch fermentation was 0.35 g ethanol/g biomass. Continuous fermentation was carried out at a dilution rate of 0.11 (per h) and the ethanol productivity was 0.77 [g/(l h)]. PMID:21909939

  19. Metabolic engineering of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii yields increased hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Members of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are emerging candidates for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) because they are capable of efficiently growing on biomass without conventional pretreatment. C. bescii produces primarily lactate, acetate and hydrogen as fermentation products, and while some Caldicellulosiruptor strains produce small amounts of ethanol C. bescii does not, making it an attractive background to examine the effects of metabolic engineering. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation has set the stage for rational engineering of this genus for improved biofuel production. Here, we report the first targeted gene deletion, the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), for metabolic engineering of a member of this genus. Results A deletion of the C. bescii L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh) was constructed on a non-replicating plasmid and introduced into the C. bescii chromosome by marker replacement. The resulting strain failed to produce detectable levels of lactate from cellobiose and maltose, instead increasing production of acetate and H2 by 21-34% relative to the wild type and ΔpyrFA parent strains. The same phenotype was observed on a real-world substrate – switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Furthermore, the ldh deletion strain grew to a higher maximum optical density than the wild type on maltose and cellobiose, consistent with the prediction that the mutant would gain additional ATP with increased acetate production. Conclusions Deletion of ldh in C. bescii is the first use of recently developed genetic methods for metabolic engineering of these bacteria. This deletion resulted in a redirection of electron flow from production of lactate to acetate and hydrogen. New capabilities in metabolic engineering combined with intrinsic utilization of lignocellulosic materials position these organisms to provide a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing of fuels and other products from

  20. Metabolic engineering of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii yields increased hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Minseok; Chung, Daehwan; Elkins, James G; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Members of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are emerging candidates for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) because they are capable of efficiently growing on biomass without conventional pretreatment. C. bescii produces primarily lactate, acetate and hydrogen as fermentation products, and while some Caldicellulosiruptor strains produce small amounts of ethanol C. bescii does not, making it an attractive background to examine the effects of metabolic engineering. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation has set the stage for rational engineering of this genus for improved biofuel production. Here, we report the first targeted gene deletion, the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), for metabolic engineering of a member of this genus. Results: A deletion of the C. bescii L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh) was constructed on a non-replicating plasmid and introduced into the C. bescii chromosome by marker replacement. The resulting strain failed to produce detectable levels of lactate from cellobiose and maltose, instead increasing production of acetate and H2 by 21-34% relative to the wild type and pyrFA parent strains. The same phenotype was observed on a real-world substrate switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Furthermore, the ldh deletion strain grew to a higher maximum optical density than the wild type on maltose and cellobiose, consistent with the prediction that the mutant would gain additional ATP with increased acetate production. Conclusions: Deletion of ldh in C. bescii is the first use of recently developed genetic methods for metabolic engineering of these bacteria. This deletion resulted in a redirection of electron flow from production of lactate to acetate and hydrogen. New capabilities in metabolic engineering combined with intrinsic utilization of lignocellulosic materials position these organisms to provide a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing of fuels and other products from

  1. Saccharification of natural lignocellulose biomass and polysaccharides by highly negatively charged heteropolyacids in concentrated aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yoshiyuki; Itagaki, Shintaro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2011-04-18

    Highly negatively charged heteropolyacids (HPAs), in particular H(5) BW(12) O(40) , efficiently promoted saccharification of crystalline cellulose into water-soluble saccharides in concentrated aqueous solutions (e.g., 82 % total yield and 77 % glucose yield, based on cellulose with a 0.7 M H(5) BW(12) O(40) solution); the performance was much better than those of previously reported systems with commonly utilized mineral acids (e.g., H(2) SO(4) and HCl) and HPAs (e.g., H(3) PW(12) O(40) and H(4) SiW(12) O(40)). Besides crystalline cellulose, the present system was applicable to the selective transformation of cellobiose, starch, and xylan to the corresponding monosaccharides such as glucose and xylose. In addition, one-pot synthesis of levulinic acid and sorbitol directly from cellulose was realized by using concentrated HPA solutions. The present system, concentrated aqueous solutions of highly negatively charged HPAs, was further applicable to saccharification of natural (non-purified) lignocellulose biomass, such as "rice plant straw", "oil palm empty fruit bunch (palm EFB) fiber", and "Japanese cedar sawdust", giving a mixture of the corresponding water-soluble saccharides, such as glucose (main product), galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and cellobiose, in high yields (≥77 % total yields of saccharides based on holocellulose). Separation of the saccharides and H(5) BW(12) O(40) was easy, and the retrieved H(5) BW(12) O(40) could repeatedly be used without appreciable loss of the high performance. PMID:21404445

  2. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  3. Brain Tumor Genetic Modification Yields Increased Resistance to Paclitaxel in Physical Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Loan; Hendricks, Alissa; Wright, Jamie; Chuong, Cheng-Jen; Davé, Digant; Bachoo, Robert; Kim, Young-tae

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumor cells remain highly resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, particularly malignant and secondary cancers. In this study, we utilized microchannel devices to examine the effect of a confined environment on the viability and drug resistance of the following brain cancer cell lines: primary cancers (glioblastoma multiforme and neuroblastoma), human brain cancer cell lines (D54 and D54-EGFRvIII), and genetically modified mouse astrocytes (wild type, p53−/−, p53−/− PTEN−/−, p53−/− Braf, and p53−/− PTEN−/− Braf). We found that loss of PTEN combined with Braf activation resulted in higher viability in narrow microchannels. In addition, Braf conferred increased resistance to the microtubule-stabilizing drug Taxol in narrow confinement. Similarly, survival of D54-EGFRvIII cells was unaffected following treatment with Taxol, whereas the viability of D54 cells was reduced by 75% under these conditions. Taken together, our data suggests key targets for anticancer drugs based on cellular genotypes and their specific survival phenotypes during confined migration. PMID:27184621

  4. Complementary ecosystem services provided by pest predators and pollinators increase quantity and quality of coffee yields.

    PubMed

    Classen, Alice; Peters, Marcell K; Ferger, Stefan W; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Schmack, Julia M; Maassen, Genevieve; Schleuning, Matthias; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2014-03-22

    Wild animals substantially support crop production by providing ecosystem services, such as pollination and natural pest control. However, the strengths of synergies between ecosystem services and their dependencies on land-use management are largely unknown. Here, we took an experimental approach to test the impact of land-use intensification on both individual and combined pollination and pest control services in coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro. We established a full-factorial pollinator and vertebrate exclosure experiment along a land-use gradient from traditional homegardens (agroforestry systems), shaded coffee plantations to sun coffee plantations (total sample size = 180 coffee bushes). The exclusion of vertebrates led to a reduction in fruit set of ca 9%. Pollinators did not affect fruit set, but significantly increased fruit weight of coffee by an average of 7.4%. We found no significant decline of these ecosystem services along the land-use gradient. Pest control and pollination service were thus complementary, contributing to coffee production by affecting the quantity and quality of a major tropical cash crop across different coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro. PMID:24500173

  5. Complementary ecosystem services provided by pest predators and pollinators increase quantity and quality of coffee yields

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Alice; Peters, Marcell K.; Ferger, Stefan W.; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Schmack, Julia M.; Maassen, Genevieve; Schleuning, Matthias; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals substantially support crop production by providing ecosystem services, such as pollination and natural pest control. However, the strengths of synergies between ecosystem services and their dependencies on land-use management are largely unknown. Here, we took an experimental approach to test the impact of land-use intensification on both individual and combined pollination and pest control services in coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro. We established a full-factorial pollinator and vertebrate exclosure experiment along a land-use gradient from traditional homegardens (agroforestry systems), shaded coffee plantations to sun coffee plantations (total sample size = 180 coffee bushes). The exclusion of vertebrates led to a reduction in fruit set of ca 9%. Pollinators did not affect fruit set, but significantly increased fruit weight of coffee by an average of 7.4%. We found no significant decline of these ecosystem services along the land-use gradient. Pest control and pollination service were thus complementary, contributing to coffee production by affecting the quantity and quality of a major tropical cash crop across different coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro. PMID:24500173

  6. Growth and yield response of field-grown tropical rice to increasing carbon dioxide and air temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ziska, L.H.; Namuco, O.; Moya, T.; Quilang, J.

    1997-01-01

    Although the response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and air temperature has been examined at the greenhouse or growth chamber level, no field studies have been conducted under the tropical, irrigated conditions where the bulk of the world`s rice is grown. At the International Rice Research Institute, rice (cv. IR 72) was grown from germination until maturity for the 1994 wet and 1995 dry seasons at three different CO{sub 2} concentrations (ambient, ambient + 200, and ambient + 300 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) resulted in a significant increase in total plant biomass (+31%, +40%) and crop yield (+15%, + 27%) compared with the ambient control. The increase in crop yield was associated with an increase in the number of panicles per square meter and a greater percentage of filled spikelets. Simultaneous increases in CO{sub 2} and air temperature did not alter the biomass at maturity (relative to elevated CO{sub 2} alone), but plant development was accelerated at the higher growth temperature regardless of CO{sub 2} concentration. Grain yield, however, became insensitive to CO{sub 2} concentration at the higher growth temperature. Increasing both CO{sub 2} and air temperature also reduced grain quality (e.g., protein content). The combination of CO{sub 2} and temperature effects suggests that, in warmer regions (i.e., >34{degrees}C) where rice is grown, quantitative and qualitative changes in rice supply are possible if both CO{sub 2} and air temperature continue to increase. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Activation of futile cycles as an approach to increase ethanol yield during glucose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-04-01

    An increase in ethanol yield by yeast from the fermentation of conventional sugars such as glucose and sucrose is possible by reducing the production of a key byproduct such as cellular biomass. Previously we have reported that overexpression of PHO8 gene encoding non-specific ATP-hydrolyzing alkaline phosphatase can lead to a decrease in cellular ATP content and to an increase in ethanol yield during glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we further report on 2 new successful approaches to reduce cellular levels of ATP that increase ethanol yield and productivity. The first approach is based on the overexpression of the heterologous Escherichia coli apy gene encoding apyrase or SSB1 part of the chaperon that exhibit ATPase activity in yeast. In the second approach we constructed a futile cycle by the overexpression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in S. cerevisiae. These genetically engineered strains accumulated more ethanol compared to the wild-type strain during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26890808

  8. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bangwei; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Shen, Tianmin; Sánchez-Bragado, Rut; Bort, Jordi; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    This experiment aims to test the traits responsible for the increase in yield potential of winter wheat released in Henan Province, China. Seven established cultivars released in the last 20 years and three advanced lines were assayed. The results showed that grain yield was positively correlated with harvest index (HI), kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. In addition, the HI and aboveground biomass showed an increasing trend with the year of release. Therefore, we can conclude that bread wheat breeding advances during recent decades in Henan Province, China, have been achieved through an increase in HI, kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. A higher δ(13)C seems also to be involved in these advances, which suggests a progressive improvement in constitutive water use efficiency not associated with a trend towards lower stomatal conductance in the most recent genotypes. However, genetic advance does not appear related to changes in photosynthesis rates on area basis when measured in the flag leaf or the spike, but only to a higher, whole-spike photosynthesis. Results also indirectly support the concept that under potential yield conditions, the spike contributed more than the flag leaf to kernel formation. PMID:24373600

  9. Heterologous expression of chloroplast-localized geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase confers fast plant growth, early flowering and increased seed yield.

    PubMed

    Tata, Sandeep Kumar; Jung, Jihye; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Choi, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae

    2016-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPS) is a key enzyme for a structurally diverse class of isoprenoid biosynthetic metabolites including gibberellins, carotenoids, chlorophylls and rubber. We expressed a chloroplast-targeted GGPS isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The resulting transgenic tobacco plants expressing heterologous GGPS showed remarkably enhanced growth (an increase in shoot and root biomass and height), early flowering, increased number of seed pods and greater seed yield compared with that of GUS-transgenic lines (control) or wild-type plants. The gibberellin levels in HaGGPS-transgenic plants were higher than those in control plants, indicating that the observed phenotype may result from increased gibberellin content. However, in HaGGPS-transformant tobacco plants, we did not observe the phenotypic defects such as reduced chlorophyll content and greater petiole and stalk length, which were previously reported for transgenic plants expressing gibberellin biosynthetic genes. Fast plant growth was also observed in HaGGPS-expressing Arabidopsis and dandelion plants. The results of this study suggest that GGPS expression in crop plants may yield desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced growth of shoots and roots, early flowering, greater numbers of seed pods and/or higher seed yield. This research has potential applications for fast production of plant biomass that provides commercially valuable biomaterials or bioenergy. PMID:25644367

  10. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Amanda P; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Trindade, Luisa M; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  11. Methods and compositions for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Zhou, Shengde

    2006-04-11

    The invention provides compositions and methods for the synergistic degradation of oligosaccharides by endoglucanases. The invention further provides recombinant host cells containing one or more genes encoding endoglucanses which are capable of the synergistic degradation of oligosaccharides. Preferred host cells of the invention are ethanologenic and capable of carrying out simultaneous saccharification and fermentation resulting in the production of ethanol from complex cellulose substrates.

  12. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  13. LSCHL4 from Japonica Cultivar, which is allelic to NAL1, increases yield of indica super rice 93-11.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Heng; Li, Shu-Yu; Wang, Li; Ye, Wei-Jun; Zeng, Da-Li; Rao, Yu-Chun; Peng, You-Lin; Hu, Jiang; Yang, Yao-Long; Xu, Jie; Ren, De-Yong; Gao, Zhen-Yu; Zhu, Li; Dong, Guo-Jun; Hu, Xing-Ming; Yan, Mei-Xian; Guo, Long-Biao; Li, Chuan-You; Qian, Qian

    2014-08-01

    The basic premise of high yield in rice is to improve leaf photosynthetic efficiency and coordinate the source-sink relationship in rice plants. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to morphological traits and chlorophyll content of rice leaves were detected at the stages of heading to maturity, and a major QTL (qLSCHL4) related to flag leaf shape and chlorophyll content was detected at both stages in recombinant inbred lines constructed using the indica rice cultivar 93-11 and the japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Map-based cloning and expression analysis showed that LSCHL4 is allelic to NAL1, a gene previously reported in narrow leaf mutant of rice. Overexpression lines transformed with vector carrying LSCHL4 from Nipponbare and a near-isogenic line of 93-11 (NIL-9311) had significantly increased leaf chlorophyll content, enlarged flag leaf size, and improved panicle type. The average yield of NIL-9311 was 18.70% higher than that of 93-11. These results indicate that LSCHL4 had a pleiotropic function. Exploring and pyramiding more high-yield alleles resembling LSCHL4 for super rice breeding provides an effective way to achieve new breakthroughs in raising rice yield and generate new ideas for solving the problem of global food safety. PMID:24795339

  14. Using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to identify tumor stromal fibrosis and increase tumor biopsy yield (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Tissue biopsy is the principal method used to diagnose tumors in a variety of organ systems. It is essential to maximize tumor yield in biopsy specimens for both clinical diagnostic and research purposes. This is particularly important in tumors where additional tissue is needed for molecular analysis to identify patients who would benefit from mutation-specific targeted therapy, such as in lung carcinomas. Inadvertent sampling of fibrotic stroma within tumor nodules contaminates biopsies, decreases tumor yield, and can impede diagnosis. The ability to assess tumor composition and guide biopsy site selection in real time is likely to improve diagnostic yield. Polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) measures birefringence in organized tissues, such as collagen, and could be used to distinguish tumor from fibrosis. In this study, PS-OCT was obtained in 65 lung nodule samples from surgical resection specimens containing varying ratios of tumor and fibrosis. PS-OCT was obtained with either a custom-built helical scanning catheter (0.8 or 1.6mm in diameter) or a dual-axis bench top scanner. Strong birefringence was observed in nodules containing dense fibrosis, with no birefringence in adjacent regions of tumor. Tumors admixed with early, loosely-organized collagen demonstrated mild-to-moderate birefringence, and tumors with little collagen content showed little to no birefringent signal. PS-OCT provides significant insights into tumor nodule composition, and has potential to differentiate tumor from stromal fibrosis during biopsy site selection to increase diagnostic tumor yield.

  15. Carcass traits and cutting yields of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed increasing protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing balanced protein, with and without ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), in the finisher diets of immunocastrates on their carcass cutting yields and respective muscle, fat, and bone proportions. Carcass traits and yields of 120 individually housed entire male pigs and immunocastrates were evaluated following a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. Vaccination occurred at 16 and 20 wk of age and slaughtering at 24 wk. Up until 20 wk of age, all pigs received a commercial grower diet. Low-, medium-, and high-protein (7.50, 9.79, and 12.07 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] lysine/kg, respectively) diets were then fed for the last 28 d with RAC supplemented at 0 or 10 mg/kg. Immunocastration and RAC supplementation increased ( = 0.003 and = 0.017, respectively) the live weight at slaughter. The interaction between sex and protein ( = 0.039) for caliper backfat depths showed greater backfat depths in immunocastrates fed medium protein whereas RAC decreased ( = 0.027) the caliper backfat depth. Feeding RAC increased the trotters ( = 0.040), tenderloins (fillets; < 0.001), shoulder ( = 0.002), hindquarter ( = 0.026), loin ( = 0.028), and belly ( = 0.044) percentages. The shoulder ( < 0.001), hindquarter ( < 0.001), and loin ( = 0.005) muscle percentages were increased and the hindquarter fat percentages were decreased ( = 0.032) with RAC supplementation. Immunocastration increased the belly cut ( = 0.006), loin fat ( < 0.001), and belly fat ( < 0.001) percentages. Therefore, carcass cutting and lean yields can be improved by RAC supplementation while decreasing the backfat depth, and the increase in backfat due to immunocastration could be avoided with the correct dietary protein level. PMID:26440353

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  18. An increase in melatonin in transgenic rice causes pleiotropic phenotypes, including enhanced seedling growth, delayed flowering, and low grain yield.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-05-01

    No previous reports have described the effects of an increase in endogenous melatonin levels on plant yield and reproduction. Here, the phenotypes of melatonin-rich transgenic rice plants overexpressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase were investigated under field conditions. Early seedling growth of melatonin-rich transgenic rice was greatly accelerated, with enhanced biomass relative to the wild type (WT). However, flowering was delayed by 1 wk in the transgenic lines compared with the WT. Grain yields of the melatonin-rich transgenic lines were reduced by 33% on average. Other phenotypes also varied among the transgenic lines. For example, the transgenic line S1 exhibited greater height and biomass than the WT, while the S10 transgenic line showed diminished height and an increase in panicle numbers per plant. The expression levels of Oryza sativa homeobox1 (OSH1) and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) genes, two key regulators of meristem initiation and maintenance, were not altered in the transgenic lines. These data demonstrate that an alteration of endogenous melatonin levels leads to pleiotropic effects such as height, biomass, panicle number, flowering time, and grain yield, indicating that melatonin behaves as a signaling molecule in plant growth and reproduction. PMID:24571270

  19. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  20. Wheat Grain Yield Increase in Response to Pre-Anthesis Foliar Application of 6-Benzylaminopurine Is Dependent on Floret Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunfeng; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat yield is largely determined during the period prior to flowering, when the final numbers of fertile florets and grains per spike are established. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of floret primordia development in winter wheat in response to pre-anthesis application of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA). We conducted an experiment in which two foliar spray treatments were applied (water or 6-BA) to Chinese winter wheat at 25 days after jointing during two growing seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014). Both the final grain number per spike and grain yield at maturity exhibited remarkable increases in response to the 6-BA treatment. Application of 6-BA increased the number of fertile florets in basal spikelets and, to a greater extent, in central spikelets. The mechanism by which 6-BA application affected the final number of fertile florets primarily involved suppression of the floret abortion rates. Application of 6-BA considerably reduced the abortion rates of basal, central and apical spikelet florets (by as much as 77% compared with the control), as well as the degeneration rates of basal and central spikelet florets, albeit to a lesser degree. The effect of 6-BA application on the likelihood of proximal florets being set was limited to the distal florets in the whole spike, whereas obvious increases in the likelihood of grain set under 6-BA treatment were observed in distal florets, primarily in central spikelet positions. The results of this study provide important evidence that 6-BA application to florets (final fertile floret production) results in an increased grain yield. PMID:27258059

  1. Fungal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass improves the saccharification of cellulosics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rishi; Mehta, Girija; Khasa, Yogender Pal; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2011-07-01

    The biological delignification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara was carried out with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a white rot fungus, at different scales under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the fungal treated substrates were evaluated for their acid and enzymatic saccharification. The fungal fermentation at 10.0 g substrate level optimally delignified the P. juliflora by 11.89% and L. camara by 8.36%, and enriched their holocellulose content by 3.32 and 4.87%, respectively, after 15 days. The fungal delignification when scaled up from 10.0 g to 75.0, 200.0 and 500.0 g substrate level, the fungus degraded about 7.69-10.08% lignin in P. juliflora and 6.89-7.31% in L. camara, and eventually enhanced the holocellulose content by 2.90-3.97 and 4.25-4.61%, respectively. Furthermore, when the fungal fermented L. camara and P. juliflora was hydrolysed with dilute sulphuric acid, the sugar release was increased by 21.4-42.4% and the phenolics content in hydrolysate was decreased by 18.46 and 19.88%, as compared to the unfermented substrate acid hydrolysis, respectively. The reduction of phenolics in acid hydrolysates of fungal treated substrates decreased the amount of detoxifying material (activated charcoal) by 25.0-33.0% as compared to the amount required to reduce almost the same level of phenolics from unfermented substrate hydrolysates. Moreover, an increment of 21.1-25.1% sugar release was obtained when fungal treated substrates were enzymatically hydrolysed as compared to the hydrolysis of unfermented substrates. This study clearly shows that fungal delignification holds potential in utilizing plant residues for the production of sugars and biofuels. PMID:20711746

  2. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i) the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii) increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii) increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH) expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material. PMID:22204630

  3. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA Synthase 1 Shows Increased Plant Growth, Pod Size and Seed Yield

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  4. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  5. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  6. Elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] can dramatically increase wheat yields in semi-arid environments and buffer against heat waves.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Tausz, Michael; O'Leary, Garry; Mollah, Mahabubur R; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Seneweera, Saman; Mock, Ivan; Löw, Markus; Partington, Debra L; McNeil, David; Norton, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Wheat production will be impacted by increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 [CO2 ], which is expected to rise from about 400 μmol mol(-1) in 2015 to 550 μmol mol(-1) by 2050. Changes to plant physiology and crop responses from elevated [CO2 ] (e[CO2 ]) are well documented for some environments, but field-level responses in dryland Mediterranean environments with terminal drought and heat waves are scarce. The Australian Grains Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility was established to compare wheat (Triticum aestivum) growth and yield under ambient (~370 μmol(-1) in 2007) and e[CO2 ] (550 μmol(-1) ) in semi-arid environments. Experiments were undertaken at two dryland sites (Horsham and Walpeup) across three years with two cultivars, two sowing times and two irrigation treatments. Mean yield stimulation due to e[CO2 ] was 24% at Horsham and 53% at Walpeup, with some treatment responses greater than 70%, depending on environment. Under supplemental irrigation, e[CO2 ] stimulated yields at Horsham by 37% compared to 13% under rainfed conditions, showing that water limited growth and yield response to e[CO2 ]. Heat wave effects were ameliorated under e[CO2 ] as shown by reductions of 31% and 54% in screenings and 10% and 12% larger kernels (Horsham and Walpeup). Greatest yield stimulations occurred in the e[CO2 ] late sowing and heat stressed treatments, when supplied with more water. There were no clear differences in cultivar response due to e[CO2 ]. Multiple regression showed that yield response to e[CO2 ] depended on temperatures and water availability before and after anthesis. Thus, timing of temperature and water and the crop's ability to translocate carbohydrates to the grain postanthesis were all important in determining the e[CO2 ] response. The large responses to e[CO2 ] under dryland conditions have not been previously reported and underscore the need for field level research to provide mechanistic understanding for adapting crops to a changing

  7. A Wheat CCAAT Box-Binding Transcription Factor Increases the Grain Yield of Wheat with Less Fertilizer Input1

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Baoyuan; He, Xue; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Teng, Wan; Shao, An; Zhao, Xueqiang; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Junyi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng; Tong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fertilizer consumption has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and environmental problems. Identifying nutrient-efficient genes will facilitate the breeding of crops with improved fertilizer use efficiency. This research performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of the A (NFYA), B (NFYB), and C (NFYC) subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and further investigated their responses to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in wheat seedlings. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 18 NFYAs, 34 NFYBs, and 28 NFYCs. The expression of most NFYAs positively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. In contrast, microRNA169 negatively responded to low nitrogen and phosphorus availability and degraded NFYAs. Overexpressing TaNFYA-B1, a low-nitrogen- and low-phosphorus-inducible NFYA transcript factor on chromosome 6B, significantly increased both nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and grain yield under differing nitrogen and phosphorus supply levels in a field experiment. The increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptake may have resulted from the fact that that overexpressing TaNFYA-B1 stimulated root development and up-regulated the expression of both nitrate and phosphate transporters in roots. Our results suggest that TaNFYA-B1 plays essential roles in root development and in nitrogen and phosphorus usage in wheat. Furthermore, our results provide new knowledge and valuable gene resources that should be useful in efforts to breed crops targeting high yield with less fertilizer input. PMID:25489021

  8. The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

  9. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Looking for Water in the Woods: Quantifying the Potential for Forest Management to Increase Regional Water Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity presents a crucial challenge for water resource managers charged with maintaining hydrologic resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use while protecting natural systems. Forest lands are critical to the functioning of the hydrologic cycle in many watersheds, affecting the quantity, quality, and timing of water delivered to surface and groundwater systems. While the hydrologic impacts of forest growth and removal have been shown to be substantial in watersheds around the globe, data and models connecting forest management to water use and regional hydrology are generally lacking. We propose that water-focused forest management has the potential to deliver a "new" source of water to surface and groundwater resources. To test this hypothesis, we developed a statistical model of water yield in southeastern US pine stands as a function of forest stand structure and ecosystem water use. Model results suggest a potential increase in water yield of up to 64% for pine stands managed at lower basal areas relative to those managed according to standard silvicultural practices. At the watershed scale, the magnitude of this potential water yield enhancement is driven by existing land use and forest management; evaluated for a large watershed in NE Florida, this potential increase is in excess of 200 million gallons per day (equivalent to 20% of the anthropogenic water use in the watershed). While useful for exploration, our statistical model also highlighted critical sources of uncertainty, including the effects of climatic variation, between-site variability, water use in young pine stands, and prescribed fire. Thus, in ongoing work we are comparing the effects of specific land management actions (e.g., thinning, clearcutting, and fire) on water yield across a gradient of environmental conditions (soil type, aquifer confinement, and climate) using a novel combination of in-situ soil moisture and groundwater monitoring. These data are being used to