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1

Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall  

PubMed Central

While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters. PMID:22371563

Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A.; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M.

2012-01-01

2

Calculating snowfall on central Himalayan glaciers: significant winter snowfall on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the sources and controls on Himalayan snowfall has important ramifications for predicting dry-season hydrologic fluxes and properly interpreting the paleoclimates associated with past glaciations. Previously, it was assumed that Himalayan glaciers received snow primarily during the June-September summer monsoons. Instead, analysis of meteorological data (1999-2004, 2008 at altitudes 530-5600 m) from the Annapurna region of central Nepal shows that

B. Pratt-Sitaula; J. Putkonen

2009-01-01

3

Impact of increasing temperature on snowfall in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact impact of changing temperatures on snow amounts is extremely important for mountainous regions, not only for hydrological aspects but also for winter tourism and the leisure industry in winter ski resorts. However, the impact of increasing temperatures on snowfall amounts is difficult to measure because of the large natural variability of precipitation. In addition, the impact of increasing temperatures varies, depending on region and altitude. Moreover, the impact of the observed increasing trend in temperature on snowfall and snow cover has usually been investigated on a seasonal basis only. On a monthly basis, the relationship between this increase in temperature and snowfall is still largely unknown. Of particular concern are the autumn and spring months and variations with altitude. In order to isolate the impact of changing temperatures on snowfall from the impact of changes in the frequency and intensity of total precipitation, we analyzed the proportion of snowfall days compared to precipitation days for each month from November to April in Switzerland. Our analyses concern 52 meteorological stations located between 200 and 2700 m asl over a 48 year time span. Our results show clear decreasing trends in snowfall days relative to precipitation days for all months (November to April) during the study period 1961-2008. Moreover, the present conditions in December, January and February correspond to those measured in the 1960's in November and March. During the whole snow season, the snowfall ratios have been transferred in elevation by at least 300 m from 1961 to 2008. This means that with an expected temperature increase during the coming decades at least similar to the temperature rise of recent decades, we can assume an additional similar altitudinal transfer of the snowfall days relative to precipitation days ratios. The current situation in November and March could thus become the future situation in December, January and February. During the coming decades, the December, January and February snowfall days relative to precipitation days ratios for the altitude class 1101-1400 m asl would gradually shrink to only approximately 50%. For ski resorts with a base below 1400 m asl, December, January and February will be problematic, because at least one out of two precipitation days will consist of rainfall only. The beginning and end of the ski seasons (November, March-April) will also be affected by the transfer in altitude of snowfall, as currently already approximately every second precipitation day consists of rain up to 1400 m asl in November and March and up to 1700 m asl in April.

Serquet, G.; Marty, C.; Rebetez, M.

2012-04-01

4

Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall. Oppositely, for inactive years, drier-than-normal atmosphere appeared and consequently sluggish snowfall seasons followed. A SVD (singular value decomposition) analysis of the Asian synoptic circulation indicated that the connection between the pressure dipoles and the position of EAT is strong in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, and 2011. It significantly affects both of the snowfall and dust activities. In summary, snowfall active years usually occurred when the East Asian dust storm was inactive. Nevertheless, the snowfall activity increased in Taiwan if there was dust event and the dust aerosol successfully transported to Taiwan. This finding is also demonstrated in the model simulation of this study.

Tsai, L.

2013-12-01

5

Calculating snowfall on central Himalayan glaciers: significant winter snowfall on "summer accumulation" glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the sources and controls on Himalayan snowfall has important ramifications for predicting dry-season hydrologic fluxes and properly interpreting the paleoclimates associated with past glaciations. Previously, it was assumed that Himalayan glaciers received snow primarily during the June-September summer monsoons. Instead, analysis of meteorological data (1999-2004, 2008 at altitudes 530-5600 m) from the Annapurna region of central Nepal shows that winter (November-April) snows make up roughly half (30-60%) of the annual snow at glacial levels. Less than 45% of the total snowfall probably comes during the actual summer monsoon months. Instead, significant snow accumulates from January to September, while October to December is drier. The parameters that most influence the predicted snow at higher altitudes are the rate at which precipitation is assumed to decrease with altitude and the percent of solid precipitation at near-0C temperatures. Large areas of the studied glaciers have June to August average temperatures within a few degrees C of freezing.

Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Putkonen, J.

2009-12-01

6

Synoptic associations of winter climate and snowfall variability in New England, USA, 1950-1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal snowfall in New England has exhibited wide variations over the last few decades, the underlying causes of which have not been identified previously. In this paper, compositing and statistical analyses examine how interactions among the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cyclonic activity and storm track preferences, and western Atlantic sea-surface temperatures contribute to winter climate variability and exceptional winter snowfall totals

Suzanne Hartley; Michael J. Keables

1998-01-01

7

Comparison of weather station snowfall with winter snow accumulation in high arctic basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most water balance studies in the High Arctic indicate that the weather stations underestimate annual precipitation, but the magnitude of such error is unknown. Based on up to seven years of field measurements, this study provides a comparison of snowfall at weather stations with the winter snow accumulation in their nearby drainage basins.Snowfall is the major form of precipitation in

Richard Heron; Peter Steer

1983-01-01

8

Some reports of snowfall from fog during the UK winter of 2008/09  

E-print Network

Snowfall during anticyclonic, non-frontal, and foggy conditions is surprising. Because it is often not forecast, it can present a hazard to transport and modify the surface albedo. In this report, we present some observations of snowfall during conditions of freezing fog in the UK during the winter of 2008/09.

Wood, Curtis R

2009-01-01

9

Increased future ice discharge from Antarctica owing to higher snowfall.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic climate change is likely to cause continuing global sea level rise, but some processes within the Earth system may mitigate the magnitude of the projected effect. Regional and global climate models simulate enhanced snowfall over Antarctica, which would provide a direct offset of the future contribution to global sea level rise from cryospheric mass loss and ocean expansion. Uncertainties exist in modelled snowfall, but even larger uncertainties exist in the potential changes of dynamic ice discharge from Antarctica and thus in the ultimate fate of the precipitation-deposited ice mass. Here we show that snowfall and discharge are not independent, but that future ice discharge will increase by up to three times as a result of additional snowfall under global warming. Our results, based on an ice-sheet model forced by climate simulations through to the end of 2500 (ref. 8), show that the enhanced discharge effect exceeds the effect of surface warming as well as that of basal ice-shelf melting, and is due to the difference in surface elevation change caused by snowfall on grounded versus floating ice. Although different underlying forcings drive ice loss from basal melting versus increased snowfall, similar ice dynamical processes are nonetheless at work in both; therefore results are relatively independent of the specific representation of the transition zone. In an ensemble of simulations designed to capture ice-physics uncertainty, the additional dynamic ice loss along the coastline compensates between 30 and 65 per cent of the ice gain due to enhanced snowfall over the entire continent. This results in a dynamic ice loss of up to 1.25 metres in the year 2500 for the strongest warming scenario. The reported effect thus strongly counters a potential negative contribution to global sea level by the Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:23235878

Winkelmann, R; Levermann, A; Martin, M A; Frieler, K

2012-12-13

10

Increased future ice discharge from Antarctica owing to higher snowfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate change is likely to cause continuing global sea-level rise, but some processes within the Earth system may mitigate the magnitude of the projected effect. Regional and global climate models simulate enhanced snowfall over Antarctica, which would provide a direct offset of the future contribution to global sea level rise from cryospheric mass loss and ocean expansion. Uncertainties exist in modelled snowfall, but even larger uncertainties exist in the potential changes of dynamic ice discharge from Antarctica. Here we show that snowfall and discharge are not independent, but that future ice discharge will increase by up to three times as a result of additional snowfall under global warming. Our results, based on an ice-sheet model forced by climate simulations through to the end of 2500, show that the enhanced discharge effect exceeds the effect of surface warming as well as that of basal ice-shelf melting, and is due to the difference in surface elevation change caused by snowfall on grounded versus floating ice. Although different underlying forcings drive ice loss from basal melting versus increased snowfall, similar ice dynamical processes are nonetheless at work in both; therefore results are relatively independent of the specific representation of the transition zone. In an ensemble of simulations designed to capture ice-physics uncertainty, the additional dynamic ice loss along the coastline compensates between 30 and 65 per cent of the ice gain due to enhanced snowfall over the entire continent. This results in a dynamic ice loss of up to 1.25 metres in the year 2500 for the strongest warming scenario.

Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Martin, Maria A.; Frieler, Katja

2013-04-01

11

Century Projections of Snowfall and Winter Severity1 Across Central-Eastern North America2  

E-print Network

and ablation model (SNOW-17) across the central-eastern51 North American Landscape Conservation Cooperatives 1 21st Century Projections of Snowfall and Winter Severity1 Across Central-Eastern North Hoving16 17 Michigan Department of Natural Resources ­ Wildlife Division, Lansing, Michigan18 19

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

12

Winter snowfall and summer photosynthesis for the Great Basin Desert shrubs Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall provides the majority of soil water recharge in many western high-elevation North American ecosystems, but climate change may alter the magnitude and timing of snowfall and snow melt events thereby affecting ecosystem processes. Experiments were conducted to test hypotheses about multi-scale linkages of antecedent snow depth variation with soil water content and physiological performance of deeply-rooted shrubs in the western Great Basin Desert. Snow depth was manipulated using eight 50-year old snow fences near Mammoth Lakes, California, USA. Water potential and photosynthetic gas exchange were measured annually in early summer (1 - 2 mo following snowmelt), between 2004 and 2008 for Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae) on plots with increased ("+ snow"), decreased ("- snow") and ambient snow depth. Seasonal patterns were measured from May - September 2005, and four to five months after snowmelt in wet and dry years. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient-depth plots in most years. Depth was about 20% lower on -snow plots. Soil water content in May on +snow plots was roughly double that on ambient and 220% of that on -snow plots. Water potential patterns varied across daily, seasonal, and annual scales, but only on a few occasions was there a significant snow-depth effect. Stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) increased for several months after snowmelt in 2005, but there were only a few times when there was a snow depth effect. Photosynthetic gas exchange reflected inter-annual snow depth, but the magnitude of the variation was lower. There was a threshold response of A to October 1 - June 1 cumulative precipitation. For A. tridentata, A differed as a function of Snow Water Equivalents (SWE) across five years of measurements. Results suggest that plant water relations for these two deeply-rooted shrub species are resilient to variation in winter snow depth and subsequent spring soil water availability, and instantaneous photosynthesis may be more influenced by temperature and VPD.

Loik, M. E.; Griffith, A. B.; Alpert, H.; Concilio, A. L.; Martinson, S. J.

2011-12-01

13

Lake Effect Snowfall to the Lee of the Great Lakes: Its Role in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake effect snowfalls contribute a significant proportion of the total winter snowfall in areas to the lee of the Great Lakes. In Michigan during the seasons 1957-58 through 1961-62 at least 30% of the seasonal snowfall in lee areas was derived from lake-atmosphere interactions. Evidence suggests that lake effect snowfall has significantly increased during the past several decades, particularly in

Val L. Eichenlaub

1970-01-01

14

CO2 Snowfalls, seasonal ice cap formations and baroclinic waves in the winter polar atmosphere of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal CO _{2} polar cap is formed from ice particles that have fallen from the atmosphere as well as those condensed directly on the surface. The possible occurrence of CO _{2} snowfall in the winter polar regions have been observed, and previous simulation studies have indicated that the longitudinal irregularities of CO _{2} ice clouds in the northern polar region seemed to be linked to local weather phenomena. Transient planetary waves are the prominent dynamical feature during northern winters in the martian atmosphere, and this study focuses on revealing the mechanism of how the dynamical influence of transient planetary waves affects the occurrences of CO _{2} ice clouds, snowfalls and formations of seasonal CO _{2} polar cap in high latitudes during northern winters. The DRAMATIC (Dynamics, RAdiation, MAterial Transport and their mutual InteraCtions) MGCM, which is used for this study, is based on a Japanese terrestrial model (CCSR/NIES/FRCGC MIROC) with a spectral solver for the three-dimensional primitive equations. A simple scheme representing the formation and transport of CO _{2} ice clouds has been implemented into the MGCM. The simulation results showed that the CO _{2} ice clouds are formed at altitudes of up to 40 km in the northern polar region (northward of 70(°) N) during winter, which is consistent with the observations by the Mars Climate Sounder onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. In addition, we found that the occurrence of the CO _{2} ice clouds correlated to a large degree with the cold phases of transient planetary waves. Ice particles formed up to 20 km can reach the surface in the form of snowfall in certain longitude regions (in 30(°) W-60(°) E), while in others these particles likely sublimate in the lower warmer atmospheric layers. Given the regular nature of such atmospheric waves on Mars, the results of this study suggest that the snowstorms may be predicted several weeks in advance. For missions to Mars aiming to explore these regions with rovers, such weather forecasts would offer the possibility of choosing a route that avoids heavy snow storms.

Kuroda, Takeshi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul

15

Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall Jiping Liua,b,1  

E-print Network

Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; b LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked forced by the negative phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) and to a lesser extent by El Niño

16

Comparisons of Snowfall Measurements in Complex Terrain Made During the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid precipitation (SP) intensity () using four automatic gauges, Pluvio, PARSIVEL (PArticle, SIze and VELocity), FD12P and POSS, and radar reflectivity factor () using the POSS and PARSIVEL were measured at a naturally sheltered station (VOA) located at high level (1,640 m) on the Whistler Mountain in British Colombia, Canada. The R s and other standard meteorological parameters were collected from March 2009, and from November 2009, to February 2010. The wind speed (ws) measured during this period ranged from 0 to 4.5 ms-1, with a mean value of 0.5 ms-1. The temperature varied from 4 to -17 °C. The SP amount reported by the PARSIVEL was higher than that reported by the Pluvio by more than a factor of 2, while the FD12P and POSS measured relatively smaller amounts, but much closer to that reported by the Pluvio and manual measurements. The dependence of R s from the PARSIVEL on wind speed was examined, but no significant dependence was found. The PARSIVEL's precipitation retrieval algorithm was modified and tested using three different snow density size relationships ( ? s- D) reported in literature. It was found that after modification of the algorithm, the derived R s amounts using the raw data agreed reasonably well with the Pluvio. Statistical analysis shows that more than 95 % of data measured by POSS appears to correlates well with the reflectivity factors determined using the three ? s- D relationships. The automated Pluvio accumulation and manually determined daily SP amount (SPm) measured during five winter months were compared. The mean ratio (MR) and the mean difference (MD), and the correlation coefficient ( r) calculated using the data collected using the two methods, were found to be 0.96, 0.4 and 0.6 respectively, indicating respectable agreement between these two methods, with only the Pluvio underestimating the amount by about 4 %.

Boudala, Faisal S.; Isaac, George A.; Rasmussen, Roy; Cober, Stewart G.; Scott, Bill

2014-01-01

17

An Airborne Profiling Radar Study of the Impact of Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding on Snowfall from Winter Orographic Clouds  

E-print Network

An Airborne Profiling Radar Study of the Impact of Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding on Snowfall from millimeter-wave Doppler radar are used to study the cloud microphysical effect of glaciogenic seeding of cold can have an immediate and obvious benefit for society'' (Nature 2008). Cloud seeding probably has been

Geerts, Bart

18

Role of extreme snowfall events in interannual variability of snowfall accumulation in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

resources in the western United States are contingent on interannual variations in snowpack. Interannual snowpack variability has been attributed to large-scale climate patterns including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), however, the contribution of snowfall frequency and extreme snowfall events to this variability are less well quantified. Long-term records from Snowpack Telemetry and Cooperative Observer Program stations in the 11 western states were used to investigate these relationships by considering the number of snowfall days and snowfall water equivalent (SFE) of extreme snowfall events. The top decile of snowfall events contributed 20-38% of annual SFE, depending on the region. An average of 65% and 69% of the interannual variability in annual SFE was explained by snowfall days and SFE of top decile snowfall events, respectively, with extreme events being a more significant predictor at most stations. The latitudinal dipole in SFE during ENSO phases results from changes in snowfall frequency and extreme events. In the Pacific Northwest, above normal SFE during La Niña winters was a product of both larger contributions from extremes and more snowfall days, while below normal SFE during El Niño winters was primarily associated with a substantial reduction in extremes. Conversely, annual SFE during ENSO phases in the mountains of Arizona was more closely linked to fluctuations in snowfall days than extremes. Results indicate the importance of extreme snowfall events in shaping interannual variability in water resources and suggest that improved predictive ability may inform better water resource management now and in the coming decades.

Lute, A. C.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

2014-04-01

19

Snowfall and Temperature on a California Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SNOWFALL and temperature analysis has been completed for six winter seasons (1948-54) on White Mountain, California (elevation 10,600 ft.). Snowfall and the temperature maxima and minima were measured for every 24 hr. at 0800 Pacific Standard Time. Fig. 1a shows the total snowfall as a function of the mean air temperature of the day on which the snow fell.

Charles L. D'Ooge

1955-01-01

20

Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures and New England Snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the possibility of an association between winter (December-March) snowfall in New England and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. Regional snowfall indices for southern and northern New England were obtained by rotated principal components analysis (PCA). Composite maps of winter Atlantic SSTAs and 700-mb geopotential height anomalies were generated for cases of above

Suzanne Hartley

1996-01-01

21

Regional Snowfall Distributions Associated with ENSO: Implications for Seasonal Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional changes in early, middle, and late winter total snowfall distributions are identified over the continental United States in association with warm and cold phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The analysis is primarily motivated by a desire to improve winter season climate forecasts. Original interest in snowfall associated with ENSO was provided by requests for skiing forecasts during

Shawn R. Smith; James J. O'Brien

2001-01-01

22

Variations in northern hemisphere snowfall: An analysis of historical trends and the projected response to anthropogenic forcing in the twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall is an important feature of the Earth's climate system that has the ability to influence both the natural world and human activity. This dissertation examines past and future changes in snowfall related to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Snowfall observations for North America, derived snowfall products for the Northern Hemisphere, and simulations performed with 13 coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models are analyzed. The analysis of the spatial pattern of simulated annual trends on a grid point basis from 1951 to 1999 indicates that a transition zone exists above 60° N latitude across the Northern Hemisphere that separates negative trends in annual snowfall in the mid-latitudes and positive trends at higher latitudes. Regional analysis of observed annual snowfall indicates that statistically significant trends are found in western North America, Japan, and southern Russia. A majority of the observed historical trends in annual snowfall elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, however, are not statistically significant and this result is consistent with model simulations. Projections of future snowfall indicate the presence of a similar transition zone between negative and positive snowfall trends that corresponds with the area between the -10 to -15°C isotherms of the multi-model mean temperature of the late twentieth century in each of the fall, winter, and spring seasons. Redistributions of snowfall throughout the entire snow season are likely -- even in locations where there is little change in annual snowfall. Changes in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow contribute to decreases in snowfall across most Northern Hemisphere regions, while changes in precipitation typically contribute to increases in snowfall. Snowfall events less than or equal to 5 cm are found to decrease in the future across most of the Northern Hemisphere, while snowfall events greater than or equal to 20 cm increase in some locations, such as northern Quebec. A signal-to-noise analysis reveals that the projected changes in snowfall are likely to become apparent during the twenty-first century for most locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

Krasting, John P.

23

Sunspots and Snowfall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of the snowfall and total precipitation data for Rochester, New York, suggests a correlation with sunspot activity. Data from other locations tend to support the thesis, but the ability to predict yearly snowfall or total precipitation amounts from sunspot activity has yet to be developed. (Author/CP)

Starr, Richard R.

1978-01-01

24

Snowfall Retrivals Using a Video Disdrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A video disdrometer has been recently developed at NASA/Wallops Flight Facility in an effort to improve surface precipitation measurements. One of the goals of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to provide improved satellite-based measurements of snowfall in mid-latitudes. Also, with the planned dual-polarization upgrade of US National Weather Service weather radars, there is potential for significant improvements in radar-based estimates of snowfall. The video disdrometer, referred to as the Rain Imaging System (RIS), was deployed in Eastern North Dakota during the 2003-2004 winter season to measure size distributions, precipitation rate, and density estimates of snowfall. The RIS uses CCD grayscale video camera with a zoom lens to observe hydrometers in a sample volume located 2 meters from end of the lens and approximately 1.5 meters away from an independent light source. The design of the RIS may eliminate sampling errors from wind flow around the instrument. The RIS operated almost continuously in the adverse conditions often observed in the Northern Plains. Preliminary analysis of an extended winter snowstorm has shown encouraging results. The RIS was able to provide crystal habit information, variability of particle size distributions for the lifecycle of the storm, snowfall rates, and estimates of snow density. Comparisons with coincident snow core samples and measurements from the nearby NWS Forecast Office indicate the RIS provides reasonable snowfall measurements. WSR-88D radar observations over the RIS were used to generate a snowfall-reflectivity relationship from the storm. These results along with several other cases will be shown during the presentation.

Newman, A. J.; Kucera, P. A.

2004-12-01

25

Increasing sowing depth to reduce mouse damage to winter crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plagues of house mice (Mus domesticus) can cause severe economic damage to grain crops in southern Australia when their populations peak at sowing of winter-growing crops in autumn. Mice damage crops by locating and digging out newly sown seeds. If damage is high, farmers have to re-sow their crop. A trial was conducted to examine the effect of increasing sowing

Peter R Brown; Grant R Singleton; Colin R Tann; Ivan Mock

2003-01-01

26

Quantitative Estimates of the Effect of Lake Michigan on Snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

A climatological study of snowfall in the snowbelts of Michigan shows that decade-average amounts varied by a factor of 2 during the period from 1909\\/10 through 1980\\/81.The effect of Lake Michigan on total winter snowfall along its shores has been estimated. A long-term average effect of +10% is found for the Wisconsin shore south of Sheboygan, and an average of

Roscoe R. Braham Jr.; Maureen J. Dungey

1984-01-01

27

Synoptic Associations of Exceptional Snowfall Seasons in New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal snowfall in New England has exhibited wide variations over the last few decades, the underlying causes of which have not been identified. This research examines how interactions among the large-scale atmospheric circulation and associated sea-level pressure patterns, cyclonic activity and storm track preferences, and North Atlantic sea-surface temperatures contribute to exceptional winter snowfall totals in New England. Unrotated principal

Suzanne Hartley

1996-01-01

28

Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population  

PubMed Central

Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Maxell, Bryce A.

2010-01-01

29

Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population.  

PubMed

Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

McCaffery, Rebecca M; Maxell, Bryce A

2010-05-11

30

Synoptic Weather Patterns Leading to Snowfall in the Northeastern United States and the Resulting Spatial Distribution of Snowfall Amounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frozen precipitation results in hazardous conditions in the densely populated northeastern United States, yet little attention has been given to the important relationship between synoptic weather patterns and snowfall amounts. Recent increases in total seasonal snowfall amounts in some parts of the region have been attributed to increases in the frequency and\\/or intensity of certain weather patterns. Direct accounts of

C. C. Karmosky

2006-01-01

31

Sensitivity of soil respiration and microbial communities to altered snowfall Zachary T. Aanderud a,1  

E-print Network

Sensitivity of soil respiration and microbial communities to altered snowfall Zachary T. Aanderud a in winter soil respiration may be in uenced by the effects of snowfall on microbial communities effects on other features of the soil microbial community at spring thaw. Our results suggest

Fierer, Noah

32

Climatological characterization of wind and snowfall in Minnesota and assessing the impacts of living snow fences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blowing and drifting snow on roadways is a common occurrence in Minnesota due to the topographic, vegetative, and winter climate characteristics of this area. Through proper road design and the use of snow fences this problem can be alleviated, however snowfall and wind climatological information must first be analyzed. Archived climatological records for locations in Minnesota were recently compiled. Snowfall

Martha Elizabeth Durr Shulski

2002-01-01

33

Seasonal snowfall prediction in the United States using multiple discriminant analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the ability of a statistical forecast model based on Multiple Discriminant Analysis to predict winter snowfall frequency and amount. Several large-scale atmospheric variables and teleconnection patterns are included as independent predictors, such as the PNA, ENSO, fall temperature, Arctic sea ice extent, and others. Seasonal snowfall forecasts are made for six regions in the United States and for 440 individual snowfall stations over the time period 1930 to 2006. Results not only confirm relationships previously documented between atmospheric phenomena and United States snowfall, they also expand our understanding of factors that influence decadal-scale snowfall variation by including variables such as Eurasian snow cover extent and Arctic sea ice extent. Based on cross-validation of the model using a jack knife method, the snowfall forecasts are correct 20% to 70% of the time.

Kluver, Daria B.

34

Air Force Snowfall Statistics for Engineering Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Describes the engineering snowfall data provided by the USAF Environmental Technical Applications Center (USAFETAC) to the Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency (AFCESA). Total snowfall and maximum daily snowfall amounts are used in determining alloc...

H. J. Snelling

1992-01-01

35

Northern Sierra Nevada Snowfall Accumulation: Comparing SWE Reconstruction and PRISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowfall comprises up to 67% of annual precipitation in the middle elevations of the Sierra Nevada and over 90% in the higher elevations. Consequently, seasonal snowpack is a critical water resource and has significant interactions with local ecology and important feedbacks with the atmosphere. Yet, winter precipitation distributions between or beyond gauges are typically unknown and often challenging to estimate

M. S. Raleigh; J. D. Lundquist

2010-01-01

36

Persistence in Snowfall Intensities Measured at the Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the winters of 1961-62 and 1963-64, measurements of light scattering by falling snow provided a continuous record of snowfall rates on the campus of McGill University in Montreal. This permitted an analysis of the time variations of intensity during a snowstorm, with a resolution not possible when a heated tipping bucket is the measuring device.It was found in the

Rosemary M. Dyer

1970-01-01

37

4, 515534, 2008 Snowfall response to  

E-print Network

, the total snowfall response to obliquity is similar to that due to a shift in Earth's precession, suggestingCPD 4, 515­534, 2008 Snowfall response to obliquity forcing S.-Y. Lee and C. J. Poulsen Title Page­534, 2008 Snowfall response to obliquity forcing S.-Y. Lee and C. J. Poulsen Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Snowfall induced severe pile-ups in southern Finland on 17 March 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather has a great impact on road traffic and several studies have shown that accident risk increases especially during wintry weather conditions. Heavy snowfall, rain or sleet on an icy road surface and formation of hoar frost can make the driving conditions hazardous. Poor visibility, caused by snowfall or dense fog can increase the accident risk significantly and severe pile-ups

I. Juga; M. Hippi

2009-01-01

39

An indoor public space for a winter city  

E-print Network

Winter is a marginalized season in North American design. Even though most cities in the northern United States and Canada have winter conditions-snowfall, ice, freezing temperatures, and long nights-for substantial portions ...

Crane, Justin Fuller

2005-01-01

40

U D C 551.578.42: 661.588.4(285:71/73) Snowfall From lake-Ef f ect Storms  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT-Three yr of winter lake-storm data were November and early December storms were two to five analyzed to determine snowfall distribution patterns down- times more productive than January storms. A considerwind of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The total amount able variation in snow density (snowfall depth to melt of snowfall and the area of ground cover in each of 23 water ratio) could be attributed mainly to differences lake-effect storms were determined for both lakes. Total in snow crystal type. snowfall mass was highly dependent on time of year; 1.

James E. Jiusto

41

Cold temperature increases winter fruit removal rate of a bird-dispersed shrub.  

SciTech Connect

Kwit, C., D. J. Levey; C. H. Greenberg, S. F. Pearson, J.P. McCarty, and S. Sargent. Cold temperature increases winter fruit removal rate of a bird-dispersed shrub. Oecologia. 139:30-34. Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that winter removal rates of fruits of wax myrtle, Myrica cerifera, are higher in colder winters. Over a 9-year period, we monitored M. cerifera fruit crops in 13 0.1-ha study plots in South Carolina, U.S.A. Peak ripeness occurred in November, whereas peak removal occurred in the coldest months, December and January. Mean time to fruit removal within study plots was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures, thereby supporting our hypothesis. This result, combined with the generally low availability of winter arthropods, suggests that fruit abundance may play a role in determining winter survivorship and distribution of permanent resident and short-distance migrant birds. From the plant's perspective, it demonstrates inter-annual variation in the temporal component of seed dispersal, with possible consequences for post-dispersal seed and seedling ecology.

Charles Kwit; Douglas J. Levey; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Scott F. Pearson; John P. McCarty; Sarah Sargent

2004-01-10

42

Climate change projection of snowfall in the Colorado River Basin using dynamical downscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations show a decrease in the fraction of precipitation falling as snowfall in the western United States. In this work we evaluate a historical and future climate simulation over the Colorado River Basin using a 35 km continuous 111 year simulation (1969-2079) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model with boundary forcing from the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research/Met Office's HadCM3 model with A2 emission scenario. The focus of this work is to (1) evaluate the simulated spatiotemporal variability of snowfall in the historical period when compared to observations and (2) project changes in snowfall and the fraction of precipitation that falls as snow during the 21st century. We find that the spatial variability in modeled snowfall in the historical period (1981-2005) is realistically represented when compared to observations. The trends of modeled snowfall are similar to the observed trends except at higher elevations. Examining the continuous 111 year simulation, we find the future projections show statistically significant increases in temperature with larger increases in the northern part of the basin. There are statistically insignificant increases in precipitation, while snowfall shows a statistically significant decrease throughout the period in all but the highest elevations and latitudes. The fraction of total precipitation falling as snow shows statistically significant declines in all regions. The strongest decrease in snowfall is seen at high elevations in the southern part of the basin and low elevations in the northern part of the basin. The regions of most intense decreases in snow experience a decline of approximately 50% in snowfall throughout the 111 year simulation period. The regions of strongest declines in snowfall roughly correspond to the region of migration of the zero degree Celsius line and emphasize snowfall dependence on both altitude and latitude.

Wi, Sungwook; Dominguez, Francina; Durcik, Matej; Valdes, Juan; Diaz, Henry F.; Castro, Christopher L.

2012-05-01

43

Polarization Lidar Liquid Cloud Detection Algorithm for Winter Mountain Storms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have collected an extensive polarization lidar dataset from elevated sites in the Tushar Mountains of Utah in support of winter storm cloud seeding research and experiments. Our truck-mounted ruby lidar collected zenith, dual-polarization lidar data through a roof window equipped with a wiper system to prevent snowfall accumulation. Lidar returns were collected at a rate of one shot every 1 to 5 min during declared storm periods over the 1985 and 1987 mid-Jan. to mid-Mar. Field seasons. The mid-barrier remote sensor field site was located at 2.57 km MSL. Of chief interest to weather modification efforts are the heights of supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, which must be known to assess their 'seedability' (i.e., temperature and height suitability for artificially increasing snowfall). We are currently re-examining out entire dataset to determine the climatological properties of SLW clouds in winter storms using an autonomous computer algorithm.

Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie

1992-01-01

44

Spatial-temporal variations in snowfall chemistry in the montreal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowfall was collected on an event basis for 6 winter storms in 1980 at 10 locations around the greater Montreal region. Six sites were urban, 2 suburban and 2 rural (small town). For all storms, 4 of the urban stations had the highest pH of the 10 locations, with the 6 Montreal Island sites having the highest chemical concentrations. Employing

John E. Lewis; T. R. Moore; N. J. Enright

1983-01-01

45

BGU now, Winter 2008/9 With the ever increasing shortage  

E-print Network

, and within the aquifer to vital production wells for fresh water. Weisbrod, together with his fellowBGU now, Winter 2008/9 With the ever increasing shortage in the world's water resources and dire warning of Israel's own ongoing drought, research to reduce contamination of existing water resources

Weisbrod, Noam

46

Future Changes in Northern Hemisphere Snowfall JOHN P. KRASTING  

E-print Network

to decreases in snowfall across most Northern Hemisphere regions, while changes in total precipitation, and societal dimensions. This study examines how total snowfall and the ratio of snowfall to totalFuture Changes in Northern Hemisphere Snowfall JOHN P. KRASTING Department of Environmental Science

Broccoli, Anthony J.

47

Increase in Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase Activity of Winter Wheat by Cold Treatment and Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activity of indoleacetic acid oxidase increased 10-fold during 40 days of cold treatment of winter wheat seedlings. Puromycin and 6-methyl purine inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development in the cold. Addition of gibberellic acid stimulated indoleacetic acid oxidase development during germination at room temperature and during cold treatment. Amo-1618 inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development before and during cold treatment. Indoleacetic acid treatment increased indoleacetic acid oxidase activity during germination at room temperature while no significant effect on activity was observed during cold treatment. PMID:16657327

Bolduc, Reginald J.; Cherry, Joe H.; Blair, Byron O.

1970-01-01

48

Radar Determination of Snowfall Rate and Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique method that provides for relating radar-measured reflectivity factors to snowfall rates at the ground is presented. Data were provided by a CPS-9, 3.2 cm radar from six 1978 Massachusetts snowstorms A best-fit power-law relationship between hourly-averaged snowfall rate (depth) and radar reflectivity factor is determined. This derived relationship is found to be Z = 5.07S1.65 with a correlation

Roland J. Boucher; James G. Wieler

1985-01-01

49

Improving Snowfall Forecasting by Diagnosing Snow Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current prediction of snowfall amounts is accomplished either by using empirical techniques or by using a standard modification of liquid equivalent precipitation such as the 10-to-1 rule. This rule, which supposes that the depth of the snowfall is 10 times the liquid equivalent (a snow ratio of 10:1, reflecting an assumed snow density of 100 kg m23), is a particularly

Paul J. Roebber; Sara L. Bruening; David M. Schultz; John V. Cortinas

2003-01-01

50

Synoptic climatological study on the decrease in heavy snowfall days in Hokuriku District of Central Japan after the latter half of 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reports point out that the total snowfall amount in winter in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands, such as Hokuriku District, decreased considerably after the latter half of 1980s, in coincidence with the Global Warming together with the interdecadal variation. As for around December, this seems to be partly because more precipitation in the winter monsoon situation

Kuranoshin Kato; Yuusuke Kan

2010-01-01

51

Winter Storms in the Central Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on observations from a hydrometeorological network on the eastern slopes of the Annapurna Range, nearly all the annual precipitation at low elevations (< 2000 m MSL) in Nepal is in liquid form, even during the winter. However, high elevations (> 3000 m MSL) can receive up to 40% of their annual precipitation as snowfall during the winter, with the

Timothy J. LANG; Ana P. BARROS

2004-01-01

52

A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence of lightning as a nowcasting tool for impending snow intensification at the site of the CG flash.

Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

2009-01-01

53

Compatibility of Canadian snowfall and snow cover data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy and compatibility of Canadian snowfall and snow survey data were investigated in the Cold Creek research basin in southern Ontario. Problems in obtaining compatible point measurements of snowfall precipitation from gauge and ruler measurements are discussed. However, it is shown that correction of gauge measurements (MSC Nipher, Universal, Fischer and Porter) of snowfall water equivalent for catch variations

B. E. Goodison

1981-01-01

54

The 8th-10 th January 2009 snowfalls: a case of Mediterranean warm advection event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 8 th to 10 th of January 2009, significant snowfalls were reported in many areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. This relevant event was very important from the meteorological and social impact point of views. The snow affected many zones, especially the regions of Madrid, Castilla & León and Castilla-La Mancha (Spanish central plateau) with the persistence and thickness of solid precipitation. Up to twenty-five centimetres of snow were reported in some places. On 9th of January the snowfalls caused great social and media impact due to the fact that they took place in the early hours in the Madrid metropolitan areas, affecting both air traffic and land transport. The "Madrid-Barajas" airport was closed and the city was collapsed during several hours. A study of this situation appears in the poster. The snowstorm was characterized by the previous irruption of an European continental polar air mass, that subsequently interacted with a wet and warm air mass of Mediterranean origin, all preceded by low level easterly flows. This type of snowfall is called "warm advection". These winter situations are very efficient from precipitation point of view, generating significant snowfalls and affecting a lot of areas.

Aguado, F.; Ayensa, E.; Barriga, M.; Del Hoyo, J.; Fernández, A.; Garrido, N.; Martín, A.; Martín, F.; Roa, I. Martínez, A.; Pascual, R.

2009-09-01

55

Taiwan Snowfall Activity and Its Association with Asian Dust Storm from 1995 to 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While snowfall in the subtropical zone is rare, Yushan is the most famous snow spot in Taiwan. When it is snowing in mountains, people are experiencing unusually cold and wet weather in Taiwan. In this paper, snowfall activity from 1995 to 2009 and the related atmosphere circulation are examined with Taiwan CWB's weather station observations and the NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data. Also, Asian dust storm activity and PM10 concentration in Taiwan are examined with SYSNOP data and the EPA' s air quality monitoring station observation data. Our analyses show that snowfall activity is closely related to the position of EAT (East Asia Trough), strength of WPH (West Pacific High) and Asian dust storm active. Asian dust is a good ice nucleation for heterogenous freezing. Climatologically, the existence of a large-scale dry zone over mid-latitudes of Asia provides a favorable environment for the frequent occurrences of dust events and subsequent dust transport across Asia, which provides a huge amount of ice nucleation. In active year, when the EAT was shifted eastward and the strength of WPH was increased, an anticyclone anomalous occurred in the West Pacific. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeast cost of China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere and meanwhile the PM10 concentrations higher than usual which in favor of snowfall activity. Alternatively in inactive years, it resulted in a drier-than-normal atmosphere and a sluggish snowfall season. The SVD analysis has shown that the relation be tween the position of EAT and the anomalous pressure dipoles is rather robust, at least in those years that Asian dust storm activity is particularly strong while snowfall activity is weak (e.g., 1999, 2001, and 2002) or weak in dust storm activity and strong in snowfall activity (e.g., 19998, 2003, 2005 and 2008).

Tsai, L.; Wang, Z.; Liu, K.

2011-12-01

56

Increase of organochlorines and MFO activity in water birds wintering in an Italian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) is a migratory and dispersive birds species. Its breeding areas are located in central and eastern Europe; its wintering quarters are in western Europe, around the Mediterranean, Adriatic, Black and Caspian Seas. Recently Focardi et al. (1984) have reported that specimens of Black-necked grebes accumulate polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury in their tissues during their wintering

C. Fossi; C. Leonzio; S. Focardi

1986-01-01

57

The snowfall chemistry collector intercomparison test (SCCIT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snowfall Chemistry Collector Intercomparison Test (SCCIT) took place as part of a field experiment of the PRocessing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP) program during January and February 1986 in western New York. SCCIT compared the chemical composition and equivalent water depth of snow collected with a large, bag-lined can (used by the PRECP community for a concurrent

D. L. Sisterson; J. D. Shannon; P. H. Daum; P. J. Klotz; D. J. Luecken; D. J. Hall

1989-01-01

58

CHANGES IN SNOWFALL IN THE SOUTHERN SIERRA  

E-print Network

A time series (1916–2009) of annual snowfall totals for Huntington Lake (HL, elev. 2141 m) in the southern Sierra Nevada of California is reconstructed. A reconstruction is (a) necessary because HL data after 1972 are mostly missing and (b) possible because nearby stations reveal high correlations with HL, two above 0.90. The results show mean annual snowfall in HL is 624 cm with an insignificant trend of +0.5 cm (+0.08%) ±13.1 cm decade ?1. Similar positive but insignificant trends for spring snowfall were also calculated. Annual stream flow and precipitation trends for the region again were insignificantly positive for the same period. Snow-water-equivalent comparisons, measured on 1 Apr since 1930 at 26 sites and since 1950 at 45, show similar small, mostly positive, and insignificant trends. These results combined with published temperature time series, which also reveal no significant trends, form a consistent picture of no remarkable long-term changes in the snowfall of this area and elevation of the southern Sierra Nevada of California since the early 20 th century.

John R. Christy; Justin J. Hnilo; John R. Christy; Justin J. Hnilo

59

Effects of Snowfall on Drifting Snow and Wind Structure Near a Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind-tunnel and numerical experiments were performed to investigate the effects of snowfall on the wind profile and the development of drifting snow. Wind profiles and mass-flux profiles of drifting snow were measured with and without artificial snowfall over a snow surface within the tunnel. Wind and shear-stress profiles and the impact speeds of the snowflakes during snowfall were also investigated numerically. During snowfall, snowflakes transfer part of their horizontal momentum to the air, which increases the stress close to the snow surface; however, the resultant modifications of the wind profiles are small. Because snowflakes have large momentum, the decomposed snow crystals that result from their collision with a surface can form a saltation layer, even over a hard snow surface where entrainment of the grains from the surface does not occur. Additionally, during snowfall, the threshold friction velocity can be lower than the impact threshold because snowflake fragmentation facilitates snow drifting. The broken crystals contribute to the increase in the number of drifting snow grains, even below the impact threshold.

Nemoto, Masaki; Sato, Takeshi; Kosugi, Kenji; Mochizuki, Shigeto

2014-09-01

60

Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.  

PubMed

Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat. PMID:24736557

Tian, Yunlu; Zheng, Chengyan; Chen, Jin; Chen, Changqing; Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

2014-01-01

61

Climatic Warming Increases Winter Wheat Yield but Reduces Grain Nitrogen Concentration in East China  

PubMed Central

Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat. PMID:24736557

Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

2014-01-01

62

Elevated streamflows increase dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter: Implications of climate change in the Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 4-year evaluation was conducted to determine the proportion of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch passing Cowlitz Falls Dam, on the Cowlitz River, Washington, during winter. River and reservoir populations of coho salmon parr were monitored using radiotelemetry to determine if streamflow increases resulted in increased downstream movement and dam passage. This was of interest because fish that pass downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam become landlocked in Riffe Lake and are lost to the anadromous population. Higher proportions of reservoir-released fish (0.391-0.480) passed Cowlitz Falls Dam than did river-released fish (0.037-0.119). Event-time analyses demonstrated that streamflow increases were important predictors of dam passage rates during the study. The estimated effect of increasing streamflows on the risk of dam passage varied annually and ranged from 9% to 75% for every 28.3 m3/s increase in streamflow. These results have current management implications because they demonstrate the significance of dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter months when juvenile fish collection facilities are typically not operating. The results also have future management implications because climate change predictions suggest that peak streamflow timing for many watersheds in the Pacific Northwest will shift from late spring and early summer to winter. Increased occurrence of intense winter flood events is also expected. Our results demonstrate that juvenile coho salmon respond readily to streamflow increases and initiate downstream movements during winter months, which could result in increased passage at dams during these periods if climate change predictions are realized in the coming decades.

Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike; Bumbaco, Karin A.

2012-01-01

63

The criteria of heavy snowfalls in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, unfortunately, the number of victims of natural hazards doesn't decrease in Russia. There are many reasons of that situation - both geographical and human. Russia is one of the most spread countries in the world and it has the big number of different types of natural phenomena, which can cause natural disaster. One of the reasons is the fact that the criteria of which meteorological or hydrological hazards can cause an emergency situation are equal for the whole territory of Russia. .And that's why many dangerous situations are underestimated. The analysis of the distribution of criteria in Russia shows that only temperature phenomena (such as frost or heat) have really space differentiation. According to directive documents in Russia, the criteria of heavy snowfall in all the territory of Russia is 20 mm per 12 hours - from subtropical to arctic regions. But the socio-economical and climatic conditions are so different, that using this one criteria is not rational at all. In the investigation held the author developed the method of differentiation the territoty of Russia and proposed different criteria of heavy snowfalls for chosen regions. The method is based, on one hand on analysis of 30-years statistics of natural disasters in Russia, and on other hand on the analysis of the density of population and the mean quantity of precipitation in the cold period in Russia. The geographical zoning of Russia was conduct and clusters with equal parameters were determined. That means that in these areas the same hydro meteorological characteristics can be used for. The new criteria for the number of natural phenomena (such as hale, snowfalls etc) were found. The analysis of this criteria of heavy snowfalls showed, that on 70 the territory of Russia this criteria (20 mm per 12 hours) is overstated. In the most of the big cities (according to the statistics and calculated data) in different climatic regions this criteria should be much lower - from 8 to 10 mm per 12 hours.

Gavrilova, Sofia

2013-04-01

64

Increase of organochlorines and MFO activity in water birds wintering in an Italian lagoon  

SciTech Connect

The Black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) is a migratory and dispersive birds species. Its breeding areas are located in central and eastern Europe; its wintering quarters are in western Europe, around the Mediterranean, Adriatic, Black and Caspian Seas. Recently Focardi et al. (1984) have reported that specimens of Black-necked grebes accumulate polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury in their tissues during their wintering in the Northern Adriatic lagoon of Marano. Residues of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and the levels of the mixed function oxidases (one of the most efficient hepatic detoxication systems) have been evaluated in specimens of Black-necked grebes collected in the lagoon of Marano during the wintering period (October and December 1984; April 1985) and are the subject of this report.

Fossi, C.; Leonzio, C.; Focardi, S.

1986-10-01

65

Analysis of a snowfall event produced by mountains waves in Guadarrama Mountains (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy snowfall events are fairly uncommon precipitation processes in the Iberian Peninsula. When large amounts of snow accumulate in large cities with populations that are unaccustomed to or unprepared for heavy snow, these events have a major impact on their daily activities. On 16 January 2013, an extreme snowstorm occurred in Guadarrama Mountains (Madrid, Spain) during an experimental winter campaign as a part of the TECOAGUA Project. Strong northwesterly winds, high precipitation and temperatures close to 0°C were detected throughout the whole day. During this episode, it was possible to continuously take measurements of different variables involved in the development of the convection using a multichannel microwave radiometer (MMWR). The significant increase in the cloud thickness observed vertically by the MMWR and registered precipitation of 43 mm in 24 hours at the station of Navacerrada (Madrid) led us to consider that we were facing an episode of strong winter convection. Images from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite suggested that the main source of the convection was the formation of mountain waves on the south face of the Guadarrama Mountains. The event was simulated in high resolution using the WRF mesoscale model, an analysis of which is based on the observational simulations and data. Finally, the continuous measurements obtained with the MMWR allowed us to monitor the vertical situation above the Guadarrama Mountains with temporal resolution of 2 minutes. This instrument has a clear advantage in monitoring short-term episodes of this kind in comparison to radiosondes, which usually produce data at 0000 and 1200 UTC. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22). The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

Gascón, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, José Luis; Fernández-González, Sergio; Merino, Andrés; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo

2014-05-01

66

Dissolved organic matter composition of winter flow in the Yukon River basin: Implications of permafrost thaw and increased groundwater discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater discharge to rivers has increased in recent decades across the circumpolar region and has been attributed to thawing permafrost in arctic and subarctic watersheds. Permafrost-driven changes in groundwater discharge will alter the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in rivers, yet little is known about the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of groundwater in permafrost settings. Here, we characterize DOM composition of winter flow in 60 rivers and streams of the Yukon River basin to evaluate the biogeochemical consequences of enhanced groundwater discharge associated with permafrost thaw. DOC concentration of winter flow averaged 3.9 ± 0.5 mg C L-1, yet was highly variable across basins (ranging from <1 to >20 mg C L-1). In comparison to the summer-autumn period, DOM composition of winter flow had lower aromaticity (as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, or SUVA254), lower hydrophobic acid content, and a higher proportion of hydrophilic compounds (HPI). Fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis indicated enrichment of protein-like fluorophores in some, but not all, winter flow samples. The ratio of DOC to dissolved organic nitrogen, an indicator of DOM biodegradability, was positively correlated with SUVA254 and negatively correlated with the percentage of protein-like compounds. Using a simple two-pool mixing model, we evaluate possible changes in DOM during the summer-autumn period across a range of conditions reflecting possible increases in groundwater discharge. Across three watersheds, we consistently observed decreases in DOC concentration and SUVA254 and increases in HPI with increasing groundwater discharge. Spatial patterns in DOM composition of winter flow appear to reflect differences in the relative contributions of groundwater from suprapermafrost and subpermafrost aquifers across watersheds. Our findings call for more explicit consideration of DOC loss and stabilization pathways associated with changing subsurface hydrology in watersheds underlain by thawing permafrost.

O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Butler, Kenna D.

2012-12-01

67

Can supplemental food increase winter survival of a threatened cottontail rabbit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of New England cottontails (Sylvilagus transitionalis) have declined substantially in recent decades in response to habitat loss and fragmentation. Among some remnant populations, cottontails occupy small patches of thicket habitat where they experience high mortality rates as a consequence of limited food during winter. This limitation causes rabbits to forage away from cover where they are exposed to predators.

T. Weidman; J. A. Litvaitis

2011-01-01

68

Characteristics of easterly-induced snowfall in Yeongdong and its relationship to air-sea temperature difference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of snowfall episodes have been investigated for the past ten years in order to study its association with lowlevel stability and air-sea temperature difference over the East Sea. In general, the selected snowfall episodes have similar synoptic setting such as the Siberian High extended to northern Japan along with the Low passing by the southern Korean Peninsula, eventually resulting in the easterly flow in the Yeongdong region. Especially in the heavy snowfall episodes, convective unstable layers have been identified over the East sea due to relatively warm sea surface temperature (SST) about 8˜10°C and specifically cold pool around 1˜2 km above the surface level (ASL), which can be derived from Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System (RDAPS), but that have not been clearly exhibited in the weak snowfall episodes. The basic mechanism to initiate snowfall around Yeongdong seems to be similar to that of lake-effect snowstorms around Great Lakes in the United States (Kristovich et al., 2003). Difference of equivalent potential temperature ( ? e ) between 850 hPa and surface as well as difference between air and sea temperatures altogether gradually began to increase in the pre-snowfall period and reached their maximum values in the course of the period, whose air (850 hPa) — sea temperature difference and snowfall intensity in case of the heavy snowfall episodes are almost larger than 20°C and 6 tims greater than the weak snowfall episodes, respectively. Interestingly, snowfall appeared to begin in case of an air-sea temperature difference exceeding over 15°C. The current analysis is overall consistent with the previous finding (Lee et al., 2012) that an instabilityinduced moisture supply to the lower atmosphere from the East sea, being cooled and saturated in the lower layer, so to speak, East Sea-Effect Snowfall (SES), would make a low-level ice cloud which eventually moves inland by the easterly flow. In addition, a longlasting synoptic characteristics and convergence-induced invigoration also appear to play the important roles in the severe snowstorms. Improvements in our understanding of mesoscale sea-effect snowstorms require detailed in-situ and remote sensing observations over and around East Sea since observations of the concurrent thermodynamic and microphysical characteristics have not been available there and this study emphasizes the importance of low level stability as quantitative estimation of moist static energy generation over the East Sea.

Nam, Hyoung-Gu; Kim, Byung-Gon; Han, Sang-Ok; Lee, Chulkyu; Lee, Seoung-Soo

2014-08-01

69

The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato  

PubMed Central

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel

2010-01-01

70

The quiet sunrise E region: Enhancements at high latitudes in winter due to increased nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

E region electron concentrations derived from European Incoherent Scatter Facility observations at 70[degrees]N were found to be much larger than normal for high solar zenith angles during 23 of 32 days in winter. Electron concentrations computed with the Keneshea code are compatible with the observations if nitric oxide concentrations are about 10[sup 9] cm[sup [minus]3] at 100-110 km. For these altitudes near ground sunrise, it is shown that numerically, the nitric oxide concentration approximately equals the square of the electron concentration. 18 refs., 3 figs.

Swider, W.; Keneshea, T.J. (Phillips Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States))

1993-02-01

71

Synoptic controls on upper Colorado River basin snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic controls of the Colorado River basin snowfall are determined from 700 mb atmospheric circulation. The 700 mb time series is run through an S-mode Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which creates a synoptic index over the western US region This synoptic index is used as input to a feed-forward backpropagation neural network to develop transfer functions that simulate daily snowfall

David L. McGinnis

2000-01-01

72

Alpine snowfall observation using an X-band polarimetric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation is crucial for water resources and natural hazards in mountainous regions. Because of lower temperatures at higher altitudes, snowfall is a significant if not the main part of total mountainous precipitation. Similarly to rainfall, snowfall is highly variable in space and time, which poses an issue for its measurement. In addition, snowflakes have a largely variable density, which makes

Marc Schneebeli; Alexis Berne; Michael Lehning

2010-01-01

73

Will We Be Walking in a Millersville Winter Wonderland? Sung to the tune of Winter Wonderland  

E-print Network

Millersville a highly variable winter, with multiple changeover storms (snow to ice to rain) and an average snowfall ranging from 20 to 30 inches and La Nina tends to shift the storm track to our north, so that makes changeover storms` more likely than all-snow storms, said Horst. He also suspects

Hardy, Christopher R.

74

Snowfall-driven growth in East Antarctic ice sheet mitigates recent sea-level rise.  

PubMed

Satellite radar altimetry measurements indicate that the East Antarctic ice-sheet interior north of 81.6 degrees S increased in mass by 45 +/- 7 billion metric tons per year from 1992 to 2003. Comparisons with contemporaneous meteorological model snowfall estimates suggest that the gain in mass was associated with increased precipitation. A gain of this magnitude is enough to slow sea-level rise by 0.12 +/- 0.02 millimeters per year. PMID:15905362

Davis, Curt H; Li, Yonghong; McConnell, Joseph R; Frey, Markus M; Hanna, Edward

2005-06-24

75

Long-term continuous monitoring of mercury in the Russian arctic: winter increase of atmospheric mercury depletion events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among pollutants mercury is a major environmental concern due to its ecological hazard. The mercury can reside in the atmosphere for a long time high, and it is a reason of its global propagation in the Northern Hemisphere and elevated mercury concentrations are reported in the Arctic environment. First time, in 1995, the effect of atmospheric mercury depletion in the troposphere was found at the Canadian station Alert. This phenomenon (called the Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Event - AMDE) is observed during April-June, when the Polar sunrise starts till the end of the snowmelt. The same effect was reported for other polar stations situated to the north of 60° N. Long-term continuous monitoring of gaseous elemental mercury in the surface air at the polar station Amderma (69,720N; 61,620E) using the analyzer Tekran 2537A has been conducted from Jun 2001 to date. Individual measurements were collected every thirty minutes. It has been shown, that during eleven years of observations the AMDEs were observed every year, from the end of March till early June. For the winter period (Dec-Feb) these events of the atmospheric mercury depletion were registered from 2010 to 2013, which had not been observed before. A large number of hours during the day, when the concentration of mercury was recorded at level of below 1 ng/m3, was registered during Dec-Feb. The sun declination above the horizon is negative, and solar activity is still not enough to trigger the photochemical reactions. The these last 3 years confirmed a tendency to displacement of AMDEs to the winter season, which leads to an additional factor entry of mercury in various biological objects, due to the additional deposition of various forms of mercury on the snowpack. At the same time, especially during the winter seasons, there is a substantial increase (up to 8 times) of AMDEs, compared with the previous years. In particular, in winter 2013 the maximum number of AMDs reached 31 cases. The explanation can be the following: the withdrawal of elemental mercury from the atmosphere may be caused by deposition of mercury on marine aerosol particles. Marine aerosol concentration increases in the case of exemption from coastal ice (Kara Sea) and, simultaneously, at the time when the northern wind direction is dominating. When the southern wind direction is prevailing, the deposition of mercury on anthropogenic aerosols transported from the middle latitudes is taken place. Acknowledgement - Financial support for the monitoring program was provided by Environment Canada, AMAP Secretariate and Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring.

Pankratov, Fidel; Mahura, Alexander; Popov, Valentin; Katz, Oleg

2014-05-01

76

Impacts of Severe Winter Weather during December 1989 in the Lake Erie Snowbelt.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

December 1989 was the coldest December in over 100 years in the Lake Erie snowbelt of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Mean temperatures of 9°C were 7°C lower than average and extreme minima reached 30°C. Snow fell on 20 to 25 days of the month and snowfall totals of 100 to 200 cm were twice the December average. Some locations reported record snowfalls and the greatest snow depths of this century. Several segments of society were studied to assess the impacts of this severe winter weather.The severe weather had minimal impacts on school districts. Over half (54%) of the districts had no closures due to snow but costs for snow removal increased for schools. Ski centers reported a 50% to 100% increase in revenues over December 1988 and the best December skiing in many years. Lake ports had higher operating costs and loss of shipments. Costs for snow and ice control on Interstate 90 (I-90) in the snowbelt increased at least $1326 km1 over December 1988, but traffic flow was maintained. Person-hours spent on snow and ice control on I-90 increased 59%. An average of 111 000 kg km1 (200 tons mile1) of salt and grit was spread on I-90, an increase of 50 000 kg km1 (89 tons mile1) over December 1988. Colleges, airports, agriculture, hospitals, urban mass transit, electric utilities, and government agencies had only minor disruptions due to the severe winter weather.

Schmidlin, Thomas W.

1993-04-01

77

Declining summer snowfall in the Arctic: causes, impacts and feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent changes in the Arctic hydrological cycle are explored using in situ observations and an improved atmospheric reanalysis\\u000a data set, ERA-Interim. We document a pronounced decline in summer snowfall over the Arctic Ocean and Canadian Archipelago.\\u000a The snowfall decline is diagnosed as being almost entirely caused by changes in precipitation form (snow turning to rain)\\u000a with very little influence of

James A. Screen; Ian Simmonds

2011-01-01

78

Social perceptions versus meteorological observations of snow and winter along the Front Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to increase understanding of Front Range residents' perceptions of snow, winter and hydrologic events. This study also investigates how an individual's characteristics may shape perceptions of winter weather and climate. A survey was administered to determine if perceptions of previous winters align with observed meteorological data. The survey also investigated how individual characteristics influence perceptions of snow and winter weather. The survey was conducted primarily along the Front Range area of the state of Colorado in the United States of America. This is a highly populated semi-arid region that acts as an interface between the agricultural plains to the east that extend to the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains to the west. The climate is continental, and while many people recreate in the snowy areas of the mountains, most live where annual snowfall amounts are low. Precipitation, temperature, and wind speed datasets from selected weather stations were analyzed to determine correct survey responses. Survey analysis revealed that perceptions of previous winters do not necessarily align with observed meteorological data. The mean percentage of correct responses to all survey questions was 36.8%. Further analysis revealed that some individual characteristics (e.g. winter recreation, source of winter weather information) did influence correct responses to survey questions.

Milligan, William James, IV

79

Influences of Temperature and Precipitation Changes on Model-Simulated Monthly Snowfall Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projections of the Earth's climate for the 21st century indicate that both globally-averaged temperature and globally-averaged precipitation will increase. These changes, however, have a competing effect on the potential change in snowfall for the coming century. Using simulations performed with the GFDL CM2.1 coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model, the individual effects of temperature changes and precipitation changes are isolated and

J. P. Krasting; A. J. Broccoli

2006-01-01

80

Snowfall induced severe pile-ups in southern Finland on 17 March 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather has a great impact on road traffic and several studies have shown that accident risk increases especially during wintry weather conditions. Heavy snowfall, rain or sleet on an icy road surface and formation of hoar frost can make the driving conditions hazardous. Poor visibility, caused by snowfall or dense fog can increase the accident risk significantly and severe pile-ups on highways are possible. The risk for accidents increases, when many drivers can't adjust their speed to the worsening driving conditions even though the hazard is visible. This study presents a severe pile-up case that occurred in southern Finland near Helsinki city on Thursday 17 March 2005. Before this occasion, cold and clear weather prevailed for many days and the driving conditions were mostly fair. On 17 March a low pressure was approaching southern Finland from west. Light snowfall reached the Helsinki metropolitan area early in the morning and it was followed by a band of dense snowfall. During the rush hours, just before 0800 h, pile-ups occurred on four separate highways near Helsinki city almost at the same time (within about ten minutes). In total, almost 300 cars were crashed, 3 persons died and more than 60 persons got injured. The occurrence of dense snowfall during the rush hours had a great impact on driving conditions. The drivers heading towards Helsinki from north or northeast drove at first in clear, dry conditions, with only local light snowfall. But the sudden worsening of weather (and visibility) was a surprise for many although warnings for poor driving conditions were issued the previous evening on radio and TV. In addition to this, automatic vehicle speed measurements showed that the mean speed that morning was only a few km/h lower than on a normal day. When studying the weather situation, it appeared that near the surface there was a thin layer of cold air (2 m temperature being -5…-8 degrees) and warmer air above it. In this kind of situation super cooled water can exist in the lower troposphere, and this was also supported by dual-polarization radar observations. This fact might have had a positive impact on the slipperiness of the roads, although freezing drizzle was mainly observed only just after the passage of the dense snowfall and occurrence of the crashes. Due to low surface temperature, preventative anti-icing with salting could not be carried out early that morning (except for the western part of the area). So the snow got packed on the road surface by traffic, causing slippery conditions. In a case like this, real-time warning methods and changing speed limits could be the main way to prevent massive accidents. Dense observation network consisting of road weather observations (including visibility) and radar data should be utilized in the real-time warnings. Dense snowfall is a substantial risk for traffic on highways and severe pile-ups have occurred lately for example in Czech Republic and Austria (during March 2008).

Juga, I.; Hippi, M.

2009-09-01

81

Hemispheric and Interannual Comparisons of Polar Winter CO2 Clouds on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar carbon dioxide snow clouds contribute substantial material to the seasonal caps of Mars, in addition to direct surface frost formation. Snow clouds also affect the polar heat budget through two primary mechanisms: 1) snow particles decrease polar infrared emissivity during winter, and 2) fine-grained snow deposits increase solar albedo during summer. These effects can strongly alter the seasonal cap mass budget, and possibly explain the existence of the perennial CO2 deposits near the Martian south pole. Mapping the distribution and quantifying the abundance of CO2 snowfall therefore has important implications for the study of Mars' present-day climate. The phenomenon of condensing martian air is of course also interesting in its own right, from an atmospheric science perspective. We used data primarily from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to investigate the occurrence and properties (optical depth, particle size, altitude) of CO2 clouds in the winter polar regions. MCS retrieved temperature and aerosol opacity profiles now span four Mars years (MY28-MY31), allowing direct inter-annual comparisons for selected locations and seasons. Examples of observed inter-annual variability include decreased snowfall likely due to disruption of the northern polar vortex during the global dust storm of MY28. We also observe very distinct patterns of condensation in the northern and southern hemispheres, with cloud activity being much more intense in the northern hemisphere, but confined to higher latitudes, than in the south. Northern polar winter cloud activity is also distinctly bimodal in time, whereas southern winter cloud activity is evenly distributed over the winter season. In this presentation, we will present a summary of these observations and explore possible explanations for the variability in polar cloud phenomena.

Hayne, P. O.; Kleinboehl, A.; Heavens, N. G.; Paige, D. A.; Schofield, J. T.; Kass, D. M.; Shirley, J. H.; McCleese, D. J.

2013-12-01

82

Measurement of Snowfall by Optical Attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmissometer has been used to provide a continuous record with good time resolution of falling snow. The pulsed light, of wavelength 0.45, traversed a path 71 m long about 20 m above ground level A total snow amount of 160 millimeters of water (mmw) from 20 storms through the 1966-67 winter season was recorded and analyzed, Attenuation by snow

Charles Warner; K. L. S. Gunn

1969-01-01

83

Annual CO2 Flux in Dry and Moist Arctic Tundra: Field Responses to Increases in Summer Temperatures and Winter Snow Depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the annual exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and moist tussock and dry heath tundra ecosystems (which together account for over one-third of the low arctic land area) under ambient field conditions and under increased winter snow deposition, increased summer temperatures, or both. Our results indicate that these two arctic tundra ecosystems were net annual sources of CO2

J. M. Welker; J. T. Fahnestock; M. H. Jones

2000-01-01

84

A Winter's Tale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explores winter weather and frozen precipitation. The page on precipitation points out that snow and rain are both water and explains how the different forms of frozen precipitation (snow, sleet, freezing rain) occur. There is a page on cirrus clouds that explains their characterstics and how they may affect climate by reflecting solar radiation or reducing outgoing infrared energy from Earth. The Jet Stream page explains the characteristics of these high-speed rivers of air, including what causes them and their effect on weather and climate. There is also a feature on the esthetic wonders of frozen water, including halos produced by ice crystals in the air, sparkling of snowflakes, why fresh snow squeaks when stepped on, and why it is silent during a snowfall. A bibliography is also provided.

85

Variability and Trends of Total Precipitation and Snowfall over the United States and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biases and large-scale inhomogeneities in the time series of measured precipitation and snowfall over the United States and Canada are discussed and analyzed. The spatial statistical characteristics of monthly and annual snowfall and total precipitation are investigated and parameterized. After adjustments and selection of the `best' network, reliable `first guess' estimates of North American snowfall and precipitation are obtained.

Pavel Ya. Groisman; David R. Easterling

1994-01-01

86

Computational Procedures for the 1981-2010 Normals: Precipitation, Snowfall, and Preliminary Documentation  

E-print Network

Snowfall Average monthly/seasonal/annual totals Average month-to-date totals Average year-to-date totalsComputational Procedures for the 1981-2010 Normals: Precipitation, Snowfall, and Snow Depth include a suite of descriptive statistics based on precipitation, snowfall, and snow depth measurements

87

Variability and trends of total precipitation and snowfall over the United States and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biases and large-scale inhomogeneities in the time series of measured precipitation and snowfall over the United States and Canada are discussed and analyzed. The spatial statistical characteristics of monthly and annual snowfall and total precipitation are investigated and parameterized. After adjustments and selection of the best' network, reliable first guess' estimates of North American snowfall and precipitation are obtained.

Pavel Ya Groisman; David R. Easterling

1994-01-01

88

Neural Network Based Seasonal Predictions of Lake-Effect Snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of the city of Buffalo (New York, United States), located on the eastern shore of Lake Erie and, therefore, strongly influenced by the lake-effect, total monthly snowfall was predicted one to six months in advance. For this, neural network (NN) techniques, specifically a multi-layer perceptron, as well as a multiple linear regression (LR) model were applied. The

Heike Hartmann

2012-01-01

89

Lake-effect snowfall in Western New York and surface temperatures of Lakes Erie and Ontario  

E-print Network

of mesoscale snowstorms is emphasized. The influence of each lake's depth, shape, and ice-cover cli. matology on lake-surface temperatures and snowfall amounts is considered. Relation- ships between snowfall totals and accumulated freezing degree... d. Auto-correlation of mon~thl snowfall totals . . 83 Correlation of mean seasonal snowfall and station elevation 87 f. ~gbf d + 1 f 11 b bf1' ' . . 88 g. 8 ~ f f 11 b snow. is lake-effect 95 h, Correlation be d~d' * 1 d ~E d snowfall. 101 7...

Agrella, William

2012-06-07

90

Lawn Winterization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contrary to what many people think, Fall is the time of year when your turf needs attention. The following three steps need to be completed before the first snowfall: Apply Fertilizer Lower Mower Height Drain Secondary Water System Fall fertilization is best because the lawn has passed through the stressful summer months and needs to rebuild itself. Fall Lawn Care Guide ...

Melrose, Miss

2006-10-13

91

Evaluating the Performance of Single and Double Moment Microphysics Schemes During a Synoptic-Scale Snowfall Event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in computing resources have allowed for the utilization of high-resolution weather forecast models capable of resolving cloud microphysical and precipitation processes among varying numbers of hydrometeor categories. Several microphysics schemes are currently available within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, ranging from single-moment predictions of precipitation content to double-moment predictions that include a prediction of particle number concentrations. Each scheme incorporates several assumptions related to the size distribution, shape, and fall speed relationships of ice crystals in order to simulate cold-cloud processes and resulting precipitation. Field campaign data offer a means of evaluating the assumptions present within each scheme. The Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) represented collaboration among the CloudSat, CALIPSO, and NASA Global Precipitation Measurement mission communities, to observe cold season precipitation processes relevant to forecast model evaluation and the eventual development of satellite retrievals of cloud properties and precipitation rates. During the C3VP campaign, widespread snowfall occurred on 22 January 2007, sampled by aircraft and surface instrumentation that provided particle size distributions, ice water content, and fall speed estimations along with traditional surface measurements of temperature and precipitation. In this study, four single-moment and two double-moment microphysics schemes were utilized to generate hypothetical WRF forecasts of the event, with C3VP data used in evaluation of their varying assumptions. Schemes that incorporate flexibility in size distribution parameters and density assumptions are shown to be preferable to fixed constants, and that a double-moment representation of the snow category may be beneficial when representing the effects of aggregation. These results may guide forecast centers in optimal configurations of their forecast models for winter weather and identify best practices present within these various schemes.

Molthan, Andrew L.

2011-01-01

92

Winter Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. Does increased humidity usually increase of decrease your chances for rain? 4. What happens when there is ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

93

A statistical comparison of electronic weighing and tipping-bucket precipitation gauging for snowfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall and snowfall measurements are basic inputs for watershed modelling, natural hazard assessment, and generally for the evaluation of hydrological response. Although distributed radar precipitation fields are becoming routinely used in hydrological analyses, point observations remain fundamental as control points and best estimates of precipitation at the ground level. However, the problem with point precipitation measurements using common can-type gauges is that they are unreliable. Besides the observational, calibrating and construction errors, there are systematic errors consisting mainly of wind-induced errors, wetting and evaporation losses, all of which affect the accuracy of the measurement at the event scale. In this paper we evaluate the performance of two widely used measurement systems - the tipping-bucket and a modern electronic weighing system - with a special focus on snowfall and the errors (differences) caused by heating and the tipping mechanism. Data for the study were collected at the MeteoSwiss weather station field in Zermatt (Swiss Alps) in the winter 2009/2010. Our data demonstrate i) a delay of the tipping bucket gauge in recording the beginning of an event due to melting snow and filling of the first tip; ii) a general loss of water in the tipping bucket gauge due to higher evaporation loss because of a larger heated area; and iii) the effect of smoothening of the high resolution precipitation intensity by the different measurement mechanisms. Most notably, the tipping bucket gauge produced a total water loss of about 20% compared to the weighing gauge and showed a substantial delay (on the order of 20-30 min) in identifying the beginning of snowfall events, which also led to a disagreement in the duration of the events. We decomposed the delay into a delay due to the time needed to melt the first snow and direct the water to the outlet of the funnel (~10 min) and the time needed to fill the first tip (~20 min). The delay is an important factor if accurate event timing is required. Our results show that merging precipitation observations measured by different gauges (measurement systems) must take into account and correct not only for differences in the total rainfall depth, but also in the onset and timing of recorded events, especially if the data are to be used for the validation of radar precipitation fields.

Savina, M.; Schäppi, B.; Molnar, P.; Burlando, P.; Sevruk, B.

2010-05-01

94

Effect of sea surface temperature errors on snowfall1 in WRF: a case study of a heavy snowfall event in2  

E-print Network

32 simulations were run for the Yellow Sea during December 2012, when a severe33 snowfall occurred. The changes in surface air temperature over39 the Yellow Sea were positively correlated with a warm (or cold surface temperature, Snowfall, WRF, Yellow Sea, OSTIA49 #12;3 1. Introduction50 Sea surface temperature

Park, Rokjin

95

An Evaluation of Satellite Retrievals of Snowfall in Regions of Complex Terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall in regions of complex terrain plays an important role in the global hydrologic cycle, and can have major physical and social implications ranging from water resource management, to flash flooding, to climate change impacts. Due to the diversity of impacts that can result from snowfall, the ability to directly observe and measure snowfall in real-time is of great importance. However, the physical limitations of ground-based radars particularly in complex terrain and the lack of spatially complete measurement networks in mountainous regions make high-resolution ground-based snowfall observations a challenging task. Spaceborne satellite retrievals of snowfall such as those that will be made possible by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission offer the ability to make high spatial and temporal resolution measurements that are otherwise not possible using traditional ground-based methods. This study seeks to investigate the skill level of current spaceborne snowfall products over the complex terrain of the Rocky Mountains in the western United States. Satellite derived snowfall products from measurements obtained via instruments including the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), EOS Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), and GCOM-W1 Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) are evaluated using ground-based observations such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) data and the NCEP Stage IV data. Satellite derived snowfall variables including snowfall rate and snow water equivalent are compared to ground-based observations to determine the overall accuracy and skill level of current satellite derived snowfall products in the region of interest. An analysis is also done to determine how the accuracy and skill level change based on varying snowfall regimes such as light, moderate, and heavy snowfall events. The knowledge gained will be used to determine how satellite derived snowfall measurements in regions of complex terrain may be improved upon for future missions including GPM.

Reed, K. A.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Kulie, M.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Wood, N.

2013-12-01

96

Snowfall Measurements in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique in situ oceanic snowfall measurements in high southern latitudes are presented from two research cruises to the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen Seas aboard the R\\/V Nathaniel B. Palmer in 2007 (NBP0702 and NBP0709). The number of falling snowflakes passing through the beam of a photoelectric particle counter mounted approximately 30m above sea level was continuously logged during these cruises,

KATHERINE C. LEONARD; RICHARD I. CULLATHER

2008-01-01

97

Effect of summer snowfall on glacier mass balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that heavy summer snowfalls have a large impact\\u000aon the mass balance of mid-latitude glaciers, because they simultaneously add mass to the\\u000aglacier and reduce the amount of absorbed solar radiation. An automatic weather station\\u000a(AWS) on the snout of Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland, registered a large summer\\u000asnowfall event on 10-11 July 2000. Sonic rangers recorded about

Johannes Oerlemans

2004-01-01

98

Chemical composition of fresh snowfalls at Palmer Station, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first time investigation was performed to establish a chemical baseline for snowfall at Palmer Station Antarctica (64°46?S, 64°05?W) since there was no such record. A chemical baseline for snow could be use to validate climate change studies based on ice core analyses. The snow samples contained (from high to low mass concentration) total organic carbon, chloride, inorganic carbon, sodium,

T. P. DeFelice

1998-01-01

99

Evaluation of trends in derived snowfall and rainfall across Eurasia and linkages with discharge to the Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

To more fully understand the role of precipitation in observed increases in freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean, data from a new archive of bias-adjusted precipitation records for the former USSR (TD9813), along with the CRU and Willmott-Matsuura data sets, were examined for the period 1936–1999. Across the six largest Eurasian river basins, snowfall derived from TD9813 exhibits a strongly

M. A. Rawlins; C. J. Willmott; A. Shiklomanov; E. Linder; S. Frolking; R. B. Lammers; C. J. Vörösmarty

2006-01-01

100

Quiet sunrise E region: Enhancements at high latitudes in winter due to increased nitric oxide. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

E region electron concentrations derived from European Incoherent Scatter Facility observations at 70 deg N were found to be much larger than normal for high solar zenith angles during 23 of 32 days in winter. Electron concentrations computed with the Keneshea code are compatible with the observations if nitric oxide concentrations are about 10 to the 9th power/cu cm at 100 to 110 km. For these altitudes near ground sunrise, it is shown that numerically, the nitric oxide concentration approximately equals the square of the electron concentration.

Snider, W.; Keneshea, T.J.

1993-02-01

101

Winter Wonderland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, includes a variety of educational sites to visit, and a data exercise on snowfall patterns using local data or historical data for Salt Lake City, Utah. Learners can also discover some of the water chemistry behind snow. The activity introduces the meteogram, a time cross-section of data for a specific surface reporting station. The data plotted include temperatures, winds, pressure, clouds and present weather.

2002-01-01

102

Twentieth century Antarctic air temperature and snowfall simulations by IPCC climate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare new observationally-based data sets of Antarctic near-surface air temperature and snowfall accumulation with 20th century simulations from global climate models (GCMs) that support the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Annual Antarctic snowfall accumulation trends in the GCMs agree with observations during 1960–1999, and the sensitivity of snowfall accumulation to near-surface air temperature fluctuations is approximately

Andrew J. Monaghan; David H. Bromwich; David P. Schneider

2008-01-01

103

Observed Microphysical Evolution for Two East Coast Winter Storms and the Associated Snow Bands  

E-print Network

cm per hour snowfall rates, which created dangerous driving conditions from blowing snow and nearObserved Microphysical Evolution for Two East Coast Winter Storms and the Associated Snow Bands 1 extratropical cyclones (19-20 December 2009 and 12 January 2011) and the associated passage of heavy snow bands

Yuter, Sandra

104

The Influence of Regional Storm Tracking and Teleconnections on Winter Precipitation in the Northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secular changes in regional storm tracking are examined as physical mechanisms for observed teleconnections between the New England hydroclimate and four predictor variables: the Southern Oscillation Index, the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and regional sea-surface temperatures. The main modes of New England winter precipitation, snowfall, and cyclone variability are resolved using varimax rotated principal component analysis. The

James A. Bradbury; Barry D. Keim; Cameron P. Wake

2003-01-01

105

The Mobility and Safety Impacts of Winter Storm Events in a Freeway Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how data from several Iowa information management systems were used to analyze the mobility and safety impacts of winter storm events. Roadway and weather data were acquired from the roadway weather information system (RWIS), hourly traffic volumes from automatic traffic recorders (ATRs), and crash information from the accident location and analysis system (ALAS). Daily snowfalls were acquired

KEITH K. KNAPP; LELAND D. SMITHSON; AEMAL J. KHATTAK

106

Snowfall less sensitive to warming in Karakoram than in Himalayas due to a unique seasonal cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high mountains of Asia, including the Karakoram, Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, combine to form a region of perplexing hydroclimate changes. Glaciers have exhibited mass stability or even expansion in the Karakoram region, contrasting with glacial mass loss across the nearby Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, a pattern that has been termed the Karakoram anomaly. However, the remote location, complex terrain and multi-country fabric of high-mountain Asia have made it difficult to maintain longer-term monitoring systems of the meteorological components that may have influenced glacial change. Here we compare a set of high-resolution climate model simulations from 1861 to 2100 with the latest available observations to focus on the distinct seasonal cycles and resulting climate change signatures of Asia's high-mountain ranges. We find that the Karakoram seasonal cycle is dominated by non-monsoonal winter precipitation, which uniquely protects it from reductions in annual snowfall under climate warming over the twenty-first century. The simulations show that climate change signals are detectable only with long and continuous records, and at specific elevations. Our findings suggest a meteorological mechanism for regional differences in the glacier response to climate warming.

Kapnick, Sarah B.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Malyshev, Sergey; Milly, P. C. D.

2014-11-01

107

Double Fence Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) vs. Bush Gauge for "true" snowfall measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bush Gauge measures 20-50% more snowfall than DFIR for wind speeds of 6-7 m/s.DFIR measurements need corrections for wind-induced undercatch of snowfall.Past WMO study underestimated DFIR catch, impacting national gauge assessment.

Yang, Daqing

2014-02-01

108

On the characteristics of atmospheric circulation associated with snowfall in NW Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the main atmospheric circulation types, associated with snowfall events in NW Greece, are examined. Also, a validation procedure is followed in order to investigate to what extent the circulation types revealed are related with snowfall in NW Greece. For this purpose, two datasets are used. The first one consists of 6-hourly values of mean sea level pressure,

E. E. Houssos; C. J. Lolis; A. Bartzokas

2009-01-01

109

Atmospheric circulation patterns related to heavy snowfall days in Andorra, Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy snowfalls over mountain regions are often a direct cause of avalanches. Specific synoptic-scale atmospheric situations are responsible for these kinds of extreme snowfall event, and this is indeed the case for Andorra, a small country located in the Pyrenees, between France and Spain. Based on days with an intensity of at least 30 cm of snow in a 24

Pere Esteban; Philip D. Jones; Javier Martín-Vide; Montse Mases

2005-01-01

110

Synoptic Classification of Snowfall Events in the Great Smoky Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean annual snowfall in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) exhibits considerable spatial variability, ranging from 30 cm in the valleys to 254 cm at higher elevations. Snowfall can be tied to a variety of synoptic classes (e.g. Miller A or B cyclones, 500 hPa cutoff lows), but the frequency and significance of different synoptic classes have not been

L. Baker Perry; Charles E. Konrad; David G. Hotz; Laurence G. Lee

2010-01-01

111

Z - R relation for snowfall using small Doppler radar and high sensitive snow gauges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowfall data was simultaneously recorded by a weather radar, two high sensitive snow gauges and an imaging system with high accuracy at short time intervals. The snowfall rate R was measured with two gauges and radar reflectivity factor Z was measured using a small bistatic X-band Doppler radar. The images of falling snow particles were used to obtain size and

M. Kubo; A. Sougen; K. Muramoto; Y. Fujiyoshi

2009-01-01

112

Water Vapor Transport Paths and Accumulation during Widespread Snowfall Events in Northeastern China  

E-print Network

Water Vapor Transport Paths and Accumulation during Widespread Snowfall Events in Northeastern transport (WVT) and its role in supplying moisture for widespread snowfall (WS) events in northeastern China account for about 47% of the total precipitation, whereas synchronous WVT could only supply a limited

113

Northwest Flow Snowfall in the Southern Appalachians: Spatial and Synoptic Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwest flow (NWF) snowfall events are common occurrences in parts of the southern Appalachian Mountains and constitute a significant portion of annual snowfall totals on windward slopes due to orographic enhancement. The synoptic processes and spatial patterns of these events are dynamic and highly variable, which makes forecasting snow accumulations challenging. In this paper, we discuss the synoptic climatology and

BAKER PERRY; CHARLES E. KONRAD

114

Climate change projection of snowfall in the Colorado River Basin using dynamical downscaling  

E-print Network

Climate change projection of snowfall in the Colorado River Basin using dynamical downscaling] Recent observations show a decrease in the fraction of precipitation falling as snowfall in the western United States. In this work we evaluate a historical and future climate simulation over the Colorado

Castro, Christopher L.

115

Chemical composition of fresh snowfalls at Palmer Station, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first time investigation was performed to establish a chemical baseline for snowfall at Palmer Station Antarctica (64°46'S, 64°05'W) since there was no such record. A chemical baseline for snow could be use to validate climate change studies based on ice core analyses. The snow samples contained (from high to low mass concentration) total organic carbon, chloride, inorganic carbon, sodium, sulfate, magnesium, calcium, potassium, fluoride, ammonium, and nitrate, excluding hydrogen and hydroxide. The pH of these samples ranged between 4.0-6.2. The relatively low nitrate and relatively high sulfate concentrations found in our samples are consistent with the results of other studies for this region of Antarctica. The ions and pH do not appear to favor a particular wind direction during this period. The total deposition of sulfate and flouride via snowfall between 10 January and 10 February is conservatively estimated to be 4.78 and 1.3 kg km -2, respectively.

DeFelice, T. P.

116

NOAA's 1981-2010 U.S. Climate Normals:2 Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall, and Snow Depth3  

E-print Network

and less total43 annual snowfall across much of the contiguous United States; wetter conditions over44 much1 1 NOAA's 1981-2010 U.S. Climate Normals:2 Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall, and Snow Depth3 4 Imke a suite of descriptive statistics based on precipitation, snowfall, and snow depth34 measurements

117

Winter Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers general background about winter storms as well as interactive activities to teach visitors about these storms. It also offers a teacher's guide to using this site and links to other weather-related pages. There are four main topics: All About Winter Storms, Interactive Weather Maker, Interactive Winter Storm Timeline, and Ask Our Winter Storm Expert. All About Winter Storms gives general background information an a glossary of weather terms. The Weather Maker offers students a chance to control the weather through a simulation in which they affect the weather by changing variables such as humidity, equatorward temperature, and polarward temperature. The Storm Timeline offers students a chance to move up and down the timeline to learn about past winter storms. In Ask the Expert, students can email their questions to a winter storm expert and have them answered. This section also gives a brief biography of the expert.

1996-01-01

118

A method for forecasting winter precipitation in Kentucky based on sea-level pressure patterns  

E-print Network

with snow are magnified in some respects. In Kentucky significant snowfalls do not necessarily occur each year. Some winters may pass with little more than a trace of snow in some sections of the state. Average seasonal totals range from less than 25 cm... 1 November ? 15 April. A review of the last 30 years of Ken- tucky snowfall data (U. S. Department of Commerce, 1949-1978) revealed numerous instances of stations reporting daily totals of 5 cm (2 in) or more during April. However, with very few...

Ainsworth, Carl Gregory

2012-06-07

119

Exploring Alternate Parameterizations for Snowfall with Validation from Satellite and Terrestrial Radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in computational resources have allowed operational forecast centers to pursue experimental, high resolution simulations that resolve the microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. These experiments are motivated by a desire to improve the representation of weather and climate, but will also benefit current and future satellite campaigns, which often use forecast model output to guide the retrieval process. Aircraft, surface and radar data from the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project are used to check the validity of size distribution and density characteristics for snowfall simulated by the NASA Goddard six-class, single-moment bulk water microphysics scheme, currently available within the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model. Widespread snowfall developed across the region on January 22, 2007, forced by the passing of a midlatitude cyclone, and was observed by the dual-polarimetric, C-band radar King City, Ontario, as well as the NASA 94 GHz CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar. Combined, these data sets provide key metrics for validating model output: estimates of size distribution parameters fit to the inverse-exponential equations prescribed within the model, bulk density and crystal habit characteristics sampled by the aircraft, and representation of size characteristics as inferred by the radar reflectivity at C- and W-band. Specified constants for distribution intercept and density differ significantly from observations throughout much of the cloud depth. Alternate parameterizations are explored, using column-integrated values of vapor excess to avoid problems encountered with temperature-based parameterizations in an environment where inversions and isothermal layers are present. Simulation of CloudSat reflectivity is performed by adopting the discrete-dipole parameterizations and databases provided in literature, and demonstrate an improved capability in simulating radar reflectivity at W-band versus Mie scattering assumptions.

Molthan, Andrew L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dembek, Scott R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

2009-01-01

120

Exploring Alternative Parameterizations for Snowfall with Validation from Satellite and Terrestrial Radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in computational resources have allowed operational forecast centers to pursue experimental, high resolution simulations that resolve the microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. These experiments are motivated by a desire to improve the representation of weather and climate, but will also benefit current and future satellite campaigns, which often use forecast model output to guide the retrieval process. The combination of reliable cloud microphysics and radar reflectivity may constrain radiative transfer models used in satellite simulators during future missions, including EarthCARE and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement. Aircraft, surface and radar data from the Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project are used to check the validity of size distribution and density characteristics for snowfall simulated by the NASA Goddard six-class, single moment bulk water microphysics scheme, currently available within the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model. Widespread snowfall developed across the region on January 22, 2007, forced by the passing of a mid latitude cyclone, and was observed by the dual-polarimetric, C-band radar King City, Ontario, as well as the NASA 94 GHz CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar. Combined, these data sets provide key metrics for validating model output: estimates of size distribution parameters fit to the inverse-exponential equations prescribed within the model, bulk density and crystal habit characteristics sampled by the aircraft, and representation of size characteristics as inferred by the radar reflectivity at C- and W-band. Specified constants for distribution intercept and density differ significantly from observations throughout much of the cloud depth. Alternate parameterizations are explored, using column-integrated values of vapor excess to avoid problems encountered with temperature-based parameterizations in an environment where inversions and isothermal layers are present. Simulation of CloudSat reflectivity is performed by adopting the discrete-dipole parameterizations and databases provided in literature, and demonstrate an improved capability in simulating radar reflectivity at W-band versus Mie scattering assumptions.

Molthan, Andrew L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dembek, Scott R.

2009-01-01

121

Research Spotlight: Determining the underlying pattern of Arctic snowfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the Arctic terrain, more than a hundred bright orange markers dot the landscape, sticking up from the fallen snow. The fiberglass poles, standing 1.5 meters high and spaced 100 meters apart, allow Sturm and Wagner to track snow depth over their 1-square-kilometer research area in Alaska. These depth measurements may be simple, but trying to turn them into a prediction of future snowfall distribution is far more difficult. A rough estimate of the amount of snow expected in an area can be estimated from weather models, but the smaller-scale distribution of snow across the landscape is often dictated by interactions among wind, topography, and vegetation, factors that models have difficulty simulating. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/ 2010WR009434, 2010)

Schultz, Colin

2011-05-01

122

Modeling changes in extreme snowfall events in the Central Rocky Mountains Region with the Fully-Coupled WRF-Hydro Modeling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling of extreme weather events often require very finely resolved treatment of atmospheric circulation structures in order to produce and localize large magnitudes of moisture fluxes that result in extreme precipitation. This is particularly true for cool season orographic precipitation processes where the representation of landform can significantly influence vertical velocity profiles and cloud moisture entrainment rates. In this work we report on recent progress in high resolution regional climate modeling of the Colorado Headwaters region using an updated version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a hydrological extension package called WRF-Hydro. Previous work has shown that the WRF-Hydro modeling system forced by high resolution WRF model output can produce credible depictions of winter orographic precipitation and resultant monthly and annual river flows. Here we present results from a detailed study of an extreme springtime snowfall event that occurred along the Colorado Front Range in March of 2003. First an analysis of the simulated streamflows resulting from the melt out of that event are presented followed by an analysis of projected streamflows from the event where the atmospheric forcing in the WRF model is perturbed using the Psuedo-Global-Warming (PGW) perturbation methodology. Results from the impact of warming on total precipitation, snow-rain partitioning and surface hydrological fluxes (evapotranspiration and runoff) will be discussed in the context of how potential changes in temperature impact the amount of precipitation, the phase of precipitation (rain vs. snow) and the timing and amplitude of streamflow responses. It is shown that under the assumptions of the PGW method, intense precipitation rates increase during the event and, more importantly, that more precipitation falls as rain versus snow which significantly amplifies the runoff response from one where runoff is produced gradually to where runoff is more rapidly translated into streamflow values that approach significant flooding risks.

gochis, David; rasmussen, Roy; Yu, Wei; Ikeda, Kyoko

2014-05-01

123

Winter Forest Processes: Measurements and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter-forest processes affect global and local climates.Weather-forecast, climate and hydrological modelers incorporate increasingly realistic surface schemes into their models, and algorithms describing snow accumulation and snow-interception sublimation are now finding their way into these schemes. Both point and spatially variable data for calibration and verification of wintertime dynamics are therefore needed for such modeling schemes. Snow forest atmosphere interaction studies at Luleå University of Technology (in co-operation with researchers in Sweden, Finland, UK and Japan) show that seasonal sublimation fraction of snow precipitation in confined coniferous forests range about 0.35 and single events with sublimation rates of up to 3.9 mm in 7 h were observed. The most important factors for calculating the sublimation were: the relative humidity, the aerodynamic resistance, the wind speed and the intercepted mass. The techniques used to study processes and rates were weighing cut tree and weighing througfall (in Sweden) ?-ray attenuation and tree weighing systems, combined with plastic sheet net rainfall gauges for throughfall (in UK) and snow course measurements in combination with forest density measurements (in Finland) and with sky view fraction (SVF) measurements (fish eyed camera)(in Japan). For the last study forest snow accumulation (SF) could be estimated from snowfall in open fields (SO) and from SVF according to: SF = SO (0.56 + 0.6 × SVF) for SVF < 0.72 and SF = SO for SVF > 0.72 (R2 = 0.86) as well as from leaf area index (LAI). For observation plots exceeding 1 ha the SVF was correlated to the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) using a Landsat-TM image and SF was related to SO and NDSI according to SF = SO (0.81 - 0.37 × NDSI). Plot-size limitations allowed inclusion of only one sparse forest observation so the relationship is somewhat hypothetical and further studies are required to confirm it.

Angela, L.

2006-12-01

124

Constraining CloudSat-based snowfall profiles using surface observations and C-band ground radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CloudSat Precipitation Radar, launched in 2006, provides vertical profiles of W-band (94 GHz) reflectivity and is sensitive to falling snow through all but the most intense precipitating cloud structures. Precipitation retrievals of falling snow are affected by a wide diversity of factors describing the medium, such as snow particle shape, size, and composition, which in turn are controlled by ambient factors including the environmental temperature and humidity. Because satellite-based radiometric sounders such as the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) operate without the benefit of coordinated space radar observations, microphysical descriptions of the snow particle medium derived from CloudSat or other radar observations are beneficial to passive microwave (PMW) radiometer-only snowfall retrieval methods. At the coarse scale of these PMW observations, the radiative signal due to the snow is relatively weak compared to the contributions from the atmosphere and the land surface emissivity. Using the C-band (5 GHz) polarization-agile King City radar (WKR) operated by Environment Canada, we examined the vertical structure of winter precipitation events from coordinated overpasses of CloudSat and NOAA 18 (MHS). Two-dimensional video disdrometer observations are used to limit (constrain) the range of the drop-size distribution parameters that are provided through a priori databases to dual-frequency (C/W-band) radar retrieval. Bayesian retrievals using the constrained database produce water content profiles that more closely replicate the observed radar reflectivity profiles and transition smoothly between the single-frequency (CloudSat only) and dual-frequency regions.

Turk, F. Joseph; Park, Kyung-Won; Haddad, Ziad S.; Rodriguez, Peter; Hudak, David R.

2011-12-01

125

Mesoscale Frequencies and Seasonal Snowfalls for Different Types of Lake Michigan Snow Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Cloud Physics Laboratory, University of Chicago, have identified three different mesoscale organization patterns of lake-effect snow storms over Lake Michigan: multiple wind-parallel bands, single midlake bands, and single shoreline bands. For the 70 snowfall seasons ending with 1980\\/81, Braham and Dungey estimated that lake-effect snows contributed 8% of the total snowfall along the west shore of the

Robert D. Kelly

1986-01-01

126

Why Does Rhinopithecus bieti Prefer the Highest Elevation Range in Winter? A Test of the Sunshine Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1) R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100–4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500–4500 m; 2) both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3) within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4) monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding of sunshine influence on wildlife range use. PMID:21915329

Behm, Jocelyn E.; Wang, Lin; Huang, Yong; Long, Yongcheng; Zhu, Jianguo

2011-01-01

127

precipitation...For most glaciers the increase in precipitation needed to cancel the effect of a  

E-print Network

circulation associated with such phenomena as the North Atlantic Oscillation can indeed cause snowfall changes in the highly unlikely event that warming greatly increased total cold-season moisture advection/ storminess snowfall rate if all other factors are unchanged, but will not increase melting much if there is not much

Gildor, Hezi

128

Nuclear Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

Ehrlich, Anne

1984-01-01

129

Surviving Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students learn about the varied physical and behavioral adaptations that animals rely on to help them survive changing environmental conditions, such as the arrival of winter.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-12-13

130

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

131

Nutrition for winter sports.  

PubMed

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered. PMID:22150424

Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

2011-01-01

132

Snow climate baseline conditions and trends in Croatia relevant to winter tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of snow along a portion of the Croatian highlands has enabled the development of winter tourism that is primarily oriented toward snow-related activities. Snow is more abundant and stays on the ground longer in the mountainous district of Gorski kotar (south eastern edge of the Alps) and on Mount Velebit (Dinaric Alps), which have elevations of up to 1,600 m and are close to the Adriatic coast than over the inland hilly region of north western Croatia where the summits are not more than approximately 1,000 m high. Basic information about the snow conditions at these locations was gathered for this study, including the annual cycle and probabilities for various snow parameters at different altitudes. As requested by the Croatian Ski Association, the relation between the air temperature and the relative humidity was investigated to determine the feasibility of artificial snowmaking. The snow parameters are highly correlated to air temperature, surface air pressure and precipitation, with certain differences occurring as a result of the altitude. Since the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, winter warming and a significant increase in the mean air pressure (more anticyclonic situations) have been detected at all sites. Winter precipitation totals decreased at medium altitudes and increased at the summit of Mount Velebit, but these trends were not significant. The frequency of precipitation days and of snowfall decreased whereas an increasing fraction of the precipitation days at high altitudes involved solid precipitation. In contrast, a decreasing fraction of the precipitation days at medium altitudes involved solid precipitation, probably because of the different warming intensities at different altitudes. The mean daily snow depth and the duration of snow cover both slightly decreased at medium altitudes whereas the snow cover duration slightly increased at the mountainous summit of Mount Velebit.

Gaji?-?apka, M.

2011-08-01

133

A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily

Amy E. Becker

2009-01-01

134

The Value of Snowfall to Skiers and Boarders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interesting winter sport phenomenon inrecent years has been the growth ofsnowboarding. Snowboarding has outpaced skiingat many resorts and has become the snow ridingactivity of choice for many young people. Thisstudy develops an empirical demand model forwinter sport trips amongst college studentsfrom both camps and estimates economic welfareassociated with the two different activities. The results show that both trip demand

Jeffrey Englin; Klaus Moeltner

2004-01-01

135

Synoptic Analysis of 2000-2005 Significant Snowfall Events on Mt. Kilimanjaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice cores recovered from Mt. Kilimanjaro provide evidence of significant climate changes in the East African region over the past 10,000 years. However, the atmospheric processes that lead to snowfall on Kilimanjaro are poorly understood. Earlier studies have suggested that East African climate is dominated by the seasonal shift of the tropical precipitation bands, yet the key factors causing interannual precipitation variability remain unclear, particularly for the long rains season (March-May). To advance the understanding of modern East African climate, this study used data from a new station on top of Mt. Kilimanjaro and put them into a regional atmospheric circulation context. First, the in situ data were compared to global analysis products for testing their representation of the East African region. Overall, these data showed similar activity during corresponding days of snowfall on Kilimanjaro, indicating that snowfall events are likely related to regional precipitation. Second, the use of various global (re-) analysis products allowed the examination of commonalities between individual precipitation events on Kilimanjaro, and helped to identify the key precipitation-causing processes. Results showed distinct seasonality in precipitation, propagating from west to east during the long rains and east to west during the short rains (October-December). In addition, high magnitude snowfall events occurred under the conditions of low wind speed and high humidity. Therefore, high magnitude events may be a result of local convection, and these events may represent certain atmospheric conditions favorable for snowfall accumulation, but their representation of overall regional rainfall totals remains uncertain.

Chan, R. Y.; Ammann, C. M.; Yin, J. H.

2005-12-01

136

Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation changes projected for the end of the twenty-first century show an increase of more than 50 per cent in the Arctic regions. This marked increase, which is among the highest globally, has previously been attributed primarily to enhanced poleward moisture transport from lower latitudes. Here we use state-of-the-art global climate models to show that the projected increases in Arctic precipitation over the twenty-first century, which peak in late autumn and winter, are instead due mainly to strongly intensified local surface evaporation (maximum in winter), and only to a lesser degree due to enhanced moisture inflow from lower latitudes (maximum in late summer and autumn). Moreover, we show that the enhanced surface evaporation results mainly from retreating winter sea ice, signalling an amplified Arctic hydrological cycle. This demonstrates that increases in Arctic precipitation are firmly linked to Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. As a result, the Arctic mean precipitation sensitivity (4.5 per cent increase per degree of temperature warming) is much larger than the global value (1.6 to 1.9 per cent per kelvin). The associated seasonally varying increase in Arctic precipitation is likely to increase river discharge and snowfall over ice sheets (thereby affecting global sea level), and could even affect global climate through freshening of the Arctic Ocean and subsequent modulations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

Bintanja, R.; Selten, F. M.

2014-05-01

137

Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat.  

PubMed

Precipitation changes projected for the end of the twenty-first century show an increase of more than 50 per cent in the Arctic regions. This marked increase, which is among the highest globally, has previously been attributed primarily to enhanced poleward moisture transport from lower latitudes. Here we use state-of-the-art global climate models to show that the projected increases in Arctic precipitation over the twenty-first century, which peak in late autumn and winter, are instead due mainly to strongly intensified local surface evaporation (maximum in winter), and only to a lesser degree due to enhanced moisture inflow from lower latitudes (maximum in late summer and autumn). Moreover, we show that the enhanced surface evaporation results mainly from retreating winter sea ice, signalling an amplified Arctic hydrological cycle. This demonstrates that increases in Arctic precipitation are firmly linked to Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. As a result, the Arctic mean precipitation sensitivity (4.5 per cent increase per degree of temperature warming) is much larger than the global value (1.6 to 1.9 per cent per kelvin). The associated seasonally varying increase in Arctic precipitation is likely to increase river discharge and snowfall over ice sheets (thereby affecting global sea level), and could even affect global climate through freshening of the Arctic Ocean and subsequent modulations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. PMID:24805239

Bintanja, R; Selten, F M

2014-05-22

138

Winter Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A U.K. psychologist has developed a complex mathematical formula using seven variables to predict winter's emotional low point. The good news is the worst day of the year was last week; nonetheless, seasonal depression remains a problem for many. The first link (1) is to an article about the equation worked out by Dr. Cliff Arnall, who specializes in seasonal disorders at the University of Cardiff, Wales. The second link is to a WebMD page (2) about winter depression, often referred to as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). The next link (3) is to a recent news story about the results of a five-year study that found, rather than antidepressant drug therapy or air ionizers, light box therapy is the best remedy for the seasonal condition. The fourth link is to a set of Frequently Asked Questions (4) about SAD offered by Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. The fifth link, to the Winter Depression Research Group at the University of Tromso in Norway(5), explains why Norway is a natural SAD research laboratory. The next link is to a international portal site (6) maintained by medical professionals and researchers in the field of light therapy and biological rhythms. The final webpage(7), from Psychology Today, compares the symptoms of winter depression with summer depression.

139

Winter Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

140

Winter's Tale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explores winter weather and frozen precipitation. Precipitation (in the form of snow, sleet and freezing rain) is explained, as are a variety of cloud types and generation, the nature and generation of the jet stream, and the aesthetic wonders of frozen water. A bibliography is also provided.

141

Total Lightning Observations within Electrified Snowfall using Polarimetric Radar, LMA, and NLDN Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four electrified snowfall cases are examined using total lightning measurements from lightning mapping arrays (LMAs), and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) from Huntsville, AL and Washington D.C. In each of these events, electrical activity was in conjunction with heavy snowfall rates, sometimes exceeding 5-8 cm hr-1. A combination of LMA, and NLDN data also indicate that many of these flashes initiated from tall communications towers and traveled over large horizontal distances. During events near Huntsville, AL, the Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) C-band polarimetric radar was collecting range height indicators (RHIs) through regions of heavy snowfall. The combination of ARMOR polarimetric radar and VHF LMA observations suggested contiguous layer changes in height between sloping aggregate-dominated layers and horizontally-oriented crystals. These layers may have provided ideal conditions for the development of extensive regions of charge and resultant horizontal propagation of the lightning flashes over large distances.

Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Brunning, Eric C.; Blakeslee, Richard

2013-01-01

142

Deuterium content of snow as an index to winter climate in the Sierra Nevada area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winter of 1968-69 produced two to three times the amount of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada area, California and Nevada, as the winter of 1969-70. The deuterium content in snow cores collected at the end of each winter at the same sites, which represents the total snowfall of each interval, shows a depletion in 1968-69 of approximately 20 per mil. The higher snowfall in 1968-69 and the depletion of deuterium can be explained by an uncommonly strong westward flow of cold air over and down the western slopes of the Sierras, which interacted with an eastward flow of moist Pacific air that overrode and mixed with the cold air; this resulted in precipitation that occurred in greater than normal amounts and at a lower than normal temperature. Pluvial periods of the Pleistocene may have had the same shift in air-mass trajectory as the wet 1968-69 year. Snow cores collected in the normal 1970-71 winter have deuterium concentrations that resemble those of the normal 1969-70 winter. Small and nonsystematic differences in samples from these two normal winters are due to variations in climatic character as well as to factors inherent in the sampling sites.

Friedman, I.; Smith, G. I.

1972-01-01

143

Winter Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the ...

Schilling, Ashley

2010-05-26

144

Winter Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? ...

Smith, Miss

2010-09-27

145

Winter Storms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Sappa, Mr.

2010-05-26

146

Estimation of snow microphysical properties with application to millimeter-wavelength radar retrievals for snowfall rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for measuring snowfall is driven by the roles snow plays providing freshwater resources and affecting climate. Snow accumulations are an important resource for ecological and human needs and in many areas appear vulnerable to climate change. Snow cover modifies surface heat fluxes over areas extensive enough to influence climate at regional and perhaps global scales. Seasonal runoff from snowmelt, along with over-ocean snowfall, contributes to freshening in the Arctic and high-latitude North Atlantic oceans. Yet much of the Earth's area for which snowfall plays such significant roles is not well-monitored by observations. Radar reflectivity at 94 GHz is sensitive to scattering by snow particles and CloudSat, in a near-polar orbit, provides vertically resolved measurements of 94 GHz reflectivity at latitudes from 82 N to 82 S. While not global in areal coverage, CloudSat does provide observations sampled from regions where snowfall is the dominant form of precipitation and an important component of hydrologic processes. The work presented in this study seeks to exploit these observations by developing and assessing a physically-base snowfall retrieval which uses an explicit representation of snow microphysical properties. As the reflectivity-based snowfall retrieval problem is significantly underconstrained, a priori information about snow microphysical properties is required. The approaches typically used to develop relations between reflectivity and snowfall rate, so-called Ze-S relations, require assumptions about particle properties such as mass, area, fallspeed, and shape. Limited information about the distributions of these properties makes difficult the characterization of how uncertainties in the properties influence uncertainties in the Ze-S relations. To address this, the study proceeded in two parts. In the first, probability distributions for snow particle microphysical properties were assessed using optimal estimation applied to multi-sensor surface-based snow observations from a field campaign. Mass properties were moderately well determined by the observations, the area properties less so. The retrieval revealed nontrivial correlations between mass and area parameters not apparent in prior studies. Synthetic testing showed that the performance of the retrieval was hampered by uncertainties in the fallspeed forward model. The mass and area properties obtained from this retrieval were used to construct particle models including 94 GHz scattering properties for dry snow. These properties were insufficient to constrain scattering properties to match observed 94 GHz reflectivities. Vertical aspect ratio supplied a sufficient additional constraint. In the second part, the CloudSat retrieval, designed to estimate vertical profiles of snow size distribution parameters from reflectivity profiles, was applied to measurements from the field campaign and from an orbit of CloudSat observations. Uncertainties in the mass and area microphysical properties, obtained from the first part of this study, were substantial contributors to the uncertainties in the retrieved snowfall rates. Snowfall rate fractional uncertainties were typically 140% to 200%. Accumulations of snowfall calculated from the retrieval results matched observed accumulations to within 13%, however, when allowances were made for snowfall with properties likely inconsistent with the snow particle model. Information content metrics showed that the size distribution slope parameters were moderately to strongly constrained by the reflectivity observations, while the intercept parameters were determined primarily by the a priori constraints. Results from the CloudSat orbit demonstrated the ability of the CloudSat retrieval to represent a range of scene-dependent Ze-S relations.

Wood, Norman Bryce

147

Single-dose cholecalciferol suppresses the winter increase in parathyroid hormone concentrations in healthy older men and women: a randomized triaI?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized double-blind controlled trial of a single oral dose of 2.5 mg(100 000 IU) cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) was conducted in the winter in 189 healthy free-living men and women aged 63-76 y. The mean baseline serum concentra- tion for 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 34.5 nmolfL and for parathy- roid hormone 3.18 pmolIL. After 5 wk, mean serum 25-hydroxy- vitamin D

Kay-Tee Khaw; Robert Scragg; Sean Murphy

148

Spaceborne Passive Microwave Measurement of Snowfall over Land Min-Jeong Kim  

E-print Network

of a snow cloud, including snow mass, snow particle effective diameter, and water vapor. The MM5 cloudSpaceborne Passive Microwave Measurement of Snowfall over Land Min-Jeong Kim Department where the atmosphere is relatively transparent. However, water vapor absorption at frequencies greater

Houze Jr., Robert A.

149

The 8th-10 th January 2009 snowfalls: a case of Mediterranean warm advection event  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 8 th to 10 th of January 2009, significant snowfalls were reported in many areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. This relevant event was very important from the meteorological and social impact point of views. The snow affected many zones, especially the regions of Madrid, Castilla & León and Castilla-La Mancha (Spanish central plateau) with the

F. Aguado; E. Ayensa; M. Barriga; J. Del Hoyo; A. Fernández; N. Garrido; A. Martín; F. Martín; I. Martínez Roa A; R. Pascual

2009-01-01

150

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Lidar-Radar Measurements of Snowfall Edwin W. Eloranta--Univ. Of Wisconsin Aerodynamic flow around a lidar-radar based technique to measure the downward flux of snow at an altitude of ~100m. When particles the square of the mass of the average snowflake. For particles large compared to the wavelength, the lidar

Eloranta, Edwin W.

151

Twentieth century Antarctic air temperature and snowfall simulations by IPCC climate models  

E-print Network

Twentieth century Antarctic air temperature and snowfall simulations by IPCC climate models Andrew half of the 20th century [Monaghan et al., 2006, 2008; Chapman and Walsh, 2007], and longer [Schneider and Walsh, 2007]. Our study extends on the previous work by employing the new observational records

Howat, Ian M.

152

Synoptic Patterns Associated with the Record Snowfall of 1960 in the Southern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Record snowfall totals of up to 211 cm blanketed the Southern Appalachians between mid- February and late-March 1960. Snow was reported on average every other day in the higher elevations, and mean temperatures for the period were nearly 6 C below normal. Snow piled up to great depths, with Boone, NC, reporting a maximum depth of 112 cm. Snow drifts

L. BAKER PERRY; CHARLES E. KONRAD

153

Application of Snowfall and Wind Statistics to Snow Transport Modeling for Snowdrift Control in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models were utilized to determine the snow accumulation season (SAS) and to quantify windblown snow for the purpose of snowdrift control for locations in Minnesota. The models require mean monthly temperature, snowfall, density of snow, and wind frequency distribution statistics. Temperature and precipitation data were obtained from local cooperative observing sites, and wind data came from Automated Surface Observing System

Martha D. Shulski; Mark W. Seeley

2004-01-01

154

Estimating snowfall patterns using timeseries of remote sensing images within a Bayesian framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow water equivalent (SWE) reconstruction methods have been used previously to characterize seasonal SWE accumulation using mass and energy balance models. Recognizing that the spatial signature of the seasonal SWE accumulation is an integration of a series of snowfall events, we have formulated a Bayesian SWE reconstruction which utilizes the ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS) to combine timeseries of remote sensing

M. Durand; N. P. Molotch; S. A. Margulis

2007-01-01

155

Snowfall responses over the USA to phase and amplitude variations in the tropospheric wavetrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in snowfall over the United States is examined with respect to changes in the phase and amplitude of the tropospheric wavetrain. Results are based on composites constructed for both high and low amplitude cases when the ridge axis of the wavetrain was located in each of six 10° longitude bands between 160°W and 100°W. The most striking signals occur

MARTYN P. CLARK; MARK C. SERREZE

1999-01-01

156

Synoptic Analysis of 2000-2005 Significant Snowfall Events on Mt. Kilimanjaro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice cores recovered from Mt. Kilimanjaro provide evidence of significant climate changes in the East African region over the past 10,000 years. However, the atmospheric processes that lead to snowfall on Kilimanjaro are poorly understood. Earlier studies have suggested that East African climate is dominated by the seasonal shift of the tropical precipitation bands, yet the key factors causing interannual

R. Y. Chan; C. M. Ammann; J. H. Yin

2005-01-01

157

A statistical comparison of electronic weighing and tipping-bucket precipitation gauging for snowfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall and snowfall measurements are basic inputs for watershed modelling, natural hazard assessment, and generally for the evaluation of hydrological response. Although distributed radar precipitation fields are becoming routinely used in hydrological analyses, point observations remain fundamental as control points and best estimates of precipitation at the ground level. However, the problem with point precipitation measurements using common can-type gauges

M. Savina; B. Schäppi; P. Molnar; P. Burlando; B. Sevruk

2010-01-01

158

Winter snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. 1. What do you already know about the weather? 2. How does the weather effect you daily? Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Peterson, Lori

2009-09-28

159

Measuring Snowfall at Summit, Greenland Using a Bistatic X-Band Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the current warming trend of the Earth's climate, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been melting on its fringes and experiencing mass loss. However, the mass balance of the GIS as a whole is not well understood due to a deficiency of knowledge of the interior. Central to understanding this mass balance is precipitation, of which non-satellite derived observations over the central GIS are sparse. Here a conditional snowfall retrieval for the ground-based Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS), which is part of the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) project in Greenland, is described. The conditional restraints for the POSS retrieval are based on qualitative ice particle habit information derived from relating periodic on-site ice crystal images to ranges of cloud base temperature derived from instantaneous lidar and interpolated radiosonde measurements. The snowfall from this habit-dependent retrieval is compared to various fixed-habit retrievals for the POSS, as well as other coinciding snowfall measurements taken at Summit by a vertical-pointing Ka-band cloud radar. Providing a broader perspective, this radar-based precipitation data is analyzed alongside weekly measurements from an accumulation forest, that includes a 10x10 grid of bamboo stakes that are used to measure the height change in the snow surface. In addition to snowfall, surface height changes include contributions from deposition, sublimation, melting, drifting, and compaction that must be accounted for. Using these three perspectives on snowfall, the annual cycle of precipitation at Summit, Greenland over the past three years is examined.

Castellani, B.; Shupe, M.

2013-12-01

160

Remote sensing analysis of a Mediterranean thundersnow and low-altitude heavy snowfall event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the 8 of March 2010 a heavy snowfall accompanied by lightning occurred over Catalonia (NE Spain), in the Western Mediterranean. Total lightning observations included 101 cloud-to-ground flashes and 169 intra-cloud flashes. Precipitation amounts in 24 h exceeded 100 mm and snow depths over low altitude terrain, where snow is rare, surpassed 30 cm. Snow accumulations collapsed the regional communication transport network and the border with France was closed several hours. Occurrence of wet snow combined with increasingly strong winds caused widespread damage over large forest areas estimated in more than 20 MEur and affected dramatically the high voltage power line distribution grid due to ice accretion, particularly in NE Catalonia where 33 high power electrical towers were knocked down. The meteorological framework at synoptic scale was dominated at low levels by a northern flow over Iberia due to a blocking high pressure system on the British Isles, and an upper level cold trough, which favoured a rapid cyclogenesis over the Mediterranean (9.2 hPa drop in 12 h). Weather radar observations indicated predominance of stratiform precipitation and some low-topped convection, with maximum reflectivities and tops mostly below 40 dBZ and 4 km respectively. The presence of mesoscale gravity waves, caused by wind-shear instability, is suggested as a triggering element for convection and subsequent lightning. Comparison of accumulated precipitation and lightning maps indicated clusters of lightning data unrelated to precipitation maxima. Further investigation of total lightning characteristics and co-located radar observations suggested a triggering effect by tall telecommunication towers inducing cloud-to-ground flashes and subsequent intra-cloud lightning.

Bech, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Aran, Montserrat

2013-04-01

161

Nuclear winter  

SciTech Connect

The 13 speakers at the October 1983 Conference on the World After Nuclear War each contributed specialized knowledge to the climatic and biological effects of nuclear war. The author highlights the findings of the TTAPS (named for its authors) study and confirmation by Soviet scientists on the nuclear winter. Atmospheric consequences would come from debris blocking sunlight and creating conditions of cold and darkness that could preclude the continued existence of life. The biological consequences of cold and darkness would be reduced photosynthesis, devastating losses of food, damage and death from ionizing radiation, and a breakdown of ecosystems. Impacts on the human population would be intensified by a breakdown in social services. The author summarizes points of discussion during the conference. 4 references.

Ehrlich, A.

1984-04-01

162

The motion of mesoscale snowbands in Northeast U.S. winter storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of snowfall accumulation attending winter storms is a product of both precipitation intensity and duration. Many heavy snowfall events are associated with distinct mesoscale snowbands that strongly modulate snowfall accumulation. Mesoscale snowbands are known to be favored within environments characterized by frontogenesis in the presence of weak moist symmetric or gravitational stabilities. Although the development of mesoscale snowbands often can be anticipated at 24--36-h ranges, anticipating band residence time at a fixed location remains a forecasting challenge. However, given that snowband residence time is related to characteristics of band motion, improved understanding of band motion presents an opportunity to improve snowfall accumulation forecasts. This study investigates environmental attributes associated with specific snowband motion characteristics. A classification scheme for snowband motion is developed, wherein bands are categorized into four modes: laterally translating, laterally quasi-stationary, pivoting, and hybrid. Laterally translating bands exhibit predominantly cross-axis motion, thereby favoring quasi-uniform snowfall accumulation along their paths. In contrast, laterally quasi-stationary bands are characterized by near-zero cross-axis motion, favoring heavy snowfall accumulation along a narrow corridor that may extend for several hundred kilometers. Pivoting bands exhibit pronounced rotation such that heavy snowfall accumulation is particularly favored near the center of rotation. Finally, hybrid bands are dominated by along-axis motion, but with a concurrent cross-axis component of motion. Using archived WSR-88D data, snowband events in the northeast U.S. between 2005 and 2010 have been subjectively identified and classified according to this scheme. Gridded data from the 0.5° resolution NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis are used to identify environmental features associated with band motion characteristics. Results indicate that patterns of the low-to-midlevel kinematic fields, temperature advection, along- and cross-isentrope projections of the Q vector, and vertical wind shear in the near-band environment are useful in distinguishing between snowband modes. Composite fields, case studies, and conceptual models are presented to illustrate synoptic-scale features associated with different snowband motion characteristics.

Kenyon, Jaymes S.

163

Correcting basin-scale snowfall in a mountainous basin using a distributed snowmelt model and remote-sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequate estimation of the spatial distribution of snowfall is critical in hydrologic modelling. However, this is a well-known problem in estimating basin-scale snowfall, especially in mountainous basins with data scarcity. This study focuses on correction and estimation of this spatial distribution, which considers topographic effects within the basin. A method is proposed that optimises an altitude-based snowfall correction factor (Cfsnow). This is done through multi-objective calibration of a spatially distributed, multilayer energy and water balance-based snowmelt model (WEB-DHM-S) with observed discharge and remotely sensed snow cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) automatic search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal value of Cfsnow for minimum cumulative error in discharge and snow cover simulations. Discharge error is quantified by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and relative volume deviation, and snow cover error was estimated by pixel-by-pixel analysis. The study region is the heavily snow-fed Yagisawa Basin of the Upper Tone River in northeast Japan. First, the system was applied to one snow season (2002-2003), obtaining an optimised Cfsnow of 0.0007 m-1. For validation purposes, the optimised Cfsnow was implemented to correct snowfall in 2004, 2002 and 2001. Overall, the system was effective, implying improvements in correlation of simulated versus observed discharge and snow cover. The 4 yr mean of basin-average snowfall for the corrected spatial snowfall distribution was 1160 mm (780 mm before correction). Execution of sensitivity runs against other model input and parameters indicated that Cfsnow could be affected by uncertainty in shortwave radiation and setting of the threshold air temperature parameter. Our approach is suitable to correct snowfall and estimate its distribution in poorly gauged basins, where elevation dependence of snowfall amount is strong.

Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

2014-02-01

164

Effects of climate change on the intensity and frequency of heavy snowfall events in the Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensity and frequency of heavy snowfall events in the Pyrenees were simulated using data from the HIRHAM regional climate\\u000a model for a control period (1960–1990) and two greenhouse emission scenarios (SRES B2 and A2) for the end of the twenty-first\\u000a century (2070–2100). Comparisons between future and control simulations enabled a quantification of the expected change in\\u000a the intensity and

Juan Ignacio López-Moreno; S. Goyette; S. M. Vicente-Serrano; M. Beniston

2011-01-01

165

Relationships between Northwest Flow Snowfall and Topography in the Southern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationships between northwest flow snowfall (NWFS) and various topographic and geographic (TOPO\\/GEOG) variables in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the southeastern U.S. We identify NWFS events on the basis of low-level wind direction, extract values for the TOPO\\/GEOG variables from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), and develop statistical relationships between NWFS and the TOPO\\/GEOG variables. Results indicate

BAKER PERRY; CHARLES E. KONRAD

166

A Physical Model to Determine Snowfall over Land by Microwave Radiometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because microwave brightness temperatures emitted by snow covered surfaces are highly variable, snowfall above such surfaces is difficult to observe using window channels that occur at low frequencies (v less than 100 GHz). Furthermore, at frequencies v less than or equal to 37 GHz, sensitivity to liquid hydrometeors is dominant. These problems are mitigated at high frequencies (v greater than 100 GHz) where water vapor screens the surface emission and sensitivity to frozen hydrometeors is significant. However the scattering effect of snowfall in the atmosphere at those higher frequencies is also impacted by water vapor in the upper atmosphere. This work describes the methodology and results of physically-based retrievals of snow falling over land surfaces. The theory of scattering by randomly oriented dry snow particles at high microwave frequencies appears to be better described by regarding snow as a concatenation of equivalent ice spheres rather than as a sphere with the effective dielectric constant of an air-ice mixture. An equivalent sphere snow scattering model was validated against high frequency attenuation measurements. Satellite-based high frequency observations from an Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-B) instrument during the March 5-6, 2001 New England blizzard were used to retrieve snowfall over land. Vertical distributions of snow, temperature and relative humidity profiles were derived from the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). Those data were applied and modified in a radiative transfer model that derived brightness temperatures consistent with the AMSU-B observations. The retrieved snowfall distribution was validated with radar reflectivity measurements obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based radar network.

Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Kim, M.-J.; Weinman, J. A.; Chang, D.-E.

2003-01-01

167

Determination of a ZR Relationship for Snowfall Using a Radar and High Sensitivity Snow Gauges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A best-fit power-law relationship (Z = 427 R1.09) between 1-minute integrated averages of snowfall rate (R) and radar reflectivity factor (Z) was determined on the basis of observations made by using high sensitivity snow gauges (accuracy 0.03 mm h1) and a radar (wavelength 3.2 cm, beamwidth 1.1°) of three 1987 Sapporo snowstorms. The relationship Z = 554R0.88, using 30-minute integrated

Yasushi Fujiyoshi; Tatsuo Endoh; Tomomi Yamada; Kazuhisa Tsuboki; Yoshihiro Tachibana; Gorow Wakahama

1990-01-01

168

Estimating snowfall patterns using timeseries of remote sensing images within a Bayesian framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) reconstruction methods have been used previously to characterize seasonal SWE accumulation using mass and energy balance models. Recognizing that the spatial signature of the seasonal SWE accumulation is an integration of a series of snowfall events, we have formulated a Bayesian SWE reconstruction which utilizes the ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS) to combine timeseries of remote sensing estimates of snow covered area (SCA) with a land surface model (LSM) to estimate snowfall distribution. An ensemble-based snow depletion curve (SDC) is used to relate SCA and SWE. We perform a series of synthetic tests to assess how much information concerning snowfall accumulation patterns can be extracted from a timeseries of SCA measurements during the ablation season. The test is performed using vegetation and meteorologic data at the 625 km2 Colorado Rabbit Ears pass area studied during the NASA Cold Lands Processes Experiment. We perform experiments to examine sensitivity to a range of physiographic variables (e.g. vegetation cover, magnitude of SWE accumulation, and fraction of total accumulation falling during the ablation season). Sensitivity to over- and underestimation of melt flux, measurement error, and error in the sub-grid precipitation coefficient of variation used to define the LSM SDC are also investigated. Predictions are made about the accuracy of the EnKS posterior SWE estimates (and, thus, the potential usefulness of the Bayesian reconstruction) under a variety of physiographic and uncertainty scenarios.

Durand, M.; Molotch, N. P.; Margulis, S. A.

2007-12-01

169

SoilVegetationAtmosphere Transfer Schemes and Large-Scale Hydrological Models (Proceedings of a symposium held during the Sixth IAHS Scientific Assembly at Maastricht, The Netherlands, July 2001).  

E-print Network

of the total winter snowfall that is normally lost to sublimation, suggesting that an increase in shrub cover a significant amount (10­50%) of the snowfall to be returned to the atmosphere by sublimation of the wind

Pielke, Roger A.

170

A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

2008-01-01

171

Observed changes in extreme winter events in Europe with implication for transport system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme weather events, such as heavy rain and snow events, storms, strong winds, low visibility, hail and extreme temperatures can have negative impact on transport sector, causing severe damages and large economic losses. Weather and climate extremes have been changed over the last few decades and are likely to continue to change in the future due to the projected climate change. Consequences of changes may be both negative and positive for transportation. Extreme winter conditions have implications for the mobility and safety of operations, leading to significant transport disruptions, increased accident risk and costs of damage. In the present study we provide a comprehensive climatology of extreme winter weather events over the European continent relevant to the transport system with primary focus on recent decades (1971-2000). Individual phenomena, such as heavy snowfall, freezing temperatures, strong winds and wind gust and also their combinations, blizzard, freezing rain are considered. The estimation of the recent and past severe events is based on the observed data available from the meteorological services, from the E-OBS dataset and the ERA40 re-analysis dataset. The analysis of the relevant hazardous weather phenomena takes into account the ranking and impact threshold values defined from the viewpoint of different transport modes, such as road, rail, aviation, waterways and light, and infrastructure. A range of statistical methods are applied to define the features of these extremes, such as their probability, changes in the spatial extension, intensity and temporal duration. In order to assess the changes in regional extremes and their effects, a European regionalization regarding similar impacts on transport network is performed. The results of extreme weather and climate events classification are also shown through a set of geographical maps.

Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.

2010-09-01

172

Lessons from the unusual impacts of an abnormal winter in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic impacts from the near record warm and snow-free winter of 2001 2 in the United States were assessed to ascertain their dimensions and relevance to issues like climate prediction and climate change. Unusual impacts resulted and embraced numerous sectors (heating/energy use, construction, tourism, insurance, government, and retail sales). Many outcomes were gains/benefits totalling 19.6 billion, with losses of 8.2 billion. Some economists identified the sizable positive impacts as a factor in the nation's recovery from an on-going recession stemming from the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Understanding the impacts of such a winter reveals how climate predictions of such conditions could have great utility in minimising the losses and maximising the gains. The results also have relevance to the global warming issue since most climate models project future average winter temperature and snowfall conditions in the United States to be similar to those experienced in 2001 2.

Changnon, Stanley A.; Changnon, David

2005-09-01

173

Ross River virus infection surveillance in the Greater Perth Metropolitan area - has there been an increase in cases in the winter months?  

PubMed

An increase in off-season (June to September) Ross River virus (RRV) notifications from the greater Perth metropolitan area was observed from 2006 to 2009. We investigated the increase to determine whether it is likely to have reflected a true increase in off-season cases. A single positive RRV IgM test result is sufficient for RRV notification but where follow-up testing was performed, the positive predictive value of an IgM test where IgG was negative was very low in the off-season and also in the season when using the only commercially available test kit. The increase in off-season notifications was not associated with an increase in off-season testing. Some Perth laboratories use more stringent notification criteria than the nationally agreed RRV case definition, and the geographical distribution of samples tested varies between laboratories. Our findings make a strong case to change the nationally agreed case definition for RRV to not accept a single IgM positive test result as laboratory definitive evidence where the IgG is negative. Our study also identified a range of challenges in interpreting changes in seasonal patterns and geographical distribution of RRV. Any such observed changes should be investigated through further data analysis and/or mosquito trapping and testing in order to assess validity. PMID:25222206

Selvey, Linda A; Donnelly, Jenny A; Lindsay, Michael D; PottumarthyBoddu, Sudha; D'Abrera, Victoria C; Smith, David W

2014-01-01

174

Multisensor Observation and Simulation of Snowfall During the 2003 Wakasa Bay Field Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research seeks to assess and improve the accuracy of microphysical assumptions used in satellite passive microwave radiative transfer models and retrieval algorithms by exploiting complementary observations from satellite radiometers, such as TRMM/AMSR-E/GPM, and coincident aircraft instruments, such as the next generation precipitation radar (PR-2). We focus in particular on aircraft data obtained during the Wakasa Bay field experiment, Japan 2003, pertaining to surface snowfall events. The observations of vertical profiles of reflectivity and Doppler-derived fall speeds are used in conjunction with the radiometric measurements to identify 1-D profiles of precipitation particle types, sizes, and concentrations that are consistent with the observations.

Johnson, Benjamin T.; Petty, Grant W.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Wang, James W.

2005-01-01

175

Efficient N Management Using Winter Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the last decades the acreage of winter oilseed rape has been increased considerably in Europe. Rapeseed can take up\\u000a a large amount of nitrogen before winter (?>?100 kg N???ha) and thus prevent nitrate leaching and pollution. Winter wheat\\u000a is often grown subsequently, using oilseed rape as a favorable preceding crop. However, under wheat large nitrogen losses\\u000a via leaching are frequently observed

Klaus Sieling; Henning Kage

176

Winter Storm Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... media accounts and ask your followers to share. Twitter #Winter storm fire #safetytip: keep fire hydrants near ... and standards, research, training and education. Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube More information on winter fire safety ...

177

Science of Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science of Winter is a collection of activities, lessons, interactives, images, or other content illustrating or demonstrating scientific aspects of winter weather, conditions, processes, or phenomena, appropriate for middle school, informal education, and general audiences.

2009-07-30

178

Winter Weather Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

179

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

180

Effects of volcanic eruption and global warming on snowfall patterns in the Pacific Northwest: Survey of climate data from 36 stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns in short term annual snowfall totals and long term glacial mass-balance of glaciers in the Pacific Northwest are affected by episodic global volcanic eruptions and the cyclic appearances of the El Nino oceanic current. A comprehensive analysis of climatic data such as snowfall, snow depth, maximum and minimum temperatures, and total precipitation was undertaken for 18 stations in Oregon

Chatelain

1996-01-01

181

Remote Measurements of Snowfalls in Wakasa Bay, Japan with Airborne Millimeter- wave Imaging Radiometer and Cloud Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we explore the application of combined millimeter-wave radar and radiometry to remotely measure snowfall. During January-February of 2003, a field campaign was conducted with the NASA P-3 aircraft in Wakasa Bay, Japan for the validation of the AMSRE microwave radiometer on board the Aqua satellite. Among the suite of instruments-on board the P-3 aircraft were the Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the 94 GHz Airborne Cloud Radar (ACR) which is co-owned and operated by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory/University of Massachusetts. MIR is a total power, across-track scanning radiometer that measures radiation at the frequencies of 89, 150, 183.3 +/- 1, 183.3 +/- 3, 183.3 +/-7, 220, and 340 GHz. The MIR has flown many successful missions since its completion in May 1992. ACR is a newer instrument and flew only a few times prior to the Wakasa Bay deployment. These two instruments which are particularly well suited for the detection of snowfall functioned normally during flights over snowfall and excellent data sets were acquired. On January 14, 28, and 29 flights were conducted over snowfall events. The MIR and ACR detected strong signals during periods of snowfall over ocean and land. Results from the analysis of these concurrent data sets show that (1) the scattering of millimeter-wave radiation as detected by the MIR is strongly correlated with ACR radar reflectivity profiles, and (2) the scattering is highly frequency-dependent, the higher the frequency the stronger the scattering. Additionally, the more transparent channels of the MIR (e.g., 89, 150, and 220 GHz) are found to display ambiguous signatures of snowfall because of their exposure to surface features. Thus, the snowfall detection and retrievals of snowfall parameters, such as the ice water path (IWP) and median mass diameter (D(me)) are best conducted at the more opaque channels near 183.3 GHz and 340 GHz. Retrievals of IWP and D(me) using the MIR measurements at 183.3 and 340 GHZ are currently in progress, and the results will be compared with those derived from the ACR reflectivity profiles. Implication from this comparison will be discussed.

Wang, J. R.; Austin, R.; Liu, G. S.; Racette, P. E.

2004-01-01

182

Can we estimate precipitation rate during snowfall using a scanning terrestrial LiDAR?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate snowfall measurements in windy areas have proven difficult. To examine a new approach, we have installed an automatic scanning terrestrial LiDAR at Mammoth Mountain, CA. With this LiDAR, we have demonstrated effective snow depth mapping over a small study area of several hundred m2. The LiDAR also produces dense point clouds by detecting falling and blowing hydrometeors during storms. Daily counts of airborne detections from the LiDAR show excellent agreement with automated and manual snow water equivalent measurements, suggesting that LiDAR observations have the potential to directly estimate precipitation rate. Thus, we suggest LiDAR scanners offer advantages over precipitation radars, which could lead to more accurate precipitation rate estimates. For instance, uncertainties in mass-diameter and mass-fall speed relationships used in precipitation radar, combined with low reflectivity of snow in the microwave spectrum, produce errors of up to 3X in snowfall rates measured by radar. Since snow has more backscatter in the near-infrared wavelengths used by LiDAR compared to the wavelengths used by radar, and the LiDAR detects individual hydrometeors, our approach has more potential for directly estimating precipitation rate. A key uncertainty is hydrometeor mass. At our study site, we have also installed a Multi Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to measure size, fallspeed, and mass of individual hydrometeors. By combining simultaneous MASC and LiDAR measurements, we can estimate precipitation density and rate.

LeWinter, A. L.; Bair, E. H.; Davis, R. E.; Finnegan, D. C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Dozier, J.

2012-12-01

183

NORTHWARD EXPANSION OF THE WINTERING RANGE OF RICHARDSON'S MERLIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wintering range of Richardson's Merlin (Falco columbarius richardsonii) has recently been acknowledged to include the Canadian prairies. An analysis of Christmas Bird Counts over a 27-year period revealed that these Merlin populations have significantly increased in Canadian urban counts, and farther south on United States counts in the more traditional wintering range. The increase in wintering Merlins in the

PAUL C. JAMES; LYNN W. OLIPHANT; IAN G. WAtIENWIN

184

Deeper Snow Enhances Winter Respiration from Both  

E-print Network

these systems in winter could contribute to a positive feedback to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Lashof source of CO2 to the atmosphere if its bulk soil carbon is decomposed. We used snow fences to investigate­thaw cycles. The snow fence treatment increased mean total winter efflux from 27 to 43 g CO2-C m)2 . Be- cause

Grogan, Paul

185

Characteristics of large snowfall events in the montane western United States as examined using snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily snow water equivalent records from the snowpack telemetry archive are used to assess spatiotemporal characteristics of large snowfall events over the montane western United States. The largest mean annual (leading) events are found in the Pacific Northwest and Sierra Nevada. The mean leading event lasting up to 72 hours typically accounts for 10-23% of the water equivalent of annual

Mark C. Serreze; Martyn P. Clark; Allan Frei

2001-01-01

186

The Development of a Snowfall Rate Algorithm Using Satellite Passive Microwave Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A snowfall rate (water equivalent) algorithm was developed using measurements from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and European Organization for the Exploitation of METeorological SATellites’ (EUMATSAT) Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). The algorithm includes three components: Ice Water Path (IWP) retrieval, ‘cloud top’ height retrieval, and snowflake terminal velocity. IWP is derived using a two-stream Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) (Yan et al., 2008). Brightness temperatures of four AMSU/MHS window channels (23.8, 31.4, 89, 150 GHz) and one water vapor channel (183.31 +/- 7 or 190.31 GHz) are the required input to the RTM. The RTM couples with an iteration scheme and outputs retrieved quantities including IWP when the differences between the simulated and the measured brightness temperatures fall under predefined thresholds. In this study, cloud top is defined as the ‘top’ of the cloud that is confined to 6 km or lower. The limit is set due to the fact that the AMSU/MHS channels used are not sensitive to atmosphere above 6 km. The ‘cloud top’ height is derived using an empirical method developed by Chernykh & Eskridge (1996) which uses the second derivatives of water vapor and temperature profiles to detect the existence of cloud. Some other screening criteria are added to improve the identification of ‘cloud top’ height. The water vapor and temperature profiles used in this study are from NOAA Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS). Some simplifications are made regarding the distributions and fall velocities of snow particles which allow the computation of snowfall rate from the derived IWP and ‘cloud top’ height. Ground hourly observations from the Continental United States (CONUS) are used in validation study. This algorithm is applied to five satellites that carry AMSU/MHS sensors and can provide up to 10 near real-time snowfall rate retrievals per day for any given location on earth. Therefore it is potentially a useful product for users such as weather and river forecasters.

Meng, H.; Yan, B.; Ferraro, R. R.

2009-12-01

187

Observation of snowfall with a low-power FM-CW K-band radar (Micro Rain Radar)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying snowfall intensity especially under arctic conditions is a challenge because wind and snow drift deteriorate estimates obtained from both ground-based gauges and disdrometers. Ground-based remote sensing with active instruments might be a solution because they can measure well above drifting snow and do not suffer from flow distortions by the instrument. Clear disadvantages are, however, the dependency of e.g. radar returns on snow habit which might lead to similar large uncertainties. Moreover, high sensitivity radars are still far too costly to operate in a network and under harsh conditions. In this paper we compare returns from a low-cost, low-power vertically pointing FM-CW radar (Micro Rain Radar, MRR) operating at 24.1 GHz with returns from a 35.5 GHz cloud radar (MIRA36) for dry snowfall during a 6-month observation period at an Alpine station (Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus, UFS) at 2,650 m height above sea level. The goal was to quantify the potential and limitations of the MRR in relation to what is achievable by a cloud radar. The operational MRR procedures to derive standard radar variables like effective reflectivity factor ( Z e) or the mean Doppler velocity ( W) had to be modified for snowfall since the MRR was originally designed for rain observations. Since the radar returns from snowfall are weaker than from comparable rainfall, the behavior of the MRR close to its detection threshold has been analyzed and a method is proposed to quantify the noise level of the MRR based on clear sky observations. By converting the resulting MRR- Z e into 35.5 GHz equivalent Z e values, a remaining difference below 1 dBz with slightly higher values close to the noise threshold could be obtained. Due to the much higher sensitivity of MIRA36, the transition of the MRR from the true signal to noise can be observed, which agrees well with the independent clear sky noise estimate. The mean Doppler velocity differences between both radars are below 0.3 ms-1. The distribution of Z e values from MIRA36 are finally used to estimate the uncertainty of retrieved snowfall and snow accumulation with the MRR. At UFS low snowfall rates missed by the MRR are negligible when comparing snow accumulation, which were mainly caused by intensities between 0.1 and 0.8 mm h-1. The MRR overestimates the total snow accumulation by about 7%. This error is much smaller than the error caused by uncertain Z e-snowfall rate relations, which would affect the MIRA36 estimated to a similar degree.

Kneifel, Stefan; Maahn, Maximilian; Peters, Gerhard; Simmer, Clemens

2011-06-01

188

Effects of volcanic eruption and global warming on snowfall patterns in the Pacific Northwest: Survey of climate data from 36 stations  

SciTech Connect

Patterns in short term annual snowfall totals and long term glacial mass-balance of glaciers in the Pacific Northwest are affected by episodic global volcanic eruptions and the cyclic appearances of the El Nino oceanic current. A comprehensive analysis of climatic data such as snowfall, snow depth, maximum and minimum temperatures, and total precipitation was undertaken for 18 stations in Oregon and Washington between 1948-1995, and for snow-water data from 18 other stations from 1980-1995. These data were also compared to demonstrate regional variations within a given year. Snowfall maxima and Temperature minima recorded in this period closely followed major volcanic events, whereas Snowfall minima and Temperature maxima recorded in the same period coincided with periodic El Nino patterns. Snowfall totals in El Nino years were uniformly sparse region wide, whereas snowfall patterns in other years displayed some regional variation. Of special interest is the cross-correlation of snow-water and snowfall depth/totals data for the period 1980-1995, which records the patterns before and after the eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo (1991-92).

Chatelain, E.E. [Valdosta State Univ., GA (United States)

1996-09-01

189

Observed snowfall and river discharge trend and low-frequency variability over Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a twofold analysis of long-term trend and variability of different factors affecting the hydrological cycle over the Alps in spring. The study is based on datasets derived from observations for the last 150 years. In one case we focus on snowfall flux, which we found shifting between two different regimes in concert with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. This teleconnection is explained by a mixture of changes in circulation and by local climatic feedbacks. Moreover, we analyzed the timing of the river discharge peaks relative to the main Alpine rivers, finding similar features of low frequency variability, and a common anticipation tendency of more than two weeks per century, probably explained by a change of seasonality of total precipitation.

Zampieri, Matteo; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Gualdi, Silvio

2014-05-01

190

Winter Storm Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Garage (home) fires Heating Holidays, candles and Christmas trees Hotels and motels Novelty lighters Smoke alarms Smoking Sprinklers (fire) Summer Winter Wildfire Educational programs Planning for public ...

191

Focus Article Nuclear winter  

E-print Network

Focus Article Nuclear winter Alan Robock Nuclear winter is the term for a theory describing the climatic effects of nuclear war. Smoke from the fires started by nuclear weapons, especially the black of these indirect effects. Nuclear proliferation is now expanding the threat. A nuclear war between India

Robock, Alan

192

Winter Olympic Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Winter Olympic Sports Let's take a look at some of the different winter olympic sports Alpine Skiing Biathalon Bobsleigh Cross country Curling Figure Skating Freestyle skiing Ice Hockey Luge Nordic Combined Short track speed skating Skeleton Ski Jumping Snowboard Speed Skating ...

Keller, Mrs.

2010-01-23

193

Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine  

E-print Network

Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine in the Line of Fire #12; UTHealthScienceCenter University of tennessee HealtH science center Medicine Magazine Winter 2007 CommunicationsTeam Writing,Editing ShH science center Medicine Magazine Winner 2006 Gold Award Best Magazine ­ External Audience Public Relations

Cui, Yan

194

Winter 2014 Economics 471  

E-print Network

Winter 2014 Economics 471: Public Finance Government Finance -- Syllabus Winter 2014 1 US Treasury intervention in the market. After covering basic prin- ciples of public finance, we will focus on the taxing Textbook: Public Finance and Public Policy (4th Edition) by Jonathan Gruber. Available at the bookstore

Carter, John

195

Winter Weather Introduction  

E-print Network

Winter Weather Management #12;Introduction · Campus Facilities Staff · Other Campus Organizations #12;Purpose · Organize and coordinate the campus response to winter weather events to maintain campus for use by 7 AM. · Response will be modified depending upon forecast and current weather conditions. #12

Taylor, Jerry

196

Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east. Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales. In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned. These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

197

The Impacts of Changes in Snowfall on Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions Using an Automated Chamber System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover has decreased in many regions of the northern hemisphere and is projected to decrease further in most. The reduced snow cover may enhance soil freezing and increase the depth of frost. The frequency of freeze-thaw cycles is likely to increase due to the reduction of snowpack thickness. Freeze and thaw cycles can strongly affect soil C and N dynamics. The pulses of N2O and CO2 emissions from soil after thawing have been reported in various studies. However, most studies were based on the controlled laboratory conditions or low resolution static chamber methods in situ. Near-continuous automated chambers provide the temporal resolution needed for capturing short-lived pulses of greenhouse gases after intermittent melting events. We investigated the winter and spring response of soil greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to changes of snow depth using an automated chamber system. This study was established in 2010 at the Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) in southwest Michigan. The plot was no till rotational (corn-soybean-wheat) cropland, most recently in corn. The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD) with three levels of snow depth: ambient, double, and no snow. Each level had four replicates. Twelve automated chambers were randomly assigned to treatments and greenhouse gas fluxes measured 4 times per day in each plot. There were more freeze-thaw cycles in the no snow treatment than in the ambient and double snow treatments. Soil temperature at 5 cm depth was more variable in the no snow treatment than in the ambient and double snow treatments. CH4 fluxes were uniformly low with no significant difference across three treatments. CO2 showed expected seasonal changes with the highest emission in spring and lowest emissions through the winter. N2O peaks were higher in spring due to freeze thaw effects and cumulative N2O fluxes were substantially higher in the no snow treatment than in the ambient and double snow treatments.

Ruan, L.; Kahmark, K.; Robertson, G.

2012-12-01

198

A study of the microphysical processes in a numerically simulated heavy snowfall event in North China: the sensitivity of different snow intercept parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a modeling study of the cloud processes in a heavy snowfall event occurring in North China on 20–22 December\\u000a 2004. The nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (MM5) was used to carry out experiments with the Reisner-2 explicit microphysical\\u000a parameterizations in four nested domains to test the sensitivity of simulated heavy snowfall to different snow intercept parameters.\\u000a Results show that while

Wenshi Lin; Jinping Meng; C.-H. Sui; Weiguang Meng; Jiangnan Li

2009-01-01

199

Total Lightning Observations within Electrified Snowfall using Polarimetric Radar LMA, and NWN Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tall structures play and important role in development of winter time lightning flashes. To what extent still needs to be assessed. Tower initiated flashes typically occur as banded structures pass near/overhead. Hi resolution RHI s from polarimetric rada...

C. J. Schultz, E. C. Bruning, L. D. Carey, R. J. Blakeslee

2013-01-01

200

Rainfall and Snowfall Observations by the Airborne Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar during the Wakasa Bay Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar data obtained through the NASA/JPL Airborne Precipitation Radar APR-2 during the Wakasa Bay Experiment in January/February 2003 were processed to obtain calibrated reflectivity measurements, rainfall/snowfall velocity measurements, classification of the surface type and detection of the boundaries of the melting layer of precipitation. In this paper the processing approach is described together with an overview of the resulting data quality and known issues.

Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Meagher, Jonathan P.

2004-01-01

201

Air Parcel Trajectories and Snowfall Related to Five Deep Drilling Locations in Antarctica Based on the ERA15 Dataset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-day backward air parcel trajectories are used to define potential moisture sources of snow falling at five Antarctic deep drilling locations: Byrd, DML05, Dome C, Dome F, and Vostok. The trajectory calculations are based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis data, ERA-15 (1979-93). Based on model precipitation, a distinction is made between cases with and without snowfall at

C. H. Reijmer; M. R. van den Broeke; M. P. Scheele

2002-01-01

202

Observation of snowfall with a low-power FM-CW K-band radar (Micro Rain Radar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying snowfall intensity especially under arctic conditions is a challenge because wind and snow drift deteriorate estimates\\u000a obtained from both ground-based gauges and disdrometers. Ground-based remote sensing with active instruments might be a solution\\u000a because they can measure well above drifting snow and do not suffer from flow distortions by the instrument. Clear disadvantages\\u000a are, however, the dependency of e.g.

Stefan Kneifel; Maximilian Maahn; Gerhard Peters; Clemens Simmer

2011-01-01

203

Impact of land-use changes on snow in a forested region with heavy snowfall in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We simulated snow processes in a forested region with heavy snowfall in Japan, and evaluated both the regional-scale snow distribution and the potential impact of land-use changes on the snow cover and water balances over the entire domain. SnowModel reproduced the snow processes at open and forested sites, which were confirmed by snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements at two intensive

Kazuyoshi Suzuki; Yuji Kodama; Taro Nakai; Glen E. Liston; Kazukiyo Yamamoto; Tetsuo Ohata; Yoshiyuki Ishii; Akihiro Sumida; Toshihiko Hara; Takeshi Ohta

2011-01-01

204

Evolution of MLS Ozone and the Polar Vortex During Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of polar ozone observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder is described for the northern hemisphere (NH) winters of 1991/1992, 1992/1993, and 1993/1994, and the southern hemisphere (SH) winters of 1992 and 1993. Ozone in the mid-stratospheric vortex increases over the winter, with largest increases associated with stratospheric warmings, and a much larger increase in the NH than in the SH.

Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Zurek, R. W.

1994-01-01

205

[Chemical characteristics and insoluble particulates' surface morphology of a snowfall process in the southeastern suburb of Urumqi].  

PubMed

In order to understand the composition and potential pollution of metal elements in precipitation in the southeastern suburb of Urumqi on February 21 to 23, 2012, soluble elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); in addition, energy spectrum and morphological analysis were made for insoluble particulates. The results showed that the content of toxic heavy metals in snowfall was a little high; and the enrichment factors of Se, As and Cd were 124.65, 57.69 and 36.70, respectively, showing a typical coal pollution characteristic. The back trajectory cluster analysis suggested that the coal fly ash of snowfall mainly induced by air masses originated from the coal-fire power plant in the Southwestern sampling site. Morphology analyses conducted under an scan electron microscope demonstrated fly ash coming from coal burning process and irregular mineral are in the majority of insoluble particulates in snowfall, soot aggregates were compact, when the soot was wetted (the hygroscopic behaviour), and the morphology changed further. Insoluble particulates of the southeastern suburb of Urumqi were coal fly ash and insoluble soil minerals. PMID:24946568

Lu, Hui; Wei, Wen-Shou; Cui, Cai-Xia; He, Qing; Wang, Yao

2014-04-01

206

Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... a two-wave radio, waterproof matches and paraffin fire starters with you. Do not use alcohol and ...

207

Winter Weather: Hypothermia  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

208

Winter Weather: Indoor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... 3 feet of anything that may catch on fire, such as drapes, furniture, or bedding. Never cover ...

209

Synoptic climatological study on precipitation in the Hokuriku District of Central Japan associated with the cold air outbreak in early winter (With Comparison to that in midwinter for the 1983/1984 winter)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In midwinter, heavy snowfall events are often brought in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands by the organized convective snowfall systems in the cold air outbreak situations. However, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher from November to early December ("early winter"), the "wintertime pressure pattern" often appears due to the considerable development of the Siberian high already in that season. Since the seasonal cycle in East Asia shows great variety with many rapid seasonal transitions influenced by the Asian monsoon system, detailed comparison of the daily precipitation climatology and the relating atmospheric processes in the cold air outbreak situations between early winter and midwinter would give us an interesting information for comprehending the overall aspects of such seasonal cycle there. Thus the present study firstly examined the daily precipitation climatology mainly at Takada, as an example for Hokuriku District, during the early to mid- winter of 1970/71 to 2009/10. Then the detailed analyses were made for the 1983/1984 winter (one of the coldest winters during that period) based on the operational meteorological data by JMA, including the ocean buoy data in the southern part of the Japan Sea for evaluating the sensible and the latent heat fluxes from the sea (referred to as SH and LH, respectively). The total precipitation at Takada in early winter was as large as in midwinter, although it was brought mainly not as snow but as rain. Such large climatological value was mainly reflected by the precipitation in the "wintertime pressure pattern" with large contribution of the days with more than 30 mm/day. Interestingly, mean daily precipitation in the "wintertime pressure pattern" in early winter was greater than in midwinter. It is noted that such features were generally found even in the latter half of the analysis period when the warmer winter years appeared more frequently than in the former half. According to the case study for 1983/84 winter, although the "wintertime pressure pattern" appeared rather frequently already from early November, each event of that pattern tended to persist only a several days. In addition, the organization of the shallow convective clouds in the cold air outbreak situation as often found in midwinter was not clearly observed. However, strong cold air advection in early winter as in midwinter over the warm underlying sea, at least in the mature stage of each "wintertime pressure situation", seems to enable the extremely huge amount of LH and the equivalently intense SH to that in midwinter, resulting in the large daily precipitation there through the enhancement of the air mass transformation process over the Japan Sea.

Kato, Kuranoshin; Nishimura, Nanako; Haga, Yuichi

2014-05-01

210

Science of Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is it true that no two snowflakes are alike? What happens to mosquitoes when the mercury drops? National Geographic Channel explores the planet's most extreme season. This engaging three-minute video discusses the astronomical basis for winter, and other seasons, based on the angle of incidence of the sun's rays relative to the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as the components of intense winter storms.

211

Ground validation of oceanic snowfall detection in satellite climatologies during LOFZY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough knowledge of global ocean precipitation is an indispensable prerequisite for the understanding of the water cycle in the global climate system. However, reliable detection of precipitation over the global oceans, especially of solid precipitation, remains a challenging task. This is true for both, passive microwave remote sensing and reanalysis based model estimates. The optical disdrometer ODM 470 is a ground validation instrument capable of measuring rain and snowfall on ships even under high wind speeds. It was used for the first time over the Nordic Seas during the LOFZY 2005 campaign. A dichotomous verification of precipitation occurrence resulted in a perfect correspondence between the disdrometer, a precipitation detector and a shipboard observer's log. The disdrometer data is further point-to-area collocated against precipitation from the satellite based Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and fluxes from Satellite data (HOAPS) climatology. HOAPS precipitation turns out to be overall consistent with the disdrometer data resulting in a detection accuracy of 0.96. The collocated data comprises light precipitation events below 1 mm h-1. Therefore two LOFZY case studies with high precipitation rates are presented that indicate plausible HOAPS satellite precipitation rates. Overall, this encourages longer term measurements of ship-to-satellite collocated precipitation in the near future.

Klepp, Christian; Bumke, Karl; Bakan, Stephan; Bauer, Peter

2010-08-01

212

Greenland Ice Sheet: Increased coastal thinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated laser-altimeter surveys and modelled snowfall\\/summer melt show average ice loss from Greenland between 1997 and 2003 was 80 +\\/- 12 km3 yr-1, compared to about 60 km3 yr-1 for 1993\\/4-1998\\/9. Half of the increase was from higher summer melting, with the rest caused by velocities of some glaciers exceeding those needed to balance upstream snow accumulation. Velocities of one

W. Krabill; E. Hanna; P. Huybrechts; W. Abdalati; J. Cappelen; B. Csatho; E. Frederick; S. Manizade; C. Martin; J. Sonntag; R. Swift; R. Thomas; J. Yungel

2004-01-01

213

Greenland Ice Sheet: Increased coastal thinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated laser-altimeter surveys and modelled snowfall\\/summer melt show average ice loss from Greenland between 1997 and 2003 was 80 ± 12 km3 yr?1, compared to about 60 km3 yr?1 for 1993\\/4–1998\\/9. Half of the increase was from higher summer melting, with the rest caused by velocities of some glaciers exceeding those needed to balance upstream snow accumulation. Velocities of one

W. Krabill; E. Hanna; P. Huybrechts; W. Abdalati; J. Cappelen; B. Csatho; E. Frederick; S. Manizade; C. Martin; J. Sonntag; R. Swift; R. Thomas; J. Yungel

2004-01-01

214

Delayed plumage maturation in the orchard oriole ( Icterus spurius ): tests of winter adaptation hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Explanations of delayed plumage maturation (DPM) in passerines have focused on potential breeding season advantages for non-definitive (subadult) plumage. In contrast, the molt constraint hypothesis (Rohwer and Butcher 1988) proposes that subadult plumage is a winter adaptation, increasing winter survivorship by decreasing intraspecific aggression (the winter status signaling hypothesis) or predation (the winter crypsis hypothesis). Under the molt constraint

David A. Enstrom

1992-01-01

215

The role of snowfall in forming the seasonal ice caps of Mars: Models and constraints from the Mars Climate Sounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wintertime observations of the martian polar regions by orbiting spacecraft have provided evidence for carbon dioxide clouds, which measurably alter the polar energy budget and the annual CO2 cycle. However, it has remained unclear whether snowfall contributes a substantial quantity to the accumulating seasonal ice caps. We develop models to constrain precipitation rates based on observations of south polar CO2 clouds by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), and show that snowfall contributes between 3% and 20% by mass to the seasonal deposits at latitudes 70-90°S. The lower bound on this estimate depends on a minimum effective cloud particle size of ?50 ?m, derived by comparing the short lifetimes (less than a few hours) of some clouds with calculated sedimentation velocities. Separate constraints from infrared spectra measured by MCS suggest CO2 cloud particles in the size range 10-100 ?m. Snow particles are not likely to re-sublime before reaching the surface, because the lower atmosphere in this region remains near saturation with respect to CO2. Based on cooling rate calculations, snowfall originating below 4 km altitude likely contributes a comparable or greater amount to the seasonal deposits than the rest of the atmosphere. Due to the positive feedback between cloud particle number density and radiative cooling, CO2 snow clouds should propagate until they become limited by the availability of condensation nuclei or CO2 gas. Over the south polar residual cap, where cloud activity is greatest, atmospheric radiative cooling rates are high enough to offset heat advected into the polar regions and maintain consistent snowfall. At latitudes of 60-80°S the lower atmosphere tends to be slightly sub-saturated and rapid cooling by mechanical lift driven by orography or convergent flow may be required to initiate a snowstorm, consistent with the more sporadic clouds observed by MCS in this region, and their correlation with topographic features. Snowfall and accumulation at the surface are found to be inevitable consequences of the polar energy budget, unless advection redistributes heat from lower latitudes in much greater quantities than expected.

Hayne, Paul O.; Paige, David A.; Heavens, Nicholas G.

2014-03-01

216

A coupled atmosphere-river flow simulation in California during the 1994-1995 winter  

SciTech Connect

Calculation of river flow is important for managing reservoirs and flood forecasting. In the western United States, a complex terrain which is characterized by steep slopes and narrow valleys often cause a substantial rise of river levels in a short period during heavy precipitation events. Since flood control is one of the major tasks of reservoir operation, inaccurate predictions of precipitation and river flow may cause flooding or waste of water resources. Accurate calculations of river flow need accurate liquid water input to the river system at scales of individual watersheds. Precipitation and snowmelt are the most important natural source of water for a river. Reservoir operations significantly affect river flow in the western United States. Factors such as instantaneous soil water content, vegetation cover, terrain slope and ground water table structure are also crucial for river flow calculation. There are two types of precipitation: rain and snowfall. River flow quickly responds to rainfall while snowfall does not directly affect river flow until it melts afterwards. Therefore, these two types of precipitation must be separately provided to the river flow model for correct calculation of river flows. A large portion of snowfall is accumulated at high terrain during winter months in the western United States. Accumulation of snow causes the river flow to respond to instantaneous precipitation with a certain amount of time lag. During warm springs, large amounts of snowmelt can even cause local flooding. Hence, accurate estimation of snowmelt is another important step for calculating river flows. River flows are affected many different atmospheric and land surface processes. Therefore, a well-designed numerical modeling system which includes atmospheric-surface-hydrologic processes and is coupled to large-scale atmospheric data is an important tool for predicting and diagnosing local river flows and water resources.

Kim, J.; Miller, N.L.

1995-09-28

217

Water transport under winter conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter as well as summer floods result in soil loss and sedimentation. Up to now the winter events cannot be adequately predicted. This paper focuses on the infiltration processes under frozen winter conditions in order to model soil erosion processes in winter by adapting the computer model EROSION 3D [Schmidt, J., Werner, M. v., 2000. Modeling Sediment and Heavy Metal

Astrid Weigert; Jürgen Schmidt

2005-01-01

218

Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter  

PubMed Central

Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

2014-01-01

219

Evaluating Snowfall Detectability of NASA CloudSat with NOAA/NSSL Ground Radar-Based National Multi-sensor Mosaic QPE (NMQ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA CloudSat, carrying the first space-borne Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), is the first satellite that provides scientific communities with global snowfall observations. The accuracy of snowfall observation and quantification at middle and high latitude area is directly correlated with the liability of satellite-based precipitation estimates. However, up-to-date there is not systematic evaluation of its snowfall detectability at regional and global scale. Validation and evaluation of CPR's capability of snowfall detection is still needed in satellite precipitation communities. The NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) (NMQ or Q2) provides the high spatiotemporal resolution (1km/5min) 2-dimensional (2D) multi-suites precipitation products as well as 3-dimensional (3D) products. Such high-resolution QPE products offer an ideal alternate to evaluate satellite-based observations and products. In this paper, the CloudSat-CPR's detectability of falling snow is systematically evaluated using NMQ-Q2 snowfall products (i.e., solid snowfall precipitation identification) over the CONUS from January 2009 to December 2012. Spatial and temporal matching is applied to obtain the most matched dataset from both observations considering their differences in spatiotemporal resolution. The evaluation results offer the insights into the performance of CPR in detecting falling snow and also demonstrate its great potential in improving the solid precipitation (snowfall) in the mid-high latitude area and high-altitude area (e.g. the Tibetan plateau). A synthetic approach of incorporating the ground-radar-based NMQ products for evaluating and integrating into spaceborne radar observations will be highly expected with the launch of Global Precipitation Measurement in 2014.

Chen, S.; Cao, Q.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Hu, J.

2013-12-01

220

An improved model for snowfall measurement using lidar and radar Lidar Backscatter Cross Section ~ number density * Radar Backscatter Cross Section ~ number density * Radar Doppler Velocity ~ f( mass, projected area, air density)  

E-print Network

An improved model for snowfall measurement using lidar and radar Lidar Backscatter Cross Section * radar Doppler velocity = precipitation rate Integrating precip rate yields total precipitation Eureka

Eloranta, Edwin W.

221

Model and Observational Analysis of the Northeast U.S. Regional Climate and Its Relationship to the PNA and NAO Patterns during Early Winter  

E-print Network

increased cyclone activity, total wintertime precipitation is below normal during a positive PNA pattern ice season, while the greatest lake-effect snowfall occurs during a positive PNA and negative NAO cyclone tracks across the contiguous United States (Reitan 1974). The south- westerly Colorado track

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

222

Comparing Aircraft Observations of Snowfall to Forecasts Using Single or Two Moment Bulk Water Microphysics Schemes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High resolution weather forecast models with explicit prediction of hydrometeor type, size distribution, and fall speed may be useful in the development of precipitation retrievals, by providing representative characteristics of frozen hydrometeors. Several single or double-moment microphysics schemes are currently available within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, allowing for the prediction of up to three ice species. Each scheme incorporates different assumptions regarding the characteristics of their ice classes, particularly in terms of size distribution, density, and fall speed. In addition to the prediction of hydrometeor content, these schemes must accurately represent the vertical profile of water vapor to account for possible attenuation, along with the size distribution, density, and shape characteristics of ice crystals that are relevant to microwave scattering. An evaluation of a particular scheme requires the availability of field campaign measurements. The Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) obtained measurements of ice crystal shapes, size distributions, fall speeds, and precipitation during several intensive observation periods. In this study, C3VP observations obtained during the 22 January 2007 synoptic-scale snowfall event are compared against WRF model output, based upon forecasts using four single-moment and two double-moment schemes available as of version 3.1. Schemes are compared against aircraft observations by examining differences in size distribution, density, and content. In addition to direct measurements from aircraft probes, simulated precipitation can also be converted to equivalent, remotely sensed characteristics through the use of the NASA Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit. Outputs from high resolution forecasts are compared against radar and satellite observations emphasizing differences in assumed crystal shape and size distribution characteristics.

Molthan, Andrew L.

2010-01-01

223

Winter Storm Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The subject of this lesson is Winter Storms. The length will be approximately 55 minutes (~15 minutes for each of the three websites and ~10 minutes for the students to create their slideshows). The slideshows may be presented the following day if not enough time is available. This lesson is intended for 4th grade and is directed towards Standard 2 of the 4th grade science core curriculum. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Winter Storms Connection to Standards: Utah Core Curriculum: Science Standard 2 (Students will understand that the elements of weather can be observed, measured, and recorded to make predictions and determine simple weather patterns.) NETS-T: 1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity - Students will be using websites and situations that ...

S., Tasia

2010-09-23

224

Modeling the winter-spring transition of first-year ice in the western Weddell Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

new halodynamic scheme is coupled with the Los Alamos sea ice model to simulate western Weddell Sea ice during the winter-spring transition. One-dimensional temperature and salinity profiles are consistent with the warming and melt stages exhibited in first-year ice cores from the 2004 Ice Station POLarstern (ISPOL) expedition. Results are highly sensitive to snowfall. Simulations which use reanalysis precipitation data do not retain a snow cover beyond mid-December, and the warming transition occurs too rapidly. Model performance is greatly improved by prescribing a snowfall rate based on reported snow thicknesses. During ice growth prior to ISPOL, simulations indicate a period of thick snow and upper ice salinity enrichment. Gravity drainage model parameters impact the simulation immediately, while effects from the flushing parameter (snow porosity at the ice top) appear as the freeboard becomes negative. Simulations using a snow porosity of 0.3, consistent with that of wet snow, agree with salinity observations. The model does not include lateral sources of sea-water flooding, but vertical transport processes account for the high upper-ice salinities observed in ice cores at the start of the expedition. As the ice warms, a fresh upper-ice layer forms, and the high salinity layer migrates downward. This pattern is consistent with the early spring development stages of high-porosity layers observed in Antarctic sea ice that are associated with rich biological production. Future extensions of the model may be valuable in Antarctic ice-biogeochemical applications.

Jeffery, N.; Hunke, E. C.

2014-09-01

225

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

226

Analysis of the hazardous low-altitude snowfall, 8th March 2010, in Catalonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During winter season snow precipitation is quite frequent in the Pyrenees (north-east of the Iberian Peninsula). On average the total amount of fresh snow at 2200 metres is of 250 cm. However, important snow episodes at low latitudes are unlikely. From 1947 to 2009, 16 significant snow episodes took place in the Barcelona and 18 in Girona areas. On 8th

M. Aran; T. Rigo; J. Bech; C. Brucet; E. Vilaclara

2010-01-01

227

Total Lightning Observations within Electrified Snowfall using Polarimetric Radar LMA, and NWN Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tall structures play and important role in development of winter time lightning flashes.To what extent still needs to be assessed. Tower initiated flashes typically occur as banded structures pass near/overhead. Hi resolution RHI s from polarimetric radar show that the lightning has a tendency to propagate through layered structures within these snowstorms.

Schultz, Christopher J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

2013-01-01

228

Evaluation of DFIR and Bush Gauge Snowfall Measurements at Boreal Forest Sites in Saskatchewan/Canada and Valdai/Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall is important to cold region climate and hydrology including Canada. Large uncertainties and biases exist in gauge-measured precipitation datasets and products. These uncertainties affect important decision-making, water resources assessments, climate change analyses, and calibrations of remote sensing algorithms and land surface models. Efforts have been made at both the national and international levels to quantity the errors/biases in precipitation measurements, such as the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE). Both the DFIR (double fence intercomparison reference) and the bush shielded gauge have been used in the past as a reference measurement for solid precipitation and they both have been selected as the references for the current SPICE project. Previous analyses of the DFIR vs. the bush (manual Tretyakov) gauge data collected at the Valdai station in Russia suggest DFIR undercatch of snowfall by up to 10% for high wind conditions. A regression relationship between the 2 systems was derived and used for the last WMO gauge intercomparison. Given the importance of the DFIR as the reference for the WMO SPICE project, it is necessary to re-examine and update the DFIR and bush gauge relationship. As part of Canada's contribution to the WMO SPICE project, a test site has been set up by EC/ASTD/WSDT in the southern Canadian Boreal forest to compare the DFIR and bush gauges. This site, called the Caribou Creek, has been installed within a modified young Jack Pine forest stand - north of Prince Albert in Saskatchewan. This study compiles and analyzes recent DFIR and bush gauge data from both the Valdai and Caribou Creek sites. This presentation summarizes the results of data analyses, and evaluates the performance of both references for snowfall observations in the northern regions. The methods and results of this research will directly support the WMO SPICE project and contribute to cold region hydrology and climate change research.

Yang, D.; Smith, C.

2013-12-01

229

April 20044 WINTER 2008  

E-print Network

the School of Life Sciences teamed up with UK Sport to analyse nutritional supplements taken by athletes fromBridge April 20044 Bridge WINTER 2008 lmost 60 per cent of athletes regularly reach for over- the,buttheirreasonsfordoingsodidnotgenerally tally with each product's purpose. The team also found that relatively few supplement users appeared

Nebel, Jean-Christophe

230

SPECIAL EDITION Winter 2011  

E-print Network

, the impact of startup activity goes well beyond national rankings, employment statistics and tax revenuesSPECIAL EDITION Winter 2011 INNOVATIONSThe Official Newsletter for Technology Venture Development at The University of Utah www.techventures.utah.edu INSIDE: The U's economic impact | Startup company voices

231

Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002  

PubMed Central

Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H.; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.; Sande, Merle A.

2006-01-01

232

Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002.  

PubMed

Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenza like illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

Gundlapalli, Adi V; Rubin, Michael A; Samore, Matthew H; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L; Winthrop, Kevin L; Dunn, James J; Willick, Stuart E; Vosters, Randal L; Waeckerle, Joseph E; Carroll, Karen C; Gwaltney, Jack M; Hayden, Frederick G; Elstad, Mark R; Sande, Merle A

2006-01-01

233

WINTER 2014 Sustainability and  

E-print Network

WINTER 2014 Sustainability and Renewable Energy in Costa Rica January 4 - 14 Dr. James Hoffmann, Program Director Lecturer Sustainability Studies Program E-511 Melville Library Stony Brook, NY 11794 sustainability and renewable energy. Students will spend 11 days in Costa Rica to participate in site visits

Stephens, Graeme L.

234

GRAND RIVER Winter 2014  

E-print Network

GRAND RIVER POST SECONDARY BOARD NEWSLETTER Winter 2014 Issue 55 P.O. Box 339 Ohsweken ON, N0A 1M0-mail: info@grpseo.org Website: www.grpseo.org Grand River Post Secondary Board Members Brenda Davis (Chair TO TOMORROW Onkwehon:we with Grand River Territory lineage are empowered through higher education within

Thompson, Michael

235

Teaching Ecology in Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

1984-01-01

236

FORUMCORNELL Winter 2007  

E-print Network

FORUMCORNELL LAW Winter 2007 Myron C. Taylor, Part Two: President Franklin D. Roosevelt: President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Ambassador Extraordinary" 4 by W. DAV I D C U R T I S S ' 4 0 A N D C . E School's Web site you will see people who exemplify the reality of A. D. White's founding wish

Wang, Z. Jane

237

Winter Here and Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a wide variety of winter-oriented ideas and activities that can be adapted to all elementary grade levels and can also be integrated into existing mathematics, science, social studies, and/or art programs. The activities aim to help students develop the skills of observation, appreciation, and problem solving as well as…

Finlay, Joy

238

WINTER 2012 + Listening for  

E-print Network

WINTER 2012 + Listening for children's voices in domestic violence + 2010­11 donor roster Culture Research highlights A new study shows corporal punishment harms children's ability to learn 20 Faculty Opening the door Listening for the child's voice in domestic violence 18 Putting her best (bare) foot

Blanchette, Robert A.

239

Schedule of Winter Deadlines  

E-print Network

What's New? UC Online Courses Pilot In upcoming Winter/Spring 2014 terms, the University of California Find-a-Class feature, students are able to search classes and enroll directly from the search page, but it also allows them to enter other mathematics-related fields that require a strong understanding

Williams, Gary A.

240

ANNUAL WINTER SCHOOLANNUAL WINTER SCHOOL Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute  

E-print Network

ANNUAL WINTER SCHOOLANNUAL WINTER SCHOOL Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute National Research February � 1 March, 2014 Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) conducts the XLVIII Annual Winter Physics � Theoretical Physics School � School on Nuclear Reactor Physics � Accelerator Physics School

Titov, Anatoly

241

Lessons learned from the snow emergency management of winter season 2008-2009 in Piemonte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The winter season 2008-2009 has been characterized by heavy snowfalls over the whole Piemonte, in the Western Alps region. The snowfalls have been exceptional because of their earliness, persistence and intensity. The impact on the regional environment and territory has been relevant, also from the economical point of view, as well as the effort of the people involved in the forecasting, prevention and fighting actions. The environmental induced effects have been shown until late spring. The main critical situations have been arisen from the snowfalls earliness in season, the several snow precipitation events over the plains, the big amount of snow accumulation on the ground, as well as the anomaly with respect to the last 30 years climatic trend of snow conditions in Piemonte. The damage costs to the public property caused by the snowfalls have been estimated by the Regione Piemonte to be 470 million euros, giving evidence of the real emergency dimension of the event, never occurred during the last 20 years. The technical support from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Regione Piemonte (Arpa Piemonte) to the emergency management allowed to analyse and highlight the direct and induced effects of the heavy snowfalls, outlining risk scenarios characterized by different space and time scales. The risk scenarios deployment provided a prompt recommendation list, both for the emergency management and for the natural phenomena evolution surveillance planning to assure the people and property safety. The risk scenarios related to the snow emergency are different according to the geographical and anthropic territory aspects. In the mountains, several natural avalanche releases, characterized frequently by a large size, may affect villages, but they may also interrupt the main and secondary roads both down in the valleys and small villages road access, requiring a long time for the complete and safe snow removal and road re-opening. The avalanches often cause the service breakdowns and damage the infrastructures in the built-up areas and the forest heritage. Critical situations due to the snow loading and the snow removal necessity involve all the mountain people directly. Over the plain and the hill country, where the new snow density is generally high giving rise to effects related to its load capacity, to the isolation of little residential and rural settlements, several damages on the secondary road system due to the tree and tree branch falls comes up , together with many public services interruptions (electric power and telephone), warehouse and barn collapses, determining a widespread critical situation. The urban and commuting traffic during the snow emergency enhances the difficulties related to the road management and traffic control over the whole road system in the plains, even with little snow accumulation on the ground. Critical situations may also arise from road frost and intense freezing spells. The operational implementation of the technical rules for the snow emergency management, tested the first time during the event in a dynamic way, pointed out its drawbacks and potentiality, highlighting the "emergency preparedness" importance at different institutional levels, with the population and stakeholder involvement. Some measures have to be especially underlined: the coordination of the snow monitoring over the territory performed by the local operators (avalanche activity and linked damages reporting) and the steps taken locally; the improvement of the tools for the snow pack evaluation to drive the avalanche artificial triggering off, in case of snow mass hazard assessment, and their regional coordination. Moreover it is important to define the standard, acknowledged and accepted prevention actions suited to minimize the heavy snowfall effects, with particular attention to the viableness,to the school systemopening/closing and to the preventive information care in order to avoid the missing perception of the risk. Special attention must be paid to the hydrogeological risk condition ass

Bovo, Dr.; Pelosini, Dr.; Cordola, Dr.

2009-09-01

242

Winter CO2 and CH4 fluxes along a trans-Alaska pipeline during three winters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was carried out to estimate the winter fluxes of CO2 and CH4 using the static chamber and the concentration profile methods along a trans-Alaska pipeline during three winters of 2004/5, 2005/6, and 2006/7. The 3-year averaged winter fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in taiga and tundra were 0.60±0.03 (SE; standard error) and 0.39±0.04 gCO2-C/m2/d, and 2.62±0.31 and 2.60±0.27 mgCH4-C/m2/d, respectively. This suggests that CH4 was emitted through the snowpack to the atmosphere along a latitudinal transect during the winter. Winter CH4 emission may be occurred through vascular plants such as Sedges on the tussock. The annually averaged snow depth and SWE (snow water equivalent) as well as winter emissions of CO2 and CH4 were remarkably decreased in taiga temporally. On the other hand, although the snow depth and SWE were decreased in tundra, winter emissions of CO2 and CH4 were increased with yearly. The 3-year averaged wintertime emissions of CO2 and CH4 were 115±6.4 gCO2-C/m2/season and 0.59±0.06 gCH4- C/m2/season along a trans-Alaska pipeline during three winters. This implies that winter emissions of CO2 and CH4 are an important part of the annual carbon budget in seasonally snow-covered terrain of typical boreal forest and tundra soils.

Kim, Y.; Enomoto, H.; Kimura, S.; Kadosaki, G.

2007-12-01

243

Lightning Protection against Winter Lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter lightning, which occurs along the Sea of Japan coast, often damages transmission lines and distribution lines with the conventional lightning protection. These lines in mountainous areas suffer extensive damage from winter lightning. It is very important to investigate the features of lightning outages in detail to improve the lightning protection measures against winter lightning, therefore observations of lightning strokes

Hitoshi Sugimoto

2007-01-01

244

Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

Gilchrest, Norman

245

Titan's Winter Polar Vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not been identified in Titan's atmosphere, so the decay of its polar vortex may be more gradual than on Earth. Observations from an extended Cassini mission into late northern spring should provide critical data indicating whether the vortex goes away with a bang or just fades away.

Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

2008-01-01

246

Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

Fares, Auda

2013-01-01

247

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

248

Al's Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Al

2010-02-22

249

Storm Winter Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

KateOlsen58

2009-09-28

250

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? What is a better indicator of moisture in the air? 4. What happens when there is low ...

Xuan

2010-02-22

251

Winter Storm Warning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

2009-09-28

252

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Butcher, Kirsten

2008-09-26

253

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Barbieri, Mikel

2012-02-13

254

Winter Storm Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Ferraratechclassroom

2012-02-06

255

A 750-yr record of autumn snowfall and temperature variability and winter storminess recorded in the varved sediments of Bear Lake, Devon Island, Arctic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The varve record from High Arctic, proglacial Bear Lake reveals a regionally coherent hydroclimatic signal as well as complexities due to changing hydroclimatic and limnologic conditions. Varve formation is strongly dependent on underflows that exhibit variability in strength during the past 750 yr. Periods with reduced underflow sedimentation and accumulation rates fail to produce varves in the distal part of

Scott F. Lamoureux; Robert Gilbert

2004-01-01

256

WINTERING OF LESSER GOLDEN-PLOVERS IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although said to winter entirely in southern South America, Lesser Golden- Plovers (Pluvialis dominica dominica) have been recorded in eastern North America in small numbers throughout the winter. A literature search indicates that records are regular through December, most of them probably of late fall migrants, and again increase in late February, probably of early spring migrants. There are at

DENNIS R. PAULSON; DAVID S. LEE

257

Winter Biological Processes Could Help Convert Arctic Tundra to Shrubland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arctic Alaska, air temperatures have warmed 0.5 degrees Celsius (?C) per decade for the past 30 years, with most of the warming coming in winter. Over the same period, shrub abundance has increased, perhaps a harbinger of a conversion of tundra to shrubland. Evidence suggests that winter biological processes are contributing to this conversion through a positive feedback that

MATTHEW STURM; JOSH SCHIMEL; GARY MICHAELSON; JEFFREY M. WELKER; STEVEN F. OBERBAUER; GLEN E. LISTON; JACE FAHNESTOCK; VLADIMIR E. ROMANOVSKY

2005-01-01

258

Drill rig winterization now 'down to a science'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present-day winterization of drilling rigs in Alaska has added significantly to the cost of drilling but has also resulted in increased manpower efficiency. Double-walled insulated steel wind walls taper in with the derrick to heights of as much as 82 feet to help keep heat inside. Drilling contractors spend as much as $3 million per rig for winterization. Many rigs

1982-01-01

259

ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF CANADA GEESE DURING WINTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

T is common knowledge that activity patterns of wild geese are correlated with weather conditions. Geese usually fly to feeding areas in the early morning and late afternoons but undertake increased flight activity throughout the day when it is stormy. In conjunction with a study of social behavior and local movements of Canada Geese (Brunta canadensis) during winter (Raveling, 1969a-c;

DENNIS G. RAVELING; WENDELL E. CREWS; W. D. KLIMSTRA

260

The History of Winter: A Professional Development "Teacher as Scientist" Experiential Learning Field Experience.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year since 2000, the NASA Goddard History of Winter (HOW) program has allowed teachers to develop an understanding of the consequences of one segment of the orbit of the tilted Earth in its path around the sun. Scientists from NASA, CRREL, and Michigan Tech, supported by the Whiteface Observatory, and the science program at Northwood School in Lake Placid, New York, use the weather and the stratigraphy in the ice and snow, consequences of the weather changes, as "teachers" in a team study of the winter record. Snow in the air and on the ground, ice, its crystal structure and axial orientation, and the ecosystem consequences of snow and ice constitute the weeklong content package. Teacher Professional Development Standards A, B, C, and D were the guiding principles in developing HOW with a content structure formulated as protocols to serve as inserts into lesson plans and inquiry guides. The concept of HOW within NASA is to provide understanding of the WHY? and WHAT? of satellite remote sensing. The content is appropriate ground validation in that techniques presented in protocols are identical to those used by professionals who study snow pits, evaluate features in snow metamorphism, and study thin sections of ice cores drilled in ice caps and glaciers. The HOW Teacher as scientist (TAS) model is a flexible model. HOW enables teachers who are required to use inquiry-based facilitation in the classroom to experience inquiry themselves. Teachers with little science content background as well as those with Science degrees have participated in HOW working alongside of the science team. Accommodations are made through differentiation of instruction so that each group leaves with a mastery of the content that is appropriate for the transition to presentation in the classroom. Each year builds on the previous year ensuring a time series record of the history of winter-by itself a learning experience. An offshoot of the NASA Goddard Center History of Winter (HOW) Program, the Global Snowflake Network (GSN) launched in the winter of 2006 engages an international audience including both formal and informal education groups. The goal is to provide an interactive online data resource in science and education for the characterization of snowfall and related weather systems. The Global Snowflake Network has been accepted as an education outreach proposal for the International Polar Year. Collaborations with other agencies and universities also with IPY-accepted proposals are now underway. HOW and the GSN are endorsed by the NASA Goddard Education Office and many of the Goddard Snow and Ice Team scientists. Together these programs offer a unique, sustainable, and proven outreach for the Cryosphere research program. Snowflakes are like frozen data points, their shape is a record of atmospheric conditions at the time of their formation. The shapes of snowflakes vary over the winter season, with the source of a weather system and over the course of a given snowfall. The objective of the Global Snowflake Network (GSN) is to create a global ground team of teachers, students, families, and researchers worldwide to identify snowflake types during the progress of snowfalls. The result is a unique and scientifically valid resource useful to meteorology and scientific modeling of Earth's Hydrosphere. The Global Snowflake Network (GSN), simultaneously a science program and an education program is presented as a simple, scientifically valid project that has the potential to spread the IPY message and produce a lasting resource to further scientific understanding of Earth's hydrology through the study of snow.

Gabrys, R. E.

2007-12-01

261

Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east.

Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales.

In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned.

These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, during Terra orbits 6093 and 7957, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

262

Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates  

SciTech Connect

Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University] [Auburn University

2006-11-08

263

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11616 Increased future ice discharge from Antarctica owing  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11616 Increased future ice discharge from Antarctica owing to higher snowfall over Antarctica, which would provide a direct offset of the future contribution to global sea Antarctica1,6 and thus in the ultimate fate of the precipitation- deposited ice mass. Here we show

Levermann, Anders

264

The effect of orography and sea surface temperature on the heavy snowfall for the eastern region of Korea : A case study with high resolution WRF simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the heavy snowfall that occurred on 11-14 February 2011 in the Yeongdong region along the eastern coast of Korea is presented. Relevant characteristics based on observation and model simulations are discussed with a focus on the times of maximum snowfall in Gangneung (GN) and Daegwallyong (DG). This event was considered part of the typical snowfall pattern that frequently occurs in the Yeongdong region due to the prevailing northeasterly flow. The control simulation using the high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (1km X 1km) showed reasonable performance in capturing the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of precipitation. The area of precipitation maxima appeared to propagate from the plain coastal region further into the inland mountainous region, in relation to the location of convergence zone. In addition, two sensitivity experiments, EXP1 with a smoothed topography and EXP2 with a warmer sea surface temperature (SST), were performed to investigate the effect of topography and SST on the formation of heavy snowfall. EXP1 tended to modify the precipitation distribution, while EXP2 tended to produce more precipitation over the ocean. Acknowledgements This work was supported by a grant (code No. 3100-3136-442) funded by the National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR), the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA)

Jung, S.-H.; Im, E.-S.; In, S.-R.; Han, S.-O.

2012-04-01

265

Ensemble Applications in Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to ensemble forecast systems using an operational case study of the Blizzard of 2013 in Southern Ontario. The module uses models available to forecasters in the Meteorological Service of Canada, including Canadian and U.S. global and regional ensembles. After briefly discussing the rationale for ensemble forecasting, the module presents small lessons on probabilistic ensemble products useful in winter weather forecasting, immediately followed by forecast applications to a southern Ontario case. The learner makes forecasts for the Ontario Storm Prediction Center area and, in the short range, for the Toronto metropolitan area. An additional section applies a probabilistic aviation product to forecasts for Toronto Pearson International Airport.

Comet

2014-04-22

266

Big6 Winter Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Goals: a. Students will be able to identify the four seasons. b. Students will be able to identify three animals (bear, goose, moose) and know their lifestyle patterns in congruence with the four seasons, especially Winter months. c. Students will develop an understanding of their environment. 2nd Grade Standard III: Students will develop an understanding of their environment Objective 2: Observe and describe weather Goal C: Describe how weather affects people and weather Lesson Objectives: a. Identify the seasons and represent each with pictures and songs. b. Observe and describe typical weather for each of ...

Cook, Mrs.

2010-11-05

267

winter storm activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. It provides an interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there ...

Prested, Miss

2010-05-26

268

Winter Frost and Fog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog.

Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

2005-01-01

269

Measurement of atmospheric boundary layer based on super-large-scale particle image velocimetry using natural snowfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an implementation of super-large-scale particle image velocimetry (SLPIV) to characterize spatially the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer using natural snowfall as flow tracers. The SLPIV technique achieves a measurement area of ~22 m × 52 m, up to 56 m above the ground, with a spatial resolution of ~0.34 m. The traceability of snow particles is estimated based on their settling velocity obtained from the wall-normal component of SLPIV velocity measurements. The results are validated using coincident measurements from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower situated in close proximity to the SLPIV sampling area. A contrast of the mean velocity and the streamwise Reynolds stress component obtained from the two techniques shows less than 3 and 12 % difference, respectively. Additionally, the turbulent energy spectra measured by SLPIV show a similar inertial subrange and trends when compared to those measured by the sonic anemometers.

Toloui, M.; Riley, S.; Hong, J.; Howard, K.; Chamorro, L. P.; Guala, M.; Tucker, J.

2014-05-01

270

of Washington ""WINTER QUARTER 1993  

E-print Network

University of Washington Bulletin ""WINTER QUARTER 1993 Please recycle or return ........................................................................................ 4 Thition Forfeitures or Refunds .................................................. 9 Washington Public Interest Research Group ._................-.... 10 Washington Student Lobby (WSL

Kaminsky, Werner

271

Winter Movement of Radio-Tagged Juvenile Atlantic Salmon in Northeast Brook, Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar move to habitat with increased water depth, reduced water velocity, and larger substrate than in their preferred summer habitat and become predominantly nocturnal. However, knowledge of their behavior within wintering habitat is limited. In this study, radiotelemetry was used to investigate winter movement, activity, and habitat preference of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Data on

Martha J. Hiscock; David A. Scruton; Joseph A. Brown; Keith D. Clarke

2002-01-01

272

Wintering site interchange amongst Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris captured at Wexford Slobs, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum count of Greenland White-fronted Geese wintering at Wexford, south-east Ireland (where over a third of the population winters) increased from 7910 in 1984\\/85 to 9530 in 1989\\/90. Although the population tends to be highly site-loyal on the wintering grounds, 14% of 700 marked geese seen in two consecutive winters changed site. Counts elsewhere in the wintering range and

S. M. Warren; A. J. Walsh; O. J. Merne; H. J. Wilson; A. D. Fox

1992-01-01

273

Impact of warm winters on microbial growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the temperature relationships of the bacterial community from winter-warmed plots and plots with ambient soil temperatures were compared. No change in optimum temperature for growth could be detected, indicating that the microbial community has not been warm-adapted. This fits with what was seen also in the laboratory experiment where no changes in temperature response occurred when exposing bacteria to temperatures below 10 °C within two months. The increase in activity measured during winter should thereby be due to changes in environmental factors, which will be further investigated. One big difference between heated and control plots was that heated plots were snow free during the entire winter, while control plots were covered by a 10 cm snow cover. The plant community composition and flowering time also differed in the warmed and ambient plot.

Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

2014-05-01

274

NHS healthcare workers prepare for winter's double whammy.  

PubMed

As temperatures drop, pressure on the NHS rises. So winter, with its increased levels of sickness and higher numbers of emergency admissions particularly of frail older people, is always a challenge. PMID:25315539

2014-10-15

275

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES Winter Squash  

E-print Network

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES Winter Squash RECOMMENDED VARIETIES hOW TO STORE Winter Squash Michigan, Butternut, Golden Delicious, Hubbard, Spaghetti are recommended for freezing. yield Acorn squash is round be served like pasta. FOOD SAFETY TIPS One pound 1 large acorn squash. 4 half-cup servings. 1 ½ cups mashed

276

Pocahontas and The Winter's Tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues what is on the face of it a ludicrous claim: that Shakespeare's play The Winter's Tale can profitably be read in the light of the story of the Algonquian princess Pocahontas. The reason that this seems ludicrous is quite simply that The Winter's Tale was almost certainly written before Shakespeare can have heard of Pocahontas, and in

Lisa Hopkins

2005-01-01

277

What natural gas decontrol means this winter  

SciTech Connect

Using data from pipeline Purchase Gas Adjustment (PGA) filings and the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978, this analysis argues that gas prices to consumers will be relatively flat this winter heating season. Both federal regulation and the operation of pipeline/producer contracts will delay price increases until the spring of 1985, and market forces and renegotiated contracts could keep that relatively unchanged. The key uncertainty is whether contract renegotiation occurs. 1 figure, 1 table.

Not Available

1984-01-01

278

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysis, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

Not Available

1995-01-27

279

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-04

280

Structural and functional characterization of a winter malting barley.  

PubMed

The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge. To obtain an understanding of the relationship between loci controlling winter hardiness and malt quality and to assess the potential for breeding winter malting barley varieties, we structurally and functionally characterized the six-row accession "88Ab536", a cold-tolerant line with superior malting quality characteristics that derives from the cross of NE76129/Morex//Morex. We used 4,596 SNPs to construct the haplotype structure of 88Ab536 on which malting quality and winter hardiness loci reported in the literature were aligned. The genomic regions determining malting quality and winter hardiness traits have been defined in this founder germplasm, which will assist breeders in targeting regions for marker-assisted selection. The Barley1 GeneChip array was used to functionally characterize 88Ab536 during malting. Its gene expression profile was similar to that of the archetypical malting variety Morex, which is consistent with their similar malting quality characteristics. The characterization of 88Ab536 has increased our understanding of the genetic relationships of malting quality and winter hardiness, and will provide a genetic foundation for further development of more cold-tolerant varieties that have malt quality characteristics that meet or exceed current benchmarks. PMID:19960335

Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Cistué, L; Xiong, Y; Bilgic, H; Budde, A D; Schmitt, M R; Smith, K P; Hayes, P M; Muehlbauer, G J

2010-03-01

281

PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2014)  

E-print Network

- 1 - PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2014) COURSE GOALS 1. Learn how Chiang 235 Physics chiang@physics.ucdavis.edu 402-7113 Tony Tyson 514 Physics tyson@physics.ucdavis.edu 752-3830 TEACHING ASSISTANTS: Joe Mitchell 512

Yoo, S. J. Ben

282

Winter, Your Car, and You  

MedlinePLUS

... channel, or forecasts in the daily papers. Your Car Prepare your car for winter. Start with a checkup that includes: • ... Checking antifreeze level and the freeze line. Your car should have a tune-up (check the owner's ...

283

Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... these safety tips: Store a multipurpose, dry chemical fire extinguisher near the area to be heated. Do ...

284

Features of air masses associated with the deposition of Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea by rain and snowfall.  

PubMed

Clarifying the role of precipitation in microbial dissemination is essential for elucidating the processes involved in disease emergence and spread. The ecology of Pseudomonas syringae and its presence throughout the water cycle makes it an excellent model to address this issue. In this study, 90 samples of freshly fallen rain and snow collected from 2005-2011 in France were analyzed for microbiological composition. The conditions favorable for dissemination of P. syringae by this precipitation were investigated by (i) estimating the physical properties and backward trajectories of the air masses associated with each precipitation event and by (ii) characterizing precipitation chemistry, and genetic and phenotypic structures of populations. A parallel study with the fungus Botrytis cinerea was also performed for comparison. Results showed that (i) the relationship of P. syringae to precipitation as a dissemination vector is not the same for snowfall and rainfall, whereas it is the same for B. cinerea and (ii) the occurrence of P. syringae in precipitation can be linked to electrical conductivity and pH of water, the trajectory of the air mass associated with the precipitation and certain physical conditions of the air mass (i.e. temperature, solar radiation exposure, distance traveled), whereas these predictions are different for B. cinerea. These results are pertinent to understanding microbial survival, emission sources and atmospheric processes and how they influence microbial dissemination. PMID:24722630

Monteil, Caroline L; Bardin, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

2014-11-01

285

Demographic effects of extreme winter weather in the barn owl.  

PubMed

Extreme weather events can lead to immediate catastrophic mortality. Due to their rare occurrence, however, the long-term impacts of such events for ecological processes are unclear. We examined the effect of extreme winters on barn owl (Tyto alba) survival and reproduction in Switzerland over a 68-year period (approximately 20 generations). This long-term data set allowed us to compare events that occurred only once in several decades to more frequent events. Winter harshness explained 17 and 49% of the variance in juvenile and adult survival, respectively, and the two harshest winters were associated with major population crashes caused by simultaneous low juvenile and adult survival. These two winters increased the correlation between juvenile and adult survival from 0.63 to 0.69. Overall, survival decreased non-linearly with increasing winter harshness in adults, and linearly in juveniles. In contrast, brood size was not related to the harshness of the preceding winter. Our results thus reveal complex interactions between climate and demography. The relationship between weather and survival observed during regular years is likely to underestimate the importance of climate variation for population dynamics. PMID:16645855

Altwegg, Res; Roulin, Alexandre; Kestenholz, Matthias; Jenni, Lukas

2006-08-01

286

Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (???40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (???80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

Lafferty, K. D.

2001-01-01

287

SCHOOLCHILDREN'S ADAPTATION TO WINTER IN COLD CLIMATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter climates, it is required to understand schoolchildren's adaptation to winter in order to implement sustainable winter communities. The questionnaires dealing with adaptation and perceptions regarding winter in cold-climates form an initial component of a lengthier study of a cross-national comparative nature. The focus is on how to encourage children to participate in winter-based outdoor activities and to cultivate

Masamichi Enai; Norman Pressman; Annie Lüttgen; Mao Yu Zheng; Jorma Heikkinen

288

Spatialtemporal features of intense snowfall events in China and their possible change  

E-print Network

. Linear trend analysis indicates that in the last 39 years, the ISE exhibits a decreasing trend for the ISE, with more frequency and strong variability. Annual cycle analysis shows the ISE exhibits for eastern China and an increasing trend for northern Xinjiang and the eastern Tibetan plateau. The linear

289

Millennial-scale dynamics of the East Asian winter monsoon during the last 200,000 years  

E-print Network

worldwide, from the North Atlantic to the Antarctic. In the Asian region the East Asian winter monsoonMillennial-scale dynamics of the East Asian winter monsoon during the last 200,000 years Thibault to a stronger East Asian winter monsoon. During the last 80 kyr, eight significant increases in primary

Linsley, Braddock K.

290

Writing TAFS for Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Writing TAFs for Winter Weather" is the fourth unit in the Distance Learning Aviation Course 2 (DLAC2) series on producing TAFs that meet the needs of the aviation community. In addition to providing information about tools for diagnosing winter weather and its related impacts, the module extends the Practically Perfect TAF (PPTAF) process to address an airportâs operational thresholds. By understanding the thresholds at airports for which they produce TAFs, forecasters will be better able to produce a PPTAF. The unit also examines how to communicate effectively the logic and uncertainty using the aviation forecast discussion (AvnFD) and addresses maintaining an effective TAF weather watch and updating the TAF proactively.

Comet

2009-09-22

291

Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

292

Diel activity pattern of juvenile Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in early and late winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotelemetry was used to investigate the diel activity pattern of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in early and late winter. Fish were active throughout the diel cycle. However, there was significantly less daytime than nighttime movement and movement declined significantly with increasing fork length. Maximizing winter growth rate, through an overall increase in foraging activity, may reduce the risk of

M. J. Hiscock; D. A. Scruton; J. A. Brown; C. J. Pennell

2002-01-01

293

Carbon dynamics in sea ice: A winter flux time series Lisa A. Miller,1  

E-print Network

that are not inconsistent with theory. The total carbon content of the ice increased slightly through the winter season, and increasing variability in the vertical profiles as spring began indicated that the inorganic carbon became mobile as the ice began to melt. During early winter, as the ice formed, inorganic carbon concentrations

Long, Bernard

294

Aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres  

SciTech Connect

The authors calculate the formation rate of sulfuric acid - water aerosol particles as a function of altitude for the conditions of the winter Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. The theoretical results indicate that sulfate particle formation can occur in the polar winter stratosphere. Conditions for new particle formation are increasingly favorable as the altitude increases between 20 and 30 km because of the decrease in surface area of pre-existing particles and increasing sulfuric acid vapor supply. The theoretical predictions are consistent with observations of a high altitude CN layer over Antarctica in the spring. Available vapor pressure data indicate that ternary system particles composed of sulfuric acid, nitric acid and water are not thermodynamically stable under winter stratospheric conditions.

Hamill, P. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA)); Toon, O.B. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA)); Turco, R.P. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1990-03-01

295

Movements of wintering Dunlin Calidris alpina and changing habitat availability in an agricultural wetland landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few studies have assessed how the dynamics of wetland bird movements relate to changing resource availability, particularly at more than one spatial scale. Within western Oregon's Williamette Valley, we examined winter resident Dunlin Calidris alpina movements in relation to a decrease in availability of preferred shorebird foraging habitat from early to late winter of 1999-2000. By tracking movements of 15 (early winter) and 12 (late winter) radiomarked individuals, we calculated home ranges and characterized presence/absence of a preference for shorebird foraging habitat during each winter period. Between periods, we compared: (1) percentage of shorebird habitat in home ranges to its availability in the landscape (regional preference), (2) percentage of radio locations in shorebird habitat to its availability within home ranges (local preference) and (3) relative use of roost sites. Concurrent with a 75% decrease in available shorebird habitat from early to late winter, average home range sizes increased by a factor of 3.8. At a regional scale, home ranges in early winter included a significantly greater percentage of shorebird foraging habitat than was available in the wider landscape. However, by late winter, the percent of shorebird habitat in home ranges did not match availability in the landscape. At the local scale, for both winter periods Dunlin were located in shorebird foraging habitat more often than expected given availability of habitat within home ranges [Correction added after online pub-lication 23 May 2008: sentence amended]. An increase in the number of roosts used from early to late winter implies possible reliance on additional sites in late winter for foraging opportunities. Results suggest that wet, unvegetated habitat is sought by Dunlin throughout winter, but individuals could not select home ranges in late winter that fully compensated for seasonal loss of habitat. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Taft, O. W.; Sanzenbacher, P. M.; Haig, S. M.

2008-01-01

296

Winter 1998 UC SANTA CRUZ  

E-print Network

Winter 1998 UC SANTA CRUZ T O D AY ' S S T U D E N T S Plus: elementary school kids discover of UC Santa Cruz, I am asked frequently about the many attributes that define the quality and character left me excited about UC Santa Cruz's future in the new millennium. For if it's true--and I believe

California at Santa Cruz, University of

297

Ecological Genetics Winter Term 2010  

E-print Network

, IN CLASS) Final 40% (During the final exam period, April 13-27) Text: Jeffrey K. Conner and Daniel L. Hartl. A Primer of Ecological Genetics. Sinnauer, 2004 Available at the Dalhousie Bookstore. We will use this bookBIOL 3044 Ecological Genetics Winter Term 2010 Course Outline Course Description The interface

Adl, Sina

298

AGRICULTURAL WINTER/SPRING 2009  

E-print Network

of the Lower Peninsula," says MAES Director Steve Pueppke. "The west side of the state is home to a thrivingMICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION WINTER/SPRING 2009 VOL. 26 NO. 4/VOL. 27 NO.1 utures MAES to cherries in Traverse City, and from wine and juice grapes on the west side of the state to dry beans

299

p Wheat, Hard Red Winter  

E-print Network

in standing stubble using no-till methods will decrease winterkill considerably. A stubble height of 4 to 6 varieties. Test Weight Protein % at Heading, Height, Winter Lodging Lb/Bu 12% Moisture Entry Origin1 PVP with the University of Minnesota College of Food,Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences #12;Locati

Minnesota, University of

300

ENERGETICS OF TWO WINTERING RAPTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a deterministic model for predicting daily energy expenditure of two raptors--femaie American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) and Whim-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus)-- wintering in coastal northwestern California. Inputs to the model include body mass, air temper- ature, photoperiod, energy expenditure of flight, and relative portions of the daytime spent in flight and nonflight activities. A simplified version of the model

JAMES R. KOPLIN; MICHAEL W. COLLOPY; ALBERT R. BAMMANN; HOWARD LEVENSON

1980-01-01

301

Winter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA  

E-print Network

and Property Rights in Late Imperial Russia." Ekaterina Pravilova, assistant professor of history, PrincetonWinter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA Tue, Jan 12, 4-5:30 pm WCED/CREES/Ford School Lecture. "U.S.-Russia Relations: Status of the `Reset'." John Beyrle, U.S. Ambassador to Russia. Co-sponsors: International Policy

Eustice, Ryan

302

A comparison of winter mercury accumulation at forested and no-canopy sites measured with different snow sampling techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is delivered to ecosystems via rain, snow, cloud/fog, and dry deposition. The importance of snow, especially snow that has passed through the forest canopy (throughfall), in delivering Hg to terrestrial ecosystems has received little attention in the literature. The snowpack is a dynamic system that links atmospheric deposition and ecosystem cycling through deposition and emission of deposited Hg. To examine the magnitude of Hg delivery via snowfall, and to illuminate processes affecting Hg flux to catchments during winter (cold season), Hg in snow in no-canopy areas and under forest canopies measured with four collection methods were compared: (1) Hg in wet precipitation as measured by the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) for the site in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA, (2) event throughfall (collected after snowfall cessation for accumulations of >8 cm), (3) season-long throughfall collected using the same apparatus for event sampling but deployed for the entire cold season, and (4) snowpack sampling. Estimates (mean ?? SE) of Hg deposition using these methods during the 91-day cold season in 2004-2005 at conifer sites showed that season-long throughfall Hg flux (1.80 ??g/m2) < snowpack Hg (2.38 ?? 0.68 ??g/m2) < event throughfall flux (5.63 ?? 0.38 ??g/m2). Mercury deposition at the MDN site (0.91 ??g/m2) was similar to that measured at other no-canopy sites in the area using the other methods, but was 3.4 times less than was measured under conifer canopies using the event sampling regime. This indicates that snow accumulated under the forest canopy received Hg from the overstory or exhibited less re-emission of Hg deposited in snow relative to open areas. The soil surface of field-scale plots were sprayed with a natural rain water sample that contained an Hg tracer (202Hg) just prior to the first snowfall to explore whether some snowpack Hg might be explained from soil emissions. The appearance of the 202Hg tracer in the snowpack (0-64% of the total Hg mass in the snowpack) suggests that movement of Hg from the soil into the snowpack is possible. However, as with any tracer study the 202Hg tracer may not precisely represent the reactivity and mobility of natural Hg in soils. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nelson, S. J.; Johnson, K. B.; Weathers, K. C.; Loftin, C. S.; Fernandez, I. J.; Kahl, J. S.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

2008-01-01

303

Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

Ward, D. H.; Dau, C. P.; Lee, T.; Sedinger, J. S.; Anderson, B. A.; Hines, J. E.

2009-01-01

304

Britannica Sporting Record: The Winter Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encyclopaedia Britannica's Olympic Winter Games site offers detailed Olympic information and history. Offerings include an overview of the Olympic movement, histories of each of the past seventeen Olympic Winter Games, articles about the events included in the Winter Games, biographies of past competitors, and a searchable Olympic Record database. This well-researched site provides an interesting backdrop for this year's Winter Games in Nagano, Japan.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.

1998-01-01

305

Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ? 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

1994-01-01

306

Natural snowfall reveals large-scale flow structures in the wake of a 2.5-MW wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve power production and structural reliability of wind turbines, there is a pressing need to understand how turbines interact with the atmospheric boundary layer. However, experimental techniques capable of quantifying or even qualitatively visualizing the large-scale turbulent flow structures around full-scale turbines do not exist today. Here we use snowflakes from a winter snowstorm as flow tracers to obtain velocity fields downwind of a 2.5-MW wind turbine in a sampling area of ~\

Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Guala, Michele; Howard, Kevin; Riley, Sean; Tucker, James; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

2014-06-01

307

Fall 2013 / Winter 2014 Dean's List Faculty of Science, Dalhousie University First Name Last Name Term(s) Erin Dempsey Winter Only  

E-print Network

Awan Fall and Winter Christine Angelidis Winter Only Jehye Back Fall and Winter Michael Antonchuk Bartolacci Fall and Winter Emmaline Atherton Winter Only Jessica Basta Fall and Winter Hayley Atkinson Winter Only Jessica Bauer Fall and Winter Lauren Atkinson Winter Only Lisa Beck Fall and Winter Hanine Atwi

Lotze, Heike K.

308

Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie.  

PubMed

Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion. Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive species into experimental plots of mixedgrass prairie treated with a factorial combination of increased snow, summer irrigation, and N addition. Without added snow, seeded invasive species were rarely observed. Snow addition increased average above-ground biomass of Centaurea diffusa from 0.026 to 66 g m(-2), of Gypsophila paniculata from 0.1 to 7.3 g m(-2), and of Linaria dalmatica from 5 to 101 g m(-2). Given added snow, summer irrigation increased the density of G. paniculata, and N addition increased the density and biomass of L. dalmatica. Plant density responses mirrored those of plant biomass, indicating that increases in biomass resulted, in part, from increases in recruitment. In contrast to seeded invasive species, resident species did not respond to snow addition. These results suggest that increases in snowfall or variability of snowfall may exacerbate forb invasion in the mixedgrass prairie. PMID:19086291

Blumenthlal, D; Chimner, R A; Welker, J M; Morgan, J A

2008-07-01

309

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95% level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in

Alan Robock; Jianping Mao

1992-01-01

310

Evaluation of Advanced Winter Highway Maintenance Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway agencies face demands to maintain or improve the existing winter roadway level of service. The benefits of advanced winter high- way maintenance strategies now become more attractive. This paper examines the potential benefits of applying advanced winter highway maintenance strategies. The Vermont Agency of Transportation con- ducted \\

DUANE E. SMITH; JEFFREY A. ZOGG

311

4, 30553085, 2007 Winter climate affects  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 3055­3085, 2007 Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de and Earth System Sciences Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de Wit et al. Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

312

[Keeping beef cattle and sheep outdoors in winter].  

PubMed

Whole-year free ranging of beef cattle and sheep is a low-cost keeping system, but during winter special regard is required because the insulating effect of barns is missed. Because of various reactions of adaptation to cold climate, beef cattle and sheep are able to cope with out-wintering. But reactions have to be supported by an animal friendly keeping system to prevent heat loss which could lead to cold stress. In addition to demand that only healthy animals with sufficient body fat should be wintered outdoors, animals must have experience with winter climate and area. Because of heat loss from wind and the observation that suckler cows avoided lying on cold and wet floor, a straw-bedded and wind protected lying area for all animals has to be provided. Suckler cows did not require a roofed shelter as investigations for 10 years in a low mountain range called Solling with an average annual precipitation of 850 to 900 mm showed. In all weather conditions cows were able to maintain homeothermy. Besides, fertility performance of out-wintered suckler cows was not negatively affected by keeping system. However, health condition of cows was positively influenced by out-wintering because of the absence of respiratory diseases and infections with ectoparasites. In addition, not only hardy breeds but also beef breeds were suitable for out-wintering which means that the low cost out-wintering could be combined with the production of meaty carcasses. However, in predestined areas magnesium supply of cows could be inadequate and in autumn stress associated with weaning or poor weather conditions could lead to hypomagnesaemia. Because of a low cold tolerance of newborn lambs, out-wintered lambing ewes required a roofed shelter with a straw-bedded floor and with 3 side walls. Only ewes with good mothering abilities should be wintered outdoors because the reliable adoption of lamb/lambs after birth, an early dry licking and a clear presentation of the udder increased vigour and as a result cold tolerance of newborn lambs. PMID:12822259

Wassmuth, R

2003-05-01

313

Winter speed-up of quiescent surge-type glaciers in Yukon, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier surge is known to often initiate in winter, but the mechanisms remain unclear in light of the summer speed-up at normal glaciers. We examined spatial-temporal changes in the ice velocity of surge-type glaciers near the border of Alaska and Yukon, and found significant upstream accelerations from fall to winter, regardless of surging episodes. Moreover, whereas the summer speed-up was observed downstream, the winter speed-up propagated from upstream to downglacier. Given the absence of upstream surface meltwater input in winter, we speculate the presence of water storages near the base that do not directly connect to the surface but can promote basal sliding through increased water pressure as winter approaches. Our findings have implications for modeling of glacial hydrology in winter time, and its link to glacier dynamics and subglacial erosion.

Abe, T.; Furuya, M.

2014-05-01

314

Winter fog is decreasing in the fruit growing region of the Central Valley of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Valley of California is home to a variety of fruit and nut trees. These trees account for 95% of the U.S. production, but they need a sufficient amount of winter chill to achieve rest and quiescence for the next season's buds and flowers. In prior work, we reported that the accumulation of winter chill is declining in the Central Valley. We hypothesize that a reduction in winter fog is cooccurring and is contributing to the reduction in winter chill. We examined a 33 year record of satellite remote sensing to develop a fog climatology for the Central Valley. We find that the number of winter fog events, integrated spatially, decreased 46%, on average, over 32 winters, with much year to year variability. Less fog means warmer air and an increase in the energy balance on buds, which amplifies their warming, reducing their chill accumulation more.

Baldocchi, Dennis; Waller, Eric

2014-05-01

315

MSU University News Winter pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify winter  

E-print Network

. However, in Montana planting date of winter pea and lentil crops has been "absolutely criticalMSU University News Winter pea and lentil offer growers a way to diversify winter wheat systems August 13, 2003 Ag researchers are studying winter peas and lentils to see whether they offer enough

Maxwell, Bruce D.

316

WINTER ADVISORY -Slips, Trips, Falls, Driving, and Safety Tips Walking in Winter Conditions  

E-print Network

in Winter Conditions 1. Do an automo ve safety check Tires with good tread and proper air pressureWINTER ADVISORY - Slips, Trips, Falls, Driving, and Safety Tips Walking in Winter Conditions Winter://www.montana.edu/wwwsrm/icegrippers.htm North areas, between cars in parking lots, slopes, and uneven surfaces are o en slick. Take smaller

Maxwell, Bruce D.

317

T. J. Osborn Simulating the winter North Atlantic Oscillation: the roles of internal  

E-print Network

T. J. Osborn Simulating the winter North Atlantic Oscillation: the roles of internal variability that the observed varia- tions in the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), particularly the increase from using a pattern-based index. 1 Introduction The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, Walker 1924; van Loon

Osborn, Tim

318

Effect of Zinc on Cadmium Toxicity-Induced Oxidative Stress in Winter Wheat Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the antioxidant response of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cadmium (Cd)-zinc (Zn) interactions, Seedlings of winter wheat (cv. Yuandong 977), were grown in modified Hoagland nutrient solution with the addition of increasing concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 ?M). In experiment 2, the seedlings of the same cultivar were treated with

Z.-Q. Zhao; Y.-G. Zhu; R. Kneer; S. E. Smith

2005-01-01

319

Daily movements of female mallards wintering in Southwestern Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding daily movements of waterfowl is crucial to management of winter habitats, especially along the Gulf Coast where hunting pressure is high. Radio-telemetry was used to investigate movements of female Mallards (Anas platyrchychos) wintering in southwestern Louisiana. Movement distances were analyzed from 2,455 paired locations (diurnal and nocturnal) of 126 Mallards during winters 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to assess effects of winter, female age, areas closed (Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge [LAC], Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge [CAM], Amoco Pool [AMOCO] or open to hunting [OPEN]), and habitat type, including all interactions. Movement distances from the various land management categories were not consistent by age, date, or by winter. Flight distances from LAC increased with date, whereas those from CAM and OPEN did not vary significantly by date. Female Mallards moved short distances between diurnal and nocturnal sites (ranging from 3.1 to 15.0 km by land management category), suggesting that they are able to meet their daily energy requirements within a smaller area than Northern Pintails (Anas acuta, hereafter Pintails), and thus minimize transit energy costs.

Link, P.T.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R., Jr.; Davis, B.E.

2011-01-01

320

The urban heat island in winter at Barrow, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The village of Barrow, Alaska, is the northernmost settlement in the USA and the largest native community in the Arctic. The population has grown from about 300 residents in 1900 to more than 4600 in 2000. In recent decades, a general increase of mean annual and mean winter air temperature has been recorded near the centre of the village,

Kenneth M. Hinkel; Frederick E. Nelson; Anna E. Klene; Julianne H. Bell

2003-01-01

321

THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN WINTER AT BARROW, ALASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The village of Barrow, Alaska, is the northernmost settlement in the USA and the largest native community in the Arctic. The population has grown from about 300 residents in 1900 to more than 4600 in 2000. In recent decades, a general increase of mean annual and mean winter air temperature has been recorded near the centre of the village, and

KENNETH M. HINKEL; FREDERICK E. NELSON; JULIANNE H. BELLa

322

Size-Related, First Winter Mortality of Freshwater Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if first winter mortality were greater for small than for large freshwater fish, we conducted eight experiments in lakes and hatchery ponds during which fish were measured in late fall and early spring. Overwinter increase in mean length of the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, in one lake and largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in another could have been caused by

Michael L. Toneys; Daniel W. Coble

1979-01-01

323

An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City  

E-print Network

5' latitude along and 2. 5' latitude to the left of its path. Finally, on a much larger scale, Serreze et al. (1998) stated that, in the northeast, where snowfall is closely tied to the mean maximum temperature on precipitation days, snowfall... to test the accuracy of the regression equations. These data will be referred to as the verification data set. Considering that there were a total of just 14 cases in the control freezing set, 10'%%d of the freezing data were not randomly selected...

Gordon, Christopher James

2012-06-07

324

Increasing global trade and climate change: co-factors increasing the international movement  

E-print Network

.9-1.9oC · less rainfall during summer, especially SE England · up to 9% more rainfall in winter-161 ) By the year 2050 · mean summer temperatures increase by 1.2-3.7oC · mean winter temperatures increase by 0

325

Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), I inserted a paragraph pointing out that volcanic eruptions serve as an analog that supports new work on nuclear winter. This is the first time that nuclear winter has been in the IPCC report. I will tell the story of the discussions within our chapter, with review editors, and with the IPCC leadership that resulted in a box in Chapter 8 that discusses nuclear winter. We gave a briefing to John Holdren, the President's Science Advisor, about the work. Daniel Ellsberg, Fidel Castro, and Mikhail Gorbachev found out about our work, and used the results to appeal for nuclear abolition. In 2013 the work was featured at the Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons in Oslo, Norway attended by 132 nations, and I gave a TEDx talk, I published an opinion piece on the CNN website, and I gave an invited public lecture in Nagasaki, Japan, all about the climatic consequences of nuclear war. I am now using Twitter and Facebook to communicate about nuclear winter. The threat that nuclear weapons pose to the planet is a much easier problem to solve than global warming. We need to eliminate nuclear weapons so we have the luxury of working on the global warming problem without the possibility of the existential global threat still posed by the global nuclear arsenal.

Robock, A.

2013-12-01

326

An assessment of the potential and impacts of winter water banking in the Sokh aquifer, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of artificial recharge of winter surface flows coupled with increased summer groundwater use for irrigation in\\u000a the Sokh aquifer (Central Asia) have been investigated. Water release patterns from the giant Toktogul reservoir have changed,\\u000a as priority is now given to hydropower generation in winter in Kyrgyzstan. Winter flows have increased and summer releases\\u000a have declined, but the Syr

Inna Gracheva; Akmal Karimov; Hugh Turral; F. Miryusupov

2009-01-01

327

Plasticity in body temperature and metabolic capacity sustains winter activity in a small endotherm (Rattus fuscipes).  

PubMed

Small mammals that remain active throughout the year at a constant body temperature have a much greater energy and food requirement in winter. Lower body temperatures in winter may offset the increased energetic cost of remaining active in the cold, if cellular metabolism is not constrained by a negative thermodynamic effect. We aimed to determine whether variable body temperatures can be advantageous for small endotherms by testing the hypothesis that body temperature fluctuates seasonally in a wild rat (Rattus fuscipes); conferring an energy saving and reducing food requirements during resource restricted winter. Additionally we tested whether changes in body temperature affected tissue specific metabolic capacity. Winter acclimatized rats had significantly lower body temperatures and thicker fur than summer acclimatized rats. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the activity of enzymes that control oxidative (citrate synthase, cytochrome c-oxidase) and anaerobic (lactate dehydrogenase) metabolism were elevated in winter and were not negatively affected by the lower body temperature. Energy transfer modeling showed that lower body temperatures in winter combined with increased fur thickness to confer a 25 kJ day(-1) energy saving, with up to 50% owing to reduced body temperature alone. We show that phenotypic plasticity at multiple levels of organization is an important component of the response of a small endotherm to winter. Mitochondrial function compensates for lower winter body temperatures, buffering metabolic heat production capacity. PMID:20026416

Glanville, Elsa J; Seebacher, Frank

2010-03-01

328

The influence of winter swimming on the rheological properties of blood.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in blood rheology resulting from regular winter swimming. The study was carried out on 12 male winter swimmers. Venous blood for morphological, biochemical and rheological analysis was sampled twice from each winter swimmer - at the beginning of the season and after its completion. There were no significant changes detected in the median values of most blood morphological parameters. The only exception pertained to MCHC which was significantly lower after the season. Winter swimming entailed significant decrease in median elongation index values at shear stress levels of 0.30 Pa and 0.58 Pa, and significant increase in median values of this parameter at shear stress levels ?1.13 Pa. No significant changes were observed in winter swimmers' median values of aggregation indices and plasma viscosity. The median level of glucose was lower post winter swimming in comparison to the pre-seasonal values. In contrast, one season of winter swimming did not influence swimmers' median value of fibrinogen concentration. In summary, this study revealed positive effects of winter swimming on the rheological properties of blood, manifested by an increase in erythrocyte deformability without accompanying changes in erythrocyte aggregation. PMID:24577381

Teleg?ów, Aneta; D?browski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tyka, Aleksander; Krawczyk, Marcin; G?odzik, Jacek; Szygu?a, Zbigniew; Mleczko, Edward; Bilski, Jan; Tyka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Czepiel, Jacek; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna

2014-01-01

329

Shifting covariability of North American summer monsoon precipitation with antecedent winter precipitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous research has suggested that a general inverse relation exists between winter precipitation in the southwestern United states (US) and summer monsoon precipitation. In addition, it has been suggested that this inverse relation between winter precipitation and the magnitude of the southwestern US monsoon breaks down under certain climatic conditions that override the regional winter/monsoon precipitation relations. Results from this new study indicate that the winter/monsoon precipitation relations do not break down, but rather shift location through time. The strength of winter/monsoon precipitation relations, as indexed by 20-year moving correlations between winter precipitation and monsoon precipitation, decreased in Arizona after about 1970, but increased in New Mexico. The changes in these correlations appear to be related to an eastward shift in the location of monsoon precipitation in the southwestern US. This eastward shift in monsoon precipitation and the changes in correlations with winter precipitation also appear to be related to an eastward shift in July/August atmospheric circulation over the southwestern US that resulted in increased monsoon precipitation in New Mexico. Results also indicate that decreases in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central North Pacific Ocean also may be associated with th changes in correlations between winter and monsoon precipitation. Copyright ?? 2006 Royal Meteorological Society.

McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.

2006-01-01

330

Abrupt Decline in the Arctic Winter Sea Ice Cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximum ice extents in the Arctic in 2005 and 2006 have been observed to be significantly lower (by about 6%) than the average of those of previous years starting in 1979. Since the winter maxima had been relatively stable with the trend being only about -1.5% per decade (compared to about -10% per decade for the perennial ice area), this is a significant development since signals from greenhouse warming are expected to be most prominent in winter. Negative ice anomalies are shown to be dominant in 2005 and 2006 especially in the Arctic basin and correlated with winds and surface temperature anomalies during the same period. Progressively increasing winter temperatures in the central Arctic starting in 1997 is observed with significantly higher rates of increase in 2005 and 2006. The Atlantic Oscillation (AO) indices correlate weakly with the sea ice and surface temperature anomaly data but may explain the recent shift in the perennial ice cover towards the western region. Results suggest that the trend in winter ice is finally in the process of catching up with that of the summer ice cover.

Comiso, Josefino C.

2007-01-01

331

Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

Robock, A.; Mao, J.

1992-01-01

332

Bone metabolic changes in Antarctic wintering team members.  

PubMed

Bone mass, bone metabolic markers, and calcium regulation hormones were measured in members of an Antarctic wintering team who stayed at the Japanese Antarctic station, Syowa (latitude: south 69 degrees 00', longitude: east 39 degrees 35') for 1 year. Subjects included 31 healthy Japanese males, aged 24-51 years (mean age 34.5 years) at the beginning of this study, ingesting 488 IU/day of vitamin D and 550.9 mg/day of calcium per person. The long-term coefficient of variation (CV) of the equipment used in the assessments of bone mass was 0.67% in single X-ray absorptiometry (SXA), 0.17% in the speed of sound (SOS) by quantitative ultrasound method (QUS), and 0.63% in broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) by QUS. The seasonal changes in the calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) by SXA were not significant, whereas the SOS measured by QUS decreased during the measurement period (0.55%, p < 0.001), and BUA increased (1.9%, p < 0.01). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels increased significantly during summer (p < 0.001) and urinary calcium level decreased significantly during winter (p < 0.05). Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline levels decreased significantly at the end of winter (p < 0.001). Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 level did not change significantly, whereas serum 25(OH)D3 level decreased significantly during winter (p < 0.001). Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level significantly increased at the end of winter (p < 0.01), although both PTH level and 25(OH)D3 level remained within the normal range. We concluded that the 25(OH)D3 level in subjects who stayed in Antarctica for 1 year decreased significantly with the reduction in duration of sunshine, but there were no clear changes in bone mass. PMID:9951785

Yonei, T; Hagino, H; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, H

1999-02-01

333

Shifting mirrors: adaptive changes in retinal reflections to winter darkness in Arctic reindeer  

PubMed Central

Arctic reindeer experience extreme changes in environmental light from continuous summer daylight to continuous winter darkness. Here, we show that they may have a unique mechanism to cope with winter darkness by changing the wavelength reflection from their tapetum lucidum (TL). In summer, it is golden with most light reflected back directly through the retina, whereas in winter it is deep blue with less light reflected out of the eye. The blue reflection in winter is associated with significantly increased retinal sensitivity compared with summer animals. The wavelength of reflection depends on TL collagen spacing, with reduced spacing resulting in shorter wavelengths, which we confirmed in summer and winter animals. Winter animals have significantly increased intra-ocular pressure, probably produced by permanent pupil dilation blocking ocular drainage. This may explain the collagen compression. The resulting shift to a blue reflection may scatter light through photoreceptors rather than directly reflecting it, resulting in elevated retinal sensitivity via increased photon capture. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a retinal structural adaptation to seasonal changes in environmental light. Increased sensitivity occurs at the cost of reduced acuity, but may be an important adaptation in reindeer to detect moving predators in the dark Arctic winter. PMID:24174115

Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Folkow, Lars; Dukes, Juliet; Neveu, Magella; Hogg, Chris; Siefken, Sandra; Dakin, Steven C.; Jeffery, Glen

2013-01-01

334

TRUE WINTER RANGE OF THE VEERY (CATHARUS FUSCESCENS): LESSONS FOR DETERMINING WINTER RANGES OF SPECIES THAT WINTER IN THE TROPICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent references describe the winter range of the Veery (Catharus fus- cescens) as including an extensive area from northern Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyana south to south-central Brazil. Analysis of seasonal distribution of specimen records in South America, however, shows that 91 of 105 specimens were taken during spring and fall, not winter; the remaining 14, taken from 2 December

J. V. Remsen Jr.

2001-01-01

335

What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Central and Northern Europe?  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species) and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates. PMID:21738431

Jasku?a, Radomir; Soszy?ska-Maj, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

336

Winter Olympics Physics and Biomechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many Winter Olympic sports are greatly dependent on technique, engineering, and/or gravity. For example, during luge, while gravity is accelerating the sled up to 80 mph down the track, the slider must use good technique to steer the sled and minimize air resistance. To excel in these type of sports, it is helpful to have a full appreciation of physics and biomechanics. Physics is a broad field which includes mechanics, electricity, magnetism, optics, etc., and biomechanics is the study of the mechanics of living systems. In the module we will use the sports of luge and figure skating to teach you four basic mechanical concepts: linear kinematics, linear dynamics, projectile motion, and conservation of angular momentum. In addition, we have developed a glossary which defines and illustrates all the physics terminology you will need to complete this module.

337

Trends and determinants of excess winter mortality in New Zealand: 1980 to 2000  

PubMed Central

Background Although many countries experience an increase in mortality during winter, the magnitude of this increase varies considerably, suggesting that some winter excess may be avoidable. Conflicting evidence has been presented on the role of gender, region and deprivation. Little has been published on the magnitude of excess winter mortality (EWM) in New Zealand (NZ) and other Southern Hemisphere countries. Methods Monthly mortality rates per 100,000 population were calculated from routinely collected national mortality data for 1980 to 2000. Generalised negative binomial regression models were used to compare mortality rates between winter (June–September) and the warmer months (October–May). Results From 1980–2000 around 1600 excess winter deaths occurred each year with winter mortality rates 18% higher than expected from non-winter rates. Patterns of EWM by age group showed the young and the elderly to be particularly vulnerable. After adjusting for all major covariates, the winter:non-winter mortality rate ratio from 1996–2000 in females was 9% higher than in males. Mortality caused by diseases of the circulatory system accounted for 47% of all excess winter deaths from 1996–2000 with mortality from diseases of the respiratory system accounting for 31%. There was no evidence to suggest that patterns of EWM differed by ethnicity, region or local-area based deprivation level. No decline in seasonal mortality was evident over the two decades. Conclusion EWM in NZ is substantial and at the upper end of the range observed internationally. Interventions to reduce EWM are important, but the surprising lack of variation in EWM by ethnicity, region and deprivation, provides little guidance for how such mortality can be reduced. PMID:17892590

Davie, Gabrielle S; Baker, Michael G; Hales, Simon; Carlin, John B

2007-01-01

338

Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991-2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but it decreased to 4.6-10.1 kg ha-1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27-67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha-1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils and those that were more frequently used to grow corn had a higher potential for nitrate leaching and export to the waterways. This study supports the effective implement of winter cover crop programs, in part by helping to target critical pollution source areas for winter cover crop implementation.

Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

2013-11-01

339

Mercury in breeding and wintering Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of Hg exposure in birds with obligate ties to coastal salt marsh and inland wetland systems. Many species filling such niches are of conservation concern because of reduced size and quality of vital habitats. We used Nelson's Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni) as an indicator of regional mercury (Hg) availability in its breeding and wintering salt marsh and wetland habitats. Blood, breast feathers and the first primary feather were sampled from Nelson's Sparrows wintering in North Carolina coastal salt marshes and breeding in wetland systems in North Dakota (A. n. nelsoni) and Ontario, Canada (A. n. alterus). Wintering Nelson's Sparrow breast feathers contained 3.0 times as much Hg as birds breeding in North Dakota and 2.4 times as much Hg as those breeding in Ontario. Breeding Nelson's Sparrows in North Dakota exhibited blood Hg levels 4.9 times as high as those from birds breeding along James Bay and 7.6 times as high as those wintering in North Carolina. These results provide significant insight on the timing of molt in this species as well as how Hg exposure varies regionally and seasonally for these birds. Further, our results provide a better understanding of how and where Hg exposure may be a threat to Nelson's Sparrows and other birds with obligate ties to aquatic systems. PMID:21082242

Winder, V L; Emslie, S D

2011-01-01

340

CULTIVAR DESCRIPTION CDC Kestrel winter wheat  

E-print Network

of the Canada Western Red Winter Wheat class. Key words: Triticum aestivum L., cultivar description, wheat (BAROC). Mots clés: Triticum aestivum L., description de cultivar, blé (d'automne) CDC Kestrel is a high-yielding, semidward winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was developed at the Crop Development Centre, University

Saskatchewan, University of

341

AMERICAN FRONTIERS: CRITICAL HISTORIES WINTER 2006 SYLLABUS  

E-print Network

1 AMERICAN FRONTIERS: CRITICAL HISTORIES WINTER 2006 SYLLABUS (All office hours histories of Anglo-American expansion, colonization and settlement in North America. In winter quarter we will continue our exploration of many of these histories. Considering the points of view of the colonized

342

WINTER 200809REVIEW UC SANTA CRUZ  

E-print Network

Honoring Our WINTER 2008­09REVIEW UC SANTA CRUZ #12;A vibrant new library for the 21st century of Opera Directors Nicole Paiement and Brian Staufenbiel make student opera sing. UC SANTA CRUZ The Winter Change Nidya Ramirez works to empower those most in need. 16 IN THIS ISSUE UC Santa Cruz Foundation

Zhang, Yi

343

Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than

Kevin D. Lafferty

2001-01-01

344

AN EVALUATION OF WINTER BIRD POPULATION STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE only large body of data on population sizes of birds in winter is that contained in the winter bird population studies published annually since 1948 in Audubon Field Notes (now American Birds). The method used in these studies (Kolb, 1965) is that an observer traverses an area of known size six or more times (hereafter termed \\

RICHARD BREWER

345

Winter Term University of Oldenburg (Core Provider)  

E-print Network

Evaluation Modul Winter Term Titel Wind Energy Wind Energy I Wind Tutorial Wind Energy Systems Wind Energy Conversion (Lab) Excursion/Wind/DEWI Modul Winter Term Titel Solar Energy PV Systems I Solar Thermal I Solar Tutorial PV Cell Characteristics (Lab) Solar

Habel, Annegret

346

Children's School December 2013 Winter Bird Feeding  

E-print Network

Children's School December 2013 Winter Bird Feeding As winter approaches and you have extra time in the coming weeks. Be sure to invite your children's ideas as well! One last tip: The Cornell Lab's Project FeederWatch web site offers lots of tips for observing the detail of backyard birds. With this newsletter

347

Alan Roback Policy Implications of Nuclear Winter  

E-print Network

Alan Roback Policy Implications of Nuclear Winter and Ideas for Solutions The 5 May 1988 United-industrial-scientific-technical complex and regional conflicts. Through the release of atomic energy, our generation has brought Nations report clearly states that the nuclear winter theory is supported by current scientific evidence

Robock, Alan

348

Ecological Energetics of Wintering Merlins Falco columbarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to maintain a balanced energ), budget through extendedperiods of ther- mal stress isa major determinant in the survival of birds resident in the north tem- perate zone during winter. We developed a time-energy budget for winter-accli- mated merlins ( Falco columbarius) to examine the relationship between energy expenditure and temperature, wind, and radiation and to learn how merlins

Ian G. Warkentin; Nigel H. West

349

PeoPle (Winter 2011) Faculty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125  

E-print Network

by the college . . 10 enrollment By major (Winter quarter 2011) total Percentage Biochemistry and Molecular, and Biodiversity 75 1 .4 Exercise Biology 598 11 .2 Genetics 234 4 .4 Microbiology 158 3 .0 Neurobiology enrollment By graduate grouP (Winter quarter 2011) total Animal Behavior 32 Biochemistry Molecular Cell

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

350

Herbivory on shoalgrass by wintering redheads in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An estimated 80% of redheads (Aythya americana) winter on the Laguna Madre of south Texas and Mexico and feed almost exclusively on shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) rhizomes. Shoalgrass abundance has decreased by 60% over the past 30 years, and because the effects of shoalgrass loss on wintering redheads are unknown, we initiated a study to define habitat selection criteria and document the effect of wintering redheads on shoalgrass in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas. Redheads consumed an average of 75% of shoalgrass rhizome biomass at collection sites each winter. When rhizome biomass was grazed to a mean biomass of ltoreq 0.18 g dry mass/core (approximately 10 g dry mass/ml), shoalgrass did not recover to its previous level the following growing season. Thirty-three percent of the sites (10) were grazed below 0.18 g dry mass/core during both years of the study, while 64% (19) were grazed below 0.18 g during 1 or the other of the 2 winters. Ramet number was positively correlated (P lt 0.001, r-2 = 0.54) with rhizome biomass; however, this relationship was influenced by grazing intensity. Heavy grazing reduced the amount of rhizome attached to each ramet compared with ungrazed ramets. Grazing had no effect on root biomass (P = 0.388), rhizome moisture content (P = 0.553), or soil magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium (P = 0.102, 0.499, 0.162, respectively). Redhead presence increased (P = 0.042) soil nitrogen levels. Foraging areas selected by redheads within the lower Laguna Madre had lower (P = 0.026) salinities (24 ppt) than areas not selected (35 ppt). Redheads did not select foraging areas in relation to crude protein levels in rhizomes. Shoalgrass habitat in the Laguna Madre should be protected from further losses and enhanced where possible.

Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.; Zwank, P.J.

1994-01-01

351

Chemical depletion of Arctic ozone in winter 1999/2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Arctic winters with a cold, stable stratospheric circulation, reactions on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) lead to elevated abundances of chlorine monoxide (ClO) that, in the presence of sunlight, destroy ozone. Here we show that PSCs were more widespread during the 1999/2000 Arctic winter than for any other Arctic winter in the past two decades. We have used three fundamentally different approaches to derive the degree of chemical ozone loss from ozonesonde, balloon, aircraft, and satellite instruments. We show that the ozone losses derived from these different instruments and approaches agree very well, resulting in a high level of confidence in the results. Chemical processes led to a 70% reduction of ozone for a region ˜1 km thick of the lower stratosphere, the largest degree of local loss ever reported for the Arctic. The Match analysis of ozonesonde data shows that the accumulated chemical loss of ozone inside the Arctic vortex totaled 117 ± 14 Dobson units (DU) by the end of winter. This loss, combined with dynamical redistribution of air parcels, resulted in a 88 ± 13 DU reduction in total column ozone compared to the amount that would have been present in the absence of any chemical loss. The chemical loss of ozone throughout the winter was nearly balanced by dynamical resupply of ozone to the vortex, resulting in a relatively constant value of total ozone of 340 ± 50 DU between early January and late March. This observation of nearly constant total ozone in the Arctic vortex is in contrast to the increase of total column ozone between January and March that is observed during most years.

Rex, M.; Salawitch, R. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; von der Gathen, P.; Braathen, G. O.; Schulz, A.; Deckelmann, H.; Chipperfield, M.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Reimer, E.; Alfier, R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Hoppel, K.; Fromm, M.; Lumpe, J.; Küllmann, H.; KleinböHl, A.; Bremer, H.; von KöNig, M.; Künzi, K.; Toohey, D.; VöMel, H.; Richard, E.; Aikin, K.; Jost, H.; Greenblatt, J. B.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Scott, D. C.; Herman, R. L.; Elkins, J. W.; Ray, E. A.; Moore, F. L.; Hurst, D. F.; Romashkin, P.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Margitan, J. J.; Wennberg, P.; Neuber, R.; Allart, M.; Bojkov, B. R.; Claude, H.; Davies, J.; Davies, W.; de Backer, H.; Dier, H.; Dorokhov, V.; Fast, H.; Kondo, Y.; Kyrö, E.; Litynska, Z.; Mikkelsen, I. S.; Molyneux, M. J.; Moran, E.; Nagai, T.; Nakane, H.; Parrondo, C.; Ravegnani, F.; Skrivankova, P.; Viatte, P.; Yushkov, V.

2002-10-01

352

Selenium accumulation in sea ducks wintering at Lake Ontario.  

PubMed

Numbers of wintering sea ducks, including buffleheads (Bucephala albeola; BUFF), common goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; COGO), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; LTDU), increased substantially at Lake Ontario after Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) colonized the Great Lakes. Invertebrates, including Dreissenid mussels, are major diving duck prey items that can transfer some trace elements, such as selenium (Se) to higher trophic levels. Se can be problematic for waterfowl and it often has been detected at elevated levels in organisms using the Great Lakes. There are, however, few data on hepatic Se concentrations in sea ducks, particularly during the winter at Lake Ontario. In this study, we evaluated interspecific differences and temporal trends in hepatic Se concentrations among BUFF (n = 77), COGO (n = 77), and LTDU (n = 79) wintering at Lake Ontario. All three species accumulated Se throughout winter, but COGO did so at a higher rate than did BUFF and LTDU. Overall, Se concentrations were higher in LTDU [mean = 22.7; 95% CI = 20.8-24.8 microg/g dry weight (dw)] than in BUFF ([mean = 12.3; 95% CI = 11.6-13.1 microg/g dw) and COGO ([mean = 12.0; 95% CI = 10.7-3.5 microg/g dw) throughout the winter. Se concentrations were deemed elevated (>33 microg/g dw) in 0%, 5%, and 19% of BUFF, COGO, and LTDU, respectively. Presently there are no data on Se toxicity end points for these species, so it is unclear how acquiring concentrations of these magnitudes affect their short- and long-term health or reproduction. PMID:19653029

Schummer, Michael L; Badzinski, Shannon S; Petrie, Scott A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

2010-04-01

353

Drivers of Asian winter monsoon evolution since the Last Glacial Maximum (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asian winter monsoon is a major center of activity for global winter climate. Its extensive latitudinal reach, in particular, allows it to act as a bridge between extratropical and tropical climate. New loess and ocean sediment records describe how the winter monsoon has evolved over the last 21 ka, with strong phases during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Early Holocene, and weakening though the Middle and Late Holocene. Abrupt cold events, such as Heinrich event 1 or the 8.2 ka event, were periods of even more intense winter monsoon circulation. Reasons for this evolution have been proposed, but not yet tested using physically-consistent models of the coupled climate system. The causes are likely multiple, since the winter monsoon was strong during both the Early Holocene and the LGM, though the possible drivers (i.e., orbital forcing, greenhouse gas concentration, and ice sheet extent) were quite different between those two time periods. We test these ideas with a series of equilibrium, sensitivity, and transient simulations using the Community Climate System, version 3, coupled climate model. At LGM, the presence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was primarily responsible for the stronger winter monsoon circulation. Reduced greenhouse gas concentrations at LGM made only a minor contribution. During the Early Holocene, on the other hand, lower winter insolation than today enhanced the land-ocean temperature contrast and strengthened the monsoon circulation. The remnant Laurentide ice sheet of the Early Holocene did not contribute to the stronger winter monsoon. Expansion of Northern Hemisphere sea ice during abrupt cold events increased the latitudinal temperature gradient and intensified winter winds throughout much of the mid-latitudes. Changes in the mechanisms driving winter monsoon behavior through time can also explain the observed covariance with the tropical summer monsoon.

Morrill, C.; Li, Y.

2013-12-01

354

Development of a Model System to Identify Differences in Spring and Winter Oat  

PubMed Central

Our long-term goal is to develop a Swedish winter oat (Avena sativa). To identify molecular differences that correlate with winter hardiness, a winter oat model comprising of both non-hardy spring lines and winter hardy lines is needed. To achieve this, we selected 294 oat breeding lines, originating from various Russian, German, and American winter oat breeding programs and tested them in the field in south- and western Sweden. By assaying for winter survival and agricultural properties during four consecutive seasons, we identified 14 breeding lines of different origins that not only survived the winter but also were agronomically better than the rest. Laboratory tests including electrolytic leakage, controlled crown freezing assay, expression analysis of the AsVrn1 gene and monitoring of flowering time suggested that the American lines had the highest freezing tolerance, although the German lines performed better in the field. Finally, six lines constituting the two most freezing tolerant lines, two intermediate lines and two spring cultivars were chosen to build a winter oat model system. Metabolic profiling of non-acclimated and cold acclimated leaf tissue samples isolated from the six selected lines revealed differential expression patterns of 245 metabolites including several sugars, amino acids, organic acids and 181 hitherto unknown metabolites. The expression patterns of 107 metabolites showed significant interactions with either a cultivar or a time-point. Further identification, characterisation and validation of these metabolites will lead to an increased understanding of the cold acclimation process in oats. Furthermore, by using the winter oat model system, differential sequencing of crown mRNA populations would lead to identification of various biomarkers to facilitate winter oat breeding. PMID:22253782

Chawade, Aakash; Linden, Pernilla; Brautigam, Marcus; Jonsson, Rickard; Jonsson, Anders; Moritz, Thomas; Olsson, Olof

2012-01-01

355

The urban heat island in winter at Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The village of Barrow, Alaska, is the northernmost settlement in the USA and the largest native community in the Arctic. The population has grown from about 300 residents in 1900 to more than 4600 in 2000. In recent decades, a general increase of mean annual and mean winter air temperature has been recorded near the centre of the village, and a concurrent trend of progressively earlier snowmelt in the village has been documented. Satellite observations and data from a nearby climate observatory indicate a corresponding but much weaker snowmelt trend in the surrounding regions of relatively undisturbed tundra. Because the region is underlain by ice-rich permafrost, there is concern that early snowmelt will increase the thickness of the thawed layer in summer and threaten the structural stability of roads, buildings, and pipelines. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a strong urban heat island (UHI) during winter. Data loggers (54) were installed in the 150 km2 study area to monitor hourly air and soil temperature, and daily spatial averages were calculated using the six or seven warmest and coldest sites. During winter (December 2001-March 2002), the urban area averaged 2.2 °C warmer than the hinterland. The strength of the UHI increased as the wind velocity decreased, reaching an average value of 3.2 °C under calm (<2 m s-1) conditions and maximum single-day magnitude of 6 °C. UHI magnitude generally increased with decreasing air temperature in winter, reflecting the input of anthropogenic heat to maintain interior building temperatures. On a daily basis, the UHI reached its peak intensity in the late evening and early morning. There was a strong positive relation between monthly UHI magnitude and natural gas production/use. Integrated over the period September-May, there was a 9% reduction in accumulated freezing degree days in the urban area. The evidence suggests that urbanization has contributed to early snowmelt in the village.

Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Nelson, Frederick E.; Klene, Anna E.; Bell, Julianne H.

2003-12-01

356

Selenium Accumulation in Sea Ducks Wintering at Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of wintering sea ducks, including buffleheads (Bucephala albeola; BUFF), common goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; COGO), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; LTDU), increased substantially at Lake Ontario after Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) colonized the Great Lakes. Invertebrates, including Dreissenid mussels, are major diving duck prey items that can transfer\\u000a some trace elements, such as selenium (Se) to higher

Michael L. Schummer; Shannon S. Badzinski; Scott A. Petrie; Yu-Wei Chen; Nelson Belzile

2010-01-01

357

Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mood changes synchronised to the seasons exist on a continuum between individuals, with anxiety and depression increasing\\u000a during the winter months. An extreme form of seasonality is manifested as the clinical syndrome of seasonal affective disorder\\u000a (SAD) with carbohydrate craving, hypersomnia, lethargy, and changes in circadian rhythms also evident. It has been suggested\\u000a that seasonality and the symptoms of SAD

Allen T. G. Lansdowne; S. C. Provost

1998-01-01

358

Climate warming will not decrease winter mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely assumed by policymakers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be partially offset by a decline in excess winter deaths (EWDs) in temperate countries, as winters warm. Recent UK government reports state that winter warming will decrease EWDs. Over the past few decades, however, the UK and other temperate countries have simultaneously experienced better housing, improved health care, higher incomes and greater awareness of the risks of cold. The link between winter temperatures and EWDs may therefore no longer be as strong as before. Here we report on the key drivers that underlie year-to-year variations in EWDs. We found that the association of year-to-year variation in EWDs with the number of cold days in winter ( <5 °C), evident until the mid 1970s, has disappeared, leaving only the incidence of influenza-like illnesses to explain any of the year-to-year variation in EWDs in the past decade. Although EWDs evidently do exist, winter cold severity no longer predicts the numbers affected. We conclude that no evidence exists that EWDs in England and Wales will fall if winters warm with climate change. These findings have important implications for climate change health adaptation policies.

Staddon, Philip L.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Depledge, Michael H.

2014-03-01

359

Thermodynamic modelling predicts energetic bottleneck for seabirds wintering in the northwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

Studying the energetics of marine top predators such as seabirds is essential to understand processes underlying adult winter survival and its impact on population dynamics. Winter survival is believed to be the single most important life-history trait in long-lived species but its determinants are largely unknown. Seabirds are inaccessible during this season, so conventional metabolic studies are extremely challenging and new approaches are needed. This paper describes and uses a state-of-the-art mechanistic model, Niche Mapper, to predict energy expenditure and food requirements of the two main seabird species wintering in the northwest Atlantic. We found that energy demand increased throughout the winter phase in both species. Across this period, mean estimated daily energy requirements were 1306 kJ day(-1) for Brünnich's guillemots (Uria lomvia) and 430 kJ day(-1) for little auks (Alle alle) wintering off Greenland and Newfoundland. Mean estimated daily food requirements were 547 g wet food day(-1) for Brünnich's guillemots, and 289 g wet food day(-1) for little auks. For both species and both wintering sites, our model predicts a sharp increase in energy expenditure between November and December, primarily driven by climatic factors such as air temperature and wind speed. These findings strongly suggest the existence of an energetic bottleneck for North Atlantic seabirds towards the end of the year, a challenging energetic phase which might explain recurrent events of winter mass-mortality, so called 'seabird winter wrecks'. Our study therefore emphasizes the relevance of thermodynamics/biophysical modelling for investigating the energy balance of wintering marine top predators and its interplay with survival and population dynamics in the context of global change. PMID:19617442

Fort, Jérôme; Porter, Warren P; Grémillet, David

2009-08-01

360

Social status does not affect resting metabolic rate in wintering dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).  

PubMed

Studies of wintering birds have demonstrated a correlation between social rank and energy expenditures. It is assumed that dominance is energetically costly because of increased activity, possibly caused by elevated androgen levels. As winter acclimatization leads to an increase in metabolic rate, maintaining dominance status in a cold climate can be a substantial challenge. We measured resting metabolic rates in dominant and subordinate dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) living in small groups in a controlled winter environment. We found no significant effect of social rank when controlling for body size. It has been shown previously that high testosterone levels during the nonbreeding season can lead to higher body conductance, fat loss, and higher nocturnal body temperature. A hypothesis explaining our result is that for juncos it is preferable to maintain low androgen levels during winter and to maintain social rank using a mechanism other than higher agonistic activity. PMID:10801401

Vézina, F; Thomas, D W

2000-01-01

361

HISTORICAL CHANGES IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE AMERICAN AVOCET AT THE NORTHERN LIMIT OF ITS WINTER RANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humboldt Bay, California, is the northern limit of the winter distribution of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) on the Pacific coast. After the first record in 1935, avocets were uncommon (17 observations) until the early 1960s, when a wintering population of <100 birds became established in North (Arcata) Bay. Numbers increased to approximately 1000 by the early 1990s but have

MARK A. COLWELL; TAMAR DANUFSKY; RYAN L. MATHIS

2001-01-01

362

Cadmium in Soil and Winter Wheat Grain in Southern Sweden: I. Factors Influencing Cd Levels in Soils and Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The guideline level for Cd contents in cereals of 100 ?g kg proposed by the Codex Committee on Cereals, Pulses and Legumes has increased concern regarding Cd levels in Swedish winter wheat. In this study, Cd levels in soil and grain and factors influencing these variables were investigated in Skåne, the southernmost province in Sweden. In 1992, soils and winter

Jan. E. Eriksson; Mats Söderström

1996-01-01

363

Decadal anomalies of winter precipitation over southern China in association with El Niño and La Niña  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using multiple datasets, this paper analyzes the characteristics of winter precipitation over southern China and its association with warm and cold phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation during 1948-2011. The study proves that El Niño is an important external forcing factor resulting in above-normal winter precipitation in southern China. The study also reveals that the impact of La Niña on the winter precipitation in southern China has a decadal variability. During the winter of La Niña before 1980, the East Asian winter monsoon is stronger than normal with a deeper trough over East Asia, and the western Pacific subtropical high weakens with its high ridge retreating more eastward. Therefore, anomalous northerly winds dominate over southern China, leading to a cold and dry winter. During La Niña winter after 1980, however, the East Asian trough is weaker than normal, unfavorable for the southward invasion of the winter monsoon. The India-Burma trough is intensified, and the anomalous low-level cyclone excited by La Niña is located to the west of the Philippines. Therefore, anomalous easterly winds prevail over southern China, which increases moisture flux from the tropical oceans to southern China. Meanwhile, La Niña after 1980 may lead to an enhanced and more northward subtropical westerly jet over East Asia in winter. Since southern China is rightly located on the right side of the jet entrance region, anomalous ascending motion dominates there through the secondary vertical circulation, favoring more winter precipitation in southern China. Therefore, a cold and wet winter, sometimes with snowy and icy weathers, would occur in southern China during La Niña winter after 1980. Further analyses indicate that the change in the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomaly during the La Niña mature phase, as well as the decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, would be the important reasons for the decadal variability of the La Niña impact on the atmospheric circulation in East Asia and winter precipitation over southern China after 1980.

Yuan, Yuan; Li, Chongyin; Yang, Song

2014-02-01

364

Ecological conditions during winter affect sexual selection and breeding in a migratory bird.  

PubMed

Populations of migratory birds have undergone marked declines, although the causes and mechanisms remain unknown. Because environmental effects on population dynamics are mediated by the effects of ecological factors on individuals, understanding changes in individual phenotypes in response to ecological conditions is key to understanding population trends. We show that breeding individuals of a declining population of trans-Saharan migratory barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, were affected by environmental conditions, as estimated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), reflecting primary production, in their winter quarters. The breeding dates of the same individuals in consecutive breeding seasons were advanced and clutch sizes were larger after winters with high NDVI in the winter quarters. Feather moult was also affected by winter conditions, with consequences for male sexual attractiveness. Length of tail ornament was positively correlated with NDVI during the previous winter, and males with large tail ornaments reproduced earlier and had larger clutches. The mean annual breeding date of the population was earlier and breeding success was increased after favourable winters, but this result was mainly determined by a single winter with very low NDVI. Thus, ecological conditions in Africa influence individual performance and productivity in a barn swallow population. PMID:15209100

Saino, Nicola; Szép, Tibor; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria; Møller, Anders Pape

2004-04-01

365

Connection between autumn Sea Surface Temperature and winter precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceanic influence on winter precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula has been evidenced in numerous scientific papers. Large-scale forecasting models generally use variables such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST), soil moisture and ice cover, but they are not very accurate yet. Using observational data, this paper analyzes the influence of North Atlantic and Mediterranean SST on winter precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula between October 1951 and September 2011. First, trends of both data sets have been calculated to study their behavior during the past six decades, showing an overall increase of SST and a substantial decrease in winter precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula, except in eastern and south-eastern regions. Then, connection patterns between autumn Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies and winter precipitation have been studied to identify ocean regions that may be used as potential predictors of winter precipitation. After applying a Principal Component Analysis to cluster the information provided by the 1431 measuring points of a SST grid with a small number of variables, the Principal Components extracted were introduced into a Multiple Linear Regression algorithm in order to obtain an estimation of winter precipitation in each river basin. The validation process has shown that the algorithm explains nearly 50% of inter-annual variability of winter precipitation in the basins of the Iberian Peninsula with a strongly oceanic influence; this percentage is somewhat lower in the Mediterranean regions.

Fernández-González, Sergio; Pereira, Susana C.; Castro, Amaya; Rocha, Alfredo; Fraile, Roberto

2014-10-01

366

El Niño-Southern Oscillation Impacts on Winter Vegetable Production in Florida*.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Florida's mild winters allow the state to play a vital role in supplying fresh vegetables for U.S. consumers. Producers also benefit from premium prices when low temperatures prevent production in most of the country. This study characterizes the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Florida vegetable industry using statistical analysis of the response of historical crop (yield, prices, production, and value) and weather variables (freeze hazard, temperatures, rainfall, and solar radiation) to ENSO phase and its interaction with location and time of year. Annual mean yields showed little evidence of response to ENSO phase and its interaction with location. ENSO phase and season interacted to influence quarterly yields, prices, production, and value. Yields (tomato, bell pepper, sweet corn, and snap bean) were lower and prices (bell pepper and snap bean) were higher in El Niño than in neutral or La Niña winters. Production and value of tomatoes were higher in La Niña winters. The yield response can be explained by increased rainfall, reduced daily maximum temperatures, and reduced solar radiation in El Niño winters. Yield and production of winter vegetables appeared to be less responsive to ENSO phase after 1980; for tomato and bell pepper, this may be due to improvements in production technology that mitigate problems associated with excess rainfall. Winter yield and price responses to El Niño events have important implications for both producers and consumers of winter vegetables, and suggest opportunities for further research.

Hansen, James W.; Jones, James W.; Kiker, Clyde F.; Hodges, Alan W.

1999-01-01

367

Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives.  

PubMed

The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified ? T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive ? T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality. PMID:23423627

Grüebler, Martin U; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

2014-07-01

368

Number of waterfowl wintering in Moscow (1985-2004): dependence on climate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over nineteen years (1985-2004), wintering waterfowl were censused at all Moscow water bodies during the day in the middle of January, thanks to the participation of volunteers under the leadership of the Russian Bird Conservation Union (RBCU). The number of species gradually increased in the study period (r=0.86; p<0.01; n=20). Trends for the four main wintering species (Mallard Anas platyrhynchos,

Ksenya V. Avilova

369

Are summit metabolism and thermogenic endurance correlated in winter-acclimatized passerine birds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small birds exhibiting marked winter improvement of cold tolerance also show elevated summit metabolic rates (maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) in winter relative to summer. However, relatively large increases in cold tolerance can occur with only minor increments of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and geographic variation in cold tolerance is not always positively correlated with variation in maximum cold-induced metabolic rate.

David L. Swanson

2001-01-01

370

Large stratospheric sudden warming in Antarctic late winter and shallow ozone hole in 1988  

SciTech Connect

There occurred a large stratospheric sudden warming in the southern hemisphere in late winter of 1988 which competes in suddenness and size with major mid-winter warmings in the northern hemisphere. Associated with the dynamical phenomenon of the sudden warming, total ozone increased over the eastern hemispheric part of Antarctica. The sudden warming as well as other warmings which followed it made the 1988 Antarctic ozone hole shallow in depth and small in area.

Kanzawa, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Sadao (National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan))

1990-01-01

371

Dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon, during winter flow conditions, 1991 and 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the winter period, November through April, wastewater treatment plants in the Tualatin River Basin discharge from 10,000 to 15,000 pounds per day of biochemical oxygen demand to the river. These loads often increase substantially during storms when streamflow is high. During the early winter season, when streamflow is frequently less than the average winter flow, the treatment plants discharge about 2,000 pounds per day of ammonia. This study focused on the capacity of the Tualatin River to assimilat oxygen-demanding loads under winter streamflow conditions during the 1992 water year, with an emphasis on peak-flow conditions in the river, and winter-base-flow conditions during November 1992. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen throughout the main stem of the river during the winter remained generally high relative to the State standard for Oregon of 6 milligrams per liter. The most important factors controlling oxygen consumption during winter-low-flow conditions were carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and input of oxygen-depleted waters from tributaries. During peak-flow conditions, reduced travel time and increased dilution associated with the increased streamflow minimized the effect of increased oxygen-demanding loads. During the base-flow period in November 1992, concentrations of dissolved oxygen were consistently below 6 milligrams per liter. A hydrodynamic water-quality model was used to identify the processes depleting dissolved oxygen, including sediment oxygen demand, nitrification, and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand. Sediment oxygen demand was the most significant factor; nitrification was also important. Hypothetical scenarios were posed to evaluate the effect of different wastewater treatment plant loads during winter-base-flow conditions. Streamflow and temperature were significant factors governing concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the main-stem river.

Kelly, V. J.

1996-01-01

372

Climate change vulnerability of the US Northeast winter recreation– tourism sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter recreation is an important part of the cultural identity of the Northeast United States and is a multibillion dollar\\u000a contributor to the regional economy. This study examined the vulnerability of the two largest winter recreation industries,\\u000a snowmobiling and alpine skiing, to four climate change scenarios for the twenty-first century. Under all scenarios, natural\\u000a snow became an increasingly scarce resource.

Daniel Scott; Jackie Dawson; Brenda Jones

2008-01-01

373

CMPUT 631 Winter 2013 Robotics: Visual Navigation  

E-print Network

", originating from the 1921 satire "Rossum's Universal Robot (R. U. R.)" · Definition of Robot ­A device · Biomimicking robots · ... #12;1/10/13 2 CMPUT 631 Winter 2013 Sources of Robotics Literature · IEEE ICRA

Zhang, Hong

374

Mesoscale Aspects of Winter Weather Forecasting Topics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mesoscale Aspects of Winter Weather Forecasting effort is comprised of a growing series of in-depth case exercises bundled with supporting topics. This site provides access to the supporting topics seperate from the case exercises.

Comet

2003-10-12

375

Singing the Power Winter 2013-14  

E-print Network

-- that is power electronics. Even science fiction writers see why it's important. #12;Winter 2013-14 26 A taste-based servers in their pockets, enjoy sophisticated onboard computer systems in their personal vehicles

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

376

How to Find Insects Weathering the Winter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how and where to find insects and other invertebrates in winter, as well as how to collect samples in order to watch those animals reappear in spring. Includes crickets, honey bees, mosquitoes, house flies, and butterflies and moths. (MA)

Brody, Jane

1979-01-01

377

ROV Survey of Winter Quarters Bay  

NSF Publications Database

... drilled in annual sea ice near ice pier. Existing holes drilled in the ice by Dr. J. Oliver's group ... All activity will be limited to the annual sea ice in Winter Quarters Bay area of McMurdo Station ...

378

Winter snow depth (cm) Pardosamass(mg)  

E-print Network

Date SpidercatchSquarerootofPardosabodymass(mg) R-valuePardosamass(mg) Winter snow depth (cm and the surrounding terrain, we dug deep trenches around the perimeter. A small-scale trench experiment validated

Weis, Arthur

379

Mojave sandy desert habitat in Winter (February)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By winter in non-drought years, the Mojave has received several inches of rain and healthy vegetation will begin to break ground by February. However, during drought years, vegetation will not experience its rapid growth season until spring.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-06

380

Prepare Your Home for Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... or flue inspected each year. Ask your local fire department to recommend an inspector or find one ...

381

Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance Veronica J. Berrocal, Adrian E are needed. Currently, anti-icing decisions are usually based on deterministic weather forecasts. However. Starting with deterministic numerical weather predictions, they produce a joint predictive probability dis

Washington at Seattle, University of

382

Autumn–winter diet of Grey Partridges Perdix perdix in winter crops, stubble fields and fallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Diet composition differed significantly between winter cereals, winter oil-seed rape, stubble fields and permanent fallows.Aims To determine the composition of the diet of Grey Partridges in autumn and winter in four agricultural land-cover types, characteristic of lowland areas of Central Europe.Methods Faecal analysis was used to determine diet. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova), Simpson Index of Diversity (sid) and

Grzegorz Or?owski; Joanna Czarnecka; Marek Panek

2011-01-01

383

Some policy implications of nuclear winter  

SciTech Connect

The theory of nuclear winter has had as checkered a history as any new idea since Darwin published The Origin of Species. There have been questions of its scientific validity, reviews both laudatory and damning, pleas for arms reductions, hosannahs for a newfound hope that nuclear war has at least been rendered completely unthinkable, and frustration that two generations of human toil in weapons laboratories and think tanks have been rendered by a natural doomsday machine. Some have even suggested that nuclear winter might be used as an offensive weapon. Disturbingly, a substantial number of commentators have concluded that nuclear winter carries no immediate implications for policy, because to their way of thinking, nuclear winter is a (a) just one more of the many undesirable effects of nuclear war; (b) the ulimate deterrent to nuclear use, and therefore should be welcomed rather than compensated for; or (c) an unproven theory, meaning that consideration of policy questions is premature. Those who overlook the policy questions are following a dangerous path. The nuclear winter theory contains serious short- and long-term implications for United States foreign and strategic policy. Although the theory may never be confirmed or refuted, discussion of these policy questions should begin now because many of the potential effects of nuclear winter - particularly in foreign policy - will come about regardless of whether or not the phenomenon can actually exist.

Gertler, J.J.

1985-01-01

384

Multistate proteomics analysis reveals novel strategies used by a hibernator to precondition the heart and conserve ATP for winter heterothermy  

PubMed Central

The hibernator's heart functions continuously and avoids damage across the wide temperature range of winter heterothermy. To define the molecular basis of this phenotype, we quantified proteomic changes in the 13-lined ground squirrel heart among eight distinct physiological states encompassing the hibernator's year. Unsupervised clustering revealed a prominent seasonal separation between the summer homeotherms and winter heterotherms, whereas within-season state separation was limited. Further, animals torpid in the fall were intermediate to summer and winter, consistent with the transitional nature of this phase. A seasonal analysis revealed that the relative abundances of protein spots were mainly winter-increased. The winter-elevated proteins were involved in fatty acid catabolism and protein folding, whereas the winter-depleted proteins included those that degrade branched-chain amino acids. To identify further state-dependent changes, protein spots were re-evaluated with respect to specific physiological state, confirming the predominance of seasonal differences. Additionally, chaperone and heat shock proteins increased in winter, including HSPA4, HSPB6, and HSP90AB1, which have known roles in protecting against ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis. The most significant and greatest fold change observed was a disappearance of phospho-cofilin 2 at low body temperature, likely a strategy to preserve ATP. The robust summer-to-winter seasonal proteomic shift implies that a winter-protected state is orchestrated before prolonged torpor ensues. Additionally, the general preservation of the proteome during winter hibernation and an increase of stress response proteins, together with dephosphorylation of cofilin 2, highlight the importance of ATP-conserving mechanisms for winter cardioprotection. PMID:21914784

Grabek, Katharine R.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hindle, Allyson; Hunter, Lawrence E.

2011-01-01

385

Characterization of an unexpected snowfall event in Iqaluit, Nunavut, and surrounding area during the Storm Studies in the Arctic field project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

accumulation precipitation events are critical for the high-latitude hydrological cycle. They contribute to more than 50% of total accumulation in the area and occur at a greater frequency than high-accumulation events. Despite their importance, the processes controlling them have not been investigated in sufficient detail. This study characterizes an unexpected high-latitude snowfall event at Iqaluit, Nunavut, and surrounding area during the Storm Studies in the Arctic field project. High-resolution data collected, from both ground based and airborne Doppler radar, along with upper air and surface observations, provided the basis for analysis of the conditions that led to the event and offer some insight as to why it was not well forecast by the Canadian operational model. Several factors worked in concert to produce this event. Low-level convection and upslope processes were important in cloud and precipitation generation over the orography upstream. When combined with additional lift from the passing of a weak trough, cloud and precipitation production were enhanced, allowing these features to penetrate over the terrain and resulted in precipitation at Iqaluit. Analysis of the global environmental multiscale limited area model (2.5 km resolution) suggests that upstream convection and upslope processes were affected by model errors. As a consequence, precipitation onset was delayed, and the total accumulation was 50% lower than the observations. Results indicate that the complexity of precipitation events in the region represents a significant challenge for predicting and modeling and understanding their role in the region's hydrological cycle.

Fargey, S.; Henson, W.; Hanesiak, J.; Goodson, R.

2014-05-01

386

Meso-scale modeling and radiative transfer simulations of a snowfall event over France at microwaves for passive and active modes and evaluation with satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave passive and active radiative transfer simulations are performed with the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) for a mid-latitude snowfall event, using outputs from the Meso-NH mesoscale cloud model. The results are compared to the corresponding microwave observations available from MHS and CloudSat. The spatial structures of the simulated and observed brightness temperatures show an overall agreement since the large-scale dynamical structure of the cloud system is reasonably well captured by Meso-NH. However, with the initial assumptions on the single scattering properties of snow, there is an obvious underestimation of the strong scattering observed in regions with large frozen hydrometeor quantities. A sensitivity analysis of both active and passive simulations to the microphysical parameterizations is conducted. Simultaneous analysis of passive and active calculations provides strong constraints on the assumptions made to simulate the observations. Good agreements are obtained with both MHS and CloudSat observations when the single scattering properties are calculated using the "soft sphere" parameterization from Liu (2004), along with the Meso-NH outputs. This is an important step toward building a robust dataset of simulated measurements to train a statistically-based retrieval scheme.

Galligani, V. S.; Prigent, C.; Defer, E.; Jimenez, C.; Eriksson, P.; Pinty, J.-P.; Chaboureau, J.-P.

2014-07-01

387

Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud cover and precipitable water are from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis.

Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

2002-01-01

388

Elk (Cervus elaphus) search for food through snow in winter in the Rocky Mountains.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elk (Cervus elaphus) and other ungulates in the Rocky Mountains of North America must cope with food shortages and severe weather during winter. The strength of density-dependence in these ungulate populations has been found to increase with increasing temporal variation in winter weather, most likely because of decreased carrying capacity in habitats due to the increased energy required to find food. Spatial variation in food resources has been found to have the opposite effect in the same populations: increased spatial variation weakens density-dependence, possibly due to herbivores exploiting spatial variation to feed selectively. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (87:1) in January of 2006.

Gill, Bruce

2010-02-16

389

Sarcocystis in American black ducks wintering in New Jersey.  

PubMed

Macrocysts of a protozoan parasite, Sarcocystis sp., were found in 28 of 173 American black ducks (Anas rubripes) examined during winters 1984-1985, 1985-1986 and 1986-1987 in south coastal New Jersey (USA). No macrocysts were detected in 80 juvenile black ducks. In adults, the prevalence of macrocysts increased from 3% (1 of 37) in 1984-1985, to 36% (12 of 33) in 1985-1986, and 65% (15 of 23) in 1986-1987. This increase could result in a greater number of harvested birds being discarded, or a change in the attitudes of waterfowl hunters towards black ducks. PMID:2117676

Costanzo, G R

1990-07-01

390

Record low total ozone during northern winters of 1992 and 1993  

SciTech Connect

The authors look at recorded ozone data over the northern hemisphere during the winters of 1992 and 1993. They use data from the World Meteorological Organization data base. During both of these winter, there have been marked decreases in the column ozone levels over North America, Europe, and Siberia, in the latitude belt from 45[degrees]N to 65[degrees]N. During these winters there have been ten times as many days with ozone levels deviated more than 2[sigma] below the 35 year average. They seek explanations for these observations by looking at meterological information. Evidences indicate that there was transport of ozone deficient air masses during these winters. In addition cold air masses with excess ClO show evidence of having transported into the more southern latitudes. The authors conclude there is evidence for both displacement of large air masses, and increased chemical destruction potential, to have contributed to these observed decreases.

Bojkov, R.D. (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland))

1993-07-09

391

[Population trends and behavioral observations of wintering common cranes (Grus grus) in Yancheng Nature Reserve].  

PubMed

To understand the population status and behavioural features of wintering common cranes in the Yancheng Nature Reserve, two transects were established and population trends were monitored every month over five recent winters from 2008 to 2013. Wintering behaviours were also observed in order to explore the possible effects of family size and age on time budgets. Results indicated that the populations were stable with a range of 303 to 707 individuals. Negative effects of coastal developments were not found on the wintering population of common cranes, which might be related to their diets and preference for artificial wetland habitats. We found a significant effect of age on time budgets, with juveniles spending more time feeding and less time alerting, which might be related to the needs of body development and skill learning. Family size did not affect the time budgets of the cranes, which indicated that adults did not increase vigilance investment even when raising a larger family. PMID:24115655

Li, Zhong-Qiu; Wang, Zhi; Ge, Chen

2013-10-01

392

Field investigations of winter transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Florida.  

PubMed

Studies investigating winter transmission of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) were conducted in Hillsborough County, Florida. The virus was detected in Culiseta melanura and Anopheles quadrimaculatus in February 2012 and 2013, respectively. During the winter months, herons were the most important avian hosts for all mosquito species encountered. In collections carried out in the summer of 2011, blood meals taken from herons were still common, but less frequently encountered than in winter, with an increased frequency of mammalian- and reptile-derived meals observed in the summer. Four wading bird species (Black-crowned Night Heron [Nycticorax nycticorax], Yellow-crowned Night Heron [Nyctanassa violacea], Anhinga [Anhinga anhinga], and Great Blue Heron [Ardea herodias]) were most frequently fed upon by Cs. melanura and Culex erraticus, suggesting that these species may participate in maintaining EEEV during the winter in Florida. PMID:25070997

Bingham, Andrea M; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Hassan, Hassan K; McClure, Christopher J W; Unnasch, Thomas R

2014-10-01

393

Lesser scaup winter foraging and nutrient reserve acquisition in east-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) populations have been declining since the late 1970s. One of the explanations to account for this decline, the spring-condition hypothesis (SCH), is based on the premise that scaup are limited by their ability to acquire or maintain nutrient reserves during migration to the breeding grounds, leading to an impairment of their reproductive potential. Available evidence suggests that endogenous reserves required for reproduction are obtained at a later stage of migration or after arrival at the breeding grounds, not wintering sites. However, only one study has addressed body-condition levels on a southern wintering site in the last decade, with results limited to the wintering grounds on the Mississippi Flyway. We documented foraging behavior, nutrient levels, and body mass of lesser scaup in east-central Florida, USA, where 62% of the Atlantic Flyway population overwinters, during the winters of 2002 and 2003. Diurnal foraging did not increase seasonally. Nocturnal foraging increased seasonally by 76% or 43 minutes per night in females and by 478% or 1.9 hours per night in males. Measures of body condition did not change seasonally during 2002 for either sex. Between early and later winter in 2003 corrected body mass (CBM) and lipid reserves of male scaup increased 77 g and 39 g, respectively. Our results suggest that lesser scaup maintain or may slightly improve their physiological condition in east-central Florida during winter. Lower body mass and differences in nutrient levels in east-central Florida, compared to a wintering site in Louisiana, likely stem from geographic variation and lower thermal requirements associated with the warmer Florida environment. Lesser scaup depart Florida with sufficient reserves to initiate spring migration, but they maximize nutrient reserves used during reproduction elsewhere during migration or on the breeding grounds. These results suggest that maintaining the ecological integrity of this wintering ground is critical in minimizing winter mortality and preventing it from becoming an ancillary factor in current declines. Future research should address understanding survival rates during spring migration and at critical staging areas to provide new insight into the ramifications of scaup leaving wintering habitats such as MINWR with lower body condition than at other wintering sites in other flyways.

Herring, G.; Collazo, J.A.

2006-01-01

394

Links between solar wind variations, the global electric circuit, and winter cyclone vorticity, and possibly to cold winters in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of inputs to the atmosphere and the climate system that are modulated by solar activity that have their only common feature the modulation of the ionosphere-earth current density (Jz) in the global electric circuit, and to which it has now been shown there are small atmospheric responses in winter storm vorticity, surface pressure, and cloud cover. Similar responses are found to internal atmospheric inputs that modulate Jz. An inductive mechanism for initial storm electrification is described that responds to Jz and provides space charge for aerosol particles and droplets throughout the updraft region. The charge on droplets and aerosol particles, by the process of charge modulation of aerosol scavenging (CMAS), increases condensation nuclei concentrations and shifts their distributions to smaller average sizes. This produces smaller and more numerous droplets, and as shown by Rosenfeld et al (2008), delays initial precipitation and increases ice production and the vigor of the storm updraft. For baroclinic storms the additional latent heat release and updraft velocity increases storm vorticity. The result depends on both aerosol characteristics and the Jz variation. The cumulative effect of winter storm intensification, for example in the Icelandic Low cyclogenesis region, responding to Jz changes, is to increase blocking in the Atlantic Ocean. Such blocking reduces the flow of relatively warm moist ocean air onto Europe, while increasing the incidence of outbreaks of cold, dry, Arctic air. The possibility is examined that increases in cosmic ray flux and in Jz, at times of decadal and longer minima in solar activity, contributes to the changes in atmospheric circulation and the resulting unusually severe winters in the UK and Europe such as have occurred during extended solar minima in the late 17th century and early 21st century.

Tinsley, B. A.

2011-12-01

395

Winter weather versus group thermoregulation: what determines survival in hibernating mammals?  

PubMed

For socially hibernating mammals, the effectiveness of huddling as a means of energy conservation should increase with group size. However, group size has only been linked to increased survival in a few hibernating species, and the relative importance of social structure versus winter conditions during hibernation remains uncertain. We studied the influence of winter weather conditions, social group composition, age-structure, and other environmental factors and individual attributes on the overwinter survival of hoary marmots (Marmota caligata) in the Yukon Territory, Canada. Juvenile hoary marmot survival was negatively correlated with the mean winter (November to May) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. Survival in older age-classes was negatively correlated with PDO lagged by 1 year. Social group size and structure were weakly correlated with survival in comparison to PDO. The relationship between winter PDO and survival was most likely due to the importance of snowpack as insulation during hibernation. The apparent response of hoary marmots to changing winter conditions contrasted sharply with those of other marmot species and other mammalian alpine herbivores. In conclusion, the severity of winter weather may constrain the effectiveness of group thermoregulation in socially hibernating mammals. PMID:23456241

Patil, V P; Morrison, S F; Karels, T J; Hik, D S

2013-09-01

396

Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

2008-01-01

397

P/1WINTER 2014 Welcome to the Winter 2014 issue of the Stanford Cancer  

E-print Network

Genetics Program is committed to detecting familial risk for cancer before the disease is diagnosed cancer syndromes, genetic counseling and testing, and cancer risk assessment and reduction for patientsP/1WINTER 2014 Welcome to the Winter 2014 issue of the Stanford Cancer Institute Clinical Research

Bejerano, Gill

398

WINTER 2012/2013 | HELLER ALUMNI | 1514 | HELLER ALUMNI | WINTER 2012/2013 In the United  

E-print Network

WINTER 2012/2013 | HELLER ALUMNI | 1514 | HELLER ALUMNI | WINTER 2012/2013 In the United States. "They help design the surveys and are involved in the data collection. Then we give one-on-one site. -- The Huffington Post, Feb. 14, 2012 In 2012, minority births -- including Hispanics, blacks, Asians and those

Fraden, Seth

399

Winter is ready. How about you? Prepare yourself for winter conditions.  

E-print Network

. Follow these seven steps: 1. Check the current road conditions and weather forecast. Listen to the radio if the weather is bad. Let someone know your route and planned arrival time. 4. Learn winter road skills. If you employer for winter driving training. Through training and practice, learn how to brake safely, how to get

Kavanagh, Karen L.

400

Major River Floods and Severe Winter Storms Linked To Changes of The Atmospheric Circulation Across Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades Western and Central Europe faced several severe winter storms and major river floodings. The recent winter storms "Anatol" (3.-4.12.1999) in Northern Europe, "Lothar" (26.12.1999) in France, Switzerland, and Southwest Ger- many and "Martin" (27.12.1999) in France, Spain and Switzerland caused economic losses of 17.7 billion US- including 10.4 billion US- insured losses and more than 160 fatalities. From 25.01.-01.03.1990 a series of 8 winter storms caused economic losses of 14.8 billion US- and 230 fatalities. The major river floods of Dec. 1993 and Jan. 1995 in Germany, Belgium, France, and Netherlands caused economic losses of more than 4.7 billion US-. It will be demonstrated that all these winter storms and most of the major river floods in Southwest and Western Germany were produced by a few types of zonal circulations across Europe. The frequency and persistence of these zonal atmospheric circulation types have increased dramatically for the winter months (Dec.- Feb.) during the recent three decades. For their time series from 1881- 2001, nonparametric tests show that nonstationarity of the winter frequencies started in 1973. As a consequence of this, the winter precipitation has increased highly signif- icant in most parts of Southwest Germany. It will be demonstrated that the increasing trends in the time series of annual peak discharges of four river basins of Southwest Germany are closely linked to the frequency changes of the zonal circulations. During the observation period (1926-2001)nearly all extreme floods including the floods of Feb. 1990, Dec. 1993, Jan. 1995, Feb. 1997, and Oct. 1998 for all four basins have been caused by heavy, long lasting rainfall during zonal circulations, especially the type "West cyclonic" (Wz) during winter. It will be demonstrated that this leads to an increased flood risk. Nonstationarity of the peak discharges does not concern all Germany but for large areas of Southwest Germany the increased flood risk is a very serious regional problem. The extreme flood events of the last 3 decades and the se- vere winter storms of 1990 and 1999 have been answers of the climate system to an already changed winter climate in large parts of Europe.

Caspary, H. J.

401

Interdecadal and Interannual Variability of Winter Precipitation in Southeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdecadal variability of observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961 to 2010) is characterized by the first EOF of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean, while the differences from the original describe the interannual fluctuations. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features over Southeast China involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over western Pacific. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyzes) reveals the following results: (i) Interdecadal SPI-variations show a trend from a dryer state in the 1970s via an increase during the 1980s towards stabilization of wetter conditions commencing with the 1990s. (ii) In mid-to-high latitudes the weakened southward flow of polar airmasses induces low-level warming over Eurasia due to stronger Arctic Oscillation (AO) by warmer zonal temperature advection. This indicates that the precipitation increase in Southeast is attributed circulation anomalies over mid-to-high latitudes which are related to AO. (iii) The abnormal moisture flux along the southwestern boundary of the abnormal anticyclone over south Japan (and its anomalous south-easterlies) is modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over Western Pacific; a positive (negative) SST anomaly will strengthen (weaken) the warm and moist air flow, leading to abundant (less) precipitation in Southeast China. This demonstrates the collaborative effect of AO and SST anomalies in determining the nonlinear trend observed in winter precipitation over Southeast China. For interannual time scales the dominating spatial pattern also represents monopole patterns. Composite analysis (with resampling test) of the associated circulation anomalies reveals the following results: (i) The wet (dry) winter is a result of the strengthened (weakened) northward warm moist air over east coast of China, which is caused by the weakened (strengthened) East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) due to weakening (strengthening) of Siberia High (SH) and eastward (westward) extending of East Asian Trough (EAT). (ii) The effects of El Niño and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over South China Sea (SCS) on rainfall in Southeast China are independent. El Niño years, the anomalous anticyclone (cyclone) over Philippines leads to positive (negative) anomalies of rainfall over South China, while in years with the anomalous positive (negative) SST over SCS (non-ENSO), more (less) water vapor is conveyed to Southeast China, thereby enhancing (reducing) precipitation over south of the Yangtze River. (iii) Contributions from all impact factors (EAWM, SH, EAT, El Niño events and SST SCS anomalies) do not counteract with one aother to generate the Southeast China winter precipitation variability.

Zhang, L.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Sielmann, F.

2013-12-01

402

[Effects of ozone stress upon winter wheat photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems].  

PubMed

Stress effects of surface increased ozone concentration on winter wheat photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in varied growth stages (jointing stage, booting stage, blooming stage and grain filling stage) were studied, the winter wheat was exposed to open top chambers (OTCs) in an open field conditions to three levels ozone concentrations (CK, 100 nmol x mol(-1), 150 nmol x mol(-1)). The results revealed that within 150 nmol x mol(-1) ozone concentration, as the ozone concentration and time increased,total chlorophyll content,chlorophyll a and b contents of winter wheat leaves were general declined,but compared to CK, the total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a content of T1 treatment groups were a little higher at booting and blooming stage; the conductance of stomatal was affected, the activation of unit leaf area decreased, intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal limitation value showed a fluctuation change tendency. At the same time, a self-protective mechanism of winter wheat were launched. Concrete expression of SOD activity first increased rapidly and then gradually decreased, the activity of POD showed a decrease firstly and then rapidly increased. From the jointing stage to the blooming stage and from the grain filling stage one to grain filling stage two, the activity of CAT rapidly increased first and then comparatively decreased, but the content of MDA kept steadily rising. The carotenoid content increased first and then decreased, heat dissipation of unit leaf area increased. These results indicate that antioxidant enzymes can not completely eliminate excessive reactive oxygen species in vivo of winter wheat, then lead to accumulation of reactive oxygen species, further exacerbate the lipid peroxidation, that result in the increase of membrane permeability, degradation of chlorophyll, reduction of net photosynthetic rate, imposing on the winter wheat leaves senescence process. PMID:20825039

Zheng, You-fei; Hu, Cheng-da; Wu, Rong-jun; Liu, Rui-na; Zhao, Ze; Zhang, Jin-en

2010-07-01

403

[Treatment of winter diseases in summer].  

PubMed

To explore the connotation and essence of treatment of winter diseases in summer with analysis and deduction. Treating winter diseases in summer is the concrete embodiment and application of taking advantage of "recuperating yang in spring and summer". Winter diseases are formed by compound factors with deficiency of yangqi as the prerequisite and yin as well as cold as the predominant pathogens. Its pathological characteristic rests with stagnation in meri-dians and collaterals. Aiming at curing chronic diseases, reinforcing yangqi and removing stagnation in meridians and collaterals, treatment in summer is a treating strategy focused on proper opportunity of treatment, which is expected to yield twice the result with half the effort. To select the suitable indications is taken as the core of this treating strategy. And at the same time, blind expansion without careful consideration is not suggested. PMID:24946652

Gao, Zhi-Ping

2014-04-01

404

Recent Variations of Snow Cover and Snowfall in North America and Their Relation to Precipitation and Temperature Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary large-scale changes in solid and total precipitation and satellite-derived snow cover were examined over the North American continent. Annual snow cover extent over the last 19 years decreased up to 6×105 km2 relative to a 0.93°C (0.33°C) increase in North American (Northern Hemisphere) temperature.A strong correlation exists between snow cover and temperature where up to 78% of the variance

Thomas R. Karl; Pavel Ya. Groisman; Richard W. Knight; Richard R. Heim Jr.

1993-01-01

405

Recent variations of snow cover and snowfall in North America and their relation to precipitation and temperature variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary large-scale changes in solid and total precipitation and satellite-derived snow cover were examined over the North American continent. Annual snow cover extent over the last 19 years decreased up to 6 [times] 10[sup 5] km[sub 2] relative to a 0.93[degrees]C (0.33[degrees]C) increase in North American (Northern Hemisphere) temperature. A strong correlation exists between snow cover and temperature where up

Thomas R. Karl; Pavel Ya. Groisman; Richard W. Knight

1993-01-01

406

Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks  

SciTech Connect

Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

Greene, O.

1985-01-01

407

Low temperature cardiac response to exhaustive exercise in fish with different levels of winter quiescence.  

PubMed

We examined the cardiac responses of different fish species to anaerobic exercise at low temperatures (3 degrees C). Three species of sympatric warmwater fish with perceived differences in winter activity were used for this comparative study: the winter-quiescent largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides); the winter-active white bass (Morone chrysops); and the intermediately winter-active black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Perceived differences in winter activity were reflected in cardiac responses; e.g. basal cardiac values were lowest for largemouth bass, highest for white bass, and intermediate for black crappie. In addition, cardiac recovery was most rapid for white bass, slowest for largemouth bass and intermediate for black crappie. When disturbed at low temperatures, largemouth bass and black crappie elevated cardiac output principally through increases in heart rate despite substantial decreases in stroke volume. Conversely, white bass principally used stroke volume modulation to change cardiac output. The results of this study indicate that different species respond differently to exercise at low temperatures. Management strategies should recognize that such variation exists and ensure that management decisions are based upon an understanding of the low temperature exercise physiology and winter biology of the species of interest. PMID:12507619

Cooke, Steven J; Grant, Emily C; Schreer, Jason F; Philipp, David P; Devries, Arthur L

2003-01-01

408

Space-time clustering of, and risk factors for, farmer-diagnosed winter dysentery in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

We used two statistical techniques for space-time cluster analysis, the Knox and the Mantel regression methods, for an analysis of whether herd outbreaks of farmer-diagnosed winter dysentery during the winter of 1987-1988 were clustered in space and time more than would be expected by chance. Using the Knox method, there was significant space-time clustering of outbreaks of winter dysentery within a 30 day time and a 5.5 km radius. There was also significant space-time clustering by the Mantel regression method. Logistic regression was used to study risk factors for herd outbreaks of winter dysentery. Large herds (>60 cows) and herds with a history of an outbreak prior to 1987 had increased chances of an outbreak occurring in 1987-1988. These results are compatible with an infectious cause for winter dysentery. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423474

White, Maurice E.; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Tanksley, Beth

1989-01-01

409

Winter Ecology of the Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in Southern Texas 1999-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examines the winter ecology of the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in five Texas counties surrounding Corpus Christi, in southern Texas. There is a substantial gap in information on the owl's life cycle during migration and non-breeding winter months; almost all previous research on western burrowing owls has been conducted during the breeding season. The western burrowing owl currently is federally threatened in Mexico, federally endangered in Canada, and in the United States is considered a National Bird of Conservation Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Topics investigated included status, effectiveness of public outreach, roost sites and use of culverts and artificial burrows, roost site fidelity, diet, contaminant burdens, body mass, and ectoparasites. Early ornithological reports and a museum egg set revealed that burrowing owls once bred in southern Texas and were common in winter; however, since the 1950's they have been reported in relatively low numbers and only during winter. In this study, public outreach increased western burrowing owl detections by 68 percent. Owls selected winter roost sites with small-diameter openings, including culverts less than or equal to 16 centimeters and artificial burrows of 15 centimeters, probably because the small diameters deterred mammalian predators. Owls showed strong roost site fidelity; 15 banded birds stayed at the same roost sites within a winter, and 8 returned to the same site the following winter. The winter diet was over 90 percent insects, with crickets the primary prey. Analyses of invertebrate prey and regurgitated pellets showed that residues of all but 3 of 28 carbamate and organophosphate pesticides were detected at least once, but all were below known lethal concentrations. Mean body mass of western burrowing owls was 168 grams and was highest in midwinter. Feather lice were detected in low numbers on a few owls, but no fleas or other ectoparasites were found.

Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary K.; Hickman, Graham C.

2007-01-01

410

Winter 2009 A Newsletter of  

E-print Network

your chances of obtaining a loan, prepare a written loan proposal containing: n general business! see inside Many of us are searching for ways to increase our income by starting a part- time business business should be an easy venture that will supplement my income with no problems.... Well, not exactly

Liskiewicz, Maciej

411

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Winter 2014  

E-print Network

toward the problems of development in Asia--a continent that contains some of the fastest growing economies to which the US economy is increasingly connected. The course will give students a flavor to providing an integrated business education for ethical and socially responsible leadership. COURSE LEARNING

Carter, John

412

Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970–2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh–mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services.

Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Enwright, Nicholas

2013-01-01

413

Simulating the winter North Atlantic Oscillation: the roles of internal variability and greenhouse gas forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of simulations with seven coupled climate models demonstrates that the observed variations in the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), particularly the increase from the 1960s to the 1990s, are not compatible with either the internally generated variability nor the response to increasing greenhouse gas forcing simulated by these models. The observed NAO record can be explained by a combination

T. J. Osborn

2004-01-01

414

Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest reduced winter injury to red spruce in a high-injury year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments have verified that acid-deposition-induced calcium (Ca) leaching reduces the foliar cold tolerance of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) current-year foliage, increasing the risk of winter injury and crown deterioration. However, to date no studies have shown that ambient losses in soil Ca have resulted in increased winter injury in the field. In 2003, a year of severe region-wide

Gary J. Hawley; Paul G. Schaberg; Christopher Eagar; Catherine H. Borer

2006-01-01

415

Non-Lethal Management to Reduce Conflicts with Winter Urban Crow Roosts in New York: 2002 - 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

American crow populations have increased steadily since 1966 in many parts of the U.S. Large winter congrega- tions of crows in urban environments have resulted in an increased number of requests for assistance in managing nocturnal roosts in New York. In 2002, the USDA APHIS Wildlife Services program initiated a large-scale non-lethal winter roost dis- persal program in Troy, New

Richard B. Chipman; Dennis Slate; Kenneth J. Preusser; Joshua W. Friers; Timothy P. Algeo

416

Myths of mid-winter depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted into the effect of a major Alaskan annual winter festival upon the rates of crisis data. Analysis of rates of suicide, attempted suicide, family disturbance calls, crisis calls, and mental health admissions indicated no significant effect of the festival. Statewide statistics over several years indicate that demands for depression-related services appear to peak in either the

Russ Christensen; Peter W. Dowrick

1983-01-01

417

Winter 2007 Office of Dietary Supplements  

E-print Network

Winter 2007 Office of Dietary Supplements Update Volume 5, Issue 1 National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ODS Surveys Dietary Supplement Education in Academia ODS to Conduct Course on Dietary Inside this issue Supplement Education in Academia 1 ODS Offers Course on Supplements

Bandettini, Peter A.

418

Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

1991-01-01

419

Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

Vonzahn, U.

1982-01-01

420

Frugivory by Wintering Hermit Thrush In Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of fruit availability in the diet of wintering Catharus guttatus Pallas (Hermit Thrushes) in southeastern Louisiana. Most fecal samples contained fruit and arthropods (N = 126), while few samples contained only arthropods (N = 32). We observed 26 species of fruiting plants at our sites, and found nine in fecal samples. Ilex vomitoria (Yaupon, 52% of

Cheryl M. Strong; David R. Brown; Philip C. Stouffer

2005-01-01

421

12 Winter 2012 ShiningaLight  

E-print Network

: Identify spoiled food as fast as possible so nobody eats it. "Every organism has an infrared signature12 Winter 2012 ShiningaLight Food Poisoning on I N D E P T H Food-borne illnesses affect more than 12 million Canadians each year. Always unpleasant, sometimes fatal, bad food takes a huge toll

Barthelat, Francois

422

NewsWINTER 2010 DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY  

E-print Network

Anthro NewsWINTER 2010 DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY Continued on page 8 In this issue New faculty studies. While childhood stud- ies in anthropology have a long history, cross-cultural research has often Republic #12;2 | anthro news From the Chair's Desk Anthropology at WSU continues to be a strong department

Collins, Gary S.

423

Sociality of grassland birds during winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociality of granivorous passerine birds occupying open grassland habitats of the southcentral United States was evaluated during winter in relation to habitat cover, seed density and bird density. Habitat height and habitat density, measures of exposure to potential predation, are associated with the major distinction of social pattern between the two granivore subgroups; sparrows, which tend to be more solitary,

Joseph A. Grzybowski

1983-01-01

424

PSY 330: Thinking Winter Term, 2013  

E-print Network

PSY 330: Thinking Winter Term, 2013 Time/Place: 12-1:20pm, Tuesdays such as thinking, reasoning, etc. But essentially, this course focuses on how we go about to me that you understand the material. Attendance is absolutely critical

Lockery, Shawn

425

Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

Cardany, Audrey Berger

2014-01-01

426

Winter University / ESSP 2015 Application Form  

E-print Network

Winter University / ESSP 2015 Application Form Please check if you wish to participate in: WU of subject courses in English. These are limited to 15 people per class. Please mark the subject of your background in German? High School University How many classes? How many hours in total? What German books

Reyle, Uwe

427

CEHD.UMN.EDU 1 WINTER 2011  

E-print Network

College community News from around CEHD 4 Research highlights iPads for freshmen; literacy teacher) is a group that promotes the responsible management of the world's forest. The seal guarantees that the paper research by adolescents of Hmong descent. photo by Leo Kim VOL. 4, NO. 3 | WINTER 2011 12 6 16 24 2 33 #12

Blanchette, Robert A.

428

Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

Lercel, B.A.; Kaminski, R.M.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

1999-01-01

429

Combinatorial Games and Puzzles Winter Term 2011  

E-print Network

how the Honor Code applies to this class please ask. 2 #12;Paper on a Combinatorial Game or Puzzle (35: Identify a combinatorial game, conduct research on the game and write an expository paper about this gameCombinatorial Games and Puzzles Math 1038 Winter Term 2011 Course Description Instructor: John

Schmitt, John R.

430

Combinatorial Games and Puzzles Winter Term 2008  

E-print Network

about how the Honor Code applies to this class please ask. 2 #12;Paper on a Combinatorial Game or Puzzle of Paper: Identify a combinatorial game and conduct research and write an expository paper about this gameCombinatorial Games and Puzzles Math 1038 Winter Term 2008 Course Description January 17, 2008

Schmitt, John R.

431

CBS Sportsline: The XVII Winter Olympic Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 18th Winter Olympic Games will be held at Nagano, Japan from February 7 to February 22, 1998. CBS TV is the American network broadcasting the games and its site is highlighted by feature stories about each sport, a schedule of events, rules, and brief individual profiles.

1998-01-01

432

UWO Winter 2013 American Studies 2231G  

E-print Network

UWO Winter 2013 American Studies 2231G Crimes of the Century: The American Courtroom as a Place, Space & Public Spectacle From the barbarity of the Salem witch trials to the theatricality of Court TV critically reconsiders the American courtroom as less a civic forum and more a conceptual space that has

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

433

Population Trends of Wintering Bats in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of all readily available inventories of wintering bats in Vermont. Surveys at 23 hibernacula were compiled from the literature and unpublished data of numerous biologists and cavers. The earliest Vermont records date back to 1934. Only five hibernacula were systematically surveyed for more than 45 years. Despite data limitations, several trends have emerged. Since the 1930s,

Stephen C. Trombulak; Philip E. Higuera; Mark DesMeules

2001-01-01

434

Sea Surface Temperatures and Australian Winter Rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotated principal component analysis of Australian winter (June-August) rainfall revealed two large-scale patterns of variation which together accounted for more than half of the total rainfall variance. The first pattern was a broadband stretching from the northwest to the southeast corners of the country. The second was centered in the eastern third of the continent. The two patterns were

Neville Nicholls

1989-01-01

435

Winter Industry Tour Start: Corvallis, Oregon  

E-print Network

. Where is the group planning on traveling to next year? Stay involved to "My favorite part of Winter Boardman, Oregon Underground Tours Pendleton, ORegon Beef Northwest Madison Farm Canola Plant Echo, Oregon-Union was established in 1901 Pendleton Underground Tours have become Eastern Oregon's #1 year around tourist attraction

Tullos, Desiree

436

Fall/Winter CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER?  

E-print Network

TRADITIONS Fall/Winter 2005 #12;CONCERNED ABOUT COLON CANCER? PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. Introducing the Colon C ancer Prevention Program at UConn Health C enter IT'S TRUE: C OLON CANCER MAY BE PREVENTED colon cancer prevention pl an sta rts w ith a phone call to the new Colon C an cer Prevention P r ogr am

Holsinger, Kent

437

Winter operation of bucket-wheel excavators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Under the climatic conditions of the Ural, deposits of refractory clays can be worked efficiently with improved-design bucket-wheel excavators equipped with an open-work wheel with ten to 12 buckets. Each bucket is provided with three teeth surfaced with a hard alloy. In the winter the buckets must be heated.

A. M. Vydyborets

1975-01-01

438

FOOD HABITS OF BALD EAGLES WINTERING IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to iden- tify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and 13 bird species. American Coot (Fulica americana, N

NORTHERN ARIZONA

439

Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional

C. V. Chester; A. M. Perry; B. F. Hobbs

1988-01-01

440

Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models

C. V. Chester; A. M. Perry; B. F. Hobbs

1987-01-01

441

ARC Collaborative Research Seminar Series Winter 2009  

E-print Network

Series #12;The successful management of thermal loads within military armored vehicles (engine, payloadARC Collaborative Research Seminar Series Winter 2009 ARC members can download the presentation Recent Developments in Time-Dependent Reliability and Design for Lifecycle Cost Amandeep Singh, Zissimos

Papalambros, Panos

442

Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter  

SciTech Connect

A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs. (ACR)

Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

1985-01-01

443

Science of the Olympic Winter Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NBC Learn has teamed up with the National Science Foundation to produce Science of the Olympic Winter Games, a 16-part video series that explores the science behind individual Olympic events. Each video is complemented with lesson plans which include fun classroom activities.

444

Winter 2013 Time Time Time Time Time  

E-print Network

11/8/2012 Winter 2013 Time Time Time Time Time Ugrad Grad Section Lab 590 Ugrad Grad Section Lab/143 quiz sections offered multiple times Thurs. (142) and T/Th (143) Grad courses TBD: 599v1, 517 548 517

Borenstein, Elhanan

445

PSY 480: Developmental Psychopathology Winter 2013  

E-print Network

the etiologies of psychopathology--the contexts, developmental processes, and relational/ environmentalPSY 480: Developmental Psychopathology Winter 2013 Tu/ Th, 2:00 - 3:20 pm, 242 Gerlinger Instructor/ intrapersonal factors that have been found to be associated with the onset and maintenance of psychopathology

Lockery, Shawn

446

USC Robotics Leads Fall/Winter  

E-print Network

USC Robotics Leads the Charge The Robot Revolution Fall/Winter 2002 On the Road with Y.H. Cho CEO's Distance Education Network is One of a Kind by Eric Mankin page 24 The Robot Revolution Autonomous Robots and USC Robotics by Bob Calverley and Mark Ewing page 28 DIVA Sings New Memory Chip Caches Out by Eric

Zhou, Chongwu

447

WINTER DIET OF FISHERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified the stomach contents of fishers (Martes pennanti) collected during winter between 1989 and 1993 from throughout British Columbia. Eighteen types of mammalian and avian prey were found in 256 stomachs. The most commonly occurring species of prey were snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and southern red- backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi). The diets of fishers varied

RICHARD DW EIR; ALTON SH ARESTAD

448

Oregon Archaeology (Anth 344) Winter 2012  

E-print Network

Oregon Archaeology (Anth 344) Winter 2012 Class Syllabus Instructors: Dr. Thomas J. Connolly 346 Archaeology" (2011) by C. Melvin Aikens, Thomas J. Connolly, and Dennis L. Jenkins Readings: Assigned chapters, in Pacific, Room 123 Objectives: This course will focus on the archaeologically derived culture history

449

Pinatubo eruption winter climate effects: Model versus observations  

SciTech Connect

Large volcanic eruptions, in addition to the well-known effect of producing global cooling for a year or two, have been observed to produce shorter-term responses in the climate system involving non-linear dynamical processes. In this study, we use the ECHAM2 general circulation model forced with stratospheric aerosols to test some of these ideas. Run in a perpetual-January mode, with tropical stratospheric heating from the volcanic aerosols typical of the 1982 EL Chichon eruption or the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, we find a dynamical response with an increased polar night jet in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and stronger zonal winds which extend down into the troposphere. The Azores High shifts northward with increased tropospheric westerlies at 60{degrees}N and increased easterlies at 30{degrees}N. Surface temperatures are higher both in northern Eurasia and North America, in agreement with observations for the NH winters of 1982-83 and 1991-92 as well as the winters following the other 10 largest volcanic eruptions since 1883. 27 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Graf, H.F.; Kirchner, I.; Schult, I. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

1993-11-01

450

Pinatubo eruption winter climate effects: Model versus observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large volcanic eruptions, in addition to the well-known effect of producing global cooling for a year or two, have been observed to produce shorter-term responses in the climate system involving non-linear dynamical processes. In this paper, we use the ECHAM2 general circulation model forced with stratospheric aerosols to test some of these ideas. Run in a perpetual-January mode, with tropical stratospheric heating from the volcanic aerosols typical of the 1982 El Chichon eruption or the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, we find a dynamical response with an increased polar night jet in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and stronger zonal winds which extended down into the troposphere. The Azores High shifts northward with increased tropospheric westerlies at 60N and increased easterlies at 30N. Surface temperatures are higher both in northern Eurasia and North America, in agreement with observations for the NH winters or 1982-83 and 1991-92 as well as the winters following the other 10 largest volcanic eruptions since 1883.

Graf, HANS-F.; Kirchner, Ingo; Schult, Ingrid; Robock, Alan

1992-01-01

451

Rise in human activities on the mudflats and Brent Geese ( Branta bernicla ) wintering distribution in relation to Zostera spp. beds: a 30-year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities may restrict access of wintering birds to their food resources, but habitat destruction and fragmentation\\u000a may interact with disturbance to reduce carrying capacity. We analysed the abundance and distribution of wintering Brent Geese\\u000a (Branta bernicla) in a major French wintering site from 1970 to 2000, when they experienced increases in human foreshore activities. We used\\u000a mixed-effects models to

Diane Desmonts; Hervé Fritz; Thomas Cornulier; Roger Maheo

2009-01-01

452

Chaperone proteins and winter survival by a freeze tolerant insect.  

PubMed

The role of chaperone proteins in the winter survival of insects was evaluated in freeze tolerant gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis. Levels of four heat shock proteins (Hsp110, Hsp70, Hsp60, Hsp40), two glucose-regulated proteins (Grp75, Grp78) and three others (tailless complex polypeptide 1 [TCP-1], ?A-crystallin, ?B-crystallin) were tracked in outdoor larvae from September to April and, in addition, laboratory experiments assessed chilling, freezing, and anoxia effects on these proteins. Gall fly larvae showed consistent elevation of Hsp110, Hsp70, Hsp40, Grp78 and ?B-crystallin over the late autumn and winter months, generally 1.5-2.0-fold higher than September values. This suggests that these proteins contribute to cell preservation over the winter months via protection and stabilization of macromolecules. By contrast, levels of the mitochondrial Hsp60 fell to just 40% of September values by midwinter, paralleling the responses by numerous mitochondrial enzymes and consistent with a reduction in total mitochondria numbers over the winter. None of the proteins were altered when 15°C acclimated larvae were chilled to 3°C for 24h but Hsp70, Hsp40 and Grp75 increased during freezing at -16°C for 24h whereas others (Hsp110, TCP-1 and both crystallins) increased significantly after larvae thawed at 3°C. Anoxia exposure (24h under N2 gas at 15°C) elevated levels of Hsp70, Grp78 and the two crystallins. Levels of active hyperphosphorylated heat shock transcription factor (HSF1) were also analyzed, giving an indication of the state of hsp gene transcription in the larvae. HSF1 was high in September and October but fell to less than 40% of September values in midwinter consistent with suppression of gene transcription in diapause larvae. HSF1 levels responded positively to freezing and increased robustly by 4.9-fold under anoxia. Overall, the data provide strong evidence for the importance of protein chaperones as a mechanism of cell preservation in freeze tolerant insects. PMID:21382374

Zhang, Guijun; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B

2011-08-01

453

Vol. 4, No. 1 Winter 200506Vol. 4, No. 1 Winter 200506 Informatics  

E-print Network

........................Julie Dales Cover: A sample of the LEAD project's 3-D animation simulation of Hurricane Katrina the in Hurricane Prediction LEAD Informatics Researchers Take the in Hurricane Prediction #12;Vol. 4, No. 1 WINTER

Zhou, Yaoqi

454

Cryopreservation of winter-dormant apple buds: I -Variation in recovery with cultivar and winter conditions.  

PubMed

The widely-adopted protocol for the cryopreservation of winter buds of fruit trees, such as Malus and Pyrus, was developed in a region with a continental climate, that provides relatively hard winters with a consequent effect on adaptive plant hardiness. In this study the protocol was evaluated in a typical maritime climate (eastern Denmark) where milder winters can be expected. The survival over two winters was evaluated, looking at variation between seasons and cultivars together with the progressive reduction in survival due to individual steps in the protocol. The study confirms that under such conditions significant variation in survival can be expected and that an extended period of imposed dehydration at -4 degree C is critical for bud survival. The occurrence of freezing events during this treatment suggests that cryodehydration may be involved, as well as evaporative water loss. To optimize the protocol for maritime environments, further investigation into the water status of the explants during cryopreservation is proposed. PMID:22020415

Vogiatzi, C; Grout, B W W; Wetten, A; Toldam-Andersen, T B

2011-01-01

455

WINTER VOLUME 4 No.WINTER 2007 VOLUME 4 NO. NATIONAL HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MRI to compare models of Lou Gehrig's Disease Page 6 #12;WINTER ON THE COVERS: Mouse brain and spine models of Lou Gehrig's disease. See page 6 for more. 2VOLUME 4 · No. TABLE OF CONTENTS From the Director

Weston, Ken

456

Evolution of microwave limb sounder ozone and the polar vortex during winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of polar ozone observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is described for the northern hemisphere (NH) winters of 1991/1992, 1992/1993, and 1993/1994 and the southern hemisphere (SH) winters of 1992 and 1993. Imterannual and interhemispheric variability in polar ozone evolution are closely related to differences in the polar vortex and to the frequency, duration and strength of stratospheric sudden warmings. Ozone in the midstratospheric vortices increases during the winter, with largest increases associated with stratospheric warmings and a much larger increase in the NH than in the SH. A smaller NH increase was observed in 1993/1994, when the middle stratospheric vortex was stronger. During strong stratospheric warmings in the NH, the upper stratospheric vortex may be so much eroded that it presents little barrier to poleward transport; in contrast, the SH vortex remains strong throughout the stratosphere during wintertime warmings, and ozone increases only below the mixing ratio peak, due to enhanced diabatic descent. Ozone mixing ratios decrease rapidly in the lower stratosphere in both SH late winters, as expected from chemical destruction due to enhanced reactive chlorine. The interplay between dynamics and chemistry is more complex in the NH lower stratosphere and interannual variability is greater. Evidence has previously been shown for chemical ozone destruction in the 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 winters. We show here evidence suggesting some chemical destruction in late February and early March 1994. In the NH late winter lower stratos