Sample records for increased sperm production

  1. Effect of increased scrotal temperature on sperm production in normal men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Wang; Veronica McDonald; Andrew Leung; Laura Superlano; Nancy Berman; Laura Hull; Ronald S. Swerdloff

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether application of polyester-lined athletic supports to bring the testes closer to the abdomen increases scrotal temperature and decreases sperm production.Design: Prospective clinical study.Setting: University academic medical center.Patient(s): Twenty-one healthy male volunteers.Intervention(s): The study consisted of a pretreatment period of 6 weeks, a treatment phase of 52 weeks, and a recovery phase until return to normal sperm

  2. Exposure to constant light during testis development increases daily sperm production in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, D C; Debeljuk, L; França, L R

    1999-06-01

    Testis histometry and daily sperm production (DSP) were evaluated in adult (160-day-old) Wistar rats exposed to constant light for the first 25 days after birth, and compared with control animals which were exposed to a 12 h-light-12 h-dark light regimen. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) numbers of Sertoli cell nucleoli and round spermatids per cross-section of seminiferous tubule were found in animals exposed to constant light. In addition, epididymis weight, DSP per testis and per gram of testis, as well as Leydig cell compartment volume, were significantly increased in treated animals. Although there was a clear trend toward an increased Sertoli cell population per testis in animals exposed to constant light, this difference was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). The number of round spermatids as expressed per Sertoli cell was the same in both groups. Surprisingly, the diameter and volume of round spermatid nucleus at stages I and VII of the cycle of seminiferous epithelium were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in treated animals. In conclusion, constant illumination during neonatal testis development increased sperm production and Leydig cell compartment volume in adult rats probably through a mechanism involving elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the prepubertal period. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that altering the light regimen can affect sperm production in non-seasonal breeders. PMID:10481308

  3. GENETIC VARIATION IN SPERM PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In boars, the primary determinant of daily sperm production is number of Sertoli cells, which establishes testicular weight. The only breed comparison of fetal testicular development in boars contrasted two diverse breeds, White composite (WC, Landrace-Yorkshire) with Meishan, a Chinese breed that u...

  4. Evolution of larger sperm in response to experimentally increased sperm competition in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    LaMunyon, Craig W; Ward, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    Sperm morphology evolves rapidly, resulting in an exceptional diversity of sperm size and shape across animal phyla. This swift evolution has been thought to prevent fertilizations between closely related species. Alternatively, recent correlative analyses suggest that competition among sperm from more than one male may cause sperm diversity, but these hypotheses have not been tested. Here, we test experimentally the effect of sperm competition on sperm-size evolution using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This worm has a three day generation time, which allowed the study to cover many generations. Sperm volume increased nearly 20% over 60 generations in lines genetically induced to have high levels of sperm competition compared with those of control lines. These results show that sperm competition can and does cause morphological evolution of sperm and, therefore, can explain much of the diversity in sperm morphology. PMID:12061955

  5. Sperm competition effects on sperm production and expenditure in sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea S. Aspbury

    2007-01-01

    Sperm competition risk (SCR) models predict that if there is a low probability a male's ejaculate will compete with another male, individuals should invest less sperm in a mating, whereas if the probability of competition is high, males should invest more sperm. Alternatively, models of sperm competition intensity (SCI) predict that increased intensity of sperm competition leads to maximal sperm

  6. Human sperm competition: testis size, sperm production and rates of extrapair copulations

    E-print Network

    Clifton, Ken

    Human sperm competition: testis size, sperm production and rates of extrapair copulations LEIGH W the claim that sperm competition is an important selection pressure operating in human populations. We involved in sperm and seminal fluid production (Wyckoff et al. 2000). Humans have moderately sized testes

  7. Discriminating males alter sperm production between species.

    PubMed

    Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2004-11-01

    Prezygotic reproductive isolation and its importance in speciation is traditionally approached from the viewpoint of those events that occur before mating. However, recent interest in sperm competition theory has shown that prezygotic isolation can be affected by mechanisms that occur after mating but before fertilization. One neglected aspect of these studies is how the cost of sperm production might play a role in species isolation. We examined differential sperm production in a species whose males are sexually parasitized by a unisexual gynogenetic species. Gynogens are clonal females that require sperm from males of closely related bisexual species to initiate embryogenesis. We tested for differential sperm production by male sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) when they were in the presence of either a heterospecific, gynogenetic female (Poecilia formosa, Amazon molly) or a conspecific female. We found that previously demonstrated male mate choice for conspecific over heterospecific females also is revealed in sperm production. Males from both an allopatric and a sympatric population produce more sperm when in the presence of a conspecific female than when in the presence of a heterospecific female. We suggest that differential sperm production also could play a role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in bisexual species complexes that occur in sympatry. PMID:15520395

  8. Discriminating males alter sperm production between species

    PubMed Central

    Aspbury, Andrea S.; Gabor, Caitlin R.

    2004-01-01

    Prezygotic reproductive isolation and its importance in speciation is traditionally approached from the viewpoint of those events that occur before mating. However, recent interest in sperm competition theory has shown that prezygotic isolation can be affected by mechanisms that occur after mating but before fertilization. One neglected aspect of these studies is how the cost of sperm production might play a role in species isolation. We examined differential sperm production in a species whose males are sexually parasitized by a unisexual gynogenetic species. Gynogens are clonal females that require sperm from males of closely related bisexual species to initiate embryogenesis. We tested for differential sperm production by male sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) when they were in the presence of either a heterospecific, gynogenetic female (Poecilia formosa, Amazon molly) or a conspecific female. We found that previously demonstrated male mate choice for conspecific over heterospecific females also is revealed in sperm production. Males from both an allopatric and a sympatric population produce more sperm when in the presence of a conspecific female than when in the presence of a heterospecific female. We suggest that differential sperm production also could play a role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in bisexual species complexes that occur in sympatry. PMID:15520395

  9. Phenotypic engineering of sperm-production rate confirms evolutionary predictions of sperm competition theory

    PubMed Central

    Sekii, Kiyono; Vizoso, Dita B.; Kuales, Georg; De Mulder, Katrien; Ladurner, Peter; Schärer, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Sperm production is a key male reproductive trait and an important parameter in sperm competition theory. Under sperm competition, paternity success is predicted to depend strongly on male allocation to sperm production. Furthermore, because sperm production is inherently costly, individuals should economize in sperm expenditure, and conditional adjustment of the copulation frequency according to their sperm availability may be expected. However, experimental studies showing effects of sperm production on mating behaviour and paternity success have so far been scarce, mainly because sperm production is difficult to manipulate directly in animals. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to manipulate sperm-production rate, by employing dose-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) of a spermatogenesis-specific gene, macbol1, in the free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate (i) that our novel dose-dependent RNAi approach allows us to induce high variability in sperm-production rate; (ii) that a reduced sperm-production rate is associated with a decreased copulation frequency, suggesting conditional adjustment of mating behaviour; and (iii) that both sperm production and copulation frequency are important determinants of paternity success in a competitive situation, as predicted by sperm competition theory. Our study clearly documents the potential of phenotypic engineering via dose-dependent RNAi to test quantitative predictions of evolutionary theory. PMID:23446521

  10. Sperm competition selects for increased testes mass in Australian frogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. B YRNE; J. D. R OBERTS; L. W. S IMMONS

    2002-01-01

    Game theory predicts that investment in spermatogenesis will increase with the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Widespread support for this prediction has come from comparative studies of internal fertilizing species reporting positive associations between testes mass and the probability that females mate with more than one male. Data for external fertilizers have generated conflicting results. We investigated how risk

  11. Sperm production in an extremophile fish, the cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    Sperm production in an extremophile fish, the cave molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei. Here, we investigated male sperm stores in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) from a sulfidic cave

  12. Discriminating males alter sperm production between species

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    mollies (Poecilia latipinna) when they were in the presence of either a heterospecific, gyno- genetic female (Poecilia formosa, Amazon molly) or a conspecific female. We found that previously demonstrated that occur in sympatry. Poecilia prezygotic reproductive isolation sperm competition unisexual

  13. Reduction of centrifugation force in discontinuous percoll gradients increases in vitro fertilization rates without reducing bovine sperm recovery.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A C G; Leivas, F G; Santos, F W; Schwengber, E B; Giotto, A B; Machado, C I U; Gonçalves, C G M; Folchini, N P; Brum, D S

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different centrifugation forces in bovine sperm separation by discontinuous Percoll gradients for in vitro fertilization IVF. The semen samples from each bull were pooled or each bull were centrifuged separately and centrifuged in discontinuous Percoll gradients (30, 60 and 90%) at different forces: F1 (9000×g), F2 (6500×g), F3 (4500×g) and F4 (2200×g), according experiment. The sperm samples were evaluated to determine the concentration, motility, vigor, morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS), integrity of the plasma membrane, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and embryo development were also evaluated. No difference was observed in the concentration of sperm submitted to different centrifugation forces. The total percentage of motile sperm was increased after centrifugation at F3 and F4, and the ROS production at F1 was greater than the other forces. When the bulls semen were processed individually, no significant differences were observed for the sperm quality parameters between F1 and F4, including lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, cleavage rate and average time to the first cleavage. This work demonstrated for the first time that centrifugation at 2200×g enhanced the sperm penetration and fertilization rates without reducing sperm recovery compared to the typical centrifugation force (9000×g) currently used by the commercial bovine IVF industry. PMID:24646635

  14. Production of transgenic rabbit embryos through intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuyan; Hou, Jian; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yongfu; An, Xiao-Rong

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test if intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated gene transfer was an effective method in the production of transgenic rabbit embryos. Rabbit sperm diluted in different media with various pH were treated by freezing without cryoprotectant, and their ability for DNA uptake was determined. In these experiments using production of transgenic rabbit embryos by ICSI, exogenous genes at three concentrations and of two conformation types were used. The rate of DNA association to the sperm seen by rhodamine-tagged DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was 90.0%, 92.7%, 91.0%, 91.7%, and 92.3%, respectively in TCM199, DM, DPBS, CZB, and HCZB media. The DNA attachment to sperm was not affected by media pH within the range of 5.4-9.4 (p > 0.05). Expression of GFP first occurred at the 2-cell stage and continued to blastocyst formation. DNA concentration (between 5, 10, and 20 ng/?l) or conformation (linear and circular) had no effect on the production rate of transgenic embryos. These results indicated that genetically modified rabbit blastocysts can be efficiently produced by ICSI technique. PMID:20663236

  15. Validation of a spectrophotometer-based method for estimating daily sperm production and deferent duct transit.

    PubMed

    Froman, D P; Rhoads, D D

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present work were 3-fold. First, a new method for estimating daily sperm production was validated. This method, in turn, was used to evaluate testis output as well as deferent duct throughput. Next, this analytical approach was evaluated in 2 experiments. The first experiment compared left and right reproductive tracts within roosters. The second experiment compared reproductive tract throughput in roosters from low and high sperm mobility lines. Standard curves were constructed from which unknown concentrations of sperm cells and sperm nuclei could be predicted from observed absorbance. In each case, the independent variable was based upon hemacytometer counts, and absorbance was a linear function of concentration. Reproductive tracts were excised, semen recovered from each duct, and the extragonadal sperm reserve determined by multiplying volume by sperm cell concentration. Testicular sperm nuclei were procured by homogenization of a whole testis, overlaying a 20-mL volume of homogenate upon 15% (wt/vol) Accudenz (Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corporation, Westbury, NY), and then washing nuclei by centrifugation through the Accudenz layer. Daily sperm production was determined by dividing the predicted number of sperm nuclei within the homogenate by 4.5 d (i.e., the time sperm with elongated nuclei spend within the testis). Sperm transit through the deferent duct was estimated by dividing the extragonadal reserve by daily sperm production. Neither the efficiency of sperm production (sperm per gram of testicular parenchyma per day) nor deferent duct transit differed between left and right reproductive tracts (P > 0.05). Whereas efficiency of sperm production did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high sperm mobility lines, deferent duct transit differed between lines (P < 0.001). On average, this process required 2.2 and 1.0 d for low and high lines, respectively. In summary, we developed and then tested a method for quantifying male reproductive tract throughput. This method makes the study of semen production amenable to systems biology. PMID:22991549

  16. Effects of ethanol treatment on epididymal secretory products and sperm maturation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, V; Malini, T; Arunakaran, J; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    1999-02-01

    Alcoholics are often associated with fertility disturbances with low sperm count and impaired sperm motility. Spermatozoa attains forward motility and fertilizing capacity during their transit through the epididymis. Epididymal secretory products form a suitable microenvironment, which favors sperm maturation. To study the effects of ethanol on epididymal sperm maturation, ethanol (3 g/kg body weight as 25%, v/v) was given by gastric intubation twice daily for 30 days, and in another group, rats given treatment for 30 days were withdrawn of treatment for a further period of 30 days to assess the reversibility of ethanol-induced changes. Serum and epididymidal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), epididymidal tissue and sperm carnitine, acetyl carnitine, glycerylphosphoryl choline (GPC), and sialic acid were studied along with epididymidal sperm count and cauda epididymidal sperm motility. Ethanol treatment significantly reduced the epididymal tissue/sperm carnitine, acetyl carnitine, GPC, and sialic acid, suggesting its adverse effect on these secretory products. Impaired cauda epididymidal sperm motility and fertility (in vivo) of ethanol-treated rats imply the defective sperm maturation. All these changes were reverted back to normalcy after withdrawal of ethanol treatment, indicating the transient effects of ethanol. In conclusion, it is evident that ethanol has an adverse effect on sperm maturation, which may be affected due to the decrease in serum/epididymal testosterone and DHT level and epididymal secretory products. PMID:9918552

  17. Dietary supplementation with a source of omega-3 fatty acids increases sperm number and the duration of ejaculation in boars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Estienne; A. F. Harper; R. J. Crawford

    2008-01-01

    Development of nutritional strategies to increase the production of fertile sperm would further enhance the distribution of superior genetic material by AI. The objective was to determine the effects of a dietary source of omega-3 fatty acids in boars on semen characteristics and sexual behavior. Boars were fed daily 2.2kg of a diet top-dressed with 0.3kg of corn (controls; n=12)

  18. Organophosphorous pesticide exposure increases the frequency of sperm sex null aneuploidy.

    PubMed Central

    Recio, R; Robbins, W A; Borja-Aburto, V; Morán-Martínez, J; Froines, J R; Hernández, R M; Cebrián, M E

    2001-01-01

    It has been estimated that 4 of 1,000 live births and 35% of spontaneous abortions are aneuploid and that an important proportion of embryo and newborn aneuploidy is of paternal origin. Exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with sperm hyperploidy/polyploidy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the frequency of sperm aneuploidy (X, Y, and 18) and its relationship with urinary OP metabolites in agricultural workers. We performed multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization on samples from nine men obtained before and during the pesticide spraying season to assess sperm aneuploidy. We measured urinary OP metabolite levels by gas-liquid chromatography. Aneuploidies were found in 0.67% of total sperm nuclei. The most frequent aneuploidy was the lack of a sexual chromosome or sex null (0.19%), followed by XY18 (0.15%) and XY18-18 (0.06%). OP metabolites detected at higher concentrations were dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, and diethylphosphate (DEP). There were no differences in average aneuploidy frequency or urinary metabolite levels between samples collected before and after exposure. However, Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age, alcohol intake, and sperm concentration showed significant associations between OP metabolite concentrations and increased frequency of sperm aneuploidies. The association was more evident between DEP and sex null, and the risk increased further during the spraying season. Thus, OP exposure could interfere with sperm chromosome segregation and increase the risk for genetic syndromes, such as Turner's. Further studies are required to assess the prevalence of spontaneous abortions, birth defects, and genetic syndromes in agricultural communities. PMID:11748030

  19. Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Murthy, Lata; Hwang, Kathleen; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations. While men bear the sex-determining chromosome, the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio. We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm. We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Y chromosomes/total chromosomes). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters. A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH. For the entire cohort, the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%. Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02). After multivariable adjustment, a higher sperm concentration, total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01). As a man's sperm production declines, so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm. Thus, a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring. PMID:22842703

  20. Relief effect of vitamin A on the decreased motility of sperm and the increased incidence of malformed sperm in mice exposed neonatally to bisphenol A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazuki Aikawa; Sachiko Koyama; Manabu Matsuda; Keiko Nakahashi; Yasuhisa Akazome; Takao Mori

    2004-01-01

    Administration of 50 µg of bisphenol A (BPA) for the first 5 days after birth resulted in a decrease in the percentage of moving sperm, and an increase in the incidence of malformed sperm, in the epididymides of mice at 10 weeks of age, although no marked changes were found in the testicular histology between BPA-treated and vehicle-treated control mice. The deteriorating effects

  1. Heat-shock protein A8 restores sperm membrane integrity by increasing plasma membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Moein-Vaziri, Najmeh; Phillips, Ian; Smith, Simon; Almi?ana, Carmen; Maside, Carolina; Gil, Maria A; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A; Holt, William V; Pockley, A Graham; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    The constitutive 70? kDa heat-shock protein, HSPA8, has previously been shown to contribute to the long-term survival of spermatozoa inside the mammalian female reproductive tract. Here, we show that a recombinant form of HSPA8 rapidly promotes the viability of uncapacitated spermatozoa, the ability of spermatozoa to bind to oviductal epithelial cells, enhances IVF performance, and decreases sperm mitochondrial activity. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the repair of membrane damage is achieved by an almost instantaneous increase in sperm membrane fluidity. The ability of HSPA8 to influence membrane stability and fluidity, as well as its conserved nature among mammalian species, supports the idea that this protein protects sperm survival through membrane repair mechanisms. Free Persian abstract A Persian translation of the abstract is freely available online at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/5/719/suppl/DC1. PMID:24501193

  2. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. PMID:25954044

  3. Testes Mass, but Not Sperm Length, Increases with Higher Levels of Polyandry in an Ancient Sex Model

    PubMed Central

    Vrech, David E.; Olivero, Paola A.; Mattoni, Camilo I.; Peretti, Alfredo V.

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6±1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3±4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4±5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length. PMID:24736525

  4. Effect of Cordyceps militaris supplementation on sperm production, sperm motility and hormones in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Huang, Kuei-Fen; Lee, Ying-Chung; Hou, Chien-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Cheng, Fu-Yen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Yuh-Shuen

    2008-01-01

    Cordyceps species have been traditionally used as for the enhancement of sexual function, but its direct evidence is lacking. We investigated the spermatogenic effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) as supplementation with CM mycelium to 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Ninety rats (30 for each group) were selected to regular diet or diet supplemented with CM mycelium (1% and 5%) for 6 weeks. Epididymal sperm were collected from 6 animals per group at each interval of observation. They were allowed to recover for one week. The quality and quantity of sperm were compared in these rats. The CM supplementation resulted in an increase of serum cordycepin concentration (n = 6, each group) that correlated with treatment time and the cordycepin level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 5% group as compared to 1% group at the 5th and 6th week. Epididymal sperm count was enhanced significantly from the control, at the 5th week and peaked at the 6th week in both groups supplemented with CM (each time point, n = 6; p < 0.05) and maintained for 2 weeks after stopping the treatment. Increased serum testosterone and estradiol-17 (E2) concentrations were found in rats with the CM supplementation (p < 0.05), but not other hormones such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) or prolactin. Importantly, percentages of motile sperm cells were also enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) paralleled the serum testosterone pattern from the supplement groups as compared to the control group. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with CM improves sperm quality and quantity in rats. PMID:19051352

  5. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

    1982-06-01

    This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and information found in folklore. Factors complicating the adequate assessment of plants affecting male fertility are inadequate numbers of vehicle-treated controls, poor experimental design, problems related to insolubility of crude plant extracts, variation in routes of administration, diversity in reproductive function and control among various laboratory species, and problems in identifying plant names consistently. PMID:12179631

  6. Gamete evolution and sperm numbers: sperm competition versus sperm limitation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A; Lehtonen, Jussi

    2014-09-22

    Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models in sperm economics. We show quite generally for the intensity model (where N males compete for each set of eggs) that however severe the degree of SL, if there is at least one competitor for fertilization (N - 1 ? 1), the marginal gains through SC exceed those for SL, provided that the relationship between the probability of fertilization (F) and increasing sperm numbers (x) is a concave function. In the risk model, as fertility F increases from 0 to 1.0, the threshold SC risk (the probability q that two males compete for fertilization) for SC to be the dominant force drops from 1.0 to 0. The gamete competition and gamete limitation theories for the evolution of anisogamy rely on very similar considerations: our results imply that gamete limitation could dominate only if ancestral reproduction took place in highly isolated, small spawning groups. PMID:25100694

  7. Mitochondria functionality and sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandra; Lourenço, Bárbara; Marques, Mónica; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2013-01-01

    Although mitochondria are best known for being the eukaryotic cell powerhouses, these organelles participate in various cellular functions besides ATP production, such as calcium homoeostasis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and steroid hormone biosynthesis. The aim of this review was to discuss the putative roles of mitochondria in mammalian sperm function and how they may relate to sperm quality and fertilisation ability, particularly in humans. Although paternal mitochondria are degraded inside the zygote, sperm mitochondrial functionality seems to be critical for fertilisation. Indeed, changes in mitochondrial integrity/functionality, namely defects in mitochondrial ultrastructure or in the mitochondrial genome, transcriptome or proteome, as well as low mitochondrial membrane potential or altered oxygen consumption, have been correlated with loss of sperm function (particularly with decreased motility). Results from genetically engineered mouse models also confirmed this trend. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria derived ATP is not crucial for sperm motility and that glycolysis may be the main ATP supplier for this particular aspect of sperm function. However, there are contradictory data in the literature regarding sperm bioenergetics. The relevance of sperm mitochondria may thus be associated with their role in other physiological features, particularly with the production of ROS, which in controlled levels are needed for proper sperm function. Sperm mitochondria may also serve as intracellular Ca²? stores, although their role in signalling is still unclear. PMID:23901129

  8. Male reproduction in penaeid shrimp: sperm quality and spermatophore production in wild and captive populations

    E-print Network

    Leung-Trujillo, Joanna R

    1990-01-01

    MALE REPRODUCTION IN PENAEID SHRIMP: SPERM QUALITY AND SPERMATOPHORE PRODUCTION IN WILD AND CAPTIVE POPULATIONS A Thesis by JOANNA RUTH TRUJILLO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences MALE REPRODUCTION IN PENAEID SHRIMP: SPERM QUALITY AND SPERMATOPHORE PRODUCTION IN WILD AND CAPTIVE POPULATIONS A Thesis by JOANNA RUTH TRUJILLO...

  9. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  10. Individual adjustment of sperm expenditure accords with sperm competition theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Pilastro; Marta Scaggiante; Maria B. Rasotto

    2002-01-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should strategically allocate their sperm reserves according to the level of sperm competition, defined as the probability that the sperm of two males compete for fertilizing a given set of ova. Substantial evidence from numerous animal taxa suggests that, at the individual level, sperm expenditure increases when the risk of sperm competition is greater.

  11. Elevated dietary intake of Zn-methionate is associated with increased sperm DNA fragmentation in the boar.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Adelfa; De Loera, Yasmin; García-Artiga, Carlos; Palomo, Antonio; Guevara, Jesús A; Herrera-Haro, José; López-Fernández, Carmen; Johnston, Steve; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-05-01

    Boars fed on ration of 200 ppm Zn methionate showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in sperm DNA fragmentation when compared to animals fed on non-supplemented and rations containing 150 ppm Zn methionate. There was a positive correlation (R2 = 0.207; P = 0.002) between % sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and the concentration of Zn in spermatozoa. Increased Zn in the diet also resulted in a non-proportional increase in Zn concentration in the testis and spermatozoa but not in the epididymis; Zn in sperm accumulated at levels up to 50 times higher than that found in the seminal plasma and 10-13 times that found in the epididymis and testis, respectively. These results show that supplementation of dietary Zn at a concentration of 200 ppm had an adverse effect on boar sperm DNA quality and may be related to the ability of spermatozoa to accumulate Zn during spermiogenesis. PMID:21182932

  12. Increasing Productivity at Saturn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl Long; Amit Misra; Janos Sztipanovits

    1998-01-01

    To remain competitive, manufacturing enterprises must increase and simultaneously reduce costs. This requires daily and long term examination and analysis of a plant's functions and operations. Using this data, an enterprise can identify production flow bottlenecks and analyze capacity and other factors, which in turn helps identify improvement opportunities. While such information is critical, it is often a challenge to

  13. Effects of dietary energy on sexual maturation and sperm production in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Harstine, B R; Maquivar, M; Helser, L A; Utt, M D; Premanandan, C; DeJarnette, J M; Day, M L

    2015-06-01

    In prepubertal bulls and heifers of dairy and beef breeds, puberty can be induced to occur earlier than typical with targeted high-energy diets due to precocious activation of the endocrine mechanisms that regulate puberty. Precocious activation of puberty in bulls intended for use in the AI industry has the potential to hasten and perhaps increase sperm production. It was hypothesized that feeding bulls a high-energy diet beginning at 8 wk of age would advance the prepubertal rise in LH and lead to advanced testicular maturation and age at puberty. From 58 to 230 ± 0.3 d of age, Holstein bulls received either a high-energy diet (HE; = 9; targeted ADG 1.5 kg/d) or a control diet (CONT; = 10; targeted ADG 0.75 kg/d). Thereafter, all bulls were fed a similar diet. The HE treatment increased LH secretion at 125 d of age, testosterone concentrations from 181 to 210 d, and scrotal circumference (SC) from 146 to 360 d of age relative to the CONT treatment. Beginning at 241 ± 5 d of age, semen collection (artificial vagina) was attempted every 14 d in bulls from the HE ( = 8) and CONT ( = 7) treatment until each bull attained puberty (ejaculate containing 50 × 10 spermatozoa with 10% motility). To assess semen production as mature bulls, semen was collected thrice weekly beginning at 541 ± 5 d of age until slaughter at 569 ± 5 d of age. After slaughter, epididymal and testicular measurements were collected and testicular tissue was fixed to determine seminiferous tubule diameter. Age at puberty did not differ between treatments (310 ± 35 d). Although testis and epididymal weight and testis volume were greater ( < 0.05) in the HE than the CONT treatment, sperm production of mature bulls did not differ between treatments. Diameter of seminiferous tubules also did not differ between treatments. We conclude that the HE advanced aspects of sexual maturation and increased testes size, but this was not reflected in hastened puberty or sperm production in the present experiment. PMID:26115263

  14. The role of androgens in species recognition and sperm production in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Aspbury, Andrea S; Ma, Jacqueline; Nice, Chris C

    2012-02-01

    Much is known about the role of hormones in the regulation of vertebrate mating behavior, including receptivity, and several components of mate choice. Hormones may modulate reproductive behavior in such a way to increase or decrease the individual's motivation, and therefore hormones may be important in mediating behavior associated with reproductive isolation. The mating complex of the all female gynogenetic Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, and their parental species (sailfin mollies, P. latipinna, and Atlantic mollies, P. mexicana) is a model system for studying ultimate mechanisms of species recognition. However, proximate mechanisms, such as variation in hormone levels, and the effect of hormones on sperm production have not been extensively examined. We predict that one or more of the sex steroid hormones in teleost fish (11-ketotestosterone (KT), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E)) will play a role in species recognition (during mate choice and/or sperm priming) for Atlantic mollies (the maternal parental species) that are sympatric with Amazon mollies. We sequentially paired male Atlantic mollies with female conspecifics and Amazon mollies and obtained water-borne hormone samples before and after mating for all fish. We measured circulating KT, T, and E from the water samples. Although we did not find an overall KT response to mating with conspecifics as has been found previously in sailfin mollies, male Atlantic mollies that mated more with conspecific females had lower postmating T levels. Additionally, males attempted to mate more with conspecific females that had lower postmating E levels, but attempted to mate more with Amazon mollies that had higher postmating KT levels. We also examined the effect of KT on sperm priming (a mechanism of premating mate choice), and found that KT levels of male Atlantic mollies prior to mating are correlated with the sperm priming response when males were paired with conspecific females, but this correlation was not found when males were paired with Amazon mollies. Our results indicate that male mating behavior is affecting or responding to both male and female hormones, but that the hormones alone are not playing a role in species recognition. Male Atlantic mollies may not discriminate against Amazon mollies as strongly as male sailfin mollies because Amazon mollies resemble their maternal parental species more than their paternal species. PMID:22061426

  15. Sperm competition, male prudence, and sperm-limited females (2002)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Wedell; Matthew Gage; Geoffrey Parker

    Sperm are produced in astronomical numbers compared with eggs, and there is good evidence that sperm competition is the force behind the evolution of many tiny sperm. However, sperm production inevitably has costs. Recent research shows that male ejaculate expenditure is dynamic in both time and space, and that males are sensitive to risks of sperm competition and can vary

  16. Azoospermia and maturation arrest: malfunction of valves in erect poster of humans leads to hypoxia in sperm production site.

    PubMed

    Gat, Y; Gornish, M; Chakraborty, J; Perlow, A; Levinger, U; Pasqualotto, F

    2010-12-01

    Maturation arrest (MA) of spermatogenesis is diagnosed on histology as interruption of spermatogenesis before the final stage without impairment of Sertoli or Leydig cells. It is considered a condition of irreversible or absolute infertility. Varicocele, which represents impairment in the testicular venous drainage system, has been shown to be a bilateral disease. Malfunction of the valves increase the hydrostatic pressure in the testicular venous system that exceeds the pressure in the arterial system leading to hypoxia in the testicular microcirculation and in the seminiferous tubules, the sperm production site. Sperm production deteriorates, and ultimately progresses to azoospermia. Our prediction was that MA, if genetic factors are excluded, is the final stage of long standing hypoxia. This would indicate that MA is not always an independent disease entity, but may represent progressive process of deterioration of the testicular parenchyma beyond azoospermia. By histology and electron microscopy, our prediction confirmed, at least partially, that MA is associated with degenerative ischaemic changes in the seminiferous tubules. Adequate treatment of bilateral varicocele by microsurgery or super-selective sclerotherapy of the internal spermatic veins including associated network of venous bypasses, vertically oriented, may resume the flow of oxygenated blood. If irreversible damages did not occur and ischaemia is not too long standing, limited sperm production may be restored, at least partially. PMID:21105890

  17. A diet supplemented with L-carnitine improves the sperm quality of Piétrain but not of Duroc and Large White boars when photoperiod and temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Bussalleu, E; Bonet, S

    2010-03-15

    It has been reported that a diet supplemented with L-carnitine can improve sperm quality in some mammalian species. Against this background, the current study seeks to determine the effects of feeding L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)) on boar semen characteristics (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) in three different porcine breeds (Sus domesticus) (Piétrain, Duroc, and Large White) exposed to natural environmental changes in temperature and photoperiod over a 20-wk period (February to July 2007). One hundred twenty boars (40 per breed) were randomly separated into two groups (60 boars each): the first (20 boars per breed) was fed a control diet and the second (also 20 males per breed) the same diet supplemented with L-carnitine (625 mg day(-1)). Whereas the L-carnitine supplement did not affect ejaculate volume, concentration, motility, viability, or the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa, it did improve sperm morphology in Piétrain boars by reducing the percentage of immature spermatozoa when the temperature and the photoperiod increased. Conversely, no effect on sperm morphology from supplementing feed with L-carnitine was observed in both Duroc and Large White breeds. We can therefore conclude that the addition of L-carnitine to the diet of males may maintain the level of normal sperm morphology in Piétrain boars when a drop in sperm quality occurs (due to increases in photoperiod and temperature), without affecting the other sperm quality parameters. PMID:20022096

  18. Increased expression of ERp57 in rat oocytes during meiotic maturation is associated with sperm-egg fusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Zhu, Yemin; Wu, Xiaohui; Li, Yandong; Guo, Qiangsu; Li, Weiping; Ding, Zhide

    2014-04-01

    Oocyte meiotic maturation is a developmental transition that starts during germinal-vesicle breakdown and ends at the arrest in metaphase of meiosis II. This transition is associated with changes to both the proteins that are synthesized and the abundance/distribution of post-translational modifications that are crucial for subsequent fertilization and embryogenesis. Here, we isolated and cultured rat oocytes in vitro during both metaphase of meiosis I (MI) and meiosis II (MII) stages, respectively, and then compared their proteomic profiles by high-resolution, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by mass spectrometry. We found that the expression of five proteins was up-regulated while six proteins were down-regulated when comparing MI to MII oocytes. The expression of ERp57, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, underwent a dramatic increase between MI and MII oocytes, and became concentrated in a dome-shaped area of the cell surface within the microvillar region. A similar profile was observed during spermatogenesis, and sperm ERp57 eventually localized to the head and flagellum surfaces, finally ending in the equatorial region of acrosome-reacted sperm. Given the localization pattern, we tested and found that a polyclonal antiserum created against recombinant rat ERp57 significantly inhibited spermatozoa from penetrating zona pellucida-free oocytes without affecting either sperm motility or the acrosome reaction. These results indicate that ERp57 expression on oocytes, and possibly sperm, plays an important physiological role during sperm-egg fusion. PMID:24415168

  19. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L; Alvarez, Luis; Brenker, Christoph; Rehfeld, Anders; Frederiksen, Hanne; Wäschle, Benjamin; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Balbach, Melanie; Wachten, Dagmar; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Almstrup, Kristian; Strünker, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca2+ increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate Ca2+ levels in sperm. We conclude that EDCs interfere with various sperm functions and, thereby, might impair human fertilization. PMID:24820036

  20. Effects of thymoquinone on testicular structure and sperm production in male obese rats.

    PubMed

    Tüfek, Nur Hande; Altunkaynak, Muhammad Eyüp; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2015-08-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa. It has antioxidant and anti-cancer effects. This study investigated the effects of TQ on obesity and testicular structure of high-fat-diet (HFD) fed rats. Obese control (OC) and obese thymoquinone (OT) groups were fed a special diet containing 40% of total calories from fat. Non-obese control (NC) and non-thymoquinone (NT) groups were fed a standard diet for nine weeks. Then, intraperitoneal TQ injections were carried out to the OT and NT groups for six weeks and testes were removed. Catalase and myeloperoxidase activity were determined in rat testis tissue. Stereological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical changes were evaluated in the testes of the rats. In stereological studies, mean volumes of testis and seminiferous tubules, the number of spermatogenic cells and also Leydig cells in the OC group were reduced, but these values significantly increased in the OT group. Apoptotic cells were observed in the OC group in comparison to the OT group. The number of healthy sperms were reduced in the OC group, whereas the majority showed anomalies in the head, neck, and tail. The number of healthy sperm was increased and the anomalies significantly reduced by using TQ in both the NT, and especially the OT group. TQ like antioxidants may improve fertility by means of increasing the healthy sperm number and preventing sperm anomalies. PMID:26043060

  1. Sperm production and quality in brill Scophthalmus rhombus L.: relation to circulating sex steroid levels.

    PubMed

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Forniés, Asunción; Herrera, Marcelino; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to characterize sperm quality and to quantify seasonal changes in sexual hormone (testosterone [T], 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT] and 17,20?-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one [17,20?-P]) levels in male brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) plasma, as well as to test a more intensive sampling strategy to establish relationships between sex steroid levels and sperm production parameters. Sperm concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 × 10(9) spermatozoa mL(-1), and changes in sperm quality parameters depending on sampling date were observed. Plasma sexual steroid levels remained high and changed in parallel during the spawning season and afterwards decreased to very low levels in summer. The analysis of annual changes of 11-KT and T ratios suggests that 11-KT can be the main circulating androgen for stimulating spermatogenesis in S. rhombus and that T could be involved in the beginning of spermatogenesis through the positive feedback on brain-pituitary-gonad axis. Finally, daily 11-KT and T levels showed similar patterns of variation in males sampled, whereas 17,20?-P amounts showed somewhat opposite trends. These differences could be related with the different role of androgens and progestin during the spermatogenesis. PMID:22806610

  2. Seminal fluid reduces female longevity and stimulates egg production and sperm trigger oviposition in a moth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that a number of factors in relation to mating may reduce female longevity and stimulate egg production and oviposition. However, it is still not clear whether these factors act on these parameters independently or in a collective way. Here we carried out a series of experiments including mating trials and seminal fluid injection to determine the factors responsible for reducing female longevity and stimulating egg production and oviposition in relation to mating in the moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Results show that seminal fluid and sperm work collectively to allow females to achieve maximum realized fecundity (number of eggs laid) in E. kuehniella but these factors play different roles in the process and their actions are independent. Seminal fluid signals females to allocate resources to ova, resulting in shorter longevity and greater egg production while eupyrene (not apyrene) sperm in the spermatheca trigger females to lay maximum number of eggs. We suggest that the receptors for seminal fluid signal may be located in the female reproductive tract and haemolymph, and those for sperm signal may be in the spermatheca. Hypotheses that females prolong their longevity by oosorption, physical injuries by males reduce female longevity, and mechanical stimulation by males triggers oviposition, are not substantiated in the present study. PMID:21172356

  3. Increasing storage time of extended boar semen reduces sperm DNA integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry B. Boe-Hansen; Annette K. Ersbøll; Torben Greve; Preben Christensen

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive use of artificial insemination (AI) in the pig industry. Extended liquid boar semen may be used for insemination for up to 5 days after collection. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in sperm quality, when boar semen was extended and stored at 18°C for up to 72h post-collection. The study included three

  4. Male capacity as related to sperm production, pregnancy initiation, and sperm competition in deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Dewsbury; D. Kim Sawrey

    1984-01-01

    Limitations on male capacity may be important to the evolution of mating strategies and behavior. Sperm counts in successive ejaculates of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) decreased progressively through six ejaculations and remained depressed the following day. Males were as effective in inseminating females in cycling estrus with their second two ejaculates as with their first two and as effective in

  5. Effect of 655-nm diode laser on dog sperm motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Corral-Baqués; T. Rigau; M. Rivera; J. E. Rodríguez; J. Rigau

    2005-01-01

    Sperm motility depends on energy consumption. Low-level laser irradiation increases adenosin triphosphate (ATP) production and energy supply to the cell. The aim of this study is to analyse whether the irradiation affects the parameters that characterise dog sperm motility. Fresh dog sperm samples were divided into four groups and irradiated with a 655-nm continuous-wave diode laser with varying doses: 0

  6. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production in rats.

    PubMed

    Kurowicka, B; Dietrich, G J; Kotwica, G

    2015-03-01

    The accessory gland weight, testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production were analyzed in four groups of rats housed at 20 or 34°C: (1) control rats (CR) kept at 20°C from birth to day 90; (2) adult heat-acclimated rats (AHA) kept at 20°C from birth to day 45 followed by 34°C to day 90; (3) neonatal heat-acclimated rats (NHA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 90 and (4) de-acclimated rats (DA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 45 followed by 20°C to day 90. In NHA and DA rats, accessory gland weight was higher than in controls. Despite the lack of differences in testicular and epididymal morphometry, curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was lower in the NHA group compared to controls. Areas of seminiferous tubules were lower in the DA than in CR and NHA groups, however, sperm concentration and motility were not affected by the treatment in this group. In AHA rats, epithelium of approximately 20% of seminiferous tubules was degenerated and Sertoli cell number was lower in the remaining tubules. In contrast to sperm motility, epididymal duct area, area of the duct occupied by spermatozoa and cauda epididymis sperm concentration were lower in AHA rats than in the other groups. In conclusion, neonatal heat acclimation did not affect the testicular morphometry and epididymal sperm concentration, suggesting adjustment to high ambient temperature. On the contrary, adult heat acclimation of rats affected the examined parameters, leading to decreased sperm concentration. PMID:25726371

  7. Sperm output of older men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Ng; R. Donat; L. Chan; A. Lalak; I. Di Pierro; D. J. Handelsman

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declining fertility of couples from the fourth decade of life is largely attributable to the drop in female fertility. However, increasing numbers of men, whose fertility theoretically lasts until death, are seeking fer- tility treatment at older ages, yet there is little information on sperm production and function past the age of 50 years. The few studies of such

  8. Surrogate production of eggs and sperm by intrapapillary transplantation of germ cells in cytoablated adult fish.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Rahman, Sheikh Mustafizur; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell transplantation (GCT) is a promising assisted reproductive technology for the conservation and propagation of endangered and valuable genetic resources. In teleost fish, GCT in adult gonads has been achieved only in male recipients, limiting greatly the usefulness of this technique in situations where both sexes need equal and timely attention for conservation and/or propagation. Here we describe a simplified GCT approach that ultimately leads to production of donor-derived eggs and sperm in considerably short time. Donor germ cells isolated from young pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae) were transplanted non-surgically through the genital papilla into the sexually mature gonads of Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri recipients whose gonads have been depleted of endogenous GCs by heat (26°C) and chemical treatment (four doses of Busulfan at 30 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for females and males, respectively). Transplanted spermatogonial and oogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and produce functional donor origin eggs and sperm within 7 months from the GCT. We confirmed the presence of donor-derived gametes by PCR in 17% and 5% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers and mothers, respectively. The crosses between surrogate fathers and O. bonariensis mothers yielded 12.6-39.7% pure O. bonariensis and that between a surrogate mother and an O. bonariensis father yielded 52.2% pure O. bonariensis offspring. Our findings confirm that transplantation of germ cells into sexually competent adult fish by non-surgical methods allows the production of functional donor-derived eggs and sperm in a considerably short time. The methods described here could play a vital role in conservation and rapid propagation of endangered fish genetic resources. PMID:24748387

  9. Surrogate Production of Eggs and Sperm by Intrapapillary Transplantation of Germ Cells in Cytoablated Adult Fish

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Rahman, Sheikh Mustafizur; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell transplantation (GCT) is a promising assisted reproductive technology for the conservation and propagation of endangered and valuable genetic resources. In teleost fish, GCT in adult gonads has been achieved only in male recipients, limiting greatly the usefulness of this technique in situations where both sexes need equal and timely attention for conservation and/or propagation. Here we describe a simplified GCT approach that ultimately leads to production of donor-derived eggs and sperm in considerably short time. Donor germ cells isolated from young pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae) were transplanted non-surgically through the genital papilla into the sexually mature gonads of Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri recipients whose gonads have been depleted of endogenous GCs by heat (26°C) and chemical treatment (four doses of Busulfan at 30 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg for females and males, respectively). Transplanted spermatogonial and oogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and produce functional donor origin eggs and sperm within 7 months from the GCT. We confirmed the presence of donor-derived gametes by PCR in 17% and 5% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers and mothers, respectively. The crosses between surrogate fathers and O. bonariensis mothers yielded 12.6–39.7% pure O. bonariensis and that between a surrogate mother and an O. bonariensis father yielded 52.2% pure O. bonariensis offspring. Our findings confirm that transplantation of germ cells into sexually competent adult fish by non-surgical methods allows the production of functional donor-derived eggs and sperm in a considerably short time. The methods described here could play a vital role in conservation and rapid propagation of endangered fish genetic resources. PMID:24748387

  10. Increasing productivity by developing alliances.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M R; Crosby, F E; Finnick, M; Feldman, M J

    1991-01-01

    Collaborative alliances among nurses may provide a feasible and satisfying opportunity to increase the productivity of nurses. Inherent in successful alliances are the development of trust, compatibility, commitment, and mutality of benefits. The development of collaborative relationships among clinical research nurses, a research methodologist, and a nurse educator resulted in several federally funded grants and publications. The alliances described here cross disciplines and institutions and demonstrate the enhanced productivity that can result from such efforts. PMID:2030761

  11. Defining the mechanisms by which the reactive oxygen species by-product, 4-hydroxynonenal, affects human sperm cell function.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mark A; Weinberg, Anita; Hetherington, Louise; Villaverde, Ana-Izabel; Velkov, Tony; Baell, Jonathan; Gordon, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation products such as the naturally occurring aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are known to be cytotoxic toward different cell types, including spermatozoa. In order to understand this at the molecular level, we have employed a proteomic approach to characterize direct 4-HNE adducts on human spermatozoa. Several proteins were identified to be of particular interest, including aldehyde labeling of histone methyltransferase and dynein heavy chain. In addition, we found that 4-HNE bound to part of the activation segment, cysteine residue 199, of protein kinase A (PKA). Interestingly, at low levels, addition of 4-HNE had a stimulatory effect on PKA. However, this did not correlate to increased phosphotyrosine levels during capacitation. This data explains the link between reactive oxygen species and sperm toxicity. Given that epigenetic regulation is likely affected in oxidative-stressed spermatozoa, this data show that spermatozoa appear to shut down under these conditions before reaching the egg. PMID:25673561

  12. Redox regulation of mammalian sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Capacitation is a series of morphological and metabolic changes necessary for the spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability. One of the earlier happenings during mammalian sperm capacitation is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that will trigger and regulate a series of events including protein phosphorylation, in a time-dependent fashion. The identity of the sperm oxidase responsible for the production of ROS involved in capacitation is still elusive, and several candidates are discussed in this review. Interestingly, ROS-induced ROS formation has been described during human sperm capacitation. Redox signaling during capacitation is associated with changes in thiol groups of proteins located on the plasma membrane and subcellular compartments of the spermatozoon. Both, oxidation of thiols forming disulfide bridges and the increase on thiol content are necessary to regulate different sperm proteins associated with capacitation. Reducing equivalents such as NADH and NADPH are necessary to support capacitation in many species including humans. Lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phospohate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase are responsible in supplying NAD (P) H for sperm capacitation. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are newly described enzymes with antioxidant properties that can protect mammalian spermatozoa; however, they are also candidates for assuring the regulation of redox signaling required for sperm capacitation. The dysregulation of PRDXs and of enzymes needed for their reactivation such as thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system and glutathione-S-transferases impairs sperm motility, capacitation, and promotes DNA damage in spermatozoa leading to male infertility. PMID:25926608

  13. Methods for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on human sperm production

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.

    1982-04-20

    Sperm tests provide a direct and effective way of identifying chemical agents that induce spermatogenic damage in man. Four human sperm tests are available: sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and the Y-body test. These sperm tests have numerous advantages over other approaches for assessing spermatogenic damage, and they have already been used to assess the effects of at least 85 different occupational, envionmental, and drug-related chemical exposures. When carefully controlled, seminal cytology appears to be statistically more sensitive than the other human sperm tests and should be considered an integral part of semen analysis when assessing induced spermatogenic damage.

  14. Procurement of exogenous ammonia by the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes, for protein biosynthesis and sperm production.

    PubMed

    Honda, Keiichi; Takase, Hiroyuki; Ômura, Hisashi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    How to acquire sufficient quantity of nitrogen is a pivotal issue for herbivores, particularly for lepidopterans (butterflies and moths) of which diet quality greatly differs among their life stages. Male Lepidoptera often feed from mud puddles, dung, and carrion, a behavior known as puddling, which is thought to be supplementary feeding targeted chiefly at sodium. During copulation, males transfer a spermatophore to females that contains, besides sperm, nutrients (nuptial gifts) rich in sodium, proteins, and amino acids. However, it is still poorly understood how adults, mostly nectarivores, extract nitrogen from the environment. We examined the availability of two ubiquitous inorganic nitrogenous ions in nature, viz. ammonium (or ammonia) and nitrate ions, as nutrients in a butterfly, and show that exogenous ammonia ingested by adult males of the swallowtail, Papilio polytes, can serve as a resource for protein biosynthesis. Feeding experiments with (15)N-labeled ammonium chloride revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into eupyrene spermatozoa, seminal protein, and thoracic muscle. Ammonia uptake by males significantly increased the number of eupyrene sperms in the reproductive tract tissues. The females also had the capacity to assimilate ammonia into egg protein. Consequently, it is evident that acquired ammonia is utilized for the replenishment of proteins allocable for reproduction and somatic maintenance. The active exploitation of exogenous ammonia as a nutrient by a butterfly would foster better understanding of the foraging and reproductive strategies in insects. PMID:22842938

  15. SPERM WHALE TRUMPET SOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. TELONI; W. M. X. ZIMMER; P. L. TYACK

    2005-01-01

    Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus L. clicks have been studied for nearly fifty years, during which time great efforts have been made to understand the functions and production mechanisms of this sound. Other than clicks, sperm whales may also produce low intensity sounds arranged in short sequences, named trumpets, which have been recorded occasionally in the past by few groups of

  16. In boar sperm capacitation l-lactate and succinate, but not pyruvate and citrate, contribute to the mitochondrial membrane potential increase as monitored via safranine O fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Paventi, Gianluca; Lessard, Christian; Bailey, Janice L; Passarella, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Having ascertained using JC-1 as a probe that, in distinction with the controls, during capacitation boar sperm maintains high mitochondrial membrane potential (??), to gain some insight into the role of mitochondria in capacitation, we monitored ?? generation due to externally added metabolites either in hypotonically-treated spermatozoa (HTS) or in intact cells by using safranine O as a probe. During capacitation, the addition to HTS of l-lactate and succinate but not those of pyruvate, citrate and ascorbate + TMPD resulted in increase of ?? generation. Accordingly, the addition of l-lactate and succinate, but not that of citrate, to intact sperm resulted in ?? generation increased in capacitation. PMID:25956060

  17. Job stress and productivity increase.

    PubMed

    Adaramola, Samson Sunday

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines mental and physical pressures that workers bear at work. The authors discuss how on the-job stress affects a person's capabilities and productivity, and how such pressures lend to higher incidences of accidents at work. The paper also discuss methods of reducing job-related stress and increasing productivity. An intervention was conducted amongst workers in a private firm. It shows mental and emotional pressure can affect performance and productivity of a worker on the job. One of the biggest influences of today's worker is on the-job stress. Job stress occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. This consequently affects how a person would normally deal with customer service problems, grievances, violence, conflict, and decisions on the job. Stress is an inevitable part of everyday life, and is therefore a distinct part of a person's job. To properly control the outcome of stress, there are certain precautions and methods that should be taken that will boost productivity. PMID:22317168

  18. A common protamine 1 promoter polymorphism (-190 C->A) correlates with abnormal sperm morphology and increased protamine P1/P2 ratio in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, Cristina; Oriola, Josep; de Mateo, Sara; Vidal-Taboada, José M; Ballescà, José Luis; Oliva, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    It is known that targeting the protamine 1 gene in mice leads to infertility, abnormal chromatin packaging, and abnormal sperm morphology. Because many infertile patients also have an abnormal sperm morphology and chromatin packaging, the human protamine 1 gene (PRM1) is an important candidate to screen for potential mutations. In this work, we have screened the PRM1 gene in search of potential mutations and determined the sperm morphology and the ratio between protamine 1 and protamine 2 (P1/P2 ratio). Direct sequencing of the PRM1 promoter led to the identification of a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; -190 C-->A). The -190 AA genotype was detected at a higher frequency (13.8%) in patients with markedly altered sperm morphology (A change was also consistently higher (.331) in infertile patients with a markedly altered morphology compared with population controls (.178; P < .01). Additionally, we have determined that the P1/P2 ratio is significantly increased in patients with the PRM1 -190 AA genotype compared with patients with the CA or CC genotypes (P = .006, Mann-Whitney). These findings indicate that the common PRM1 -190 C-->A polymorphism identified is associated with abnormal sperm head morphology and abnormal P1/P2 ratio in infertile patients. PMID:18390561

  19. Impact of experimental diabetes and insulin replacement on epididymal secretory products and sperm maturation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Soudamani; Malini, Thayman; Rengarajan, Srinivasan; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2009-12-01

    The present study is aimed to explore the impact of experimental diabetes and insulin replacement on epididymal secretory products, sperm count, motility, and fertilizing ability in albino rats. Prepubertal and adult male Wistar strain rats were made diabetic with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ), at 120 and 65 mg/kg body weight for prepubertal and adult rats, respectively. After 3 days of STZ administration, insulin was given to a group of diabetic rats at a dose of 3 U/100 g body weight, subcutaneously and killed after 20 days of treatment. STZ-diabetes significantly reduced the epididymal tissue concentrations of testosterone, androgen-binding protein, sialic acid, glycerylphosphoryl choline, and carnitine, suggesting its adverse effects on the secretory activity and concentrating capacity of epididymal epithelium. Impaired cauda epididymidal sperm motility and fertility (in vivo) of STZ-diabetic rats imply the defective sperm maturation. Insulin replacement prevented these changes either partially or completely. From the above findings, it is evident that STZ-diabetes has an adverse effect on sperm maturation, which may be due to the decrease in the bioavailability of testosterone and epididymal secretory products. PMID:19760637

  20. Sperm competition in Odonata (Insecta): the evolution of female sperm storage and rivals' sperm displacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Uh ´ õa; A. Cordero River; E. U. E. T. Forestal

    2003-01-01

    Odonates (dragonflies) are well known for the ability of the males to displace sperm stored in the female's sperm- storage organs during copulation. By this means, copulating males are able to increase their fertilization success. This ability has been used as an example to illustrate a conflict of interests between the sexes in which males have evolved sperm-displacement mechanisms whilst

  1. Restoration of seminal plasma to stallion spermatozoa selected by colloid centrifugation increases sperm progressive motility but is detrimental to chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Pihl, J; Dalin, A-M; Johannisson, A

    2012-07-15

    There is controversy about whether the presence of some seminal plasma (SP) in an equine insemination dose is necessary for promoting fertility. A new technique for improving stallion sperm quality, single layer centrifugation (SLC) using a species-specific colloid, Androcoll-E, selects a sperm subpopulation that is highly motile with normal morphology, intact membranes and good chromatin integrity from the rest of the ejaculate and removes SP. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of restoring homologous SP (5% and 10%) on the progressive motility, velocity, and chromatin integrity of SLC-selected stallion spermatozoa in 44 semen samples over time. Sperm progressive motility (P<0.01) and the proportion with class A velocity (>50 ?m/sec) were increased in samples where SP was restored, whereas the proportion with class B velocity (10 to 50 ?m/sec) was decreased compared with SLC samples. However, after 24 h cold storage of treated samples, progressive motility was not different for the SP-treated groups compared with SLC, whereas chromatin damage DNA fragmentation index (%DFI) was higher. In contrast, adding SP to untreated 24 h-stored SLC samples did not affect progressive motility although it did increase the proportion of spermatozoa with class A velocity. There was individual variation between stallions whether 5% or 10% SP produced a greater increase in progressive motility. In conclusion, 5% to 10% SP can be added back to SLC-selected samples if considered necessary to optimize fertility. However, it should be added immediately before insemination rather than before storage of the sperm dose, to benefit from the transient increase in sperm progressive motility and avoid increased chromatin damage. PMID:22494676

  2. A Quality Assurance Initiative for Commercial-Scale Production in High-Throughput Cryopreservation of Blue Catfish Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: 1) the main production quality characteristics; 2) the process features for quality assurance; 3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; 4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and 5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

  3. A quality assurance initiative for commercial-scale production in high-throughput cryopreservation of blue catfish sperm.

    PubMed

    Hu, E; Liao, T W; Tiersch, T R

    2013-10-01

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm has been studied for decades at a laboratory (research) scale. However, high-throughput cryopreservation of fish sperm has recently been developed to enable industrial-scale production. This study treated blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) sperm high-throughput cryopreservation as a manufacturing production line and initiated quality assurance plan development. The main objectives were to identify: (1) the main production quality characteristics; (2) the process features for quality assurance; (3) the internal quality characteristics and their specification designs; (4) the quality control and process capability evaluation methods, and (5) the directions for further improvements and applications. The essential product quality characteristics were identified as fertility-related characteristics. Specification design which established the tolerance levels according to demand and process constraints was performed based on these quality characteristics. Meanwhile, to ensure integrity throughout the process, internal quality characteristics (characteristics at each quality control point within process) that could affect fertility-related quality characteristics were defined with specifications. Due to the process feature of 100% inspection (quality inspection of every fish), a specific calculation method, use of cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts, was applied to monitor each quality characteristic. An index of overall process evaluation, process capacity, was analyzed based on in-control process and the designed specifications, which further integrates the quality assurance plan. With the established quality assurance plan, the process could operate stably and quality of products would be reliable. PMID:23872356

  4. Evidence for Increased Lipid Peroxidative Damage and Loss of Superoxide Dismutase Activity as a Mode of Sublethal Cryodamage to Human Sperm During Cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN G. ALVAREZ; BAYARD T. STOREY

    1992-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human sperm, now generally required in donor insemination programs, adversely affects the sperm in terms of standard sperm evaluation parameters and fertilizing ability. The freeze-thaw process appears to produce sublethal damage that appears only after a delay. The authors hypothesized that cryopreservation enhanced peroxidation of sperm membrane lipids, based on previous studies of sperm lipid peroxidation, which showed

  5. Increase in concentration of soluble HLA-G in high-quality embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Khorshid, Mehran; Najafi, Tohid; Molouki, Aidin; Salehpour, Saghar; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Heidari, Matineh; Sato, Eimi

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive methods are normally preferred to conventional invasive methods when selecting suitable embryos to improve pregnancy rates after assisted reproduction techniques. One of the most recognized non-invasive methods is to examine the supernatants of embryo culture media. Soluble human leukocyte antigen, class I, G (sHLA-G) antigen is a non-classical class I molecule that has been widely considered as a marker of pregnancy failure or implantation success. In the current study of some Iranian patients, we examined the concentration of sHLA-G at different time points after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and compared the rates to the morphology and quality of the selected embryos. We showed that the concentration of sHLA-G increases over time in high-quality embryos. We conclude that there is a positive relationship between morphology, quality, and sHLA-G concentration. We suggest that this relationship can be used to increase the chance of a successful pregnancy. PMID:22254162

  6. Comparative responses of sperm cells and embryos of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) to exposure to metolachlor and its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huong; Gonzalez, Patrice; Pardon, Patrick; Tapie, Nathalie; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme; Morin, Bénédicte

    2014-02-01

    Metolachlor is one of the most intensively used chloroacetanilide herbicides in agriculture. Consequently, it has been frequently detected in coastal waters as well as its major degradation products, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOA) which are encountered at higher concentrations than metolachlor. Although a few studies of metolachlor toxicity have been conducted on marine organisms, little is known about the environmental toxicity of metolachlor degradation products. In this study, the deleterious effects of metolachlor and its degradation products on spermatozoa and embryos of Crassostrea gigas have been compared using biomarkers of developmental defects, DNA damage and gene transcription levels. After 24h exposure, significant increases in the percentage of abnormal D-larvae and DNA damage were observed from 0.01 ?g L(-1) for S-metolachlor and 0.1 ?g L(-1) for MESA and MOA. Results showed that S-metolachlor was more embryotoxic and genotoxic than its degradation products. Oyster sperm was also very sensitive to metolachlor exposure and followed the pattern: metolachlor (0.01 ?g L(-1))>MOA (0.1 ?g L(-1))>MESA (1 ?g L(-1)). Metolachlor and MESA mainly triggered variations in the transcription level of genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative stress responses (mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and catalase). Overall, no significant variation in transcription levels could be detected in C. gigas embryos exposed to MOA. This study demonstrates that metolachlor and its main degradation products have the potential to impact several steps of oyster development and therefore recruitment in coastal areas exposed to chronic inputs of pesticides. PMID:24378469

  7. Orthovanadate increased the frequency of aneuploid mouse sperm without micronucleus induction in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes at the same dose level.

    PubMed

    Attia, S M; Badary, O A; Hamada, F M; de Angelis, M Hrabé; Adler, I-D

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the ability of orthovanadate to induce aneuploidy in mouse sperm and micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells at the same dose levels. The BrdU-incorporation assay was performed to test if the chemical treatment altered the duration of the meiotic divisions. It was found that orthovanadate (25mg/kg bw) treatment did not cause meiotic delay. To determine the frequencies of hyperhaploid and diploid sperm, male mice were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with 5, 15 or 25mg/kg bw orthovanadate and sperm were sampled from the Caudae epididymes 22 days later. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with DNA-probes for chromosomes 8, X or Y. Significant increases in the frequencies of total hyperhaploid sperm (p<0.01) were found with 15 and 25mg/kg bw orthovanadate, indicating induced non-disjunction during male meiosis. The dose-response was described best by a linear equation. Orthovanadate did not significantly increase the frequencies of diploid sperm at any of the three doses tested, indicating that no complete meiotic arrest occurred. Orthovanadate was investigated also by the micronucleus test at i.p. doses of 1, 5, 15 or 25mg/kg bw, followed by bone marrow sampling 24h after treatment. None of the orthovanadate doses caused a significant increase in the rates of micronuclei (MN). Since the results show that orthovanadate induced non-disjunction during male meiosis without an accompanying induction of MN in bone marrow erythrocytes under the present experimental conditions and doses, it is concluded that male germ cells (meiosis) are more sensitive to the aneugenic effects of orthovanadate than somatic cells (mitosis). However, induction of micronuclei was reported in the literature with orthovanadate, vanadylsulfate and ammonium metavanadate, which contradicts the notion that vanadium compounds might be unique germ cell aneugens. PMID:15886051

  8. Cryotolerance of stallion spermatozoa is related to ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential rather than to the integrity of sperm nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yeste, M; Estrada, E; Rocha, L G; Marín, H; Rodríguez-Gil, J E; Miró, J

    2015-03-01

    Although cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa allows long-term preservation of spermatozoa from particular stallions and facilitates international trade, it is understood to inflict damages on sperm cells that may finally reduce their fertilizing ability. In addition, individual differences are known to exist in the sperm ability to withstand freeze-thawing protocols. To date, these differences have mainly been reported on the basis of sperm motility and membrane integrity. For this reason, the present work sought to determine differences between good (good freezability ejaculates: GFE) and poor (poor freezability ejaculates: PFE) freezability stallion ejaculates in other sperm parameters, including peroxide and superoxide levels, potential of mitochondrial membrane and nuclear integrity. With this purpose, a total of 24 stallion ejaculates were cryopreserved and classified into two groups (GFE vs. PFE), depending on their sperm membrane integrity and motility after freeze-thawing. From the total of 24 ejaculates, 13 were classified as GFE and the other 11 were classified as PFE. Apart from differences in sperm membrane permeability and lipid disorder after freeze-thawing, GFE presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentages of viable spermatozoa with high content of peroxides and of superoxides than PFE. In contrast, and despite cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa increasing DNA fragmentation and disrupting disulphide bonds in sperm head proteins, no significant differences between GFE and PFE were seen. We can thus conclude that good and poor freezability stallion ejaculates differ in their reactive oxygen species levels after cryopreservation, but not in the damage extent on sperm nucleus. PMID:25294093

  9. Sperm swimming speed and energetics vary with sperm competition risk in bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Burness; Stephen J. Casselman; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Christopher D. Moyes; Robert Montgomerie

    2004-01-01

    Under sperm competition, a male’s fertilization success depends largely on the ejaculate characteristics of competing males. Theoretical models predict that, in external fertilizers, increased risk of sperm competition should result in selection for increased sperm swimming speed. To test this prediction, we studied the behavior of sperm from parental and sneaker male bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus), a fish species characterized

  10. Cryopreservation of domestic animal sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Barbas, J P; Mascarenhas, R D

    2009-02-01

    Sperm cells are the endpoint of male spermatogenesis and have particular anatomic and metabolic features. Sperm cryopreservation and storage currently require liquid nitrogen or ultralow refrigeration methods for long or short term storage, which requires routine maintenance and extensive space requirements. Conserving sperms have several purposes such as artificial reproductive technologies (ART), species conservation and clinical medicine. The combinations of storage temperature, cooling rate, chemical composition of the extender, cryoprotectant concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS), seminal plasma composition and hygienic control are the key factors that affect the life-span of spermatozoa. Sperm preservation protocols vary among animal species owing to their inherent particularities that change extenders used for refrigeration and freezing. Extenders for freezing sperm cells contain buffers, carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, raffinose, saccharose and trehalose), salts (sodium citrate, citric acid), egg yolk and antibiotics. The use of different cryoprotectants, like trehalose or glycerol, as well as different concentrations of egg yolk and other constituents in semen extenders are being studied in our laboratory. Several cooling rates have been tested to freeze sperm cells. The use of faster rates (15-60 degrees C/min) gives rise to best sperm survivals after freezing-thawing, but more studies are needed to find the adequate cooling rates for each animal species. Sheep and goat males of some native breeds are being used in studies performed in EZN. Semen from those males has been frozen and stored as part of the Portuguese Animal Germplasm Bank. In small ruminants, individual variations in the quality of frozen semen have been observed, suggesting specific differences in sperm susceptibility to freezing methods, particularly obvious in goat males. Best quality frozen semen from small ruminants is being used in cervical artificial insemination studies aiming to increase productive parameters in selected flocks. PMID:18548333

  11. Social cues of sperm competition influence accessory reproductive gland size in a promiscuous mammal

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Ramm, Steven A.; Hurst, Jane L.; Stockley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that males should increase overall investment in ejaculate expenditure with increasing levels of sperm competition. Since ejaculate production is costly, we may expect males to tailor their reproductive investment according to anticipated levels of sperm competition. Here, we investigate plasticity in ejaculate investment in response to cues of population average levels of sperm competition in a promiscuous mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). We manipulated the social experience of experimental subjects during sexual development via differential exposure to the odour of rival males, to simulate conditions associated with relatively high or low average levels of sperm competition. Males exposed to a high level of competition developed larger major accessory reproductive glands (seminal vesicles) than those that experienced a low level of competition, suggesting that an increased investment in the production of copulatory plugs and/or mating rate may be beneficial at relatively high sperm competition levels. However, investment in sperm production, testis size and sperm motility were not altered according to social experience. Our findings emphasize the importance of non-sperm components of the ejaculate in mammalian postcopulatory sexual selection, and add to the growing evidence linking plasticity in reproductive traits to social cues of sperm competition. PMID:20880887

  12. Laser radiation and motility patterns of human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzi, A.; Claroni, F.; Gandini, L.; Lombardo, F.; Barbieri, C.; Lino, A.; Dondero, F. (Univ. of Rome La Sapienza (Italy))

    1989-01-01

    Human sperm were exposed in vitro to laser radiation. An increase in progressive sperm motility was associated with a faster rate of sperm ATP consumption. Computer-assisted analysis of sperm motility confirmed the positive effect of laser irradiation on velocity and linearity of sperm.

  13. Azoospermia and Sertoli-cell-only syndrome: hypoxia in the sperm production site due to impairment in venous drainage of male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Gat, Yigal; Gornish, M; Perlow, A; Chakraborty, J; Levinger, U; Ben-Shlomo, I; Pasqualotto, F

    2010-10-01

    Sertoli-cell-only (SCO) syndrome, or germ cell aplasia, is diagnosed on testicular biopsy when germ cells are seen to be absent without histological impairment of Sertoli or Leydig cells. It is considered a situation of irreversible infertility. Recent studies have shown that varicocele, a bilateral disease, causes hypoxia in the testicular microcirculation. Destruction of one-way valves in the internal spermatic veins (ISV) elevates hydrostatic pressure in the testicular venules, exceeding the pressure in the arteriolar system. The positive pressure gradient between arterial and venous system is reversed, causing hypoxia in the sperm production site. Sperm production deteriorates gradually, progressing to azoospermia. Our prediction was that, if genetic problems are excluded, SCO may be the final stage of longstanding hypoxia which deteriorates sperm production in a progressive process over time. This would indicate that SCO is not always an independent disease entity, but may represent deterioration of the testicular parenchyma beyond azoospermia. Our prediction is confirmed by histology of the seminiferous tubules demonstrating that SCO is associated with extensive degenerative ischaemic changes and destruction of the normal architecture of the sperm production site. Adequate treatment of bilateral varicocele by microsurgery or by selective sclerotherapy of the ISV resumes, at least partially, the flow of oxygenated blood to the sperm production site and restored sperm production in 4 out of 10 patients. Based on our findings the following statements can be made: (i) SCO may be related in part of the cases to persistent, longstanding testicular parenchymal hypoxia; (ii) germ cells may still exist in other areas of the testicular parenchyma; and (iii) if genetic problems are excluded, adequate correction of the hypoxia may restore very limited sperm production in some patients. PMID:20860630

  14. Sperm competition: linking form to function

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Using information from physics, biomechanics and evolutionary biology, we explore the implications of physical constraints on sperm performance, and review empirical evidence for links between sperm length and sperm competition (where two or more males compete to fertilise a female's eggs). A common theme in the literature on sperm competition is that selection for increased sperm performance in polyandrous species will favour the evolution of longer, and therefore faster swimming, sperm. This argument is based on the common assumption that sperm swimming velocity is directly related to sperm length, due to the increased thrust produced by longer flagella. Results We critically evaluate the evidence for links between sperm morphology and swimming speed, and draw on cross-disciplinary studies to show that the assumption that velocity is directly related to sperm length will rarely be satisfied in the microscopic world in which sperm operate. Conclusion We show that increased sperm length is unlikely to be driven by selection for increased swimming speed, and that the relative lengths of a sperm's constituent parts, rather than their absolute lengths, are likely to be the target of selection. All else being equal, we suggest that a simple measure of the ratio of head to tail length should be used to assess the possible link between morphology and speed. However, this is most likely to be the case for external fertilizers in which females have relatively limited opportunity to influence a sperm's motility. PMID:19032741

  15. Daily sperm production and evaluation of morphological reproductive parameters of Murrah buffaloes in an extensive breeding system

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Patrícia A.C.; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Santos, Paulo R.S.; Jorge, André; Constantino, Maria Vitória P.; Pereira, Flávia T.V.; Mess, Andrea; Neto, Antônio C. Assis

    2012-01-01

    The development of male sexual maturity varies among buffaloes. The Murrah buffalo is considered the most important and efficient milk and fat producer, but aspects of its reproductive biology are still unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the daily sperm production (DSP) and spermatogenesis in developing Murrah buffalo bulls by evaluation of the seminiferous tubules, testicular morphometry and using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The testes of Murrah buffalo bulls at 18 mo was immature and at 24 mo could still be considered an average-efficiency breed based on their DSP. At 24 mo, the DSP rate was 0.97 billion sperm per testis and 13 million sperm per gram of testis. However, the animals had superior morphometric parameters compared with those of other livestock animals, except for the seminiferous tubule volume and diameter, which were inferior. In conclusion, our data support former views that the testes of the Murrah breed does not reach sexual maturity before 2 y of age and that important developmental steps occur later than Murrah crossbreeds from Brazil. PMID:22670218

  16. Sex-Sorted Boar Sperm - An Update on Related Production Methods.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Tiedemann, D; Gamrad, L; Johnson, L A; Klein, S; Kues, W; Mancini, R; Rehbock, C; Taylor, U; Barcikowski, S

    2015-07-01

    As in other mammals, sex sorting of pig sperm is based on quantitative flow cytometry. A major disadvantage of the technique is the relatively low efficiency to produce enough sorted sperm for artificial insemination. However, several approaches are on the way to make sexed pig sperm available for commercial application. In this context, for example, the growing field of nanotechnology may significantly contribute to these developments, as it provides highly efficient bio-nanoprobes, for example, based on plasmonic nanoparticles. Independent of the method, further development requires enormous investments and set-up of logistics to get the technology into the practical pig market. Only global players will be able to establish the necessary research projects, but in the end, a significant shift of sex ratios will be available for pig producers as it is already the case for the dairy industry. PMID:26174920

  17. Relationship between sperm quality parameters and the fatty acid composition of the muscle, liver and testis of European eel.

    PubMed

    Baeza, R; Mazzeo, I; Vílchez, M C; Gallego, V; Peñaranda, D S; Pérez, L; Asturiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    This study looks at the correlations that fatty acids have with different tissues in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) during hormonally-induced sexual maturation, with different sperm quality parameters. In order to evaluate the different dynamics of the use of fatty acids, a categorization of the results from each sperm quality parameter (volume, concentration, motility and velocity) was performed. Low and moderate correlations were observed between muscle tissue and some sperm quality parameters but no high correlations were found. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, EPA) in the liver seems to have a role in determining the volume of sperm produced. This can be explained by the fact that EPA is a major requirement in the early phases of sperm production (probably as a component of the spermatozoal membrane). In addition, the levels of ?-linolenic acid (18:3-n3, ALA) and linoleic acid (18:2-n6, LA) in the liver decreased when sperm motility increased. In all the tissues, a negative correlation was observed between arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) and the different sperm velocity parameters. The fact that an increase in the consumption of ARA coincides with an increase in the speed of spermatozoa, highlights the important role that this fatty acid plays not only in sperm production, but also in sperm velocity. All this information could prove useful in the development of suitable broodstock diets to improve sperm quality and subsequently, the larval development of this species. PMID:25483240

  18. Paradoxical effect of reagents for sulfhydryl and disulfide groups on human sperm capacitation and superoxide production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve de Lamirande; Claude Gagnon

    1998-01-01

    Spermatozoa must undergo capacitation prior to fertilization. In humans, this process appears regulated by oxidoreduction reactions. We investigated the possibility that these reactions involved the sulfhydryl-disulfide pair, which offers a reversible regulation of cellular processes. The effects of reagents targeted for sulfhydryl and disulfide groups on human sperm capacitation, superoxide (O2•?) generation and protein tyrosine phosphorylation were evaluated. The sulfhydryl

  19. The effects of four insect growth-regulating (IGR) insecticides on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colony development, queen rearing and drone sperm production.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen M; Wilkins, Selwyn; Battersby, Alastair H; Waite, Ruth J; Wilkinson, David

    2005-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposure to IGRs on the long-term development of the honeybee colony, viability of queens and sperm production in drones and integrated the data into a honeybee population model. Colonies treated with diflubenzuron resulted in a short-term reduction in the numbers of adult bees and brood. Colonies treated with fenoxycarb declined during the season earlier and started the season slower. The number of queens that successfully mated and laid eggs was affected in the fenoxycarb treatment group but there were no significant differences in the drone sperm counts between the colonies. An existing honeybee population model was modified to include exposure to IGRs. In the model, fenoxycarb reduced the winter size of the colony, with the greatest effects following a June or an August application. Assuming a 'larvae per nurse bee' ratio of 1.5 for brood rearing capability, the reduction in winter size of a colony following a fenoxycarb application was at its worst about 8%. However, even if only those bees reared within 2 weeks of the IGR being applied are subject to premature ageing, this might significantly reduce the size of over-wintering colonies, and increase the chance of the bee population dwindling and dying in late winter or early spring. PMID:16160749

  20. Sperm studies in anesthesiologists

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA); Brodsky, J.; Gordon, l.; Moore, D.H., II; Watchmaker, G.; Cohen, E.N.

    1981-11-01

    Semen samples were collected from 46 anesthesiologists each of whom had worked a minimum of one year in hospital operating rooms ventilated with modern gas-scavenging devices. Samples collected from 26 beginning residents in anesthesiology served as controls. Concentrations of sperm and percentage of sperm having abnormal head shapes were determined for each sample. No significant differences were found between anesthesiologists and beginning residents. Limiting the analyses to men having no confounding factors (varicocele, recent illness, medications, heavy smoking, frequent sauna use) did not change the results. The sperm concentration and morphology in 13 men did not change signficantly after one year of exposure to anesthetic gases. However, the group of men who had one or more confounding factors (excluding exposure to anesthetic gases) showed significantly higher percentages of sperm abnormalities than did the group of men without such factors. These results suggest that limited exposure to anesthetic gases does not significantly affect sperm production as judged by changes in sperm concentration and morphology. These data are reassuring, but since the hospitals surveyed used modern gas-scavenging devices, men who are occupationally exposed to anesthetic gases without this protection should be studied for fuller assessment of the possible human spermatotoxic effects.

  1. Sperm-mediated gene transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. S. Chan; C. Marc Luetjens; Gerald P. Schatten

    2000-01-01

    Since 1989, a new method for the production of transgenic animals has been available, namely sperm- mediated gene transfer (SMGT), based on the intrinsic ability of sperm cells to bind and internalise exogenous DNA molecules and to transfer them into the oocyte at fertilisation. We first described the SMGT procedure in a small animal model, with high efficiency reported in

  2. Cryopreservation of Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) sperm.

    PubMed

    Adams, Serean L; Smith, John F; Taylor, Jolene; McGowan, Lindsay T; Tervit, H Robin

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a valuable technique for aquaculture as it enables a library or bank of genetically valuable animals to be maintained in a cost-effective manner. Here, we describe a method to cryopreserve the sperm of the Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) and how to use the sperm post-thawing to maximize larval production from thawed sperm in selective breeding. PMID:25428014

  3. Gestational and lactational exposure of rats to xenoestrogens results in reduced testicular size and sperm production.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, R M; Fisher, J S; Millar, M M; Jobling, S; Sumpter, J P

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed whether exposure of male rats to two estrogenic, environmental chemicals, 4-octylphenol (OP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) during gestation or during the first 21 days of postnatal life, affected testicular size or spermatogenesis in adulthood (90-95 days of age). Chemicals were administered via the drinking water or concentrations of 10-1000 micrograms/l (OP) or 1000 micrograms/l (BBP), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 100 micrograms/l) and an octylphenol polyethoxylate (OPP; 1000 micrograms/l), which is a weak estrogen or nonestrogenic in vitro, were administered as presumptive positive and negative controls, respectively. Controls received the vehicle (ethanol) in tap water. In study 1, rats were treated from days 1-22 after births in studies 2 and 3, the mothers were treated for approximately 8-9 weeks, spanning a 2-week period before mating throughout gestation and 22 days after giving birth. With the exception of DES, treatment generally had no major adverse effect or body weight: in most instances, treated animals were heavier than controls at day 22 and at days 90-95. Exposure to OP, OPP, or BBP at a concentration of 1000 micrograms/1 resulted in a small (5-13%) but significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.0001) reduction in mean testicular size in studies 2 and 3, an effect that was still evident when testicular weight was expressed relative to body, weight or kidney weight. The effect of OPP is attributed to its metabolism in vivo to OP. DES exposure caused similar reductions in testicular size but also caused reductions in body weight, kidney weight, and litter size. Ventral prostate weight was reduced significantly in DES-treated rats and to minor extent in OP-treated rats. Comparable but more minor effects of treatment with DES or OP on testicular size were observed in study 1. None of the treatments had any adverse effect on testicular morphology or on the cross-sectional area of the lumen or seminiferous epithelium at stages VII-VIII of the spermatogenic cycle, but DES, OP, and BBP caused reductions of 10-21% (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in daily sperm production. Humans are exposed to phthalates, such as BBP, and to alkylphenol polyethoxylates, such as OP, but to what extent is unknown. More detailed studies are warranted to assess the possible risk to the development of the human testis from exposure to these and other environmental estrogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 4. PMID:8747020

  4. Diploid males, diploid sperm production, and triploid females in the ant Tapinoma erraticum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournault, Laurent; Aron, Serge

    2009-12-01

    Under complementary sex determination (CSD), females of Hymenoptera arise from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs. Incidentally, fertilized eggs that inherit two identical alleles at the CSD locus will develop into diploid males. Diploid males are usually unviable or sterile. In a few species, however, they produce diploid sperm and father a triploid female progeny. Diploid males have been reported in a number of social Hymenoptera, but the occurrence of triploid females has hardly ever been documented. Here, we report the presence of triploid females, diploid males, and diploid sperm (produced by diploid males and stored in queen spermathecae) in the ant Tapinoma erraticum. Moreover, we show variations in the frequency of triploids among female castes: Triploid females are more frequent among workers than virgin queens; they are absent among mated, reproductive queens. The frequency of triploid workers also varies between populations and between nests within populations.

  5. Dual energy metabolism-dependent effect of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection on sperm activity.

    PubMed

    Reichart, M; Levi, H; Kahane, I; Bartoov, B

    2001-01-01

    Genital Ureaplasma urealyticum infection is considered a sexually transmitted infection. It has long been debated whether the presence of U. urealyticum in semen may be a possible cause of infertility. Long-term incubation (4 hours or overnight) of sperm cells with U. urealyticum in vitro resulted in a significant inhibition of sperm motility and membrane alteration whereas a short incubation (45 minutes) of sperm cells with ureaplasmas resulted in an acceleration of sperm velocity. The aim of this study was to understand these contradictory reports of U. urealyticum infection on sperm motility. Spermatozoa from fresh ejaculates of normozoospermic semen of men who were referred to the university Male Fertility Laboratory for semen analysis, with no history of genital tract infection, and from normal Assaf breed rams were infected in vitro with U. urealyticum serotype 8, at different pHs and O2 concentrations. Sperm viability and motility and changes in extracellular pH were evaluated. A significant (16%-43%) increase in sperm activity was observed upon infection at alkaline pH (7.8) under aerobic or hypoxic conditions, and a 58% increase was observed under anaerobic conditions and pH 7.2. When the infection was conducted under aerobic conditions and acidic pH (6.3), or under hypoxic conditions at neutral pH (7.2), an 8%-25% inhibition of sperm activity was observed. These results indicate that when sperm activity depends on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, usually at low pHs, U. urealyticum competes with mitochondrial energy production and therefore reduces sperm motility and viability. However, when sperm energy metabolism depends on glycolysis, usually at higher pHs, U. urealyticum stimulates glycolysis and sperm activity. PMID:11330640

  6. Preventive maintenance, the key to increased productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, P.; Beatty, B.

    1982-12-01

    In order to increase availability of equipment and therefore increase productivity, a new Preventive Maintenance Program was developed at Martin County Coal Corporation. Over the course of the first two years of the program, software and the method of compiling input information was developed. As soon as the program was in motion an increase in equipment availability was realized. As the program progressed, overburden removal and coal production began an upward trend while maintenance cost began to drop.

  7. Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropical caecilian amphibians. Findings In the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, aggregated sperm were present in a distinct region of the posterior oviduct but not in the cloaca in six out of seven vitellogenic females prior to oviposition. Spermatozoa were found most abundantly between the mucosal folds. In relation to the reproductive status decreased amounts of sperm were present in gravid females compared to pre-ovulatory females. Sperm were absent in females past oviposition. Conclusions Our findings indicate short-term oviductal sperm storage in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. We assume that in female caecilians exhibiting high levels of parental investment sperm storage has evolved in order to optimally coordinate reproductive events and to increase fitness. PMID:22672478

  8. Identification and validation of mouse sperm proteins correlated with epididymal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Takashi W.; Merdiushev, Tanya; Cao, Wenlei; Gerton, George L.

    2012-01-01

    Sperm need to mature in the epididymis to become capable of fertilization. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mouse sperm maturation, we conducted a proteomic analysis using saturation dye labeling to identify proteins of caput and cauda epididymal sperm that exhibited differences in amounts or positions on two-dimensional gels. Of eight caput epididymal sperm-differential proteins, three were molecular chaperones and three were structural proteins. Of nine cauda epididymal sperm-differential proteins, six were enzymes of energy metabolism. To validate these proteins as markers of epididymal maturation, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses were performed. During epididymal transit, heat shock protein 2 was eliminated with the cytoplasmic droplet and smooth muscle ?-actin exhibited reduced fluorescence from the anterior acrosome while the signal intensity of aldolase A increased, especially in the principal piece. Besides these changes, we observed protein spots, such as glutathione S-transferase mu 5 and the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, shifting to more basic isoelectric points, suggesting post-translational changes such dephosphorylation occur during epididymal maturation. We conclude that most caput epididymal sperm-differential proteins contribute to the functional modification of sperm structures and that many cauda epididymal sperm-differential proteins are involved in ATP production that promotes sperm functions such as motility. PMID:21805633

  9. [Level of DNA fragmentation in human sperm cells in varicocele and prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Erkovich, A A; Tataru, D A; Markova, E V; Svetlakov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele and prostatitis are the most common andrological diseases, which may be accompanied by a decrease in the production of sperm cells, the deterioration of their quality and increased risk of infertility. This work was aimed to the evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and main indices of sperm fertility (concentration, motility and morphology), and the relationship between these parameters in the men of active reproductive age suffering from prostatitis or varicocele. Assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation was performed by SCSA (sperm chromatin structure assay) using flow cytometry; sperm parameters were evaluated according to WHO recommendations. It was shown that men with prostatitis (n = 9) and varicocele (n = 22) had significantly higher DFI compared with men in the control group (n = 22). Negative influence of these diseases on the concentration and the percentage of motile sperm cells in the ejaculate was revealed. These data suggest that the deterioration in the quality of semen in varicocele and prostatitis may be caused not only by pathospermia, but also, at least partially, by violation of the integrity of the sperm DNA. Evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation can be recommended for use in laboratory diagnostics for prediction of fertility in infertile men. PMID:25211925

  10. Decoding mechanisms of loss of fertilization ability of cryopreserved mouse sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Jeffrey Earl

    Cryopreservation of mouse sperm is an important technology for management of biomedical research resources. Dramatic progress has been made recently in the development of protocols that combat mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF after cryopreservation. Equal emphasis, however, has not been placed on investigating the biological mechanisms underlying these improvements to IVF. This dissertation broadly investigates the basic question of how mouse-strain specific reduction of IVF occurs after cryopreservation, and how recently developed protocols prevent this process. My research investigated the effects of antioxidants, the cholesterol-acceptor CD, reduced calcium media, and TYH capacitation media on sperm function and oxidative stress after cryopreservation in a variety of mouse strains. I found that reduced IVF was associated with loss of capacitation-dependent sperm function in three strains, B6/J, B6/N, and 129X1, and CD improved sperm function and IVF in all three strains. These findings suggest that cryopreservation inhibits cholesterol efflux resulting in reduced IVF of many mouse strains. I also found that cryopreservation induces uniquely high production of mitochondrial H2O2 by B6/J sperm. H2O2 present in other cellular compartments of B6/J sperm was not elevated compared to other strains. High levels of mitochondrial H2O2 were associated with lipid peroxidation of the sperm head and inability to acrosome react. Antioxidants reduced mitochondrial H2O2 production, decreased sperm head lipid peroxidation, and improved acrosome reaction. The cryopreservation-induced increase in mitochondrial H2O2 production of B6/J and B6129XF1 sperm was associated with elevation of intracellular calcium after cryopreservation and dependent on mitochondrial metabolic substrates. Reducing intracellular calcium levels or removing mitochondrial metabolic substrates decreased mitochondrial H2O2 production and increased IVF rates of cryopreserved B6/J sperm. Many of the strains I tested exhibited increased H2O2 production after cryopreservation, but cryopreservation-induced H2O2 only interfered with IVF of B6/J sperm. This dissertation describes two means to improve IVF of cryopreserved sperm, mitigation of oxidative stress in B6/J sperm and improvement of capacitation-dependent sperm function for several mouse strains.

  11. No evidence for sperm priming responses under varying sperm competition risk or intensity in guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2009-07-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should tailor their investment in ejaculates according to the number of rival males competing to fertilize a female’s eggs. Research spanning several taxa supports this prediction by showing that males are often sensitive to the level of sperm competition and adjust their investment in sperm numbers accordingly. More recent work has revealed that males may also tailor the quality of sperm according to the number of males competing for fertilization. Here I test for both effects in guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in an experiment that simultaneously evaluates the risk and intensity models of sperm competition. The experiment determined whether male guppies adjust the number (stripped ejaculate size) and quality (sperm velocity and viability) of sperm that are primed over a 3-day period according to experimental changes in the perceived level of sperm competition. A total of 136 focal males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm and assayed for these sperm traits before being allocated at random to one of four treatments simulating different levels of sperm competition risk and intensity. During the 3-day treatment phase, focal males had visual and olfactory access to a sexually receptive (initially virgin) female maintained with different numbers of stimulus males to simulate variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Following this, males were assayed again for the sperm traits. Contrary to predictions, there was no significant change in any of the measured variables among treatments, although qualitatively the patterns for sperm velocity and viability did conform to expectation. The lack of any trend for the number of sperm primed was unequivocal and future work examining the effects of sperm competition on sperm production should focus on whether males differentially allocate sperm numbers among matings that differ in the level of sperm competition.

  12. Leydig cell number and sperm production decrease induced by chronic ametryn exposure: a negative impact on animal reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Dantas, T A; Cancian, G; Neodini, D N R; Mano, D R S; Capucho, C; Predes, F S; Pulz, R Barbieri; Pigoso, A A; Dolder, H; Severi-Aguiar, G D C

    2015-06-01

    Ametryn is an herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass weeds and its acute and chronic toxicity is expected to be low. Since toxicological data on ametryn is scarce, the aim of this study was to evaluate rat reproductive toxicity. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats (90 days) were divided into three groups: Co (control) and T1 and T2 exposed to 15 and 30 mg/kg/day of ametryn, respectively, for 56 days. Testicular analysis demonstrated that ametryn decreased sperm number per testis, daily sperm production, and Leydig cell number in both treated groups, although little perceptible morphological change has been observed in seminiferous tubule structure. Lipid peroxidation was higher in group T2, catalase activity decreased in T1 group, superoxide dismutase activity diminished, and a smaller number of sulphydryl groups of total proteins were verified in both exposed groups, suggesting oxidative stress. These results showed negative ametryn influence on the testes and can compromise animal reproductive performance and survival. PMID:25561257

  13. Treating ram sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins improves cryosurvival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Mocé; Phillip H. Purdy; James K. Graham

    2010-01-01

    Acceptable fertility using cryopreserved ram sperm is currently only achieved using laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. Improving the cryosurvival of ram sperm may permit greater fertility rates using more practical techniques. This study was conducted to determine if treating ram sperm with six different cyclodextrins pre-loaded with cholesterol (CLC), prior to cryopreservation increases sperm cryosurvival and if this technology can be used

  14. Adiponectin lowers glucose production by increasing SOGA.

    PubMed

    Cowherd, Rachael B; Cowerd, Rachael B; Asmar, Melissa M; Alderman, J McKee; Alderman, Elizabeth A; Garland, Alaina L; Busby, Walker H; Bodnar, Wanda M; Rusyn, Ivan; Medoff, Benjamin D; Tisch, Roland; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Swenberg, James A; Zeisel, Steven H; Combs, Terry P

    2010-10-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone that lowers glucose production by increasing liver insulin sensitivity. Insulin blocks the generation of biochemical intermediates for glucose production by inhibiting autophagy. However, autophagy is stimulated by an essential mediator of adiponectin action, AMPK. This deadlock led to our hypothesis that adiponectin inhibits autophagy through a novel mediator. Mass spectrometry revealed a novel protein that we call suppressor of glucose by autophagy (SOGA) in adiponectin-treated hepatoma cells. Adiponectin increased SOGA in hepatocytes, and siRNA knockdown of SOGA blocked adiponectin inhibition of glucose production. Furthermore, knockdown of SOGA increased late autophagosome and lysosome staining and the secretion of valine, an amino acid that cannot be synthesized or metabolized by liver cells, suggesting that SOGA inhibits autophagy. SOGA decreased in response to AICAR, an activator of AMPK, and LY294002, an inhibitor of the insulin signaling intermediate, PI3K. AICAR reduction of SOGA was blocked by adiponectin; however, adiponectin did not increase SOGA during PI3K inhibition, suggesting that adiponectin increases SOGA through the insulin signaling pathway. SOGA contains an internal signal peptide that enables the secretion of a circulating fragment of SOGA, providing a surrogate marker for intracellular SOGA levels. Circulating SOGA increased in parallel with adiponectin and insulin activity in both humans and mice. These results suggest that adiponectin-mediated increases in SOGA contribute to the inhibition of glucose production. PMID:20813965

  15. Transcript levels of the soluble sperm factor protein phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLC?1) increase through induced spermatogenesis in European eel.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Vílchez, María C; Gallego, Víctor; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Asturiano, Juan F; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Pérez, Luz

    2015-09-01

    Activation at fertilization of the vertebrate egg is triggered by Ca(2+) waves. Recent studies suggest the phospholipase C zeta (PLC?), a sperm-specific protein, triggers egg activation by an IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release and allow Ca(2+) waves at fertilization. In the present study we cloned, characterized, and phylogenetically positioned the European eel PLC? (PLC?1). It is 1521bp long, with 10 exons encoding an open reading frame of 506 amino acids. The amino acid sequence contains an EF-hand domain, X and Y catalytic domains, and a carboxy-terminal C2 domain, all typical of other PLC? orthologous. The tissue distribution was studied, and the gene expression was determined in testis during induced sexual maturation at three different thermal regimes. Also, brain and pituitary expression was studied through sex maturation at constant temperature. plc?1 was expressed in brain of male and female, in testis but not in ovaries. By first time in vertebrates, it is reported plc?1 expression in the pituitary gland. Testis plc?1 expression increased through spermatogenesis under all the thermal regimes, but being significantly elevated at lower temperatures. It was very low when testis contained only spermatogonia or spermatocytes, while maximum expression was found during spermiogenesis. These results support the hypothesis for an eel sperm-specific PLC?1 inducing egg activation, similarly to mammals and some teleosts, but different from some other teleost species, which express this protein in ovaries, but not in testes. PMID:26051612

  16. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  17. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  18. Production of F 1 and F 2 diploid gynogenetic tilapias and analysis of the “Hertwig curve” obtained using ultraviolet irradiated sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Don; R. R. Avtalion

    1988-01-01

    In this study, a Hertwig effect with a non-typical biphasic curve was obtained using sperm irradiated with increasing intensities of UV. The first phase of the UV curve appeared to be quite different from that normally demonstrated using ? or x-ray irradiation. This difference is characterised throughout the length of the first phase by (1) low and stable embryo hatching

  19. Imbalanced lipid homeostasis in the conditional Dicer1 knockout mouse epididymis causes instability of the sperm membrane.

    PubMed

    Björkgren, Ida; Gylling, Helena; Turunen, Heikki; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Strauss, Leena; Poutanen, Matti; Sipilä, Petra

    2015-02-01

    During epididymal sperm maturation, the lipid content of the sperm membrane is modified, which facilitates sperm motility and fertility. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the maturation process. By generating a conditional knockout (cKO) of Dicer1 in the proximal part of the mouse epididymis, we studied the role of RNA interference in epididymal functions. The Dicer1 cKO epididymis displayed an altered lipid homeostasis associated with a 0.6-fold reduction in the expression of the gene elongation of very long chain fatty acids-like 2, an enzyme needed for production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Furthermore, the expression of several factors involved in cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated. Accordingly, the Dicer1 cKO sperm membrane showed a 0.7-fold decrease in long-chain PUFAs, whereas the amount of cholesterol in acrosome-reacted sperm displayed a 1.7-fold increase. The increased cholesterol:PUFA ratio of the sperm membrane caused breakage of the neck and acrosome region and immotility of sperm. Dicer1 cKO mice sperm also displayed reduced ability to bind to and fertilize the oocyte in vitro. This study thus shows that Dicer1 is critical for lipid synthesis in the epididymis, which directly affects sperm membrane integrity and male fertility. PMID:25366345

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  1. Increasing the availability of national mapping products.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roney, J.I.; Ogilvie, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion of the means employed by the US Geological Survey to facilitate map usage, covering aspects of project Map Accessibility Program including special rolled and folded map packaging, new market testing, parks and campgrounds program, expanded map dealer program, new booklet-type State sales index and catalog and new USGS map reference code. The USGS is seen as the producer of a tremendous nation-wide inventory of topographic and related map products available in unprecedented types, formats and scales, and as endeavouring to increase access to its products. The new USGS map reference code is appended. -J.C.Stone

  2. Body condition influences sperm energetics in lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Burness; Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde; Robert Montgomerie

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that individual males will increase their investment in ejaculates when there is a risk of sperm competition. Because the production of ejaculates is assumed to be energetically costly, only those males in good physical condition should be capable of producing ejaculates of high quality. We studied ejaculate investment (relative testis size, controlling for body size) as well

  3. Ejaculated mouse sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently in vitro than epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Li, Honggang; Hung, Pei-Hsuan; Suarez, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an established and popular animal model for studying reproductive biology. Epididymal mouse sperm, which lack exposure to secretions of male accessory glands and do not precisely represent ejaculated sperm for the study of sperm functions, have been almost exclusively used in studies. We compared ejaculated and epididymal sperm in an in vitro fertilization setting to examine whether ejaculated sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently. In order to prepare sperm for fertilization, they were incubated under capacitating conditions. At the outset of incubation, ejaculated sperm stuck to the glass surfaces of slides and the incidences of sticking decreased with time; whereas, very few epididymal sperm stuck to glass at any time point, indicating differences in surface charge. At the end of the capacitating incubation, when sperm were added to cumulus-oocyte complexes, the form of flagellar movement differed dramatically; specifically, ejaculated sperm predominantly exhibited increased bending on one side of the flagellum (a process termed pro-hook hyperactivation), while epididymal sperm equally exhibited increased bending on one or the other side of the flagellum (pro-hook or anti-hook hyperactivation). This indicates that accessory sex gland secretions might have modified Ca2+ signaling activities in sperm, because the two forms of hyperactivation are reported to be triggered by different Ca2+ signaling patterns. Lastly, over time, more ejaculated than epididymal sperm entered the cumulus oocyte complexes. We concluded that modification of sperm by male accessory gland secretions affects the behavior of ejaculated sperm, possibly providing them with an advantage over epididymal sperm for reaching the eggs in vivo. PMID:25996155

  4. Ejaculated Mouse Sperm Enter Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes More Efficiently In Vitro than Epididymal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an established and popular animal model for studying reproductive biology. Epididymal mouse sperm, which lack exposure to secretions of male accessory glands and do not precisely represent ejaculated sperm for the study of sperm functions, have been almost exclusively used in studies. We compared ejaculated and epididymal sperm in an in vitro fertilization setting to examine whether ejaculated sperm enter cumulus-oocyte complexes more efficiently. In order to prepare sperm for fertilization, they were incubated under capacitating conditions. At the outset of incubation, ejaculated sperm stuck to the glass surfaces of slides and the incidences of sticking decreased with time; whereas, very few epididymal sperm stuck to glass at any time point, indicating differences in surface charge. At the end of the capacitating incubation, when sperm were added to cumulus-oocyte complexes, the form of flagellar movement differed dramatically; specifically, ejaculated sperm predominantly exhibited increased bending on one side of the flagellum (a process termed pro-hook hyperactivation), while epididymal sperm equally exhibited increased bending on one or the other side of the flagellum (pro-hook or anti-hook hyperactivation). This indicates that accessory sex gland secretions might have modified Ca2+ signaling activities in sperm, because the two forms of hyperactivation are reported to be triggered by different Ca2+ signaling patterns. Lastly, over time, more ejaculated than epididymal sperm entered the cumulus oocyte complexes. We concluded that modification of sperm by male accessory gland secretions affects the behavior of ejaculated sperm, possibly providing them with an advantage over epididymal sperm for reaching the eggs in vivo. PMID:25996155

  5. Female presence influences sperm velocity in the guppy

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Peretti, Alfredo V.; Pilastro, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    As sperm production is costly, males are expected to strategically allocate resources to sperm production according to mating opportunities. While sperm number adjustments have been reported in several taxa, only a few studies investigated whether sperm quality shows adaptive plasticity as well. We tested this prediction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. A total of 46 males were initially stripped of all retrievable sperm before being randomly allocated to one of two treatments simulating different levels of mating opportunities (visual contact with females or female deprived). After 3 days, males were stripped and sperm velocity was assayed using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis. Males in the presence of females produced significantly faster sperm than their counterparts. Implications for the evolution of this ejaculate plasticity in the light of results of sperm competition studies are discussed. PMID:19656863

  6. Effect of Density Gradient Centrifugation on Quality and Recovery Rate of Equine Sperm 

    E-print Network

    Edmond, Ann J.

    2010-07-14

    gradient volume (height) on stallion sperm quality and recovery rate in sperm pellets following centrifugation. In all three experiments, equine semen was initially centrifuged to increase sperm concentration. In Experiment 1, one-mL aliquots were layered...

  7. Effects of genetic captive-breeding protocols on sperm quality and fertility in the white-footed mouse.

    PubMed

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Alaks, Glen; Dubach, Jean; Lacy, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis) from a captive-breeding program were used to test the effects of three genetic breeding protocols (minimizing mean kinship [MK], random breeding, and selection for docility [DOC]) and inbreeding levels on sperm traits and fertility. Earlier, in generation 8, one DOC replicate went extinct because of poor reproductive success. By generation 10, spermatozoa from DOC mice had more acrosome and midpiece abnormalities, which were shown to be strong determinants of fertility, as well as lower sperm production and resistance to osmotic stress. In addition, determinants of fertility, including male and female components, were assessed in a comprehensive manner. Results showed that the probability (P) of siring litters is determined by sperm number, sperm viability, and midpiece and acrosome abnormalities; that the P of siring one versus two litters is determined by tail abnormalities; and that the total number of offspring is influenced by female size and proportion of normal sperm, showing the relative importance of different sperm traits on fertility. On average, males with 20% normal sperm sired one pup per litter, and males with 70% normal sperm sired eight pups per litter. Interestingly, the proportion of normal sperm was affected by docility but not by relatively low inbreeding. However, inbreeding depression in sperm motility was detected. In the MK group, inbreeding depression not only affected sperm motility but also fertility: An increase in the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of 0.03 reduced sperm motility by 30% and translated into an offspring reduction of three pups in second litters. A genetic load of 48 fecundity equivalents was calculated. PMID:20519695

  8. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance

    PubMed Central

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk. PMID:23363633

  9. The Effects of Four Insect Growth-Regulating (IGR) Insecticides on Honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) Colony Development, Queen Rearing and Drone Sperm Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Thompson; Selwyn Wilkins; Alastair H. Battersby; Ruth J. Waite; David Wilkinson

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposure to IGRs on the long-term development of the honeybee colony, viability of queens\\u000a and sperm production in drones and integrated the data into a honeybee population model. Colonies treated with diflubenzuron\\u000a resulted in a short-term reduction in the numbers of adult bees and brood. Colonies treated with fenoxycarb declined during\\u000a the season earlier

  10. Fenofibrate Increases Creatininemia by Increasing Metabolic Production of Creatinine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carine Hottelart; Najeh El Esper; Françoise Rose; Jean-Michel Achard; Albert Fournier

    2002-01-01

    Fenofibrate is a potent hypolipemic agent, widely used in patients with renal insufficiency in whom dyslipidemia is frequent. A moderate reversible increase in creatinine plasma levels is an established side effect of fenofibrate therapy, which mechanism remains unknown. We have previously reported that in 13 patients with normal renal function or moderate renal insufficiency, two weeks of fenofibrate therapy increased

  11. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; ?im?ek, Ülkü G; Çeriba??, Ali O; Çeriba??, Songül; Özer Kaya, ?eyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. PMID:25913274

  12. Sperm competitiveness in frogs: slow and steady wins the race

    PubMed Central

    Dziminski, Martin A.; Roberts, J. Dale; Beveridge, Maxine; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2009-01-01

    When sperm compete to fertilize available ova, selection is expected to favour ejaculate traits that contribute to a male's fertilization success. While there is much evidence to show that selection favours increased numbers of sperm, only a handful of empirical studies have examined how variation in sperm form and function contributes to competitive fertilization success. Here, we examine selection acting on sperm form and function in the externally fertilizing myobatrachid frog, Crinia georgiana. Using in vitro fertilization techniques and controlling for variation in the number of sperm contributed by males in competitive situations, we show that males with a greater proportion of motile sperm, and motile sperm with slower swimming velocities, have an advantage when competing for fertilizations. Sperm morphology and the degree of genetic similarity between putative sires and the female had no influence on competitive fertilization success. These unusual patterns of selection might explain why frog sperm typically exhibit relatively slow swimming speeds and sustained longevity. PMID:19710059

  13. Fire increases dust production from chaparral soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabet, Emmanuel J.

    2014-07-01

    By altering the physical and chemical properties of a landscape, fire may increase its vulnerability to erosive processes. Whereas sediment transport by surface runoff after fires has been often investigated, less is known about the role of wind erosion in burned terrain. To examine how fire might increase a soil's vulnerability to aeolian transport, intact soil samples were collected from a chaparral landscape in southern California and heated with a propane torch with temperatures ranging from 250 to 1025 °C and for durations of 5-60 min to simulate a variety of burn severities. The samples were then subjected to simulated wind and the amounts of eroded sediment were measured. Results indicate a linear increase in the production of wind-erodible sediment with applied heat up to ~ 10 MJ/m2. The increase was not due to a reduction in the threshold shear velocity of the soil surface but, instead, to the role of heat in detaching erodible material. In these soils, organic material may be an important binding agent destroyed at high temperatures. The relationship between fire and erodibility is complex, however, because heating may also help to aggregate soil particles. Experiments performed here also suggest a synergistic effect between fire and rain whereby heated soils are more vulnerable to the erosive power of raindrop impacts. Additionally, the soil heating experiments were used to measure and compare the thermal conductivities of intact and disturbed soils. Finally, it is concluded that soil heating may increase the emission of dust through the detachment of erodible particles, a result that may help in the anticipation of respiratory problems for those living downwind of burned areas.

  14. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P < 0.05) was not maintained to 40 weeks of age in their letrozole-treated littermates. Reducing endogenous estrogen production neonatally or prepuberally had no detectable adverse effect on libido or sperm fertilizing capacity. PMID:24985358

  15. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of freshwater fish sperm (~150 seconds), with the longevities of both marine and freshwater fish being significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of anuran sperm (~4100 seconds). The average velocity of anuran sperm (25 ?m/s) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of marine fish (140 ?m/s) or freshwater fish (135 ?m/s) sperm. The longevity of the sperm of giant salamanders (Cryptobranchoidea) of approximately 600 seconds was greater than that of freshwater fish sperm but much lower than anuran sperm. Our research and information from the literature showed that higher osmolarities promote greater longevity in anuran sperm, and some freshwater fish sperm, and that anuran and cryptobranchid sperm maintained membrane integrity long after the cessation of motility, demonstrating a preferential sharing of energy reserves toward the maintenance of membrane integrity. The maintenance of the membrane integrity of anuran sperm in fresh water for up to 6 hours showed an extremely high osmotic tolerance relative to fish sperm. The very high longevity and osmotic tolerance of anuran sperm and high longevity of cryptobranchid sperm, relative to those of freshwater fish, may reflect the complex fertilization history of amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management. PMID:25442393

  16. How nematode sperm crawl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Bottino; Alexander Mogilner; Tom Roberts; Murray Stewart; George Oster

    Sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum, crawl using lamellipodial protrusion, adhesion and retraction, a process analogous to the amoeboid motility of other eukaryotic cells. However, rather than employing an actin cytoskeleton to generate locomotion, nematode sperm use the major sperm protein (MSP). Moreover, nematode sperm lack detectable molecular motors or the battery of actin-binding proteins that characterize actin-based motility. The

  17. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF TRIETHYLENEMELAMINE EXPOSURE ON MOUSE TESTIS CELLS AND SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAYED BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic and potentially mutagenic actions of triethylenemelamine (TEM) on mouse body and testis weights, testicular cell kinetics, sperm production, sperm head morphology, and sperm chromatin structure were assessed in two experiments. he first experiment examined effects of fo...

  18. Sperm Trajectories Form Chiral Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ting-Wei; Choi, Inkyum; Feng, Jiawen; Huang, Kalvin; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-01

    We report the discovery of an entirely new three-dimensional (3D) swimming pattern observed in human and horse sperms. This motion is in the form of `chiral ribbons', where the planar swing of the sperm head occurs on an osculating plane creating in some cases a helical ribbon and in some others a twisted ribbon. The latter, i.e., the twisted ribbon trajectory, also defines a minimal surface, exhibiting zero mean curvature for all the points on its surface. These chiral ribbon swimming patterns cannot be represented or understood by already known patterns of sperms or other micro-swimmers. The discovery of these unique patterns is enabled by holographic on-chip imaging of >33,700 sperm trajectories at >90-140 frames/sec, which revealed that only ~1.7% of human sperms exhibit chiral ribbons, whereas it increases to ~27.3% for horse sperms. These results might shed more light onto the statistics and biophysics of various micro-swimmers' 3D motion.

  19. Wonders of the Seas: Sperm Whales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Overview of sperm whale biology, adaptations, and behaviors. Basic introduction to anatomy, diet, echolocation, diving, whale oil and other products derived from sperm whales, whaling industry and impacts, and conservation measures. Accessible text, illustrated with excellent photographs. A NSTA SciLinks selected site.

  20. Seasonal occurrence of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) around Kelvin Seamount in the Sargasso Sea in relation to oceanographic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sarah N. P.; Whitehead, Hal

    2014-09-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are widely distributed in all oceans, but they are clumped geographically, generally in areas associated with high primary and secondary productivity. The warm, clear waters of the Sargasso Sea are traditionally thought to be low in productivity, however recent surveys have found large numbers of sperm whales there. The New England Seamount Chain bisects the north-western portion of the Sargasso Sea, and might influence the mesoscale eddies associated with the Gulf Stream; creating areas of higher productivity within the Sargasso Sea. We investigated the seasonal occurrence of sperm whales over Kelvin Seamount (part of the New England Seamount Chain) and how it is influenced by oceanographic variables. An autonomous recording device was deployed over Kelvin Seamount from May to June 2006 and November 2006 to June 2007. A total of 6505 hourly two-minute recordings were examined for the presence of sperm whale echolocation clicks. Sperm whales were more prevalent around Kelvin in the spring (April to June: mean=51% of recordings contained clicks) compared to the winter (November to March: mean=16% of recordings contained clicks). Sperm whale prevalence at Kelvin was related to chlorophyll-a concentration four weeks previous, eddy kinetic energy and month. The mesoscale activity associated with the Gulf Stream and the Gulf Stream's interaction with the New England Seamount Chain likely play an important role in sperm whale occurrence in this area, by increasing productivity and perhaps concentration of cephalopod species.

  1. Male reproduction in penaeid shrimp: sperm quality and spermatophore production in wild and captive populations 

    E-print Network

    Leung-Trujillo, Joanna R

    1990-01-01

    , in *thea, ch sa M. ~ii, th a dog ic gl ds are ot ecessary f spermatogenesis to occur (Nagamine et al. , 1980). ~gras 1 t Production and/or release of hormones which control male reproduction may be influenced by photoperiod, temperature, salinity...

  2. Medical treatment to improve sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Isidori, Andrea M; Pozza, Carlotta; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Isidori, Aldo

    2006-06-01

    Approximately 30% of cases of couple infertility are due to a male factor. Several conditions can interfere with spermatogenesis and reduce sperm quality and production. Treatable conditions, such as hypogonadism, varicocele, infections and obstructions, should be diagnosed and corrected, but many aspects of male factor infertility remain unclear. Various agents have been used in the attempt to increase the fertility potential of subjects with idiopathic oligoteratoasthenozoospermia. The rationale of medical treatment to improve sperm quality in these subjects has been questioned by the introduction of assisted reproductive technologies. However, there is now growing awareness of the importance of good quality spermatozoa for embryonic development and higher birth rates. Confounding factors in assessing the efficacy of male infertility treatments have erroneously inflated the superiority of assisted reproductive technologies over conventional approaches. A systematic review is given of relevant randomized controlled trials and effects on semen parameters. The analysis reveals that although results are heterogeneous, gonadotrophins, anti-oestrogens, carnitine and trace elements may be beneficial in improving sperm quality, although their effect on pregnancy rate remains controversial. The most common drug regimens are compared and an estimate of the results expected from these treatments provided. PMID:16792845

  3. Sperm maturation in the domestic cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Axnér

    2006-01-01

    The epididymis is essential for sperm development and maturation, and, subsequently, the ability of spermatozoa to penetrate and fertilize the female gamete. Functional differences in segments of the long tubule are reflected by histological differences among epididymal regions. The feline epididymis can be divided into six different regions according to their histological differences. A marked increase in sperm concentration occurs

  4. Sexual selection, germline mutation rate and sperm competition

    PubMed Central

    Møller, AP; Cuervo, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Background An important component of sexual selection arises because females obtain viability benefits for their offspring from their mate choice. Females choosing extra-pair fertilization generally favor males with exaggerated secondary sexual characters, and extra-pair paternity increases the variance in male reproductive success. Furthermore, females are assumed to benefit from 'good genes' from extra-pair sires. How additive genetic variance in such viability genes is maintained despite strong directional selection remains an evolutionary enigma. We propose that sexual selection is associated with elevated mutation rates, changing the balance between mutation and selection, thereby increasing variance in fitness and hence the benefits to be obtained from good genes sexual selection. Two hypotheses may account for such elevated mutation: (1) Increased sperm production associated with sperm competition may increase mutation rate. (2) Mutator alleles increase mutation rates that are revealed by the expression of condition-dependent secondary sexual characters used by choosy females during their mate choice. M Petrie has independently developed the idea that mutator alleles may account for the maintenance of genetic variation in viability despite strong directional selection. Results A comparative study of birds revealed a positive correlation between mutation rate at minisatellite loci and extra-pair paternity, but not between mutation rate and relative testes mass which is a measure of relative sperm production. Minisatellite mutation rates were not related to longevity, suggesting a meiotic rather than a mitotic origin of mutations. Conclusion We found evidence of increased mutation rate in species with more intense sexual selection. Increased mutation was not associated with increased sperm production, and we suggest that species with intense sexual selection may maintain elevated mutation rates because sexual selection continuously benefits viability alleles expressed in condition-dependent characters. Sexual selection may increase mutational input, which in turn feeds back on sexual selection because of increased variance in viability traits. PMID:12702218

  5. Female choice of young sperm in a genetically monogamous bird.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Richard H; Helfenstein, Fabrice; Danchin, Etienne

    2004-05-01

    When females copulate with multiple males the potential exists for female sperm choice. Females may increase the probability of being fertilized by preferred males by selectively retaining their sperm while ejecting the sperm of unfavoured males. An alternative criterion to male quality for female sperm choice may be sperm age because old sperm degrade and can lead to zygote death or unhealthy offspring. Here, we report that in a genetically monogamous bird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, females eject their mates' sperm according to when the copulations were performed. Following copulations that were performed approximately two weeks before egg laying, females ejected inseminations at high frequencies while retaining inseminations that occurred soon before laying. Females that suffered hatching failure had ejected sperm from early copulations less than half as frequently as females whose entire clutches hatched. Furthermore, chicks that hatched from eggs fertilized by old sperm were in poor condition relative to those fertilized by young sperm. These findings support the 'young sperm' hypothesis, which predicts that females choose fresh sperm to avoid reproductive failure and are the first to show intra-male sperm choice by females. PMID:15252964

  6. Effects of the Czech Propolis on Sperm Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Miklikova, Michaela; Stachova, Lenka; Grundmanova, Martina; Tuma, Zdenek; Vetvicka, Vaclav; Zech, Nicolas; Kralickova, Milena; Kuncova, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product that honeybees collect from various plants. It is known for its beneficial pharmacological effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of propolis on human sperm motility, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and membrane potential. Semen samples from 10 normozoospermic donors were processed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Propolis effects on the sperm motility and mitochondrial activity parameters were tested in the fresh ejaculate and purified spermatozoa. Propolis preserved progressive motility of spermatozoa in the native semen samples. Oxygen consumption determined in purified permeabilized spermatozoa by high-resolution respirometry in the presence of adenosine diphosphate and substrates of complex I and complex II (state OXPHOSI+II) was significantly increased in the propolis-treated samples. Propolis also increased uncoupled respiration in the presence of rotenone (state ETSII) and complex IV activity, but it did not influence state LEAK induced by oligomycin. Mitochondrial membrane potential was not affected by propolis. This study demonstrates that propolis maintains sperm motility in the native ejaculates and increases activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes II and IV without affecting mitochondrial membrane potential. The data suggest that propolis improves the total mitochondrial respiratory efficiency in the human spermatozoa in vitro thereby having potential to improve sperm motility. PMID:25104965

  7. Characterisation of the Manduca sexta sperm proteome: Genetic novelty underlying sperm composition in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Emma; Zhao, Qian; Borziak, Kirill; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2015-07-01

    The application of mass spectrometry based proteomics to sperm biology has greatly accelerated progress in understanding the molecular composition and function of spermatozoa. To date, these approaches have been largely restricted to model organisms, all of which produce a single sperm morph capable of oocyte fertilisation. Here we apply high-throughput mass spectrometry proteomic analysis to characterise sperm composition in Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm moth, which produce heteromorphic sperm, including one fertilisation competent (eupyrene) and one incompetent (apyrene) sperm type. This resulted in the high confidence identification of 896 proteins from a co-mixed sample of both sperm types, of which 167 are encoded by genes with strict one-to-one orthology in Drosophila melanogaster. Importantly, over half (55.1%) of these orthologous proteins have previously been identified in the D. melanogaster sperm proteome and exhibit significant conservation in quantitative protein abundance in sperm between the two species. Despite the complex nature of gene expression across spermatogenic stages, a significant correlation was also observed between sperm protein abundance and testis gene expression. Lepidopteran-specific sperm proteins (e.g., proteins with no homology to proteins in non-Lepidopteran taxa) were present in significantly greater abundance on average than those with homology outside the Lepidoptera. Given the disproportionate production of apyrene sperm (96% of all mature sperm in Manduca) relative to eupyrene sperm, these evolutionarily novel and highly abundant proteins are candidates for possessing apyrene-specific functions. Lastly, comparative genomic analyses of testis-expressed, ovary-expressed and sperm genes identified a concentration of novel sperm proteins shared amongst Lepidoptera of potential relevance to the evolutionary origin of heteromorphic spermatogenesis. As the first published Lepidopteran sperm proteome, this whole-cell proteomic characterisation will facilitate future evolutionary genetic and developmental studies of heteromorphic sperm production and parasperm function. Furthermore, the analyses presented here provide useful annotation information regarding sex-biased gene expression, novel Lepidopteran genes and gene function in the male gamete to complement the newly sequenced and annotated Manduca genome. PMID:25731083

  8. Understanding email interaction increases organizational productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Jackson; Ray Dawson; Darren Wilson

    2003-01-01

    To minimize the effect of email interruption on employee productivity, limit the frequency of new-email alerts (silence them, too), make it easier to assess each message's importance, and remove the reply-to-all facility.

  9. Computer-assisted sperm head morphometry analysis (ASMA) of cryopreserved ram spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G Gravance; Z. J Champion; P. J Casey

    1998-01-01

    Normal sperm morphology has been shown to be indicative of male fertility; however, subjective methods of assessing morphology are highly variable. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (ASMA) has been developed for the objective analysis of sperm head dimensions. Developing applicable protocols for sperm head morphometry analysis increases the efficiency of these systems. The objective of the current study was to develop

  10. EVIDENCE FAVORING SPERM SELECTION OVER SPERM COMPETITION IN THE INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN SEMINAL PLASMA AND SPERM MOTILITY IN VITRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jaffe; M. I. Camejo; T. E. Carrillo; M. Weffer; M. G. Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    & The effect on sperm motility of sperm-sperm and sperm-seminal plasma interactions was stud- ied among homologous and heterologous sperm. There were no significant interactions between sperm in vitro, but it was found that seminal plasmas of different donors have different effects on sperm motility, and different sperm react differently to the same seminal plasma. Sperm showed higher motility in

  11. A Work Schedule to Increase Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Caleb S.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines a technique for making a tight economy and energy shortages more palatable by supplementing employee wage increases with benefits such as alternative three and four day "weekends" without loss of regular pay and by enabling business to increase profits. (Author/IRT)

  12. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial

    E-print Network

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial Abstract Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem bound- aries and subsidize predators in recipient

  13. Bioenergy Research at BNL: Increasing Productivity Using

    E-print Network

    Homes, Christopher C.

    in air, soils, sediments, surface water, and groundwater #12;#12;Monitoring #12;Plant bacteria be used to improve biomass production of poplar on marginal soils? ­ Selection of bacterial strains ­ Greenhouse studies ­ Field experiments Distribution of cultivable root bacteria isolated from

  14. Aquaporin3 is a sperm water channel essential for postcopulatory sperm osmoadaptation and migration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Peng, Hongying; Lei, Li; Zhang, Ying; Kuang, Haibin; Cao, Yujing; Shi, Qi-xian; Ma, Tonghui; Duan, Enkui

    2011-01-01

    In the journey from the male to female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm experience a natural osmotic decrease (e.g., in mouse, from ?415 mOsm in the cauda epididymis to ?310 mOsm in the uterine cavity). Sperm have evolved to utilize this hypotonic exposure for motility activation, meanwhile efficiently silence the negative impact of hypotonic cell swelling. Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have shown that ion channel-controlled water influx/efflux is actively involved in the process of sperm volume regulation; however, no specific sperm proteins have been found responsible for this rapid osmoadaptation. Here, we report that aquaporin3 (AQP3) is a sperm water channel in mice and humans. Aqp3-deficient sperm show normal motility activation in response to hypotonicity but display increased vulnerability to hypotonic cell swelling, characterized by increased tail bending after entering uterus. The sperm defect is a result of impaired sperm volume regulation and progressive cell swelling in response to physiological hypotonic stress during male-female reproductive tract transition. Time-lapse imaging revealed that the cell volume expansion begins at cytoplasmic droplet, forcing the tail to angulate and form a hairpin-like structure due to mechanical membrane stretch. The tail deformation hampered sperm migration into oviduct, resulting in impaired fertilization and reduced male fertility. These data suggest AQP3 as an essential membrane pathway for sperm regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that balances the “trade-off” between sperm motility and cell swelling upon physiological hypotonicity, thereby optimizing postcopulatory sperm behavior. PMID:21135872

  15. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA®).

    PubMed

    Evenson, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    The SCSA(®) is the pioneering assay for the detection of damaged sperm DNA and altered proteins in sperm nuclei via flow cytometry of acridine orange (AO) stained sperm. The SCSA(®) is considered to be the most precise and repeatable test providing very unique, dual parameter data (red vs. green fluorescence) on a 1,024 × 1,024 channel scale, not only on DNA fragmentation but also on abnormal sperm characterized by lack of normal exchange of histones to protamines. Raw semen/sperm aliquots or purified sperm can be flash frozen, placed in a box with dry ice and shipped by overnight courier to an experienced SCSA(®) lab. The samples are individually thawed, prepared, and analyzed in ?10 min. Of significance, data on 5,000 individual sperm are recorded on a 1,024 × 1,024 dot plot of green (native DNA) and red (broken DNA) fluorescence. Repeat measurements have virtually identical dot plot patterns demonstrating that the low pH treatment that opens up the DNA strands at the sites of breaks and staining by acridine orange (AO) are highly precise and repeatable (CVs of 1-3%) and the same between fresh and frozen samples. SCSAsoft(®) software transforms the X-Y data to total DNA stainability versus red/red + green fluoresence (DFI) providing a more accurate determination of % DFI as well as the more sensitive value of standard deviation of DFI (SD DFI) as demonstrated by animal fertility and dose-response toxicology studies. The current established clinical threshold is 25% DFI for placing a man into a statistical probability of the following: (a) longer time to natural pregnancy, (b) low odds of IUI pregnancy, (c) more miscarriages, or (d) no pregnancy. Changes in lifestyle as well as medical intervention can lower the %DFI to increase the probability of natural pregnancy. Couples of men with >25% DFI are counseled to try ICSI and when in the >50% range may consider TESE/ICSI. The SCSA(®) simultaneously determines the % of sperm with high DNA stainability (%HDS) related to retained nuclear histones consistent with immature sperm; high HDS values are predictive of pregnancy failure.The SCSA(®) is considered to be the most technician friendly, time- and cost-efficient, precise and repeatable DNA fragmentation assay, with the most data and the only fragmentation assay with an accepted clinical threshold for placing a man at risk for infertility. SCSA(®) data are more predictive of male factor infertility than classical semen analyses. PMID:22992911

  16. Flow cytometry of sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1987-09-21

    This brief paper summarizes automated flow cytometric determination of sperm morphology and flow cytometry/sorting of sperm with application to sex preselection. In the latter context, mention is made of results of karyotypic determination of sex chromosome ratios in albumin-processed human sperm. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Female sperm use and storage between fertilization events drive sperm competition and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2014-12-01

    Sperm competition theory has traditionally focused on how male allocation responds to female promiscuity, when males compete to fertilize a single clutch of eggs. Here, we develop a model to ask how female sperm use and storage across consecutive reproductive events affect male ejaculate allocation and patterns of mating and paternity. In our model, sperm use (a single parameter under female control) is the main determinant of sperm competition, which alters the effect of female promiscuity on male success and, ultimately, male reproductive allocation. Our theory reproduces the general pattern predicted by existing theory that increased sperm competition favors increased allocation to ejaculates. However, our model predicts a negative correlation between male ejaculate allocation and female promiscuity, challenging the generality of a prevailing expectation of sperm competition theory. Early models assumed that the energetic costs of precopulatory competition and the level of sperm competition are both determined by female promiscuity, which leads to an assumed covariation between these two processes. By modeling precopulatory costs and sperm competition independently, our theoretical framework allows us to examine how male allocation should respond independently to variation in sperm competition and energetic trade-offs in mating systems that have been overlooked in the past. PMID:25307988

  18. Drosophila Sperm Motility in the Reproductive Tract1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Lu, Xiangyi

    2011-01-01

    Motile cilia and flagella exhibit many waveforms as outputs of dynein activation sequences on the highly conserved axoneme. Motility change of sperm in the reproductive tract is difficult to study and remains an important area of investigation. Sperm typically execute a sinusoidal waveform. Increased viscosity in the medium induces somewhat unusual arc-line and helical waveforms in some sperm. However, whether the latter two waveforms occur in vivo is not known. Using green fluorescence protein imaging, we show that Drosophila sperm in the uterus move in circular foci via arc-line waves, predominantly in a tail-leading orientation. From the uterus, a small fraction of the sperm enters the seminal receptacle (SR) in parallel formations. After sperm storage and coincident with fertilization of the egg, the sperm exit the SR via head-leading helical waves. Consistent with the observed bidirectional movements, the sperm show the ability to propagate both base-to-tip and tip-to-base flagellar waves. Numerous studies have shown that sperm motility is regulated by intraflagellar calcium concentrations; in particular, the Pkd2 calcium channel has been shown to affect sperm storage. Our analyses here suggest that Pkd2 is required for the sperm to adopt the correct waveform and movement orientation during SR entry. A working model for the sperm's SR entry movement is proposed. PMID:21293028

  19. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Carol; Clarke, Helen; Cutting, Rachel; Saxton, Jane; Waite, Sarah; Ledger, William; Li, Tinchiu; Pacey, Allan A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM). To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control) were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests. PMID:25814156

  20. Rapid adjustments of sperm characteristics in relation to social status.

    PubMed

    Rudolfsen, Geir; Figenschou, Lars; Folstad, Ivar; Tveiten, Helge; Figenschou, Marie

    2006-02-01

    Sperm competition models predict that males typically mating in disfavoured roles should be selected to compensate for their disadvantage by investing more into sperm. We studied the effect of rapid changes in social status on ejaculate investments during experimental trials with an externally fertilizing teleost--the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We document that males becoming dominant produce less sperm with lower velocity, but have higher sex steroid concentrations than subordinate males. These differences in sperm characteristics seem mainly to result from a decreased investment in sperm among fish that become dominant compared to pre-trial levels. Moreover, these adjustments of sperm production and sperm velocity seem not to be traded against sperm longevity. Our results support theoretical models of sperm competition, as males forced to mate in disfavoured roles seem to invest more into ejaculate quality than males in favoured roles. Additionally, we are the first to report that males, in a species with status-dependent shifts in reproductive tactics, have evolved rapid tactic specific adjustments of sperm production and sperm velocity corresponding to what could be predicted from their reproductive roles. PMID:16543175

  1. Rapid adjustments of sperm characteristics in relation to social status

    PubMed Central

    Rudolfsen, Geir; Figenschou, Lars; Folstad, Ivar; Tveiten, Helge; Figenschou, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Sperm competition models predict that males typically mating in disfavoured roles should be selected to compensate for their disadvantage by investing more into sperm. We studied the effect of rapid changes in social status on ejaculate investments during experimental trials with an externally fertilizing teleost—the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We document that males becoming dominant produce less sperm with lower velocity, but have higher sex steroid concentrations than subordinate males. These differences in sperm characteristics seem mainly to result from a decreased investment in sperm among fish that become dominant compared to pre-trial levels. Moreover, these adjustments of sperm production and sperm velocity seem not to be traded against sperm longevity. Our results support theoretical models of sperm competition, as males forced to mate in disfavoured roles seem to invest more into ejaculate quality than males in favoured roles. Additionally, we are the first to report that males, in a species with status-dependent shifts in reproductive tactics, have evolved rapid tactic specific adjustments of sperm production and sperm velocity corresponding to what could be predicted from their reproductive roles. PMID:16543175

  2. Quantifying Energy Savings from Lean Manufacturing Productivity Increases 

    E-print Network

    Seryak, J.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.

    2006-01-01

    practice. As such, accepted methods used to calculate energy savings from productivity improvements are not prevalent. This paper will first review several existing energy efficiency programs that promote manufacturing productivity increases... types to develop new methods for calculating energy savings from productivity improvements. INTRODUCTION Several existing energy efficiency programs promote manufacturing productivity improvement. Typically productivity improvement...

  3. Sperm motility enhancement by nitric oxide produced by the oocytes of fathead minnows, Pimephelas promelas.

    PubMed

    Creech, M M; Arnold, E V; Boyle, B; Muzinich, M C; Montville, C; Bohle, D S; Atherton, R W

    1998-01-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on sperm motility were examined in the fathead minnow, Pimephelas promelas, using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The observed effects underscore the dual nature of NO as both a low-concentration regulatory agent and, at higher doses, a cytotoxic agent. At 1 x 10(-6) M concentration, NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced sperm motility percentages and increased CASA velocity parameters curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and average path velocity, whereas 1 x 10(-2) M concentration inhibited percent motility and decreased velocities. Fathead minnow ova-produced NO was subsequently trapped as a paramagnetic ferrous iron complex and detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The distinctive triplet spectrum, with a(N) = 12.5G and g(iso) = 2.04, was recorded during a critical 5-minute period following laying. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was histochemically localized at the micropyle of mature unfertilized fathead eggs, and an inhibitor of NOS blocked histochemical staining. CASA analysis of sperm motility in the presence of ovaproduced NO over an 8-minute time course reveals an optimum motility enhancement at 4 minutes that is similar to the effect of 1 x 10(-6) M SNP. This transient NO production by freshly laid ova and the localization of NOS near the site of sperm entry, together with the motility-enhancing effect of 1 x 10(-6) M SNP on sperm, indicates an active role for low-concentration NO in fertilization. PMID:9876018

  4. Relationship between sperm motility, morphology and the fertility of stallions.

    PubMed

    Love, C C

    2011-08-01

    Sperm quality has an important role in determining fertility. Although there have been numerous studies to document the relationship between sperm quality and fertility, the methods of determining this association and conclusions vary. In the present study, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used for evaluation of sperm motility, and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy was used for evaluating sperm morphologic features of breeding stallions. Fertility was measured using three endpoints: seasonal pregnancy rate (PR), percent pregnant/cycle (PC), and percent pregnant/first cycle (FCP). Increased total sperm motility (P = 0.08) and progressive path velocity (P = 0.06) tended to be associated with higher PR, whereas percent coiled tails (P = 0.02) was associated with a lower PR. Sperm motility variables associated with an increase in PC and FCP included total, progressive, and rapid sperm motility, and increased path and progressive velocity. Percent pregnant/first cycle was the only fertility measure able to discriminate among high, average, and low fertility groups, based on total and progressive sperm motility. Percent normal sperm was the only morphology variable associated with an increased PC and FCP, whereas increased levels of most sperm morphologic abnormalities (including abnormal and detached heads, proximal and distal droplets, general midpiece abnormality, and coiled tails) were associated with a decline in PC and FCP. Sperm quality variables most highly correlated with fertility included percent total sperm motility (PR, r = 0.37, P < 0.05; PC, r = 0.59, P < 0.05; and FCP, r = 0.64, P < 0.05), and percent morphologically normal sperm (PC, r = 0.42, P < 0.05; and FCP, r = 0.39, P < 0.05). PMID:21497893

  5. Immune activation decreases sperm viability in both sexes and influences female sperm storage

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Fedorka, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    All animals are under the constant threat of pathogenic infection. However, little is known regarding the influence of acute infection on sperm viability, particularly in female insects. This information is crucial for our understanding of mating and immune system coevolution, considering that females store sperm and serve as the site of sperm competition. Using the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined the influence of infection on sperm viability and storage. Twenty-four hours after haemocoel inoculation with a pathogen mimic (peptidoglycan, PGN) both sexes exhibited reduced sperm viability, indicating that systemic immune activation played a significant role in gamete survival. Surprisingly, sperm death did not appear to result from a reproductive-immune system trade-off, considering that sperm survived 24 h in vitro once removed from their somatic resources. Instead, our results are most consistent with death owing to immune effector collateral damage. We also examined the potential for sexually transmitted pathogens to influence sperm storage. Females mated with ‘infected’ males (created by dipping genitalia into a PGN solution) exhibited a higher proportion of empty sperm stores 48 h after mating compared to their controls. Remarkably, these data indicate that females may increase their fitness by removing ‘infected’ ejaculates from storage over time. PMID:22696524

  6. Overexpressing sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase in transgenic mice affects multiple aspects of sperm-egg interactions

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase) mediates fertilization in mice by binding to specific O-linked oligosaccharide ligands on the egg coat glycoprotein ZP3. Before binding the egg, sperm GalTase is masked by epididymally derived glycosides that are shed from the sperm surface during capacitation. After binding the egg, sperm- bound oligosaccharides on ZP3 induce the acrosome reaction by receptor aggregation, presumably involving GalTase. In this study, we asked how increasing the levels of sperm surface GalTase would affect sperm-egg interactions using transgenic mice that overexpress GalTase under the control of a heterologous promoter. GalTase expression was elevated in many tissues in adult transgenic animals, including testis. Sperm from transgenic males had approximately six times the wild-type level of surface GalTase protein, which was localized appropriately on the sperm head as revealed by indirect immunofluorescence. As expected, sperm from transgenic mice bound more radiolabeled ZP3 than did wild-type sperm. However, sperm from transgenic animals were relatively unable to bind eggs, as compared to sperm from wild-type animals. The mechanistic basis for the reduced egg-binding ability of transgenic sperm was attributed to alterations in two GalTase-dependent events. First, transgenic sperm that overexpress surface GalTase bound more epididymal glycoside substrates than did sperm from wild-type mice, thus masking GalTase and preventing it from interacting with its zona pellucida ligand. Second, those sperm from transgenic mice that were able to bind the zona pellucida were hypersensitive to ZP3, such that they underwent precocious acrosome reactions and bound to eggs more tenuously than did wild-type sperm. These results demonstrate that sperm-egg binding requires an optimal, rather than maximal, level of surface GalTase expression, since increasing this level decreases sperm reproductive efficiency both before and after egg binding. Although sperm GalTase is required for fertilization by serving as a receptor for the egg zona pellucida, excess surface GalTase is counterproductive to successful sperm-egg binding. PMID:8089187

  7. Human sperm DNA integrity in normal and abnormal semen samples and its correlation with sperm characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Varghese; F. M. Bragais; D. Mukhopadhyay; S. Kundu; M. Pal; A. K. Bhattacharyya; A. Agarwal

    2009-01-01

    Summary Reports indicate an increase in the incidence of DNA fragmentation in male factor infertility and its role in the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). However, reports are conflicting between the relationships of sperm DNA integrity with conventional semen parameters. We examined the relation- ship between conventional sperm parameters and DNA integrity using acridine orange (AO) test. The study

  8. Orthovanadate increased the frequency of aneuploid mouse sperm without micronucleus induction in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes at the same dose level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Attia; O. A. Badary; F. M. Hamada; M. Hrabé de Angelis; I.-D. Adler

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the ability of orthovanadate to induce aneuploidy in mouse sperm and micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells at the same dose levels. The BrdU-incorporation assay was performed to test if the chemical treatment altered the duration of the meiotic divisions. It was found that orthovanadate (25mg\\/kg bw) treatment did not cause

  9. Increasing Efficiency in Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Turner, J.

    2002-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production promises to be a renewable, clean, and efficient way of storing the sun's energy for use in hydrogen-powered fuel cells. We use p-type Ga.51In.49P semiconductor (henceforth as GaInP2) to absorb solar energy and produce a photocurrent. When the semiconductor is immersed in water, the photocurrent can break down water into hydrogen and oxygen. However, before the GaInP2 can produce hydrogen and oxygen, the conduction band and the Fermi level of the semiconductor must overlap the water redox potentials. In an unmodified system, the conduction band and Fermi level of GaInP2 do not overlap the water redox potentials. When light shines on the semiconductor, electrons build up on the surface, shifting the bandedges and Fermi level further away from overlap of the water redox potentials. We report on surface treatments with metallated porphyrins and transition metals that suppress bandedge migration and allow bandedge overlap to occur. Coating ruthenium octaethylporphyrin carbonyl (RuOEP CO) on the GaInP2 surface shifted bandedges in the positive direction by 270 mV on average, allowing the bandedges to frequently overlap the water redox potentials. Coating the GaInP2 surface with RuCl3 catalyzed charge transfer from the semiconductor to the water, lessening bandedge migration under light irradiation. Future work will focus on the long-term surface stability of these new treatments and quantitative applications of porphyrins.

  10. The dynamics of sperm cooperation in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Heidi S; Giomi, Luca; Hoekstra, Hopi E; Mahadevan, L

    2014-09-01

    Sperm cooperation has evolved in a variety of taxa and is often considered a response to sperm competition, yet the benefit of this form of collective movement remains unclear. Here, we use fine-scale imaging and a minimal mathematical model to study sperm aggregation in the rodent genus Peromyscus. We demonstrate that as the number of sperm cells in an aggregate increase, the group moves with more persistent linearity but without increasing speed. This benefit, however, is offset in larger aggregates as the geometry of the group forces sperm to swim against one another. The result is a non-monotonic relationship between aggregate size and average velocity with both a theoretically predicted and empirically observed optimum of six to seven sperm per aggregate. To understand the role of sexual selection in driving these sperm group dynamics, we compared two sister-species with divergent mating systems. We find that sperm of Peromyscus maniculatus (highly promiscuous), which have evolved under intense competition, form optimal-sized aggregates more often than sperm of Peromyscus polionotus (strictly monogamous), which lack competition. Our combined mathematical and experimental study of coordinated sperm movement reveals the importance of geometry, motion and group size on sperm velocity and suggests how these physical variables interact with evolutionary selective pressures to regulate cooperation in competitive environments. PMID:25056618

  11. The dynamics of sperm cooperation in a competitive environment

    E-print Network

    H. S. Fisher; L. Giomi; H. E. Hoekstra; L. Mahadevan

    2014-07-02

    Sperm cooperation has evolved in a variety of taxa and is often considered a response to sperm competition, yet the benefit of this form of collective movement remains unclear. Here we use fine-scale imaging and a minimal mathematical model to study sperm aggregation in the rodent genus $Peromyscus$. We demonstrate that as the number of sperm cells in an aggregate increase, the group moves with more persistent linearity but without increasing speed; this benefit, however, is offset in larger aggregates as the geometry of the group forces sperm to swim against one another. The result is a non-monotonic relationship between aggregate size and average velocity with both a theoretically predicted and empirically observed optimum of 6-7 sperm/aggregate. To understand the role of sexual selection in driving these sperm group dynamics, we compared two sister-species with divergent mating systems and find that sperm of $P.\\,maniculatus$ (highly promiscuous), which have evolved under intense competition, form optimal-sized aggregates more often than sperm of $P.\\,polionotus$ (strictly monogamous), which lack competition. Our combined mathematical and experimental study of coordinated sperm movement reveals the importance of geometry, motion and group size on sperm velocity and suggests how these physical variables interact with evolutionary selective pressures to regulate cooperation in competitive environments.

  12. The dynamics of sperm cooperation in a competitive environment

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Heidi S.; Giomi, Luca; Hoekstra, Hopi E.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm cooperation has evolved in a variety of taxa and is often considered a response to sperm competition, yet the benefit of this form of collective movement remains unclear. Here, we use fine-scale imaging and a minimal mathematical model to study sperm aggregation in the rodent genus Peromyscus. We demonstrate that as the number of sperm cells in an aggregate increase, the group moves with more persistent linearity but without increasing speed. This benefit, however, is offset in larger aggregates as the geometry of the group forces sperm to swim against one another. The result is a non-monotonic relationship between aggregate size and average velocity with both a theoretically predicted and empirically observed optimum of six to seven sperm per aggregate. To understand the role of sexual selection in driving these sperm group dynamics, we compared two sister-species with divergent mating systems. We find that sperm of Peromyscus maniculatus (highly promiscuous), which have evolved under intense competition, form optimal-sized aggregates more often than sperm of Peromyscus polionotus (strictly monogamous), which lack competition. Our combined mathematical and experimental study of coordinated sperm movement reveals the importance of geometry, motion and group size on sperm velocity and suggests how these physical variables interact with evolutionary selective pressures to regulate cooperation in competitive environments. PMID:25056618

  13. Region-wide impairment of Atlantic croaker testicular development and sperm production in the northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic dead zone.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Rahman, Md Saydur

    2010-01-01

    Recently evidence has been obtained for reproductive impairment in estuarine populations of Atlantic croaker exposed to seasonal hypoxia. However, it is not known whether a similar disruption of reproductive function occurs in croaker inhabiting a much larger hypoxic area, the extensive dead zone in coastal regions of the northern Gulf of Mexico extending from the Mississippi Delta to East Texas. Gonadal development in male Atlantic croaker collected in September 2008 at six sites in the dead zone was compared to that in male fish sampled from three reference sites east of the Mississippi Delta which do not experience persistent hypoxia. Croaker testes collected from the dead zone were at an earlier stage of spermatogenesis than those from the reference sites. Histological examination of the testes collected from the dead zone showed that their tubules had small lumens that contained very little sperm compared to the lumens of the reference fish. Overall, sperm production was 26.2% that of the control fish at the reference sites. This decrease in spermatogenesis at the dead zone sites was accompanied by an approximately 50% decrease in testicular growth compared to that in the reference fish. The results suggest that reproductive impairment can occur over regional scales in marine fish populations exposed to extensive seasonal hypoxia in dead zones with potential long-term impacts on population abundance. PMID:19931178

  14. Central role of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in chicken sperm functions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Alves, Sabine; Grasseau, Isabelle; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Praud, Christophe; Froment, Pascal; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2014-11-01

    Avian gametes present specific features related to their internal long-term mode of fertilization. Among other central actors of energetic metabolism control, it has been suspected that 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) influences sperm functions and thus plays a key role in fertilization success. In the present work, we studied AMPK localization and function in chicken sperm incubated in vitro. Effects of the pharmacological AMPK activators (AICAR, metformin) and the AMPK inhibitor compound C were assessed by evaluating AMPKalpha (Thr(172)) phosphorylation (by Western blotting), semen quality (by viability, motility, and ability to perform acrosome reaction), and energetic metabolism indicators (lactate, ATP). Localization of AMPK in subcellular sperm compartments was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Total AMPK was found in all compartments except for the nucleus, but the phosphorylated form phospho-Thr(172)-AMPK was essentially localized in the flagellum and acrosome. AMPK activators significantly improved AMPK phosphorylation, sperm motility (increased by 40% motile, 90% progressive, and 60% rapid sperm), acrosome reaction and lactate production (increased by 40%) and viability. The AMPK inhibitor significantly reduced AMPK phosphorylation and percentages of motility (decrease by 25%), progressive energy (decrease by 35%), and rapid sperm (decreased by 30%), acrosome reaction, lactate production, and ATP release. The two activators differed in their effect on ATP concentration: AICAR stimulated ATP formation, whereas metformin did not. Our results indicate that AMPK plays a key role in the regulation of chicken sperm functions and metabolism. This action differs from that suggested in mammals, mainly by its crucial involvement in the acrosome reaction process. PMID:25297543

  15. Age-dependent changes in sperm production, semen quality, and testicular volume in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).

    PubMed

    Wolf, K N; Wildt, D E; Vargas, A; Marinari, P E; Kreeger, J S; Ottinger, M A; Howard, J G

    2000-07-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), which was extirpated from its native North American prairie habitat during the 1980s, is being reintroduced to the wild because of a successful captive-breeding program. To enhance propagation, the reproductive biology of this endangered species is being studied intensively. The typical life span of the black-footed ferret is approximately 7 yr. Female fecundity declines after 3 yr of age, but the influence of age on male reproduction is unknown. In this study, testis volume, seminal traits, sperm morphology, and serum testosterone were compared in 116 males from 1 to 7 yr of age living in captivity. Results demonstrated that testes volume during the peak breeding season was similar (P > 0.05) among males 1 to 5 yr of age, reduced (P < 0.05) among males 6 yr of age, and further reduced (P < 0.05) among males 7 yr of age. Motile sperm/ejaculate was similar in males 1 to 6 yr of age but diminished (P < 0.05) in those 7 yr of age. Males at 6 and 7 yr of age produced fewer (P < 0.05) structurally normal sperm than younger counterparts; however, serum testosterone concentrations were not reduced (P > 0.05) in older males. Histological comparison of testicular/epididymal tissue from 5- and 7-yr-old black-footed ferrets confirmed that the interval between these two ages may represent a transitional period to reproductive senescence. In summary, functional reproductive capacity of male black-footed ferrets exceeds that of females by at least 2 yr. Testes and seminal quality are indistinguishable among males 1 to 5 yr of age, with progressive reproductive aging occurring thereafter. PMID:10859258

  16. Sperm functional tests.

    PubMed

    Oehninger, Sergio; Franken, Daniel R; Ombelet, Willem

    2014-12-01

    Several semen parameters are used to discriminate the fertile male from the subfertile male. The most widely used parameters are sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility, and sperm morphology. Semen analysis is usually applied as described in the World Health Organization manual for semen analysis. In addition to a routine semen analysis, sperm functional tests have been described for many years, which in most cases are regarded as research tools and not part of the routine semen testing in an infertility clinic. In this review we report on the value of four sperm function tests: the sperm penetration assay, the sperm-zona pellucida binding tests, the acrosome reaction, and the hyaluronan binding assay. For each test we describe the current value, the indication for performing the test, how to interpret the results, and its therapeutic implications. Our data show that sperm functional assays are highly predictive of IVF outcome results and have the potential to assist in clinical decision making, especially to avoid the current long-standing treatment with IUI and to direct the patients to intracytoplasmic sperm injection without delay when sperm functional testing fails. We believe that advances in molecular biology techniques will allow us to develop simpler sperm function assays in the near future. This will undoubtedly help clinicians in optimizing male factor infertility diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25450304

  17. Fish sperm cryopreservation in France: from laboratory studies to application in selective breeding programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierrick Haffray; Catherine Labbe; Gérard MaIsse

    Application of sperm cryopreservation by the fish farming industry is still limited, despite great interest in optimising genetic resource conservation; limiting risks associated with horizontal disease transmission; increasing genetic progress; and accelerating genetic selection from prime specimens, as in other livestock production. Several factors are listed. With the aim of developing coherent broodstock selection programmes, SYSAAF (Union of the French

  18. Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm creatine kinase, HspA2 chaperone protein (creatine kinase-M type), LDH, LDH-X, and lipid peroxidation product levels in infertile men with varicocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Çetin Ye?illi; Görkem Mungan; Ilker Seçkiner; Bülent Akduman; ?erefden Açikgöz; Korhan Altan; Aydin Mungan

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine the total sperm creatine kinase, HspA2 chaperone protein (creatine kinase-M isoform), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), LDH-X activities, and lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde [MDA]) levels in infertile men with varicocele and to examine the possible effect of varicocelectomy on these parameters.

  19. Sexing mammalian sperm--intertwining of commerce, technology, and biology.

    PubMed

    Seidel, George E

    2003-12-15

    Sperm from many mammalian species can be sexed by flow cytometry/cell sorting at about 90% accuracy without damaging them unduly. However, because sperm are evaluated one at a time, in series, the number of sexed sperm produced per unit time is limited. Furthermore, the equipment required currently is expensive, in the order of 300,000 US dollars per machine. Despite these limitations, commercialization of this technology has begun with bovine semen, in part by inseminating cattle with relatively low number of sperms. No other approach to sexing sperm in any practical way is likely to be available within the next few years. The constraints for commercial application of sexed sperm in cattle can be somewhat lowered fertility, the high costs of equipment and skilled personnel, and costs of intellectual property such as licensing fees and royalty payments. Most economic analyses indicate that farmers can afford to pay 10-20 US dollars more per dose of sexed sperm than unsexed sperm if costs must be recouped by selling milk or meat. When the product is breeding stock or for certain niche applications, a higher price for sexed semen may be justified. Sexed sperm will be used more broadly in cattle only when improved production and/or efficiency can compensate for the extra costs of purchasing sexed sperm. PMID:14643102

  20. Cryopreservation of Sperm from the Endangered Colorado Pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiersch, T.R.; Figiel, C.R., Jr.; Wayman, W.R.; Williamson, J.H.; Gorman, O.T.; Carmichael, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed methods for the cryopreservation of sperm of the endangered Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius. Sperm were collected from a captive broodstock population of Colorado pikeminnow reared and maintained at the Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects on sperm motility of 24-h storage in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS); (2) characterize sperm motility and duration; (3) examine the relationship between sperm motility and osmotic pressure; (4) examine the effect of four cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], dimethyl acetamide [DMA], glycerol, and methanol [MeOH] at two concentrations [5% and 10%]) on postthaw motility; and (5) compare the effect of two cooling rates (40??C/ min and 4??C/min) on postthaw motility. The sperm samples diluted with HBSS retained higher motility (mean ??SD, 77 ?? 22%; n = 9) than did undiluted samples (12 ?? 30%; n = 9) after 24 h of storage. When exposed to HBSS at 274 mosmols/kg or more, few sperm became motile (???1%). Exposure to HBSS at 265 mosmols/kg elicited threshold activation (defined as 10% motility), and maximum motility (>95%) was observed at 93 mosmols/ kg. The maximum motility of sperm was observed within 10 s after activation with deionized water, and sperm remained motile for 57 s. The sperm that were cooled at a rate of 40??C/min and cryopreserved with 5% MeOH retained higher postthaw motility (56 ?? 13%) than did sperm cryopreserved with DMSO, DMA, or glycerol (at 5% and 10%). When the sperm samples were cooled at a rate of 4??C/min, sperm cryopreserved with MeOH (5% or 10%) or DMSO (5% or 10%) retained the highest postthaw motilities (???14%). The use of cryopreserved sperm can assist hatchery managers in the production of fish, provide for the long-term conservation of genetic resources, and assist in the recovery of endangered species such as the Colorado pikeminnow.

  1. Sexual rest and post-meiotic sperm ageing in house mice.

    PubMed

    Firman, R C; Young, F J; Rowe, D C; Duong, H T; Gasparini, C

    2015-07-01

    Fertilization by aged sperm can result in adverse fitness consequences for both males and females. Sperm storage during male sexual rest could provide an environment for post-meiotic sperm senescence causing a deterioration in the quality of stored sperm, possibly impacting on both sperm performance (e.g. swimming ability) and DNA quality. Here, we compared the proportion of sperm with fragmented DNA, an indicator of structural damage of DNA within the sperm cell, among males that had been sexually rested for approximately 2 months, to that of males that had mated recently. We found no evidence of intra-epididymal sperm DNA damage or any impairment in sperm performance, and consequently no evidence of post-meiotic sperm senescence. Our results suggest that male house mice are likely to possess mechanisms that function to ensure that their sperm reserves remain stocked with 'young', viable sperm during periods of sexual inactivity. We also discuss the possibility that our experimental design leads to no difference in the age of sperm among males from the two mating treatments. Post-meiotic sperm senescence is especially relevant under sperm competition. Thus, we sourced mice from populations that differed in their levels of post-copulatory sexual selection, enabling us to gain insight into how selection for higher sperm production influences the rate of sperm ageing and levels of DNA fragmentation. We found that males from the population that produced the highest number of sperm also had the smallest proportion of DNA-fragmented sperm and discuss this outcome in relation to selection acting upon males to ensure that they produce ejaculates with high-quality sperm that are successful in achieving fertilizations under competitive conditions. PMID:26012513

  2. The Sperm Epigenome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donovan Chan; Jacquetta Trasler

    \\u000a The development of male germ cells from the primordial germ cell stage to that of the mature spermatozoon is a key time of\\u000a epigenetic reprogramming. Orchestrated by specialized enzymes, DNA methylation and histone modifications undergo dynamic changes\\u000a throughout gametogenesis. Alterations to any level of the sperm epigenetic coding may affect fertility and the sperm’s contribution\\u000a to normal embryo development. In

  3. Neurotensin enhances sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Hiradate, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Norio; Shirakata, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Aina; Roh, Sang-Gun; Uchida, Takafumi; Katoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Manabu; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2014-08-01

    Neurotensin (NT) has multiple functions, ranging from acting as a neurotransmitter to regulating intestinal movement. However, its function in reproductive physiology is unknown. Here, we confirmed the expression and localization of NT receptors (NTR1) in mouse epididymal spermatozoa and investigated the effect of NT on sperm function. Sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation, one of the indices of sperm capacitation, was facilitated dose-dependently by NT administration. In addition, the acrosome reaction was promoted in capacitated spermatozoa, and addition of a selective antagonist of NTR1 and NTR2 blocked the induction. Furthermore, intracellular calcium mobilization by NT addition was observed. This showed that NT was an accelerator of sperm function via its functional receptors. The presence of NT was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and its localization was observed in epithelia of the uterus and oviduct isthmus and ampulla, which correspond to the fertilization route of spermatozoa. The NT mRNA level in ovulated cumulus cell was remarkably increased by treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Using an in vitro maturation model, we analyzed the effects of FSH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), estradiol, and progesterone in NT production in cumulus cells. We found that FSH and EGF upregulated NT release and mRNA expression. Both FSH- and EGF-induced upregulation were inhibited by U0126, an MAPK kinase inhibitor, indicating that FSH and EGF regulate NT expression via a MAPK-dependent pathway. This evidence suggests that NT can act as a promoter of sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tract. PMID:25031361

  4. Rheotaxis guides mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E

    2013-01-01

    Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility. PMID:23453951

  5. Ocean acidification impacts on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential bring sperm swimming behaviour near its tipping point.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Peter; Binet, Monique T; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Doyle, Christopher J; Williamson, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    Broadcast spawning marine invertebrates are susceptible to environmental stressors such as climate change, as their reproduction depends on the successful meeting and fertilization of gametes in the water column. Under near-future scenarios of ocean acidification, the swimming behaviour of marine invertebrate sperm is altered. We tested whether this was due to changes in sperm mitochondrial activity by investigating the effects of ocean acidification on sperm metabolism and swimming behaviour in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. We used a fluorescent molecular probe (JC-1) and flow cytometry to visualize mitochondrial activity (measured as change in mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP). Sperm MMP was significantly reduced in ?pH -0.3 (35% reduction) and ?pH -0.5 (48% reduction) treatments, whereas sperm swimming behaviour was less sensitive with only slight changes (up to 11% decrease) observed overall. There was significant inter-individual variability in responses of sperm swimming behaviour and MMP to acidified seawater. We suggest it is likely that sperm exposed to these changes in pH are close to their tipping point in terms of physiological tolerance to acidity. Importantly, substantial inter-individual variation in responses of sperm swimming to ocean acidification may increase the scope for selection of resilient phenotypes, which, if heritable, could provide a basis for adaptation to future ocean acidification. PMID:25833135

  6. Nitric Oxide Production Is Increased in Patients with Inflammatory Myositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wanchu; M. Khullar; A. Sud; P. Bambery

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in several inflammatory disorders. We have previously demonstrated higher levels of NO production among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this study we measured serum levels of nitrite and citrulline using calorimetric methods as surrogate markers of NO production among patients with inflammatory myositis (IM). Twenty patients with IM and 19

  7. Targets to increase food production: One Health implications

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Barry J.; Wall, Patrick G.; Fanning, Séamus; Fahey, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing world population means that there is a requirement to expand global food production. Looking at the Republic of Ireland as an example, the risks and opportunities associated with the expansion of food production are outlined, particularly in relation to zoonoses transmission. A One Health approach to sustainable food production is required to avert a potential public health problem associated with increased agricultural expansion. PMID:25912031

  8. CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS Fertilization-Defective Mutants with Abnormal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Argon, Yair; Ward, Samuel

    1980-01-01

    Seven new fertilization-defective mutants of C. elegans have been isolated and characterized; six are temperature sensitive, one is absolute and all are autosomal recessive. One mutation is in a previously described gene, while the other six define six new fer genes that appear to code for sperm-specific functions necessary for normal fertilization. In all fer mutants, both males and hermaphrodites accumulate sperm in near normal numbers. In hermaphrodites, mutant sperm contact the oocytes, but fail to fertilize them. Instead, the sperm are swept into the uterus by the passing oocytes and are expelled when oocytes are laid. Males of two fer mutants do not transfer sperm during copulation, but the other mutant males transfer sperm that fail to move to the spermatheca. Spermatozoa from fer-1 and fer-4 mutants are motility-defective in vitro as well as in vivo, and their pseudopods have an altered morphology. The period of development during which mutant hermaphrodites are temperature sensitive for fertility overlaps the time of sperm development. Some mutants are temperature sensitive throughout the entire period, and others are temperature sensitive during or just prior to spermiogenesis. In fer-4/+ and fer-7/+ males, the fertility of the mutation-bearing sperm is diminished, reducing the transmission ratio. This implies some post-meiotic expression of these genes.—This set of mutants provides a variety of functional and structural alterations in nematode sperm that should help identify and analyze gene products involved in sperm morphogenesis and motility. PMID:7196361

  9. Mammalian Sperm Motility: Observation and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, E. A.; Gadêlha, H.; Smith, D. J.; Blake, J. R.; Kirkman-Brown, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa motility is a subject of growing importance because of rising human infertility and the possibility of improving animal breeding. We highlight opportunities for fluid and continuum dynamics to provide novel insights concerning the mechanics of these specialized cells, especially during their remarkable journey to the egg. The biological structure of the motile sperm appendage, the flagellum, is described and placed in the context of the mechanics underlying the migration of mammalian sperm through the numerous environments of the female reproductive tract. This process demands certain specific changes to flagellar movement and motility for which further mechanical insight would be valuable, although this requires improved modeling capabilities, particularly to increase our understanding of sperm progression in vivo. We summarize current theoretical studies, highlighting the synergistic combination of imaging and theory in exploring sperm motility, and discuss the challenges for future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics.

  10. Sperm Patch-Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

  11. Elemental composition of human semen is associated with motility and genomic sperm defects among older men

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Thomas E.; Grant, Patrick G.; Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Older men tend to have poorer semen quality and are generally at higher risks for infertility and abnormal reproductive outcomes. METHODS We employed proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE, 3 MeV proton beam) to investigate the concentrations of zinc, copper, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, titanium, iron and nickel in washed sperm and seminal plasma from non-smoking groups of 10 older men (65–80 years old) and 10 younger men (22–28 years old) who were concurrently assayed for sperm function and genomicly defective sperm. RESULTS The older group showed elevated zinc, copper and calcium in sperm and elevated sulfur in seminal plasma compared with the younger men. The older group also showed reduced motility as well as increased sperm DNA fragmentation, achondroplasia mutations, DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations. Sperm calcium and copper were positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (P < 0.03). Seminal sulfur was positively associated with sperm DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aberrations (P < 0.04), and negatively associated with sperm motility (P < 0.05). Sperm calcium was negatively associated with sperm motility, independent of male age (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS We identified major differences in elemental concentrations between sperm and seminal plasma and that higher sperm copper, sulfur and calcium are quantitatively associated with poorer semen quality and increased frequencies of genomic sperm defects. PMID:23042799

  12. Wolbachia infection lowers fertile sperm transfer in a moth.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Z; Champion de Crespigny, F E; Sait, S M; Tregenza, T; Wedell, N

    2011-04-23

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis manipulates host reproduction by rendering infected males reproductively incompatible with uninfected females (cytoplasmic incompatibility; CI). CI is believed to occur as a result of Wolbachia-induced modifications to sperm during maturation, which prevent infected sperm from initiating successful zygote development when fertilizing uninfected females' eggs. However, the mechanism by which CI occurs has been little studied outside the genus Drosophila. Here, we show that in the sperm heteromorphic Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, infected males transfer fewer fertile sperm at mating than uninfected males. In contrast, non-fertile apyrene sperm are not affected. This indicates that Wolbachia may only affect fertile sperm production and highlights the potential of the Lepidoptera as a model for examining the mechanism by which Wolbachia induces CI in insects. PMID:20880864

  13. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-12-21

    Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It is therefore theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end we have performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and have confidently identified 2,850 proteins, which is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, ?-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function.

  14. CAD/CAM: improved design quality, increased productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.E.; England, J.

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining productivity levels while assuring the quality of engineering products grows increasingly more difficult and costly for industries such as the energy industry which are heavily committed to product design. The man/machine interface made possible through the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can be applied to the design process as a tool for increased control to assure the quality of the final engineering product. The quality-control aspects of CAD/CAM technology are addressed in this presentation.

  15. Sperm quantity and quality effects on fertilization success in a highly promiscuous passerine, the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terje Laskemoen; Oddmund Kleven; Frode Fossøy; Raleigh J. Robertson; Geir Rudolfsen; Jan T. Lifjeld

    2010-01-01

    Sperm competition is widespread among animal taxa and considered a major force in sperm evolution. Recent comparative studies\\u000a have indicated that sperm competition selects for high sperm production capacity and long and fast-swimming spermatozoa across\\u000a species. Here, we examine the role of sperm quantity and quality for fertilization success of individual males in a Canadian\\u000a population of tree swallows Tachycineta

  16. Sperm capacitation combined with removal of the sperm acrosome and plasma membrane enhances paternal nucleus remodelling and early development of bovine androgenetic embryos.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Zhang, Hualin; Ahmad, Sibtain; Bai, Liya; Wang, Xiaomin; Huo, Lijun; Zhang, Xin; Li, Wengong; Li, Xiang; Yang, Liguo

    2013-01-01

    The androgenetic embryo is a useful model for functional analysis of the paternal genome during embryogenesis. However, few studies have focused on the factors involved in the suppressed developmental competence of such embryos or why sperm cloning-derived androgenetic embryos fail to develop beyond the morula stage in large domestic animals. To overcome this developmental failure, we tried to improve sperm decondensation, as well as to enhance embryonic development by sperm capacitation and removal of the acrosome and plasma membrane before injection of the spermatozoa. Before injection of the spermatozoa, we quantified the effects of sperm capacitation combined with sperm pretreatment on the acrosome and plasma membrane status. We also evaluated sperm decondensation potential, sperm viability and chromatin integrity. Immunostaining data showed that the sperm acrosome and plasma membrane could be more efficiently removed after capacitation. Dithiothreitol-induced sperm decondensation potential was improved with capacitation and removal of the acrosome and plasma membrane. Although most spermatozoa lost viability after pretreatment, their chromatin remained integrated. The patterns of paternal chromatin remodelling within uncleaved androgenetic embryos and the nucleus morphology of cleaved embryos indicated that capacitation combined with membrane disruption could make injected spermatozoa decondense synchronously not only with each other, but also with the developmental pace of the ooplasm. We successfully produced androgenetic blastocysts, and efficiency increased with sperm pretreatment. In conclusion, sperm decondensation and the early development of androgenetic embryos were enhanced with sperm capacitation and removal of the acrosome and plasma membrane prior to sperm injection. PMID:22950979

  17. Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability: Increasing Resource Productivity

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability: Increasing Resource Productivity April 10, 2009 on Energy & Water Sustainability in 2007 successfully brought together policy-makers, researchers, energy of energy and water sustainability, considering the important linkages between these two resources

  18. One-sided ejaculation of echidna sperm bundles.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Smith, B; Pyne, M; Stenzel, D; Holt, W V

    2007-12-01

    We report for the first time an unusual ejaculatory mechanism in the short-beaked echidna in which each side of the bilaterally symmetrical, rosettelike glans penis is used alternately, with the other being shut down. This is unparalleled in mammals but is reminiscent of the use of hemipenes in squamate reptiles, providing further reproductive evidence of a sauropsidian lineage in the Monotremata. Further, we describe the occurrence of motile sperm bundles in ejaculated echidna semen and provide scanning electron micrographs of their morphology. Sperm bundling appears to confer increased sperm motility, which may provide the potential for sperm competition between males. PMID:18171162

  19. Sperm competition in bats.

    PubMed Central

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and sperm length. In addition to male competition, I examined the effects of female reproductive biology on characteristics of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies indicate that relative testis mass is positively related to sperm competition risk in a wide range of taxa. Social group size may also influence the level of sperm competition, and one of the costs of living in groups may be decreased confidence of paternity. I used comparative analysis of independent contrast (CAIC) to control for phylogeny. Using two possible phylogenies and two measures of social group size, I found a significant positive relationship between social group size and testis mass. There was no relationship between testis mass and the dimension of the female reproductive tract or oestrus duration. Sperm length was not significantly related to body mass or group size, nor was it related to oestrus duration. PMID:9107054

  20. Fenitrothion induced oxidative stress and morphological alterations of sperm and testes in male sprague-dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Jayusman, Putri Ayu; Louis, Santhana Raj; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fenitrothion residue is found primarily in soil, water and food products and can lead to a variety of toxic effects on the immune, hepatobiliary and hematological systems. However, the effects of fenitrothion on the male reproductive system remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fenitrothion on the sperm and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion was administered orally by gavages for 28 consecutive days. Blood sample was obtained by cardiac puncture and dissection of the testes and cauda epididymis was performed to obtain sperm. The effects of fenitrothion on the body and organ weight, biochemical and oxidative stress, sperm characteristics, histology and ultrastructural changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fenitrothion significantly decreased the body weight gain and weight of the epididymis compared with the control group. Fenitrothion also decreased plasma cholinesterase activity compared with the control group. Fenitrothion altered the sperm characteristics, such as sperm concentration, sperm viability and normal sperm morphology, compared with the control group. Oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, total glutathione and glutathione S-transferase, were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in the fenitrothion-treated group compared with the control group. The histopathological and ultrastructural examination of the testes of the fenitrothion-treated group revealed alterations corresponding with the biochemical changes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A 20 mg/kg dose of fenitrothion caused deleterious effects on the sperm and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:23420164

  1. Mouse Sperm Membrane Potential Hyperpolarization Is Necessary and Sufficient to Prepare Sperm for the Acrosome Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    De La Vega-Beltran, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Krapf, Darío; Hernandez-González, Enrique O.; Wertheimer, Eva; Treviño, Claudia L.; Visconti, Pablo E.; Darszon, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian sperm are unable to fertilize the egg immediately after ejaculation; they acquire this capacity during migration in the female reproductive tract. This maturational process is called capacitation and in mouse sperm it involves a plasma membrane reorganization, extensive changes in the state of protein phosphorylation, increases in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), and the appearance of hyperactivated motility. In addition, mouse sperm capacitation is associated with the hyperpolarization of the cell membrane potential. However, the functional role of this process is not known. In this work, to dissect the role of this membrane potential change, hyperpolarization was induced in noncapacitated sperm using either the ENaC inhibitor amiloride, the CFTR agonist genistein or the K+ ionophore valinomycin. In this experimental setting, other capacitation-associated processes such as activation of a cAMP-dependent pathway and the consequent increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation were not observed. However, hyperpolarization was sufficient to prepare sperm for the acrosome reaction induced either by depolarization with high K+ or by addition of solubilized zona pellucida (sZP). Moreover, K+ and sZP were also able to increase [Ca2+]i in non-capacitated sperm treated with these hyperpolarizing agents but not in untreated cells. On the other hand, in conditions that support capacitation-associated processes blocking hyperpolarization by adding valinomycin and increasing K+ concentrations inhibited the agonist-induced acrosome reaction as well as the increase in [Ca2+]i. Altogether, these results suggest that sperm hyperpolarization by itself is key to enabling mice sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction. PMID:23095755

  2. Impaired sperm chromatin integrity in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Duale, N; Steffensen, I-L; Andersen, J; Brevik, A; Brunborg, G; Lindeman, B

    2014-03-01

    An increased global prevalence of obesity coincides with an apparent decline in male sperm quality and a possible association between these pathologies has been suggested. In this study, we examined the effects of obesity on sperm chromatin integrity using two mouse models of obesity. In one group of mice, obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) (diet-induced obesity; DIO model), whereas in the other group, leptin deficiency was used to study the effects of obesity independently of the influence of dietary factors. Sperm chromatin integrity is recognized as an important measure of male infertility, and was analysed by the sperm chromatin structure assay. We found increased sperm DNA fragmentation in both groups of obese mice compared to lean mice, whereas the percentage of immature spermatozoa was not increased by obesity. The DIO model reflects the human condition more closely than the leptin-deficient model and was therefore selected for examination of the transcriptional response of a selection of marker genes in the testis by quantitative real-time PCR. The analysis of transcript levels of the selected testicular marker genes showed moderate, but significant, up-regulation of the Cyp2e1, Cyp19a1, Tnf and Pparg genes in DIO mice compared to lean mice. In conclusion, a clear positive correlation between body mass index and sperm DNA fragmentation was found in two mouse models of obesity. However, the variability in sperm DNA fragmentation within the two groups of obese animals was high. The observed changes in the transcript level of the marker genes suggest that there may be a local response in testicular cells to the HFD regimen with a potential impact on intratesticular signalling and spermatogenesis. PMID:24459046

  3. Flow cytometry analysis reveals that only a subpopulation of mouse sperm undergoes hyperpolarization during capacitation.

    PubMed

    Escoffier, Jessica; Navarrete, Felipe; Haddad, Doug; Santi, Celia M; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E

    2015-05-01

    To gain fertilizing capacity, mammalian sperm should reside in the female tract for a period of time. The physiological changes that render the sperm able to fertilize are known as capacitation. Capacitation is associated with an increase in intracellular pH, an increase in intracellular calcium, and phosphorylation of different proteins. This process is also accompanied by the hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane potential (Em). In the present work, we used flow cytometry to analyze changes in sperm Em during capacitation in individual cells. Our results indicate that a subpopulation of hyperpolarized mouse sperm can be clearly distinguished by sperm flow cytometry analysis. Using sperm bearing green fluorescent protein in their acrosomes, we found that this hyperpolarized subpopulation is composed of sperm with intact acrosomes. In addition, we show that the capacitation-associated hyperpolarization is blocked by high extracellular K(+), by PKA inhibitors, and by SLO3 inhibitors in CD1 mouse sperm, and undetectable in Slo3 knockout mouse sperm. On the other hand, in sperm incubated in conditions that do not support capacitation, sperm membrane hyperpolarization can be induced by amiloride, high extracellular NaHCO3, and cAMP agonists. Altogether, our observations are consistent with a model in which sperm Em hyperpolarization is downstream of a cAMP-dependent pathway and is mediated by the activation of SLO3 K(+) channels. PMID:25855261

  4. Exposure to endosulfan influences sperm competition in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Snigdha; Kumar, Ajay; Ratnasekhar, Ch.; Sharma, Vandana; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Ram, Kristipati Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Dwindling male fertility due to xenobiotics is of global concern. Accordingly, male reproductive toxicity assessment of xenobiotics through semen quality analysis in exposed males, and examining progeny production of their mates is critical. These assays, in part, are biased towards monogamy. Females soliciting multiple male partners (polyandry) is the norm in many species. Polyandry incites sperm competition and allows females to bias sperm use. However, consequences of xenobiotic exposure to the sperm in the light of sperm competition remain to be understood. Therefore, we exposed Drosophila melanogaster males to endosulfan, and evaluated their progeny production as well as the ability of their sperm to counter rival control sperm in the storage organs of females sequentially mated to control/exposed males. Endosulfan (2??g/ml) had no significant effect on progeny production and on the expression of certain genes associated with reproduction. However, exposed males performed worse in sperm competition, both as 1st and 2nd male competitors. These findings indicate that simple non-competitive measures of reproductive ability may fail to demonstrate the harmful effects of low-level exposure to xenobiotics on reproduction and advocate consideration of sperm competition, as a parameter, in the reproductive toxicity assessment of xenobiotics to mimic situations prevailing in the nature. PMID:25503806

  5. Increasing protein production by directed vector backbone evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant protein production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms was a key enabling technology for the rapid development of industrial and molecular biotechnology. However, despite all progress the improvement of protein production is an ongoing challenge and of high importance for cost-effective enzyme production. With the epMEGAWHOP mutagenesis protocol for vector backbone optimization we report a novel directed evolution based approach to increase protein production levels by randomly introducing mutations in the vector backbone. In the current study we validate the epMEGAWHOP mutagenesis protocol for three different expression systems. The latter demonstrated the general applicability of the epMEGAWHOP method. Cellulase and lipase production was doubled in one round of directed evolution by random mutagenesis of pET28a(+) and pET22b(+) vector backbones. Protease production using the vector pHY300PLK was increased ~4-times with an average of ~1.25 mutations per kb vector backbone. The epMEGAWHOP does not require any rational understanding of the expression machinery and can generally be applied to enzymes, expression vectors and related hosts. epMEGAWHOP is therefore from our point of view a robust, rapid and straight forward alternative for increasing protein production in general and for biotechnological applications. PMID:23890095

  6. Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit

    PubMed Central

    Losdat, Sylvain; Richner, Heinz; Blount, Jonathan D.; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity) as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having better quality sperm. PMID:21765955

  7. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injection (ICSI) can be done along with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help fertilize the egg. During ... regardless of the condition of the sperm. • In vitro matured eggs are being used. • Previously frozen eggs ...

  8. Butterflies tailor their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk and intensity

    PubMed Central

    Wedell, N.; Cook, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Males of many insects eclose with their entire lifetime sperm supply and have to allocate their ejaculates at mating prudently. In polyandrous species, ejaculates of rival males overlap, creating sperm competition. Recent models suggest that males should increase their ejaculate expenditure when experiencing a high risk of sperm competition. Ejaculate expenditure is also predicted to vary in relation to sperm competition intensity. During high intensity, where several ejaculates compete for fertilization of the female's eggs, ejaculate expenditure is expected to be reduced. This is because there are diminishing returns of providing more sperm. Additionally, sperm numbers will depend on males' ability to assess female mating status. We investigate ejaculate allocation in the polyandrous small white butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera). Males have previously been found to ejaculate more sperm on their second mating when experiencing increased risk of sperm competition. Here we show that males also adjust the number of sperm ejaculated in relation to direct sperm competition. Mated males provide more sperm to females previously mated with mated males (i.e. when competing with many sperm) than to females previously mated to virgin males (competing with few sperm). Virgin males, on the other hand, do not adjust their ejaculate in relation to female mating history, but provide heavier females with more sperm. Although virgin males induce longer non-receptive periods in females than mated males, heavier females remate sooner. Virgin males may be responding to the higher risk of sperm competition by providing more sperm to heavier females. It is clear from this study that males are sensitive to factors affecting sperm competition risk, tailoring their ejaculates as predicted by recent theoretical models.

  9. Sperm specific proteins-potential candidate molecules for fertility control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Suri; Aruna Asaf; Ali Marg

    2004-01-01

    The increase in population growth rate warrants the development of additional contraceptive methods that are widely acceptable, free from side effects and less expensive. Immunocontraception, and in particular the targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm egg binding and fertilization, offers an attractive approach to control fertility. The development of a contraceptive vaccine based on sperm antigen represents

  10. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Pina-Guzman, Belem

    2010-01-01

    acid fragmentation in human sperm: correlation withSperm chromatin alteration and DNA damage by methyl-parathion, chlorpyrifos and diazinon and their oxon metabolites in humanhuman reproduction has increased because of its genotoxic effect in somatic (Rupa et al. , 1990) and sperm

  11. Quantifying Energy Savings from Lean Manufacturing Productivity Increases

    E-print Network

    Seryak, J.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying Energy Savings from Lean Manufacturing Productivity Increases John Seryak Gary Epstein Mark D’Antonio Engineer jseryak@ers-inc.com President gepstein@ers-inc.com Vice President mdantonio@ers-inc.com Energy & Resource Solutions..., Inc. Haverhill, MA ABSTRACT A number of energy efficiency programs seek a reduction in the energy intensity of manufacturing processes. However, promoting energy efficiency through productivity improvements is not a widely accepted...

  12. Increased Ethylene Production during Clinostat Experiments May Cause Leaf Epinasty.

    PubMed

    Leather, G R; Forrence, L E

    1972-02-01

    Ethylene production from tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L. cv. Rutgers) plants based on a clinostat doubled during the first 2 hours of rotation. Carbon dioxide blocked the appearance of leaf epinasty normally associated with plants rotated on a clinostat. These results support the idea that epinasty of clinostated plants was due to increased ethylene production and not to the cancellation of the gravitational pull on auxin transport in the petiole. PMID:16657920

  13. Flow-cytometric analyses of viability biomarkers in pesticide-exposed sperm of three aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Favret, Karen P; Lynn, John W

    2010-05-01

    Toxicity studies on sperm often use fertilization success as the end point. This type of assay can be affected by sperm density, egg quality, and sperm-egg compatibility. Testing sperm viability biomarkers with flow cytometry is a fast, high-throughput technique for seminal analysis. In this study, we detected sperm viability biomarkers with several fluorescent reporter dyes using flow cytometry in three aquatic invertebrates (Crassostrea virginica, Dreissena polymorpha, and Lytechinus variegatus) after exposure to a pesticide and herbicide. The pesticide, Bayluscide, appeared to affect mitochondrial membrane potential in the sperm of all three species, as measured with MitoTracker Red CMXRos. A decrease in the percentage of sperm stained with SYBR-14 (indicating uncompromised plasma membrane) was observed in C. virginica and D. polymorpha sperm exposed to Bayluscide, but propidium iodide staining (indicating compromised plasma membranes) appeared to be inhibited by Bayluscide. Acrosome-reacted sperm, as measured by FITC-PNA, decreased after Bayluscide exposure in C. virginica and D. polymorpha sperm. The herbicide, Roundup Ready To-Use-Plus, did not affect the overall percentages of sperm stained with MitoTracker but did cause an increase in MitoTracker fluorescence intensity at 16 mg/L in D. polymorpha. Roundup also caused significant decreases in SYBR-14 staining, significant increases in propidium iodide staining, and significant increases in FITC-PNA staining in D. polymorpha sperm. By not having to rely on egg availability and optimal sperm density, sperm toxicity can be more accurately assessed with flow cytometry as being directly correlated to sperm viability rather than the possibility of altered toxicity results due to sperm-to-egg compatibility. PMID:19876686

  14. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (?) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to ?, and thus ? is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (?13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in ? upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in ? suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, air temperature, and plant iWUE. This positive feedback is expressed by (a) nonparallel changes of ?13C signal of atmospheric CO2 (?a) and plant samples (?p), (b) negative correlation between the ? and average temperatures during the growth season, although only for temperatures up to 21°C. The lack of effect at higher temperatures suggests a negative influence of growing season warming on the iWUE. These results suggest a complex feedback between atmospheric CO2 increase, plant physiology, ecosystem productivity, and soil CO2 fluxes. These complex effects support our hypothesis of a CO2 fertilization effect on plant productivity, and they raise additional questions regarding adaptation of plants to changing atmospheric CO2 and climate.

  15. Effect of antioxidants on sperm genetic damage.

    PubMed

    Menezo, Yves; Evenson, Don; Cohen, Marc; Dale, Brian

    2014-01-01

    According to worldwide statistics, between one in four and one in five couples have fertility problems. These problems are equally distributed between males and females. Modern lifestyle has obviously increased these problems: endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as plastic polymer catalysts, alkylphenols, phthalates and so on, and cosmetic additives seem to be strongly involved in this fertility problem. Many of these compounds increase oxidative stress (OS) and thus impair spermatogenesis. The oocyte has only a finite capacity, decreasing with maternal age, to repair sperm-borne decays. To decrease this DNA repair burden, reducing the sperm DNA damages linked to OS is tempting. Antioxidant vitamins are often given haphazardly; they are not very efficient and potentially detrimental. A detailed analysis of the sperm nucleus is mandatory (DNA fragmentation or lack of nuclear condensation) prior to any treatment. Here we discuss new concepts in OS and the corresponding therapeutic approaches. PMID:23955679

  16. Research Strategies for Increasing Productivity of Intensively Managed

    E-print Network

    Research Strategies for Increasing Productivity of Intensively Managed Forest Plantations Eric D in US planted forest area are among the highest of any world region but maximum tree growth rates or no conservation value. Purchasers of fiber, driven by the public at large, also increas- ingly demand that forests

  17. Yarrowia lipolytica lipase production enhanced by increased air pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lopes; N. Gomes; C. Goncalves; M. A. Z. Coelho; M. Mota; I. Belo

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To study the cellular growth and morphology of Yarrowia lipolytica W29 and its lipase and protease production under increased air pressures. Methods and Results: Batch cultures of the yeast were conducted in a pressur- ized bioreactor at 4 and 8 bar of air pressure and the cellular behaviour was compared with cultures at atmospheric pressure. No inhibition of cellular

  18. Breeding Technologies to Increase Crop Production in a Changing World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Tester (University of Adelaide; )

    2010-02-12

    To feed the several billion people living on this planet, the production of high-quality food must increase with reduced inputs, but this accomplishment will be particularly challenging in the face of global environmental change. Crop improvement through breeding brings immense value relative to investment and offers an effective approach to improving food security.

  19. Increasing Productivity in the Community College: A National Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    1984-01-01

    A review of the efforts of the Community College Productivity Center concerning efficiency of operations in community colleges focuses on examples of campus projects to increase efficiency in the areas of reducing energy consumption, improving staff utilization, and reducing student attrition. (MSE)

  20. Engineering the lactococcal mevalonate pathway for increased sesquiterpene production.

    PubMed

    Song, Adelene A; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abdullah, Mohd P; Shafee, Norazizah; Othman, Roohaida; Noor, Normah Mohd; Rahim, Raha A

    2014-06-01

    Isoprenoids are a large, diverse group of secondary metabolites which has recently raised a renewed research interest due to genetic engineering advances, allowing specific isoprenoids to be produced and characterized in heterologous hosts. Many researches on metabolic engineering of heterologous hosts for increased isoprenoid production are focussed on Escherichia coli and yeasts. E. coli, as most prokaryotes, use the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid production. Yeasts on the other hand, use the mevalonate pathway which is commonly found in eukaryotes. However, Lactococcus lactis is an attractive alternative host for heterologous isoprenoid production. Apart from being food-grade, this Gram-positive prokaryote uses the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid production instead of the MEP pathway. Previous studies have shown that L. lactis is able to produce sesquiterpenes through heterologous expression of plant sesquiterpene synthases. In this work, we analysed the gene expression of the lactococcal mevalonate pathway through RT-qPCR to successfully engineer L. lactis as an efficient host for isoprenoid production. We then overexpressed the mvk gene singly or co-expressed with the mvaA gene as an attempt to increase ?-sesquiphellandrene production in L. lactis. It was observed that co-expression of mvk with mvaA doubled the amount of ?-sesquiphellandrene produced. PMID:24828482

  1. Laboratory processing and intracytoplasmic sperm injection using epididymal and testicular spermatozoa: what can be done to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Popal, Wana; Nagy, Zsolt P

    2013-01-01

    There are two main reasons why sperm may be absent from semen. Obstructive azoospermia is the result of a blockage in the male reproductive tract; in this case, sperm are produced in the testicle but are trapped in the epididymis. Non-obstructive azoospermia is the result of severely impaired or non-existent sperm production. There are three different sperm-harvesting procedures that obstructive azoospermic males can undergo, namely MESA (microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration), PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration), and TESA (testicular sperm aspiration). These three procedures are performed by fine-gauge needle aspiration of epididymal fluid that is examined by an embryologist. Additionally, one technique, called TESE (testicular sperm extraction), is offered for males with non-obstructive azoospermia. In this procedure, a urologist extracts a piece of tissue from the testis. Then, an embryologist minces the tissue and uses a microscope to locate sperm. Finding sperm in the testicular tissue can be a laborious 2- to 3-hour process depending on the degree of sperm production and the etiology of testicular failure. Sperm are freed from within the seminiferous tubules and then dissected from the surrounding testicular tissue. It is specifically these situations that require advanced reproductive techniques, such as ICSI, to establish a pregnancy. This review describes eight different lab processing techniques that an embryologist can use to harvest sperm. Additionally, sperm cryopreservation, which allows patients to undergo multiple ICSI cycles without the need for additional surgeries, will also be discussed. PMID:23503962

  2. Is PAWP the "real" sperm factor?

    PubMed

    Nomikos, Michail; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian embryo development is initiated by intracellular Ca2+ oscillations that result in oocyte activation following gamete membrane fusion. It is widely believed that oocyte Ca2+ oscillations are triggered by a sperm-specific protein, phospholipase C-zeta (PLC?) that activates InsP3 production leading to repetitive Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. However, a recent report in the FASEB Journal by Aarabi et al. challenges this view by proposing postacrosomal WW domain-binding protein (PAWP) as another sperm-derived protein that can also initiate Ca2+ oscillations and zygotic development at fertilization. Here we discuss these new findings and examine the evidence suggesting PAWP as the "real" sperm factor. PMID:25652618

  3. Re: Is PAWP the 'real' sperm factor?

    PubMed

    Aarabi, Mahmoud; Sutovsky, Peter; Oko, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian embryo development is init iated by intracel lular Ca2+ oscillations that result in oocyte activation following gamete membrane fusion. It is widely believed that oocyte Ca2+ oscillations are triggered by a sperm-specific protein, phospholipase C-zeta (PLC?) that activates InsP3 production leading to repetitive Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. However, a recent report in the FASEB Journal by Aarabi et al. challenges this view by proposing postacrosomal WW domain-binding protein (PAWP) as another sperm-derived protein that can also initiate Ca2+ oscillations and zygotic development at fertilization. Here we discuss these new findings and examine the evidence suggesting PAWP as the "real" sperm factor. PMID:25652620

  4. Is PAWP the “real” sperm factor?

    PubMed Central

    Nomikos, Michail; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian embryo development is initiated by intracellular Ca2+ oscillations that result in oocyte activation following gamete membrane fusion. It is widely believed that oocyte Ca2+ oscillations are triggered by a sperm-specific protein, phospholipase C-zeta (PLC?) that activates InsP3 production leading to repetitive Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. However, a recent report in the FASEB Journal by Aarabi et al. challenges this view by proposing postacrosomal WW domain-binding protein (PAWP) as another sperm-derived protein that can also initiate Ca2+ oscillations and zygotic development at fertilization. Here we discuss these new findings and examine the evidence suggesting PAWP as the “real” sperm factor. PMID:25652618

  5. Chronic exposure to low doses of mercury impairs sperm quality and induces oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline S; Escobar, Alyne G; Torres, João Guilherme D; Brum, Daniela S; Santos, Francielli W; Alonso, María J; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton V; Peçanha, Franck M; Leivas, Fábio G; Wiggers, Giulia A

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a widespread environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. The precise mechanisms underlying mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced toxicity are not fully understood; however, evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved in this process. Although the adverse effects of high levels of inorganic Hg on the male reproductive system have been investigated, the effects of low levels of exposure are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity of male rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated for 30 d and divided into groups: control (saline, i.m.) and HgCl2 group (i.m., first dose 4.6 ?g/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 ?g/kg/d). Sperm parameters (count, motility and morphology) and biomarkers of oxidative stress in testis, epididymis, prostate, and vas deferens were analyzed. Mercury treatment produced a reduction in sperm quantity (testis and epididymis) and daily sperm production, following by decrease in sperm motility and increase on head and tail morphologic abnormalities. HgCl2 exposure was correlated with enhanced oxidative stress in reproductive organs, represented not only by augmented lipid peroxidation but also by changes in antioxidant enzymes activity superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and nonprotein thiol levels. In conclusion, chronic exposure to low doses of Hg impaired sperm quality and adversely affected male reproductive functions, which may be due, at least in part, to enhanced oxidative stress. PMID:24555655

  6. Effects of viscosity on sperm motility studied with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Nicholas; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Shi, Linda Z.; Yang-Wong, Collin; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze human sperm motility and energetics in media with different viscosities. Multiple experiments were performed to collect motility parameters using customized computer tracking software that measures the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the minimum laser power (Pesc) necessary to hold an individual sperm in an optical trap. The Pesc was measured by using a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser that optically traps motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the focused trap spot. The VCL was measured frame by frame before trapping. In order to study sperm energetics under different viscous conditions sperm were labeled with the fluorescent dye DiOC6(3) to measure membrane potentials of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece. Fluorescence intensity was measured before and during trapping. The results demonstrate a decrease in VCL but an increase in Pesc with increasing viscosity. Fluorescent intensity is the same regardless of the viscosity level indicating no change in sperm energetics. The results suggest that, under the conditions tested, viscosity physically affects the mechanical properties of sperm motility rather than the chemical pathways associated with energetics.

  7. Lack of Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase-2 Activity Results in Altered Sperm-Egg Interactions and Loss of ADAM3 and ADAM6 in Epididymal Sperm*

    PubMed Central

    Marcello, Matthew R.; Jia, Weitao; Leary, Julie A.; Moore, Kevin L.; Evans, Janice P.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation is a post-translational modification catalyzed by two tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2) in the trans-Golgi network. Tpst2-deficient mice have male infertility, sperm motility defects, and possible abnormalities in sperm-egg membrane interactions. Studies here show that compared with wild-type sperm, fewer Tpst2-null sperm bind to the egg membrane, but more of these bound sperm progress to membrane fusion. Similar outcomes were observed with wild-type sperm treated with the anti-sulfotyrosine antibody PSG2. The increased extent of sperm-egg fusion is not due to a failure of Tpst2-null sperm to trigger establishment of the egg membrane block to polyspermy. Anti-sulfotyrosine staining of sperm showed localization similar to that of IZUMO1, a sperm protein that is essential for gamete fusion, but we detected little to no tyrosine sulfation of IZUMO1 and found that IZUMO1 expression and localization were normal in Tpst2-null sperm. Turning to a discovery-driven approach, we used mass spectrometry to characterize sperm proteins that associated with PSG2. This identified ADAM6, a member of the A disintegrin and A metalloprotease (ADAM) family; members of this protein family are associated with multiple sperm functions. Subsequent studies revealed that Tpst2-null sperm lack ADAM6 and ADAM3. Loss of ADAM3 is strongly associated with male infertility and is observed in knockouts of male germ line-specific endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones, raising the possibility that TPST-2 may function in quality control in the secretory pathway. These data suggest that TPST-2-mediated tyrosine O-sulfation participates in regulating the sperm surface proteome or membrane order, ultimately affecting male fertility. PMID:21339297

  8. Sperm Motility in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasto, Jeffrey; Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of plants and animals reproduce sexually by releasing motile sperm that seek out a conspecific egg, for example in the reproductive tract for mammals or in the water column for externally fertilizing organisms. Sperm are aided in their quest by chemical cues, but must also contend with hydrodynamic forces, resulting from laminar flows in reproductive tracts or turbulence in aquatic habitats. To understand how velocity gradients affect motility, we subjected swimming sperm to a range of highly-controlled straining flows using a cross-flow microfluidic device. The motion of the cell body and flagellum were captured through high-speed video microscopy. The effects of flow on swimming are twofold. For moderate velocity gradients, flow simply advects and reorients cells, quenching their ability to cross streamlines. For high velocity gradients, fluid stresses hinder the internal bending of the flagellum, directly inhibiting motility. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Sperm number, which compares the external viscous stresses with the internal elastic stresses. Ultimately, unraveling the role of flow in sperm motility will lead to a better understanding of population dynamics among aquatic organisms and infertility problems in humans.

  9. Conspecific sperm precedence in Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): mechanisms and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Eady, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    Conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) has been identified as an important post-copulatory, pre-zygotic mechanism that can act to reduce gene flow between populations. The evolution of CSP is thought to have arisen as a by-product of male and female coevolution in response to intraspecific post-copulatory sexual selection. However, little is known about the mechanisms that generate CSP. When Callosobruchus subinnotatus females copulate with both C. subinnotatus and Callosobruchus maculatus males, regardless of mating order, the majority of eggs are fertilized by conspecific sperm. The low number of heterospecific fertilizations does not result from general differences in the viability of sperm in the female reproductive tract, as heterospecific sperm fertilized equivalent numbers of eggs as conspecific sperm in the absence of sperm competition. Instead, CSP results from disadvantages to heterospecific sperm that are manifest only when in competition with conspecific sperm. CSP in C. subinnotatus appears to result from two, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms. First, conspecific sperm are better able to displace heterospecific sperm from female storage. Second, conspecific sperm achieve disproportionately higher numbers of fertilizations relative to their proportional representation in the fertilization set. Thus, we provide evidence of differential sperm use from the female spermatheca. PMID:17251102

  10. Conspecific sperm precedence in Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Eady, Paul E

    2007-04-01

    Conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) has been identified as an important post-copulatory, pre-zygotic mechanism that can act to reduce gene flow between populations. The evolution of CSP is thought to have arisen as a by-product of male and female coevolution in response to intraspecific post-copulatory sexual selection. However, little is known about the mechanisms that generate CSP. When Callosobruchus subinnotatus females copulate with both C. subinnotatus and Callosobruchus maculatus males, regardless of mating order, the majority of eggs are fertilized by conspecific sperm. The low number of heterospecific fertilizations does not result from general differences in the viability of sperm in the female reproductive tract, as heterospecific sperm fertilized equivalent numbers of eggs as conspecific sperm in the absence of sperm competition. Instead, CSP results from disadvantages to heterospecific sperm that are manifest only when in competition with conspecific sperm. CSP in C. subinnotatus appears to result from two, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms. First, conspecific sperm are better able to displace heterospecific sperm from female storage. Second, conspecific sperm achieve disproportionately higher numbers of fertilizations relative to their proportional representation in the fertilization set. Thus, we provide evidence of differential sperm use from the female spermatheca. PMID:17251102

  11. Increased elastin production in experimental granulomatous lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, T. J.; Crouch, E.; Roby, J. D.; Starcher, B.; Pierce, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    In the normal, healthy lung, elastin production is restricted to periods of development and growth. However, elastin expression in the adult lung has been observed in some forms of pulmonary injury, including pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report that elastin production is significantly increased within precise interstitial compartments of the lung in an experimental model of granulomatous lung disease. An increase in the number and volume of elastic fibers within the alveolar walls was apparent on histological examination of Verhoeff-van Gieson-stained sections of silicotic rat lungs. Quantitation of mature elastin cross-links indicated that silicosis was accompanied by a 17-fold increase in lung elastin content when compared with values from saline-treated controls. In situ hybridization for tropoelastin mRNA revealed that elastin production was absent from granulomatous lesions yet was prominent at nonfibrotic alveolar septal tips, where a high density of elastic fibers is seen in the normal lung. Immunohistochemistry indicated tropoelastin was being expressed by alpha-smooth muscle actin-containing cells. Transforming growth factor-beta was immunolocalized to granulomatous regions of the silicotic lung but was absent from regions showing increased tropoelastin expression. These data indicate that the reinitiation of tropoelastin gene expression is associated with granulomatous lung disease, and this expression leads to the aberrant accumulation of mature elastin in the lung. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7573374

  12. A carbon sink pathway increases carbon productivity in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Oliver, John W K; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-05-01

    The burning of fossil reserves, and subsequent release of carbon into the atmosphere is depleting the supply of carbon-based molecules used for synthetic materials including plastics, oils, medicines, and glues. To provide for future society, innovations are needed for the conversion of waste carbon (CO2) into organic carbon useful for materials. Chemical production directly from photosynthesis is a nascent technology, with great promise for capture of CO2 using sunlight. To improve low yields, it has been proposed that photosynthetic capacity can be increased by a relaxation of bottlenecks inherent to growth. The limits of carbon partitioning away from growth within the cell and the effect of partitioning on carbon fixation are not well known. Here we show that expressing genes in a pathway between carbon fixation and pyruvate increases partitioning to 2,3-butanediol (23BD) and leads to a 1.8-fold increase in total carbon yield in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Specific 2,3-butanediol production increases 2.4-fold. As partitioning increases beyond 30%, it leads to a steep decline in total carbon yield. The data suggests a local maximum for carbon partitioning from the Calvin Benson cycle that is scalable with light intensity. PMID:25777135

  13. Increase of Effective String Tension and Production of Strange Particles

    E-print Network

    Tai An; Sa Ben-Hao

    1998-04-01

    The increase of effective string tension as a result of the hard gluon kinks on a string is investigated using a parametrization form. In this form the effective string tension increasing with energies in hadron-hadron collisions is due to the mini-jet (gluon) production in the collisions. The data of the energy dependence of the strange quark suppression factor in hh collisions are very well reproduced with this mechanism. Meanwhile, the experimental phenomena of approximate energy independence of the strange quark suppression factor in e$^+$e$^-$-annihilations are discussed.

  14. Polyandry in the medfly - shifts in paternity mediated by sperm stratification and mixing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, a highly invasive agricultural pest species, polyandry, associated with sperm precedence, is a recurrent behaviour in the wild. The absence of tools for the unambiguous discrimination between competing sperm from different males in the complex female reproductive tract has strongly limited the understanding of mechanisms controlling sperm dynamics and use. Results Here we use transgenic medfly lines expressing green or red fluorescent proteins in the spermatozoa, which can be easily observed and unambiguously differentiated within the female fertilization chamber. In twice-mated females, one day after the second mating, sperm from the first male appeared to be homogenously distributed all over the distal portion of each alveolus within the fertilization chamber, whereas sperm from the second male were clearly concentrated in the central portion of each alveolus. This distinct stratified sperm distribution was not maintained over time, as green and red sperm appeared homogeneously mixed seven days after the second mating. This dynamic sperm storage pattern is mirrored by the paternal contribution in the progeny of twice-mated females. Conclusions Polyandrous medfly females, unlike Drosophila, conserve sperm from two different mates to fertilize their eggs. From an evolutionary point of view, the storage of sperm in a stratified pattern by medfly females may initially favour the fresher ejaculate from the second male. However, as the second male's sperm gradually becomes depleted, the sperm from the first male becomes increasingly available for fertilization. The accumulation of sperm from different males will increase the overall genetic variability of the offspring and will ultimately affect the effective population size. From an applicative point of view, the dynamics of sperm storage and their temporal use by a polyandrous female may have an impact on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Indeed, even if the female's last mate is sterile, an increasing proportion of sperm from a previous mating with a fertile male may contribute to sire viable progeny. PMID:25470981

  15. An investigation of productivity increases from hydraulic fracturing treatments 

    E-print Network

    Boriskie, Robert Joe

    1963-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES FROM HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS A Thesis b7 Robert Joe Boriskie Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Head of Department) August, 1963 1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION. TABLE OF CONTENTS PRgB 3. THEORY AND PROCEDURE. 4. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. . 5. CONCLUSIONS. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 7. APPENDIX. 8. REFERENCES. 18 19 20 32 LIST OF FIGURES...

  16. Trade and product innovations as sources for productivity increases: an empirical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. G. den Butter; Paul Wit

    2006-01-01

    Commonly increases in total factor productivity (TFP) are associated with technological innovations measured by R&D expenditures. Empirical evidence seems to corroborate this relationship. However, in trading countries like the Netherlands, productivity increases, even in industry, can also be the result of innovations in the way transactions are managed. These innovations reduce transaction costs and exploit the welfare gains from (further)

  17. Sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Male eagerness to mate is a central paradigm of sexual selection theory. However, limited sperm supplies mean that male sexual restraint might sometimes be favored under promiscuous mating. Here, we demonstrate dynamic plasticity in male mating effort when females are encountered sequentially under varying sperm competition risk. Rather than showing consistent eagerness to mate, male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) instead tailor their mating effort according to likely reproductive payoffs. They are significantly less likely to mate when sperm competition is certain and potential reproductive payoffs low, but dramatically increase investment if they do choose to mate under such circumstances. By contrast, male mice are significantly more likely to mate in situations simulating extra-territorial copulations, where future risk of competition is high but so too are potential reproductive rewards. Differential mating propensity appears to be the primary mechanism by which male house mice allocate sperm adaptively under sperm competition risk because we find no evidence for facultative adjustment of sperm numbers per ejaculate or ejaculation frequency in response to female-related cues. We conclude that sequential male mate choice under sperm competition risk could be a widespread but often unappreciated mechanism of strategic sperm allocation. PMID:24822023

  18. A modular modulation method for achieving increases in metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Acerenza, Luis; Monzon, Pablo; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Increasing the production of overproducing strains represents a great challenge. Here, we develop a modular modulation method to determine the key steps for genetic manipulation to increase metabolite production. The method consists of three steps: (i) modularization of the metabolic network into two modules connected by linking metabolites, (ii) change in the activity of the modules using auxiliary rates producing or consuming the linking metabolites in appropriate proportions and (iii) determination of the key modules and steps to increase production. The mathematical formulation of the method in matrix form shows that it may be applied to metabolic networks of any structure and size, with reactions showing any kind of rate laws. The results are valid for any type of conservation relationships in the metabolite concentrations or interactions between modules. The activity of the module may, in principle, be changed by any large factor. The method may be applied recursively or combined with other methods devised to perform fine searches in smaller regions. In practice, it is implemented by integrating to the producer strain heterologous reactions or synthetic pathways producing or consuming the linking metabolites. The new procedure may contribute to develop metabolic engineering into a more systematic practice. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:656-667, 2015. PMID:25683235

  19. In vitro production of cattle × buffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. D. Owiny; D. M. Barry; M. Agaba; R. A. Godke

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattle×buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that

  20. Effect of the presence of hens on roosters sperm variables.

    PubMed

    Dávila, S G; Campo, J L; Gil, M G; Castaño, C; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the effect of the presence of hens on sperm variables in Black Barred Andaluza roosters (which respond well to the massage technique). Between 8 and 22 weeks of age, roosters (n = 60) were housed separate from hens in straw litter pens (4 birds/m(2)). Two groups of roosters were then formed to study the effect of hen presence on sperm variables at 36 weeks of age. The first group (n = 11 roosters) was housed with hens (n = 55; sex ratio 1:5), while the second (n = 27 roosters) was again housed separate from hens. Twenty four sperm pools were obtained over 12 weeks (12 pools from each group, each pool produced by mixing semen from 11 males) for analysis. Compared to the no-female-contact group, the roosters living with hens showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced percentages of non-progressive motile sperm and slow sperm, and significantly increased VCL and VSL values; they also showed trends (P < 0.1) towards increased progressive motility and a higher percentage of rapid sperm. The presence of hens had no significant effect on the number of spermatozoa per ejaculate or sperm concentration. Positive correlations were recorded between VSL and VCL, and between both of these and progressive motility, and the percentage of rapid sperm. In addition, both VSL and VCL correlated negatively with non-progressive motility and the percentage of slow sperm. These results indicate that rooster sperm quality, but not quantity, improves in the presence of hens. PMID:26009755

  1. Short-term variation in sperm competition causes sperm-mediated epigenetic effects on early offspring performance in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zajitschek, Susanne; Hotzy, Cosima; Zajitschek, Felix; Immler, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of non-genetic factors is increasingly seen to play a major role in ecology and evolution. While the causes and consequences of epigenetic effects transmitted from the mother to the offspring have received ample attention, much less is known about how variation in the condition of the father affects the offspring. Here, we manipulated the intensity of sperm competition experienced by male zebrafish Danio rerio to investigate the potential for sperm-mediated epigenetic effects over a relatively short period of time. We found that the rapid responses of males to varying intensity of sperm competition not only affected sperm traits as shown previously, but also the performance of the resulting offspring. We observed that males exposed to high intensity of sperm competition produced faster swimming and more motile sperm, and sired offspring that hatched over a narrower time frame but exhibited a lower survival rate than males exposed to low intensity of sperm competition. Our results provide striking evidence for short-term paternal effects and the possible fitness consequences of such sperm-mediated non-genetic factors not only for the resulting offspring but also for the female. PMID:24789902

  2. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  3. Differences in caspase-8 and -9 activity and sperm motility in infertile males of Li nationality in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaobin; Li, Qixing; Han, Zhouxin; Lin, Danqin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study’s objectives are to assess the efficacy of detecting apoptotic caspase-3, -8, and -9 in human sperm and plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and to compare these levels between fertile and infertile patient groups of Li nationality in China. This study offers a non-invasive, alternative strategy to analyzing sperm parameters in infertile males. Fifty-six infertile males were investigated; asthenospermia (n = 19), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 20), azoospermia (n = 17) compared with 20 healthy fertile controls. They were subjected to semen analysis by computer-assisted sperm assay (CASA). We found that caspase-3, -8, -9 existed in all specimens in both sperms and plasma. The level of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in plasma were both significantly higher than in sperm. Levels of caspase-8 and caspase-9 in sperm and plasma were significantly negatively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and A % (motility grade A). The level of caspase-8 in plasma was significantly negatively correlated with sperm concentration. However, only in healthy fertile controls sperm concentration was significantly negatively correlated with caspase-9 in sperm. Compared with the healthy fertile controls, only the OAT group exhibited significantly increased level of caspase-8 in sperm (P < 0.05). It is concluded that caspase-8 and caspase-9 in sperm and plasma are correlated with sperm motility, and can reflect the quality of sperm in vitro.

  4. Genetic diversity increases population productivity in a sessile marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J David; Marshall, Dustin J

    2012-05-01

    Reductions in genetic diversity can have widespread ecological consequences: populations with higher genetic diversity are more stable, productive and resistant to disturbance or disease than populations with lower genetic diversity. These ecological effects of genetic diversity differ from the more familiar evolutionary consequences of depleting genetic diversity, because ecological effects manifest within a single generation. If common, genetic diversity effects have the potential to change the way we view and manage populations, but our understanding of these effects is far from complete, and the role of genetic diversity in sexually reproducing animals remains unclear. Here, we examined the effects of genetic diversity in a sexually reproducing marine invertebrate in the field. We manipulated the genetic diversity of experimental populations and then measured individual survival, growth, and fecundity, as well as the size of offspring produced by individuals in high and low genetic diversity populations. Overall, we found greater genetic diversity increased performance across all metrics, and that complementarity effects drove the increased productivity of our high-diversity populations. Our results show that differences in genetic diversity among populations can have pervasive effects on population productivity within remarkably short periods of time. PMID:22764499

  5. Can increasing adult vaccination rates reduce lost time and increase productivity?

    PubMed

    Rittle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses limited vaccination coverage by providing an overview of the epidemiology of influenza, pertussis, and pneumonia, and the impact these diseases have on work attendance for the worker, the worker's family, and employer profit. Studies focused on the cost of vaccination programs, lost work time, lost employee productivity and acute disease treatment are discussed, as well as strategies for increasing vaccination coverage to reduce overall health care costs for employers. Communicating the benefits of universal vaccination for employees and their families and combating vaccine misinformation among employees are outlined. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(12):508-515.]. PMID:25216055

  6. A comprehensive work up for an asthenozoospermic man with repeated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) failure.

    PubMed

    Dada, R; Mahfouz, R Z; Kumar, R; Venkatesh, S; Shamsi, M B; Agarwal, A; Talwar, P; Sharma, R K

    2011-10-01

    Infertility affects about 15-20% couples attempting pregnancy and in about half cases the problem lies in the male. Among the sperm parameters, linear progressive motility is one of the most important predictors of fertility potential. Though genetic and chromosomal abnormalities are important aetiological factors in the pathogenesis of male infertility, the mechanism involved in impaired sperm motility is poorly understood. Here we report mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations with increased seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and higher DNA fragmentation level in the sperm resulting in decreased ATP production which plays an important role in sperm motility defect. Thus it is important to understand the aetiology of asthenozoospermia and to distinguish if infertile men harbour nuclear or mtDNA mutation as they are very important prognostic markers. This case study also highlights that routine semen parameters are very modest predictors of fertility outcome but ROS estimation and DNA integrity analysis by Comet assay have better diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. Thus this study is a detailed and comprehensive workup of an infertile asthenozoospermic male. PMID:21762187

  7. High glucose concentrations per se do not adversely affect human sperm function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Portela, J M D; Tavares, R S; Mota, P C; Ramalho-Santos, J; Amaral, S

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest concerns to global health and it is associated with diverse clinical complications, including reproductive dysfunction. Given the multifactorial nature of DM, the mechanisms that underlie reproductive dysfunction remain unclear. Considering that hyperglycemia has been described as a major effector of the disease pathophysiology, we used an in vitro approach to address the isolated effect of high glucose conditions on human sperm function, thus avoiding other in vivo confounding players. We performed a complete and integrated analysis by measuring a variety of important indicators of spermatozoa functionality (such as motility, viability, capacitation status, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial superoxide production and membrane potential) in human sperm samples after incubation with d- and l-glucose (5, 25, or 50?mM) for 24 and 48?h. No direct effects promoted by 25 or 50?mM d-glucose were found for any of the parameters assessed (P>0.05), except for the acrosome reaction, which was potentiated after 48?h of exposure to 50?mM d-glucose (P<0.05). Interestingly, non-metabolizable l-glucose drastically increased superoxide production (P<0.05) and suppressed sperm motility (P<0.05) and capacitation (P<0.05) after 24?h of treatment, whereas mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.05), acrosomal integrity (P<0.01) and viability (P<0.05) were later decreased. The overall results suggest that high glucose levels per se do not influence human sperm function in vitro, which stresses the importance of other factors involved in DM pathology. Nevertheless, the absence of metabolizable glucose contributes to a severe impairment of sperm function and thus compromises male fertility.Free Portuguese abstract: A Portuguese translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/150/1/77/suppl/DC1. PMID:25926692

  8. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; Retana-Márquez, María Del Socorro I

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased while testosterone decreased, this decrease is related to the negative effects seen in sperm. PMID:25640572

  9. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ? 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:??80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.028<0.05, 95% efficiency, increase productivity 11%, financial analysis (NPV 2,340,596>0, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  10. Evaluation of sperm nuclear integrity in patients with different percentages of decapitated sperm in ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Rondanino, Christine; Duchesne, Véronique; Escalier, Denise; Jumeau, Fanny; Verhaeghe, France; Peers, Marie-Claire; Mitchell, Valérie; Rives, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    The decapitated sperm defect is a rare type of teratozoospermia responsible for male infertility. Spermatozoa from patients affected by this syndrome are used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) although little is known about their DNA integrity. This study evaluated sperm nuclear alterations in four patients and ten fertile men (control group). Sperm samples were examined by light, transmission electron and high-magnification contrast microscopy and analysed after terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling, aniline blue staining and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Spermatozoa from patients presented varying degrees of decapitation, along with morphological and ultrastructural head abnormalities. Whereas the proportion of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA and numerical chromosome abnormalities was similar in patients 1-3 and controls, the percentage of spermatozoa with hypocondensed chromatin was higher in patients 1-3 than in fertile men. Patient 4 presented a distinct phenotype, with an increased proportion of flagellated spermatozoa with DNA strand breaks as well as increased aneuploidy and diploidy rates compared with controls and with patients 1-3. No successful pregnancy resulted from ICSI although embryos were obtained for three patients. The morphological defects and the nuclear alterations observed in spermatozoa of patients with the decapitated sperm syndrome may have contributed to ICSI failures. PMID:26001636

  11. Sperm survival in female stalk-eyed flies depends on seminal fluid and meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Fry, Catherine L; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2004-07-01

    Sperm competition is common in many insect species; however, the mechanisms underlying differences in sperm precedence are not well understood. In the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis whitei (Diptera, Diopsidae), sperm precedence is influenced by the presence of sex chromosome meiotic drive. When drive-carrying males compete with non-driving males for fertilizations within a female, the number of progeny sired by drive males is significantly fewer than predicted by sperm mixing alone. Thus, drive males apparently suffer not only a reduction in the number of viable sperm produced, but also a reduction in sperm competitive ability. In this study, we manipulated the amount and source of seminal fluid and sperm received by females by interrupting copulations before sperm, but after seminal fluid, was transferred. We find that seminal fluid from another male influences the number of progeny sired by a drive-carrying male when both males mate with the same female. Sperm viability staining reveals that sperm from drive males are incapacitated by seminal fluid from other males within the female reproductive tract. These results suggest that multiple mating by females enables seminal fluid products to interact differentially with sperm and may reduce the transmission advantage of the drive chromosome. PMID:15341165

  12. Picomolar gradients of progesterone select functional human sperm even in subfertile samples.

    PubMed

    Gatica, L V; Guidobaldi, H A; Montesinos, M M; Teves, M E; Moreno, A I; Uñates, D R; Molina, R I; Giojalas, L C

    2013-09-01

    More than 1 million infertility treatments are practiced around the world per year, but only 30% of the couples succeed in taking a baby home. Reproductive technology depends in part on sperm quality, which influences not only fertilization but also embryo development and implantation. In order to provide a better quality sperm subpopulation, innovative sperm selection techniques based on physiological sperm features are needed. Spermatozoa at an optimum state may be selected by following an increasing concentration gradient of picomolar progesterone, a steroid secreted by the cumulus cells at the time of ovulation. In this study we developed a method to recruit spermatozoa at the best functional state, based on sperm guidance toward progesterone. The sperm selection assay (SSA) consists of a device with two wells connected by a tube. One well was filled with the sperm suspension and the other with picomolar progesterone, which diffused inside the connecting tube as a gradient. The sperm quality after the SSA was analyzed in normal and subfertile semen samples. Several sperm parameters indicative of sperm physiological state were determined before and after the SSA: capacitation, DNA integrity and oxidative stress. After the SSA, the mean level of capacitated spermatozoa increased three times in normal and in subfertile samples. The level of sperm with intact DNA was significantly increased, while sperm oxidative stress was decreased after sperm selection. Interestingly, the exposure to a progesterone gradient stimulated the completion of capacitation in some spermatozoa that could not do it by themselves. Thus, the SSA supplies a sperm population enriched with spermatozoa at an optimum physiological state that may improve the assisted reproductive technology outcome. PMID:23729411

  13. Load reduction sintering for increasing productivity and decreasing fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Hai-bin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Hu, Zheng-wen; Yang, Tian-jun

    2013-02-01

    The technical and economical indexes and the physical properties of load reduction sintering processes with the supporting stands of installation at different height levels (300, 350, and 400 mm) in a sintering bed were studied under the same conditions of raw material, bed height, and sintering parameters. Sintering pot tests with different bed heights and fuel ratios of the mixture with or without supporting stands were performed to decrease the fuel consumption. The airflow rate through the sintering bed was measured with an anemoscope fixed on the bed surface to reveal the effects of supporting stands. The utilization of load reduction sintering can improve the permeability of the sintering bed, and the airflow rate through the sintering bed is increased. When the stand height is half of the sintering bed, the productivity increases by 27.9%, and the drum index slightly decreases. Keeping at the same productivity level with normal sintering, the utilization of load reduction sintering can decrease the solid fuel consumption by 9.2%.

  14. Frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm exhibit DNA damage shortly after thawing when assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay.

    PubMed

    Portas, T; Johnston, S D; Hermes, R; Arroyo, F; López-Fernadez, C; Bryant, B; Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Gosalvez, J

    2009-09-15

    This study reports on the successful validation (via in situ nick translation and neutral comet assay) of the equine Sperm-Halomax kit as an appropriate methodology for the assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation in three species of rhinoceros. Rhinoceros sperm nuclei with fragmented DNA (validated using in situ nick translation) were evident as large halos with dispersed DNA fragments, whereas those with nonfragmented DNA displayed small halos of nondispersed DNA within the microgel. There was a high correlation (r) of 0.974 (R(2) value=0.949; P<0.01; n=16) between the respective assessments of the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (SCDt) and the neutral comet assay. Application of the SCDt to determine the DNA fragmentation dynamics of rhinoceros (n=6) sperm frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor and incubated postthaw at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h to mimic in vitro conditions in the female reproductive tract, revealed an increase (P=0.001) in DNA damage, as soon as 4h after the start of incubation. Linear regression equations were calculated for all six rhinoceroses over the first 6h of incubation and revealed individual animal variation. Freshly collected and incubated (37 degrees C) rhinoceros (n=3) sperm had no increase in the basal level of DNA fragmentation for up to 48 h, indicating that the cryopreservation of rhinoceros sperm in liquid nitrogen vapor, as used in this study, appeared to result in freeze-thaw DNA damage. PMID:19560805

  15. Mass spectrometric detection of cholestrol oxidation in bovine sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. H. M. Brouwers; A. Boerke; P. F. N. da Silva; N. Garcia-Gil; R. A. van Gestel; J. B. Helms; B. M. Gadella

    2011-01-01

    We report on the presence and formation of cholesterol\\u000aoxidation products (oxysterols) in bovine sperm. Although\\u000acholesterol is the most abundant molecule in the membrane of\\u000amammalian cells and is easily oxidized, this is the first report on\\u000acholesterol oxidation in sperm membranes as investigated by\\u000astate-of-the-art liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric\\u000amethods. First, oxysterols are already present in fresh

  16. DNA integrity in sexed bull sperm assessed by neutral Comet assay and sperm chromatin structure assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry B. Boe-Hansen; Ian D. Morris; Annette K. Ersbøll; Torben Greve; Preben Christensen

    2005-01-01

    During the production of sex-sorted spermatozoa from bull semen, the cells are exposed to a number of potential hazards including: dilution, centrifugation, incubation, exposure to DNA stains and laser light. These factors may affect the survival capacity and fertilization potential of the sperm. The objective of this study was to determine whether sex-sorted bull spermatozoa have more DNA damage than

  17. Protective Effect of Ethyl Pyruvate on Epididymal Sperm Characteristics, Oxidative Stress and Testosterone Level in Methotrexate Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atashfaraz, Elham; Farokhi, Farah; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite drug widely used in treatment of neoplastic disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. The ester derivative, ethyl pyruvate (EP) is stable in solution and should function as an antioxidant and energy precursor. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of EP on sperm parameters, testosterone level and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice treated with MTX. Methods 32 adult male NMRI mice weighing 26±2 g were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 received 0.1 ml/mice/day of distilled water intraperitoneally for 30 days (ip). Group 2 was treated with methotrexate at a dose of 20 mg/kg once a week (ip) for 30 days. Group 3 was treated with ethyl pyruvate at a dose of 40 mg/kg/daily (ip) for 30 days. Group 4 was treated with methotrexate (20 mg/kg) once a week simultaneously with ethyl pyruvate 40 mg/kg for 30 days. The results were analyzed by oneway ANOVA. A p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The results showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and sperm motility as well as testosterone concentration while sperm with damaged DNA and MDA concentration in mice treated with MTX in comparison with control and MX+EP groups increased significantly (p<0.05). Instead, MTX+EP group caused partial amelioration in all parameters mentioned above. Conclusion Based on the present study, it can be concluded that MTX induced toxicity in sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone and increased MDA level. EP with its antioxidant properties could be administrated during treatment with MTX due to its protective effects on sperm parameters, plasma testosterone levels and lipid peroxidation. PMID:24551573

  18. Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins. PMID:24151436

  19. Autocrine regulation of human sperm motility by tachykinins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined the presence and function of tachykinins and the tachykinin-degrading enzymes neprilysin (NEP) and neprilysin-2 (NEP2) in human spermatozoa. Methods Freshly ejaculated semen was collected from forty-eight normozoospermic human donors. We analyzed the expression of substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B, hemokinin-1, NEP and NEP2 in sperm cells by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunocytochemistry assays and evaluated the effects of the neprilysin and neprilysin-2 inhibitor phosphoramidon on sperm motility in the absence and presence of tachykinin receptor-selective antagonists. Sperm motility was measured using WHO procedures or computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Results The mRNAs of the genes that encode substance P/neurokinin A (TAC1), neurokinin B (TAC3), hemokinin-1 (TAC4), neprilysin (MME) and neprilysin-2 (MMEL1) were expressed in human sperm. Immunocytochemistry studies revealed that tachykinin and neprilysin proteins were present in spermatozoa and show specific and differential distributions. Phosphoramidon increased sperm progressive motility and its effects were reduced in the presence of the tachykinin receptor antagonists SR140333 (NK1 receptor-selective) and SR48968 (NK2 receptor-selective) but unmodified in the presence of SR142801 (NK3 receptor-selective). Conclusion These data show that tachykinins are present in human spermatozoa and participate in the regulation of sperm motility. Tachykinin activity is regulated, at least in part, by neprilysins. PMID:20796280

  20. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  1. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2015-05-01

    Development and application of new types of fertilizers using innovative nanotechnology are one of the potentially effective options of significantly enhancing the global agricultural productions needed to meet the future demands of the growing population. Indeed, the review of available literature indicates that some engineered nanomaterials can enhance plant-growth in certain concentration ranges and could be used as nanofertilizers in agriculture to increase agronomic yields of crops and/or minimize environmental pollution. This article summarizes this type of nanomaterials under four categories: macronutrient nanofertilizers, micronutrient nanofertilizers, nutrient-loaded nanofertilizers, and plant-growth-enhancing nanomaterials. Each category is discussed respectively with reference to nanomaterials' chemical composition, particle size, concentrations applied, benefited plant species, plant incubation methods, and plant-growth enhancement aspects and the rates. The importance, research directions, and research requirements of each nanofertilizer category for achieving sustainable agriculture are also specifically examined. Finally, this review suggests that development of N and P macronutrient nanofertilizers is a high research and development priority both for food production and environmental protection. PMID:25659311

  2. Sperm Whale Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes an award-winning project in Homer, Alaska. After a sperm whale carcass washed ashore, a museum-school collaboration implemented a five-year cross-disciplinary marine science education project using major grant funding. Students worked with museum staff, scientists, public agencies and the community to research the whale, preserve, articulate and mount its skeleton. They developed exhibits, school and community education programs interpreting the whale and promoting ocean conservation in the region.

  3. Sperm Chromatin and Environmental Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksander Giwercman

    \\u000a Available experimental and human data show that a number of lifestyle- and environment-related exposures may have negative\\u000a effects on sperm DNA integrity. The extent of the sperm DNA damage seems to differ between different studies. Such a discrepancy\\u000a may partly be due to the use of ­several methods for assessment of sperm DNA integrity, techniques that do not measure exactly

  4. Sperm function test

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization.

  5. Sperm function test.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  6. Cryopreservation of epididymal stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Olaciregui, M; Gil, L; Montón, A; Luño, V; Jerez, R A; Martí, J I

    2014-02-01

    Any event that makes semen collection or mating impossible, such as death, castration, or injury, may terminate a stallion's breeding career. Fortunately, stallion sperm which are capable of fertilization can be harvested from the epididymis, and frozen for future use. However, the fertility of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm has been found to be lower than that of ejaculated sperm. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the fertility of frozen epididymal stallion sperm by investigating the effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing protocols on sperm quality. Dimethylformamide was tested alone or combination with pasteurized egg yolk as substitute of fresh egg yolk. In addition, the effect of the pre-freeze stabilization on sperm quality was analyzed. Heterospermic samples obtained from stallion epididymis were collected and cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying content of cryoprotectant and content of egg yolk, stabilized and no-stabilized. Sperm motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity were evaluated post-thawing. No improvement was observed on the replacement of fresh yolk by pasteurized egg yolk, whereas the results suggest that dimethylformamide is a cryoprotectant suitable for cryopreservation of equine epididymal semen, even better than glycerol. In addition, we found that the stabilization before freezing on epididymal stallion sperm, can improve sperm quality parameters. PMID:24412395

  7. Biphasic role of calcium in mouse sperm capacitation signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Felipe A; García-Vázquez, Francisco A; Alvau, Antonio; Escoffier, Jessica; Krapf, Dario; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Salicioni, Ana M; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing ability in the female tract in a process known as capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation is associated with up-regulation of a cAMP-dependent pathway, changes in intracellular pH, intracellular Ca(2+) , and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. How these signaling systems interact during capacitation is not well understood. Results presented in this study indicate that Ca(2+) ions have a biphasic role in the regulation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Media without added Ca(2+) salts (nominal zero Ca(2+) ) still contain micromolar concentrations of this ion. Sperm incubated in this medium did not undergo PKA activation or the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that these phosphorylation pathways require Ca(2+) . However, chelation of the extracellular Ca(2+) traces by EGTA induced both cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The EGTA effect in nominal zero Ca(2+) media was mimicked by two calmodulin antagonists, W7 and calmidazolium, and by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A. These results suggest that Ca(2+) ions regulate sperm cAMP and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in a biphasic manner and that some of its effects are mediated by calmodulin. Interestingly, contrary to wild-type mouse sperm, sperm from CatSper1 KO mice underwent PKA activation and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation upon incubation in nominal zero Ca(2+) media. Therefore, sperm lacking Catsper Ca(2+) channels behave as wild-type sperm incubated in the presence of EGTA. This latter result suggests that Catsper transports the Ca(2+) involved in the regulation of cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways required for sperm capacitation. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1758-1769, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25597298

  8. Effect of proposed HAPO (Hanford Atomic Products Operation) reactor production increases on radioactivity discharged to the Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Hall; P. C. Jerman

    1960-01-01

    The incentive to increase the production of the existing Hanford reactors is being examined. Increased reactor production will increase the radioactivity discharged to the Columbia River in reactor effluent water. It is the purpose of the document to evaluate the increased effluent problems which will result. Study of the production increases which are possible with present reactors indicate that the

  9. Royal jelly increases collagen production in rat skin after ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Cho, Min Hyoung; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2012-06-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product that contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. RJ has been reported to have antitumor, antibacterial, and wound-healing activities. We previously reported that RJ enhanced the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and altered the levels of cholesterol and sphinganine in an in vitro wound-healing model in addition to regulating skin photoaging following exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation. We established an animal model of skin aging in the context of estrogen deficiency and assessed the antiaging effects of RJ on skin. To establish an in vivo model of skin aging, bilateral ovariectomies were performed in 12-week-old virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats. Induction of osteoporosis was confirmed through two-dimensional images of the trabecular bone in the left femoral necks using microcomputed tomography. The protective effects of RJ ovariectomy-induced skin aging were examined by determining the protein expression of type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. The collagen content and epidermal thickness of skin tissue were measured by staining techniques. There was a significant difference in weight between sham-operated and ovariectomized groups. Food efficiency ratio did not differ significantly among the groups. The level of procollagen type I protein was increased in the dorsal skin of ovariectomized rats fed with a dietary supplement containing 1% RJ extract, but the level of MMP-1 was not altered. In particular, the amount of collagen recovered was close to the normal level. RJ may protect against skin aging by enhancing collagen production in rats with ovariectomy-induced estrogen deficiency. PMID:22468645

  10. Enhanced membrane protein expression by engineering increased intracellular membrane production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Membrane protein research is frequently hampered by the low natural abundance of these proteins in cells and typically relies on recombinant gene expression. Different expression systems, like mammalian cells, insect cells, bacteria and yeast are being used, but very few research efforts have been directed towards specific host cell customization for enhanced expression of membrane proteins. Here we show that by increasing the intracellular membrane production by interfering with a key enzymatic step of lipid synthesis, enhanced expression of membrane proteins in yeast is achieved. Results We engineered the oleotrophic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, by deleting the phosphatidic acid phosphatase, PAH1, which led to massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. For all eight tested representatives of different integral membrane protein families, we obtained enhanced protein accumulation levels and in some cases enhanced proteolytic integrity in the ?pah1 strain. We analysed the adenosine A2AR G-protein coupled receptor case in more detail and found that concomitant induction of the unfolded protein response in the ?pah1 strain enhanced the specific ligand binding activity of the receptor. These data indicate an improved quality control mechanism for membrane proteins accumulating in yeast cells with proliferated ER. Conclusions We conclude that redirecting the metabolic flux of fatty acids away from triacylglycerol- and sterylester-storage towards membrane phospholipid synthesis by PAH1 gene inactivation, provides a valuable approach to enhance eukaryotic membrane protein production. Complementary to this improvement in membrane protein quantity, UPR co-induction further enhances the quality of the membrane protein in terms of its proper folding and biological activity. Importantly, since these pathways are conserved in all eukaryotes, it will be of interest to investigate similar engineering approaches in other cell types of biotechnological interest, such as insect cells and mammalian cells. PMID:24321035

  11. Hyperoxia increases hepatic arginase expression and ornithine production in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Malleske, Daniel T. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Rogers, Lynette K. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Velluci, Sean M. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Young, Tamara L. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Park, Min S. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Long, Donald W. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Welty, Stephen E. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Smith, Charles V. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Nelin, Leif D. [Center for Developmental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States)]. E-mail: NelinL@pediatrics.ohio-state.edu

    2006-08-15

    Hyperoxic exposure affects the levels and activities of some hepatic proteins. We tested the hypothesis that hyperoxic exposure would result in greater hepatic .NO concentrations. C3H/HeN mice were exposed to >95% O{sub 2} for 72 or 96 h and compared to room air-breathing controls. In contrast to our working hypothesis, exposure to >95% O{sub 2} for 96 h decreased hepatic nitrite/nitrate NO {sub X} concentrations (10.9 {+-} 2.2 nmol/g liver versus 19.3 {+-} 2.4 nmol/g liver in room air, P < 0.05). The hepatic levels of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) proteins were not different among the groups. The arginases, which convert L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, may affect hepatic NOS activities by decreasing L-arginine bioavailability. Hepatic ornithine concentrations were greater in hyperoxic animals than in controls (318 {+-} 18 nmol/g liver in room air, and 539 {+-} 64, and 475 {+-} 40 at 72 and 96 h of hyperoxia, respectively, P < 0.01). Hepatic arginase I protein levels were greater in hyperoxic animals than in controls. Hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) protein levels and activities were not different among groups. These results indicate that increases in hepatic levels of arginase I in mice exposed to hyperoxia may diminish .NO production, as reflected by lower liver levels of NO {sub X}. The resultant greater hepatic ornithine concentrations may represent a mechanism to facilitate tissue repair, by favoring the production of polyamines and/or proline.

  12. Organic fertilization leads to increased peach root production and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Baldi, E; Toselli, M; Eissenstat, D M; Marangoni, B

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of mineral and organic fertilizers on peach root dynamics in the growing season from 2003 to 2006 in a nectarine (Prunus persica L.) orchard, planted in 2001 and located in the Po valley, northeastern Italy. Very few studies have conducted long-term investigations of root dynamics of fruit crops. Our main objective was to determine whether organic fertilizers affect root dynamics differently than mineral fertilizers. The experiment was a completely randomized block design with four replicates of three treatments: unfertilized, mineral fertilized and composted with municipal waste. Mineral fertilizers included P (100 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and K (200 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) applied only at planting and N (70-130 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) split into two applications, one at 40 days after full bloom (60%) and the other in September (40%) each year. The compost fertilization represented a yearly rate of 10 metric tons (t) dry weight ha(-1), which approximates (in kg ha(-1) year(-1)) 240 N, 100 P and 200 K, split similarly to that described for the mineral fertilization of N. Both root growth and survival were evaluated at 20-day intervals during the growing season by the minirhizotron technique. Compost increased the production of new roots compared with the other treatments (P < 0.01). Roots were mainly produced at a depth of 41-80 cm and from March to May and in late summer. An analysis of covariance indicated no significant effect of soil nitrate on root production (P = 0.47). The root lifespan was longer in compost-treated trees than in mineral-fertilized or unfertilized trees (P < 0.01) and it was strongly affected by time of birth; roots born later in the summer lived longer than those born in the spring. Across years and treatments, the average root lifespan was positively correlated with soil nitrate (r = 0.60; P < 0.001). Variation in root lifespan with method of fertilization could be accounted for by variation in soil nitrate concentration as indicated by no effect of fertilizer treatment on root lifespan when soil nitrate was included as a covariate. These results reveal how shifting from mineral to organic fertilizers may shift both soil properties and nutrient availability, leading to changes in both root production and lifespan. PMID:20921024

  13. A Mutant Gene That Increases Gibberellin Production in Brassica1

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Stewart B.; Williams, Paul H.; Pearce, David; Murofushi, Noboru; Mander, Lewis N.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode [ein/ein]) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A3 (GA3) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA1 and GA3 were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [2H]GA1, as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA20 and GA1, and the rate of GA19 metabolism were simultaneously analyzed at day 7 by feeding [2H2]GA19 and measuring metabolites [2H2]GA20 and [2H2]GA1 and endogenous GA20 and GA1, with [2H5]GA20 and [2H5]GA1 as quantitative internal standards. Levels of GA1 and GA20 were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA20 and GA1 were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA1 biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of [3H]GA20 to [3H]GA1 was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA1 biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A1 and A3. The enhanced GA production probably underlies the accelerated shoot growth and development, and particularly, the increased shoot elongation. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667574

  14. Increasing dermal perfusion after burning by decreasing thromboxane production.

    PubMed

    Robson, M C; DelBeccaro, E J; Heggers, J P; Loy, G L

    1980-09-01

    Decreasing progressive dermal ischemia after burning could theoretically limit the amount of skin necrosis to the zone of coagulation. Methylprednisolone, aspirin, indomethacin, imidazole, dipyridamole, and methimazole have been shown to prevent dermal ischemia, suggesting that prostaglandins and/or thromboxanes may play a role in its pathogenesis. Specific antiprostaglandin antibodies (anti-PgE2, PgF2 alpha, PgI2, and TxA2) were reacted with tissue biopsies of burned guinea pig skin at various time intervals postburn. An immunoperoxidase technique with goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin and horseradish peroxidase demonstrated the presence of the specific arachidonic acid metabolites. The burned tissue showed high levels of PgE2 and TxA2. The effects of three thromboxane inhibitors, imidazole, methimazole, and dipyridamole, on dermal ischemia were studied. Xenon133 washout studies were performed in burned and unburned areas. Tissue half-life of Xenon was prolonged in burned, untreated areas but this rapidly decreased in antithromboxane-treated burns. Repeated antiprostaglandin and antithromboxane antibody-immunoperoxidase studies on tissue from the thromboxane inhibitor-treated animals showed that PgE2, PgF2 alpha, and PgI2 were at the same levels as in untreated animals, but thromboxane (TxA2) was essentially absent, suggesting that thromboxane may be responsible for the progressive dermal ischemia after burning and that decreasing its production can increase dermal perfusion. PMID:6997504

  15. Increasing transcurium production efficiency through direct resonance shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, Susan L [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the world s leader in production of 252Cf. This and other heavy actinides are produced by irradiation of mixed curium/americium targets in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Due to the strong dependence of isotopic cross sections upon incoming neutron energy, the efficiency with which an isotope is transmuted is highly dependent upon the neutron flux energy spectrum and intensities. There are certain energy ranges in which the rate of fissions in feedstock materials can be minimized relative to the rate of (n, ) absorptions. It is shown that by perturbing the flux spectrum, it is possible to alter the net consumption of curium feedstock, as well as the yields of key isotopes for the heavy element research program, such as 249Bk and 252Cf. This flux spectrum perturbation is accomplished by means of focused resonance shielding through the use of filter materials. It is further shown that these perturbations can alter the target yields in a significant way, increasing the amount of 252Cf produced per unit curium consumption by over 40%.

  16. Ejaculate Oxidative Stress Is Related with Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Round Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iommiello, Valeria Maria; Albani, Elena; Di Rosa, Alessandra; Marras, Alessandra; Menduni, Francesca; Morreale, Giovanna; Levi, Shanti Lia; Pisano, Benedetta; Levi-Setti, Paolo Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an essential role in male infertility aetiology by affecting sperm quality, function, and also the integrity of sperm DNA. The assessment of oxidative stress in semen may be an important tool to improve the evaluation of sperm reproductive capacity. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of any possible relation between the unbalance of oxidative stress caused by superoxide anion in the ejaculate with the presence of sperm DNA fragmentation and high concentration of round cells. 56 semen samples from males from couples suffering from infertility were evaluated according to World Health Organisation (WHO) 2010 guidelines. Oxidative stress levels from N1 (low) to N4 (high) were assessed in ejaculates using oxiSperm; DFI (sperm DNA fragmentation index) as assessed by the SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) was used for evaluation of sperm chromatin integrity. Our data show that high oxidative stress (N3-N4 levels) correlated positively with a DFI ? 30% (P = 0.0379) and round cells ?1.500.000/mL (P = 0.0084). In conclusion, OS increases sperm DNA damage. Thus evaluation of semen OS extent of sperm DNA damage in infertile man could be useful to develop new therapeutic strategies and improve success of assisted reproduction techniques (ART). PMID:25802519

  17. Quantitative evaluation of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology and chromatin distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Aubele, M.; Juetting, U.R.; Rodenacker, K.; Gais, P.; Burger, G.; Hacker-Klom, U. (Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    Sperm head cytometry provides a useful assay for the detection of radiation-induced damage in mouse germ cells. Exposure of the gonads to radiation is known to lead to an increase of diploid and higher polyploid sperm and of sperm with head shape abnormalities. In the pilot studies reported here quantitative analysis of the total DNA content, the morphology, and the chromatin distribution of mouse sperm was performed. The goal was to evaluate the discriminative power of features derived by high resolution image cytometry in distinguishing sperm of control and irradiated mice. Our results suggest that besides the induction of the above mentioned variations in DNA content and shape of sperm head, changes of the nonhomogeneous chromatin distribution within the sperm may also be used to quantify the radiation effect on sperm cells. Whereas the chromatin distribution features show larger variations for sperm 21 days after exposure (dpr), the shape parameters seem to be more important to discriminate sperm 35 dpr. This may be explained by differentiation processes, which take place in different stages during mouse spermatogenesis.

  18. Ejaculate oxidative stress is related with sperm DNA fragmentation and round cells.

    PubMed

    Iommiello, Valeria Maria; Albani, Elena; Di Rosa, Alessandra; Marras, Alessandra; Menduni, Francesca; Morreale, Giovanna; Levi, Shanti Lia; Pisano, Benedetta; Levi-Setti, Paolo Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an essential role in male infertility aetiology by affecting sperm quality, function, and also the integrity of sperm DNA. The assessment of oxidative stress in semen may be an important tool to improve the evaluation of sperm reproductive capacity. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of any possible relation between the unbalance of oxidative stress caused by superoxide anion in the ejaculate with the presence of sperm DNA fragmentation and high concentration of round cells. 56 semen samples from males from couples suffering from infertility were evaluated according to World Health Organisation (WHO) 2010 guidelines. Oxidative stress levels from N1 (low) to N4 (high) were assessed in ejaculates using oxiSperm; DFI (sperm DNA fragmentation index) as assessed by the SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) was used for evaluation of sperm chromatin integrity. Our data show that high oxidative stress (N3-N4 levels) correlated positively with a DFI ? 30% (P = 0.0379) and round cells ?1.500.000/mL (P = 0.0084). In conclusion, OS increases sperm DNA damage. Thus evaluation of semen OS extent of sperm DNA damage in infertile man could be useful to develop new therapeutic strategies and improve success of assisted reproduction techniques (ART). PMID:25802519

  19. Effects of progesterone on sperm motility in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Murack, Patrick J; Parrish, John; Barry, Terence P

    2011-07-01

    The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is found at relatively high concentrations (?300 ng/L) in association with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). In an effort to better understand the potential endocrine disrupting effects of P4 in male fish, computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the effects of this steroid on sperm motility in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The rationale for focusing on sperm motility is that certain progestins have been shown to bind to surface membrane receptors on fish spermatozoa and increase sperm swimming velocity. It was hypothesized, therefore, that sperm swimming velocity might be a useful indicator of progestin exposure in fish. Adult male fathead minnows (ages 6-12 months) were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of P4, both longer-term (1 week, in vivo exposure) and short-term (minutes, in vitro exposure). Sperm were then video recorded and analyzed by CASA. When fathead minnows were continuously exposed for 1 week to low levels of progesterone in vivo there was a significant dose-dependent reduction in sperm motility. There was no effect of short-term P4 exposure on fathead minnow sperm swimming characteristics. Additional research is required to elucidate the mechanism by which progesterone alters sperm swimming in the fathead minnow. With further validation, the fathead minnow sperm motility assay may be a useful tool to rapidly screen for endocrine disrupting chemicals in the aquatic environment. PMID:21569753

  20. Sperm mitochondria in reproduction: good or bad and where do they go?

    PubMed

    Luo, Shi-Ming; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-11-20

    The mitochondrion is the major energy provider to power sperm motility. In mammals, aside from the nuclear genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) also contributes to oxidative phosphorylation to impact production of ATP by coding 13 polypeptides. However, the role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization and its final fate after fertilization are still controversial. The viewpoints that sperm bearing more mtDNA will have a better fertilizing capability and that sperm mtDNA is actively eliminated during early embryogenesis are widely accepted. However, this may be not true for several mammalian species, including mice and humans. Here, we review the sperm mitochondria and their mtDNA in sperm functions, and the mechanisms of maternal mitochondrial inheritance in mammals. PMID:24238608

  1. Sperm donation in Israel.

    PubMed

    Mor-Yosef, S; Schenker, J G

    1995-04-01

    Science and technology in the field of human reproduction present new legal, ethical and religious questions which do not always have immediate answers. The first step in the rapidly developed field of reproductive technology was the use of sperm donation (artificial insemination by donor, AID) and the establishment of sperm banks. The state of Israel faced these problems when the regulations for sperm donation were discussed. The fact that the main holy places for the three monotheistic religions are in Israel directly influences the make-up of the population constituents. Therefore, besides a majority of secular people, a high percentage of the population of Israel is very religious: Jews, Moslems and Christians. Thus any resolution relating to AID should take this demographic combination into account. The practice of AID is opposed by the different monotheistic religions. To avoid the conflict between secular and religious people, and between the different religions' perspectives, the legal problem of AID in Israel was solved not by laws but by regulations which were published by the Ministry of Health. The main idea behind this attitude is that the state and its authorities should not and do not deal with ethical or religious questions. Thus, the decision was left to the couples and to the donors. The regulations address technical requirements, health problems and confidential issues concerning the couple, the donor and the child. In this paper we present the different views relating to these problems as perceived by the different religions, and describe the solution that was accepted by the Israeli Ministry of Health. PMID:7650152

  2. Differential Sperm Priming by Male Sailfin Mollies (Poecilia latipinna): Effects of Female and Male Size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea S. Aspbury; Caitlin R. Gabor

    2004-01-01

    Recent interest in sperm competition has led to a re-evaluation of the 'cheap sperm' assumption inherent in many studies of sexual selection. In particular, mounting evidence suggests that male sperm availability can be increased by the presence of females. However,there is little information on how this interacts with male traits presumably affected by female mate choice,such as larger size. This

  3. Use of Androcoll-S after thawing improves the quality of electroejaculated and epididymal sperm samples from red deer.

    PubMed

    Anel-López, L; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Morrell, J M

    2015-07-01

    Single Layer Centrifugation is a useful technique to select sperm with good quality. The use of selection methods such as Androcoll could become an important tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to improve other artificial reproductive techniques such as sperm sex sorting, in vitro fertilization or AI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a Single Layer Centrifugation with Androcoll-S on the sperm quality of red deer sperm samples of two different origins, electroejaculated samples and epididymal samples obtained post-mortem, after thawing and after an incubation for 2h at 37°C. Sperm motility, viability, membrane permeability, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal status and DNA fragmentation were determined for all samples. The samples selected by Androcoll-S showed an improvement in sperm kinematics compared to unselected samples after thawing and after incubation. The same effect was observed in parameters such as viability, mitochondrial activity or acrosomal status which were improved after the selection. In contrast, no difference was found in DNA fragmentation between selected and unselected samples within the same sperm type. We conclude that sperm selection by SLC with Androcoll-S after thawing for red deer sperm of both types is a suitable technique that allows sperm quality in both types of sperm samples to be improved, thereby improving other assisted reproductive techniques. Further studies (IVF and in vivo fertilization) are required to determine whether this improvement can increase fertility, as has been shown for other species. PMID:26002696

  4. Spermatangium formation and sperm discharge in the Japanese pygmy squid Idiosepius paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriyosi; Kasugai, Takashi; Munehara, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    In cephalopods, sperm discharge is an important event not only for sperm transfer but also influencing sperm storage capacity of attached spermatangia (everted spermatophores). To investigate sperm discharge from spermatangia and the condition of naturally attached spermatangia in Japanese pygmy squid (Idiosepius paradoxus) we (i) investigated the morphology of spermatophores and spermatangia, and the process of spermatophore evagination and sperm discharge from spermatangia obtained in vitro; (ii) observed spermatangia that were naturally attached to female squids at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h after copulation to investigate alterations in naturally attached spermatangia with time. The spermatophore of I. paradoxus is slender and cylindrical and consists of a sperm mass, a cement body and an ejaculatory apparatus, which is similar to those of loliginid squids. The spermatangium is fishhook-shaped, its distal end being open and narrow. After the spermatangium is formed, the sperm mass gradually moves to the open end of the spermatangium, from where sperm are released. Sperm discharge is a rapid process immediately after the beginning of sperm release, but within 5 min changes to an intermittent release of sperm. Although the volume of residual spermatozoa differed among spermatangia that were naturally attached to a single individual, the probability that spermatangia would be empty increased with time. Most naturally attached spermatangia discharged almost all of their spermatozoa within 24h after copulation, and no spermatangia were attached to females 48 h after copulation. These results suggest that sperm transfer from the spermatangium to the seminal receptacle must occur within 24h, and that the spermatangium functions as a transient sperm storage organ in pygmy squids. PMID:24813852

  5. Variable mate-guarding time and sperm allocation by male snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) in response to sexual competition, and their impact on the mating success of females.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, A; Sainte-Marie, B

    2001-10-01

    Two laboratory experiments investigated mate guarding and sperm allocation patterns of adult males with virgin females of the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, in relation to sex ratio. Although females outnumbered males in treatments, operational sex ratios were male-biased because females mature asynchronously and have a limited period of sexual attractiveness after their maturity molt. Males guarded females significantly longer as the sex ratio increased: the mean time per female was 2.9 d in a 2 males:20 females treatment compared to 5.6 d in a 6 males:20 females treatment. Female injury and mortality scaled positively to sex ratio. Males that guarded for the greatest number of days were significantly larger, and at experiment's end had significantly smaller vasa deferentia, suggesting greater sperm expense, than males that guarded for fewer days. In both experiments, the spermathecal load (SL)--that is, the quantity of ejaculate stored in a female's spermatheca--was independent of molt date, except in the most female-biased treatment, where it was negatively related. The SL increased as the sex ratio increased, mainly because females accumulated more ejaculates. However, similarly sized males had smaller vasa deferentia and passed smaller ejaculates, such that, at a given sex ratio, the mean SL was 55% less in one experiment than in the other. Some females extruded clutches with few or no fertilized eggs, and their median SL (3-4 mg) was one order of magnitude smaller than that of females with well-fertilized clutches (31-50 mg), indicating sperm limitation. Males economized sperm: all females irrespective of sex ratio were inseminated, but to a varying extent submaximally; each ejaculate represented less than 2.5% of male sperm reserves; and no male was fully exhausted of sperm. Sperm economy is predicted by sperm competition theory for species like snow crab in which polyandry exists, mechanisms of last-male sperm precedence are effective, and the probability that one male fertilizes a female's lifetime production of eggs is small. PMID:11687392

  6. Intra-industry trade in intermediate products, pollution and internationally increasing returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Benarroch; Rolf Weder

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between intra-industry trade in intermediate products, pollution and increasing returns. We develop a two-country model in which production occurs in two stages, final and intermediate good production. Intermediate goods are produced under monopolistic competition and final good production exhibits increasing returns with respect to the number of varieties of intermediates. Pollution occurs in the production

  7. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  8. Chemotactic Motility of Sperm in Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Zimmer, Richard K.; Stocker, Roman

    2011-11-01

    Chemical gradients are utilized by plants and animals in sexual reproduction to guide swimming sperm cells toward the egg. This process (``chemotaxis''), which can greatly increase the success of fertilization, is subject to interference by fluid flow, both in the bodily conduits of internal fertilizers (e.g. mammals) and in the aquatic environment of external fertilizers (e.g. benthic invertebrates). We studied the biomechanics of chemotaxing sea urchin spermatozoa using microfluidic devices, which allow for the precise and independent control of attractant gradients and fluid shear. We captured swimming trajectories and flagellar beat patterns using high-speed video-microscopy, to detect chemotactic responses and measure the effect of fluid forces on swimming. This work will ultimately help us to understand how swimming sperm cells actively navigate natural chemoattractant gradients for successful fertilization.

  9. Embryo formation from low sperm concentration by using dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Kao, Wei-Lun; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-03-01

    A biochip system imitates the oviduct of mammals with a microfluidic channel to achieve fertilization in vitro of imprinting-control-region (ICR) mice. We apply a method to manipulate and to position the oocyte and the sperm of ICR mice at the same time in our microfluidic channel with a positive dielectrophoretic (DEP) force. The positive dielectrophoretic response of the oocyte and sperm was exhibited under applied bias conditions AC 10 Vpp waveform, 1?MHz, 10?min. With this method, the concentration of sperm in the vicinity of the oocyte was increased and enhanced the probability of natural fertilization. We used commercial numerical software (CFDRC-ACE+) to simulate the square of the electric field and analyzed the location at which the oocyte and sperm are trapped. The microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated with poly(dimethylsiloxane). The results of our experiments indicate that a positive DEP served to drive the position of the oocyte and the sperm to natural fertilization (average rate of fertilization 51.58%) in our microchannel structures at insemination concentration 1.5?×?10(6) sperm ml(-1). Embryos were cultured to two cells after 24?h and four cells after 48?h. PMID:25825615

  10. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amy R.; Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Guo, Zhong; Teng, Ya-Wen; Thresher, Randy J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) catalyzes the conversion of choline to betaine, an important methyl donor and organic osmolyte. We have previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHDH gene that, when present, seem to alter the activity of the CHDH enzyme. These SNPs occur frequently in humans. We created a Chdh?/? mouse to determine the functional effects of mutations that result in decreased CHDH activity. Chdh deletion did not affect fetal viability or alter growth or survival of these mice. Only one of eleven Chdh?/? males was able to reproduce. Loss of CHDH activity resulted in decreased testicular betaine and increased choline and PCho concentrations. Chdh+/+ and Chdh?/? mice produced comparable amounts of sperm; the impaired fertility was due to diminished sperm motility in the Chdh?/? males. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology in Chdh?/? sperm. ATP content, total mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and inner mitochondrial membrane polarization were all significantly reduced in sperm from Chdh?/? animals. Mitochondrial changes were also detected in liver, kidney, heart, and testis tissues. We suggest that men who have SNPs in CHDH that decrease the activity of the CHDH enzyme could have decreased sperm motility and fertility.—Johnson, A. R., Craciunescu, C. N., Guo, Z., Teng, Y.-W., Thresher, R. J., Blusztajn, J. K., Zeisel, S. H. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility. PMID:20371614

  11. Optimizing Production of Hydroquinone Achieves Increased Yield and Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Gross, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. ...

  12. Methods for Cryopreservation of Guinea Fowl Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Váradi, Éva; Végi, Barbara; Liptói, Krisztina; Barna, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of indigenous poultry species is an important part of the new Hungarian agricultural strategy. Semen cryopreservation is the most practical method for the long term storage of poultry genetic material. The objective was to compare four protocols for cryopreservation of guinea fowl sperm (slow and fast programmable, freezing in nitrogen vapor, and pellet) and three cryoprotectants (10% ethylene glycol, 6% dimethyl-formamide and 6% dimethyl-acetamide). The efficiency of the methods was examined by in vitro tests (subjective motility scoring, sperm concentration, morphological and live/dead sperm analysis with eosin-aniline staining). Thereafter, the two most promising methods were tested by artificial insemination of frozen-thawed semen (3 times a week for 3 weeks using 300 million spermatozoa/hen), followed by candling of incubated eggs, assessment of fertilization, embryonic death, and hatching rate. The survival rate of live, intact spermatozoa was greatest (p?0.05) in pellet method and the slow programmable protocol (with 10% ethylene glycol) (28.6 and 23.5%). The two best protocols (based on in vitro assessment of post-thaw semen quality) were subsequently tested in vivo with artificial insemination. The pellet method yielded a 64% fertility rate compared to slow protocol with only 30% fertility. Regardless, both freezing protocols significantly increased embryonic deaths compared to the control group (16,7; 9,1 and 8,3%, respectively). During the 3-week in vivo trial, fertility increased and early embryonic death decreased over time. According to the results the guinea fowl sperm could tolerate the fast freezing in pellet better than the slower freezing rates and resulted acceptable fertility rate. PMID:23658648

  13. Membrane phase behavior during cooling of stallion sperm and its correlation with freezability.

    PubMed

    Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Friedel, Katharina; Akhoondi, Maryam; Gojowsky, Marina; Wolkers, Willem F; Sieme, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Stallion sperm exhibits great male-to-male variability in survival after cryopreservation. In this study, we have investigated if differences in sperm freezability can be attributed to membrane phase and permeability properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine supra and subzero membrane phase transitions and characteristic subzero membrane hydraulic permeability parameters. Sperm was obtained from stallions that show differences in sperm viability after cryopreservation. Stallion sperm undergoes a broad and gradual phase transition at suprazero temperatures, from 30-10°C, whereas freezing-induced dehydration of the cells causes a more severe phase transition to a highly ordered gel phase. Sperm from individual stallions showed significant differences in post-thaw progressive motility, percentages of sperm with abnormal cell morphology, and chromatin stability. The biophysical membrane properties evaluated in this study, however, did not show clear differences amongst stallions with differences in sperm freezability. Cyclodextrin treatment to remove cholesterol from the cellular membranes increased the cooperativity of the suprazero phase transition, but had little effects on the subzero membrane phase behavior. In contrast, freezing of sperm in the presence of protective agents decreased the rate of membrane dehydration and increased the total extent of dehydration. Cryoprotective agents such as glycerol decrease the amount of energy needed to transport water across cellular membranes during freezing. PMID:22480267

  14. The micronutrient supplements, zinc sulphate and folic acid, did not ameliorate sperm functional parameters in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Raigani, M; Yaghmaei, B; Amirjannti, N; Lakpour, N; Akhondi, M M; Zeraati, H; Hajihosseinal, M; Sadeghi, M R

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the effects of folic acid and zinc sulphate supplementation on the improvement of sperm function in subfertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Eighty-three OAT men participated in a 16-week intervention randomised, double-blind clinical trial with daily treatment of folic acid (5 mg day(-1) ) and zinc sulphate (220 mg day(-1) ), or placebo. Before and after treatment, semen and blood samples were obtained for determining sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, sperm viability, sperm mitochondrial function, sperm chromatin status using toluidine blue, aniline blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining; and semen and blood folate, zinc, B12 , total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Sperm concentration (×10(6)  ml(-1) ) increased in subfertile men receiving the combined treatment of folic acid and zinc sulphate and also in the group receiving only folic acid treatment; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.056 and P = 0.05, respectively). Sperm chromatin integrity (%) increased significantly in subfertile men receiving only zinc sulphate treatment (P = 0.048). However, this improvement in sperm quality was not significant after adjusting placebo effect. This study showed that zinc sulphate and folic acid supplementation did not ameliorate sperm quality in infertile men with severely compromised sperm parameters, OAT. Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, and also nutritional factors play an important role in results of administration of supplementation on sperm parameters. However, these results should be confirmed by multiple studies in larger populations of OAT men. PMID:24147895

  15. 'Sloppy' sperm mixing and intraspecific variation in sperm precedence (P2) patterns.

    PubMed

    Harvey, I F; Parker, G A

    2000-12-22

    Sperm precedence patterns are typically highly variable within (and between) species. Intraspecific variation in sperm precedence (measured as P2, the proportion of progeny fathered by the last male to mate' is frequently seen as a candidate for adaptive interpretation through either male effects (e.g. body size), female effects (e.g. cryptic female choice) or an interaction between the two. Here we show, using computer simulation, that if ejaculates divide into a number of 'packets' and packets from two males mix randomly, then a variety of patterns of sperm precedence may result. We term this process 'sloppy' mixing. If ejaculates break into a small number of packets, bimodal P2 distributions are predicted. As the number of packets is increased, then a complex series of changes through multimodal and flat to unimodal distributions results. Sloppy mixing can thus result in many of the observed P2 distributions. Sloppy mixing is unlikely to change the predictions of adaptive models of sperm competition. PMID:11197131

  16. Shorter sperm confer higher competitive fertilization success.

    PubMed

    García-González, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W

    2007-04-01

    Spermatozoa exhibit taxonomically widespread patterns of divergent morphological evolution. However, the adaptive significance of variation in sperm morphology remains unclear. In this study we examine the role of natural variation in sperm length on fertilization success in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We conducted sperm competition trials between males that differed in the length of their sperm and determined the paternity of resulting offspring using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. We also quantified variation in the size and shape of the female's sperm storage organ to determine whether female morphology influenced the competitiveness of different sperm morphologies. We found that fertilization success was biased toward males with relatively shorter sperm, but that selection on sperm length was dependent on female tract morphology; selection was directional for reduced sperm length across most of the spermathecal size range, but stabilizing in females with the smallest spermathecae. Our data provide empirical support for the theory that sperm competition should favor the evolution of numerous tiny sperm. Moreover, because sperm length is both heritable and genetically correlated with condition, our results are consistent with a process by which females can accrue genetic benefits for their offspring from the incitement of sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice, as proposed by the "sexy sperm" and "good sperm" models for the evolution of polyandry. PMID:17439614

  17. Use of serrated sickle to increase farmer's productivity.

    PubMed

    Sutjana, D P

    2000-12-01

    The sickle is still an ultimate choice hand tool for harvesting the new variety of rice. This preference continues. The sickles used by Balinese harvester are usually nonserrated. The sharpness of nonserrated sickles is reduced quickly, so the harvester needs time to sharpen them frequently, which mean time loss and productivity reduction. To solve this problem, research has been conducted using experimental treatment by subject design. Thirty-three harvesters voluntarily joined the study at the "Subak Yeh Ge" District of Kediri Tabanan Regency, using serrated and nonserrated sickles. The productivity was measured by dividing the number of paddy stalks cut every 15 minutes by increment of heart rate over the resting value. The opinions of harvesters about sickle performance were also collected. The results are as follows: 1. The sharpness of serrated sickles is more stable than nonserrated ones. 2. The use of serrated sickles reduces the workload and work time loss. 3. The productivity of harvesters using serrated sickles is always higher than those using nonserrated sickles, but significant productivity differences begin to appear from the second to the eighth 15-minute period (p < 0.05). 4. Decreased productivity in both groups occurred from the first 15-minute period, but significant differences occurred from the fourth period in the group using nonserrated sickles and at the eighth period in the group using serrated sickles. 5. By use of the heart rate and the WBGT index, it is shown that harvesting can be continuously done over an 8-hour period. PMID:12696316

  18. Dimethyl formamide improves the postthaw characteristics of sex-sorted and nonsorted stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Z; Morris, L H A; Maxwell, W M C; Grupen, C G

    2013-04-15

    Cryopreserved, sex-sorted stallion sperm has been shown to have poor fertility. During this study, the effects of cryoprotectant (glycerol [GLY] and dimethyl formamide [DMF]), cryoprotectant equilibration time (0, 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes), and cryoprotectant concentration (2%, 3%, or 4% vol/vol) on stored sex-sorted and stored nonsorted stallion sperm were evaluated. Total motility, viability, and DNA integrity (determined using sperm chromatin structure assay) of sperm were assessed after thawing. Equilibration for 90 minutes improved total motility (33.8%) compared with 0 (28.5%) or 120 minutes (29.8%; P < 0.05), though viability was higher after 120 minutes (33.1%) compared with 0 (30.5%) or 30 minutes (31.0%; P < 0.01). The viability of nonsorted sperm decreased as cryoprotectant concentration increased (P < 0.001), and total motility of nonsorted sperm was higher when DMF alone was used (15.8%, 16.6%, and 24.0% for GLY, GLY and DMF, and DMF respectively; P < 0.001). Sex sorting was detrimental to the postthaw quality of sperm; at 45 minutes after thawing, total motility of nonsorted sperm was higher than that of sex-sorted sperm (37.4% vs. 5.6%; P < 0.001), the viability of sex-sorted sperm was lower than that of nonsorted sperm (12.4% vs. 30.0%; P < 0.001, averaged over postthaw time), and sex-sorted sperm had higher detectable DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (63.6% vs. 11.3%, P < 0.001) and mean DFI (285.1 vs. 211.3, P < 0.001) than nonsorted sperm. The viability of sex-sorted sperm was improved by GLY and DMF or DMF compared with GLY (22.6%, 25.3%, and 19.3%, respectively; P < 0.05), and the DNA integrity of sex-sorted sperm was improved by the use of DMF compared with GLY (detectable DFI, 60.2 vs. 66.8, P < 0.05; and mean DFI, 280.9 vs. 289.2, P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, postthaw characteristics of stored sex-sorted and stored nonsorted stallion sperm were improved by the use of DMF as a cryoprotectant, though the parameters to benefit differed between sorted and nonsorted sperm. PMID:23453787

  19. The relationship between paternal age, sex ratios, and aneuploidy frequencies in human sperm, as assessed by multicolor FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.; Spriggs, E. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]|[Alberta Children`s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ko, E. [Alberta Children`s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    We studied the frequencies of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm, diploidy and disomy for chromosomes 1, 12, X, and Y in sperm from 10 normal men aged 21 - 52 years, to determine whether there was any relationship between donor age and any of these variables. Multicolor FISH was used to control for lack of probe hybridization and to distinguish diploid sperm from disomic sperm. A minimum of 10,000 sperm per donor was evaluated for each chromosome, for a total of 225,846 sperm studied. Sperm were considered disomic if two fluorescent signals were separated by a minimal distance of one signal domain. The mean frequencies of X- and Y-bearing sperm were 50.1% and 49.0%, respectively; not significantly different from 50%. There was no correlation between paternal age and {open_quotes}sex ratio {close_quotes} in sperm. Similarly, there was no association between the frequency of diploid sperm (mean, .16%; range, .06%-.42%) and donor age. For disomy frequencies, there was no relationship between donor age and disomy 12 (mean, .16%; range, .10%-.25%), XX (mean, .07%; range, .03%-.17%), and XY sperm (mean, .16%; range, .08%-.24%). There was a significant increase in the frequency of YY sperm (P = .04; mean, .18%; range, .10%-.43%) and disomy 1 sperm (P = .01; mean, .11%; range, .05%-.18%) with donor age. In summary, our results do not support a correlation between paternal age and sex ratio or diploidy. A relationship between paternal age and disomy was observed for disomy 1 and YY sperm but not for disomy 12, XX or XY sperm. 37 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Sperm competition and the evolution of male reproductive anatomy in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ramm, Steven A; Parker, Geoffrey A; Stockley, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Sperm competition is a pervasive selective force in evolution, shaping reproductive anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Here, we present comparative evidence that varying sperm competition levels account for variation in the male reproductive anatomy of rodents, the largest and most diverse mammalian order. We focus on the sperm-producing testes and the accessory reproductive glands, which produce the seminal fluid fraction of the ejaculate. We demonstrate a positive association between relative testis size and the prevalence of within-litter multiple paternity, consistent with previous analyses in which relative testis size has been found to correlate with sperm competition levels inferred from social organization and mating systems. We further demonstrate an association between sperm competition level and the relative size of at least two accessory reproductive glands: the seminal vesicles and anterior prostate. The size of the major product of these glands—the copulatory plug—is also found to vary with sperm competition level. Our findings thus suggest that selection for larger plugs under sperm competition may explain variation in accessory gland size, and highlight the need to consider both sperm and non-sperm components of the male ejaculate in the context of post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:16024351

  1. Heat Shock Protein 90 Has Roles in Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis, Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulation, and Progesterone-Responsive Sperm Function in Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aijun; Jiang, Youfang; Xie, Haifeng; Shi, Qixian; Zhang, Songying; Ni, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 plays critical roles in client protein maturation, signal transduction, protein folding and degradation, and morphological evolution; however, its function in human sperm is not fully understood. Therefore, our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which heat shock protein 90 exerts its effects on human sperm function. By performing indirect immunofluorescence staining, we found that heat shock protein 90 was localized primarily in the neck, midpiece, and tail regions of human sperm, and that its expression increased with increasing incubation time under capacitation conditions. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, was shown to inhibit this increase in heat shock protein 90 expression in western blotting analyses. Using a multifunctional microplate reader to examine Fluo-3 AM-loaded sperm, we observed for the first time that inhibition of heat shock protein 90 by using geldanamycin significantly decreased intracellular calcium concentrations during capacitation. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that geldanamycin enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including heat shock protein 90, in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of geldanamycin on human sperm function in the absence or presence of progesterone was evaluated by performing chlortetracycline staining and by using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. We found that geldanamycin alone did not affect sperm capacitation, hyperactivation, and motility, but did so in the presence of progesterone. Taken together, these data suggest that heat shock protein 90, which increases in expression in human sperm during capacitation, has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-stimulated sperm function. In this study, we provide new insights into the roles of heat shock protein 90 in sperm function. PMID:25541943

  2. Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

  3. Physiological hypercortisolemia increases proteolysis, glutamine, and alanine production

    SciTech Connect

    Darmaun, D.; Matthews, D.E.; Bier, D.M. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA) Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Physiological elevations of plasma cortisol levels, as are encountered in stress and severe trauma, were produced in six normal subjects by infusing them with hydrocortisone for 64 h. Amino acid kinetics were measured in the postabsorptive state using three 4-h infusions of L-(1-{sup 13}C)leucine, L-phenyl({sup 2}H{sub 5})phenylalanine, L-(2-{sup 15}N)glutamine, and L-(1-{sup 13}C)alanine tracers (1) before, (2) at 12 h, and (3) at 60 h of cortisol infusion. Before and throughout the study, the subjects ate a normal diet of adequate protein and energy intake. The cortisol infusion raised plasma cortisol levels significantly from 10 {plus minus} 1 to 32 {plus minus} 4 {mu}g/dl, leucine flux from 83 {plus minus} 3 to 97 {plus minus} 3 {mu}mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1}, and phenylalanine flux from 34 {plus minus} 1 to 39 {plus minus} 1 (SE) {mu}mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}{center dot}h{sup {minus}1} after 12 h of cortisol infusion. These increases were maintained until the cortisol infusion was terminated. These nearly identical 15% increases in two different essential amino acid appearance rates are reflective of increased whole body protein breakdown. Glutamine flux rose by 12 h of cortisol infusion and remained elevated at the same level at 64 h. The increase in flux was primarily due to a 55% increase in glutamine de novo synthesis. Alanine flux increased with acute hypercortisolemia and increased further at 60 h of cortisol infusion, a result primarily of increased alanine de novo synthesis. Insulin, alanine, and lactate plasma levels responded similarly with significant rises between the acute and chronic periods of cortisol infusion. Thus hypercortisolemia increases both protein breakdown and the turnover of important nonessential amino acids for periods of up to 64 h.

  4. Productivity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps under increased

    E-print Network

    to the ectomycorrhizal fungus is dependant upon the quantity of carbon assimilated by the host. We measured sporocarp composition differed significantly among the treatments, with less difference in the final year of the study ectomycorrhizal sporocarp productivity and community composition, with likely effects on dispersal, colonization

  5. Environmental consequences of increasing production: some current perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J Bennett

    2000-01-01

    Thomas Malthus, in his ‘Essay on Population’ in 1798, argued that food production would not be able to keep pace with our capacity to produce. Contrary to this prediction there seems to be no evidence that our ability to produce food has been a lasting break on population growth. There are, however, several major areas of concern regarding environmental degradation

  6. Perennial Forage Kochia for Increased Production of Winter Grazed Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) during fall/winter has improved livestock health and reduced winter feeding costs. The objectives of this study were to compare forage production/quality and livestock performance of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochia. Two kochia...

  7. Disrupting Faculty Service: Using Technology to Increase Academic Service Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Perry; Shemroske, Kenneth; Khayum, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly attention regarding faculty involvement has primarily focused on faculty opinions of shared governance and faculty influence on institutional decision-making. There has been limited attention given to academic service productivity and the effectiveness of traditional approaches toward the accomplishment of faculty service requirements.…

  8. Environmental Implications of Increased Bioenergy Production on Midwest Soil Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie soil landscapes encompass over 16 million acres in Missouri and surrounding states. Much of this area has been degraded by erosion but is still used for grain production. Erosion has caused variable topsoil depth within fields which in turn has resulted in greater within-field variability of...

  9. Graphite Fiber Brush Anodes for Increased Power Production in

    E-print Network

    a conductive, but noncorrosive metal core, were examined for power production in cube (C-MFC) and bottle (B-MFC, and therefore have qualities that make them ideal for scaling up MFC systems. Introduction Microbial fuel cells be scaleable to allow treatment of large wastewater flows (5, 6). The highest power density produced in an MFC

  10. Sperm retrieval for azoospermia and intracytoplasmic sperm injection success rates--a personal overview.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman J

    2010-12-01

    It is often questioned whether sperm parameters, including whether retrieved or ejaculated, have any effect on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) results. Do severe spermatogenic defects affect embryo quality or pregnancy rate? Further, does it matter in azoospermic patients whether the sperm source is testicular or epididymal? Our studies show there is no significant difference in results with ICSI related to any sperm count parameters either with patient's sperm or even with donor sperm. No matter how poor the sperm count, there was no difference from patients with high sperm counts nor even patients using donor sperm. There is no significant difference between results with epididymal sperm, either fresh or frozen, in comparison to results with ejaculated or donor sperm. However, both pregnancy rate and delivery rate were considerably lower with testicular sperm (testis sperm extraction) than with epididymal sperm (microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration). This was true for overall results as well as in each category of the female partner's age. It is obvious that in all these cycles the female partner's age was the most important determinant of delivery rate, but testicular sperm always yielded lower results than epididymal sperm. These results show that it is the origin of the sperm rather than the spermatogenic defect that determines success rate with ICSI. PMID:21117935

  11. Semen characterization, seasonality of production, and in vitro sperm quality after chilled storage and cryopreservation in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Justine K; Robeck, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine seasonal seminal traits and to establish short-term and long-term sperm preservation methods in the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) for use in genome banking and artificial insemination (AI). Spermic ejaculates (n?=?87) obtained using a cooperative method were collected across multiple (n?=?6, Male 1) and a single (Male 2) breeding season(s). Non-contaminated ejaculates (n?=?69) were 0.36?±?0.32?ml at 56.3?±?62.7?×?10(7) ?sperm/ml with 85.3?±?10.6% total motility (TMot), 52.5?±?12.9% progressive motility (PMot), 86.6?±?24.3?µm/sec average path velocity (VAP) and 92.3?±?3.7% plasma membrane intact. In vitro quality of chilled semen was best maintained over 48?hr at 5°C than 21°C, with decreased (P?

  12. Viewing Death on Television Increases the Appeal of Advertised Products

    PubMed Central

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current paper explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with TMT's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421

  13. Viewing death on television increases the appeal of advertised products.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current article explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with Terror Management Theory's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421

  14. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adam S; Hill, Jason D; Chase, Craig A; Johanns, Ann M; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003-2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  15. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  16. Phototherapy Increases Hemoglobin Degradation and Bilirubin Production in Preterm Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moustafa M Aouthmany

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare hemoglobin degradation and bilirubin production before and during phototherapy in preterm infants.BACKGROUND:Hemoglobin is catabolized into globin and heme, which is degraded by microsomal heme oxygenase into equimolar carbon monoxide and biliverdin. Biliverdin is then reduced into bilirubin. CO is excreted exclusively by the lungs; therefore, end-tidal carbon monoxide, corrected for inhaled CO (ETCOc), reflects hemoglobin degradation and total

  17. Optical tweezers and non-ratiometric fluorescent-dye-based studies of respiration in sperm mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Timothy; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mitochondrial membrane potential affects sperm motility using laser tweezers and a non-ratiometric fluorescent probe, DiOC6(3). A 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser was used to trap motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the trap spot. Using customized tracking software, the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the escape force from the laser tweezers were measured. Human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupis familiaris) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) sperm were treated with DiOC6(3) to measure the membrane potential in the mitochondria-rich sperm midpieces. Sperm from all three species exhibited an increase in fluorescence when treated with the DiOC6(3). When a cyanide inhibitor (CCCP) of aerobic respiration was applied, sperm of all three species exhibited a reduction in fluorescence to pre-dye levels. With respect to VCL and escape force, the CCCP had no effect on dog or human sperm, suggesting a major reliance upon anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) for ATP in these two species. Based on the preliminary study on drill sperm, CCCP caused a drop in the VCL, suggesting potential reliance on both glycolysis and aerobic respiration for motility. The results demonstrate that optical trapping in combination with DiOC6(3) is an effective way to study sperm motility and energetics.

  18. Sperm Swimming Velocity Predicts Competitive Fertilization Success in the Green Swordtail Xiphophorus helleri

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Simmons, Leigh W.; Beveridge, Maxine; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Sperm competition is expected to favour the evolution of traits that influence the performance of sperm when they compete to fertilize a female's eggs. While there is considerable evidence that selection favours increases in sperm numbers, much less is known about how sperm quality contributes towards competitive fertilization success. Here, we determine whether variation in sperm quality influences competitive fertilization success in the green swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, a highly promiscuous livebearing fish. We use artificial insemination as a method of controlled sperm delivery and show that sperm swimming velocity is the primary determinant of fertilization success when ejaculates from two males compete to fertilize a female's eggs. By contrast, we found no evidence that sperm length had any effect on siring success. We also found no evidence that pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits were phenotypically integrated in this species, suggesting that the previous observation that reproductive skew favours males with high mating rates is unlikely to be due to any direct association between sperm quality and male sexual ornamentation. PMID:20730092

  19. Sperm Bundles in the Seminal Vesicles of Sexually Mature Lasius Ant Males

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, William E.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    In many insects, sperm cells are produced in bundles with their heads being held together by a glycoprotein matrix secreted by a cyst cell. Mature sperm cells in the seminal vesicles are usually free, but in sawflies and several other insects, such structures (spermatodesmata) remain intact and sperm cells may be ejaculated as bundles. Here we report the occurrence of spermatodesmata in mature males of the ant Lasius pallitarsis. Microscopic investigations of the abdominal contents of males immediately prior to their nuptial flights showed that the anterior ends of numerous sperm cells were embedded in an oval-shaped 20 by 30 micrometer extracellular fibrous cap. Individual sperm ranged in length from 55 to 75 micrometers with an average overall length of 65 micrometers. The bulb-shaped heads of the sperm were relatively small, only about 1.5 micrometers in length and about 1.1 micrometers in diameter. The diameter of the sperm tails was approximately 1 micrometer. Observations of live preparations of the spermatodesmata showed increasingly active undulating wave-like movement of the sperm tails as the slide preparations aged. This appears to be the first case of sperm bundles being present in the seminal vesicles of mature ant males – males that are immediately poised to complete their nuptial mating flight. PMID:24671307

  20. Sperm Competition in Humans: Mate Guarding Behavior Negatively Correlates with Ejaculate Quality

    PubMed Central

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans. PMID:25250582

  1. No Experimental Evidence for Sneaking in a West African Cichlid Fish with Extremely Long Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Kathrin; Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in fishes, increasing the potential for sperm competition. Sperm competition has enormous impact on both variation in sperm numbers and sperm size. In cichlids, the sperm competition risk is very divergent and longer sperm are usually interpreted as adaptation to sperm competition. Here we examined whether sneaking tactics exist in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a socially monogamous cichlid with biparental brood care from West Africa. The small testis indicates low gonadal investment which is typical for genetically monogamous species. In contrast, sperm length with up to 85??m is extraordinarily long. We examined the reproductive behaviour of ten groups with a male-biased sex ratio under semi-natural conditions via continuous video recording. We recorded spawning site preferences and correlates of reproductive success and conducted paternity tests using microsatellites. Safe breeding sites that could be successfully defended were preferred. All offspring could be assigned to their parents and no multiple paternities were detected. Body size of spawning pairs predicted their spawning probability and offspring hatching rate suggesting benefits from mating with large individuals. Our study suggests low risk of sperm competition under the given conditions in P. taeniatus and thus first evidence for genetic monogamy in a substrate breeding cichlid. PMID:24386589

  2. The spectrum of DNA damage in human sperm assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and its relationship to fertilization and embryo development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Morris; S. Ilott; L. Dixon; D. R. Brison

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The integrity of sperm DNA is important for the success of natural or assisted fertilization, as well as normal development of the embryo, fetus and child. ICSI, by bypassing sperm selection mechanisms, increases the risk of transmitting damaged DNA and the significance of this requires investigation. METHODS: DNA damage in sperm from an unselected group of 60 men undergoing

  3. NOVP Chemotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease Transiently Induces Sperm Aneuploidies Associated with the Major Clinical Aneuploidy Syndromes Involving Chromosomes X, Y, 18, and 211

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Frias; Paul Van Hummelen; Marvin L. Meistrich; Xiu R. Lowe; Fredrick B. Hagemeister; Michael D. Shelby; Jack B. Bishop; Andrew J. Wyrobek

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether Novantrone, Oncovin, Velban, and Prednisone (NOVP) combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease increases the frequencies of the specific types of aneu- ploid sperm that might elevate the risk of fathering a child with one of the major clinical aneuploidy syndromes, i.e., Down (disomy 21 sperm), Ed- ward (disomy 18 sperm), Turner (nullisomy

  4. Increased calf production in cattle selected for twin ovulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of increasing fetal numbers and their distribution between the left and right uterine horns on calf survival, calf BW at birth and weaning, gestation length, dystocia, and calf sex ratio were evaluated for single (n = 1,587), twin (n = 2,440), and triplet calves (n = 147) born to primipa...

  5. Total Quality Management: Increasing Productivity and Decreasing Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heverly, Mary Ann; Cornesky, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Increasingly, higher education institutions are using Total Quality Management (TQM) as a vehicle for delivering cost-effective programs and services. The TQM philosophy is that quality can be improved by ceaselessly improving the processes that support the institution's mission. TQM is applicable to institutional research and planning as well as…

  6. Sperm-Egg Interaction: Evidence for Boar Sperm Plasma Membrane Receptors for Porcine Zona Pellucida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Rudolph N.; Russell, Lonnie; Bundman, Donna; Freund, Matthew

    1980-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated, noncapacitated boar sperm bind rapidly and in large numbers to pig egg zona pellucida in vitro. In the present study, the number of sperm bound decreased sharply when sperm motility was lowered by energy poisons or by reducing the temperature. Highly motile sperm from humans, guinea pigs, and rats, added at concentrations ten times higher than control sperm, did not bind to the porcine zona. At the same high concentration, a small number of hamster and bull sperm bound to the zona. Binding of boar sperm to the zona pellucida was blocked almost completely by diluted whole antiserum to sperm plasma membranes and by univalent (Fab) antibody to these membranes. When antibody to sperm plasma membrane was first absorbed with plasma membrane vesicles, sperm binding was not inhibited. These results provide direct evidence for the existence of sperm plasma membrane receptors for the zona pellucida of the pig.

  7. S-allyl cysteine ameliorates the quality of sperm and provides protection from age-related sperm dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play a central role in the pathophysiology of the age-related decrease in male fertility. It has been reported that the total protein of DJ-1 was decreased in a proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients and a DJ-1 protein acts as a sensor of cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the age-related changes in the ratio of the oxidized/reduced forms of the DJ-1 protein in the epididymis. In addition, the protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a potent antioxidant, were evaluated against sperm dysfunction. Male rats aged 15–75 weeks were used to assess age-associated sperm function and oxidative stress. Sperm count increased until 25 weeks, but then decreased at 50 and 75 weeks. The rate of sperm movement at 75 weeks was decreased to approximately 60% of the rate observed at 25 weeks. Expression of DJ-1 decreased, but oxidized-DJ-1 increased with age. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins in the epididymis increased until 50 weeks of age. The total number and DNA synthetic potential of the sperm increased until 25 weeks, and then decreased. In rats 75 weeks of age, SAC (0.45% diet) attenuated the decrease in the number, motility, and DNA synthesis of sperm and inhibited the oxidized proteins. These results suggest that SAC ameliorates the quality of sperm subjected to age-associated oxidative stress. PMID:25411519

  8. DNA integrity of canine spermatozoa during chill storage assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion test using bright-field or fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, M; Urbano, M; Ortiz, I; Demyda-Peyras, S; Murabito, M R; Gálvez, M J; Dorado, J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chill storage on canine sperm DNA fragmentation assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion test using bright-field microscopy with Wright solution (sDF-B) or fluorescence microscopy with propidium iodide (sDF-F). The relationship and agreement between the results obtained with both staining methods were analyzed. The values of DNA fragmentation indexes (sDF-F and sDF-B) were compared at each time of chill storage (0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours). Additionally, the sperm DNA fragmentation rate (slope) was compared between the methods during chill storage. Good agreement and no significant differences between values obtained with both staining procedures were observed. Finally, the effect of chill storage for up to 96 hours was assessed on sperm motility parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes. Significant differences were found after 48 hours of chill storage, obtaining greater values of fragmented DNA. Progressive sperm motility was lower just after 96 hours of chill storage, and no effect was found in total sperm motility. In conclusion, the Sperm-Halomax kit, developed for canine semen and based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test, can be used accurately under bright-field or fluorescence microscopy to assess the sperm DNA integrity of canine semen during chill storage. The sperm DNA fragmentation index increased after 48 hours of chill storage, thereby detecting sperm damage earlier than other routine sperm parameters, such as sperm motility. PMID:25963130

  9. Lead-induced hypertension. III. Increased hydroxyl radical production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaoxian Ding; Harvey C. Gonick; Nosratola D. Vaziri; Kaihui Liang; Lin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Lead-induced hypertension has previously been shown to be closely associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species in low lead (100 ppm)-treated rats. The present study has attempted to define the specific moiety involved by noting the blood pressure (BP), reactive oxygen species (MDA-TBA), hydroxyl radical, and nitrotyrosine responses to infusion of the reactive oxygen species scavenger dimethylthiourea. Dimethylthiourea, a

  10. Cinnamic Acid Increases Lignin Production and Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  11. Calcium Signaling in Sperm: Help from Prostasomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dejian Ren (University of Pennsylvania; Department of Biology REV)

    2011-05-17

    Mammalian sperm cells are equipped with sophisticated Ca2+ signaling mechanisms that are fundamental to sperm’s success in fertilization. Unlike most other cells, however, mature sperm generally do not have the luxury of synthesizing new proteins. New evidence indicates that human sperm have a very clever way to solve the conflict between the critical demand for Ca2+ signaling tools and the silence of protein translation. Just before encountering the female reproductive tract, sperm acquire some of the key molecules for Ca2+ signaling from the male reproductive tract itself: prostasomes secreted by the prostate gland.

  12. Sperm cleanup and centrifugation processing for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Sieme, Harald; Oldenhof, Harriëtte

    2015-01-01

    Fertility rates with artificial insemination are highest with good-quality sperm samples. Therefore, nonviable sperm, cellular debris, and seminal plasma are preferably removed from semen samples prior to use or for preservation. Such compounds are sources where reactive oxygen species are generated during storage or upon cryopreservation, impairing sperm function. In this chapter we describe methods to remove seminal plasma and cellular debris from sperm samples, and for selecting morphologically normal motile sperm. The methods that are described here include: ordinary centrifugation, sperm swim-up, glass wool and Sephadex filtration/adherence, and single-layer as well as discontinuous two-layer iodixanol density gradient centrifugation. PMID:25428016

  13. Effect of proctodeal gland foam on sperm kinetics in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Farooq, U; Cho, S; Rybnik-Trzaskowska, P K; Singh, R P; Malecki, I A

    2015-01-15

    The proctodeal gland of the male Japanese quail produces thick foam that accompanies semen when it is transferred to the female. It is thought that this foam enhances fertilization by improving the motility of the sperm, but reports are conflicting because the effect of foam on sperm motility has only been assessed subjectively The velocity of individual sperm was not able to be measured accurately, variations were large, and small changes in motility could not be accurately evaluated. So, we tested the hypothesis that foam affects the motility of spermatozoa of Japanese quail by analyzing motility objectively using computer-assisted semen analysis and determining changes in sperm kinetics in the presence of different concentrations of proctodeal gland foam. The addition of 5% or 10% foam to the sperm suspension increased (P < 0.05) all sperm kinetic parameters (the curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, the velocity of the average path, linearity, straightness, and beat cross frequency). As a result, the percentage of motile and progressive motile sperm also increased. All these parameters declined (P < 0.05) with a further increase in the concentration of foam to 15% and 20%. Furthermore, this effect was similar in males that were 8, 16, or 26 weeks of age. We conclude that sperm motility is enhanced by proctodeal gland foam, and this enhancement depends on its concentration. PMID:25301249

  14. Butyrate increases IL-23 production by stimulated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Bradford E; Zhang, Min; Owyang, Stephanie Y; Cole, Tyler S; Wang, Teresa W; Luther, Jay; Veniaminova, Natalia A; Merchant, Juanita L; Chen, Chun-Chia; Huffnagle, Gary B; Kao, John Y

    2012-12-15

    The gut microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis and is responsible for breaking down dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the gut, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drug that has potent immunomodulatory properties. This characteristic of butyrate, along with our previous discovery that conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the development of experimental colitis, led us to speculate that butyrate may modulate DC function to regulate gut mucosal homeostasis. We found that butyrate, in addition to suppressing LPS-induced bone marrow-derived DC maturation and inhibiting DC IL-12 production, significantly induced IL-23 expression. The upregulation of mRNA subunit IL-23p19 at the pretranslational level was consistent with the role of HDACi on the epigenetic modification of gene expression. Furthermore, the mechanism of IL-23p19 upregulation was independent of Stat3 and ZBP89. Coculture of splenocytes with LPS-stimulated DCs pretreated with or without butyrate was performed and showed a significant induction of IL-17 and IL-10. We demonstrated further the effect of butyrate in vivo using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and found that the addition of butyrate in the drinking water of mice worsened DSS-colitis. This is in contrast to the daily intraperitoneal butyrate injection of DSS-treated mice, which mildly improved disease severity. Our study highlights a novel effect of butyrate in upregulating IL-23 production of activated DCs and demonstrates a difference in the host response to the oral vs. systemic route of butyrate administration. PMID:23086919

  15. Environmental toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation as detected by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA[reg])

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Donald P. [HCLD, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States) and SCSA Diagnostics, 807 32nd Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)]. E-mail: scsa@brookings.net; Wixon, Regina [SCSA Diagnostics, 807 32nd Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Studies over the past two decades have clearly shown that reproductive toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation. This DNA fragmentation can usually be detected prior to observing alterations of metaphase chromosomes in embryos. Thus, Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA)-detected DNA damage is viewed as the molecular precursor to later gross chromosome damage observed under the light microscope. SCSA measurements of animal or human sperm consist of first obtaining a fresh or flash frozen neat semen sample in LN2 or dry ice. Samples are then sent to a SCSA diagnostic laboratory where the samples are thawed, diluted to {approx}1-2 x 106 sperm/ml, treated for 30 s with a pH 1.2 detergent buffer and then stained with acridine orange (AO). The low pH partially denatures DNA at the sites of DNA strand breaks and the AO-ssDNA fluoresces red while the AO-dsDNA fluoresces green. Flow cytometry measurements of 5000 sperm/sample provide statistically robust data on the ratio of red to green sperm, the extent of the DNA fragmentation and the standard deviations of measures. Numerous experiments on rodents treated with reproductive toxicants clearly showed that SCSA measures are highly dose responsive and have a very low CV. Different agents that act on germ cells at various stages of development usually showed sperm DNA fragmentation when that germ cell fraction arrived in the epididymis or ejaculate. Some of these treated samples were capable of successful in vitro fertilization but with frequent embryo failure. A 2-year longitudinal study of men living a valley town with a reported abnormal level of infertility and spontaneous miscarriages and also a seasonal atmospheric smog pollution, showed, for the first time, that SCSA measurements of human sperm DNA fragmentation were detectable and correlated with dosage of air pollution while the classical semen measures were not correlated. Also, young men spraying pesticides without protective gear are at an increased risk for elevated sperm DNA fragmentation. Extensive DNA fragmentation probably cannot be repaired by the egg and the spontaneous abortion rate is {approx}2x higher if a man has more than 30% of sperm showing DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation is an excellent marker for exposure to potential reproductive toxicants and a diagnostic/prognostic tool for potential male infertility.

  16. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  17. Polymer flooding increases production in giant oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Delamaide, E.; Corlay, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Paris (France))

    1994-12-01

    Daqing field, discovered in 1959, is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, with original oil in place exceeding two billion tons. Reservoir heterogeneity and oil viscosity have resulted in moderate displacement efficiency and high watercut. To increase recovery, polymer injection was tested in two pilots between 1987 and 1992, after lab and reservoir studies. Both pilots proved highly successful and led to the decision to extend polymer injection to the whole field. This article presents the history of Daqing polymer flooding, from preliminary studies to full-field extension.

  18. Insect herbivory accelerates nutrient cycling and increases plant production

    PubMed Central

    Belovsky, G. E.; Slade, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Ecologists hold two views about the role of herbivory in ecosystem dynamics. First, from a food web perspective in population/community ecology, consumption by herbivores reduces plant abundance. Second, from a nutrient cycling perspective in ecosystem ecology, herbivory sometimes slows down cycling, which decreases plant abundance, but at other times speeds up cycling, which possibly increases plant abundance. The nutrient cycling perspective on herbivory has been experimentally addressed more thoroughly in aquatic systems than in terrestrial systems. We experimentally examined how grasshoppers influence nutrient cycling and, thereby, plant abundance and plant species composition over a period of 5 years. We examined how grasshoppers influence nutrient (nitrogen) cycling (i) by their excrement, (ii) by changing the abundance of and the decomposition rate of plant litter, and (iii) by both. Grasshoppers may speed up nitrogen cycling by changing the abundance and decomposition rate of plant litter, which increases total plant abundance (up to 32.9 g/m2 or 18%), especially, the abundance of plants that are better competitors when nitrogen is more available. However, whether grasshoppers enhance plant abundance depends on how much they consume. Consequently, ecosystems and food web perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Finally, under some conditions, grasshoppers may decrease nutrient cycling and plant abundance. PMID:11106378

  19. Role of glucocorticoids in increased muscle glutamine production in starvation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Cook, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The role of glucocorticoids in the synthesis of muscle glutamine during starvation was investigated in adrenalectomized fasted rats injected with cortisol (1 mg/100 g body weight). It was found that administration of cortisol in vivo increased (compared to nontreated starved adrenalectomized controls) the glutamine/glutamate ratio and the activity of glutamine synthetase in the diaphragm and the extensor digitorum muscles, and that these effects were abolished by prior treatment with actinomycin D or proflavine. The results obtained in in vitro experiments, using fresh-frozen soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscle preparations, supported the in vivo indications of the cortisol-enhanced glutamine synthesis and protein turnover in starved adrenalectomized animals.

  20. Novel association between sperm deformity index and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in infertile male patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamer M. Said; Nabil Aziz; Rakesh K. Sharma; Iwan Lewis-Jones; Anthony J. Thomas Jr; Ashok Agarwal; Ashok Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the impact of abnormal sperm morphology using the sperm deformity index (SDI) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and its correlation with sperm DNA damage.Methods:Semen samples were collected from men undergoing infertility screening (n = 7) and healthy donors (n = 6). Mature spermatozoa were isolated and incubated with 5 mmol\\/L ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for up

  1. Use of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) to generate transgenic animals

    PubMed Central

    Moisyadi, Stefan; Kaminski, Joseph M.; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2012-01-01

    Even though Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) has been widely used for the production of offspring in human infertility clinics and in reproductive research laboratories using mice, many researchers engaged in animal transgenesis still consider it somewhat cumbersome. The greatest advantage of ICSI-mediated transgenesis is that it allows introduction of very large DNA transgenes (e.g., yeast artificial chromosomes), with relatively high efficiency into the genomes of hosts, as compared to pronuclear injection. Recently, we have developed an active form of ICSI-Tr with fresh sperm utilizing transposons. The transgenic efficiencies rival all transgenic techniques except that of lentiviral methods. PMID:18691759

  2. Decreased Blastocyst Production in Mice Exposed to Increased Rack Noise

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Bernadette M; Jiang, Meisheng; Wang, Ying; Chai, Minghua; Lawson, P Timothy; Lawson, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible effect of rack type on the blastocyst yield of mouse embryo donors. The first phase of the study consisted of housing some mice (group A) in a ventilated rack and others (group B) in a static rack in the same room for 3 d, followed by euthanasia for blastocyst collection and corticosterone assay. Parametric tests were used to compare groups. The number of blastocysts per donor was lower in group A (5.0 ± 1.4 blastocysts) than group B (13.1 ± 3.7 blastocysts). Mean noise was higher in the ventilated rack (80.4 dBC) than in the static rack (69.2 dBC). Serum corticosterone concentrations did not differ between groups. For the second phase of the study, a third group of mice (group C) was housed in a static rack without a ventilated rack in the same room. The noise level for group C was even lower (45.18 ± 2.91 dBC), and the blastocyst count per donor (16.4 ± 2.4) was higher than that of group B. The mean noise levels of empty ventilated and static racks differed significantly between groups for 10 different sound frequencies. Plotting mean blastocyst production against mean rack noise revealed a negative linear relationship with good strength of correlation. These results support the earlier observation that decreased blastocyst count occurs following housing of bred C57BL/6 donor mice in ventilated cages. PMID:19807968

  3. KETONES INHIBIT MITOCHONDRIAL PRODUCTION OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION FOLLOWING GLUTAMATE EXCITOTOXICITY BY INCREASING NADH OXIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Marwan; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Davis, Laurie; Kim, Do Young; Rho, Jong M.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary protocols that increase serum levels of ketones, such as calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet, offer robust protection against a multitude of acute and chronic neurological diseases. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet may reduce free radical levels in the brain. Thus, one possibility is that ketones may mediate neuroprotection through antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of the ketones ?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate on acutely dissociated rat neocortical neurons subjected to glutamate excitotoxicity using cellular electrophysiological and single-cell fluorescence imaging techniques. Further, we explored the effects of ketones on acutely isolated mitochondria exposed to high levels of calcium. A combination of ?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (1 mM each) decreased neuronal death and prevented changes in neuronal membrane properties induced by 10 ?M glutamate. Ketones also significantly decreased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and the associated excitotoxic changes by increasing NADH oxidation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but did not affect levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ketones reduce glutamate-induced free radical formation by increasing the NAD+/NADH ratio and enhancing mitochondrial respiration in neocortical neurons. This mechanism may, in part, contribute to the neuroprotective activity of ketones by restoring normal bioenergetic function in the face of oxidative stress. PMID:17240074

  4. Is sperm hyaluronic acid binding ability predictive for clinical success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection: PICSI vs. ICSI?

    PubMed

    Mokánszki, Attila; Tóthné, Emese Varga; Bodnár, Béla; Tándor, Zoltán; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Jakab, Attila; Ujfalusi, Anikó; Oláh, Éva

    2014-12-01

    Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is now a widely-used technique, it is still of interest to improve our knowledge as to which is the best spermatozoon to be selected for ICSI. Infertile men have increased risks of producing aneuploid spermatozoa. Using hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding sperm selection may reduce the genetic risks such as chromosomal aberrations of offspring. In the present study we examined the clinical success of ICSI with HA-selected sperm ('physiologic' ICSI, PICSI) compared to conventional ICSI, as well as the necessity to differentiate patients according to the initial HA-binding assay result (HBA score) and whether the sperm concentration or HBA score can provide additional information. We observed a significantly higher fertilization rate (FR) of the PICSI group with >60% HBA, implantation rate (IR) of the PICSI group with ? 60% HBA, and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in every PICSI group compared to the ICSI groups (p < 0.01). We also observed a significantly higher life birth rate (LBR) in the PICSI group with ? 60% HBA compared to ICSI patients with ? 60% HBA (p < 0.001). The pregnancy loss rate (PLR) was significantly lower in PICSI patients compared to the ICSI group (p < 0.0001). The FR, IR, CPR, and LBR of the PICSI group with <50% HBA were significantly higher and the PLR was lower than in the ICSI group with <50% HBA (p < 0.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between the sperm concentration and the HA-binding capacity (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). We found a closer relationship between HBA score and FR (r = 0.53, NS) than between sperm concentration and FR (r = 0.14, NS). HBA could be considered for sperm selection prior to ICSI because of its success and apparent ability to reduce genetic complications. However, this must be extended to a larger study. PMID:25119820

  5. Sperm competition enhances functional capacity of mammalian spermatozoa

    E-print Network

    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    coevolution between the sexes and may contribute to the explanation of the rapid divergence observed the rules of the competition and thus determine which ejaculate features will improve their competitiveness and enhanced sperm production in taxa as diverse as mammals (reviewed in ref. 3), birds (4), butterflies (5

  6. Smoking cigarettes is associated with increased sperm disomy in teenage men 1 1 This manuscript has been reviewed in accordance with the policy of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for their use. 8 8 This study was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405ENG48 with support from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency IA DW8 9936308 and Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program 3RT0223. Recruitment, field work, and conventional semen analyses were supported by the Czech Ministry of the Environment (Teplice Program), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\/U.S. AID and CEC (PHARE II, EC\\/HEA\\/18\\/CZ), and U.S. Environm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji??? Rubes; Xiu Lowe; Dan Moore; Sally Perreault; Valerie Slott; Donald Evenson; Sherry G Selevan; Andrew J Wyrobek

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether moderate cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in teenage men is associated with increases in disomic sperm and detectable changes in semen quality.Design: Cohort study.Setting: Military recruiting station, Teplice, Czech Republic.Patient(s): Ten current smokers (20 cigarettes per day for at least 2 years, exposure confirmed by urine cotinine) who also consumed alcohol and 15 nonsmokers. All patients

  7. Sperm should evolve to make female meiosis fair.

    PubMed

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Coop, Graham

    2015-04-01

    Genomic conflicts arise when an allele gains an evolutionary advantage at a cost to organismal fitness. Oögenesis is inherently susceptible to such conflicts because alleles compete for inclusion into the egg. Alleles that distort meiosis in their favor (i.e., meiotic drivers) often decrease organismal fitness, and therefore indirectly favor the evolution of mechanisms to suppress meiotic drive. In this light, many facets of oögenesis and gametogenesis have been interpreted as mechanisms of protection against genomic outlaws. That females of many animal species do not complete meiosis until after fertilization, appears to run counter to this interpretation, because this delay provides an opportunity for sperm-acting alleles to meddle with the outcome of female meiosis and help like alleles drive in heterozygous females. Contrary to this perceived danger, the population genetic theory presented herein suggests that, in fact, sperm nearly always evolve to increase the fairness of female meiosis in the face of genomic conflicts. These results are consistent with the apparent sperm dependence of the best characterized female meiotic driversin animals. Rather than providing an opportunity for sperm collaboration in female meiotic drive, the "fertilization requirement" indirectly protects females from meiotic drivers by providing sperm an opportunity to suppress drive. PMID:25662355

  8. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy R; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Guo, Zhong; Teng, Ya-Wen; Thresher, Randy J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-08-01

    Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) catalyzes the conversion of choline to betaine, an important methyl donor and organic osmolyte. We have previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHDH gene that, when present, seem to alter the activity of the CHDH enzyme. These SNPs occur frequently in humans. We created a Chdh(-/-) mouse to determine the functional effects of mutations that result in decreased CHDH activity. Chdh deletion did not affect fetal viability or alter growth or survival of these mice. Only one of eleven Chdh(-/-) males was able to reproduce. Loss of CHDH activity resulted in decreased testicular betaine and increased choline and PCho concentrations. Chdh(+/+) and Chdh(-/-) mice produced comparable amounts of sperm; the impaired fertility was due to diminished sperm motility in the Chdh(-/-) males. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology in Chdh(-/-) sperm. ATP content, total mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and inner mitochondrial membrane polarization were all significantly reduced in sperm from Chdh(-/-) animals. Mitochondrial changes were also detected in liver, kidney, heart, and testis tissues. We suggest that men who have SNPs in CHDH that decrease the activity of the CHDH enzyme could have decreased sperm motility and fertility. PMID:20371614

  9. The sperm flagellum counterbend phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadelha, Hermes; Gaffney, Eamonn; Goriely, Alain

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations of flagellar counterbend in sperm show that the mechanical induction of curvature in one part of a passive flagellum induces a compensatory countercurvature elsewhere. This apparent paradoxical effect cannot be explained using the standard elastic rod theory of Euler and Bernoulli, or even the more general Cosserat theory of rods. Here, we develop a mechanical model capable of predicting the curvature reversal events observed in eukaryotic flagella. This is achieved by allowing the interaction of deformations in different material directions, by not only accounting for structural bending, but also the elastic forces originating from the cross-linking mechanics. Large amplitude configurations can be described analytically and an excellent match between the model and the observed counterbend deformation was found. This allowed a simultaneous estimation of multiple sperm flagellum material parameters, namely the cross-linking sliding resistance, the bending stiffness and the sperm head junction compliance ratio. Our analysis demonstrates that the counterbend emerges as a fundamental property of sliding resistance, which also suggests that cross-linking proteins may contribute to the regulation of the flagellar waveform in swimming sperm via counterbend mechanics. Finally, we investigate how the counterbend-type dynamics in sperm flagella is affected by viscous dissipation.

  10. [The genetic and epigenetic defect from the sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)].

    PubMed

    Ge, Shao-Qin; Kang, Xian-Jiang; Duan, Fei

    2010-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be applied to treat male infertility patients of oligospermia, asthenospermia, teratospermia, azoospermia and failure of the common in-vitro fertilization (IVF), which may overcome the sperm deficiency and even obtain sperms directly from percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE). As for direct injection of a single sperm into an egg, the ICSI disobeys the biological laws of natural insemination, thus leading to high genetic and epigenetic risk for patients owing to genetic and epigenetic defect of sperm. By reviewing the genetic and epigenetic defects of ICSI sperm, as well as related diseases, this article aims at understanding of the risks resulting from the genetic and epigenetic defects of ICSI sperm at a molecular mechanism level. The results show that the quality control of ICSI sperm via detecting its epigenetic factors, such as methylated DNA and acetylated histone, is essential for reducing the genetic and epigenetic risk from ICSI. PMID:20423882

  11. Effects of N-acetyl-l-cysteine and catalase on the viability and motility of chicken sperm during liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Ni?a?ski, Wojciech; Bratkowska, Martyna; Ma?likowski, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and catalase (CAT) on chicken sperm parameters during liquid storage for up to 48h at 5°C. Supplementation of EK extender with NAC (15mM) increased sperm motility after 24h. After 48h, an increase in sperm viability with NAC (5, 15mM) and CAT (100, 300U/mL) was observed, but only treatment with 15mM NAC improved sperm progressive motility. PMID:26051462

  12. Rescue of germline transmission from chimeras by IVF after sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Wen; Willis, Brandon J; Evans, Kristin D; Araiza, Renee S; Lee, Angus Yiu-Fai; Lloyd, K C Kent

    2015-02-01

    Successful production of genetically modified mouse lines is dependent on germline transmission (GLT) of mutant alleles from chimeras. When natural mating fails to achieve GLT due to male infertility, sickness, or other problems, sperm can be harvested from chimeras and used for assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to attempt to "rescue" GLT. However, a rational, evidence-based approach to determine if such extraordinary efforts should be attempted on a chimera has not been established. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the production, quality and genotype of epididymal sperm harvested from male chimeras generated by blastocyst or morula microinjection of gene targeted embryonic stem (ES) cell clones containing a LacZ expression cassette and that failed to achieve GLT. Results of this analysis enabled us to determine the cause of GLT failure, correlate coat color chimerism with the proportion of LacZ-positive sperm, and test the likelihood of achieving GLT by IVF. In 415 chimeras, 332 (80%) produced no offspring by natural mating ("infertile"), while 83 (20%) produced only wildtype offspring ("fertile"). Of the 332 infertile chimeras, 209 (63%) failed to produce any sperm whatsoever, 48 (15%) had extremely poor quality sperm, and 75 (23%) had good quality sperm. These results indicate that most chimeras that do not achieve GLT by natural mating are infertile, and the primary cause of infertility is failed spermatogenesis. Genotyping of sperm from 519 chimeras revealed a significant positive linear correlation between coat color chimerism and mean percentage of LacZ-positive sperm (R(2) = 0.95). Finally, IVF using good quality, LacZ-positive sperm from fertile and infertile chimeras "rescued" GLT for 19 out of 56 genes. We conclude that an assessment of coat color chimerism together with sperm quality and genotype can better inform the selection of chimeras for IVF to rescue GLT than coat color chimerism alone. PMID:25080098

  13. CYP2E1-catalyzed oxidation contributes to the sperm toxicity of 1-bromopropane in mice.

    PubMed

    Garner, C Edwin; Sloan, C; Sumner, S C J; Burgess, J; Davis, J; Etheridge, A; Parham, A; Ghanayem, B I

    2007-03-01

    1-bromopropane (1-BrP) induces dose- and time-dependent reproductive organ toxicity and reduced sperm motility in rodents. The contribution of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to both 1-BrP metabolism and the induction of male reproductive toxicity was investigated using wild-type (WT) and Cyp2e1-/- mice. In gas uptake inhalation studies, the elimination half-life of [1,2,3-(13)C]-1-BrP was longer in Cyp2e1-/- mice relative to WT (3.2 vs. 1.3 h). Urinary metabolites were identified by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. The mercapturic acid of 1-bromo-2-hydroxypropane (2OHBrP) was the major urinary metabolite in WT mice, and products of conjugation of 1-BrP with glutathione (GSH) were insignificant. The ratio of GSH conjugation to 2-hydroxylation increased 5-fold in Cyp2e1-/- mice relative to WT. After 1-BrP exposure, hepatic GSH was decreased by 76% in WT mice vs. 47% in Cyp2e1-/- mice. Despite a 170% increase in 1-BrP exposure in Cyp2e1-/- vs. WT mice, sperm motility in exposed Cyp2e1-/- mice did not change relative to unexposed matched controls. This suggests that metabolites produced through CYP2E1-mediated oxidation may be responsible for 1-BrP-induced sperm toxicity. Both 1-BrP and 2OHBrP inhibited the motility of sperm obtained from WT mice in vitro. However, only 2OHBrP reduced the motility of sperm obtained from Cyp2e1-/- mice in vitro, suggesting that conversion of parent compound to 2OHBrP within the spermatozoa may contribute, at least in part, to reduced motility. Overall, these data suggest that metabolism of 1-BrP is mediated in part by CYP2E1, and activation of 1BrP via this enzyme may contribute to the male reproductive toxicity of this chemical. PMID:17093198

  14. Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. Shackelford; Aaron T. Goetz

    2007-01-01

    With the recognition, afforded by recent evolutionary science, that female infidelity was a recurrent feature of modern humans' evolutionary history has come the development of a unique area in the study of human mating: sperm competition. A form of male–male postcopulatory competition, sperm competition occurs when the sperm of two or more males concurrently occupy the reproductive tract of a

  15. Testicular Sperm Retrieval in Azoospermic Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Pantke; Thorsten Diemer; Marcelo Marconi; Martin Bergmann; Klaus Steger; Hans-Christian Schuppe; Wolfgang Weidner

    2008-01-01

    Context: Sperm retrieval in combination with IVF\\/ICSI is the only medical procedure for an azoospermic man to father a child. Different techniques, especially testicular sperm extraction (TESE), have evolved over time and have dramatically improved the outlook for men with testicular azoospermia. However sperm retrieval rates are associated not only with the operation proposed but especially with a distinct pattern

  16. DNA-fluorometry of mammalian sperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jtirgen Zante; Johannes Schumann; Wolfgang Göhde; Ursula Hacker

    1977-01-01

    The DNA-content of sperm and testicular cells was measured by pulse-cytophotometry with high resolution. From flat sperm symmetric and narrow fluorescence distributions were obtained. Enzymatic treatment with papain or pronase and staining with an ethidiumbromide-mithramycin dye solution generate stoichiometric DNA-staining including that of mature sperm with a coefficient of variation below 2%.

  17. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  18. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  19. Validation of the sperm class analyser CASA system for sperm counting in a busy diagnostic semen analysis laboratory.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Chey G; Kilburn, Sally; Lindsay, Kevin S

    2014-03-01

    Sperm counts have been linked to several fertility outcomes making them an essential parameter of semen analysis. It has become increasingly recognised that Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) provides improved precision over manual methods but that systems are seldom validated robustly for use. The objective of this study was to gather the evidence to validate or reject the Sperm Class Analyser (SCA) as a tool for routine sperm counting in a busy laboratory setting. The criteria examined were comparison with the Improved Neubauer and Leja 20-?m chambers, within and between field precision, sperm concentration linearity from a stock diluted in semen and media, accuracy against internal and external quality material, assessment of uneven flow effects and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to predict fertility in comparison with the Neubauer method. This work demonstrates that SCA CASA technology is not a standalone 'black box', but rather a tool for well-trained staff that allows rapid, high-number sperm counting providing errors are identified and corrected. The system will produce accurate, linear, precise results, with less analytical variance than manual methods that correlate well against the Improved Neubauer chamber. The system provides superior predictive potential for diagnosing fertility problems. PMID:24359435

  20. The effects of opiate consumption on serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Ghaedi, Gholamhossein; Kolahi, Ali Asghar; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Ali Reza

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of opiate consumption on semen quality, sperm function, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, and sperm DNA integrity. A total of 142 opiate addict men (group 1) were enrolled in the study and 146 healthy age matched male volunteers (group 2) served as controls. Two semen analyses were performed in all participants. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) was used to identify sperm DNA integrity. The mean±SD sperm concentration in opiate users and in control subjects was 22.2±4.4 and 66.3±8.3 million per ml, respectively (P=0.002). A significant increase in the amount of fragmented DNA was found in opiate consumers compared with that in controls (36.4±3.8% vs. 27.1±2.4%, P=0.004). Significantly decreased levels of catalase-like and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD) activity were observed in group 1 compared with group 2. Opiate consumption has significant adverse effects on semen quality. In cases of unexplained infertility in men, opium consumption should be considered as a possible factor. PMID:23207164

  1. Ubiquitination Regulates the Morphogenesis and Function of Sperm Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    It is now understood that protein ubiquitination has diverse cellular functions in eukaryotes. The molecular mechanism and physiological significance of ubiquitin-mediated processes have been extensively studied in yeast, Drosophila and mammalian somatic cells. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have emphasized the importance of ubiquitination in spermatogenesis and fertilization. The dysfunction of various ubiquitin systems results in impaired sperm development with abnormal organelle morphology and function, which in turn is highly associated with male infertility. This review will focus on the emerging roles of ubiquitination in biogenesis, function and stability of sperm organelles in mammals. PMID:24709878

  2. Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

  3. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes pretreated with sucrose; and (4) ICSI of equine oocytes. Oocytes were examined at 24 hours for cleavage. No equine oocytes cleaved after IVF or PVI. However, ICSI conducted with equine sperm treated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine resulted in 85% of the oocytes cleaving. Sperm injected into the PV space of equine oocytes did not appear to enter the ooplasm. This study validated the use of bovine oocytes for equine sperm studies and indicates that failure of equine IVF is more than an inability of equine sperm to penetrate the ZP. PMID:24815920

  4. Electrophysiological Evidence for the Presence of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Mouse Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Dulce, Figueiras Fierro; José, Acevedo Juan; Pablo, Martínez; Escoffier, Jessica; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Enrique, Balderas; Gerardo, Orta; Pablo, Visconti; Alberto, Darszon

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sperm must undergo a maturational process, named capacitation, in the female reproductive tract to fertilize the egg. Sperm capacitation is regulated by a cAMP/PKA pathway and involves increases in intracellular Ca2+, pH, Cl?, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and in mouse and some other mammals a membrane potential hyperpolarization. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl? channel modulated by cAMP/PKA and ATP, was detected in mammalian sperm and proposed to modulate capacitation. Our whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from testicular mouse sperm now reveal a Cl? selective component to membrane current that is ATP-dependent, stimulated by cAMP, cGMP and genistein (a CFTR agonist, at low concentrations), and inhibited by DPC and CFTRinh-172, two well-known CFTR antagonists. Furthermore, the Cl? current component activated by cAMP and inhibited by CFTRinh-172 is absent in recordings on testicular sperm from mice possessing the CFTR ?F508 loss-of-function mutation, indicating that CFTR is responsible for this component. A Cl? selective like current component displaying CFTR characteristics was also found in wild type epididymal sperm bearing the cytoplasmatic droplet. Capacitated sperm treated with CFTRinh-172 undergo a shape change, suggesting that CFTR is involved in cell volume regulation. These findings indicate that functional CFTR channels are present in mouse sperm and their biophysical properties are consistent with their proposed participation in capacitation. PMID:22833409

  5. Altered sperm chromatin structure in mice exposed to sodium fluoride through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jundong

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on sperm abnormality, sperm chromatin structure, protamine 1 and protamine 2 (P1 and P2) mRNA expression, and histones expression in sperm in male mice. NaF was orally administrated to male mice at 30, 70, and 150 mg/l for 49 days (more than one spermatogenic cycle). Sperm head and tail abnormalities were significantly enhanced at middle and high doses. Similarly, sperm chromatin structure was also adversely affected by NaF exposure, indicating DNA integrity damage. Furthermore, middle and high NaF significantly reduced the mRNA expressions of P1 and P2, and P1/P2 ratio, whereas the sperm histones level was increased, suggesting the abnormal histone-protamine replacement. Therefore, we concluded that the mechanism by which F induced mice sperm abnormality and DNA integrity damage may involved in the alterations in P1, P2, and histones expression in sperm of mice. PMID:22865829

  6. Honey Supplementation to Semen-Freezing Medium ImprovesHuman Sperm Parameters Post-Thawing

    PubMed Central

    Alsaadi, Rana A-R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of honey supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm motility, concentration, morphology and agglutination. Materials and methods Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1, control) alone, or enriched with 5% honey (G2) or with 10% honey (G3) for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196°C in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post-thawing. Sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post-thawing. Results Results appeared that the percentage of sperm motility for G1 and G2 groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post-thawing when compared to pre-cryopreservation. However, there was no significant difference in the total motility (%) of the post-thaw sperm between the G1 and G2 groups. While there was significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of normal sperm morphology for G1 and G3 groups post-thawing. Post-thawing normal sperm morphology (%) for G3 group was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to G1 and G2 groups. In contrast non significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) was seen in the sperm concentration for all groups post-thawing as compared to pre-cryopreservation groups. After thawing the results reveal significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the sperm agglutination (%) for G3 group as compared to G1 and G2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the supplementation of honey (10%) to cryoprotectant solution results in enhancement of sperm quality post-thawing. PMID:24971130

  7. Sperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Joseph L.

    in expenditure should decrease with increasing numbers of sneaks. Male dung beetles in the genus Onthophagus can. Keywords: alternative mating tactics; dung beetles; male dimorphism; sperm competition 1. INTRODUCTIONSperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles L. W. Simmons* , J. L. Tomkins and J. Hunt

  8. Calcium signaling in sperm: help from prostasomes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dejian

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are equipped with sophisticated Ca2+ signaling mechanisms that are fundamental to sperm's success in fertilization. Unlike most other cells, however, mature sperm generally do not have the luxury of synthesizing new proteins. New evidence indicates that human sperm have a very clever way to solve the conflict between the critical demand for Ca2+ signaling tools and the silence of protein translation. Just before encountering the female reproductive tract, sperm acquire some of the key molecules for Ca2+ signaling from the male reproductive tract itself: prostasomes secreted by the prostate gland. PMID:21586726

  9. Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated lowland rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. M. Bouman; T. P. Tuong

    2001-01-01

    Rice production in Asia needs to increase to feed a growing population whereas water for irrigation is getting scarcer. Major challenges are to (i) save water; (ii) increase water productivity and (iii) produce more rice with less water. This study analyzes the ways in which water-saving irrigation can help to meet these challenges at the field level. The analyses are

  10. Designing Flexible GUI to Increase the Acceptance Rate of Product Data Management Systems in Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeeshan Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Product Data Management (PDM) desktop and web based systems maintain the organizational technical and managerial data to increase the quality of products by improving the processes of development, business process flows, change management, product structure management, project tracking and resource planning. Though PDM is heavily benefiting industry but PDM community is facing a very serious unresolved issue in PDM system

  11. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    EIA retained Turner, Mason & Company to provide analysis of the implications of increasing domestic light tight oil production for U.S. refining, focusing on regional crude supply/demand balances, refinery crude slates, operations, capital investment, product yields, crude oil exports/imports, petroleum product exports, infrastructure constraints and expansions, and crude oil price relationships.

  12. Sperm competition promotes diversity of sperm bundles in Ohomopterus ground beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2007-07-01

    Diversification of sperm morphology has been investigated in the context of sperm competition, but the adaptive significance of sperm bundles is still unclear. In analyzing 10 taxa of the genus Carabus subgenus Ohomopterus and one related Carabus ground beetles, we found that dimorphic sperm bundles occurred in most species with varied degrees of bimodality, whereas sperm were generally monomorphic. Comparative analyses with phylogenetically independent contrasts revealed that the sizes of large and small sperm bundles evolved more rapidly than, and were not correlated with, the length of sperm, suggesting more intense selection on sperm bundle sizes and their independent responses to different evolutionary forces. The size of large sperm bundles was positively correlated with male genital morphology (pertinent to displacement of rival spermatophores) and postcopulatory guarding duration as well as male body length, suggesting that larger sperm bundles have been favored when the risk of spermatophore displacement is high. Larger sperm bundles may be advantageous because of their ability to migrate more rapidly into the spermatheca. In contrast, no clear association was detected between the small sperm bundle size and mating traits despite its rapid diversification. The present study provides the first record of heteromorphic sperm bundles, the diversity of which may be promoted by sperm competition.

  13. Direct Electrophoretic Detection of the Allelic State of Single DNA Molecules in Human Sperm by Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honghua Li; Xiangfeng Cui; Norman Arnheim

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a procedure that allows the detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products derived from a single target DNA molecule in a human sperm without using radioactive probes. With this method, three genetic loci present in a single sperm can be amplified simultaneously. The amplification procedure is specific as well as efficient and permits detection of the PCR

  14. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Hwa; Kim, Do Rim; Kim, Ha Young; Park, Seong Kyu; Chang, Mun Seog

    2014-01-01

    The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression. PMID:24969054

  15. Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

  16. The Sperm Whale, Physeter macrocephalus

    E-print Network

    of the tail- stock. The skin of the trunk is cor- rugated into many series of longitudinal ripples con- tains the spermaceti organ, which is a large reservoir for spermaceti oil. Sperm whales are hunted for this oil as well as for the lower grade oil con- tained in the blubber. The remainder

  17. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

  18. Effects of L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine on testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadi, Elham; Soleimani Mehranjani, Malek; Borzoei, Zahra; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Mirkhani, Hossein; Tabesh, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sperm cells extracted from testes (TESE) have poor chromatin quality and motility. Various substances are used in the laboratory to increase sperm motility and improve the ART outcomes; however, there are few research which considered improving both sperm motility and chromatin quality. Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the improvement of the testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality exposed to L-carnitine (LC) and L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC), which are normally concentrated in testis and epididymis, compared with Pentoxifylline (PF), which used for sperm motility enhancement in IVF procedures. Materials and Methods: TESE samples from 30 male mice divided into four parts. The sperm samples were added to Ham' F10 (control) or the media contained 1.76mM of LC, LAC or PF), then, the samples were kept in the room temperature for 30, 90 and 180 min. At each time step, sperm motility and chromatin quality were assessed. Chromatin quality was evaluated by chromomycin A3 and aniline blue. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p-value less than 0.05 were accepted as a statistically significant difference. Results: The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC. Conclusion: Administration of LC and LAC to the testicular sperm samples can lead to improve both sperm motility and chromatin quality. It may be because they can mimic in vivo sperm condition during late spermatogenesis. PMID:25242977

  19. Lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hawu?a, Wanda; Ula?ska, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Different environmental and lifestyle factors may interfere with the normal disjunction of sister chromatids/chromosomes during meiosis and may cause aneuploidy. The aim of the study was to examine the association between lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy. The study population consisted of 212 healthy men under 45 years of age attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of 20-300×10?mL or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20×10?/mL). All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH (DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, 21). Results from the study suggest that lifestyle factors are related to sperm aneuploidy. A positive relationship was found between coffee drinking everyday and the lack of chromosome X or Y, as well as coffee drinking 1-6 times per week and additional chromosome 18. Wearing boxer shorts decrease the copy number changes in the whole chromosome 18, the number of additional chromosome 18 and the lack of chromosome 13. Additionally, obesity (BMI 30-40 kg/m²) was positively associated with additional chromosome 21 after being adjusted for potential confounders. These findings demonstrate that changing the men's lifestyle habits may contribute to reduction of the incidence of sperm aneuploidy. It is necessary that men continue to follow sensible health advice concerning excess weight, coffee drinking and wearing tight fitting underwear. As this is the first such study to examine different lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy, the results need to be confirmed on larger population. PMID:25152516

  20. Control of sperm concentration is necessary for standardization of sperm cryopreservation in aquatic species: evidence from sperm agglutination in oysters.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-02-01

    A lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms is one of the main reasons for inconsistency observed among various studies. In particular, there have been few attempts to standardize sperm concentration during procedural optimization. This study was intended to call attention to sperm concentration standardization through research of sperm agglutination in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Sperm agglutination after thawing is a relatively frequent phenomenon observed for various aquatic species, especially when sub-optimal cryopreservation protocols are used; however, no systematic attempts have been made to explain this phenomenon. The present study evaluated various factors affecting sperm agglutination of thawed samples from diploid and tetraploid Pacific oysters, and is the first detailed report addressing the sperm agglutination phenomenon of thawed samples from any aquatic organism. Agglutination of oyster sperm was classified into six levels with a scale ranging from 0 (homogenous suspension) to 5 (well-developed "noodles"). It was found that agglutination in thawed samples was mainly due to the lack of sufficient cryoprotectant for a specific sperm concentration. Interestingly, high levels of agglutination did not necessarily lead to low fertilization. On the contrary, some sperm cells appeared to gain protection from the formation of peripheral agglutination within 0.5-ml French straws. The exact mechanism of sperm agglutination remains unclear. However, morphological examination of cross sections of the noodles (agglutination level 5) indicated at least two forms of agglutination (formed with and without cryoprotectant) which could be used as a tool to understand the cryopreservation process within the micro-environment of the straw. Furthermore, the fact that the level of sperm agglutination was directly determined by sperm concentration, in addition to the type of cryoprotectant, cryoprotectant concentration, and cooling and thawing methods emphasized the importance of procedural standardization and systematic optimization and integration of protocols involving multiple factors. PMID:17276426

  1. Sperm competition games: a general model for precopulatory male-male competition.

    PubMed

    Parker, Geoff A; Lessells, Catherine M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive males face a trade-off between expenditure on precopulatory male-male competition--increasing the number of females that they secure as mates--and sperm competition--increasing their fertilization success with those females. Previous sperm allocation models have focused on scramble competition in which males compete by searching for mates and the number of matings rises linearly with precopulatory expenditure. However, recent studies have emphasized contest competition involving precopulatory expenditure on armaments, where winning contests may be highly dependent on marginal increases in relative armament level. Here, we develop a general model of sperm allocation that allows us to examine the effect of all forms of precopulatory competition on sperm allocation patterns. The model predicts that sperm allocation decreases if either the "mate-competition loading,"a, or the number of males competing for each mating, M, increases. Other predictions remain unchanged from previous models: (i) expenditure per ejaculate should increase and then decrease, and (ii) total postcopulatory expenditure should increase, as the level of sperm competition increases. A negative correlation between a and M is biologically plausible, and may buffer deviations from the previous models. There is some support for our predictions from comparative analyses across dung beetle species and frog populations. PMID:23289564

  2. The mechanics of hyperactivation in adhered human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, E. H; Smith, D. J; Gadêlha, H; Gaffney, E. A; Kirkman-Brown, J

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivation is an important phenomenon exhibited by mammalian sperm during the process of acquiring fertilization capacity. The majority of studies have focused on incubation-induced hyperactivation in non-human species, which typically differ in size, shape, and are more homogeneous than human sperm. We develop an alternative approach via drug-induction, using high-speed imaging and analysis of same-cell changes in the flagellar movement of adhered cells. Following stimulation with 4-aminopyridine, approximately two-thirds (21 of 34) of the cells analysed exhibited a waveform with a single characteristic frequency; in all cases, the frequency was lower than before stimulation. The remaining cells (13 of 34) exhibited a more complex motility with multiple-frequency modes. The lowest mode in all cases was lower than the frequency prior to stimulation. Flagellar bending increased in all cells following stimulation and was significantly greater in the multiple-frequency responders. Despite the increased bending, time-averaged hydrodynamic power dissipation decreased significantly when assessed across all cells, the effect being significantly greater in the multiple-frequency responders than single frequency. These results reveal the heterogeneity of responses of human sperm to a hyperactivating stimulus, the methodology being potentially useful for assessing dynamic responses to stimuli in human sperm, and physiological selection of cells for assisted reproduction.

  3. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish.

    PubMed

    Golshan, Mahdi; Hatef, Azadeh; Socha, Magdalena; Milla, Sylvain; Butts, Ian A E; Carnevali, Oliana; Rodina, Marek; Soko?owska-Miko?ajczyk, Miros?awa; Fontaine, Pascal; Linhart, Otomar; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2015-06-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10, and 100?g/L DEHP. To examine DEHP estrogenic activity, one group of goldfish was exposed to 17?-estradiol (5?g/L E2) for comparison. Following 30d of exposure, sperm production was decreased and suppressed in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish, respectively. Sperm motility and velocity were decreased in goldfish exposed to 100 and 10?g/L DEHP at 15s post-sperm activation, respectively. Compared to control, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were decreased at 10 and 1?g/L DEHP at day 15 and 30, respectively. In E2 treated goldfish, 11-KT levels were decreased compared to control during the period of exposure. E2 levels were increased in goldfish exposed to E2, but remained unchanged in DEHP treated goldfish during the period of exposure. StAR mRNA levels encoding regulator of cholesterol transfer to steroidogenesis were decreased in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish following 15 and 30d of exposure, respectively. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were decreased in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish following 15 and 30d of exposure, respectively. In DEHP treated goldfish, gnrh3, kiss1 and its receptor (gpr54) mRNA levels did not change during the experimental period. In E2 treated goldfish, gnrh3 mRNA levels were decreased at day 7, but kiss1 and gpr54 mRNA levels were increased at day 30 of exposure. The mRNA levels of genes encoding testicular LH and androgen receptors remained unchanged in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish. In contrast to E2 treated goldfish, vitellogenin production was not induced in DEHP treated goldfish and mRNA levels of genes with products mediating estrogenic effects remained unchanged or decreased. In conclusion, DEHP interferes with testis and pituitary hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in goldfish and does not exhibit estrogenic activity. PMID:25827748

  4. Quantification of sperm motility by a turbidimetric assay. Correlation to cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Halangk, W; Bohnensack, R

    1986-01-01

    The turbidimetric method according to SOKOLOSKI et al. (Fertil. Steril. 28, 1337-1341, 1977) was used for quantitative measurement of the motility of washed bovine spermatozoa. The method is based on the registration of the increase in absorbance (A538) which is produced by spermatozoa entering the light path after run from the bottom of a photometer cuvette. This increase in absorbance is dependent on the amount of motile cells and their average velocity. The increase in absorbance related to the total cell concentration was found to be a highly reproducible quantity (motility index M). Inhibitors of dynein ATPase (vanadate) and of the mitochondrial ATP-production (KCN, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), oligomycin) produced a diminution of the motility index M in a concentration-dependent manner. Under conditions of oxidative energy metabolism (lactate as substrate) a linear relation between respiration and M existed. Such a relationship was found under treatment of spermatozoa with KCN or vanadate as well as for untreated sperm suspensions. The linear correlation to the respiratory rate justifies to use the proposed motility index as a relative measure of the average motility of a sperm sample. PMID:2939829

  5. Increasing Productivity Through a Combination of Automation and Robotics: A Case Study of Assay Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Cheu; Laurie Myers

    2001-01-01

    The Assay Services Department at Genentech, Inc., is a service laboratory that performs drug level measurement and antibody testing in support of pre-clinical animal studies and human clinical studies. As the number of Genentech products has increased, so have the number of studies, resulting in an annual increase in the number of samples generated and an increased demand for assay

  6. Microfluidic single sperm entrapment and analysis.

    PubMed

    de Wagenaar, B; Berendsen, J T W; Bomer, J G; Olthuis, W; van den Berg, A; Segerink, L I

    2015-03-01

    Selection of healthy spermatozoa is of crucial importance for the success rates of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Although sperm selection for ART procedures is predominantly based on sperm motility, successful fertilization is not predicted by good motility alone. For example, sperm characteristics such as the acrosome state and DNA integrity have shown significant impact on ART outcome. Although fertilization can be achieved with a single spermatozoon of high quality, current quality assessments are population-based and do not allow investigation of multiple sperm characteristics on a single spermatozoon simultaneously. In order to study sperm cells on the single cell level, we designed and characterized a PDMS microfluidic platform that allows single sperm entrapment. After spatially confining individual sperm cells within microfluidic cell traps, the cell viability, chromosomal content and acrosome state were studied. This platform is suitable for the analysis of individual sperm cells, which could be exploited for (non-invasive) sperm analysis and selection by impedance or Raman spectroscopy. PMID:25578490

  7. Increasing Student Interest and Comprehension of Production Planning and Control and Operations Performance Measurement Concepts Using a Production Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, James F., III; Walker, Edward D., II

    2005-01-01

    Production planning and control (PPC) systems and operations performance measures are topics that students generally find both boring and difficult to understand. In the article, the authors present a production line game that they have found to be an effective tool to increase student interest in the topics as well as student comprehension. The…

  8. Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanco, J.M.; Long, J.A.; Gee, G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 ?C versus 21 ?C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 ?C or 21 ?C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 ?C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species.

  9. Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Donoghue, Ann M; Wildt, David E

    2008-02-01

    Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 degrees C versus 21 degrees C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 degrees C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species. PMID:18005955

  10. Standardization of a method to detect bovine sperm-bound anti-sperm antibodies by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Sardoy, MC; Anderson, DE; George, A; Wilkerson, ME; Skinner, S; Ferrer, MS

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to standardize some methodological and analytical aspects of a direct technique to detect sperm-bound anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) in bovine semen using flow cytometry, including the effects of pre-fixation of sperm membranes with formalin buffer solution and inclusion of dead cells in the analysis. Fourteen Angus bulls, including ASA-positive (experimentally induced ASAs) and 10 reproductively normal ASA-negative bulls, were used. Fixation of sperm membranes had no significant effect on the percentage of IgG- or IgA-bound spermatozoa detected by flow cytometry. However, including dead cells in the analysis increased the percentage of IgG-bound spermatozoa in fixed (live and dead 18.6 ± 9.7% and live 1.3 ± 0.5%; median ± SEM) and non-fixed samples (live and dead 18.8 ± 9.2%, live 1.5 ± 0.6%; P = 0.0029), as well as IgA-bound spermatozoa in fixed (live and dead 16.3 ± 6.4%, live 0.3 ± 0.5%) and non-fixed samples (live and dead 21.4 ± 4.6%, live 1.0 ± 0.5%; P = 0.0041) in semen from ASA-negative bulls. Intra-sample, intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.8, 4.6 and 5.3%, respectively, for determination of sperm-bound IgG, and were 2.8, 8.4 and 40.3% for determination of sperm-bound IgA. Despite the high inter-assay CV for IgA determination, all ASA-positive bulls consistently had high percentages of IgA-bound spermatozoa. Flow cytometry correctly identified ASA-positive bulls. Confocal laser microscopy confirmed binding of ASAs to sperm heads and cytoplasmic droplets, and less frequently to midpieces and principal piece. In conclusion, although fixation was not necessary, dead cells should be excluded from the analysis, since ejaculates with a large proportion of dead cells can yield false-positive results. Flow cytometry was accurate and reliable for detection of sperm-bound IgG and IgA and discrimination between ASA-positive and ASA-negative bulls. PMID:22925638

  11. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Sharon T; Horst, Gerhard van der; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  12. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  13. Mouse ICSI with frozen-thawed sperm: the impact of sperm freezing procedure and sperm donor strain.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro N; Jimenéz, Adela; Fernández, Raul; Bury-Madrid, Ninoska; De la Fuente, Julio; Pintado, Belen; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2003-09-01

    Normal mouse offspring can be obtained from oocytes injected with frozen-thawed spermatozoa without cryoprotection, however, embryo development can be affected by sperm freezing procedure and sperm donor strain. In this study we observed that direct contact of mouse spermatozoa with liquid nitrogen did not affect their ability to activate injected oocytes but severely restricted subsequent in vitro embryo development to blastocyst stage. Tris-EDTA buffer and M2 were also shown to be better sperm freezing extenders than DPBS, allowing higher developmental potential. In addition, differences in embryo development obtained by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with frozen-thawed spermatozoa were observed between hybrid sperm donor strains. Frozen-thawed B6D2F1 spermatozoa provided higher embryo development than sperm cells from C57CBAF1. PMID:12874805

  14. Protein kinase C is present in human sperm: Possible role in flagellar motility

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem, R. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel) Tel Aviv Medical Center (Israel)); Paz, G.F.; Homonnai, Z.T. (Tel Aviv Medical Center (Israel)); Kalina, M.; Naor, Z. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel))

    1990-09-01

    The authors report the presence of protein kinase C (PKC) in ejaculated human sperm as revealed by enzymatic activity assay and indirect immunohistochemistry. PKC is localized in the equatorial segment and in the principal piece of the tail. Addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate resulted in increased flagellar motility that was blocked by known PKC inhibitors such as sphingosine, staurosporine, and 1-(5-isoquinoylinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine. A very good correlation was found between the percentage of PKC-stained sperm cells and motility. They propose that PKC is involved in the regulation of flagellar motility in human sperm.

  15. Sperm in peritoneal fluid from a man with ascites: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The finding of sperm in body fluids such as peritoneal fluid is unusual, and has been mostly described in female patients. Case presentation We are reporting the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with complaints of increased abdominal girth, weight gain and epigastric pain. He was subsequently found to have spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sperm in the peritoneal fluid. We describe the laboratory findings and clinical course in this patient. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of sperm in peritoneal fluid in a male patient. PMID:19946502

  16. Sperm fertility and skewed paternity during sperm competition in the Australian long-eared bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hosken

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged sperm storage, rare among mammals, is widespread among bats and may promote sperm competition, assuming stored sperm are fertile. However, while sperm storage has been documented in many bat species, there have been few investigations of the fertility of stored sperm. Related to this, and a fundamental question in the study of competition at the gametic level, is the

  17. DNA fragmentation in frozen sperm of Equus asinus: Zamorano-Leonés, a breed at risk of extinction.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Crespo, F; Gosálvez, A; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; López-Fernández, C; Gósalvez, J

    2008-05-01

    The dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) and sperm viability were analyzed in frozen-thawed sperm samples of Equus asinus (Zamorano-Leonés), a breed at risk of extinction. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using an adaptation of the sperm chromatin dispersion test developed for stallions in five different frozen samples. Sperm were thawed and incubated at different temperatures (37 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 4 degrees C) and sDF was assessed at different times and compared. The mean sDF after thawing at the beginning of the experiment was 18.20+/-14.77% and did not differ significantly from the results of a neutral comet assay (22.0+/-19.34%). The tendency in the sDF of all donkeys indicated that sperm DNA is more sensitive to breakage when incubated at 37 degrees C than when incubated at 25 degrees C or 4 degrees C. Interestingly, the tendency was not the same when different animals were compared, and differences in sDF dynamics were established among individuals. sDF correlated negatively with sperm viability in some individuals but not in others. From a conservation perspective, sDF analysis may offer a new way to assess sperm quality in endangered breeds in order to identify and select the best semen samples for artificial reproduction purposes. In particular, we recommend for artificial insemination the use of semen samples with a slow increase in sDF with time after thawing. PMID:18367243

  18. Potential changes in rat spermatogenesis and sperm parameters after inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S; Hussain, Tajamul

    2013-03-01

    In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system. PMID:23449005

  19. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Ashlee A.; delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    An individual’s nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding. PMID:23185098

  20. Seipin deficiency increases chromocenter fragmentation and disrupts acrosome formation leading to male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, A E; Baumann, C; Li, R; Chen, W; De La Fuente, R; Ye, X

    2015-01-01

    The Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (Bscl2, seipin) gene is involved in adipogenesis. Bscl2(-/-) males were infertile but had normal mating behavior. Both Bscl2(-/-) cauda epididymis sperm count and sperm motility were ~20 × less than control. Bscl2(-/-) seminiferous tubules had relatively normal presence of spermatogonia and spermatocytes but had reduced spermatids and sperm. Spatiotemporal expression analyses in Bscl2(+/+) testes demonstrated prominent Bscl2 transcriptional activity in spermatocytes with a plateau reached around postnatal day 28. Seipin protein localization was most abundant in postmeiotic spermatids, suggesting translational repression of Bscl2 mRNA in spermatocytes. In situ end-labeling plus detected increased spermatid apoptosis in Bscl2(-/-) testis and annexin V detected increased percentage of positive Bscl2(-/-) round spermatids compared with control. Immunofluorescence of marker proteins synaptonemal complex proteins 3 and 1 (SYCP3 and SYCP1), and H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9) in germ cell spreads detected normal meiotic chromosome pairing and homologous chromosome synapsis in Bscl2(-/-) spermatocytes, but significantly increased percentages of round spermatids with chromocenter fragmentation and late spermatids and sperm with chromatin vacuoles, indicating defective chromatin condensation in Bscl2(-/-) spermatids. Bscl2(-/-) late spermatids were disorganized within the seminiferous epithelium, despite normal appearance of Sertoli cells detected by vimentin immunofluorescence. Peanut agglutinin staining revealed various abnormalities of acrosomes in Bscl2(-/-) late spermatids, including the absence, irregular-shaped, and fragmented acrosomes, indicating defective acrosome formation in Bscl2(-/-) late spermatids, which may affect late spermatid orientation in the seminiferous epithelium. Mitotracker strongly stained the midpiece of control sperm but only very weakly labeled the midpiece of Bscl2(-/-) sperm, indicating defective mitochondrial activity that most likely contributed to reduced Bscl2(-/-) sperm motility. These data demonstrate novel roles of seipin in spermatid chromatin integrity, acrosome formation, and mitochondrial activity. Increased spermatid apoptosis, increased chromocenter fragmentation, defective chromatin condensation, abnormal acrosome formation, and defective mitochondrial activity contributed to decreased sperm production and defective sperm that resulted in Bscl2(-/-) male infertility. PMID:26181198

  1. Emodin inhibits human sperm functions by reducing sperm [Ca(2+)]i and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Li, Na; He, Yuan-Qiao; Weng, Shi-Qi; Wang, Tao; Zou, Qian-Xing; Zeng, Xu-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Emodin, a bioactive anthraquinone widely used in Chinese traditional medicine, disrupts mouse testicular gene expression in vivo. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of emodin to human sperm in vitro. Different doses of emodin (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400?M) were applied to ejaculated human sperm. The results indicated that 100, 200 and 400?M emodin significantly inhibited the total motility, progressive motility and linear velocity of human sperm. In addition, sperm's ability to penetrate viscous medium together with progesterone induced capacitation and acrosome reaction was also adversely affected by emodin. In contrast, emodin did not affect sperm viability. Furthermore, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and tyrosine phosphorylation, which serve as key regulators of sperm function, were dose-dependently reduced by emodin (50-400?M). These results suggest that emodin inhibits human sperm functions by reducing sperm [Ca(2+)]i and suppressing tyrosine phosphorylation in vitro. PMID:25463531

  2. Flow cytometry analysis reveals a decrease in intracellular sodium during sperm capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Escoffier, Jessica; Krapf, Dario; Navarrete, Felipe; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian sperm require time in the female tract in order to be able to fertilize an egg. The physiological changes that render the sperm able to fertilize are known as capacitation. Capacitation is associated with an increase in intracellular pH, an increase in intracellular calcium and phosphorylation of different proteins. This process is also accompanied by the hyperpolarization of the sperm plasma membrane potential. Recently, we presented evidence showing that epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) are present in mature sperm and that ENaCs are blocked during capacitation. In the present work, we used flow cytometry to analyze changes in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) during capacitation in individual cells. Our results indicate that capacitated sperm have lower Na+ concentrations. Using sperm with green fluorescent protein in their acrosomes, it was shown that the lower [Na+]i concentration only occurs in sperm having intact acrosomes. ENaC inhibition has been shown in other cell types to depend on the activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In non-capacitated sperm, amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, and genistein, a CFTR activator, caused a decrease in [Na+]i, suggesting that also in these cells [Na+]i is dependent on the crosstalk between ENaC and CFTR. In addition, PKA inhibition blocked [Na+]i decrease in capacitated sperm. Altogether, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that the capacitation-associated hyperpolarization involves a decrease in [Na+]i mediated by inhibition of ENaC and regulated by PKA through activation of CFTR channels. PMID:22302997

  3. Sperm interaction with fallopian tube apical membrane enhances sperm motility and delays capacitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shona C. Murray; T. Timothy Smith

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To understand the effect of sperm contact with the apical plasma membrane of tubal epithelial cells on sperm motility, velocity, and capacitation.Design: Prospective, controlled in vitro study.Setting: University medical center.Patient(s): Women of reproductive age undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynecologic indications and normozoospermic donors of proved fertility.Main Outcome Measure(s): Sperm motility as measured manually, velocity as measured by computer-assisted sperm

  4. Focus on intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI): a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Murisier, Fabien; Piva, Isabella; Germond, Marc; Marci, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the recommended treatment in many cases of male-factor infertility. Several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between optimal sperm morphology and positive ICSI outcomes. In fact, spermatozoa with severe abnormalities of the head are well documented to be associated with low fertilisation, implantation and pregnancy rates. However, a spermatozoon which is classified as 'normal' by microscopic observation at low magnification could contain ultrastructural defects that impair both the fertilisation process and embryonic development. The intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) procedure changed the perception of how a spermatozoon suitable for injection should appear. Sperm selection is carried out at ×6000 magnification, allowing improved assessment of the sperm nucleus. Currently, standardized clinical indications for IMSI are lacking and the candidates are selected on the grounds of their medical history or of a careful analysis of the sperm suspension. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm the advantages of IMSI in specific groups of patients. In addition to providing a brief overview of the IMSI procedure, this study aims to review the literature, which explains the theoretical basis and the clinical outcomes of this technique. Several reports show that IMSI is associated with improved implantation and clinical pregnancy rates as well as lower abortion rates when compared to ICSI. Although a possible correlation between the sperm's abnormal nucleus shape, increased DNA fragmentation and negative laboratory and clinical outcomes has been long investigated, the results are conflicting. PMID:23832017

  5. Increasing nitrogen deposition enhances post-drought recovery of grassland productivity in the Mongolian steppe.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Toshihiko; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Shinoda, Masato

    2012-11-01

    Arid regions are prone to drought because annual rainfall accumulation depends on a few rainfall events. Natural plant communities are damaged by drought, but atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition may enhance the recovery of plant productivity after drought. Here, we investigated the effect of increasing N deposition on post-drought recovery of grassland productivity in the Mongolian steppe, and we examined the influence of grazing in this recovery. We added different amounts of N to a Mongolian grassland during two sequential drought years (2006 and 2007) and the subsequent 3 years of normal rainfall (2008-2010) under grazed and nongrazed conditions. Aboveground biomass and number of shoots were surveyed annually for each species. Nitrogen addition increased grassland productivity after drought irrespective of the grazing regime. The increase in grassland productivity was associated with an increase in the size of an annual, Salsola collina, under grazed conditions, and with an increase in shoot emergence of a perennial, Artemisia adamsii, under nongrazed conditions. The addition of low N content simulating N deposition around the study area by the year 2050 did not significantly increase grassland productivity. Our results suggest that increasing N deposition can enhance grassland recovery after a drought even in arid environments, such as the Mongolian steppe. This enhancement may be accompanied by a loss of grassland quality caused by an increase in the unpalatable species A. adamsii and largely depends on future human activities and the consequent deposition of N in Mongolia. PMID:22584584

  6. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in...

  7. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in...

  8. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in...

  9. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in...

  10. 21 CFR 173.275 - Hydrogenated sperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated sperm oil. 173.275 Section 173...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...173.275 Hydrogenated sperm oil. The food additive hydrogenated sperm oil may be safely used in...

  11. The Case for an Unregulated Private Sperm Donation Market

    E-print Network

    Acker, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Donation? Although sperm donation for human conception datesHuman Services to protect her right to receive privately donated sperm.sperm is an inherent characteristic and an intrinsic part of being a male human, and

  12. The relationship between exposure to air pollution and sperm disomy.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Pola?ska, Kinga; Radwan, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Ula?ska, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The causes of the chromosome abnormalities have been studied for decades. It has been suggested that exposure to various environmental agents can induce chromosomal abnormalities in germ cells. This study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to specific air pollutants increases sperm disomy. The study population consisted of 212 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes. They represented a subset of men in a multicenter parent study conducted in Poland to evaluate environmental factors and male fertility. Sperm aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y was assessed using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. Air quality data were obtained from the AirBase database. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, temperature (90 days), season, past diseases, abstinence interval, distance from the monitoring station, concentration, motility and morphology, positive associations were observed between exposure to PM2.5 and disomy Y (P = 0.001), sex chromosome disomy (P = 0.05) and disomy 21 (P = 0.03). Exposure to PM10 was associated with disomy 21 (P = 0.02). Conversely, exposure to ozone, CO, SO2, and NOx did not affect sperm aneuploidy. A separate analysis conducted among men who were nonsmokers (n = 117) showed that the relationship between PM2.5 and disomy Y and disomy 21 remained significant (P = 0.01, P = 0.05, respectively). The present findings indicate that exposure to air pollution induces sperm aneuploidy. PMID:24989325

  13. Increasing Well Productivity in Gas Condensate Wells in Qatar's North Field 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Nathan

    2010-07-14

    INCREASING WELL PRODUCTIVITY IN GAS CONDENSATE WELLS IN QATAR?S NORTH FIELD A Thesis by NATHAN MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering INCREASING WELL PRODUCTIVITY IN GAS CONDENSATE WELLS IN QATAR?S NORTH FIELD A Thesis by NATHAN MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  14. Trade within an industry in the presence of vertical product differentiation and dynamic increasing returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Pigliaru

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates a case of trade with dynamic learning, a continuum of varieties of a vertically differentiated product, and two countries differing only slightly in population size. The results are as follows. Since increasing returns continuously allow consumers to afford higher-quality versions of the good, a quality-based product cycle is generally required for the two initial market shares to

  15. Cryopreservation of domestic animal sperm cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Barbas; R. D. Mascarenhas

    2009-01-01

    Sperm cells are the endpoint of male spermatogenesis and have particular anatomic and metabolic features. Sperm cryopreservation\\u000a and storage currently require liquid nitrogen or ultralow refrigeration methods for long or short term storage, which requires\\u000a routine maintenance and extensive space requirements. Conserving sperms have several purposes such as artificial reproductive\\u000a technologies (ART), species conservation and clinical medicine. The combinations of

  16. Postnatal Effects of Sperm Chromatin Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Pérez-Crespo; Raúl Fernández-González; Miguel Ángel Ramírez; Eva Pericuesta; Alexandra Calle; Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán

    \\u000a The use of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA has been linked to ­developmental and postnatal effects in animal models. Environmental\\u000a and toxic factors such as radiation, heat stress, air pollution, chemotherapeutic agents, etc. are known to have detrimental\\u000a effects on sperm chromatin. Sperm chromatin damage has also been observed following sperm manipulation techniques (freeze–thawing\\u000a without cryoprotectants, freeze-drying, preincubation under different conditions,

  17. Functional significance of the outer dense fibers of mammalian sperm examined by computer simulations with the geometric clutch model.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, C B

    1996-01-01

    The flagella of mammalian sperm possess certain structural characteristics that distinguish them from simple flagella. Most notable of these features are the sheath (surrounding the axoneme), the outer dense fibers of ODFs (that are attached to the outer doublets), and the connecting piece (which anchors the ODFs at the base of the flagellum). In this study, the significance of these specialized axonemal elements is explored. Their impact on microtubule sliding and force production within the axoneme is specifically analyzed. A working hypothesis is developed based on the premise that forces produced by interdoublet sliding are transferred to the ODFs. In this way, the torque required to bend the flagellum is developed between the ODFs, which are anchored in the connecting piece. This working hypothesis was incorporated into the pre-existing "geometric clutch" model that earlier simulated only cilia and simple flagella. The characteristic length and stiffness of bovine sperm flagella were specified as modelling parameters. Additionally, the inter-ODF spacing of bull sperm was incorporated to calculate doublet sliding and bending torque. The resultant computer-simulated pattern of flagellar beating possesses many of the attributes of the beat of a live bull sperm flagellum. Notably, this life-like simulation can be produced using parameters for the central axonemal "motor" that are comparable to those effective in modelling a simple flagellum. In the proposed scheme, the accessory structures of the mammalian sperm axoneme provide increased stiffness while at the same time providing a means to proportionately raise the bending torque to overcome that additional flexural rigidity. This capacity is due to the inter-ODF distances being larger than the corresponding interdoublet spacings. If force is transmitted to the flagellar base by way of the ODFs, then the larger effective diameter generates both a greater bending torque and increased interdoublet sliding. This has the interesting effect of consolidating the energy from more dynein cross-bridges into the production of a single bend. Consequently. greater bending torque development is permitted than would be possible in a simple flagellum. In This way, the same 9 + 2 organization of a simple flagellum can power a much larger (and stiffer) version than would otherwise be possible. PMID:8871813

  18. Autoradiographic visualization of the mouse egg's sperm receptor bound to sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Bleil, J.D.; Wassarman, P.M.

    1986-04-01

    The extracellular coat, or zona pellucida, of mammalian eggs contains species-specific receptors to which sperm bind as a prelude to fertilization. In mice, ZP3, one of only three zona pellucida glycoproteins, serves as sperm receptor. Acrosome-intact, but not acrosome-reacted, mouse sperm recognize and interact with specific O-linked oligosaccharides of ZP3 resulting in sperm-egg binding. Binding, in turn, causes sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction; a membrane fusion event that results in loss of plasma membrane at the anterior region of the head and exposure of inner acrosomal membrane with its associated acrosomal contents. Bound, acrosome-reacted sperm are able to penetrate the zona pellucida and fuse with the egg's plasma membrane (fertilization). In the present report, we examined binding of radioiodinated, purified, egg ZP3 to both acrosome intact and acrosome reacted sperm by whole-mount autoradiography. Silver grains due to bound 125I-ZP3 were found localized to the acrosomal cap region of heads of acrosome-reacted sperm. Under the same conditions, 125I-fetuin bound at only background levels to heads of both acrosome-intact and -reacted sperm, and 125I-ZP2, another zona pellucida glycoprotein, bound preferentially to acrosome-reacted sperm. These results provide visual evidence that ZP3 binds preferentially and specifically to heads of acrosome intact sperm; properties expected of the mouse egg's sperm receptor.

  19. RNA in situ hybridization makes sperm doesn't make sperm

    E-print Network

    RNA in situ hybridization makes sperm doesn't make sperm #12;spe-47 promoter spe-47 3' UTR structures in developing sperm: the Fibrous Body (FB) Membranous Organelle (MO) complexes. A mutation in spe regions of the protein. #12;Structural alignment of SPE-8 with crystal structures from human c-Abl protein

  20. Direct human influence on atmospheric CO2 seasonality from increased cropland productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Josh M.; Frolking, Steve; Kort, Eric A.; Ray, Deepak K.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Ramankutty, Navin; Friedl, Mark A.

    2014-11-01

    Ground- and aircraft-based measurements show that the seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has increased by as much as 50 per cent over the past 50 years. This increase has been linked to changes in temperate, boreal and arctic ecosystem properties and processes such as enhanced photosynthesis, increased heterotrophic respiration, and expansion of woody vegetation. However, the precise causal mechanisms behind the observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality remain unclear. Here we use production statistics and a carbon accounting model to show that increases in agricultural productivity, which have been largely overlooked in previous investigations, explain as much as a quarter of the observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality. Specifically, Northern Hemisphere extratropical maize, wheat, rice, and soybean production grew by 240 per cent between 1961 and 2008, thereby increasing the amount of net carbon uptake by croplands during the Northern Hemisphere growing season by 0.33 petagrams. Maize alone accounts for two-thirds of this change, owing mostly to agricultural intensification within concentrated production zones in the midwestern United States and northern China. Maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans account for about 68 per cent of extratropical dry biomass production, so it is likely that the total impact of increased agricultural production exceeds the amount quantified here.

  1. Direct human influence on atmospheric CO2 seasonality from increased cropland productivity.

    PubMed

    Gray, Josh M; Frolking, Steve; Kort, Eric A; Ray, Deepak K; Kucharik, Christopher J; Ramankutty, Navin; Friedl, Mark A

    2014-11-20

    Ground- and aircraft-based measurements show that the seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has increased by as much as 50 per cent over the past 50 years. This increase has been linked to changes in temperate, boreal and arctic ecosystem properties and processes such as enhanced photosynthesis, increased heterotrophic respiration, and expansion of woody vegetation. However, the precise causal mechanisms behind the observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality remain unclear. Here we use production statistics and a carbon accounting model to show that increases in agricultural productivity, which have been largely overlooked in previous investigations, explain as much as a quarter of the observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality. Specifically, Northern Hemisphere extratropical maize, wheat, rice, and soybean production grew by 240 per cent between 1961 and 2008, thereby increasing the amount of net carbon uptake by croplands during the Northern Hemisphere growing season by 0.33 petagrams. Maize alone accounts for two-thirds of this change, owing mostly to agricultural intensification within concentrated production zones in the midwestern United States and northern China. Maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans account for about 68 per cent of extratropical dry biomass production, so it is likely that the total impact of increased agricultural production exceeds the amount quantified here. PMID:25409830

  2. Synthetic Feedback Loop Model for Increasing Microbial Biofuel Production Using a Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Mary E.; Dunlop, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Current biofuel production methods use engineered bacteria to break down cellulose and convert it to biofuel. A major challenge in microbial fuel production is that increasing biofuel yields can be limited by the toxicity of the biofuel to the organism that is producing it. Previous research has demonstrated that efflux pumps are effective at increasing tolerance to various biofuels. However, when overexpressed, efflux pumps burden cells, which hinders growth and slows biofuel production. Therefore, the toxicity of the biofuel must be balanced with the toxicity of pump overexpression. We have developed a mathematical model for cell growth and biofuel production that implements a synthetic feedback loop using a biosensor to control efflux pump expression. In this way, the production rate will be maximal when the concentration of biofuel is low because the cell does not expend energy expressing efflux pumps when they are not needed. Additionally, the microbe is able to adapt to toxic conditions by triggering the expression of efflux pumps, which allow it to continue biofuel production. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the feedback sensor model is insensitive to many system parameters, but a few key parameters can influence growth and production. In comparison to systems that express efflux pumps at a constant level, the feedback sensor increases overall biofuel production by delaying pump expression until it is needed. This result is more pronounced when model parameters are variable because the system can use feedback to adjust to the actual rate of biofuel production. PMID:23112794

  3. Perinatal exposure to low doses of tributyltin chloride reduces sperm count and quality in mice.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiliang; Li, Peng; Xin, Quanbing; Li, Xuewen; An, Lihong; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) during early development might lead to adverse health outcomes later in life. Tributyltin (TBT), a proven ED, is widely used in consumer goods and industrial products. Herein we demonstrate the effects of low doses of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) on reproduction of male KM mice. Pregnant mice were administered by gavage with 0, 1, 10, or 100 ?g TBTCl/kg body weight/day from day 6 of pregnancy through the period of lactation. TBTCl dramatically decreased sperm counts and motility on postnatal days (PNDs) 49 and 152. Meanwhile, a significant increase in sperm abnormality was observed in exposed mice on PND 49, but comparable to that in the control on PND 152. The histopathological analysis of testes of treated animals showed a dose-dependent increase in sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. Mice treated with 10 ?g TBTCl/kg exhibited decreased intratesticular 17?-estradiol (E2) levels on PND 49, and then followed by an obvious recovery on PND 152. While, no significant differences in serum E2, testosterone (T) levels and intratesticular T levels were detectable between control and TBTCl-exposed offspring at the sacrifice. These results suggest that perinatal TBTCl exposure is implicated in causing long lasting alterations in male reproductive system and these changes may persist far into adulthood. PMID:23913619

  4. Sperm Size Evolution in Drosophila : Inter and Intraspecific Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Joly; Abraham Korol; Eviatar Nevo

    2004-01-01

    Numerous reports were devoted to the variation of sperm length in relation to sperm competition amongst species. However, studies on intraspecific variations of sperm size are very scarce and the number of sperm measured, very limited. This paper investigates within-individual, between-individual and between-population variation of sperm length in the two cosmopolitan species, D. simulans and D. melanogaster. Sperm length distributions

  5. Alteration of sperm protein profile induced by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Xu, Wangjie; Miao, Maohua; Zhu, Zijue; Dai, Jingbo; Chen, Zhong; Fang, Peng; Wu, Junqing; Nie, Dongsheng; Wang, Lianyun; Wang, Zhaoxia; Qiao, Zhongdong; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with lower semen quality, but how cigarette smoking changes the semen quality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to screen the differentially expressed proteins in the sperm of mice with daily exposure to cigarette smoke. The 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses results showed that the mouse sperm protein profile was altered by cigarette smoking. And 22 of the most abundant proteins that correspond to differentially expressed spots in 2DE gels of the sperm samples were identified. These proteins were classified into different groups based on their functions, such as energy metabolism, reproduction, and structural molecules. Furthermore, the 2DE and MS results of five proteins (Aldoa, ATP5a1, Gpx4, Cs, and Spatc1) were validated by western blot analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that except Spatc1 the other four proteins showed statistically significant different protein levels between the smoking group and the control group (P < 0.05). The expressions of three genes (Aldoa, Gpx4, and Spatc1) were significantly different (P < 0.05) at transcription level between the smoking group and the control group. In addition, five proteins (Aldoa, ATP5a1, Spatc1, Cs, and Gpx4) in human sperm samples from 30 male smokers and 30 non-smokers were detected by western blot analysis. Two proteins (Aldoa and Cs) that are associated with energy production were found to be significantly altered, suggesting that these proteins may be potential diagnostic markers for evaluation of smoking risk in sperm. Further study of these proteins may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying infertility in smoking persons. PMID:26063603

  6. Computer-assisted sperm head morphometry analysis (ASMA) of cryopreserved ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gravance, C G; Champion, Z J; Casey, P J

    1998-04-15

    Normal sperm morphology has been shown to be indicative of male fertility; however, subjective methods of assessing morphology are highly variable. Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (ASMA) has been developed for the objective analysis of sperm head dimensions. Developing applicable protocols for sperm head morphometry analysis increases the efficiency of these systems. The objective of the current study was to develop accurate methods for employing ASMA of ram sperm heads. Staining methods, optimal sperm sample numbers microscopic magnification and sampling variation within and between technicians were assessed. Frozen semen from 10 fertile rams was thawed and prepared on slides for morphometric analysis. Staining spermatozoa with hematoxylin and rose bengal stains yielded the best results. Ram sperm head morphometry was accurately evaluated on at least 100 spermatozoa at x 40 objective magnification. Using these techniques, a sample could be analyzed in approximately 3 min. No significant differences in sperm head measurements were detected between 2 technicians. The system properly recognized and digitized ram spermatozoa 95% of the time. The morphometric measurements of sperm heads for all rams were as follows: length = 8.08 microns, width = 4.80 microns, width:length ratio = 0.59, area = 29.13 micron 2 and perimeter = 23.93 microns. The mean within analysis coefficients of variation for all individual analyses and parameters ranged from 4.8% for length to 6.0% for area. The variation between replicate analysis was 2.4% or less for both technicians. When applying proper sample preparation and analysis procedures no differences in measurements or variation were observed between the 2 system operators. PMID:10732059

  7. Sperm motility initiation and duration in a euryhaline fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    The medaka, Oryzias latipes, is a well-recognized fish model for biomedical research. An understanding of gamete characteristics is necessary for experimental manipulations such as artificial fertilization and sperm cryopreservation. The goal of this study was to investigate sperm characteristics of motility initiation, duration, and retention in medaka. First, motility was initiated by osmolality values ranging from 25 to 686 mOsm/kg, which included deionized water and hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic Hanks’ balanced salt solution. The percentage of motile sperm was >80% when osmolality was <315 mOsm/kg and decreased as osmolality increased. This is different from most fish with external fertilization in which sperm motility can be initiated by hypotonic (for freshwater fish) or hypertonic (for marine fish) solutions or by altering the concentration of specific ions such as potassium (e.g., in salmonids). Second, upon activation, the sperm remained continuously motile, with reserve capacity, for as long as 1 wk during storage at 4 °C. This was also different from other externally fertilizing fish, in which motility is typically maintained for seconds to several minutes. Third, after changing the osmolality to 46 to 68 mOsm/kg by adding deionized water, the motility of sperm held at 274 to 500 mOsm/kg was higher than the original motility (P ? 0.035) after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage at 4 °C. Fourth, the addition of glucose had no effect on maintaining sperm motility during refrigerated storage. To our knowledge, this combination of sperm motility characteristics is reported for the first time in fish and may be unique to medaka or may represent an undescribed modality of sperm behavior within euryhaline fish. PMID:19464046

  8. Sex ratio in normal and disomic sperm: Evidence that the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.K.; Millie, E.A.; Hassold, T.J. [Case Western Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    In humans, deviations from a 1:1 male:female ratio have been identified in both chromosomally normal and trisomic live births: among normal newborns there is a slight excess of males, among trisomy 18 live borns a large excess of females, and among trisomy 21 live borns an excess of males. These differences could arise from differential production of or fertilization by Y- or X-bearing sperm or from selection against male or female conceptions. To examine the proportion of Y- and X- bearing sperm in normal sperm and in sperm disomic for chromosomes 18 or 21, we used three-color FISH (to the X and Y and either chromosome 18 or chromosome 21) to analyze > 300,000 sperm from 24 men. In apparently normal sperm, the sex ratio was nearly 1:1 (148,074 Y-bearing to 148,657 X-bearing sperm), and the value was not affected by the age of the donor. Certain of the donors, however, had significant excesses of Y- or X-bearing sperm. In disomy 18 sperm, there were virtually identical numbers of Y- and X-bearing sperm; thus, the excess of females in trisomy 18 presumably is due to selection against male trisomic conceptions. In contrast, we observed 69 Y-bearing and 44 X-bearing sperm disomic for chromosome 21. This is consistent with previous molecular studies, which have identified an excess of males among paternally derived cases of trisomy 21, and suggests that some of the excess of males among Down syndrome individuals is attributable to a nondisjunctional mechanism in which the extra chromosome 21 preferentially segregates with the Y chromosome. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Post-thaw viability of bull AI-doses with low-sperm numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ballester; A. Johannisson; F. Saravia; M. Håård; H. Gustafsson; D. Bajramovic; H. Rodriguez-Martinez

    2007-01-01

    Use of AI-doses containing low-sperm numbers are increasingly been used to optimise use of elite bulls as well as to accommodate an eventual wider application of sex-sorted semen. Since spermatozoa might, however, suffer from high extension rates, thus compromising fertility, this study evaluated the post-thaw sperm quality of semen from commercial progeny-tested, high-ranked AI-sires whose semen was within acceptable limits

  10. Boar sperm quality in lines of pigs selected for either ovulation rate or uterine capacity.

    PubMed

    Freking, B A; Purdy, P H; Spiller, S F; Welsh, C S; Blackburn, H D

    2012-08-01

    Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to conserve the unique germplasm for the future and to characterize sperm quality as a correlated response to the selection criterion imposed compared with an unselected control line (CO). Boars representing genetic diversity available in all 3 lines were produced in 2 farrowing seasons. Season 1 was born in September 2005 and was sampled for semen characteristics in October 2006. Season 2 was born in March 2006 and was sampled for semen characteristics in February and March 2007. Each boar (n = 60) was collected twice. The sperm-rich fraction was obtained, and volume and concentration of sperm cells were measured to estimate total sperm production. Each ejaculate was extended 1:3 (vol/vol) with Androhep Plus (Minitube, Verona, WI) and was packed for shipping to the National Animal Germplasm Program laboratory for processing into frozen straws. Semen quality was measured by computer-assisted semen analysis at 3 semen processing points: fresh (FR), 24 h after extender added (E), and postthaw (PT). A mixed model ANOVA was applied to the data. Fixed effects of farrowing season, line, and 2-way interactions were fitted. The random effect of boar (n = 60) within farrowing season and line was used to test line differences. Sperm concentration was not different (P = 0.18) among the lines (0.594 × 10(9), 0.691 × 10(9), and 0.676 × 10(9) cells/mL for CO, OR, and UC lines, respectively). However, significance (P = 0.04) was detected for the volume of the sperm-rich fraction, greatest for OR (86.4 mL), intermediate for UC (75.5 mL), and least for CO (70.2 mL). Line differences were thus detected (P = 0.02) for total sperm production per ejaculate, greatest for OR (54.9 × 10(9)), intermediate for UC (48.7 × 10(9)), and least for CO (40.5 × 10(9)). A larger percentage of progressively motile sperm and greater estimates of sperm velocity only at processing point E (P < 0.01) were detected in favor of CO. Estimates of motility, velocity, and other parameters of sperm movement measured on E processing points were positively correlated with the same estimates obtained PT, but the magnitude was low to moderate (r range -0.03 to 0.23). Thus, selection for component traits of female reproduction had a favorable effect on total sperm production of boars. PMID:22896731

  11. Boar sperm quality in lines of pigs selected for either ovulation rate or uterine capacity.

    PubMed

    Freking, B A; Purdy, P H; Spiller, S F; Welsh, C S; Blackburn, H D

    2012-02-10

    Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to conserve the unique germplasm for the future and to characterize sperm quality as a correlated response to the selection criterion imposed compared to an unselected control line (CO). Boars representing genetic diversity available in all 3 lines were produced in 2 farrowing seasons. Season 1 was born in September 2005 and sampled for semen characteristics in October 2006. Season 2 was born in March 2006 and sampled for semen characteristics in February and March 2007. Each boar (n = 60) was collected twice. The sperm-rich fraction was obtained and volume and concentration of sperm cells were measured to estimate total sperm production. Each ejaculate was extended 1:3 vol/vol with Androhep Plus (Minitube, Verona, WI) and packed for shipping to the National Animal Germplasm Program laboratory for processing into frozen straws. Semen quality was measured by computer-assisted semen analysis at 3 semen processing points: fresh (FR), 24 h after extender added (E), and post-thaw (PT). A mixed model analysis of variance was applied to the data. Fixed effects of farrowing season, line and 2-way interactions were fitted. Random effect of boar (n = 60) within farrowing season and line was used to test line differences. Sperm concentration was not different (P = 0.18) among the lines (0.594 × 10(9), 0.691 × 10(9), and 0.676 × 10(9) cells/mL) for CO, OR, and UC lines, respectively. However, significance (P = 0.04) was detected for volume of the sperm-rich fraction, greatest for OR (86.4 mL), intermediate for UC (75.5 mL), and least for CO (70.2 mL). Line differences were thus detected (P = 0.02) for total sperm production per ejaculate, greatest for OR (54.9 × 10(9)), intermediate for UC (48.7 × 10(9)), and least for CO (40.5 × 10(9)). A larger percentage of progressively motile sperm and greater estimates of sperm velocity only at processing point E (P < 0.01) were detected in favor of CO. Estimates of motility, velocity, and other parameters of sperm movement measured on E processing points were positively correlated with the same estimates obtained PT but the magnitude was low to moderate (r range -0.03 to 0.23). Thus, selection for component traits of female reproduction had a favorable effect on total sperm production of boars. PMID:22328726

  12. Sexual selection and the evolution of sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Lüpold, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Sperm experience intense and varied selection that dramatically impacts the evolution of sperm quality. Selection acts to ensure that sperm are fertilization-competent and able to overcome the many challenges experienced on their way towards eggs. However, simply being able to fertilize an egg is not enough to ensure male fertility in most species. Owing to the prevalence of female multiple mating throughout the animal kingdom, successful fertilization requires sperm to outcompete rival sperm. In addition, females can actively influence sperm quality, storage or utilization to influence male fertility. This review provides an overview of how these selective forces influence the evolution of sperm quality. After exploring the link between sperm traits and male fertility, we examine how post-mating competition between rival ejaculates influences the evolution of sperm quality. We then describe how complex genetic, social and sexual interactions influence sperm quality, focusing on the importance of seminal fluid and interactions between sperm and the female's reproductive tract. In light of the complexities of selection on sperm traits, greater use of multivariate approaches that incorporate male-male, sperm-sperm and sperm-female interactions to study sperm quality will enhance our understanding of how selection acts on sperm traits and factors influencing male fertility. Because the metric of male reproductive success--fertilization--is the same across the animal kingdom, we argue that information about sperm evolution gained from non-human animals has enormous potential to further our understanding of the factors that impact human fertility. PMID:25323970

  13. Productivity of Ospreys in Connecticut-Long Island Increases as DDE Residues Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Spitzer; Robert W. Risebrough; Wayman Walker II; Robert Hernandez; Alan Poole; Dennis Puleston; Ian C. T. Nisbet

    1978-01-01

    Nesting success of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in the Connecticut-Long Island area has increased since 1973 and is now approaching the levels recorded prior to the 1950's. Simultaneously, DDE and dieldrin residues have declined in unhatched eggs. Levels of polychorinated biphenyls have shown no changes over the period 1969 to 1976. The increase in productivity is attributed primarily to lower

  14. Alterations to the Bull Sperm Surface Proteins That Bind Sperm to Oviductal Epithelium1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-hsuan; Suarez, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three Binder of SPerm proteins (BSP1, BSP3, BSP5) are secreted by bovine seminal vesicles into seminal plasma and adsorbed onto sperm. When sperm inseminated into the female reach the oviduct, the BSP proteins bind them to its epithelial lining, forming a sperm storage reservoir. Previously, we reported that binding of capacitated sperm to oviductal epithelium in vitro is lower than that of uncapacitated sperm and we proposed that reduced binding was due to loss of BSP proteins during capacitation. Because of differences in amino acid sequences, we predicted that each BSP would respond differently to capacitating conditions. To test whether all three BSP proteins were lost from sperm during capacitation and whether the kinetics of loss differed among the three BSP proteins, ejaculated bull sperm were incubated under various capacitating conditions, and then the amounts of BSP proteins remaining on the sperm were assayed by Western blotting. Capacitation was assayed by analysis of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. While loss of BSP1 was not detected, most of the BSP5 was lost from sperm during incubation in TALP medium, even without addition of the capacitation enhancers heparin and dbcAMP-IBMX. Surprisingly, a smaller molecular mass was detected by anti-BSP3 antibodies in extracts of incubated sperm. Its identity was confirmed as BSP3 by mass spectrometry, indicating that BSP3 undergoes modification on the sperm surface. These changes in the composition of BSP proteins on sperm could play a role in releasing sperm from the storage reservoir by modifying sperm interactions with the oviductal epithelium. PMID:22837481

  15. Human contact imagined during the production process increases food naturalness perceptions.

    PubMed

    Abouab, Nathalie; Gomez, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n?=?69) and an experiment (n?=?133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized. PMID:25862979

  16. Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Bradley J; Wright, Justin P; Cadotte, Marc W; Carroll, Ian T; Hector, Andy; Srivastava, Diane S; Loreau, Michel; Weis, Jerome J

    2007-11-13

    Accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted a growing number of researchers to manipulate the richness of various groups of organisms and examine how this aspect of diversity impacts ecological processes that control the functioning of ecosystems. We summarize the results of 44 experiments that have manipulated the richness of plants to examine how plant diversity affects the production of biomass. We show that mixtures of species produce an average of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are more productive than the average monoculture in 79% of all experiments. However, in only 12% of all experiments do diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their single most productive species. Previously, a positive net effect of diversity that is no greater than the most productive species has been interpreted as evidence for selection effects, which occur when diversity maximizes the chance that highly productive species will be included in and ultimately dominate the biomass of polycultures. Contrary to this, we show that although productive species do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these contributions are equaled or exceeded by species complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological processes that involve multiple species. Importantly, both the net effect of diversity and the probability of polycultures being more productive than their most productive species increases through time, because the magnitude of complementarity increases as experiments are run longer. Our results suggest that experiments to date have, if anything, underestimated the impacts of species extinction on the productivity of ecosystems. PMID:17991772

  17. Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Bradley J.; Wright, Justin P.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Carroll, Ian T.; Hector, Andy; Srivastava, Diane S.; Loreau, Michel; Weis, Jerome J.

    2007-01-01

    Accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted a growing number of researchers to manipulate the richness of various groups of organisms and examine how this aspect of diversity impacts ecological processes that control the functioning of ecosystems. We summarize the results of 44 experiments that have manipulated the richness of plants to examine how plant diversity affects the production of biomass. We show that mixtures of species produce an average of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are more productive than the average monoculture in 79% of all experiments. However, in only 12% of all experiments do diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their single most productive species. Previously, a positive net effect of diversity that is no greater than the most productive species has been interpreted as evidence for selection effects, which occur when diversity maximizes the chance that highly productive species will be included in and ultimately dominate the biomass of polycultures. Contrary to this, we show that although productive species do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these contributions are equaled or exceeded by species complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological processes that involve multiple species. Importantly, both the net effect of diversity and the probability of polycultures being more productive than their most productive species increases through time, because the magnitude of complementarity increases as experiments are run longer. Our results suggest that experiments to date have, if anything, underestimated the impacts of species extinction on the productivity of ecosystems. PMID:17991772

  18. The unintended energy impacts of increased nitrate contamination from biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Kelly M; Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Increases in corn cultivation for biofuels production, due to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, are likely to lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in both surface and groundwater resources in the United States. These increases might trigger the requirement for additional energy consumption for water treatment to remove the nitrates. While these increasing concentrations of nitrate might pose a human health concern, most water resources were found to be within current maximum contaminant level (MCL) limits of 10 mg L(-1) NO(3)-N. When water resources exceed this MCL, energy-intensive drinking water treatment is required to reduce nitrate levels below 10 mg L(-1). Based on prior estimates of water supplies currently exceeding the nitrate MCL, we calculate that advanced drinking water treatment might require an additional 2360 million kWh annually (for nitrate affected areas only)--a 2100% increase in energy requirements for water treatment in those same areas--to mitigate nitrate contamination and meet the MCL requirement. We predict that projected increases in nitrate contamination in water may impact the energy consumed in the water treatment sector, because of the convergence of several related trends: (1) increasing cornstarch-based ethanol production, (2) increasing nutrient loading in surface water and groundwater resources as a consequence of increased corn-based ethanol production, (3) additional drinking water sources that exceed the MCL for nitrate, and (4) potentially more stringent drinking water standards for nitrate. PMID:20082016

  19. Comparative cryopreservation of avian spermatozoa: benefits of non-permeating osmoprotectants and ATP on turkey and crane sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Wildt, David E; Donoghue, Ann M

    2011-02-01

    A comparative approach was used to evaluate the cryosurvival of turkey and crane sperm frozen in a dimethylacetamide (DMA) cryodiluent supplemented with osmoprotectants and ATP. A range (6-26%) of DMA concentrations was used alone or in combination with ATP (30, 60 or 118mM) or one of the following osmoprotectants: (1) sucrose (turkey, 8.0%; crane, 5.0%); (2) 5.0% sucrose and 5.0% trehalose; or (3) betaine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.2 or 0.4mM). The viability of thawed sperm was assessed using the nigrosin-eosin stain and sperm motility was determined using the hanging-drop technique. For semen frozen only with DMA, post-thaw sperm motility was greatest (P<0.05) for the 6.0%, 10.0% and 18% concentrations, regardless of species. Turkey sperm frozen with the sucrose/trehalose combination had greater (P<0.05) post-thaw motility for all DMA treatments compared to DMA alone. The lowest concentration of the osmoprotectant betaine hydrochloride substantially improved turkey sperm viability post-thaw in all treatments compared to DMA alone (P<0.05). The post-thaw motility of crane sperm was improved (P<0.05) with a combination of 18.0%, 24.0% or 26.0% DMA and 30mM ATP. Moreover, in the presence of osmoprotectants, crane sperm motility decreased as the osmoprotectant concentration increased. The lowest concentration of ATP also improved crane sperm viability post-thaw, especially for DMA concentrations 18% or greater. The combination of sucrose and trehalose improved (P<0.05) crane sperm viability only with 6% and 10% DMA. These data affirm that there are avian-specific differences in sperm survival after cryopreservation and suggest that post-thaw survival can be enhanced by including species-based osmoprotectant/ATP combinations in a cryodiluent where DMA is the cryoprotectant. PMID:21277718

  20. Increased mycelial biomass production by Lentinula edodes intermittently illuminated by green light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Lubov B; Sokolyanskaya, Ludmila O; Plotnikov, Evgeny V; Gerasimchuk, Anna L; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc; Karnachuk, Raisa A

    2014-11-01

    Fungi possess a range of light receptors to regulate metabolism and differentiation. To study the effect of light on Lentinula edodes (the shiitake mushroom), mycelial cultures were exposed to blue, green, and red fluorescent lights and light-emitting diodes, as well as green laser light. Biomass production, morphology, and pigment production were evaluated. Exposure to green light at intervals of 1 min/d at 0.4 W/m(2) stimulated biomass production by 50-100 %, depending on the light source. Light intensities in excess of 1.8 W/m(2) or illumination longer than 30 min/d did not affect biomass production. Carotenoid production and morphology remained unaltered during increased biomass production. These observations provide a cornerstone to the study of photoreception by this important fungus. PMID:25048231

  1. Panning for sperm gold: Isolation and purification of apyrene and eupyrene sperm from lepidopterans.

    PubMed

    Karr, Timothy L; Walters, James R

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simple and straightforward procedure for the purification and separation of apyrene and eupyrene forms of lepidopteran sperm. The procedure is generally applicable to both butterfly and moth species with results varying according to the relative amounts of sperm produced and size of sperm storage organs. The technique relies upon inherent differences between eupyene sperm bundles and free apyrene sperm morphology. These differences allow for separation of the sperm morphs by repeated "panning" of sperm bundles into the center of a plastic dish. The purified eupyrene sperm bundles can then be removed and apyrene sperm collected from the supernatant by centrifugation. Efficacy of the purification process was confirmed by light microscopy and gel electrophoresis of the resulting fractions. Both one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified significant protein differences between the fractions further suggesting that the panning procedure effectively separated eurpyrene from apyrene sperm. The panning procedure should provide a convenient and accessible technique for further studies of sperm biology in lepidopterans. PMID:26141489

  2. Sperm proteomics reveals intensified selection on mouse sperm membrane and acrosome genes.

    PubMed

    Dorus, Steve; Wasbrough, Elizabeth R; Busby, Jennifer; Wilkin, Elaine C; Karr, Timothy L

    2010-06-01

    Spermatozoa are a focal point for the impact of sexual selection due to sperm competition and sperm-female interactions in a wide range of sexually reproducing organisms. In-depth molecular investigation of the ramifications of these selective regimes has been limited due to a lack of information concerning the molecular composition of sperm. In this study, we utilize three previously published proteomic data sets in conjunction with our whole mouse sperm proteomic analysis to delineate cellular regions of sperm most impacted by positive selection. Interspecific analysis reveals robust evolutionary acceleration of sperm cell membrane genes (which include genes encoding acrosomal and sperm cell surface proteins) relative to other sperm genes, and evidence for positive selection in approximately 22% of sperm cell membrane components was obtained using maximum likelihood models. The selective forces driving the accelerated evolution of these membrane proteins may occur at a number of locations during sperm development, maturation, and transit through the female reproductive tract where the sperm cell membrane and eventually the acrosome are exposed to the extracellular milieu and available for direct cell-cell interactions. PMID:20080865

  3. Linking sperm length and velocity: the importance of intramale variation

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, John L.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Selection imposed through sperm competition is commonly thought to promote the evolution of longer sperm, since sperm length is assumed to be positively associated with sperm swimming velocity. Yet, the basis for this assumption remains controversial, and there is surprisingly little intraspecific evidence demonstrating such a link between sperm form and function. Here, we show that sperm length and velocity are highly correlated in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, but importantly we report that failure to account for within-male variation in these sperm traits can obscure this relationship. These findings, in conjunction with the mounting evidence for extremely high levels of intra-specific variance in sperm traits, suggest that a functional link between sperm morphology and velocity may be more prevalent than what current evidence suggests. Our findings also suggest that selection for faster swimming sperm may promote the evolution of longer sperm, thereby supporting recent findings from macroevolutionary studies. PMID:20484233

  4. Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Stream Food Webs Declines with Increasing Primary Production.

    PubMed

    Walters, David M; Raikow, David F; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Mehling, Molly G; Kovach, Amanda; Oris, James T

    2015-07-01

    Opposing hypotheses posit that increasing primary productivity should result in either greater or lesser contaminant accumulation in stream food webs. We conducted an experiment to evaluate primary productivity effects on MeHg accumulation in stream consumers. We varied light for 16 artificial streams creating a productivity gradient (oxygen production =0.048-0.71 mg O2 L(-1) d(-1)) among streams. Two-level food webs were established consisting of phytoplankton/filter feeding clam, periphyton/grazing snail, and leaves/shredding amphipod (Hyalella azteca). Phytoplankton and periphyton biomass, along with MeHg removal from the water column, increased significantly with productivity, but MeHg concentrations in these primary producers declined. Methylmercury concentrations in clams and snails also declined with productivity, and consumer concentrations were strongly correlated with MeHg concentrations in primary producers. Heterotroph biomass on leaves, MeHg in leaves, and MeHg in Hyalella were unrelated to stream productivity. Our results support the hypothesis that contaminant bioaccumulation declines with stream primary production via the mechanism of bloom dilution (MeHg burden per cell decreases in algal blooms), extending patterns of contaminant accumulation documented in lakes to lotic systems. PMID:26018982

  5. Segmentation of white rat sperm image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Weiguo; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Guoyuan

    2011-11-01

    The segmentation of sperm image exerts a profound influence in the analysis of sperm morphology, which plays a significant role in the research of animals' infertility and reproduction. To overcome the microscope image's properties of low contrast and highly polluted noise, and to get better segmentation results of sperm image, this paper presents a multi-scale gradient operator combined with a multi-structuring element for the micro-spermatozoa image of white rat, as the multi-scale gradient operator can smooth the noise of an image, while the multi-structuring element can retain more shape details of the sperms. Then, we use the Otsu method to segment the modified gradient image whose gray scale processed is strong in sperms and weak in the background, converting it into a binary sperm image. As the obtained binary image owns impurities that are not similar with sperms in the shape, we choose a form factor to filter those objects whose form factor value is larger than the select critical value, and retain those objects whose not. And then, we can get the final binary image of the segmented sperms. The experiment shows this method's great advantage in the segmentation of the micro-spermatozoa image.

  6. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  7. Comparative Evolutionary Psychology of Sperm Competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. Shackelford; Aaron T. Goetz

    2006-01-01

    A comparative evolutionary psychological perspective predicts that species that recurrently faced similar adaptive problems may have evolved similar psychological mechanisms to solve these problems. Sperm competition provides an arena in which to assess the heuristic value of such a comparative evolutionary perspective. The sperm competition that results from female infidelity and polyandry presents a similar class of adaptive problems for

  8. Hydrodynamics of Sperm Cells near Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Elgeti, Jens; Kaupp, U. Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Sperm are propelled by an actively beating tail, and display a wide variety of swimming patterns. When confined between two parallel walls, sperm swim either in circles or on curvilinear trajectories close to the walls. We employ mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations in combination with a mechanical sperm model to study the swimming behavior near walls. The simulations show that sperm become captured at the wall due to the hydrodynamic flow fields which are generated by the flagellar beat. The circular trajectories are determined by the chiral asymmetry of the sperm shape. For strong (weak) chirality, sperm swim in tight (wide) circles, with the beating plane of the flagellum oriented perpendicular (parallel) to the wall. For comparison, we also perform simulations based on a local anisotropic friction of the flagellum. In this resistive force approximation, surface adhesion and circular swimming patterns are obtained as well. However, the adhesion mechanism is now due to steric repulsion, and the orientation of the beating plane is different. Our model provides a theoretical framework that explains several distinct swimming behaviors of sperm near and far from a wall. Moreover, the model suggests a mechanism by which sperm navigate in a chemical gradient via a change of their shape. PMID:20712984

  9. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of ?-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: ?-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  10. Marine foods sourced from farther as their use of global ocean primary production increases.

    PubMed

    Watson, Reg A; Nowara, Gabrielle B; Hartmann, Klaas; Green, Bridget S; Tracey, Sean R; Carter, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    The growing human population must be fed, but historic land-based systems struggle to meet expanding demand. Marine production supports some of the world's poorest people but increasingly provides for the needs of the affluent, either directly by fishing or via fodder-based feeds for marine and terrestrial farming. Here we show the expanding footprint of humans to utilize global ocean productivity to feed themselves. Our results illustrate how incrementally each year, marine foods are sourced farther from where they are consumed and moreover, require an increasing proportion of the ocean's primary productivity that underpins all marine life. Though mariculture supports increased consumption of seafood, it continues to require feeds based on fully exploited wild stocks. Here we examine the ocean's ability to meet our future demands to 2100 and find that even with mariculture supplementing near-static wild catches our growing needs are unlikely to be met without significant changes. PMID:26079714

  11. Marine foods sourced from farther as their use of global ocean primary production increases

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Reg A.; Nowara, Gabrielle B.; Hartmann, Klaas; Green, Bridget S.; Tracey, Sean R.; Carter, Chris G.

    2015-01-01

    The growing human population must be fed, but historic land-based systems struggle to meet expanding demand. Marine production supports some of the world's poorest people but increasingly provides for the needs of the affluent, either directly by fishing or via fodder-based feeds for marine and terrestrial farming. Here we show the expanding footprint of humans to utilize global ocean productivity to feed themselves. Our results illustrate how incrementally each year, marine foods are sourced farther from where they are consumed and moreover, require an increasing proportion of the ocean's primary productivity that underpins all marine life. Though mariculture supports increased consumption of seafood, it continues to require feeds based on fully exploited wild stocks. Here we examine the ocean's ability to meet our future demands to 2100 and find that even with mariculture supplementing near-static wild catches our growing needs are unlikely to be met without significant changes. PMID:26079714

  12. Copper toxicity to sperm, embryos and larvae of topsmelt 'Atherinops affinis', with notes on induced spawning

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.S.; Middaugh, D.P.; Hunt, J.W.; Turpen, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    Topsmelt, Atherinops affinis, were induced to spawn repeatedly in the laboratory using a combination of environmental cues. Temperature spikes appeared to be the most important factor to induce spawning. Egg production peaked four days after a 2C increase in water temperature, and declined thereafter. A series of static toxicity tests compared the relative sensitivity of topsmelt sperm, embryos, and larvae to copper chloride. Of the three developmental stages compared, sperm were more sensitive than embryos, and embryos were more sensitive than larvae. The mean EC50 from four separate 48-h fertilization experiments was 109 micrograms copper/liter. The mean EC50 from three, 12-day embryo development development tests was 142-147 micrograms copper/liter, depending on the endpoint used. The mean LC50 from three, 96-h larval mortality tests was 238 micrograms copper/liter. Topsmelt are amenable to laboratory culture and are a promising eastern Pacific toxicity test species. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, England.)

  13. Termite queens close the sperm gates of eggs to switch from sexual to asexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Males and females are in conflict over genetic transmission in the evolution of parthenogenesis, because it enhances female reproductive output but deprives the males’ genetic contribution. For males, any trait that coerces females into sexual reproduction should increase their fitness. However, in the termite Reticulitermes speratus, queens produce their replacements (neotenic queens) parthenogenetically while using normal sexual reproduction to produce other colony members. Here, we show that termite queens produce parthenogenetic offspring in the presence of kings by closing the micropyles (sperm gates; i.e., openings for sperm entry) of their eggs. Our field survey showed that termite eggs show large variation in numbers of micropyles, with some having none. Microsatellite analysis showed that embryos of micropyleless eggs develop parthenogenetically, whereas those of eggs with micropyles are fertilized and develop sexually. Surveys of eggs among queens of different age groups showed that queens begin to lay micropyleless eggs when they are older and thus, need to produce their replacements parthenogenetically. In addition, we found clear seasonality in new neotenic queen differentiation and micropyleless egg production. This micropyle-dependent parthenogenesis is the first identification, to our knowledge, of the mechanism through which females control egg fertilization over time in diploid animals, implying a novel route of the evolution of parthenogenesis in favor of female interests without interference from males. PMID:25404335

  14. Termite queens close the sperm gates of eggs to switch from sexual to asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yashiro, Toshihisa; Matsuura, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Males and females are in conflict over genetic transmission in the evolution of parthenogenesis, because it enhances female reproductive output but deprives the males' genetic contribution. For males, any trait that coerces females into sexual reproduction should increase their fitness. However, in the termite Reticulitermes speratus, queens produce their replacements (neotenic queens) parthenogenetically while using normal sexual reproduction to produce other colony members. Here, we show that termite queens produce parthenogenetic offspring in the presence of kings by closing the micropyles (sperm gates; i.e., openings for sperm entry) of their eggs. Our field survey showed that termite eggs show large variation in numbers of micropyles, with some having none. Microsatellite analysis showed that embryos of micropyleless eggs develop parthenogenetically, whereas those of eggs with micropyles are fertilized and develop sexually. Surveys of eggs among queens of different age groups showed that queens begin to lay micropyleless eggs when they are older and thus, need to produce their replacements parthenogenetically. In addition, we found clear seasonality in new neotenic queen differentiation and micropyleless egg production. This micropyle-dependent parthenogenesis is the first identification, to our knowledge, of the mechanism through which females control egg fertilization over time in diploid animals, implying a novel route of the evolution of parthenogenesis in favor of female interests without interference from males. PMID:25404335

  15. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to the entire food web will be necessary to predict ecosystem responses in lakes of the Arctic.

  16. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael P; Zimmerman, Christian E

    2014-05-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to the entire food web will be necessary to predict ecosystem responses in lakes of the Arctic. PMID:24963391

  17. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P; Zimmerman, Christian E

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to the entire food web will be necessary to predict ecosystem responses in lakes of the Arctic. PMID:24963391

  18. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  19. Methods for human and murine sperm assays

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Human sperm assays in the context of an epidemiological study provide an effective means to identify agents that affect testicular function. Four assays for human sperm anomaly (counts, motility, morphology, and double-fluorescence bodies) have been successfully used for a variety of human occupational and drug-related exposures. However, more research is needed to validate the genetic implications of sperm defects induced by exposure to chemicals in vivo. The F/sub 0/ and F/sub 1/ mouse-sperm assay, especially for induced morphological defects, provides a method of screening agents that may be potentially harmful to man and provides a means to assess the antifertility effects and consequences of induced sperm defect.

  20. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in Extreme Cases of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Gianpiero D.; Neri, Queenie V.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Severely compromised spermatogenesis typical of men with virtual azoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requires an extreme search for spermatozoa. Our goal was to evaluate the usefulness of a meticulous search carried out in ejaculated or surgically retrieved specimens in achieving pre- and post-implantation embryo development. Patients and Methods In a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic institution, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes were reviewed as a function of length of microscopic sperm search in ejaculated and surgically retrieved specimens. Couples whose male partner presented with either virtual or non-obstructive azoospermia were treated by ICSI and categorized according to the time spent in identifying and retrieving enough spermatozoa to inject all the oocyte cohort. Semen parameter, fertilization, pregnancies, deliveries, and child welfare in relation to increasing search time were analyzed and compared. Result(s) The maternal and paternal ages were comparable in both ejaculated and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) groups along with the oocytes retrieved. The fertilization rates for both ejaculated and TESE progressively decreased with increasing time (P<0.0001). Clinical pregnancies in the ejaculated cohort remained satifactory. In the TESE cohort, there was a decrease in pregnancy rate with increasing time, from 44% to 23%. In a limited number of cases, offspring health was evaluated in both semen sources and appeared reassuring. Conclusion(s) An extensive and at time exhaustive sperm quest yields kinetically and morphologically impaired spermatozoa without apparent impact on embryo developmental competence. Retrieval of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules provided more consistent fertilization and pregnancy outcomes than those retrieved from the ejaculate. A trend indicated that pregnancy rate decreased as search time increased in the TESE group. The utilization of the scarce and unselected spermatozoa did not obviously impair embryo development or cause post-implantation errors. PMID:25437298

  1. Regulation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm by a Calcium\\/Calmodulin-Dependent Mechanism: Identification of A Kinase Anchor Proteins as Major Substrates for Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Carrera; Jiri Moos; Xiao Ping Ning; George L. Gerton; Jan Tesarik; Gregory S. Kopf; Stuart B. Moss

    1996-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways regulate various aspects of mammalian sperm function. When human sperm were incubated in a medium supporting capacitation, proteins became tyrosine-phosphorylated in a time-dependent manner. This phosphorylation was inhibited by genistein, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Phosphorylation was also reduced when sperm were incubated either in the presence of increasing concentrations of extracellular Ca2+or in a medium containing

  2. Diverse mechanisms add to increased oil production in thermal and gas projects

    SciTech Connect

    Goodlett, G.O.; Honarpour, M.M.; Carroll, H.B.; Sarathi, P.S.

    1986-07-01

    Diverse mechanisms contribute to increased oil production for steam, in situ combustion, and miscible/immiscible gas-displacement processes. Cyclic steam injection involves injecting steam into a potential producing well for a short time. The well is then shut in for several days to permit the soaking of the reservoir by steam, and then placed on production. The well may produce oil at an increased rate for several months, but then production may decline to the original rate. A second steam-injection cycle is then initiated, again increasing the oil production. Usually three cycles are used, and as many as eight cycles have been reported. Mechanisms that increase oil production rates during cyclic steam injection are diverse. They include reduction in crude-oil viscosity in the heated zone near the well bore, thermal and solution-gas expansion which produce the driving force, and changes in rock wettability. Cyclic steam injection is used as a precursor to a steam drive and is a process for which field application has been a predecessor to theory; no laboratory displacement studies have been undertaken.

  3. The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay.

    PubMed Central

    Duty, Susan M; Singh, Narendra P; Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Brock, John W; Ryan, Louise; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C; Hauser, Russ

    2003-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laboratory provided a semen and a urine sample. Eight phthalate metabolites were measured in urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; data were corrected for urine dilution by adjusting for specific gravity. The neutral single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used to measure DNA integrity in sperm. VisComet image analysis software was used to measure comet extent, a measure of total comet length (micrometers); percent DNA in tail (tail%), a measure of the proportion of total DNA present in the comet tail; and tail distributed moment (TDM), an integrated measure of length and intensity (micrometers). For an interquartile range increase in specific gravity-adjusted monoethyl phthalate (MEP) level, the comet extent increased significantly by 3.6 micro m [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.74-6.47]; the TDM also increased 1.2 micro m (95% CI, -0.05 to 2.38) but was of borderline significance. Monobutyl, monobenzyl, monomethyl, and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalates were not significantly associated with comet assay parameters. In conclusion, this study represents the first human data to demonstrate that urinary MEP, at environmental levels, is associated with increased DNA damage in sperm. PMID:12842768

  4. A Systematic Analysis of a Deep Mouse Epididymal Sperm Proteome1

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, Theodore; Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Nicora, Carrie D.; Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells that, when mature, are capable of navigating the female reproductive tract and fertilizing an oocyte. The sperm cell is thought to be largely quiescent in terms of transcriptional and translational activity. As a result, once it has left the male reproductive tract, the sperm cell is essentially operating with a static population of proteins. It therefore is theoretically possible to understand the protein networks contained in a sperm cell and to deduce its cellular function capabilities. To this end, we performed a proteomic analysis of mouse sperm isolated from the cauda epididymis and confidently identified 2850 proteins, which to our knowledge is the most comprehensive sperm proteome for any species reported to date. These proteins comprise many complete cellular pathways, including those for energy production via glycolysis, beta-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, protein folding and transport, and cell signaling systems. This proteome should prove a useful tool for assembly and testing of protein networks important for sperm function. PMID:23115268

  5. Single sperm analysis of the trinucleotide repeat in the Huntington`s disease gene

    SciTech Connect

    Leeflang, E.P.; Zhang, L.; Hubert, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Huntington`s disease (HD) is one of several genetic diseases caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion. The CAG repeat is very unstable, with size changes occurring in more than 80% of transmissions. The degree of instability of this repeat in the male germline can be determined by analysis of individual sperm cells. An easy and sensitive PCR assay has been developed to amplify this trinucleotide repeat region from single sperm using two rounds of PCR. As many as 90% of the single sperm show amplification for the HD repeat. The PCR product can be easily detected on an ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. Single sperm samples from an HD patient with 18 and 49 repeats were studied. We observed size variations for the expanded alleles while the size of the normal allele in sperm is very consistent. We did not detect any significant bias in the amplification of normal alleles over the larger HD alleles. Our preliminary study supports the observation made by PCR of total sperm that instability of the HD trinucleotide repeat occurs in the germline. HD preimplantation diagnosis on single embryo blastomeres may also possible.

  6. Cytotoxic Effects of Benzene Metabolites on Human Sperm Function: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandani, Priyanka; Desai, Ketki; Highland, Hyacinth

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, individuals are rampantly exposed to vapours of benzene, through paint, plastic, petroleum industries, fuel exhaust, and tobacco smoke. Hence the present investigation was directed towards determining the effect of benzene metabolites, namely, phenol-hydroquinone and catechol, on the motility, viability, and nuclear integrity of the human spermatozoa. From the results obtained it was clear that exposure to phenol-hydroquinone caused a significant decline in both, sperm motility and viability. Exposure to a phenol-hydroquinone (Phase I) microenvironment may therefore inhibit metabolically active enzymes, thus impeding ATP production, and in turn lowers sperm motility and viability. In addition, the present study also revealed that both metabolites of benzene caused significant denaturation of sperm nuclear DNA. Hence, exposure to phenol-hydroquinone in vitro could have resulted in generation of free radicals and altered membrane function, which is reflected by a decline in the motility, viability, and loss of sperm nuclear DNA integrity. In Phase II, the exposure of human sperm in vitro to varied concentrations of catechol caused only insignificant changes in sperm motility and viability as compared to those observed on exposure to phenol-hydroquinone. Hence, exposure to catechol appeared to have less toxic effects than those of phenol-hydroquinone. PMID:24416599

  7. Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.

  8. Increased power production from a sediment microbial fuel cell with a rotating cathode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen He; Haibo Shao; Largus T. Angenent

    2007-01-01

    The application of a rotating cathode in a river sediment microbial fuel cell increased the oxygen availability to the cathode, and therefore improved the cathode reaction rate, resulting in a higher power production (49mW\\/m2) compared to a nonrotating cathode system (29mW\\/m2). The increased dissolved oxygen in the water of our lab-scale sediment MFC, however, resulted in a less negative anode

  9. Cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest increase endothelin-1 production and receptor expression in the lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Kirshbom; Stella O. Page; M. Todd Jacobs; Steven S. L. Tsui; Elizabeth Bello; Ross M. Ungerleider; Debra A. Schwinn; J. William Gaynor

    1997-01-01

    Background: Endothelin-1 has been shown to be a mediator of pulmonary hypertension after cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. It is not known whether the mechanism is increased production of endothelin-1 or alterations in expression of endothelin-1 receptors in the lung. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that circulatory arrest increases endothelin-1 mRNA levels and endothelin-1 receptor

  10. Chemical interference with sperm metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Jones, A R

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the quest for a simple non-steroidal chemical possessing male antifertility activity culminated with the discovery of the activity of alpha-chlorohydrin in 1970. Investigations into the mechanism of action of this compound revealed that it was affecting the glycolytic pathway within mature spermatozoa through its conversion to an inhibitory metabolite. Use of these and other simple chemical inhibitors has subsequently led to a clearer understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in the generation of ATP, which is necessary for sperm motility. Mature boar spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis are almost totally reliant on the glycolytic pathway, not necessarily for the immediate generation of ATP, but for the ultimate production of lactate, which appears to be the sole substrate used for the mitochondrial production of ATP. The only exogenous substrates that support lactate production in vitro are fructose, glucose, glycerol and glycerol 3-phosphate and when these substrates are plentiful, there is evidence that compounds can be retained as such or as intermediates of the glycolytic pathway. When exogenous substrates are limited, the cells have the capability to mobilize endogenous compounds and to maintain the continuous synthesis of ATP. PMID:10645282

  11. The sperm structure of Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Blattodea) and sperm evolution in Dictyoptera.

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Thipaksorn, Apisit; Gottardo, Marco; Mercati, David; Machida, Ryuichiro; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2015-04-01

    Sperm of the dictyopteran key taxon Cryptocercus punctulatus was examined. It has largely maintained a blattodean groundplan condition, with a three-layered acrosome, an elongate nucleus, a single centriole, a conspicuous centriole adjunct material, two connecting bands (=accessory bodies), and a long functional flagellum with a 9+9+2 axoneme provided with accessory tubules with 16 protofilaments and intertubular material. These sperm characters are shared with several other polyneopterans. The sperm of C. punctulatus is very similar to what is found in Periplaneta americana and species of other groups of roaches, including the sperm of Loboptera decipiens described here for the first time. The general sperm organization here described can be assumed for the groundplan of Insecta and Pterygota. The following evolutionary path can be suggested: after the split between Cryptocercidae and the common ancestor of Isoptera, the typical pattern of sperm formation was altered very distinctly, resulting in a duplication or multiplication (Mastotermitidae) of the centrioles. Mastotermes has maintained a certain sperm motility, but with a very unusual apparatus of multiple flagella with a 9+0 axoneme pattern. After the split into Mastotermitidae and the remaining Isoptera, sperm motility was completely abandoned, and different modifications of sperm components occurred, and even the loss of the sperm flagellum. PMID:25503102

  12. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 ?g/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

  13. SNAREs in Mammalian Sperm: Possible Implications for Fertilization

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    sperm (human, rhesus monkey, bull, hamster, mouse). Sperm SNAREs are sloughed off during the acrosomeSNAREs in Mammalian Sperm: Possible Implications for Fertilization Joa~o Ramalho-Santos,*, Ricardo attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins are present in mammalian sperm and could be involved in critical

  14. Effect of method and clinician on stallion sperm morphology evaluation

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    , the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Papanicolaou stain for evaluation of human sperm morphology [3]. Several studies from laboratories evaluating human sperm described variations in spermEffect of method and clinician on stallion sperm morphology evaluation Leonardo F.C. Brito ,1

  15. VALIDATION OF THE SPERM MOBILITY ASSAY IN BOARS AND STALLIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sperm mobility assay measures the rate of sperm penetration in a biologically inert cell separation solution (Accudenz). When a sample of sperm is overlaid in a cuvette containing Accudenz, the sperm penetrates the solution and the absorbance of the sample can be measured using a spectrophotome...

  16. Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product

    E-print Network

    Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety of the attention in academic research and in the press has been on the relative operational effi- ciency Surplus in the Digital Economy default, this value has been ignored, effectively treat- ing convenience

  17. By Patricia A. Plunkert Domestic primary aluminum production increased slightly in

    E-print Network

    ). The recycling rate for aluminum used beverage can (UBC) scrap decreased slightly to 62.2%. Transportation1 ALUMINUM By Patricia A. Plunkert Domestic primary aluminum production increased slightly in 1995, to 3.4 million metric tons. Thirteen companies operated 22 primary aluminum reduction plants and 1

  18. Increased production study B, D, DR, F, H and C reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Fifer; F. J. Kempf

    1960-01-01

    This document studies a broad study program which is currently in progress in Irradiation Processing Department to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of various methods of obtaining increased production from the six older reactors (B, D, DR, F, H, and C Reactors). Due to time limitations this study has been in general terms only, but has indicated that considerable

  19. Methoxychlor Inhibits Brain Mitochondrial Respiration and Increases Hydrogen Peroxide Production and CREB Phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary A. Schuh; Tibor Kristian; Rupesh K. Gupta; Jodi A. Flaws; Gary Fiskum

    2005-01-01

    The organochlorine insecticide methoxychlor (mxc) is an established reproductive toxicant that affects other systems in- cluding the central nervous system (CNS), possibly by mecha- nisms involving oxidative stress. This study tested the hypothesis that mxc inhibits brain mitochondrial respiration, resulting in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxygen electrode measurements of mitochondrial respiration and Amplex Red measurements of H2O2

  20. Opportunities to increasing dry season rice productivity in low temperature affected areas

    E-print Network

    van Kessel, Chris

    to poor germination, poor seedling growth or insufficient seedlings. Rice needs to be sown at times whereOpportunities to increasing dry season rice productivity in low temperature affected areas of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia c Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University

  1. Increasing Homework Productivity in Third Grade through On-Site Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Myra S.

    The purpose of this practicum was to increase homework productivity and reinforce basic skills in a third-grade class. Other objectives were to relieve the burden of parents who were unable to help their children with homework and to improve communication between parent, teacher, and child. Homework assignments were made daily by the teacher.…

  2. Long-term Decline in Grassland Productivity Driven by Increasing Aridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookshire, J.; Weaver, T.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of terrestrial ecosystems to increase net primary production in response to rising CO2 requires that the availability of water and other resources keep pace with increasing evaporative demand due to warming. While climate models project increasing aridity and drought severity for many areas, our understanding of the potential effects of drying on ecosystems is uncertain and largely based on satellite observations and short-term experiments. With limited long-term field data it is difficult both to distinguish effects of transient departures from climatological norms (drought) from monotonic changes to background aridity and to separate the effects of drying from other factors (e.g., carbon dioxide and nitrogen (N)) that might ameliorate responses to increased evaporative demand. Here, we use a long-term harvest record to document a >50% reduction in primary production of a native subalpine grassland over the last four decades and link this to increasing regional aridity. Declines in plant productivity occurred across C3 grasses and non-graminoid annual forbs but were most severe in forbs. Using the statistical method of convergent cross mapping (CCM) in combination with a long-term snow-addition experiment and climatological and biogeochemical data, we assign the timing and mode of forcing to increasing late summer dryness. Analysis of long-term patterns of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of plants and regional patterns of atmospheric N deposition suggest that increasing water use efficiency may have slightly ameliorated the decline in grasses but not forbs and that N availability had no effects. Our results demonstrate a sustained climate-induced decline in the productivity of a grassland ecosystem and underscore the importance of long-term monitoring.

  3. Response of isolated sperm plasma membranes from sea urchin to egg jelly.

    PubMed

    Darszon, A; Gould, M; De De La Torre, L; Vargas, I

    1984-11-01

    The acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm is induced by a glycoprotein jelly surrounding the egg and is accompanied by changes in ion permeability of sperm plasma membrane. In an attempt to learn what membrane components are involved in the response to jelly, we have begun to reassemble sperm membrane components into artificial membranes and assay for permeability changes mimicking those that occur in sperm. Jelly in sea water at concentrations that induce the acrosome reaction did not significantly change 45Ca2+ uptake of sonicated unilamellar vesicles made with soybean lipid only (ratio jelly:control uptake = 1.08 +/- 0.36 SD, n = 21). Experiments with pure lipid planar bilayers made with soybean lipid or a lipid extract from sperm and held at various voltages, also did not reveal substantial permeability changes at comparable jelly concentrations. Thus, jelly by itself does not change the conductance of a pure lipid bilayer. In contrast, significant (P----0.0005, t test for two sample means) 45Ca2+ uptake was observed with vesicles made by cosonicating soybean phospholipids and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sperm membranes isolated by the method of Cross, N. L. [1983, J. Cell Sci. 59, 13-25] (ratio jelly: control uptake = 1.51 +/- 0.75, n = 20, 16 positive out of 20 experiments). The calcium uptake response of the mixed vesicles was also species-specific: it did not occur with jelly from Arbacia punctulata (ratio Arbacia jelly: control = 1.18 +/- 0.51; ratio Strongylocentrotus jelly: control = 1.71 +/- 0.97, n = 10; P----0.025, paired t statistic). Vesicles made with soybean lipid and an octyl glucoside extract of sperm membranes also responded to jelly with increased 45Ca2+ uptake. Our results indicate that we have the starting conditions to isolate and characterize the sperm membrane components that participate in the egg jelly induced permeability changes. PMID:6436025

  4. Bicarbonate stimulated phospholipid scrambling induces cholesterol redistribution and enables cholesterol depletion in the sperm plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Flesch, F M; Brouwers, J F; Nievelstein, P F; Verkleij, A J; van Golde, L M; Colenbrander, B; Gadella, B M

    2001-10-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are activated prior to fertilization by high bicarbonate levels, which facilitate lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux. The role of bicarbonate and cholesterol acceptors on the cholesterol organization in the sperm plasma membrane was tested. Bicarbonate induced an albumin-independent change in lipid architecture that was detectable by an increase in merocyanine staining (due to protein kinase A-mediated phospholipid scrambling). The response was limited to a subpopulation of viable sperm cells that were sorted from the non-responding subpopulation by flow cytometry. The responding cells had reduced cholesterol levels (30% reduction) compared with non-responding cells. The subpopulation differences were caused by variable efficiencies in epididymal maturation as judged by cell morphology. Membrane cholesterol organization was observed with filipin, which labeled the entire sperm surface of non-stimulated and non-responding cells, but labeled only the apical surface area of bicarbonate-responding cells. Addition of albumin caused cholesterol efflux, but only in bicarbonate-responding cells that exhibited virtually no filipin labeling in the sperm head area. Albumin had no effect on other lipid components, and no affinity for cholesterol in the absence of bicarbonate. Therefore, bicarbonate induces first a lateral redistribution in the low cholesterol containing spermatozoa, which in turn facilitates cholesterol extraction by albumin. A model is proposed in which phospholipid scrambling induces the formation of an apical membrane raft in the sperm head surface that enables albumin mediated efflux of cholesterol. PMID:11682613

  5. Sperm motility adaptation to ion-differing aquatic environments in the Tanganyikan cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masaya; Awata, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tetsumi; Takemura, Akihiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2010-03-01

    The cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, can acclimate and reproduce in both the K(+)-, Na(+)-, and Ca(2+)-rich waters of Lake Tanganyika (pH 8.9-9.2) and the surrounding rivers where K(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+) concentrations are low (pH 6.5). In this study, we compared sperm motility features among A. burtoni inhabiting the lake, those living in the surrounding rivers, and those from rivers that acclimates to lake water. Sperm of all three groups required extracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]o) for sperm motility activation. However, involvement of K(+) and Na(+) were different. In sperm motility initiation of lake population, the decrease in Na(+) and increase in K(+) concentrations corresponding to a decrease in [Na(+)]o/[K(+)]o was required. In contrast, sperm motility in both the river population and those acclimated to lake water were activated only by a decrease in [Na(+)]o, suggesting that motility initiation cues regarding Na(+) and K(+) are different among populations within same species. One probable reason why the difference of initiation cues is that the concentration of K(+) in the river water (40 mM) is lower than that in the lake water (110 mM). These results suggest that sperm flagellar activation cascades of river and lake populations within this species differ as a result of adaptations to different ionic environments. PMID:20084665

  6. Aneuploidy in sperm of Hodgkin`s disease patients receiving NOVP chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, W.A.; Cassel, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Induction of genetic damage in germ cells of young patients receiving chemo- or radiotherapy for cancers with probable cure, such as Hodgkin`s disease, is cause for concern. These young patients may someday desire children, and germ cell alterations presenting as numerical chromosomal abnormalities in sperm may place their future offspring at risk. To address this concern, we measured aneuploidy in sperm from eight young Hodgkin`s disease patients: four pre-treatment, four during treatment, and three over a 45 month period following treatment with NOVP (Novantrone, Oncovin, Vinblastine and Prednisone). Patients ranged in stage of disease from IA-IIEB and none had received prior radiation or chemotherapy. Using multi-chromosome sperm FISH with repetitive sequence probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, we found a significant 2-4 fold increase in particular numerical chromosomal abnormalities during treatment which were limited in persistence post-treatment. Additionally, pre-treatment Hodgkin`s disease patients showed elevations in some numerical chromosomal abnormalities when compared to a healthy reference group. In several men, the fraction of aneuploid sperm did not return to healthy reference group levels even after completion of therapy. These results show that elevated sperm aneuploidy occurs in germ cells of young cancer patients during chemotherapy and suggest caution to prevent conceptions during this period. The elevated sperm aneuploidy appears transient, but in some cases never returns to healthy reference group levels.

  7. Increased 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from glycerol, by modification of central metabolism in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is an important chemical precursor for the production of bioplastics. Microbial production of 3HP from glycerol has previously been developed through the optimization of culture conditions and the 3HP biosynthesis pathway. In this study, a novel strategy for improving 3HP production in Escherichia coli was investigated by the modification of central metabolism based on a genome-scale metabolic model and experimental validation. Results Metabolic simulation identified the double knockout of tpiA and zwf as a candidate for improving 3HP production. A 3HP-producing strain was constructed by the expression of glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The double knockout of tpiA and zwf increased the percentage carbon-molar yield (C-mol%) of 3HP on consumed glycerol 4.4-fold (20.1?±?9.2 C-mol%), compared to the parental strain. Increased extracellular methylglyoxal concentrations in the ?tpiA ?zwf strain indicated that glycerol catabolism was occurring through the methylglyoxal pathway, which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate to pyruvate, as predicted by the metabolic model. Since the ?tpiA ?zwf strain produced abundant 1,3-propanediol as a major byproduct (37.7?±?13.2 C-mol%), yqhD, which encodes an enzyme involved in the production of 1,3-propanediol, was disrupted in the ?tpiA ?zwf strain. The 3HP yield of the ?tpiA ?zwf ?yqhD strain (33.9?±?1.2 C-mol%) was increased 1.7-fold further compared to the ?tpiA ?zwf strain and by 7.4-fold compared to the parental strain. Conclusion This study successfully increased 3HP production by 7.4-fold in the ?tpiA ?zwf ?yqhD E. coli strain by the modification of the central metabolism, based on metabolic simulation and experimental validation of engineered strains. PMID:24885133

  8. Morphometric characterization and classification of alpaca sperm heads using the Sperm-Class Analyzer ® computer-assisted system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Buend??a; C Soler; F Paolicchi; G Gago; B Urquieta; F Pérez-Sánchez; E Bustos-Obregón

    2002-01-01

    Sperm morphology has been identified as one characteristic which can be useful in the prediction of sperm fertility, therefore, we hope that this study aimed at establishing standardized morphological criteria might serve in future studies dealing with the search for sperm parameters which facilitate an estimation of sperm quality. For this purpose, ejaculates from fertile alpacas were used to evaluate

  9. Increased production of naphthoquinones in Impatiens balsamina root cultures by elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Sakunphueak, Athip; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2010-11-01

    Impatiens balsamina root cultures were treated with yeast extract (YE), Candida albicans homogenate (CAH), Trichophyton rubrum homogenate (TRH), chitosan (CHI) and methyl jasmonate (MJ). Different elicitors, depending on concentrations used exerted differential effects on the production of the three main naphthoquinones, lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), lawsone methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone. Treatment with MJ (400microM) was capable of increasing production of lawsone, and lawsone methyl ether up to 8.6- and 11.3-fold higher, respectively, compared to the level in untreated cultures. Treatment of 21-day-old root cultures with 300microM MJ for 36h resulted in the production of 10.0, 0.78 and 0.23mg/g DW of lawsone, its methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone, respectively. Such levels are sufficient for commercial production. PMID:20620051

  10. Effect of increasing copper and salinity on glycerol production by Dunaliella salina

    SciTech Connect

    Lustigman, B.; McCormick, J.M.; Dale, G.; McLaughlin, J.J.A.

    1987-02-01

    Dunaliella salina is a green marine flagellate whose main storage product is glycerol. Its ability to grow in waters which vary greatly in salinity is due to its ability to form glycerol, the intracellular concentration of which is directly proportional to the extracellular salinity. Copper is an essential trace element needed in small quantities by algae for plastocyanin production. However, at high concentrations it acts as an effective algicide. Dunaliella species have been shown to have an unusual resistance to copper toxicity. The authors examined the effects of lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper on growth and glycerol production in dunaliella saline, in order to determine if adaptation to copper toxicity will result in an increase in production of glycerol.

  11. A direct human influence on atmospheric CO2 seasonality from increased cropland productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. M.; Frolking, S. E.; Kort, E. A.; Ray, D. K.; Kucharik, C. J.; Ramankutty, N.; Friedl, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ground- and aircraft-based measurements show that the seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has increased by as much as 50% over the last 50 years. This increase has been linked to changes in Temperate, Boreal and Arctic ecosystem properties and processes such as enhanced photosynthesis, increased heterotrophic respiration, and expansion of woody vegetation. However, the precise causal mechanisms behind observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality remain unclear. Here we show that increases in agricultural productivity, which have been largely overlooked in previous investigations, explain as much as 25% of observed changes in atmospheric CO2 seasonality, and perhaps more. Specifically, Northern Hemisphere extratropical maize, wheat, rice, and soybean production grew by 240% between 1961-2008, thereby increasing the amount of net carbon uptake by croplands during the Northern Hemisphere growing season by 0.33 Pg. Maize alone accounts for two-thirds of this change, owing mostly to agricultural intensification within concentrated production zones in the Midwestern United States and Northern China. Since a substantial portion of seasonality enhancement results from a process that is roughly neutral in terms of its impact on the terrestrial carbon sink, our results show that care must be taken when making inferences regarding the linkages between CO2 seasonality and terrestrial carbon sink dynamics. More generally, these results demonstrate how intensive management of agricultural ecosystems over the last five decades have imparted a substantial and direct fingerprint of anthropogenic activities on seasonal patterns of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric CO2.

  12. Comparative profiling of the sperm proteome.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ashling; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2015-02-01

    The highly complex and species-selective mechanism of fertilization is a central theme of developmental biology. Gametogenesis, sperm activation, and egg-sperm recognition are fundamental biological processes, warranting detailed studies into the molecular composition of gametes. Biological MS has been instrumental for the comprehensive itemizing of gamete proteomes. The protein constellation of sperm cells and its subcellular structures has been established for a variety of animal species. Spermatogenesis and the crucial activation of sperm cells as a prerequisite of successful fertilization and physiological adaptations to external stressors was investigated using proteomics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of male infertility with respect to proteome-wide alterations. This review outlines recent achievements of sperm proteomics and exemplifies the usefulness of gel-based surveys by outlining the comparative analysis of abnormal spermatozoa in globozoospermia. Besides label-free MS techniques and cell-based labeling methodology, high-resolution fluorescence 2DE has been shown to be highly suitable as a proteomic biomarker discovery tool in sperm protein research. The appropriateness of novel protein markers for improving our understanding of normal spermatogenesis and sperm activation versus the molecular pathogenesis of male infertility will be discussed. New biomarker candidates might be useful to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of infertility. PMID:24909132

  13. Human sperm molecular anatomy: the enzyme 5?-reductase (SRD5A) is present in the sperm and may be involved in the varicocele-related infertility.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Saveria; Montanaro, Daniela; Guido, Carmela; Santoro, Marta; Perrotta, Ida; Gervasi, Serena; De Amicis, Francesca; Lanzino, Marilena

    2015-07-01

    The most common cause of male infertility is the testicular varicocele, a condition that impairs production and decreases quality of sperm. Male fertility also strictly depends on androgens acting through their own receptor. The enzyme 5?-reductase (SRD5A) is involved in the conversion of testosterone to 5?-dihydrotestosterone, both required for the development and maintenance of male reproductive function. Here, we evaluated, by western blotting analysis, the presence of SRD5A in human ejaculated spermatozoa and evidenced differences in sperm SRD5A content between healthy donors and varicocele-affected patients. Additionally, SRD5A sperm ultrastructural localization was also assessed by transmission electron microscopy and immunogold assay. We evidenced that SRD5A enzyme is present in the human spermatozoa and that its cellular content is lowered in sperm samples from varicocele patients compared to healthy subjects. The presence of SRD5A in human ejaculated spermatozoa highlights the potential role of this enzyme in sperm physiopathology suggesting that the decrease in its content, by affecting the conversion of testosterone into 5?-dihydrotestosterone, may be an important additional mechanism involved in the harmful effect of varicocele in male fertility. PMID:25850410

  14. The effects of short-term increases in turbidity on sandflat microphytobenthic productivity and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Daniel R.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Thrush, Simon F.

    2014-09-01

    Turbidity is a major limiting factor of benthic primary production and nutrient uptake on estuarine intertidal sandflats. Estuaries exhibit a wide range of suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs), however, few studies have quantified the effects of increasing SSC on ecosystem functioning. Here, we report on an in situ experiment examining the effects of short-term increases in SSC on intertidal sandflat benthic primary production and nutrient fluxes. Fine sediments (< 63 ?m) were added to sunlit and darkened benthic chambers (0.25 m2) at concentrations ranging from 16 to 157 mg L- 1 and kept in suspension for a 4-5 h incubation period. In addition to solute fluxes we also measured sediment chlorophyll-a content and physical properties as covariables. In sunlit chambers, we observed a three-fold reduction in net primary production (NPP) with increasing SSC (NPP, R2 = 0.36, p = 0.01) and stronger reductions when NPP was standardised by sediment chlorophyll-a content (i.e., photosynthetic efficiency, NPPchl-a, R2 = 0.62, p < 0.01). Concurrent with reductions in photosynthetic efficiency, there was a four-fold increase in nutrient efflux from the sediment to the water column (NH4+, R2 = 0.44, p < 0.01). SSC had no effect on solute fluxes in darkened chambers. NPP was correlated with SSC and light intensity, whilst NH4+ efflux was solely correlated to SSC. The results of this study imply that increased exposure to SSC associated with the tidal exchange of sediments from far-field sources may severely impair benthic primary productivity and increase the flux of inorganic nutrients from benthic to pelagic systems.

  15. Resveratrol Increases Nitric Oxide Production in the Rat Thick Ascending Limb via Ca2+/Calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and AMP kinase (AMPK) and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM) increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (p<0.03). The NOS inhibitor L-NAME blunted resveratrol-stimulated NO bioavailability by 96±11% (p<0.03). The superoxide scavenger tempol had no effect. Resveratrol elevated Cai from 48±7 to 135±24 nM (p<0.01) in single tubules. In Ca2+-free media, the resveratrol-induced increase in NO was blunted by 60±20% (p<0.05) and the rise in Cai reduced by 80%. Calmodulin inhibition prevented the resveratrol-induced increase in NO (p<0.002). AMPK inhibition had no effect. Resveratrol did not increase SIRT1 activity. We conclude that resveratrol increases NO production in thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects. PMID:25314136

  16. Increased production of superoxide anion contributes to dysfunction of the arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Tsapenko, Mykola V.; d'Uscio, Livius V.; Grande, Joseph P.; Croatt, Anthony J.; Hernandez, Melissa C.; Ackerman, Allan W.; Katusic, Zvonimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular access dysfunction causes morbidity in hemodialysis patients. This study examined the generation and pathobiological significance of superoxide anion in a rat femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF). One week after AVF creation, there was increased production of superoxide anion accompanied by decreased total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD activities and induction of the redox-sensitive gene heme oxygenase-1. Immunohistochemical studies of nitrotyrosine formation demonstrated that peroxynitrite, a product of superoxide anion and nitric oxide, was present in increased amounts in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the AVF. Because uncoupled NOS isoforms generate superoxide anion, and NOS coupling requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor, we assessed NOS uncoupling by determining the ratio of BH4 to dihydrobiopterin (BH2); the BH4-to-BH2 ratio was markedly attenuated in the AVF. Because Src is a vasculopathic signaling species upstream and downstream of superoxide anion, such expression was evaluated; expression of Src and phosphorylated Src was both markedly increased in the AVF. Expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1, NOX2, NOX4, cyclooxygenase (COX) 1, COX2, p47phox, and p67phox was all unchanged, as assessed by Western analyses, thereby suggesting that these proteins may not be involved in increased production of superoxide anion. Finally, administration of tempol, a superoxide anion scavenger, decreased neointima formation in the juxta-anastomotic venous segment and improved AVF blood flow. We conclude that the AVF exhibits increased superoxide anion generation that may reflect the combined effects of decreased scavenging by SOD and increased generation by uncoupled NOS, and that enhanced superoxide anion production promotes juxta-anastomotic stenosis and impairs AVF function. PMID:22993073

  17. Comparative analysis of macaque and human sperm proteomes: Insights into sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Wang, Gaigai; Chen, Minjian; Zhang, Mianqiu; Guo, Yueshuai; Yu, Chunmei; Zhou, Zuomin; Si, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Guo, Xuejiang

    2015-05-01

    Male macaques produce faster sperm than male humans due to a higher pressure of sperm competition in macaques. To explore the molecular basis of this biological difference, we firstly constructed macaque and human sperm proteomes using LC-MS/MS. We then detected the positively selected genes specifically on the branch of macaque based on branch-site likelihood method. We identified 197 positively selected genes specifically on the branch of macaque that are unselected in corresponding human orthologs. These genes are highly associated with mitochondria and axoneme that directly drive sperm motility. We further compared the ultrastructural differences of the midpiece between macaque and human sperms to provide evidence for our findings using transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, our results provide potential molecular targets for explaining the different phenotypes under sperm competition between macaques and humans, and also provide resources for the analysis of male fertility. PMID:25545774

  18. How accurate is sperm morphology as an indicator of sperm function?

    PubMed

    Franken, D R

    2015-08-01

    Sperm morphology has been consistently correlated with fertilisation success or failure. The clinical relevance of the percentage normal spermatozoa has been a widely discussed topic amongst infertility specialists and scientists. This study aimed to evaluate the role of sperm morphology as an indicator of additional sperm functions among 114 andrology referrals. The sperm functions that were investigated included chromatin packaging quality (CMA3 test (n = 109), zona-induced acrosome reaction (ZIAR test; n = 36), hemizona assay (HZI; n = 36) and progressive motility (n = 47). Chromatin packaging quality had a negative and significant (P = 0.0001, r = -0.74) correlation with the percentage normal spermatozoa, while progressive motility had a significant and positive correlation (P = 0.0001, 0.59). Accurate sperm morphology scoring as described by the WHO 2010 manual can therefore be used as an indicator of specific sperm functions. PMID:25130990

  19. Sperm head vacuoles are not affected by in-vitro conditions, as analysed by a system of sperm-microcapture channels.

    PubMed

    Neyer, Anton; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Bach, Magnus; Stecher, Astrid; Spitzer, Dietmar; Zech, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Since the introduction of the motile sperm organelle morphology examination, there has been increasing recognition of the fact that the presence of large nuclear vacuoles might have deleterious effects on embryo development. Nevertheless, one fundamental question still being debated is whether specific in-vitro conditions during the handling of semen have an impact on vacuole formation. This study's objective was to analyse whether incubation temperature (20, 37°C) or oxidative stress stimulates the formation of nuclear vacuoles. Furthermore, it examined whether vacuoles disappear in the presence of an acrosome reaction inducer. Therefore, a system of sperm-microcapture channels was developed to permit the observation of the same living spermatozoa over a period of 24h. Neither incubation at 37°C nor induction of oxidative stress led to de-novo formation of nuclear vacuoles. Induction of the acrosome reaction using calcium ionophore A23587 did not lead to any modifications in the proportion of spermatozoa with vacuoles or to the disappearance of pre-existing vacuoles. According to these observations, it is concluded that nuclear vacuoles on the sperm head are already produced at earlier stages of sperm maturation and are not induced or modulated by routine laboratory environments. The examination of spermatozoa at very high magnification has led to the increasingly widespread recognition that the presence of large vacuoles in the human sperm head has deleterious effects on embryo development. One fundamental question, however, still remains: do specific conditions in the laboratory during the preparation and the handling of semen have an impact on vacuole formation? Our initial objective was to analyse whether different incubation temperatures (20, 37°C) and the induction of oxidative stress lead to the formation of sperm head vacuoles. Furthermore, we examined whether vacuoles disappear in the presence of an acrosome reaction inducer. In order to do this we developed a system of sperm-microcapture channels, which permits the observation of the same living spermatozoa over a period of 24h. Incubation at 37°C or induction of oxidative stress did not lead to the formation of any new vacuoles. After inducing the acrosome reaction, we did not detect any modification in the proportion of vacuolated spermatozoa. According to our observations, different temperatures or environmental conditions in the laboratory have no impact on the formation or disappearance of vacuoles. We conclude that sperm head vacuoles are already produced at earlier stages of sperm maturation. PMID:23415993

  20. Enhanced heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris under increased air pressure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marlene; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília; Mota, Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for the production of heterologous proteins. In this case, high cell densities are needed and oxygen is a major limiting factor. The increased air pressure could be used to improve the oxygen solubility in the medium and to reach the high oxygen demand of methanol metabolism. In this study, two P. pastoris strains producing two different recombinant proteins, one intracellular (?-galactosidase) and other extracellular (frutalin), were used to investigate the effect of increased air pressure on yeast growth in glycerol and heterologous protein production, using the methanol AOX1-inducible system. Experiments were carried out in a stainless steel bioreactor under total air pressure of 1 bar and 5 bar. The use of an air pressure raise of up to 5 bar proved to be applicable for P. pastoris cultivation. Moreover, no effects on the kinetic growth parameters and methanol utilization (Mut) phenotype of strains were found, while an increase in recombinant ?-galactosidase-specific activity (ninefold) and recombinant frutalin production was observed. Furthermore, the air pressure raise led to a reduction in the secreted protease specific activity. This work shows for the first time that the application of an air pressure of 5 bar may be used as a strategy to decrease protease secretion and improve recombinant protein production in P. pastoris. PMID:25080319

  1. Product-to-parent reversion processes: Stream-hyporheic spiraling increases ecosystem exposure and environmental persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. S.; Cwiertny, D. M.; Kolodziej, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    The product-to-parent reversion of metabolites of trenbolone acetate (TBA), a steroidal growth promoter used widely in beef cattle production, was recently observed to occur in environmental waters. The rapid forward reaction is by direct photolysis (i.e., photohydration), with the much slower reversion reaction occurring via dehydration in the dark. The objective of this study is to quantify the potential effect of this newly discovered reversible process on TBA metabolite concentrations and total bioactivity exposure in fluvial systems. Here, we demonstrate increased persistence of TBA metabolites in the stream and hyporheic zone due to the reversion process, increasing chronic and acute exposure to these endocrine-active compounds along a stream. The perpetually dark hyporheic zone is a key location for reversion in the system, ultimately providing a source of the parent compound to the stream and increasing mean in-stream concentration of 17?-trenbolone (17?-TBOH) by 40% of the input concentration under representative fluvial conditions. As such, regulatory frameworks for compounds undergoing product-to-parent reversion will require new approaches for assessing total exposure to bioactive compounds. Further, we demonstrate generalized cases for prediction of exposure for species with product-to-parent reversion in stream-hyporheic systems.

  2. Mating behavior and the evolution of sperm design

    PubMed Central

    Schärer, Lukas; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Yoshida, Wataru; Vizoso, Dita B.

    2011-01-01

    Sperm are the most diverse of all animal cell types, and much of the diversity in sperm design is thought to reflect adaptations to the highly variable conditions under which sperm function and compete to achieve fertilization. Recent work has shown that these conditions often evolve rapidly as a consequence of multiple mating, suggesting a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of sperm design. However, very little of the striking diversity in sperm design is understood functionally, particularly in internally fertilizing organisms. We use phylogenetic comparative analyses covering 16 species of the hermaphroditic flatworm genus Macrostomum to show that a complex sperm design is associated with reciprocal mating and that this complexity is lost secondarily when hypodermic insemination—sperm injection through the epidermis—evolves. Specifically, the complex sperm design, which includes stiff lateral bristles, is likely a male persistence trait associated with sexual conflicts over the fate of received ejaculates and linked to female resistance traits, namely an intriguing postcopulatory sucking behavior and a thickened epithelium of the sperm-receiving organ. Our results suggest that the interactions between sperm donor, sperm, and sperm recipient can change drastically when hypodermic insemination evolves, involving convergent evolution of a needle-like copulatory organ, a simpler sperm design, and a simpler female genital morphology. Our study documents that a shift in the mating behavior may alter fundamentally the conditions under which sperm compete and thereby lead to a drastic change in sperm design. PMID:21220334

  3. Long sperm fertilize more eggs in a bird

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Clair; Hemmings, Nicola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sperm competition, in which the ejaculates of multiple males compete to fertilize a female's ova, results in strong selection on sperm traits. Although sperm size and swimming velocity are known to independently affect fertilization success in certain species, exploring the relationship between sperm length, swimming velocity and fertilization success still remains a challenge. Here, we use the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where sperm size influences sperm swimming velocity, to determine the effect of sperm total length on fertilization success. Sperm competition experiments, in which pairs of males whose sperm differed only in length and swimming speed, revealed that males producing long sperm were more successful in terms of (i) the number of sperm reaching the ova and (ii) fertilizing those ova. Our results reveal that although sperm length is the main factor determining the outcome of sperm competition, complex interactions between male and female reproductive traits may also be important. The mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood, but we suggest that differences in sperm storage and utilization by females may contribute to the outcome of sperm competition. PMID:25621327

  4. Sperm retrieval for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in non-obstructive azoospermia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. COLPI; G. PIEDIFERRO; F. NERVA; D. GIACCHETTA; E. M. COLPI; E. PIATTI

    2005-01-01

    Surgical testicular sperm retrieval for intra-cy- toplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) purposes is the only possibility of biological fathering in case of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Successful retrieval only correlates with his- tology, not with FSH values or testicular vol- ume. Concurrent AZFa and AZFb microdele- tions predict unsuccessful recovery. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) (mean of successful re- trievals in literature: 52.7%)

  5. The price of eggs: increased investment in egg production reduces the offspring rearing capacity of parents

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, P.; Nager, R. G.; Houston, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the selective pressures shaping the number of offspring per breeding event is a key area in the study of life-history strategies. However, in species with parental care, costs incurred in offspring production, rather than rearing, have been largely ignored in both theoretical and empirical studies until relatively recently. Furthermore, the few experimental studies that have manipulated production costs have not yet teased apart effects that operate via the parental phenotype from effects on the quality of the resulting young. To examine whether increased egg production influences parental brood rearing capacity independently of effects operating