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Sample records for increases arousal determined

  1. Trazodone increases arousal threshold in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Heinzer, R.C.; White, D.P.; Jordan, A.S.; Lo, Y.L.; Dover, L.; Stevenson, K.; Malhotra, A.

    2009-01-01

    A low arousal threshold is believed to predispose to breathing instability during sleep. The present authors hypothesised that trazodone, a nonmyorelaxant sleep-promoting agent, would increase the effort-related arousal threshold in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. In total, nine OSA patients, mean±SD age 49±9 yrs, apnoea/hypopnoea index 52±32 events·h-1, were studied on 2 nights, one with trazodone at 100 mg and one with a placebo, in a double blind randomised fashion. While receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), repeated arousals were induced: 1) by increasing inspired CO2 and 2) by stepwise decreases in CPAP level. Respiratory effort was measured with an oesophageal balloon. End-tidal CO2 tension (PET,CO2) was monitored with a nasal catheter. During trazodone nights, compared with placebo nights, the arousals occurred at a higher PET,CO2 level (mean±SD 7.30±0.57 versus 6.62±0.64 kPa (54.9±4.3 versus 49.8±4.8 mmHg), respectively). When arousals were triggered by increasing inspired CO2 level, the maximal oesophageal pressure swing was greater (19.4±4.0 versus 13.1±4.9 cmH2O) and the oesophageal pressure nadir before the arousals was lower (-5.1±4.7 versus -0.38±4.2 cmH2O) with trazodone. When arousals were induced by stepwise CPAP drops, the maximal oesophageal pressure swings before the arousals did not differ. Trazodone at 100 mg increased the effort-related arousal threshold in response to hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnoea patients and allowed them to tolerate higher CO2 levels. PMID:18256066

  2. Arousal increases the representational capacity of cortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Tomer; Pitowsky, Itamar; Grinvald, Amiram; Omer, David B

    2009-10-01

    Arousal patently transforms the faculties of complex organisms. Although typical changes in cortical activity such as seen in EEG and LFP measurements are associated with change in state of arousal, it remains unclear what in the constitution of such state dependent activity enables this profound enhancement of ability. We put forward the hypothesis that arousal modulates cortical activity by rendering it more fit to represent information. We argue that representational capacity is of a dual nature-it requires not only that cortical tissue generate complex activity (i.e. spatiotemporal neuronal events), but also a complex cortical activity space (which is comprised of such spatiotemporal events). We explain that the topological notion of complexity-homology-is the pertinent measure of the complexity of neuronal activity spaces, as homological structure indicates not only the degree to which underlying activity is inherently clustered but also registers the effective dimensionality of the configurations formed by such clusters. Changes of this sort in the structure of cortical activity spaces can serve as the basis of the enhanced capacity to make perceptual/behavioral distinctions brought about by arousal. To show the feasibility of these ideas, we analyzed voltage sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) data acquired from primate visual cortex in disparate states of arousal. Our results lend some support to the theory: first as arousal increased so did the complexity of activity (that is the complexity of VSDI movies). Moreover, the complexity of structure of activity space (that is VSDI movie space) as measured by persistent homology-a multi scale topological measure of complexity-increased with arousal as well. PMID:19326198

  3. Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway

  4. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Munhoz, Renato P

    2016-04-01

    Increased of sexual arousal (ISA) has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Method Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette´s syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3), were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Results Among Parkinson's disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington's disease, two with Tourette's syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. Conclusions ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson's disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. PMID:27097003

  5. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  6. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment. PMID:24762340

  7. Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game.

    PubMed

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wallot, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process. PMID:26037635

  8. Adenosine A1, but not A2, receptor blockade increases anxiety and arousal in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica G; Olivera, Karen R M; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos L W; Herculano, Anderson M

    2011-09-01

    Adenosinergic systems have been implicated in anxiety-like states, as caffeine can induce a state of anxiety in human beings. Caffeine is an antagonist at A(1) and A(2) adenosine receptors but it remains unclear whether anxiety is mediated by one or both of these. As the adenosinergic system is rather conserved, we opted to pursue these questions using zebrafish, a widely used model organism in genetics and developmental biology. Zebrafish adenosine 1. 2A.1 and 2A.2 receptors conserve histidine residues in TM6 and TM7 that are responsible for affinity in bovine A1 receptor. We investigated the effects of caffeine, PACPX (an A(1) receptor antagonist) and 1,3-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX) (an A(2) receptor antagonist) on anxiety-like behaviour and locomotor activity of zebrafish in the scototaxis test as well as evaluated the effects of these drugs on pigment aggregation. Caffeine increased anxiety at the dose of 100 mg/kg, while locomotion at the dose of 10 mg/kg was increased. Both doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg induced pigment aggregation. PACPX, on the other hand, increased anxiety at a dose of 6 mg/kg and induced pigment aggregation at the doses of 0.6 and 6 mg/kg, but did not produce a locomotor effect. DMPX, in turn, increased locomotion at the dose of 6 mg/kg but did not produce any effect on pigment aggregation or anxiety-like behaviour. These results indicate that blockade of A(1)-R, but not A(2)-R, induces anxiety and autonomic arousal, while the blockade of A(2)-R induces hyperlocomotion. Thus, as in rodents, caffeine's anxiogenic and arousing effects are probably mediated by A(1) receptors in zebrafish and its locomotor activating effect is probably mediated by A(2) receptors. PMID:21496211

  9. Sympathetic Arousal during a Touch-Based Healing Ritual Predicts Increased Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Karin; Koch, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective. There is mounting evidence that more elaborate treatment rituals trigger larger nonspecific effects. The reasons for this remain unclear. In a pilot field study, we investigated the role of psychophysiological changes during a touch-based healing ritual for improvements in subjective well-being. Methods. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and skin conductance levels (SCL) were continuously assessed in 22 subjects before, during, and after a touch-based healing ritual. Participants rated their expectations and subjective well-being was assessed before and after the ritual by the “Short Questionnaire on Current Disposition”. Results. Subjective well-being increased significantly from before to after the ritual. The analysis of psychophysiological changes revealed a significant increase in respiratory rate from baseline to ritual, while skin conductance, heart rate, and heart rate variability did not change. Increases in SCL as well as decreases in respiratory rate from baseline to ritual were significantly associated with improvements in subjective well-being. Regression analyses showed increases in SCL to be the only significant predictor of improvements in well-being. Conclusion. Higher sympathetic arousal during a touch-based healing ritual predicted improvements in subjective well-being. Results suggest the occurrence of an anticipatory stress response, that is, a state of enhanced sympathetic activity that is known to precede relaxation. PMID:26236381

  10. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

  11. Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation and its endocrine arousal signature.

    PubMed

    Wiemers, Uta S; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-05-01

    The present study explored the motivational characteristics of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Seventy-two participants either completed the public-speaking component of the TSST or, as a control condition, the friendly TSST (Wiemers, Schoofs, & Wolf, 2013) and wrote picture stories both before and after treatment. Stories were coded for motivational imagery related to power, achievement, and affiliation as well as for activity inhibition, a marker of functional brain lateralization during stress. The TSST had a specific arousing effect on power motivation, but not on other motivational needs, on activity inhibition, or on story length. TSST-elicited increases in power imagery, but not in achievement or affiliation imagery, were associated with a relatively greater salivary alpha-amylase response and with a relatively lesser salivary cortisol response. These findings suggest that the TSST specifically induces power-related stress. PMID:25913901

  12. On the intricate relationship between sexual motivation and arousal.

    PubMed

    Agmo, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Sexual motivation and sexual arousal are widely used concepts. While there seem to be considerable agreement as to the meaning of sexual motivation, there is certain confusion about the exact meaning of sexual arousal. Some use it as a synonym to sexual motivation and others make it equivalent to erection or vaginal lubrication. An unresolved question is the relationship between sexual arousal and general arousal as well as that between arousal and motivation. I present arguments for the view that arousal refers to the general state of alertness of the organism. Consequently, there is no such thing as a specific sexual arousal. I suggest that this term should be abandoned, or if that is not feasible, to make it a synonym to enhanced genital blood flow. The notion of a subjective sexual arousal, some kind of vaguely described mental state, seems to lack all explanatory value. I then show that general arousal is an important determinant of sexual motivation, and that the execution of copulatory acts leads to increased general arousal. This increase leads to enhanced sexual motivation, making the activation of sexual reflexes requiring high levels of motivation possible. Examples of such reflexes may be ejaculation in males of many species, and perhaps the psychic state of orgasm in women. PMID:20816969

  13. The effects of alcohol and sexual arousal on determinants of sexual risk in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Stephen A; Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E

    2012-08-01

    Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21-50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants' viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol's effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms' effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and "risk exposure," derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol's effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol's effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed. PMID:22009480

  14. The Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Determinants of Sexual Risk in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A.; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21–50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants’ viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms’ effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and “risk exposure,” derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed. PMID:22009480

  15. White-nose syndrome-affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) increase grooming and other active behaviors during arousals from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2013-10-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious disease of hibernating bats linked to the death of an estimated 5.7 million or more bats in the northeastern United States and Canada. White-nose syndrome is caused by the cold-loving fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which invades the skin of the muzzles, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. Previous work has shown that WNS-affected bats arouse to euthermic or near euthermic temperatures during hibernation significantly more frequently than normal and that these too-frequent arousals are tied to severity of infection and death date. We quantified the behavior of bats during these arousal bouts to understand better the causes and consequences of these arousals. We hypothesized that WNS-affected bats would display increased levels of activity (especially grooming) during their arousal bouts from hibernation compared to WNS-unaffected bats. Behavior of both affected and unaffected hibernating bats in captivity was monitored from December 2010 to March 2011 using temperature-sensitive dataloggers attached to the backs of bats and infrared motion-sensitive cameras. The WNS-affected bats exhibited significantly higher rates of grooming, relative to unaffected bats, at the expense of time that would otherwise be spent inactive. Increased self-grooming may be related to the presence of the fungus. Elevated activity levels in affected bats likely increase energetic stress, whereas the loss of rest (inactive periods when aroused from torpor) may jeopardize the ability of a bat to reestablish homeostasis in a number of physiologic systems. PMID:24502712

  16. AROUSAL AND LOGICAL INFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOEN, FRANK

    THE PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AS INDEXED BY THE GRASON STADLER TYPE OPERANT CONDITIONING APPARATUS (GSR), IS RELATED TO THE ACCURACY OF LOGICAL REASONING. THE STIMULI WERE 12 SYLLOGISMS, THREE OF EACH OF FOUR DIFFERENT LOGICAL FORMS. THE 14 SUBJECTS (SS) INDICATED THEIR AGREEMENT OR…

  17. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion. PMID:13130436

  18. Distraction by emotional sounds: Disentangling arousal benefits and orienting costs.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Schröger, Erich; Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Unexpectedly occurring task-irrelevant stimuli have been shown to impair performance. They capture attention away from the main task leaving fewer resources for target processing. However, the actual distraction effect depends on various variables; for example, only target-informative distractors have been shown to cause costs of attentional orienting. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that high arousing emotional distractors, as compared with low arousing neutral distractors, can improve performance by increasing alertness. We aimed to separate costs of attentional orienting and benefits of arousal by presenting negative and neutral environmental sounds (novels) as oddballs in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Participants categorized pictures while task-irrelevant sounds preceded visual targets in two conditions: (a) informative sounds reliably signaled onset and occurrence of visual targets, and (b) noninformative sounds occurred unrelated to visual targets. Results confirmed that only informative novels yield distraction. Importantly, irrespective of sounds' informational value participants responded faster in trials with high arousing negative as compared with moderately arousing neutral novels. That is, costs related to attentional orienting are modulated by information, whereas benefits related to emotional arousal are independent of a sound's informational value. This favors a nonspecific facilitating cross-modal influence of emotional arousal on visual task performance and suggests that behavioral distraction by noninformative novels is controlled after their motivational significance has been determined. PMID:26053245

  19. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  20. Purification, identification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a high molecular weight extracellular superoxide dismutase of hamster that transiently increases in plasma during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kenji; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Tsunetaka; Okamoto, Iwao; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2007-02-01

    We previously studied antioxidant profiles in the plasma of hibernating Syrian hamsters and found a transient increase of a superoxide radical-scavenging activity during the arousal phase. In this report, we purified and identified the high molecular weight superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like factor from the plasma of arousing hamsters. The cyanide-sensitive 240 kDa SOD-like factor showed a significant homology to mammalian extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) reported, although the molecular mass of EC-SOD was 135 kDa. The cDNA cloning revealed that the 240 kDa SOD-like factor was identical to the hamster ortholog of EC-SOD. It consisted of 245 amino acid residues including a signal sequence of 20 amino acid residues. Five cysteine residues that would participate in inner- and inter-subunit bonds were well conserved among species. Interestingly, there were four potential N-glycosylation sites in hamster EC-SOD, whereas there is only one site in other species. The amino acid sequence analysis indicated that three of the four sites were modified. These results suggest that the anomalistically high molecular weight of hamster EC-SOD is ascribed, at least in part, to the addition of extra sugar chains. Furthermore, results obtained here also propose the involvement of EC-SOD in the antioxidative defense of hibernating hamsters. PMID:17157046

  1. Noradrenergic Modulation of Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Craig W.

    2008-01-01

    Through a highly divergent efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. More recent work supports this hypothesis, demonstrating robust wake-promoting actions of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of β- and α1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area and the medial preoptic areas. Recent anatomical studies suggest that arousal-enhancing actions of norepinephrine are not limited to the locus coeruleus system and likely include the A1 and A2 noradrenergic cell groups. Thus, noradrenergic modulation of arousal state involves multiple noradrenergic systems acting with multiple subcortical regions. Pharmacological studies indicate that the combined actions of these systems are necessary for the sustained maintenance of arousal levels associated with spontaneous waking. Enhanced arousal state is a prominent aspect of both stress and psychostimulant drug action and evidence indicates that noradrenergic systems likely play an important role in both stress-related and psychostimulant-induced arousal. These and other observations suggest that the dysregulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission could well contribute to the dysregulation of arousal associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including insomnia and stress-related disorders. PMID:18199483

  2. Hypocretin/orexin in arousal and stress.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Craig W; España, Rodrigo A; Vittoz, Nicole M

    2010-02-16

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) participates in the regulation of arousal and arousal-related process. For example, HCRT axons and receptors are found within a variety of arousal-related systems. Moreover, when administered centrally, HCRT exerts robust wake-promoting actions. Finally, a dysregulation of HCRT neurotransmission is associated with the sleep/arousal disorder, narcolepsy. Combined, these observations suggested that HCRT might be a key transmitter system in the regulation of waking. Nonetheless, subsequent evidence indicates that HCRT may not play a prominent role in the initiation of normal waking. Instead HCRT may participate in a variety of processes such as consolidation of waking and/or coupling metabolic state with behavioral state. Additionally, substantial evidence suggests a potential involvement of HCRT in high-arousal conditions, including stress. Thus, HCRT neurotransmission is closely linked to high-arousal conditions, including stress, and HCRT administration exerts a variety of stress-like physiological and behavioral effects that are superimposed on HCRT-induced increases in arousal. Combined, this evidence suggests the hypothesis that HCRT may participate in behavioral responding under high-arousal aversive conditions. Importantly, these actions of HCRT may not be limited to stress. Like stress, appetitive conditions are associated with elevated arousal levels and a stress-like activation of various physiological systems. These and other observations suggest that HCRT may, at least in part, exert affectively neutral actions that are important under high-arousal conditions associated with elevated motivation and/or need for action. PMID:19748490

  3. Emotional arousal predicts intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Lempert, Karolina M; Johnson, Eli; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it. Here the authors use an objective measure of arousal-pupil dilation-to investigate if emotional arousal mediates the influence of delayed reward concreteness on choice. They recorded pupil dilation responses while participants made choices between immediate and delayed rewards. They manipulated concreteness through time interval framing: delayed rewards were presented either with the date on which they would be received (e.g., "$30, May 3"; DATE condition, more concrete) or in terms of delay to receipt (e.g., "$30, 7 days; DAYS condition, less concrete). Contrary to prior work, participants were not overall more patient in the DATE condition. However, there was individual variability in response to time framing, and this variability was predicted by differences in pupil dilation between conditions. Emotional arousal increased as the subjective value of delayed rewards increased, and predicted choice of the delayed reward on each trial. This study advances our understanding of the role of emotion in temporal discounting. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882337

  4. Anxiety, Arousability and Neuroticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Zahhar, Nabil; Hocevar, Dennis

    With the availability of so many definitions of and assessment devices for anxiety, researchers have stressed that the dimensionality of anxiety needs further investigation. To examine the dimensionality of three components of anxiety (trait anxiety, arousability, and neuroticism) two studies were conducted. In the first study, 123 high school…

  5. Affect intensity and cardiac arousal.

    PubMed

    Blascovich, J; Brennan, K; Tomaka, J; Kelsey, R M; Hughes, P; Coad, M L; Adlin, R

    1992-07-01

    Relationships between affect intensity and basal, evoked, and perceived cardiac arousal were investigated in 3 experiments. Affect intensity was assessed using Larsen and Diener's (1987) Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Cardiac arousal was evoked with exercise in the 1st study and with mental arithmetic in the 2nd and 3rd. Perceived cardiac arousal was measured under optimal conditions using a standard heartbeat discrimination procedure. Women as a group scored higher on the AIM. Affect intensity was unrelated to basal or evoked cardiac arousal and was negatively related to perceived cardiac arousal in all 3 studies. Data suggest that affect intensity, although unrelated to actual physiological arousal, is negatively related to the accuracy with which individuals perceive their own arousal. Results are discussed within the context of an expanded arousal-regulation model (Blascovich, 1990). PMID:1494983

  6. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  7. Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems. PMID:22403029

  8. The insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Sebastián; Diaz-Galarce, Raúl; Jerez-Baraona, Juan Manuel; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia) can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA) compared to a low arousal context (LA). The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1%) was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine (NE) were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular NE blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system. PMID:26175672

  9. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia. PMID:26483949

  10. Effects of deep pressure stimulation on physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Lane, Shelly J; Mullen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deep pressure stimulation has been used in therapeutic practice because of the assumption that it changes physiological arousal. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of deep pressure stimulation, applied with a Vayu Vest (Therapeutic Systems), on both autonomic arousal and performance in a normative adult sample. A repeated-measures, repeated-baseline design was used with participants completing a performance test before and after deep pressure application. A convenience sample of 50 adults participated in the study. Results showed that wearing the Vayu Vest for even short periods of time reduced sympathetic arousal and non-stimulus-driven electrical occurrences. Concomitant increases in parasympathetic arousal were found. Performance improvements were noted after wearing the Vayu Vest, potentially because of changes in arousal. We conclude that deep pressure stimulation is capable of eliciting changes in autonomic arousal and may be a useful modality in diagnostic groups seen by occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:25871605

  11. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  12. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  13. Ontogeny of arousal.

    PubMed

    Crowell, David H; Brooks, Lee J; Corwin, Michael; Davidson-Ward, Sally; Hunt, Carl E; Kapuniai, Linda E; Neuman, Michael R; Silvestri, Jean; Tinsley, Larry; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Di Fiore, Juliann; Peucker, Mark; Grove, John S; Pearce, James W

    2004-01-01

    Ontogeny of arousal data constitute a vital supplement to the sparse literature on spontaneous neuronal activity. These data demonstrate that measurable infant spontaneous arousals (SAs) with an inherent oscillatory entrainment occur six times more in active sleep than in quiet sleep of the same duration and are identifiable as a human neurobiologic function. These SAs are not significantly associated with race or ethnicity, gender, total hours spent sleeping, percent time spent in active or quiet sleep, preterm status, history of a life-threatening event, having had a sibling who died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), or having had a mother who smoked during this pregnancy. As measurable neurophysiologic events, SAs establish parameters for research at molecular and molar levels focusing on several critical areas: (1) the neuronal control of SA related to neurotransmitters, (2) as a significant antecedent factor in clinical cardiorespiratory events occurring in infants at high epidemiologic risk for SIDS; (3) as a regulatory biologic factor underlying temperament and executive cognitive functioning, and (4) morbidity and mortality effects possibly related to therapeutic interventions that alter SA levels. PMID:15509918

  14. Conditioned sexual arousal in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ziegler, Toni E; Ferris, Craig F

    2011-05-01

    Conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in several species from fish to humans but has not been demonstrated in nonhuman primates. Controversy exists over whether nonhuman primates produce pheromones that arouse sexual behavior. Although common marmosets copulate throughout the ovarian cycle and during pregnancy, males exhibit behavioral signs of arousal, demonstrate increased neural activation of anterior hypothalamus and medial preoptic area, and have an increase in serum testosterone after exposure to odors of novel ovulating females suggestive of a sexually arousing pheromone. Males also have increased androgens prior to their mate's ovulation. However, males presented with odors of ovulating females demonstrate activation of many other brain areas associated with motivation, memory, and decision making. In this study, we demonstrate that male marmosets can be conditioned to a novel, arbitrary odor (lemon) with observation of erections, and increased exploration of the location where they previously experienced a receptive female, and increased scratching in post-conditioning test without a female present. This conditioned response was demonstrated up to a week after the end of conditioning trials, a much longer lasting effect of conditioning than reported in studies of other species. These results further suggest that odors of ovulating females are not pheromones, strictly speaking and that marmoset males may learn specific characteristics of odors of females providing a possible basis for mate identification. PMID:21029736

  15. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  16. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  17. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions. PMID:25258109

  18. Age differences in the role of cognitive versus somatic arousal in sleep outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kristy D; McCrae, Christina S; Dautovich, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) to determine whether daily or overall cognitive and somatic arousal better predict sleep and (b) to investigate age differences in the arousal-sleep relation. Fifty younger and 50 older adults completed the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale and sleep diaries for 14 consecutive days. Analyses revealed mean arousal may better predict sleep regardless of age. However, daily arousal represents an important avenue of research as it may uncover lagged or coupling effects in the arousal-sleep relation. Significant age differences in the arousal-sleep relation suggest age-dependent associations between the type of arousal and sleep. Implications for assessment of sleep in older and younger adults are discussed. PMID:23746053

  19. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  20. Conditions under which Arousal Does and Does Not Elevate Height Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of experiments that explore the boundary conditions for how emotional arousal influences height estimates. Four experiments are presented, which investigated the influence of context, situation-relevance, intensity, and attribution of arousal on height estimates. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the environmental context to signal either danger (viewing a height from above) or safety (viewing a height from below). High arousal only increased height estimates made from above. In Experiment 2, two arousal inductions were used that contained either 1) height-relevant arousing images or 2) height-irrelevant arousing images. Regardless of theme, arousal increased height estimates compared to a neutral group. In Experiment 3, arousal intensity was manipulated by inserting an intermediate or long delay between the induction and height estimates. A brief, but not a long, delay from the arousal induction served to increase height estimates. In Experiment 4, an attribution manipulation was included, and those participants who were made aware of the source of their arousal reduced their height estimates compared to participants who received no attribution instructions. Thus, arousal that is attributed to its true source is discounted from feelings elicited by the height, thereby reducing height estimates. Overall, we suggest that misattributed, embodied arousal is used as a cue when estimating heights from above that can lead to overestimation. PMID:24699393

  1. Ecological determinism increases with organism size.

    PubMed

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Srivastava, Diane S; Marino, Nicholas A C; Azevedo, Fernanda D; Dib, Viviane; Lopes, Paloma M; Rosado, Alexandre S; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Esteves, Francisco A

    2012-07-01

    After much debate, there is an emerging consensus that the composition of many ecological communities is determined both by species traits, as proposed by niche theory, as well as by chance events. A critical question for ecology is, therefore, which attributes of species predict the dominance of deterministic or stochastic processes. We outline two hypotheses by which organism size could determine which processes structure ecological communities, and we test these hypotheses by comparing the community structure in bromeliad phytotelmata of three groups of organisms (bacteria, zooplankton, and macroinvertebrates) that encompass a 10 000-fold gradient in body size, but live in the same habitat. Bacteria had no habitat associations, as would be expected from trait-neutral stochastic processes, but still showed exclusion among species pairs, as would be expected from niche-based processes. Macroinvertebrates had strong habitat and species associations, indicating niche-based processes. Zooplankton, with body size between bacteria and macroinvertebrates, showed intermediate habitat associations. We concluded that a key niche process, habitat filtering, strengthened with organism size, possibly because larger organisms are both less plastic in their fundamental niches and more able to be selective in dispersal. These results suggest that the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes may be predictable from organism size. PMID:22919920

  2. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  3. Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousal will enhance and when it will impair memory for events, accounting for some puzzling contradictions in the emotional memory literature. PMID:21660127

  4. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. Methods We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Results Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Conclusions Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control. PMID:26079873

  5. Are tuberomammillary histaminergic neurons involved in CO2-mediated arousal?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Moratalla, Rosario; Lightman, Stafford L; Lowry, Christopher A

    2005-05-01

    An increase in arousal in response to hypercapnia [elevated arterial PCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) levels] during awake or sleep states is an important component of mechanisms designed to maintain acid-base homeostasis. Since central histaminergic neurons are crucial for maintaining waking states and vigilance, a nonresponsive or dysfunctional histaminergic system could contribute to the lack of arousal in response to hypercapnia in some sleep-related disorders [e.g., sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and Ondine's curse]. Therefore, the present study attempted to determine if histaminergic neurons display functional responses to acute exposure to hypercapnic gas (i.e., gas with elevated CO2 concentrations). Healthy adult male rats were placed in flow cages during the light cycle, or inactive phase, and exposed to either atmospheric air or to environmental CO2 concentrations increasing from baseline up to 20% CO2 over a 5-min period. The expression of the protein product of the immediate-early gene c-fos was used as a measure of functional cellular responses within subpopulations of histaminergic neurons. Among the histaminergic subgroups (E1-E5), only the ventral tuberommamillary nucleus (VTMn)/E2 cell group showed significant increases in c-Fos expression following brief exposure to hypercapnic gas. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that histaminergic neuronal cell groups are heterogeneous and are involved in physiological and/or behavioral responses to acute hypercapnic challenge, potentially increasing vigilance during active waking and awakening from sleep during hypercapnic states. PMID:15817281

  6. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  7. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  8. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  9. Oral contraceptive use and female genital arousal: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Seal, Brooke N; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2005-08-01

    This study explored effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on physiological sexual arousal as measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Sixteen women aged 18-29 viewed audiovisual neutral and erotic stimuli before and an average of 6 weeks following the onset of OCP use. Although subjective measures of sexual arousal, including perceptions of genital arousal, significantly increased in response to erotic stimuli both before and after OCP onset, physiological sexual arousal only increased before OCP use. A comparison of individual responses before and after OCP onset reveals a much higher degree of intrasubject variability after OCP onset. We discuss these findings as they relate to OCP use as a confounding methodological variable to consider in future investigations employing vaginal photoplethysmography. PMID:19817038

  10. Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women's physiological sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Harte, Christopher B; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that women's physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Literature also suggests that the level of SNS activation may play a role in the degree to which SNS activity affects sexual arousal. We provide the first empirical examination of a possible curvilinear relationship between SNS activity and women's genital arousal using a direct measure of SNS activation in 52 sexually functional women. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV), a specific and sensitive marker of SNS activation, and vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), a measure of genital arousal, was analyzed. Moderate increases in SNS activity were associated with higher genital arousal, while very low or very high SNS activation was associated with lower genital arousal. These findings imply that there is an optimal level of SNS activation for women's physiological sexual arousal. PMID:22092348

  11. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  12. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory. PMID:24604603

  13. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  14. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  15. Repetitive hypoxia rapidly depresses arousal from active sleep in newborn lambs

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Renea V; Grant, Daniel A; Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Walker, Adrian M

    1998-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism that is depressed by repeated episodes of hypoxia. We aimed to determine how rapidly arousal depression occurs during repeated hypoxia and to determine if the depression is sleep state specific. Three successive 12 h overnight sleep recordings were performed in six newborn lambs instrumented to record sleep state, blood pressure, heart rate and blood gases. The first (control) and third (recovery) nights were baseline studies (inspired oxygen fraction, FI,O2 = 0.21) to determine the spontaneous arousal probability. During the second (test) study night, lambs were exposed to a 60 s episode of isocapnic hypoxia (FI,O2 = 0.10; inspired carbon dioxide fraction, FI,CO2 = 0.03) during every epoch of sleep. During quiet sleep (QS), the probability of arousing to hypoxia (56 %) remained significantly higher than the probability of arousing spontaneously (18 %) throughout the repeated hypoxic exposures (χ2 = 81.5, P < 0.001). By contrast, during active sleep (AS) arousal rapidly became depressed with repetition of the hypoxic stimulus; the probability of arousal in hypoxia (52 %) was significantly higher than the probability of spontaneous arousal (12 %) during the first ten hypoxic exposures (χ2 = 18.2, P < 0.001), but there was no difference thereafter. We conclude that, when repeated, moderate hypoxia very rapidly becomes ineffective as an arousing stimulus in AS, but not in QS. These results suggest that the arousal mechanism is particularly vulnerable to failure during AS. PMID:9706012

  16. Circulating Endocannabinoid Concentrations and Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carolin; Hill, Matthew N.; Chang, Sabrina C.H.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several lines of evidence point to the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning. These include results from studies describing the subjective effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in humans and the observable effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in other species, as well as results from studies investigating the location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and periphery, and the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation on neurotransmitters implicated in sexual functioning. While these lines of research suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning, no studies investigating the relationship between concentrations of endogenous cannabinoids (i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and sexual functioning have been conducted in any species. Aim To measure circulating endocannabinoid concentrations in relation to subjective and physiological indices of sexual arousal in women (n = 21). Methods Serum endocannabinoid (AEA and 2-AG) concentrations were measured immediately prior to, and immediately following, viewing of neutral (control) and erotic (experimental) film stimuli in a repeated measures design. Physiological sexual arousal was measured via vaginal photoplethysmography. Subjective sexual arousal was measured both continuously and non-continuously. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate the relationships between endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Changes in AEA and 2-AG concentrations from pre- to post-film and in relation to physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal. Results Results revealed a significant relationship between endocannabinoid concentrations and female sexual arousal, whereby increases in both physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in AEA, and increases in subjective indices of

  17. Arousal shifts in quiescent locusts

    PubMed

    Schuppe; Burrows

    1998-06-01

    Locusts are usually quiescent at night, but this state can be interrupted by spontaneous periods of motor activity, or arousals, that can also be induced by exposure to light stimuli. To investigate whether repeated arousing stimulation has any lasting effect on behaviour, locusts were confronted at night with a series of 1 s light stimuli. Groups of three stimuli at intervals of 60 s were repeated 11 times at 10 min intervals during the first experimental night, and three stimuli at intervals of 90 s were repeated at 15 min intervals during the next night. Arousals and the effects of stimulation were monitored as changes in the spike activity of muscles in the basal part (the scapus) of the right antenna. In the early part of the night preceding the presentation of the light stimuli, neither 60 s nor 90 s periods were present as significant peaks in spontaneous changes in spike activity. The initial stimulus of a series evoked an arousal response that habituated on repetition of the stimulus. The end of the series of stimuli was followed by changes in spike activity that tended to have the same periodicity as the preceding stimuli. Furthermore, a single light stimulus at the end of the night evoked changes in spike activity that again tended to have the same periodicity as the preceding entraining stimuli. Repeated stimulation may therefore establish a memory trace for the period of stimulation that can be recalled either spontaneously or by the application of an appropriate external stimulus. PMID:9576882

  18. Irrational Beliefs and Anger Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazaleus, Susan L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between irrational beliefs and anger arousal in college students (N=342) who completed two questionnaires. Results showed men were more likely to endorse irrational beliefs regarding blame proneness and helplessness. Women reported more endorsement of the irrational belief regarding dependency. (BH)

  19. Negative Arousal Amplifies the Effects of Saliency in Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Matthew R.; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from two experiments suggests that negative arousal increases biases in attention that result from differences in visual salience. Participants were exposed to negative arousing or neutral sounds before briefly viewing an array of letters. They reported as many of the letters as they could, and attention was biased to certain letters by increasing salience through visual contrast. Regardless of the type of sound heard, participants were more likely to recall high-salience letters than low-salience letters. However, on arousing trials recall of high-salience letters increased, while recall of low-salience letters did not. These findings indicate that negative emotional arousal increases the selectivity of attention, and provides evidence for arousal-biased competition (ABC) theory (Mather & Sutherland, 2011), which predicts that emotional arousal enhances representations of stimuli that have priority. PMID:22642352

  20. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A.; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q.; Turchi, Janita N.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  1. Women's sexual arousal: effects of high alcohol dosages and self-control instructions.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Schacht, Rebecca L; Hendershot, Christian S; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2011-05-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women's sexual arousal - especially genital arousal - received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson and Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed an undifferentiated pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol's impact on the variability of women's sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  2. Arousal and Anxiety Correlates of Gymnastic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)

  3. Ascorbate dynamics and oxygen consumption during arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Tøien Ø; Drew, K L; Chao, M L; Rice, M E

    2001-08-01

    During hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii), O(2) consumption and plasma leukocyte counts decrease by >90%, whereas plasma concentrations of the antioxidant ascorbate increase fourfold. During rewarming, O(2) consumption increases profoundly and plasma ascorbate and leukocyte counts return to normal. Here we investigated the dynamic interrelationships among these changes. Plasma ascorbate and uric acid (urate) concentrations were determined by HPLC from blood samples collected at approximately 15-min intervals via arterial catheter; leukocyte count and hematocrit were also determined. Body temperature, O(2) consumption, and electromyographic activity were recorded continuously. Ascorbate, urate, and glutathione contents in body and brain samples were determined during hibernation and after arousal. During rewarming, the maximum rate of plasma ascorbate decrease occurred at the time of peak O(2) consumption and peak plasma urate production. The ascorbate decrease did not correlate with mouth or abdominal temperature; uptake into leukocytes could account for only a small percentage. By contrast, liver and spleen ascorbate levels increased significantly after arousal, which could more than account for ascorbate clearance from plasma. Brain ascorbate levels remained constant. These data suggest that elevated concentrations of ascorbate [(Asc)] in plasma [(Asc)(p)] provide an antioxidant source that is redistributed to tissues during the metabolic stress that accompanies arousal. PMID:11448862

  4. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  5. Cardiovascular Arousal in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Matthew S.; Groden, June; Velicer, Wayne F.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Baron, M. Grace; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Groden, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Despite the hypothesized link between arousal and behavior in persons with autism, there is a lack of idiographic research that directly assesses arousal responses to novel stimuli or social situations in this population. The current study used heart rate as a measure of sympathetic activity to compare arousal responses to the presentation of…

  6. Ventilatory dynamics during transient arousal from NREM sleep: implications for respiratory control stability.

    PubMed

    Khoo, M C; Koh, S S; Shin, J J; Westbrook, P R; Berry, R B

    1996-05-01

    The polysomnographic and ventilatory patterns of nine normal adults were measured during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) stage 2 sleep before and after repeated administrations of a tone (40-72 dB) lasting 5 s. The ventilatory response to arousal (VRA) was determined in data sections showing electrocortical arousal following the start of the tone. Mean inspiratory flow and tidal volume increased significantly above control levels in the first seven breaths after the start of arousal, with peak increases (64.2% > control) occurring on the second breath. Breath-to-breath occlusion pressure 100 ms after the start of inspiration showed significant increases only on the second and third postarousal breaths, whereas upper airway resistance declined immediately and remained below control for > or = 7 consecutive breaths. These results suggest that the first breath and latter portion of the VRA are determined more by upper airway dynamics than by changes in the neural drive to breathe. Computer model simulations comparing different VRA time courses show that sustained periodic apnea is more likely to occur when the fall in the postarousal increase in ventilation is more abrupt. PMID:8727529

  7. Arousal and locomotion make distinct contributions to cortical activity patterns and visual encoding.

    PubMed

    Vinck, Martin; Batista-Brito, Renata; Knoblich, Ulf; Cardin, Jessica A

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous and sensory-evoked cortical activity is highly state-dependent, yet relatively little is known about transitions between distinct waking states. Patterns of activity in mouse V1 differ dramatically between quiescence and locomotion, but this difference could be explained by either motor feedback or a change in arousal levels. We recorded single cells and local field potentials from area V1 in mice head-fixed on a running wheel and monitored pupil diameter to assay arousal. Using naturally occurring and induced state transitions, we dissociated arousal and locomotion effects in V1. Arousal suppressed spontaneous firing and strongly altered the temporal patterning of population activity. Moreover, heightened arousal increased the signal-to-noise ratio of visual responses and reduced noise correlations. In contrast, increased firing in anticipation of and during movement was attributable to locomotion effects. Our findings suggest complementary roles of arousal and locomotion in promoting functional flexibility in cortical circuits. PMID:25892300

  8. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    PubMed

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS. PMID:16216690

  9. Brain antioxidant levels in hamsters during hibernation, arousal and cenothermia.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter G; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2006-04-01

    Warming from hibernation to cenothermia involves intense metabolic activity coincident with large fluxes in blood flow and is considered to be a period of oxidative stress during which utilization of endogenous antioxidants prevents pathology. Very slow flow brain microdialysis enabled temperature independent sampling of the brain striatal extracellular fluid (ECF) during hibernation, arousal and cenothermia in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Brain tissue and dialysates were analyzed to provide the first profile of changes in ECF levels of ascorbate (AA), glutathione (GSH) and urate during hibernation and the transition to cenothermia. Brain tissue content of AA and GSH was unchanged between hibernation and cenothermia; however, arousal was associated with substantial oxidation of AA from the brain ECF and plasma compartments. ECF GSH increased during arousal. Brain tissue urate content was decreased 50% during hibernation. ECF urate levels were unchanged in hibernation and cenothermia but transiently increased 100% during arousal. These experiments demonstrate that arousal from hibernation is a suitable experimental model for examination of the mechanisms by which non-pathological tissue integrity is maintained in the face of the generation of free radicals during increasing metabolism, temperature and cerebral reperfusion. PMID:16343656

  10. Laboratory-induced hyperventilation differentiates female sexual arousal disorder subtypes.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-08-01

    The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing, a technique previously found to increase SNS activity, immediately prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Physiological arousal (i.e., vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured via the vaginal photoplethysmograph and subjective arousal was measured via self-report questionnaires. LIH differentiated women with SAD from those in the control group, with LIH increasing VPA in the latter, but having no significant effect in the heterogeneous SAD group. However, among subtypes of SAD, LIH differentiated women with genital (n = 16) and subjective (n = 16) subtypes of SAD from women with combined SAD (n = 28) and women without sexual difficulties. Specifically, women in the control group and those with combined SAD had a significant increase in VPA whereas women with genital or subjective SAD had a significant decrease in VPA following LIH. There was no significant effect of LIH on any self-report measure of sexual arousal following erotic stimuli. Implications of the results for the conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:18343989

  11. Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

  12. Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2008-09-01

    The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

  13. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reeder, DeeAnn M; Frank, Craig L; Turner, Gregory G; Meteyer, Carol U; Kurta, Allen; Britzke, Eric R; Vodzak, Megan E; Darling, Scott R; Stihler, Craig W; Hicks, Alan C; Jacob, Roymon; Grieneisen, Laura E; Brownlee, Sarah A; Muller, Laura K; Blehert, David S

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered. PMID:22745688

  14. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Frank, Craig L.; Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Kurta, Allen; Britzke, Eric R.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Darling, Scott R.; Stihler, Craig W.; Hicks, Alan C.; Jacob, Roymon; Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee, Sarah A.; Muller, Laura K.; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered.

  15. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor. PMID:19190722

  16. The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C.; Burgess, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    During waking behavior animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. Following a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. PMID:23100441

  17. Differences between problem and nonproblem gamblers in subjective arousal and affective valence amongst electronic gaming machine players.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Rodda, Simone; Phillips, James G

    2004-12-01

    Arousal-based theories of gambling suggest that excitement gained from gambling reinforces further gambling behavior. However, recent theories of emotion conceptualize mood as comprising both arousal and valence dimensions. Thus, excitement comprises arousal with positive valence. We examined self-reported changes in arousal and affective valence in 27 problem and 40 nonproblem gamblers playing electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Problem gamblers reported greater arousal increases after gambling and increases in negative valence if they lost. This accords poorly with an excitement-based explanation of problem gambling. PMID:15530730

  18. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288

  19. Alcohol, selective attention and sexual arousal in men.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G T; Niaura, R S; Adler, J L

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-two men social drinkers were randomly assigned to the cells of a balanced placebo design to investigate the effects of expected and actual alcohol consumption on sexual responsiveness. Using a dichotic listening task, erotic and nonerotic information was presented in the nonattended channel while subjects performed simple (low-attention demand) and complex (high-attention demand) numerical tasks presented in the attended channel. Penile tumescence was recorded continuously in response to all audiotaped information. The high-attention demand task significantly interfered with sexual arousal compared with the low-attention demand task, primarily because of the significant suppressant effect of alcohol on arousal during the complex task. The lack of differences in tumescence under the two cognitive tasks when subjects were sober is inconsistent with the cognitive interference model of sexual arousal. Alcohol expectations increased arousal during the low-attention demand task, whereas actual alcohol consumption decreased arousal only during the high-attention demand task. Both effects are attributed to the different effects of these separate variables on attentional processes. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:3990295

  20. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    PubMed

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual. PMID:24055219

  1. Imagery Arousal as a Function of Exposure to Artistic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilotta, Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent music and art can arouse imagery experiences in an audience. Because of the relationship found between imagery and the arts in past research, it was hypothesized that artistic stimuli would have a greater influence on imagery than other kinds of stimuli (art-information or non-artistic).…

  2. Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

  3. Hypothalamic feedforward inhibition of thalamocortical network controls arousal and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carolina Gutierrez; Cadavieco, Marta Carus; Jego, Sonia; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Korotkova, Tatiana; Adamantidis, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, synchronous synaptic activity in the thalamocortical network generates predominantly low-frequency oscillations (<4 Hz) that are modulated by inhibitory inputs from the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). Whether TRN cells integrate sleep-wake signals from subcortical circuits remains unclear. We found that GABA neurons from the lateral hypothalamus (LHGABA) exert a strong inhibitory control over TRN GABA neurons (TRNGABA). We found that optogenetic activation of this circuit recapitulated state-dependent changes of TRN neuron activity in behaving mice and induced rapid arousal during NREM, but not REM, sleep. During deep anesthesia, activation of this circuit induced sustained cortical arousal. In contrast, optogenetic silencing of LHGABA-TRNGABA transmission increased the duration of NREM sleep and amplitude of delta (1-4 Hz) oscillations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TRN cells integrate subcortical arousal inputs selectively during NREM sleep and may participate in sleep intensity. PMID:26691833

  4. Arousal and the attentional network in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Maximilian J; Neufang, Susanne; Stein, Dan J; Domschke, Katharina

    2014-11-01

    Although a great deal of information about the neurobiology of panic disorder is now available, there is a need for an updated etiological model integrating recent findings on the neurobiology of the arousal system and its relationship with higher cortical functions in panic disorder. The current mini-review presents psychophysiological, molecular biological/genetic and functional neuroimaging evidence for dysfunction in major arousal systems of the brain. Such dysfunction may influence the development of panic disorder by precipitating autonomic bodily symptoms and at the same time increasing vigilance to these sensations by modulating cortical attentional networks. A multilevel model of arousal, attention and anxiety-including the norepinephrine, orexin, neuropeptide S and caffeine-related adenosine systems-may be useful in integrating a range of data available on the pathogenesis of panic disorder. PMID:25311787

  5. Can arousal modulate response inhibition?

    PubMed

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of salient events and can therefore enhance processing of a cue that indicates to withhold a response and improve response inhibition. In a stop-signal task, participants were required to withhold prepotent responses when a stop signal followed target onset. Abrupt alerting cues preceded the target in one half of the trials. The results showed that alerting improved response inhibition as indicated by shorter stop-signal reaction times following an alerting cue compared with a no-alerting condition. We conclude that modulation of low-level operations can influence what are considered to be higher cognitive functions to achieve optimal goal-directed behavior. However, we stress that such interactions should be treated cautiously as they do not always reflect direct links between lower and higher cognitive mechanisms. PMID:25867610

  6. Assessing female sexual arousal with the labial thermistor: response specificity and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Prause, N; Heiman, J R

    2009-05-01

    The labial thermistor offers several potential psychometric advantages over existing measures of female sexual response; however, the thermistor lacked data to support these presumed advantages, especially with respect to its discriminant validity. In this study, both the labial thermistor was worn simultaneously with the vaginal photoplethysmograph as women viewed films. They also indicated their level of subjective sexual arousal using a lever. The labial thermistor discriminated sexual from nonsexual arousing stimuli and was sensitive to different levels of sexual arousal. The correspondence of the instrument with subjective sexual arousal, measured using a continuous lever, was lower during the mildly arousing sexual film and higher during the maximally sexual arousing film. One woman reported that the labial thermistor was very uncomfortable, while others indicated no or mild discomfort from each instrument. The vaginal photoplethysmograph largely replicated the effects documented by the labial thermistor, although it did not discriminate sexual stimuli of different intensity nor correspond with women's continuous lever responses as closely during the more arousing stimulus. Difficulties recording simultaneously with these instruments are noted. The labial thermistor adequately discriminates between generally arousing and sexually arousing stimuli, increasing its utility as a measure for between-subject study designs. PMID:19041673

  7. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired. PMID:18563971

  8. Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Stanton, Steven J

    2004-12-01

    Following up on earlier research suggesting a link between implicit affiliation motivation and progesterone (P) and implicit power motivation and testosterone [T; Schultheiss, O.C., Dargel, A., Rohde, W., 2003. Implicit motives and gonadal steroid hormones: Effects of menstrual cycle phase, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293-301.], we tested whether arousal of affiliation motivation increases P levels and whether arousal of power motivation increases T levels. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to watch 30 min of either Bridges of Madison County (affiliation arousal) or The Godfather II (power arousal), or a documentary about the Amazon (control condition). Levels of P and T were assessed in saliva samples taken before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 45 min after the movie (T3). The efficacy of experimental conditions to differentially arouse motives was verified by assessment of changes in affiliation and power motive imagery expressed in imaginative stories written before and after the movie. After the movie, salivary P levels (T2 and T3) in the affiliation-arousal group were significantly higher than in the control group and marginally higher than in the power-arousal group. Subjects' postmovie T responses (T3) depended on premovie T levels: in men, higher premovie T levels predicted a greater likelihood of postmovie T increases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions, whereas in women, higher premovie T levels tended to be associated with postmovie T decreases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that aroused affiliation motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on P, whereas aroused power motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on T in men, but not in women, with high baseline T levels. PMID:15555501

  9. Arousal Responses during Overnight Polysomnography and their Reproducibility in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Younes, Magdy; Keenan, Brendan T.; Pack, Allan I.; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal intensity and heart rate (HR) response to arousal during polysomnography (PSG) vary considerably between patients with sleep disorders. Our objective was to determine the range of these arousal characteristics in healthy young adults and whether they are consistent on repeated testing. Design: Post hoc analysis of 56 preexisting PSG files recorded from 28 healthy adults on 2 consecutive nights. Setting: Academic medical center and Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). Participants: Twenty-eight healthy young adults. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were identified using an automatic system followed by manual editing. The intensity of arousals was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in the electroencephalography (EEG) signals' wavelet characteristics. 4,751 arousals in 28 pairs of PSGs (night 1 and night 2) were scaled. HR responses (ΔHR) to all arousals were determined and averaged at each arousal scale per file. Overall average arousal intensity ranged 3.0–7.1 in different subjects, and average ΔHR ranged 1.9–18.3 beats.min−1. Heart rate response at a given arousal intensity, expressed as ΔHR at a moderate arousal scale of 5.0 (ΔHR5), ranged 4.1–18.1 beats.min−1. There was a strong correlation between arousal intensity and ΔHR within each subject. More importantly, there were excellent intraclass correlations (ICC) between night 1 and night 2 results for all three variables (ICC = 0.72 for average intensity, 0.92 for average ΔHR4, and 0.91 for ΔHR5). Conclusions: Average arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal are highly variable among healthy young adults and stable within individuals. Citation: Azarbarzin A, Ostrowski M, Younes M, Keenan BT, Pack AI, Staley B, Kuna ST. Arousal responses during overnight polysomnography and their reproducibility in healthy young adults. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1313–1321. PMID

  10. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  11. Arousal Cues Arousal-Related Material in Memory: Implications for Understanding Effects of Mood on Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses research showing that material people learn when in a high arousal state and material they learn when in a normal arousal state is subsequently best recalled when they are in a similar arousal state. Speculates that this effect may partially underlie mood cuing, mood-related material from memory. (EKN)

  12. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33 years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100 μl (p<0.001), saccharose 100 μl, citrate 50 μl & 100 μl, and quinine 100 μl (p<0.05). Capsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems. PMID:26921652

  13. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  14. Brain ECF antioxidant interactions in hamsters during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter G; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2007-03-12

    Warming from hibernation to cenothermia involves intense metabolic activity and large fluxes in regional blood flow and volume. During this transition, levels of the antioxidants, ascorbate (AA), urate and glutathione (GSH) in brain tissue, extracellular fluid (ECF) and plasma change substantially. Striatal ECF was sampled and manipulated using very slow perfusion microdialysis to examine the mechanisms that influence the changing profile of striatal ECF AA, urate and GSH levels during arousal from hibernation to cenothermia in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Omission of glucose from the perfusate had no effect upon the respective decrease, increase and transient increase in striatal ECF levels of AA, GSH and urate observed during arousal from hibernation to cenothermia. In contrast, inhibition of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XOR) activity by reverse dialysis with oxypurinol, itself a free radical scavenger, decreased ECF urate and preserved ECF AA levels. This suggests that some ECF AA is oxidized by free radical products of XOR flux and/or by other free radical producing processes activated during the transition from hibernation to cenothermia. Local supplementation of ECF AA, GSH and cystiene had no effect upon the profile of transient increase of ECF urate observed during arousal from hibernation. The production of free radicals by XOR and the disappearance of AA from the ECF continues for at least 2h immediately after the hamster has attained cenothermia. The hamster, immediately after arousal from hibernation, can be utilized as a natural model to study free radical production and effective scavenging at cenothermia. PMID:17207864

  15. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    PubMed

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings. PMID:25387152

  16. EEG and autonomic arousal measures in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Joseph, C

    1989-04-01

    EEG and autonomic indices were measured in basal, tonic, and phasic conditions in order to delineate the nature of arousal dysfunction in schizophrenics as compared to normals. The experimental procedure involved six continuous recording sessions consisting of a basal recording before and after four experimental series. Sequentially, these were the visual nonsignal (VNS), the auditory nonsignal (ANS), the visual signal (VS), and the auditory signal (AS) series. The main findings indicated significant differences between the two groups in cardiovascular indices during the basal and tonic conditions and in the EEG and EMG indices of phasic response. These results suggest a dysfunction of basal and tonic autonomic arousal and a modulatory impairement of the central phasic arousal reaction. The findings are in accordance with the two arousal hypothesis postulated by Routtenberg (1968) and disconfirm the unitary concept of arousal for the explanation of psychophysiological abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:2744968

  17. Regulation of circadian rhythms in mammals by behavioral arousal.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ian C; Antle, Michael C; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2014-06-01

    Circadian rhythms in most mammals are synchronized to local time by phase and period resetting actions of daily light-dark cycles on a retino-recipient, light-entrainable circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN receives input from other brain regions, some of which mediate the phase and period resetting actions of behavioral arousal on circadian rhythms. We review historical milestones in the discovery of so-called "nonphotic" circadian clock resetting induced by environmentally stimulated arousal, or by feedback from clock-controlled rest-activity cycles. Topics include species generality, interactions between concurrent or successive photic and nonphotic inputs to the circadian clock, neural pathways, neurotransmitters, and clock cell responses that mediate resetting by behavioral arousal. The role of behavioral inputs to the circadian clock in determining the phase of entrainment to local time in natural environments is not well understood. Nonetheless, nonphotic effects are of sufficient magnitude to raise issues for the design of experiments in behavioral neuroscience (any procedure that is sufficiently arousing may alter the timing of circadian clocks that regulate dependent variables of primary interest). Nonphotic inputs to the clock may be exploited in strategies to reset or strengthen circadian rhythms in humans. PMID:24773430

  18. Superior perception of phasic physiological arousal and the detrimental consequences of the conviction to be aroused on worrying and metacognitions in GAD.

    PubMed

    Andor, Tanja; Gerlach, Alexander L; Rist, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Although people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often report arousal symptoms, psychophysiological studies show no evidence of autonomic hyperarousal. Hypersensitivity toward and catastrophic interpretation of phasic arousal cues may explain this discrepancy. The authors tested (a) whether GAD sufferers perceive nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs), an indicator of phasic autonomic arousal, better than controls do and (b) whether the conviction to be aroused contributes to the maintenance of worrying and metacognitive beliefs about worrying. Thirty-three GAD sufferers and 34 healthy controls participated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to detect their own NSCFs during a signal detection task. GAD sufferers accurately detected more of their NSCFs than did controls, who tended to miss NSCFs. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to relax following worry induction. While relaxing, they received nonveridical feedback indicating either arousal or relaxation. Arousal feedback conserved negative metacognitive beliefs regarding worrying and also maintained negative mood and worry exclusively in GAD participants. These findings suggest that superior perception of phasic arousal cues and their catastrophic misinterpretation increases worrying, negative metacognitive beliefs about worrying, and anxious mood in GAD. PMID:18266497

  19. Arousal and ventilatory responses to mild hypoxia in sleeping preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Marjan M A; Richardson, Heidi L; Parslow, Peter M; Walker, Adrian M; Harding, Richard; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2008-09-01

    A failure to adequately respond to hypoxia has been implicated in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Preterm infants are at increased risk for SIDS, thus we compared ventilatory and arousal responses to mild hypoxia [15% oxygen (O2)] in preterm and term infants. Eight preterm and 15 term infants were serially studied with daytime polysomnography during which nasal airflow was monitored by pneumotachograph at 2-5 weeks, 2-3 and 5-6 months. At each age, in both groups, hypoxia induced a significant decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2) during both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Infants invariably aroused in AS; and in QS either aroused or failed to arouse. In preterm infants arousal latency in AS was longer than in term infants (P < 0.05) at 2-5 weeks. Compared with term infants, preterm infants reached significantly lower SpO2 levels at 2-5 weeks in both AS and QS non-arousing tests and at 2-3 months in QS. A biphasic hypoxic ventilatory response was observed in QS non-arousing tests in both groups of infants at all three ages. We conclude that the greater desaturation during a hypoxic challenge combined with the longer arousal latency in preterm infants could contribute to greater risk for SIDS. PMID:18503514

  20. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, predicts self-regulation of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Moholy, Maxwell; Prause, Nicole; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; S Rahman, Ardeshir; Fong, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A person's ability to control their own sexual arousal is important both to reduce the risks associated with some sexual behaviours and to respond sexually with intimate partners. A lack of control over sexual urges is a proposed feature of "hypersexual disorder", though some evidence suggests that sexual desire predicts the self-regulation of sexual arousal better than hypersexuality. In the current study, a sample (N = 116) of men and women recruited from community ads viewed a series of 20-second neutral and sexual films. Before each sexual film, participants were instructed to increase their sexual arousal, decrease their sexual arousal or respond as usual. Higher levels of desire for sex with a partner consistently predicted failures to downregulate sexual arousal. Hypersexuality was unrelated. These findings replicate Winters et al.'s study and extend their findings by including upregulation, women, a new measure of hypersexuality and a higher-trial design. PMID:25559501

  1. Neurophysical substrates of arousal and attention.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2009-02-01

    The study of arousal and attention could be of prominent importance for elucidating both fundamental and practical aspects of the mind-brain puzzle. Defined as "general activation of mind" (Kahnemann in Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1973), or "general operation of consciousness" (Thacher and John in Functional neuroscience: foundations of cognitive processing. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977), arousal can be considered as a starting point of fundamental research on consciousness. Similar role could be assigned to attention, which can be defined by substituting the attributes "general" with "focused". Concerning the practical applications, the empirically established correlation between neuronal oscillations and arousal/attention levels is widely used in research and clinics, including neurofeedback, brain-computer communication, etc. However, the neurophysical mechanism underlying this correlation is still not clear enough. In this paper, after reviewing some present classical and quantum approaches, a transition probability concept of arousal based on field-dipole quantum interactions and information entropy is elaborated. The obtained analytical expressions and numerical values correspond to classical empirical results for arousal and attention, including the characteristic frequency dependence and intervals. Simultaneously, the fundamental (substrate) role of EEG spectrum has been enlightened, whereby the attention appears to be a bridge between arousal and the content of consciousness. Finally, some clinical implications, including the brain-rate parameter as an indicator of arousal and attention levels, are provided. PMID:18975019

  2. Manipulations of subjects' level of arousal in dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Asbjörnsen, A; Hugdahl, K; Bryden, M P

    1992-07-01

    The effects of manipulation of the subject's level of arousal on the right ear advantage (REA) in dichotic listening to CV-syllables were investigated. There were three different arousal manipulations under high and low incentive levels. Negative manipulations involved threat of electric shock (high incentive) or noise (low incentive) for incorrect answers. Positive manipulations involved the possibility to earn a substantial (high incentive) or small (low incentive) sum of money for correct answers. A third, neutral, condition involved no specific instructions about consequences for correct or incorrect answers. Thirty-six females participated in the study. Heart rate was recorded as an independent measure of change in level of arousal as a function of the experimental instructions. The results showed that the high negative condition abolished the REA effect, with a non-significant difference between ears. This was caused by both an increase in correct left ear reports and a decrease in correct right ear reports. The other arousal conditions had no effect on the REA. The results are discussed in terms of right hemisphere dominance for aversive emotional processing in dichotic listening. PMID:1642859

  3. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children’s memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true memory to total memory) decreased with age. These surprising developmental trends were more pronounced for negatively-valenced materials than for positively-valenced materials, they were more pronounced for high-arousal materials than for low-arousal materials, and developmental increases in the effects of arousal were small in comparison to developmental increases in the effects of valence. These findings have ramifications for legal applications of false-memory research: Materials that share the emotional hallmark of crimes (events that are negatively valenced and arousing) produced the largest age increases in false memory and the largest age declines in net accuracy. PMID:20547393

  4. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  5. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  6. Sensitivity increase for coating thickness determination using THz waveguides.

    PubMed

    Theuer, M; Beigang, R; Grischkowsky, D

    2010-05-24

    We report on layer thickness determination down to a thickness of 2.5 microns using terahertz waveguide spectroscopy. Compared to typical single-pass transmission measurements in the time domain, the effective THz pulse delay is considerably increased for a given layer thickness by using the high filling factor of the THz waveguide. This corresponds to a sensitivity increase up to a factor of 50 for the measured delay, allowing the direct measurement of layer thicknesses down to below hundredths of a THz wavelength. PMID:20589006

  7. Impaired arousal in rat pups with prenatal alcohol exposure is modulated by GABAergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirieix, Chrystelle M; Tobia, Christine M; Schneider, Robert W; Darnall, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) increases the risk for The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in human infants. In rat pups, the arousal response to hypoxia is modulated by medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. We hypothesized that arousal to hypoxia is impaired by PAE, and is associated with an increase in medullary GABA and enhanced GABAergic activity. Pregnant dams received an ethanol liquid diet (ETOH), an iso-caloric pair fed diet (PF) or a standard chow diet (CHOW). We first measured the time to arousal (latency), during four episodes of hypoxia in P5, P15, and P21 CHOW, PF, and ETOH pups. We also measured brainstem GABA concentration in the same groups of pups. Finally, we injected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), nipecotic acid (NIP) or gabazine into the medullary raphe of P15 and P21 pups receiving the three diets. For statistical analysis, the PF and CHOW groups were combined into a single CONTROL group. Our main finding was that compared to CONTROL, arousal latency to hypoxia is increased in ETOH pups at P15 and P21, and the concentration of brainstem GABA is elevated at P21. NIP administration in CONTROL pups led to arousal latencies similar in magnitude to those in ETOH pups after aCSF injection. NIP injected ETOH pups had no further increases in arousal latency. We conclude that PAE impairs arousal latency and this is mediated or modulated by medullary GABAergic mechanisms. PMID:26059034

  8. Effects of voice on emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  9. Searching arousals: A fuzzy logic approach.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to detect spontaneous, chin tension and limb movement-related arousals by estimating neuronal and muscular activity. Features extraction is carried out by Time Varying Autoregressive Moving Average (TVARMA) models and recursive particle filtering. Classification is performed by a fuzzy inference system with rule-based decision scheme based upon the AASM scoring rules. Our approach yielded two metrics: arousal density and arousal index to comply with standardised clinical benchmarking. The obtained statistics achieved error deviation around ±1.5 to ±30. These results showed that our system can differentiate amongst 3 different types of arousals, subject to inter-subject variability and up-to-date scoring references. PMID:26736862

  10. Voluntary control of male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J M; Strassberg, D S

    1991-02-01

    Forty-eight adult male volunteers attempted to suppress sexual arousal while viewing a sexually explicit videotape and generate an arousal response while viewing a neutral videotape. Attendance to the stimuli was assured by requiring subjects to provide an ongoing verbal description of the videotape they were viewing. While significant effects in controlling arousal were obtained, the degree of subject success varied as a function of the criteria used for evaluating outcome. The most conservative analysis, a simultaneous discriminant analysis procedure comparing subjects penile plethysmographic responses across the entire 3 min of each condition, revealed that in no case was a subject able to produce a pattern of sexual response that was misclassified as the condition he was attempting to emulate. Results support the value of requiring attendance to experimental stimuli and of analyzing trends/patterns of arousal across an entire experimental period in identifying attempts to "fake" sexual preferences. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2003767

  11. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood. PMID:11437309

  12. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    PubMed

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  13. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E A

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person's rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal. PMID:26097459

  14. Determinants that increase the serum resistance of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, P W; Robinson, M K

    1980-01-01

    The rfb locus, determining biosynthesis of O8-specific lipopolysaccharide side chains, was transferred to a rough mutant of Escherichia coli; recombinants producing a complete lipopolysaccharide were more resistant to the complement-mediated bactericidal action of human serum than the rough recipient. Inheritance of the his-linked genes for K27 antigen production did not alter the response to serum. The serum resistance of strains carrying O8 side chains, but not of strains with incomplete lipopolysaccharides, was further increased by inheritance of plasmids R1 and NR1.20 PMID:6995340

  15. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G; Toomey, John M; Balsters, Joshua H; Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-10-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants' ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic-cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck. PMID:21948954

  16. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, John M.; Balsters, Joshua H.; Bokde, Arun L. W.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants’ ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic–cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck. PMID:21948954

  17. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    PubMed

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep. PMID:25498600

  18. Rapid upregulation of heart antioxidant enzymes during arousal from estivation in the Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).

    PubMed

    Salway, Kurtis D; Tattersall, Glenn J; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-01

    Estivation is an adaptive response to environments characterized by elevated temperatures and desiccative stress, as may occur during summer dry seasons. Similar to diapause and hibernation, it is characterized by low levels of activity, a drastically suppressed metabolic rate and enhanced stress resistance. We tested the hypothesis that Achatina fulica, a pulmonate land snail, enhances stress resistance during estivation and/or arousal by upregulating intracellular antioxidant defenses in the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas and foot tissues. No statistically significant changes in mitochondrial or cytosolic superoxide dismutase levels or activities, or glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or catalase activities were associated with estivation in any tissue, however. In contrast, during arousal from estivation, activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased in heart, hepatopancreas and foot. In heart, a rapid increase in MnSOD protein levels was observed that peaked at 2h post arousal, but no such change was observed in CuZnSOD protein levels. Glutathione peroxidase activity was upregulated at 1h post arousal and remained elevated until 8h post arousal in heart tissue. Glutathione peroxidase was also upregulated at 24h post arousal in foot tissue. Glutathione reductase activity was upregulated at 4h post arousal in heart and foot tissues whereas catalase activity showed no changes. Markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage revealed no significant increases during estivation or arousal. Therefore, antioxidant enzymes may play a role in oxidative stress defense specifically during arousal from estivation in A. fulica. PMID:20621194

  19. Trazodone Effects on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-REM Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Bradley A.; Deyoung, Pam N.; McSharry, David G.; Wellman, Andrew; Velasquez, Adrian; Owens, Robert; Orr, Jeremy E.; Malhotra, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A low respiratory arousal threshold is a physiological trait involved in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Trazodone may increase arousal threshold without compromising upper airway muscles, which should improve OSA. Objectives: We aimed to examine how trazodone alters OSA severity and arousal threshold. We hypothesized that trazodone would increase the arousal threshold and improve the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in selected patients with OSA. Methods: Subjects were studied on two separate nights in a randomized crossover design. Fifteen unselected subjects with OSA (AHI ≥ 10/h) underwent a standard polysomnogram plus an epiglottic catheter to measure the arousal threshold. Subjects were studied after receiving trazodone (100 mg) and placebo, with 1 week between conditions. The arousal threshold was calculated as the nadir pressure before electrocortical arousal from approximately 20 spontaneous respiratory events selected randomly. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with placebo, trazodone resulted in a significant reduction in AHI (38.7 vs. 28.5 events/h, P = 0.041), without worsening oxygen saturation or respiratory event duration. Trazodone was not associated with a significant change in the non-REM arousal threshold (−20.3 vs. −19.3 cm H2O, P = 0.51) compared with placebo. In subgroup analysis, responders to trazodone spent less time in N1 sleep (20.1% placebo vs. 9.0% trazodone, P = 0.052) and had an accompanying reduction in arousal index, whereas nonresponders were not observed to have a change in sleep parameters. Conclusions: These findings suggest that trazodone could be effective therapy for patients with OSA without worsening hypoxemia. Future studies should focus on underlying mechanisms and combination therapies to eliminate OSA. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01817907). PMID:25719754

  20. Children's recall of emotionally arousing, repeated events: a review and call for further investigation.

    PubMed

    Price, Heather L; Connolly, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of emotional arousal on memory is a controversial topic in the literature. Much of the research on memory for emotionally arousing events has focused on a few specific issues (e.g., differences in types of details recalled in emotionally arousing and neutral events; increasing ecological validity). Although gaining more recent attention, a neglected area in the literature has been memory for instances of repeated, emotionally arousing events. This issue has important implications for understanding children's ability to recall events in a forensic setting. We review existing findings on memory for emotionally arousing events in general and particularly in children, children's memory for events that occur repeatedly, and then discuss the scarce research on repeated emotionally arousing events and the need for further research in this area. We conclude that although it is clear that children are capable of accurately reporting arousing and repeated experiences, it is also apparent that circumstances both within and outside the control of investigative interviewers influence this ability. PMID:18640723

  1. Perception of arousal in social anxiety: Effects of false feedback during a social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke; McManus, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that during social interactions, socially anxious individuals direct their attention to internal cues of arousal and use this information to erroneously infer how they appear to others. High (N=36) and low (N=36) socially anxious adults had a conversation with a stooge, and were led to believe by false feedback that they were experiencing either an increase or decrease in arousal, or evaluating the comfort level of the feedback equipment. Compared to the other groups, participants who believed their arousal had increased, reported greater anxiety, poorer perceived performance, more physical cues of anxiety, and greater underestimation of their performance and overestimation of the visibility of their anxiety. The effects were not specific to participants with high social anxiety. Observers rated the behaviour of participants who believed that their arousal had decreased most favourably. The results have implications for the treatment of social phobia. PMID:17223072

  2. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Prober, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, the role of endogenous NE is unclear, with contradicting reports concerning the sleep phenotypes of mice lacking NE due to mutation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh). To investigate NE function in an alternative vertebrate model, we generated dbh mutant zebrafish. In contrast to mice, these animals exhibit dramatically increased sleep. Surprisingly, despite an increase in sleep, dbh mutant zebrafish have a reduced arousal threshold. These phenotypes are also observed in zebrafish treated with small molecules that inhibit NE signaling, suggesting that they are caused by the lack of NE. Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt-expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons. PMID:26374985

  3. Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal.

    PubMed

    Middlemist, R D; Knowles, E S; Matter, C F

    1976-05-01

    The hypothesis that personal space invasions produce arousal was investigated in a field experiment. A men's lavatory provided a setting where norms for privacy were salient, where personal space invasions could occur in the case of men urinating, where the opportunity for compensatory responses to invasion were minimal, and where proximity-induced arousal could be measured. Research on micturation indicates that social stressors inhibit relaxation of the external urethral sphincter, which would delay the onset of micturation, and that they increase intravesical pressure, which would shorten the duration of micturation once begun. Sixty lavatory users were randomly assigned to one of three levels of interpersonal distance and their micturation times were recorded. In a three-urinal lavatory, a confederate stood immediately adjacent to a subject, one urinal removed, or was absent. Paralleling the results of a correlational pilot study, close interpersonal distances increased the delay of onset and decreased the persistence of micturation. These findings provide objective evidence that personal space invasions produce physiological changes associated with arousal. PMID:1271224

  4. Self-focused thinking predicts nighttime physiological de-arousal.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Ueno, Mayumi; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Excessive focus on the internal self has maladaptive consequences for mental and physical health. Although the emotional functions of self-focus have been well established, no study has examined physiological arousal during the daily experience of self-focused thinking. The present study investigates the association between self-focus and autonomic activity using the experience sampling method with ambulatory monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-five students reported the content of their thoughts during their daily activities while their heart rate (HR) was being recorded. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that HRV was lower (and HR was higher) over the sampling day if participants engaged in more self-focus, while HRV increased (and HR decreased) from midday to nighttime if participants did not engage in self-focused thinking. These results suggest that self-focus at night is associated with increased physiological arousal, and leads to inhibition of de-arousal associated with normal sleep processes. Implications for insomnia are discussed. PMID:24444702

  5. Predicting internet pornography use and arousal: the role of individual difference variables.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individual difference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and two factors for women: standard fare and specialized. Findings indicate that sexual disposition is a strong predictor of standard fare use and arousal for both genders. Men and women higher in psychopathy were more likely to use all forms of content. For those high in psychopathy, however, men were only slightly, and women not at all, more likely to find standard fare content arousing. Results are discussed in terms of their potential value for understanding an often overlooked first step in the process of pornography consumption. PMID:19219657

  6. Enhanced antioxidant defense due to extracellular catalase activity in Syrian hamster during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hitomi; Okamoto, Iwao; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Tsunetaka; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2006-08-01

    Mammalian hibernators are considered a natural model for resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injuries, and protective mechanisms against oxidative stress evoked by repeated hibernation-arousal cycles in these animals are increasingly the focus of experimental investigation. Here we show that extracellular catalase activity provides protection against oxidative stress during arousal from hibernation in Syrian hamster. To examine the serum antioxidant defense system, we first assessed the hibernation-arousal state-dependent change in serum attenuation of cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. Serum obtained from hamsters during arousal from hibernation at a rectal temperature of 32 degrees C, concomitant with the period of increased oxidative stress, attenuated the cytotoxicity four-fold more effectively than serum from cenothermic control hamsters. Serum catalase activity significantly increased during arousal, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 50%, compared with cenothermic controls. The cytoprotective effect of purified catalase at the concentration found in serum was also confirmed in a hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity model. Moreover, inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole led to an 80% loss of serum hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. These results suggest that extracellular catalase is effective for protecting hibernators from oxidative stress evoked by arousal from hibernation. PMID:16807122

  7. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the regulation of physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H; Ide, Jaime S; Luo, Xi; Farr, Olivia M; Li, Chiang-shan R

    2014-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies show a correlation between activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and skin conductance measurements. However, little is known whether this brain region plays a causal role in regulating physiological arousal. To address this question, we employed Granger causality analysis (GCA) to establish causality between cerebral blood oxygenation level-dependent and skin conductance signals in 24 healthy adults performing a cognitive task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that activity of the vmPFC not only negatively correlated with skin conductance level (SCL) but also Granger caused SCL, thus establishing the direction of influence. Importantly, across participants, the strength of Granger causality was negatively correlated to phasic skin conductance responses elicited by external events during the behavioral task. In contrast, activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex positively correlated with SCL but did not show a causal relationship in GCA. These new findings indicate that the vmPFC plays a causal role in regulating physiological arousal. Increased vmPFC activity leads to a decrease in skin conductance. The findings may also advance our understanding of dysfunctions of the vmPFC in mood and anxiety disorders that involve altered control of physiological arousal. PMID:23620600

  8. Multilevel modulation of a sensory motor circuit during C. elegans sleep and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Julie Y.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is characterized by behavioral quiescence, homeostasis, increased arousal threshold, and rapid reversibility. Understanding how these properties are encoded by a neuronal circuit has been difficult, and no single molecular or neuronal pathway has been shown to be responsible for the regulation of sleep. Taking advantage of the well-mapped neuronal connections of Caenorhabditis elegans and the sleep-like states in this animal, we demonstrate the changed properties of both sensory neurons and downstream interneurons that mediate sleep and arousal. The ASH sensory neuron displays reduced sensitivity to stimuli in the sleep-like state, and the activity of the corresponding interneurons in ASH’s motor circuit becomes asynchronous. Restoration of interneuron synchrony is sufficient for arousal. The multilevel circuit depression revealed provides an elegant strategy to promote a robust decrease in arousal while allowing for rapid reversibility of the sleep state. PMID:24439380

  9. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well-understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally-negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to one of two control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses – increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance – and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

  10. Glutamatergic Signaling from the Parabrachial Nucleus Plays a Critical Role in Hypercapnic Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, S.; Pedersen, N. P.; Yokota, S.; Hur, E.E.; Fuller, P. M.; Lazarus, M.; Chamberlin, N.L.; Saper, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of arousal from apneas during sleep in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not well understood. However, respiratory chemosensory pathways converge on the parabrachial nucleus (PB), which sends glutamatergic projections to a variety of forebrain structures critical to arousal including the basal forebrain, lateral hypothalamus, midline thalamus, and cerebral cortex. We tested the role of glutamatergic signaling in this pathway by developing an animal model for repetitive CO2 arousals (RCA) and investigating the effect of deleting the gene for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) from neurons in the PB. We used mice with lox P sequences flanking exon2 of the Vglut2 gene, in which adeno-associated viral vectors containing genes encoding Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein were microinjected into the PB to permanently and selectively disrupt Vglut2 expression while labeling the affected neurons. We recorded sleep in these mice and then investigated the arousals during RCA. Vglut2 deletions that included the external lateral and lateral crescent subdivisions of the lateral PB more than doubled the latency to arousal and resulted in failure to arouse by 30 s in over 30% of trials. By contrast, deletions that involved the medial PB subdivision had minimal effects on arousal during hypercapnia but instead increased NREM sleep by about 43% during the dark period, and increased delta power in the EEG during NREM sleep by about 50%. Our results suggest that glutamatergic neurons in the lateral PB are necessary for arousals from sleep in response to CO2, while medial PB glutamatergic neurons play an important role in promoting spontaneous waking. PMID:23637157

  11. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  12. Distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence and their interaction in parallel following a temporal hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Charis; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2015-04-15

    The cerebellum participates in emotion-related neural circuits formed by different cortical and subcortical areas, which sub-serve arousal and valence. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown a functional specificity of cerebellar lobules in the processing of emotional stimuli. However, little is known about the temporal component of this process. The goal of the current study is to assess the spatiotemporal profile of neural responses within the cerebellum during the processing of arousal and valence. We hypothesized that the excitation and timing of distinct cerebellar lobules is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli. By using magnetoencephalography, we recorded magnetic fields from twelve healthy human individuals while passively viewing affective pictures rated along arousal and valence. By using a beamformer, we localized gamma-band activity in the cerebellum across time and we related the foci of activity to the anatomical organization of the cerebellum. Successive cerebellar activations were observed within distinct lobules starting ~160ms after the stimuli onset. Arousal was processed within both vermal (VI and VIIIa) and hemispheric (left Crus II) lobules. Valence (left VI) and its interaction (left V and left Crus I) with arousal were processed only within hemispheric lobules. Arousal processing was identified first at early latencies (160ms) and was long-lived (until 980ms). In contrast, the processing of valence and its interaction to arousal was short lived at later stages (420-530ms and 570-640ms respectively). Our findings provide for the first time evidence that distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence, and their interaction in a parallel yet temporally hierarchical manner determined by the emotional content of the stimuli. PMID:25665964

  13. The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

    Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

  14. Affective ERP Processing in a Visual Oddball Task: Arousal, Valence, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Rozenkrants, Bella; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess affective event-related brain potentials (ERPs) using visual pictures that were highly distinct on arousal level/valence category ratings and a response task. Methods Images from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) were selected to obtain distinct affective arousal (low, high) and valence (negative, positive) rating levels. The pictures were used as target stimuli in an oddball paradigm, with a visual pattern as the standard stimulus. Participants were instructed to press a button whenever a picture occurred and to ignore the standard. Task performance and response time did not differ across conditions. Results High-arousal compared to low-arousal stimuli produced larger amplitudes for the N2, P3, early slow wave, and late slow wave components. Valence amplitude effects were weak overall and originated primarily from the later waveform components and interactions with electrode position. Gender differences were negligible. Conclusion The findings suggest that arousal level is the primary determinant of affective oddball processing, and valence minimally influences ERP amplitude. Significance Affective processing engages selective attentional mechanisms that are primarily sensitive to the arousal properties of emotional stimuli. The application and nature of task demands are important considerations for interpreting these effects. PMID:18783987

  15. Acoustic features to arousal and identity in disturbance calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2009-11-01

    Across mammalian species, comparable morphological and physiological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations are suggested to lead to commonalities in the vocal conveyance of acoustic features to specific attributes of callers, such as arousal and individual identity. To explore this hypothesis we examined intra- and interindividual acoustic variation in chatter calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). The calls were induced experimentally by a disturbance paradigm and related to two defined arousal states of a subject. The arousal state of an animal was primarily operationalised by the habituation of the subject to a new environment and additionally determined by behavioural indicators of stress in tree shrews (tail-position and piloerection). We investigated whether the arousal state and indexical features of the caller, namely individual identity and sex, are conveyed acoustically. Frame-by-frame videographic and multiparametric sound analyses revealed that arousal and identity, but not sex of a caller reliably predicted spectral-temporal variation in sound structure. Furthermore, there was no effect of age or body weight on individual-specific acoustic features. Similar results in another call type of tree shrews and comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence that comparable physiological and morphological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations across mammals lead to commonalities in acoustic features conveying arousal and identity, respectively. PMID:19445967

  16. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense. PMID:16362253

  17. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M T; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  18. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  19. A role for primate subgenual cingulate cortex in sustaining autonomic arousal.

    PubMed

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Putnam, Philip T; Daniels, Teresa E; Yang, Tianming; Mitz, Andrew R; Rhodes, Sarah E V; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2014-04-01

    The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (subgenual ACC) plays an important role in regulating emotion, and degeneration in this area correlates with depressed mood and anhedonia. Despite this understanding, it remains unknown how this part of the prefrontal cortex causally contributes to emotion, especially positive emotions. Using Pavlovian conditioning procedures in macaque monkeys, we examined the contribution of the subgenual ACC to autonomic arousal associated with positive emotional events. After such conditioning, autonomic arousal increases in response to cues that predict rewards, and monkeys maintain this heightened state of arousal during an interval before reward delivery. Here we show that although monkeys with lesions of the subgenual ACC show the initial, cue-evoked arousal, they fail to sustain a high level of arousal until the anticipated reward is delivered. Control procedures showed that this impairment did not result from differences in autonomic responses to reward delivery alone, an inability to learn the association between cues and rewards, or to alterations in the light reflex. Our data indicate that the subgenual ACC may contribute to positive affect by sustaining arousal in anticipation of positive emotional events. A failure to maintain positive affect for expected pleasurable events could provide insight into the pathophysiology of psychological disorders in which negative emotions dominate a patient's affective experience. PMID:24706828

  20. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women. PMID:11898709

  1. Specificity of autonomic arousal to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tabitha A; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Brian, Jessica; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety is one of the most concerning comorbidities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to its high prevalence, negative impact on physical and psychological well-being, and interaction with core deficits of ASD. Current assessment and treatment of anxiety, which rely on the observation of behavior and self-reports, are often ineffective as ASD is associated with deficits in communication and diminished introspective ability. In this light, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been suggested as a marker of physiological arousal associated with anxiety. However, physiological arousal measured by ANS indices also occurs with other cognitive and emotional processes, and it is unclear whether anxiety-related arousal can be differentiated from that related to other cognitive processes. To address this gap, we investigated the use of linear and nonlinear classification techniques for differentiating anxiety-related arousal from arousal due to three cognitive processes (attention, inhibitory control, and social cognition) and physical activity based on electrocardiography signal features. Our results indicate that over 80% classification accuracy can be achieved, suggesting that ANS response can be used as a specific marker of anxiety-related arousal in a subgroup of children with ASD who demonstrate an increase in heart rate in response to anxiogenic stimuli. PMID:26389543

  2. Executive functioning and diabetes: The role of anxious arousal and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Lacourt, Tamara E; Duke, Danny C; Heijnen, Cobi J; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-09-01

    Individuals who perform poorly on measures of the executive function of inhibition have higher anxious arousal in comparison to those with better performance. High anxious arousal is associated with a pro-inflammatory response. Chronically high anxious arousal and inflammation increase one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We sought to evaluate anxious arousal and inflammation as underlying mechanisms linking inhibition with diabetes incidence. Participants (N=835) completed measures of cognitive abilities, a self-report measure of anxious arousal, and donated blood to assess interleukin-6 (IL-6) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Individuals with low inhibition were more likely to have diabetes than those with high inhibition due to the serial pathway from high anxious arousal to IL-6. Findings remained when entering other indicators of cognitive abilities as covariates, suggesting that inhibition is a unique cognitive ability associated with diabetes incidence. On the basis of our results, we propose several avenues to explore for improved prevention and treatment efforts for type 2 diabetes. PMID:27261922

  3. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  4. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  5. The Comparisons of Cerebral Hemodynamics Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Arousal and Periodic Limb Movement with Arousal: A Pilot NIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) are two sleep disorders characterized by repetitive respiratory or movement events associated with cortical arousals. We compared the cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to periodic apneas/hypopneas with arousals (AHA) in four OSA-patients with periodic limb movements (PLMA) with arousals in four patients with RLS-PLMS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). AHA induced homogenous pattern of periodic fluctuations in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, i.e., the decrease of HbO2 was accompanied by an increase of HHb during the respiratory event and resolved to reverse pattern when cortical arousal started. Blood volume (BV) showed the same pattern as HHb but with relative smaller amplitude in most of the AHA events.These changing patterns were significant as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave p < 0.001 when comparing the area under the curve of these hemodynamic parameters to zero. By contrast, in PLMA limb movements induced periodic increments in HbO2 and BV (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, p < 0.001), but HHb changed more heterogeneously even during the events coming from the same patient. Heart rate (HR) also showed different patterns between AHA and PLMA. It significantly decreased during the respiratory event (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then increased after the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001); while in PLMA HR first increased preceding the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then decreased. The results of this preliminary study show that both AHA and PLMA induce changes in cerebral hemodynamics. The occurrence of cortical arousal is accompanied by increased HR in both events, but by different BV changes (i.e., decreased/increased BV in AHA/PLMA, respectively). HR changes may partially account for the increased cerebral hemodynamics during PLMA

  6. The Carotid Body and Arousal in the Fetus and Neonate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO2. Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO2 in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and don’t know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  7. The Effect of Arousal on Warm Up Decrement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect warm-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated warm-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to warm-up decrement are explored.…

  8. Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

  9. Contingent negative variation indicates phasic arousal for externally cued unilateral eye blink in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Kropp, P; Hoffmeister, J; Verri, A; Galli, C; Gerber, W D

    1999-04-30

    The contingent negative variation (CNV) as a slow cortical potential was used to investigate cortical processing of externally cued, voluntary unilateral eye blink. Probands blinked as a response within a modified two-stimulus reaction time paradigm. Reaction time and amplitudes of CNV were determined. The activity of the orbicularis oculi muscles (OO) was registered by surface electromyography (EMG). Probands who performed unilateral eye blinks with accurately inhibiting contralateral OO activity showed a significantly higher negativity of the early CNV component compared with the bilateral eye blink condition. This effect was confined to the beginning of unilateral blinking performance. It is suggested that the unilateral eye blink is a challenging motor task, initially requiring an increased cortically driven arousal and attention as revealed by increased early CNV components. PMID:10336183

  10. 5 CFR 531.407 - Equivalent increase determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion of an employee receiving a retained rate under 5 CFR 359.705 or 5 CFR part 536 that does not... rates. Since locality rates under subpart F of this part and special rates under 5 CFR part 530, subpart... within the employee's GS grade (or an increase for a GM employee to the next higher rate within the...

  11. Effects of Antidepressant Treatment on Sexual Arousal in Depressed Women: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jong-Chul; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Eun, Sung-Jong; Lee, Moo-Suk; Han, Kyung-Lae; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective There was a recent study to explore the cerebral regions associated with sexual arousal in depressed women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this neuroimaging study was to investigate the effects of antidepressant treatment on sexual arousal in depressed women. Methods Seven depressed women with sexual arousal dysfunction (mean age: 41.7±13.8, mean scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17): 35.6±7.1 and 34.9±3.1, respectively) and nine healthy women (mean age: 40.3±11.6) underwent fMRI before and after antidepressant treatment. The fMRI paradigm contrasted a 1 minute rest period viewing non-erotic film with 4 minutes of sexual stimulation viewing an erotic video film. Data were analyzed by SPM 2. The relative number of pixels activated in each period was used as an index of activation. All depressed women were treated with mirtazapine (mean dosage: 37.5 mg/day) for 8 to 10 weeks. Results Levels of brain activity during sexual arousal in depressed women significantly increased with antidepressant treatment (p<0.05) in the regions of the hypothalamus (3.0% to 11.2%), septal area (8.6% to 27.8%) and parahippocampal gyrus (5.8% to 14.6%). Self-reported sexual arousal during visual sexual stimulation also significantly increased post-treatment, and severity of depressive symptoms improved, as measured by the BDI and HAMD-17 (p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that sexual arousal dysfunction of depressed women may improve after treatment of depression, and that this improvement is associated with increased activation of the hypothalamus, septal area, and parahippocampal gyrus during sexual arousal. PMID:23251203

  12. Arousal Modulation in Cocaine-Exposed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The ability to modulate arousal is a critical skill with wide-ranging implications for development. In this study, the authors examined arousal regulation as a function of levels of prenatal cocaine exposure in 107 infants at 4 months of age using a “still-face” procedure. Facial expressions were coded. A greater percentage of heavily cocaine-exposed infants, compared with those who were unexposed to cocaine, showed less enjoyment during en face play with their mothers and continued to show negative expressions during the resumption of play following a period when the interaction was interrupted. This finding was independent of other substance exposure, neonatal medical condition, environmental risk, maternal contingent responsivity, and concurrent maternal sensitivity and vocalizations. PMID:9597364

  13. The Relationship of Arousal During Learning to Short- and Long-Term Retention Employing Two Indices of Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovejoy, Marcia A.; Farley, Frank H.

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that paired-associate learning accompanied by high arousal should lead to stronger permanent memory and weaker immediate memory than paired-associate learning accompanied by low arousal. During continuous recording of skin resistance and heart rate as measures of arousal, 32 Ss were given a one-trial,…

  14. Disorders of Arousal From Sleep and Violent Behavior: The Role of Physical Contact and Proximity

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To review medical and legal case reports to determine how many appear to support the belief that violence against other individuals that occurs during Disorders of Arousal - sleepwalking, confusional arousal, and sleep terrors – is triggered by direct physical contact or close proximity to that individual and does not occur randomly or spontaneously. Design: Historical review of case reports in the medical and legal literature. Measurements and Results: A total of 32 cases drawn from medical and legal literature were reviewed. Each case contained a record of violence associated with Disorders of Arousal; in each, details of the violent behavior were available. Violent behaviors associated with provocations and/or close proximity were found to be present in 100% of confusional arousal patients and 81% of sleep terror patients. Violent behaviors were associated with provocation or close proximity in 40%–90% of sleepwalking cases, depending on whether the legal verdict and other factors were taken into account. Often the provocation was quite minor and the response greatly exaggerated. The specific manner in which the violence was triggered differed among sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors. Conclusions: In the cases reviewed, violent behavior directed against other individuals associated with Disorders of Arousal most frequently appeared to follow direct provocation by, or close proximity to, another individual. Sleepwalkers most often did not seek out victims, but rather the victims sought out or encountered the sleepwalker. These conclusions are tempered by several limitations: the selection of cases was not random and may not represent an accurate sample of violent behaviors associated with Disorders of Arousal. Also, final verdicts by juries in reported legal cases should not be confused with scientific proof of the presence or absence of sleepwalking. The pathophysiology of Disorders of Arousal with and without violent

  15. Reversible blunting of arousal from sleep in response to intermittent hypoxia in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Darnall, R A; McWilliams, S; Schneider, R W; Tobia, C M

    2010-12-01

    Arousal is an important survival mechanism when infants are confronted with hypoxia during sleep. Many sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia before death and have impaired arousal mechanisms. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to hypoxia would cause a progressive blunting of arousal, and that a reversal of this process would occur if the hypoxia was terminated at the time of arousal. P5 (postnatal age of 5 days), P15, and P25 rat pups were exposed to either eight trials of hypoxia (3 min 5% O(2) alternating with room air) (group A), or three hypoxia trials as in group A, followed by five trials in which hypoxia was terminated at arousal (group B). In both groups A and B, latency increased over the first four trials of hypoxia, but reversed in group B animals during trials 5-8. Progressive arousal blunting was more pronounced in the older pups. The effects of intermittent hypoxia on heart rate also depended on age. In the older pups, heart rate increased with each hypoxia exposure. In the P5 pups, however, heart rate decreased during hypoxia and did not return to baseline between exposures, resulting in a progressive fall of baseline values over successive hypoxia exposures. In the group B animals, heart rate changes during trials 1-4 also reversed during trials 5-8. We conclude that exposure to repeated episodes of hypoxia can cause progressive blunting of arousal, which is reversible by altering the exposure times to hypoxia and the period of recovery between hypoxia exposures. PMID:20930126

  16. Circadian clock resetting by behavioral arousal: neural correlates in the midbrain raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Webb, I C; Patton, D F; Landry, G J; Mistlberger, R E

    2010-03-31

    Some procedures for stimulating arousal in the usual daily rest period (e.g., gentle handling, novel wheel-induced running) can phase shift circadian rhythms in Syrian hamsters, while other arousal procedures are ineffective (inescapable stress, caffeine, modafinil). The dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DRN, MnR) have been implicated in clock resetting by arousal and, in rats and mice, exhibit strong regionally specific responses to inescapable stress and anxiogenic drugs. To examine a possible role for the midbrain raphe nuclei in the differential effects of arousal procedures on circadian rhythms, hamsters were aroused for 3 h in the mid-rest period by confinement to a novel running wheel, gentle handling (with minimal activity) or physical restraint (with intermittent, loud compressed air stimulation) and sacrificed immediately thereafter. Regional expression of c-fos and tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpOH) were quantified immunocytochemically in the DRN, MnR and locus coeruleus (LC). Neither gentle handling nor wheel running had a large impact on c-fos expression in these areas, although the manipulations were associated with a small increase in c-Fos in TrpOH-like and TrpOH-negative cells, respectively, in the caudal interfascicular DRN region. By contrast, restraint stress significantly increased c-Fos in both TrpOH-like and TrpOH-negative cells in the rostral DRN and LC. c-Fos-positive cells in the DRN did not express tyrosine hydroxylase. These results reveal regionally specific monoaminergic correlates of arousal-induced circadian clock resetting, and suggest a hypothesis that strong activation of some DRN and LC neurons by inescapable stress may oppose clock resetting in response to arousal during the daily sleep period. More generally, these results complement evidence from other rodent species for functional topographic organization of the DRN. PMID:20079808

  17. [Determining the Bacillus subtilis biomass increase coefficient in weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Bergter, F; Kharts, D; Miuller, P Iu; Mund, K; Giunter, Iu

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a microbiological experiment carried out by the Soviet and GDR scientists onboard Salyut-6. The experiment was performed using a Bacillus subtilis suspension in the Jena unit. The purpose of the experiment was to study the time-course variations of the cell biomass increase in zero-g. The cell culture development was measured with respect to the utilization rate of glucose or casein hydrolyzate in the nutrient medium and the rate of protein accumulation in cells. It has been shown that the rate of biomass increment in zero-g lags behind the 1 g level. It can be concluded that the decreased metabolic activity of bacterial cells in zero-g is associated with changes in the cell population distribution and physicochemical parameters of the nutrient medium. PMID:3932750

  18. Beyond arousal: valence and potency/control cues in the vocal expression of emotion.

    PubMed

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Scherer, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    The important role of arousal in determining vocal parameters in the expression of emotion is well established. There is less evidence for the contribution of emotion dimensions such as valence and potency/control to vocal emotion expression. Here, an acoustic analysis of the newly developed Geneva Multimodal Emotional Portrayals corpus, is presented to examine the role of dimensions other than arousal. This corpus contains twelve emotions that systematically vary with respect to valence, arousal, and potency/control. The emotions were portrayed by professional actors coached by a stage director. The extracted acoustic parameters were first compared with those obtained from a similar corpus [Banse and Scherer (1996). J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 70, 614-636] and shown to largely replicate the earlier findings. Based on a principal component analysis, seven composite scores were calculated and were used to determine the relative contribution of the respective vocal parameters to the emotional dimensions arousal, valence, and potency/control. The results show that although arousal dominates for many vocal parameters, it is possible to identify parameters, in particular spectral balance and spectral noise, that are specifically related to valence and potency/control. PMID:20815467

  19. Don’t Look Down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    In a series of experiments we found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or non-arousing images before estimating the height of a two-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target size more than those who viewed non-arousing images. However, in Experiment 2, estimates of horizontal distances were not influenced by emotional arousal. In Experiment 3, we manipulated both valence and arousal cues and observed that arousal, but not valence, moderated height perception. In Experiment 4, participants either up-regulated or down-regulated their emotional experience while viewing emotionally arousing images, and a control group simply viewed the arousing images. Those participants who up-regulated their emotional experience overestimated height more than the control or down-regulated participants. In sum, emotional arousal influences estimates of height and this influence can be moderated by emotion regulation strategies. PMID:19203173

  20. The impact of stimulus arousal level on emotion regulation effectiveness in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Skye; Kuo, Janice R

    2016-07-30

    Basic emotion theory suggests that the effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies vary with the intensity of the emotionally-salient stimulus. Although findings from studies using healthy samples are concordant with what is proposed by theory, it is unclear whether these relationships hold true among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Twenty-five individuals with BPD and 30 HCs were exposed to negative images of varying levels of emotional arousal and were instructed to either react as they normally would, distract, or use mindful awareness. Self-reported negativity ratings, heart rate, and skin conductance level (SCL) were monitored throughout. SCL data indicated that increases in image arousal resulted in larger reductions in SCL when distracting but not when implementing mindful awareness. Self-report data suggested that, in HCs, the effectiveness of mindful awareness decreased to a greater extent than distraction when image arousal increased. These findings are consistent with basic emotion research and suggest that some forms of emotion regulation (distraction) are more suited to high emotion arousal contexts than others (mindful awareness) and that, compared with HCs, individuals with BPD may be more resilient to the deteriorating effectiveness of mindful awareness with respect to increasing emotional arousal. PMID:27203152

  1. Cardiovascular sympathetic arousal in response to different mental stressors.

    PubMed

    Mestanik, M; Mestanikova, A; Visnovcova, Z; Calkovska, A; Tonhajzerova, I

    2016-01-01

    The altered regulation of autonomic response to mental stress can result in increased cardiovascular risk. The laboratory tests used to simulate the autonomic responses to real-life stressors do not necessarily induce generalized sympathetic activation; therefore, the assessment of regulatory outputs to different effector organs could be important. We aimed to study the cardiovascular sympathetic arousal in response to different mental stressors (Stroop test, mental arithmetic test) in 20 healthy students. The conceivable sympathetic vascular index - spectral power of low frequency band of systolic arterial pressure variability (LF-SAP) and novel potential cardio-sympathetic index - symbolic dynamics heart rate variability index 0V% were evaluated. The heart and vessels responded differently to mental stress - while Stroop test induced increase of both 0V% and LF-SAP indices suggesting complex sympathetic arousal, mental arithmetic test evoked only 0V% increase compared to baseline (p<0.01, p<0.001, p<0.01, respectively). Significantly greater reactivity of LF-SAP, 0V%, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were found in response to Stroop test compared to mental arithmetic test potentially indicating the effect of different central processing (0V%, LF-SAP: p<0.001; HR, MAP: p<0.01). The different effectors' sympathetic responses to cognitive stressors could provide novel important information regarding potential pathomechanisms of stress-related diseases. PMID:26674281

  2. Brain Processing of Emotional Scenes in Aging: Effect of Arousal and Affective Context

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

  3. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  4. Disentangling the Effect of Valence and Arousal on Judgments Concerning Moral Transgressions.

    PubMed

    de la Viña, Luis; Garcia-Burgos, David; Okan, Yasmina; Cándido, Antonio; González, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of research has investigated the effect of emotions on judgments concerning moral transgressions. Yet, few studies have controlled for arousal levels associated with the emotions. High arousal may affect moral processing by triggering attention to salient features of transgressions, independently of valence. Therefore previously documented differences in effects of negative and positive emotions may have been confounded by differences in arousal. We conducted two studies to shed light on this issue. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire including vignettes selected on the basis of psychometrical properties (i.e., mean ratings of the actions and variability). This questionnaire was administered to participants in Study 2, after presenting them with selected pictures inducing different valence but equivalent levels of arousal. Negative pictures led to more severe moral judgments than neutral (p = .054, d = 0.60) and positive pictures (p = .002, d = 1.02), for vignettes that were not associated with extreme judgments. In contrast, positive pictures did not reliably affect judgments concerning such vignettes. These findings suggest that the observed effects of emotions cannot be accounted for by an increase in attention linked to the arousal which accompanies these emotions. PMID:26256035

  5. When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2009-02-01

    This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games. PMID:19006459

  6. Norepinephrine at the nexus of arousal, motivation and relapse.

    PubMed

    España, Rodrigo A; Schmeichel, Brooke E; Berridge, Craig W

    2016-06-15

    Arousal plays a critical role in cognitive, affective and motivational processes. Consistent with this, the dysregulation of arousal-related neural systems is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including addiction. Noradrenergic systems exert potent arousal-enhancing actions that involve signaling at α1- and β-noradrenergic receptors within a distributed network of subcortical regions. The majority of research into noradrenergic modulation of arousal has focused on the nucleus locus coeruleus. Nevertheless, anatomical studies demonstrate that multiple noradrenergic nuclei innervate subcortical arousal-related regions, providing a substrate for differential regulation of arousal across these distinct noradrenergic nuclei. The arousal-promoting actions of psychostimulants and other drugs of abuse contribute to their widespread abuse. Moreover, relapse can be triggered by a variety of arousal-promoting events, including stress and re-exposure to drugs of abuse. Evidence has long-indicated that norepinephrine plays an important role in relapse. Recent observations suggest that noradrenergic signaling elicits affectively-neutral arousal that is sufficient to reinstate drug seeking. Collectively, these observations indicate that norepinephrine plays a key role in the interaction between arousal, motivation, and relapse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26773688

  7. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

    PubMed

    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness. PMID:27090424

  8. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection. PMID:26310879

  9. Amygdala task-evoked activity and task-free connectivity independently contribute to feelings of arousal.

    PubMed

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Bickart, Kevin C; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2014-10-01

    Individual differences in the intensity of feelings of arousal while viewing emotional pictures have been associated with the magnitude of task-evoked blood-oxygen dependent (BOLD) response in the amygdala. Recently, we reported that individual differences in feelings of arousal are associated with task-free (resting state) connectivity within the salience network. There has not yet been an investigation of whether these two types of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures are redundant or independent in their relationships to behavior. Here we tested the hypothesis that a combination of task-evoked amygdala activation and task-free amygdala connectivity within the salience network relate to individual differences in feelings of arousal while viewing of negatively potent images. In 25 young adults, results revealed that greater task-evoked amygdala activation and stronger task-free amygdala connectivity within the salience network each contributed independently to feelings of arousal, predicting a total of 45% of its variance. Individuals who had both increased task-evoked amygdala activation and stronger task-free amygdala connectivity within the salience network had the most heightened levels of arousal. Task-evoked amygdala activation and task-free amygdala connectivity within the salience network were not related to each other, suggesting that resting-state and task-evoked dynamic brain imaging measures may provide independent and complementary information about affective experience, and likely other kinds of behaviors as well. PMID:24862171

  10. Sudden infant deaths: arousal as a survival mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Andre; Groswasser, Jose; Franco, Patricia; Scaillet, Sonia; Sawaguchi, Toshiko; Kelmanson, Igor; Bernanrd, Dan

    2002-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are still largely unknown. To explain what factors contribute to the deaths, we suggest a model: the '3 S model for SIDS' that includes 'sicknesses', 'stages of development' and 'surroundings': (1) 'sicknesses' refers to infectious diseases or other medical condition. (2) 'Stages of development' relates to the maturation of vital systems including respiratory, neurovegetative or sleep-wake behavioral controls. (3) 'Surroundings' refers to environmental conditions that enhance the deficiency of cardiorespiratory, vegetative and/or arousal controls. Such conditions were identified by epidemiological studies and include the following main risk factors: the prone body position during sleep, high environmental temperature, maternal smoking or sleep deprivation. An infant could be at higher risk for SIDS because of a deficiency in breathing and cardiac autonomic controls during sleep, inducing repeated episodes of hypoxia and hypoxemia. The risk is increased when the infant has a lower propensity to arouse from sleep and so, to autoresuscitate. The accident has a greater probability to occur when an infection, or an unfavorable environmental factor aggravates the immature cardiorespiratory and sleep/wake behaviors of the infant. The clinical findings could be related to the changes reported in the brainstems of SIDS victims. PMID:14592372

  11. Music, perceived arousal, and intensity: psychophysiological reactions to Chopin's "Tristesse".

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian Alexander; Schwab, Simon; Niederhauser, Sandra; Wuermle, Othmar; Strik, Werner; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the relation of perceived arousal (continuous self-rating), autonomic nervous system activity (heart rate, heart rate variability) and musical characteristics (sound intensity, musical rhythm) upon listening to a complex musical piece. Twenty amateur musicians listened to two performances of Chopin's "Tristesse" with different rhythmic shapes. Besides conventional statistical methods for analyzing psychophysiological reactions (heart rate, respiration rate) and musical variables, semblance analysis was used. Perceived arousal correlated strongly with sound intensity; heart rate showed only a partial response to changes in sound intensity. Larger changes in heart rate were caused by the version with more rhythmic tension. The low-/high-frequency ratio of heart rate variability increased--whereas the high frequency component decreased--during music listening. We conclude that autonomic nervous system activity can be modulated not only by sound intensity but also by the interpreter's use of rhythmic tension. Semblance analysis enables us to track the subtle correlations between musical and physiological variables. PMID:23763714

  12. Normalization of aortic function during arousal episodes in the hibernating ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert H; Deelman, Leo E; Hut, Roelof A; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Buikema, Hendrik; Nelemans, S Adriaan; Lip, Harm; De Zeeuw, Dick; Daan, Serge; Epema, Anne H

    2002-03-15

    Hypothermia is commonly used to restrict organ damage during preservation of tissue, but does not offer complete protection. Organ damage after reperfusion/rewarming is amongst others caused by an impairment of vascular properties, particularly endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. We hypothesized that hibernating small animals, which frequently cycle through periods of deep cooling (torpor) and full rewarming (arousal), employ specific mechanisms to preserve vascular function after cooling and reperfusion. Therefore we measured contraction of aortic tissue of hibernating European ground squirrels after 24 h and 7 days of torpor, arousal (1.5 h) and in non-hibernating animals. To assess the role of nitric oxide (NO), experiments were performed in the absence and presence of the NO-synthesis inhibitor, L-NMMA (10(-4) M). Maximum contraction to phenylephrine and angiotensin II was doubled in 7-days torpid animals without a shift in EC50, compared to the other 3 groups. Maximum contraction to KCl was doubled in 7-days torpid animals compared to the arousal group and non-hibernating animals. Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitrite in phenylephrine precontracted rings did not differ between groups. In the presence of L-NMMA, the maximum of concentration-response curves for all three vasoconstrictors was increased by about 30% in the arousal group, but unaffected in other groups. L-NMMA completely inhibited ACh-induced relaxation in 24-h torpid animals and non-hibernating animals, but only partially in 7-days torpid animals and in the arousal group. From this we conclude that vascular adaptation proceeds during torpor. Further, increased contractility of aortic tissue during long torpor returns to normal within 1.5 hours of arousal, which is associated with an increased basal NO synthesis. In addition, involvement of NO in agonist-mediated relaxation differs between the various stages of hibernation.Thus, hibernating animals have effectively developed

  13. Emotional arousal and discount rate in intertemporal choice are reference-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Karolina M.; Glimcher, Paul W.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Many decisions involve weighing immediate gratification against future consequences. In such intertemporal choices, people often choose smaller, immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. It has been proposed that emotional responses to immediate rewards lead us to choose them at our long-term expense. Here we utilize an objective measure of emotional arousal – pupil dilation – to examine the role of emotion in these decisions. We show that emotional arousal responses, as well as choices, in intertemporal choice tasks are reference-dependent and reflect the decision-maker’s recent history of offers. Arousal increases when less predictable rewards are better than expected, whether those rewards are immediate or delayed. Furthermore, when immediate rewards are less predictable than delayed rewards, participants tend to be patient. When delayed rewards are less predictable, immediate rewards are preferred. Our findings suggest that we can encourage people to be more patient by changing the context in which intertemporal choices are made. PMID:25602754

  14. Psychophysiological sexual arousal in women with a history of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in women with CSA and PTSD. We measured physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women with CSA (n = 8), women with CSA and PTSD (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10) during exposure to nonerotic and erotic videos. After exercise, women with CSA and women with CSA and PTSD showed no significant differences in the physiological sexual response compared with no exercise, which was different from the increased physiological sexual response after exercise observed in control women. PMID:16234222

  15. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external. PMID:19093614

  16. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    PubMed

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  17. The place of confusional arousals in sleep and mental disorders: findings in a general population sample of 13,057 subjects.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M; Priest, R G; Zulley, J; Smirne, S

    2000-06-01

    Confusional arousals, or sleep drunkenness, occur upon awakening and remain unstudied in the general population. We selected a representative sample from the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy (N = 13,057) and conducted telephone interviews. Confusional arousals were reported by 2.9% of the sample: 1% (95% confidence interval: .8 to 1.2%) of the sample also presented with memory deficits (53.9%), disorientation in time and/or space (71%), or slow mentation and speech (54.4%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%) reported confusional arousals without associated features. Younger subjects (< 35 years) and shift or night workers were at higher risk of reporting confusional arousals. These arousals were strongly associated with the presence of a mental disorder with odds ratios ranging from 2.4 to 13.5. Bipolar and anxiety disorders were the most frequently associated mental disorders. Furthermore, subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS), hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, violent or injurious behaviors, insomnia, and hypersomnia are more likely to suffer from confusional arousals. Confusional arousals appears to occur quite frequently in the general population, affecting mostly younger subjects regardless of their gender. Physicians should be aware of the frequent associations between confusional arousals, mental disorders, and OSAS. Furthermore, the high occurrence of confusional arousals in shift or night workers may increase the likelihood of inappropriate response by employees sleeping at work. PMID:10890342

  18. [Symptomatology and treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder. Case report].

    PubMed

    Erős, Erika; Brockhauser, Ildikó; Pólyán, Edina

    2015-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder is a rare condition among women characterized by unwanted and intrusive sexual arousal that can persist for an extended period of time and unrelated to sexual desire or sexual stimuli. Since its first documentation in 2001, numerous studies have been dedicated to investigate its specifics. The persistent genital arousal occurs in the absence of sexual interest and fantasies and it causes excessive psychological suffering. Masturbation, spontaneous orgasm or sexual intercourse can offer only a temporary relief. Researches provide a limited insight into the characteristics of persistent genital arousal disorder. This paper presents a case and summarizes the scientific findings on prevalence, etiology and treatment perspectives. PMID:25845321

  19. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  20. Striatal hyperthermia associated with arousal: intracranial thermorecordings in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, E A; Wise, R A

    2001-11-01

    Humans and experimental animals show strong increases in body temperature in response to a variety of stimuli presumed to have stress as their common denominator. To assess the brain's role in this 'emotional' hyperthermia, temperatures were continuously recorded in dorsal and ventral striatum and in deep temporal muscle of freely moving rats exposed to different arousing and mild stress stimuli (placement in the test cage, 20-s sound stimulation, i.v. saline injection, 3-min social interaction with conspecific, and 3-min tail-pinch). The stimuli caused brain hyperthermia of differing degrees but similar pattern, in both the dorsal and ventral striatum. Ventral striatum had approximately 0.4 degrees C higher basal temperature than dorsal striatum, each of these brain temperatures was higher than that in deep temporal muscle. Maximal increases in brain temperature ( approximately 0.8-1.2 degrees C for 20-40 min) occurred upon placement in the test cages, during tail-pinch and during social interaction, all of which were accompanied by behavioral activation. These increases developed with short onset latencies (up to 5-15 s) and always preceded increases in muscle temperature. Significant but smaller increases in brain temperature ( approximately 0.2 degrees C for 4-6 min) were detected after sound stimulation and i.v. saline injection that induced minimal changes in behavior and no change in muscle temperature. Thus, it appears that brain hyperthermia can be triggered by quite different arousing or stressful stimuli that disturb an organism's homeostasis and demand adaptive responding. Although the exact mechanisms of local heat production in brain tissue remain to be confirmed, neuronal activation appears to be the primary triggering force behind changes in brain temperature that are sufficient to affect body temperature. Because most neural processes are temperature-dependent, change in local temperature may result in dramatic modulation of the efficiency of

  1. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  2. Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Stein, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of valence and arousal on memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and nonrecollective components of recall without relying on metacognitive judgments to separate them. The results showed that valenced words increased reconstruction (a component of nonrecollective retrieval) relative to…

  3. Arousal and Reminiscence in Learning From Color and Black/White Audio-Visual Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; Grant, Alfred D.

    Reminiscence, or an increase in retention scores from a short-to-long-term retention test, has been shown in some previous work to be a significant function of arousal. Previous studies of the effects of color versus black-and-white audiovisual presentations have generally used film or television and have found no facilitating effect of color on…

  4. Effects of Chronic Sleep Fragmentation on Wake-Active Neurons and the Hypercapnic Arousal Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanpeng; Panossian, Lori A.; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Yan; Zhan, Guanxia; Chou, Yu-Ting; Fenik, Polina; Bhatnagar, Seema; Piel, David A.; Beck, Sheryl G.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Delayed hypercapnic arousals may occur in obstructive sleep apnea. The impaired arousal response is expected to promote more pronounced oxyhemoglobin desaturations. We hypothesized that long-term sleep fragmentation (SF) results in injury to or dysfunction of wake-active neurons that manifests, in part, as a delayed hypercapnic arousal response. Design: Adult male mice were implanted for behavioral state recordings and randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either orbital platform SF (SF4wk, 30 events/h) or control conditions (Ct4wk) prior to behavioral, histological, and locus coeruleus (LC) whole cell electrophysiological evaluations. Measurements and Results: SF was successfully achieved across the 4 week study, as evidenced by a persistently increased arousal index, P < 0.01 and shortened sleep bouts, P < 0.05, while total sleep/wake times and plasma corticosterone levels were unaffected. A multiple sleep latency test performed at the onset of the dark period showed a reduced latency to sleep in SF4wk mice (P < 0.05). The hypercapnic arousal latency was increased, Ct4wk 64 ± 5 sec vs. SF4wk 154 ± 6 sec, P < 0.001, and remained elevated after a 2 week recovery (101 ± 4 sec, P < 0.001). C-fos activation in noradrenergic, orexinergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic wake-active neurons was reduced in response to hypercapnia (P < 0.05-0.001). Catecholaminergic and orexinergic projections into the cingulate cortex were also reduced in SF4wk (P < 0.01). In addition, SF4wk resulted in impaired LC neuron excitability (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Four weeks of sleep fragmentation (SF4wk) impairs arousal responses to hypercapnia, reduces wake neuron projections and locus coeruleus neuronal excitability, supporting the concepts that some effects of sleep fragmentation may contribute to impaired arousal responses in sleep apnea, which may not reverse immediately with therapy. Citation: Li Y; Panossian LA; Zhang J; Zhu Y; Zhan G; Chou YT; Fenik P; Bhatnagar S; Piel

  5. Autonomic arousal and emotion in victims of interpersonal violence: Shame proneness but not anxiety predicts vagal tone

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Steven; D’Andrea, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The redefinition of PTSD in the DSM-5 has highlighted a range of post-traumatic affects beyond fear and anxiety. For survivors of interpersonal violence, shame has been shown to be an important contributor of self-reported symptomatology. While biological models of PTSD emphasize physiological arousal secondary to fear and anxiety, evidence suggests shame might be related to increased arousal as well. This study tested the contributions of anxiety, fear, and shame to autonomic arousal in a sample of female victims (N = 27) of interpersonal violence with PTSD. Shame proneness was the only significant correlate of autonomic arousal during a trauma-reminder paradigm. These findings indicate that shame corresponds to important indicators of changes to the autonomic nervous system, which have previously been assumed to be fear-related. PMID:25894989

  6. 45 CFR 154.225 - Determination by CMS or a State of an unreasonable rate increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... increase is an unreasonable rate increase. (1) CMS will post on its Web site its final determination and a... whether a rate increase is unreasonable and post on the CMS Web site the State's final...

  7. Autonomic arousal explains social cognitive abilities in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-09-01

    Empirical research into behavioural profiles and autonomic responsivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is highly variable and inconsistent. Two preliminary studies of children with ASDs suggest that there may be subgroups of ASDs depending on their resting arousal levels, and that these subgroups show different profiles of autonomic responsivity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether (i) adults with high-functioning ASDs may be separated into subgroups according to variation in resting arousal; and (ii) these ASD arousal subgroups differ in their behavioural profiles for basic emotion recognition, judgements of trustworthiness, and cognitive and affective empathy. Thirty high-functioning adults with ASDs and 34 non-clinical controls participated. Resting arousal was determined as the average skin conductance (SCL) across a 2 min resting period. There was a subgroup of ASD adults with significantly lower resting SCL. These individuals demonstrated poorer emotion recognition, tended to judge faces more negatively, and had atypical relationships between SCL and affective empathy. In contrast, low cognitive empathy was a feature of all ASD adults. These findings have important implications for clinical interventions and future studies investigating autonomic functioning in ASDs. PMID:23628291

  8. CNS- and ANS-arousal predict response to antidepressant medication: Findings from the randomized iSPOT-D study.

    PubMed

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Tränkner, Anja; Surova, Galina; Gevirtz, Richard; Gordon, Evian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Arns, Martijn

    2016-02-01

    Arousal systems are one of the recently announced NIMH Research Domain Criteria to inform future diagnostics and treatment prediction. In major depressive disorder (MDD), altered central nervous system (CNS) wakefulness regulation and an increased sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity have been identified as biomarkers with possible discriminative value for prediction of antidepressant treatment response. Therefore, the hypothesis of a more pronounced decline of CNS and ANS-arousal being predictive for a positive treatment outcome to selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) treatment was derived from a small, independent exploratory dataset (N = 25) and replicated using data from the randomized international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment Response in Depression (iSPOT-D). There, 1008 MDD participants were randomized to either a SSRI (escitalopram or sertraline) or a serotonin-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor (SNRI-venlafaxine) arm. Treatment response was established after eight weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. CNS-arousal (i.e. electroencephalogram-vigilance), ANS-arousal (heart rate) and their change across time were assessed during rest. Responders and remitters to SSRI treatment were characterized by a faster decline of CNS-arousal during rest whereas SNRI responders showed a significant increase of ANS-arousal. Furthermore, SSRI responders/remitters showed an association between ANS- and CNS-arousal regulation in comparison to non-responders/non-remitters while this was not the case for SNRI treatment arm. Since positive treatment outcome to SSRI and SNRI was linked to distinct CNS and ANS-arousal profiles, these predictive markers probably are not disorder specific alterations but reflect the responsiveness of the nervous system to specific drugs. PMID:26714202

  9. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulia, Joseph A.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G.; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition. PMID:24399979

  10. Prediction of Gymnastic Performance from Arousal and Anxiety Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

    This study predicts gymnastic performance, arousal, and anxiety measures from past performances. Pulse rate and the Palmar Sweat Index were utilized as indicants of arousal. Anxiety was assessed by means of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Eighteen members of the Ithaca College women's varsity gymnastic team were tested throughout the 1973-74…

  11. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  12. Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A.

    2010-01-01

    Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention…

  13. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  14. Sequential Analysis of Autonomic Arousal and Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, John; Symons, Frank; Sng, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual…

  15. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  16. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  17. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  18. Differential Effects of Arousal in Positive and Negative Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterized by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive v. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal, and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within and between subject levels. In addition, the within subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  19. Value learning and arousal in the extinction of probabilistic rewards: the role of dopamine in a modified temporal difference model.

    PubMed

    Song, Minryung R; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Because most rewarding events are probabilistic and changing, the extinction of probabilistic rewards is important for survival. It has been proposed that the extinction of probabilistic rewards depends on arousal and the amount of learning of reward values. Midbrain dopamine neurons were suggested to play a role in both arousal and learning reward values. Despite extensive research on modeling dopaminergic activity in reward learning (e.g. temporal difference models), few studies have been done on modeling its role in arousal. Although temporal difference models capture key characteristics of dopaminergic activity during the extinction of deterministic rewards, they have been less successful at simulating the extinction of probabilistic rewards. By adding an arousal signal to a temporal difference model, we were able to simulate the extinction of probabilistic rewards and its dependence on the amount of learning. Our simulations propose that arousal allows the probability of reward to have lasting effects on the updating of reward value, which slows the extinction of low probability rewards. Using this model, we predicted that, by signaling the prediction error, dopamine determines the learned reward value that has to be extinguished during extinction and participates in regulating the size of the arousal signal that controls the learning rate. These predictions were supported by pharmacological experiments in rats. PMID:24586823

  20. Differences in the central-nervous processing of olfactory stimuli according to their hedonic and arousal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, A; Negoias, S; Härtwig, S; Gerber, J; Iannilli, E; Warr, J; Hummel, T

    2016-06-01

    Given the strong relationship between human olfaction and emotion, it is not surprising that numerous studies have investigated human response to hedonic and arousing qualities of odors. However, neuropsychological research addressed rather the pleasant-unpleasant, and not the arousing-calming dimension of emotional states generated by odorants. The purpose of the presented fMRI study was to evaluate the differences in cerebral processing of olfactory stimuli, focusing on both of these dimensions of emotional experiences, i.e., pleasantness and arousal. We investigated the patterns of activation generated by odors differing in hedonic tone and generated arousal while controlling the stimuli intensity. This design allowed for a new insight to the emotional odor processing with imaging techniques. The pleasantness was related to activation in the cingulate gyrus, the insula, the hippocampal area, the amygdala, and the superior temporal gyrus, whereas arousal affected activation in the thalamic relay. The present study showed also that the emotional states generated by arousing qualities of odorants are an important determinant of magnitude of cerebral activation. PMID:26968764

  1. The effect of flow limitation on the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep under controlled conditions of chemostimulation in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Goff, Elizabeth A; Nicholas, Christian L; Kleiman, Jan; Spear, Owen; Morrell, Mary J; Trinder, John

    2012-12-01

    The influence of flow limitation on the magnitude of the cardiorespiratory response to arousal from sleep is of interest in older people, because they experience considerable flow limitation and frequent arousals from sleep. We studied older flow-limiting subjects, testing the hypothesis that the cardiorespiratory activation response would be larger when arousal occurred during flow limitation, compared to no flow limitation, and chemical stimuli were controlled. In 11 older adults [mean ± standard deviation (SD) age: 68 ± 5 years] ventilation was stabilized using continuous positive airway pressure, and flow limitation was induced by dialling down the pressure. Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) was maintained by titration of the inspired CO(2) and hyperoxia was maintained using 40% O(2) balanced with nitrogen. Flow limitation at the time of arousal did not augment cardiovascular activation response (heart rate P = 0.7; systolic blood pressure P = 0.6; diastolic blood pressure P = 0.3), whereas ventilation was greater following arousals during flow limitation compared to no flow limitation (P < 0.001). The pre-post-arousal differences in ventilation reflected significant pre-arousal suppression (due to flow limitation) plus post-arousal activation. In summary, the cardiovascular response to arousal from sleep is not influenced by flow limitation at the time of arousal, when chemical stimuli are controlled in older adults. This finding may contribute to the decreased cardiovascular burden associated with sleep-disordered breathing reported in older adults, although our data do not exclude the possibility that flow limitation in the presence of mild hypoxic hypercapnia could increase the cardiovascular response to arousal. PMID:22906153

  2. The physiological basis of human sexual arousal: neuroendocrine sexual asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2005-04-01

    Normal sexual arousal and response suppose an integrated process involving both physiological and psychological processes. However, the current understanding of sexual arousal does not provide a coherent model that accounts for the integration of multiple physiological systems that subsequently generate a coordinated sexual response at both the spinal peripheral and cerebral central levels. Herein we suggest a model that involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during sexual arousal via the two classes of gonadal hormones, androgens and oestrogens. We discuss the manner in which gonadal hormones may activate such a system, transforming pre-pubertal (non-erotic) genital stimulation to post-pubertal erogenization of stimulation and subsequent sexual arousal. Finally, we indicate that the different balance of androgens and oestrogens in men and women may generate asymmetric effects on each of the components of the autonomic nervous system, thereby explaining some of the differences in patterns of sexual arousal and the responses cycle across the sexes. PMID:15811068

  3. Emotional valence and arousal interact in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Smilek, Daniel; Eich, Eric; Enns, James T

    2008-03-01

    A recent study demonstrated that observers' ability to identify targets in a rapid visual sequence was enhanced when they simultaneously listened to happy music. In the study reported here, we examined how the emotion-attention relationship is influenced by changes in both mood valence (negative vs. positive) and arousal (low vs. high). We used a standard induction procedure to generate calm, happy, sad, and anxious moods in participants. Results for an attentional blink task showed no differences in first-target accuracy, but second-target accuracy was highest for participants with low arousal and negative affect (sad), lowest for those with strong arousal and negative affect (anxious), and intermediate for those with positive affect regardless of their arousal (calm, happy). We discuss implications of this valence-arousal interaction for the control of visual attention. PMID:18315803

  4. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Prober, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, the role of endogenous NE is unclear, with contradicting reports concerning the sleep phenotypes of mice lacking NE due to mutation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh). To investigate NE function in an alternative vertebrate model, we generated dbh mutant zebrafish. In contrast to mice, these animals exhibit dramatically increased sleep. Surprisingly, despite an increase in sleep, dbh mutant zebrafish have a reduced arousal threshold. These phenotypes are also observed in zebrafish treated with small molecules that inhibit NE signaling, suggesting that they are caused by the lack of NE. Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt-expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07000.001 PMID:26374985

  5. No longer his and hers, but ours: examining sexual arousal in response to erotic stories designed for both sexes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christina L; Cortez, Angelberto

    2011-01-01

    Research on sexual arousal and erotica has focused primarily on men and women's responses to erotic films and stories designed for a sex-specific audience. To reduce the confounds of relying on separate materials when evaluating sex differences in arousal, the present study designed suggestive and explicit erotic stories that were rated as being equally appealing to men and women. Participants were 212 undergraduate students who completed self-report measures of sexual self-esteem, sexual desire, and pre- and posttest measures of arousal. As hypothesized, women in the suggestive and explicit conditions reported a significant increase in sexual arousal; however, only men who read the explicit story demonstrated significant elevations in arousal. The creation of "equally appealing" erotic stories has challenged the existing research paradigm and has initiated the investigation of sexual arousal from a set of common materials designed for both sexes. The benefits of creating a series of equally appealing erotic materials extends beyond empirical research and may ultimately facilitate greater openness and communication between heterosexual couples. PMID:21512937

  6. A Streetcar Named "Derousal"? A Psychophysiological Examination of the Desire-Arousal Distinction in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Women.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that desire and arousal problems are highly interrelated in women. Therefore, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) were removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and a new diagnostic category, female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD), was created to include both arousal and desire difficulties. However, no research has tried to distinguish these problems based on psychosocial-physiological patterns to identify whether unique profiles exist. This study compared psychosocial-physiological patterns in a community sample of 84 women meeting DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ) criteria for HSDD (n = 22), FSAD (n = 18), both disorders (FSAD/HSDD; n = 25), and healthy controls (n = 19). Women completed self-report measures and watched neutral and erotic films while genital arousal (GA) and subjective arousal (SA) were measured. Results indicated that GA increased equally for all groups during the erotic condition, whereas women with HSDD and FSAD/HSDD reported less SA than controls or FSAD women. Women in the clinical groups also showed lower concordance and greater impairment on psychosocial variables as compared to controls, with women with FSAD/HSDD showing lowest functioning. Results have important implications for the classification and treatment of these difficulties. PMID:26457746

  7. Can arousing feedback rectify lapses in driving? Prediction from EEG power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Li-Wei; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Objective. This study explores the neurophysiological changes, measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), in response to an arousing warning signal delivered to drowsy drivers, and predicts the efficacy of the feedback based on changes in the EEG. Approach. Eleven healthy subjects participated in sustained-attention driving experiments. The driving task required participants to maintain their cruising position and compensate for randomly induced lane deviations using the steering wheel, while their EEG and driving performance were continuously monitored. The arousing warning signal was delivered to participants who experienced momentary behavioral lapses, failing to respond rapidly to lane-departure events (specifically the reaction time exceeded three times the alert reaction time). Main results. The results of our previous studies revealed that arousing feedback immediately reversed deteriorating driving performance, which was accompanied by concurrent EEG theta- and alpha-power suppression in the bilateral occipital areas. This study further proposes a feedback efficacy assessment system to accurately estimate the efficacy of arousing warning signals delivered to drowsy participants by monitoring the changes in their EEG power spectra immediately thereafter. The classification accuracy was up 77.8% for determining the need for triggering additional warning signals. Significance. The findings of this study, in conjunction with previous studies on EEG correlates of behavioral lapses, might lead to a practical closed-loop system to predict, monitor and rectify behavioral lapses of human operators in attention-critical settings.

  8. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  9. Sexual arousal to female children in gynephilic men.

    PubMed

    Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Blanchard, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Phallometric assessments of single-victim sexual offenders against children have suggested that only about 50% of these men are more attracted to children than they are to adults. This has raised the question of what motivates the other 50% of men to approach young girls for sex. Freund et al. showed that gynephilic men (i.e., men preferentially attracted to adult women) evidenced greater arousal to images of prepubescent girls than to images of males of any age or to nonerotic images, arguing that gynephilic men may approach prepubescent girls as a "surrogate" for their preferred erotic targets (i.e., adult women). One might argue that these phallometric results are artifactual, given that they were obtained in a time period during which images of nudity were far less common than they are today (thus any female nudity might have elicited arousal). To address this issue, the authors examined the sexual arousal patterns of 214 contemporary men who, based on self-report, offense history, and phallometric responses, were purely gynephilic. Results showed the "classical control profile": the greatest arousal to adult women, systematically decreasing arousal as the female stimuli became younger, and essentially no arousal to any age categories of males or to neutral (nonerotic) stimuli. Arousal to both pubescent and prepubescent girls was significantly greater than to neutral stimuli (p < .001 for both). Thus, Freund et al.'s results still appear to be valid, and the explanation for child molesting that they suggest still seems to be feasible. PMID:20562410

  10. Eye contact affects attention more than arousal as revealed by prospective time estimation.

    PubMed

    Jarick, Michelle; Laidlaw, Kaitlin E W; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Eye contact can both increase arousal and engage attention. Because these two changes impact time estimation differently, we were able to use a prospective time estimation task to assess the relative changes in arousal and attention during eye contact. Pairs of participants made a 1-minute prospective time estimate while sitting side-by-side and performing three different gaze trials: looking at the wall away from their partner (baseline/away trials), looking at their partner's profile (profile trials), or making eye contact with their partner (eye contact trials). We found that participants produced significantly longer estimates when they were engaged in eye contact, more so than when they looked at another person's profile or baseline. As research has shown that people produce shorter estimates during arousing events and longer estimates when attention is captured, we attribute this difference to the attention-demanding process of interacting with another person, via mutual eye contact, over and above any changes in arousal. PMID:27002959

  11. Social Attention, Affective Arousal and Empathy in Men with Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY): Evidence from Eyetracking and Skin Conductance

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Sophie; Barendse, Marjolein; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an extra X chromosome (Klinefelter syndrome) are at risk for problems in social functioning and have an increased vulnerability for autism traits. In the search for underlying mechanisms driving this increased risk, this study focused on social attention, affective arousal and empathy. Seventeen adults with XXY and 20 non-clinical controls participated in this study. Eyetracking was used to investigate social attention, as expressed in visual scanning patterns in response to the viewing of empathy evoking video clips. Skin conductance levels, reflecting affective arousal, were recorded continuously during the clips as well. Empathic skills, i.e. participants' understanding of own and others' emotions in response to the clips was also assessed. Results showed reduced empathic understanding, decreased visual fixation to the eye region, but increased affective arousal in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome. We conclude that individuals with XXY tend to avoid the eye region. Considering the increased affective arousal, we speculate that this attentional deployment strategy may not be sufficient to successfully downregulate affective hyper-responsivity. As increased affective arousal was related to reduced empathic ability, we hypothesize that own affective responses to social cues play an important role in difficulties in understanding the feelings and intentions of others. This knowledge may help in the identification of risk factors for psychopathology and targets for treatment. PMID:24416272

  12. Social attention, affective arousal and empathy in men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY): evidence from eyetracking and skin conductance.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sophie; Barendse, Marjolein; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an extra X chromosome (Klinefelter syndrome) are at risk for problems in social functioning and have an increased vulnerability for autism traits. In the search for underlying mechanisms driving this increased risk, this study focused on social attention, affective arousal and empathy. Seventeen adults with XXY and 20 non-clinical controls participated in this study. Eyetracking was used to investigate social attention, as expressed in visual scanning patterns in response to the viewing of empathy evoking video clips. Skin conductance levels, reflecting affective arousal, were recorded continuously during the clips as well. Empathic skills, i.e. participants' understanding of own and others' emotions in response to the clips was also assessed. Results showed reduced empathic understanding, decreased visual fixation to the eye region, but increased affective arousal in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome. We conclude that individuals with XXY tend to avoid the eye region. Considering the increased affective arousal, we speculate that this attentional deployment strategy may not be sufficient to successfully downregulate affective hyper-responsivity. As increased affective arousal was related to reduced empathic ability, we hypothesize that own affective responses to social cues play an important role in difficulties in understanding the feelings and intentions of others. This knowledge may help in the identification of risk factors for psychopathology and targets for treatment. PMID:24416272

  13. The role of arousal related brainstem reflexes in causing recovery from upper airway occlusion in infants.

    PubMed

    Wulbrand, Henning; McNamara, Frances; Thach, Bradley T

    2008-06-01

    During obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults upper airway reopening coincides with a sudden burst in activity of pharyngeal dilating muscles. This has been attributed to arousal from sleep as indicated by increased EEG activity. Recovery from OSA in infants often occurs in the absence of cortical arousal. To investigate mechanisms involved in recovery, we performed experimental airway occlusions in sleeping infants. Based on past work, our hypothesis was that a sleep startle combined with an augmented breath and heart rate acceleration would occur during the occlusion, and that such brainstem mediated reflexes might provide an explanation for recovery from OSA in the absence of cortical arousal. However, this is contrary to expectations, since lung inflation is believed to be necessary for occurrence of an augmented breath. We studied 16 healthy infants during sleep. We recorded EEG, EOG, ECG, oxygen saturation, diaphragmatic, nuchal and limb electromyograms, face mask pressure, and airflow. A startle, accompanied by neck extension, limb and nuchal EMG activation, as well as heart rate acceleration occurred during all airway occlusions. The startle occurred simultaneously with a large biphasic inspiratory effort, having characteristics of an augmented breath (sigh). In more than a third of cases, this occurred without any evidence of cortical arousal activity. The magnitude of startles as well as the increase in heart rate correlated positively with peak airway negative pressure, indicating that arousal processes are graded in intensity. We conclude that the neck extension and pharyngeal dilating muscle activity associated with the startle and augmented breath may account for recovery of airway patency in infants as they do adults. Lung inflation is not a prerequisite for the reflex to occur. PMID:18548828

  14. Exploring the role of neuropeptide S in the regulation of arousal: a functional anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Adori, Csaba; Barde, Swapnali; Vas, Szilvia; Ebner, Karl; Su, Jie; Svensson, Camilla; Mathé, Aleksander A; Singewald, Nicolas; Reinscheid, Rainer R; Uhlén, Mathias; Kultima, Kim; Bagdy, György; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide expressed by limited number of neurons in the brainstem. The simultaneous anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effect of NPS suggests an involvement in mood control and vigilance, making the NPS-NPS receptor system an interesting potential drug target. Here we examined, in detail, the distribution of NPS-immunoreactive (IR) fiber arborizations in brain regions of rat known to be involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. Such nerve terminals were frequently apposed to GABAergic/galaninergic neurons in the ventro-lateral preoptic area (VLPO) and to tyrosine hydroxylase-IR neurons in all hypothalamic/thalamic dopamine cell groups. Then we applied the single platform-on-water (mainly REM) sleep deprivation method to study the functional role of NPS in the regulation of arousal. Of the three pontine NPS cell clusters, the NPS transcript levels were increased only in the peri-coerulear group in sleep-deprived animals, but not in stress controls. The density of NPS-IR fibers was significantly decreased in the median preoptic nucleus-VLPO region after the sleep deprivation, while radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry measurements showed a parallel increase of NPS in the anterior hypothalamus. The expression of the NPS receptor was, however, not altered in the VLPO-region. The present results suggest a selective activation of one of the three NPS-expressing neuron clusters as well as release of NPS in distinct forebrain regions after sleep deprivation. Taken together, our results emphasize a role of the peri-coerulear cluster in the modulation of arousal, and the importance of preoptic area for the action of NPS on arousal and sleep. PMID:26462664

  15. Sexual arousal patterns: normal and deviant.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gene G; Coffey, Latricia; Osborn, Candice A

    2008-12-01

    The fetish objects in these case histories were unique enough, and the attraction to the objects strong enough, that the individuals could clearly track their interest from early childhood through adulthood. It is much easier to retrieve remote, explicit memories, such as events (eg, a party where balloons popped) or playing with objects, than to recall the process of sexual development with no distinct markers in the individual's history. Because these distinct experiences predated identified sexuality, became a focus of attention for the individual, and then were incorporated into the individual's sexual interests and masturbatory fantasies, it was possible to accurately track the patterns of sexual arousal. We were also able to clearly identify how these men attempted to blend their deviant interests into sexual relationships with partners and the consequences of their efforts. If we are to understand how sexual interests develop, a number of obstacles need to be overcome. Sexual interest has to be openly discussed. Parents need to appreciate how the early sexual interests of their children can go awry, contaminate their adult relationships, and lead to problematic lives. Researchers need a means of understanding how to communicate with children about their earliest interests, sexual interests, and sexual behaviors in a nonjudgmental manner. Until then, tracking unusual interests that lead to erotic interests is the first step in the overall process of understanding how sexual interest develops and is assimilated, either successfully or unsuccessfully, into an individual's adult sexual life. PMID:18996304

  16. Conditional tonic stimulus control of nonspecific arousal.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, H D; Birbaumer, N; Elbert, T; Lutzenberger, W; Rockstroh, B

    1983-01-01

    Subjects performed a reaction time (RT) task in the presence of colored indirect lighting which had previously been associated with either sporadic electric shock (Unsafe context) or no shock (Safe context). Autonomic and cortical processes were influenced by the visual context in two ways. Nonspecific arousal was elevated in the Unsafe context as compared with the Safe context (larger SCR and more accelerative HR change elicited by the RT warning stimulus, and retarded habituation of the middle component of the slow cortical potential during the warning stimulus). In addition, information processing may have been impaired in the Unsafe as compared to the Safe context, since the earliest component of the SCR and the N100 component of the auditory evoked potential were both reduced. Higher frequency of unelicited SCR was observed following changes from a Safe to an Unsafe context than with reverse changes, during the association of these contexts with shock, but this was the only evidence of direct tonic conditioning. In general, the results demonstrate the degree to which psychophysiological processes may be influenced by tonic environmental conditions. PMID:6622070

  17. 42 CFR 406.33 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., would no longer have to pay an increased premium because she had paid it for twice the number of full 12... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of months to be counted for premium... Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.33 Determination of months to be counted for premium increase:...

  18. Fear and physiological arousal during a virtual height challenge--effects in patients with acrophobia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Julia; Lohkamp, Nora; Mühlberger, Andreas; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy is becoming increasingly established, but the mode of action is not well understood. One potential efficacy factor might be physiological arousal. To investigate arousal during VR exposure, we exposed 40 patients with acrophobia and 40 matched healthy controls to a VR height challenge and assessed subjective (fear ratings) and physiological (heart rate, skin conductance level, salivary cortisol) fear reactions. Patients experienced a significant increase of subjective fear, heart rate and skin conductance level. Unexpectedly, controls, who reported no subjective fear, also showed an increase in heart rate and skin conductance. There was no increase in salivary cortisol levels in either group. Physiological arousal in acrophobic patients, in contrast to subjective fear, might not be stronger than that of controls confronted with height cues in VR, indicating marked discordance across symptom domains. The lack of a cortisol response in a clearly stressful paradigm warrants further study. PMID:26600469

  19. Women's genital sexual arousal to oral versus penetrative heterosexual sex varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure.

    PubMed

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Bossio, Jennifer A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-03-01

    Reproductive-aged women show increased interest in sexual activity during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle that can motivate sexual behavior and thereby increase the likelihood of conception. We examined whether women demonstrated greater sexual responses (subjective and genital sexual arousal) to penetrative versus oral sexual activities during the fertile versus non-fertile phases of their cycles, and whether women's arousal responses were influenced by the phase during which they were first exposed to these sexual stimuli (e.g., Slob et al., 1991; Wallen and Rupp, 2010). Twenty-two androphilic women completed two identical sexual arousal assessments in which genital responses were measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph and their feelings of sexual arousal were recorded. Women viewed an array of 90s films varying by couple type (female-female, male-male, female-male) and sexual activity type (oral or penetrative), during the fertile (follicular) and non-fertile (luteal) phases of their menstrual cycle, with the order of cycle phase at the first testing session counter-balanced. Women tested first in the fertile phase showed significantly greater genital arousal to female-male penetrative versus oral sex in both testing sessions, whereas self-reports of sexual arousal were not affected by cycle phase or testing order. These results contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that fertility status at first exposure to sexual stimuli has a significant effect on subsequent sexual responses to sexual stimuli, and that this effect may differ for subjective versus genital sexual arousal. PMID:24486567

  20. A Novel Pathway for Sensory-Mediated Arousal Involves Splicing of an Intron in the period Clock Gene

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weihuan; Edery, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: D. melanogaster is an excellent animal model to study how the circadian (≅ 24-h) timing system and sleep regulate daily wake-sleep cycles. Splicing of a temperature-sensitive 3'-terminal intron (termed dmpi8) from the circadian clock gene period (per) regulates the distribution of daily activity in Drosophila. The role of dmpi8 splicing on daily behavior was further evaluated by analyzing sleep. Design: Transgenic flies of the same genetic background but expressing either a wild-type recombinant per gene or one where the efficiency of dmpi8 splicing was increased were exposed to different temperatures in daily light-dark cycles and sleep parameters measured. In addition, transgenic flies were briefly exposed to a variety of sensory-mediated stimuli to measure arousal responses. Results: Surprisingly, we show that the effect of dmpi8 splicing on daytime activity levels does not involve a circadian role for per but is linked to adjustments in sensory-dependent arousal and sleep behavior. Genetically altered flies with high dmpi8 splicing efficiency remain aroused longer following short treatments with light and non-photic cues such as mechanical stimulation. Conclusions: We propose that the thermal regulation of dmpi8 splicing acts as a temperature-calibrated rheostat in a novel arousal mechanism, so that on warm days the inefficient splicing of the dmpi8 intron triggers an increase in quiescence by decreasing sensory-mediated arousal, thus ensuring flies minimize being active during the hot midday sun despite the presence of light in the environment, which is usually a strong arousal cue for diurnal animals. Citation: Cao W, Edery I. A novel pathway for sensory-mediated arousal involves splicing of an intron in the period clock gene. SLEEP 2015;38(1):41–51. PMID:25325457

  1. Arousal from sedation in lower abdominal surgeries under spinal anesthesia: Comparison between dexmedetomidine and clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sarvjeet; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Singh, Amanjot; Sunita; Baghla, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Dexmedetomidine and clonidine are commonly used drugs for sedation during regional anesthesia. However, data regarding arousal time from sedation with these drugs is sparse. Hence, we designed a study to compare arousal time from sedation with dexmedetomidine and clonidine during spinal anesthesia. We also tried to find out the correlation between clinical and objective method used for assessing the depth of sedation. Materials and Methods: In this study, 120 patients were randomly assigned in two groups to receive either dexmedetomidine (Group DE, n = 60) or Clonidine (Group CL, n = 60). Group DE received 1 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine followed by infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/h while Group CL received 1 μg/kg of clonidine followed by infusion at 1 μg/kg/h and titration until targeted Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) score of 3–5 was achieved and maintained. RSS and bispectral (BIS) were monitored until arousal of the patients. The time to achieve RSS of 2 and BIS of 90 during recovery, the correlation between BIS and RSS score in both the study groups and duration of postoperative analgesia were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square tests for nonparametric data and Student's t-test for parametric data were used. Correlation between RSS and BIS was calculated with spearman correlation method. Results: Arousal time from sedation and time to reach BIS score 90 was lower for Group DE as compared to Group CL (P = 0.001). Dexmedetomidine also increased the time to first postoperative analgesic request when compared with clonidine (198.23 ± 33.15 min vs. 150.65 ± 28.55 min, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion has shorter arousal time from sedation than clonidine during spinal anesthesia. A strong correlation exists between BIS and RSS during recovery from sedation. PMID:26957699

  2. Attitudes toward sex, arousal, and the retention of contraceptive information.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, L; Gerrard, M; Gibbons, F X; Plante, T

    1988-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that women with a negative emotional orientation toward sexuality (i.e., erotophobia) have difficulty learning and retaining sexually relevant material such as contraceptive information. It has been hypothesized that these women become aroused by this material and that this arousal interferes with their ability to learn it. The importance of this issue led us to conduct the current study. Erotophobic and erotophilic women viewed presentations about contraception while their physiological responses were being monitored. In addition, they were tested on the information contained in the presentation before, immediately after, and again 4-6 weeks after the presentation. The results indicated that the erotophobic women knew less contraceptive information before the presentation and were more aroused by the presentation. This arousal, however, did not interfere with retention of the material. These results are discussed in terms of individual differences in reactions to sexual material and the ability to learn, retain, and use contraceptive information. PMID:3193351

  3. Alterations in grip strength during male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Jiao, C; Turman, B; Weerakoon, P; Knight, P

    2006-01-01

    Although it is known that alterations in grip strength occur under a number of conditions, little is known about relationships between grip strength and sexual arousal. This relationship was investigated in 30 healthy heterosexual males, who viewed both erotic and nonerotic videos. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of sexual arousal. The grip strengths of both hands were measured with a five-position (P1-P5) dynamometer, before and after watching the videos. After watching the erotic video, there was a statistically significant reduction in grip strength for the P2 position, with nonsignificant overall reductions in grip strength for all other positions tested. No such effect was observed in control tests. The results indicate that during sexual arousal, the neural system is likely to reduce the output to muscles not directly related to sexual function, presumably to enhance the physiological responses of sexual arousal. PMID:16254571

  4. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  5. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    PubMed

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  6. 42 CFR 57.2003 - Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determinations of increased enrollment solely for... increased enrollment solely for the program. In the event the Secretary of Defense decides to enter into one... increased its total enrollment in any fiscal year for the sole purpose of accepting members of the...

  7. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    PubMed Central

    Paulmann, Silke; Bleichner, Martin; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli). Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content) spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing. PMID:23801973

  8. Infralimbic cortex activation and motivated arousal induce histamine release

    PubMed Central

    Forray, María Inés; Torrealba, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive behaviours occur in a state of behavioural and physiological activation that allows the optimal performance of these goal-directed behaviours. Here, we tested the hypothesis that histamine neurons under the command of the infralimbic cortex are important to provide behavioural activation. Extracellular histamine and serotonin were measured by microdialysis of the medial prefrontal cortex in behaving rats in parallel with a picrotoxin microinjection into the infralimbic cortex. The injection aroused the rats behaviourally, increased histamine release and decreased serotonin levels. Inhibition of the infralimbic cortex with muscimol produced the opposite effects on neurotransmitter release. The behavioural activation induced by motivating hungry rats with caged food was paralleled by an immediate histamine release, whereas awakening induced by tapping their microdialysis bowl increased serotonin, but not histamine levels. In conclusion, picrotoxin injection into the infralimbic cortex produces behavioural activation together with histamine release; in a similar manner, induction of an appetitive state produced histamine release, likely related to increased behavioural activation characteristic of an appetitive behaviour. PMID:25746330

  9. The influence of gender and upper airway resistance on the ventilatory response to arousal in obstructive sleep apnoea in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S; McEvoy, R Doug; Edwards, Jill K; Schory, Karen; Yang, Chang-Kook; Catcheside, Peter G; Fogel, Robert B; Malhotra, Atul; White, David P

    2004-01-01

    The termination of obstructive respiratory events is typically associated with arousal from sleep. The ventilatory response to arousal may be an important determinant of subsequent respiratory stability/instability and therefore may be involved in perpetuating obstructive respiratory events. In healthy subjects arousal is associated with brief hyperventilation followed by more prolonged hypoventilation on return to sleep. This study was designed to assess whether elevated sleeping upper airway resistance (RUA) alters the ventilatory response to arousal and subsequent breathing on return to sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Inspired minute ventilation (VI), RUA and end-tidal CO2 pressure (PET,CO2) were measured in 22 patients (11 men, 11 women) with OSA (mean ±s.e.m., apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) 48.9 ± 5.9 events h−1) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with low RUA (2.8 ± 0.3 cmH2O l−1 s; optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) = 11.3 ± 0.7 cmH2O) and with elevated RUA (17.6 ± 2.8 cmH2O l−1 s; sub-optimal CPAP = 8.4 ± 0.8 cmH2O). A single observer, unaware of respiratory data, identified spontaneous and tone-induced arousals of 3–15 s duration preceded and followed by stable NREM sleep. VI was compared between CPAP levels before and after spontaneous arousal in 16 subjects with tone-induced arousals in both conditions. During stable NREM sleep at sub-optimal CPAP, PET,CO2 was mildly elevated (43.5 ± 0.8 versus 42.5 ± 0.8 Torr). However, baseline VI (7.8 ± 0.3 versus 8.0 ± 0.3 l min−1) was unchanged between CPAP conditions. For the first three breaths following arousal, VI was higher for sub-optimal than optimal CPAP (first breath: 11.2 ± 0.9 versus 9.3 ± 0.6 l min−1). The magnitude of hypoventilation on return to sleep was not affected by the level of CPAP and both obstructive and central respiratory events were rare following arousal. Similar results occurred after tone-induced arousals which led to

  10. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men. PMID:27113471

  11. An Affective Circumplex Model of Neural Systems Subserving Valence, Arousal, & Cognitive Overlay During the Appraisal of Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Andrew J.; Posner, Jonathan; Gorman, Daniel; Colibazzi, Tiziano; Yu, Shan; Wang, Zhishun; Kangarlu, Alayar; Zhu, Hongtu; Russell, James; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the existence of distinct neural systems that subserve two dimensions of affect – arousal and valence. Ten adult participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during which they were presented a range of standardized faces and then asked, during the scan, to rate the emotional expressions of the faces along the dimensions of arousal and valence. Lower ratings of arousal accompanied greater activity in the amygdala complex, cerebellum, dorsal pons, and right medial prefrontal cortex. More negative ratings of valence accompanied greater activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate and parietal cortices. Extreme ratings of valence (highly positive and highly negative ratings) accompanied greater activity in the temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus. Building on an empirical literature which suggests that the amygdala serves as a salience and ambiguity detector, we interpret our findings as showing that a face rated has having low arousal is more ambiguous and a face rated as having extreme valence is more personally salient. This explains how both low arousal and extreme valence lead to greater activation of an ambiguity/salience system subserved by the amygdala, cerebellum, and dorsal pons. In addition, the right medial prefrontal cortex appears to down-regulate individual ratings of arousal, whereas the fusiform and related temporal cortices seem to up-regulate individual assessments of extreme valence when individual ratings are studied relative to group reference ratings for each stimulus. The simultaneous assessment of the effects of arousal and valence proved essential for the identification of neural systems contributing to the processing of emotional faces. PMID:18440572

  12. Arousal Model Components in Television Programming: Form Activity and Violent Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert

    In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…

  13. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  14. Can the distress-signal and arousal-reduction views of crying be reconciled? Evidence from the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Michelle C P; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2007-05-01

    Theorists have staked out two ostensibly opposing views of human crying as either an arousing behavior that signals distress or a soothing behavior that reduces arousal after distress. The present study examined whether these views of crying might be reconciled by attending to physiological changes that unfold over crying episodes. Sixty female students watched neutral and cry-eliciting films while autonomic physiology, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period, was assessed. Crying participants exhibited heart rate increases that rapidly subsided after crying onset. Crying onset was also associated with increases in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and slowed breathing. All crying effects subsided by 4 minutes after onset. It is possible that crying is both an arousing distress signal and a means to restore psychological and physiological balance, depending on how and when this complex behavior is interrogated. PMID:17516822

  15. The stressed eyewitness: the interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information.

    PubMed

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-01-01

    Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation. PMID:22936900

  16. The stressed eyewitness: the interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information

    PubMed Central

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2012-01-01

    Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation. PMID:22936900

  17. Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Physiological Arousal in a Narrative Task.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed. PMID:26718206

  18. Minority persistence in agent based model using information and emotional arousal as control variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2013-07-01

    We present detailed analysis of the behavior of an agent based model of opinion formation, using a discrete variant of cusp catastrophe behavior of single agents. The agent opinion about a particular issue is determined by its information about the issue and its emotional arousal. It is possible that for agitated agents the same information would lead to different opinions. This results in a nontrivial individual opinion dynamics. The agents communicate via messages, which allows direct application of the model to ICT based communities. We study the dependence of the composition of an agent society on the range of interactions and the rate of emotional arousal. Despite the minimal number of adjustable parameters, the model reproduces several phenomena observed in real societies, for example nearly perfectly balanced results of some highly contested elections or the fact that minorities seldom perceive themselves to be a minority.

  19. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Payment for Tuition and Other Educational Costs § 57.3202 How will allowable increases be determined? (a) The Secretary is responsible for increases in tuition and other educational costs only if the...

  20. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Payment for Tuition and Other Educational Costs § 57.3202 How will allowable increases be determined? (a) The Secretary is responsible for increases in tuition and other educational costs only if the...

  1. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Payment for Tuition and Other Educational Costs § 57.3202 How will allowable increases be determined? (a) The Secretary is responsible for increases in tuition and other educational costs only if the...

  2. 78 FR 68133 - Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...-3000. Correction In the Federal Register of November 5, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-26569, on page 66414, in... ADMINISTRATION Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction AGENCY: Social Security... the Federal Register of November 5, 2013, concerning the cost-of-living increase in Social...

  3. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal.

    PubMed

    Kosse, Christin; Burdakov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioral state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise). An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behavior, and bases for disease. PMID:25368557

  4. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  5. Comparison of diphenhydramine and modafinil on arousal and autonomic functions in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hou, R H; Langley, R W; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2007-08-01

    Arousal is regulated by the interplay between wakefulness- and sleep-promoting nuclei. Major wakefulness-promoting nuclei are the histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus and the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) of the pons, which also play a role in autonomic regulation. First generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, are likely to cause sedation by blocking excitatory H1 histamine receptors in the cerebral cortex, and the anti-narcolepsy drug modafinil may promote wakefulness by activating the locus coeruleus. We compared the effects of single doses of diphenhydramine (75 mg) and modafinil (200 mg) on arousal and autonomic functions in 16 healthy male volunteers, using a placebo-controlled, balanced, double-blind design. Arousal was assessed by critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF), visual analogue scales (VAS) and pupillary fatigue waves (Pupillographic Sleepiness Test (PST)). Autonomic functions measured included resting pupil diameter, light and darkness reflex responses, blood pressure, heart rate and salivation. Data were analysed with ANOVA, with multiple comparisons. Diphenhydramine had sedative effects as shown by reductions in CFFF, VAS alertness ratings and increases of the indices of pupillary fatigue. Modafinil had alerting effects as indicated by reductions in the measures of pupillary fatigue. Comparison of pre-post medication changes in pupil diameter showed a decrease after diphenhydramine and an increase after modafinil. Diphenhydramine reduced salivation, and modafinil increased systolic blood pressure. In conclusion, diphenhydramine and modafinil evoked opposite effects on arousal and sympathetic functions, which are likely to reflect their interaction with the central histaminergic and noradrenergic systems. Hyposalivation by diphenhydramine is likely to be due to its additional anticholinergic property. PMID:17092978

  6. Optogenetic-mediated release of histamine reveals distal and autoregulatory mechanisms for controlling arousal.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rhannan H; Chee, Melissa J S; Kroeger, Daniel; Ferrari, Loris L; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Scammell, Thomas E; Arrigoni, Elda

    2014-04-23

    Histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) are an important component of the ascending arousal system and may form part of a "flip-flop switch" hypothesized to regulate sleep and wakefulness. Anatomical studies have shown that the wake-active TMN and sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) are reciprocally connected, suggesting that each region can inhibit its counterpart when active. In this study, we determined how histamine affects the two branches of this circuit. We selectively expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in TMN neurons and used patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices to examine the effects of photo-evoked histamine release in the ventrolateral TMN and VLPO. Photostimulation decreased inhibitory GABAergic inputs to the ventrolateral TMN neurons but produced a membrane hyperpolarization and increased inhibitory synaptic input to the VLPO neurons. We found that in VLPO the response to histamine was indirect, most likely via a GABAergic interneuron. Our experiments demonstrate that release of histamine from TMN neurons can disinhibit the TMN and suppresses the activity of sleep-active VLPO neurons to promote TMN neuronal firing. This further supports the sleep-wake "flip-flop switch" hypothesis and a role for histamine in stabilizing the switch to favor wake states. PMID:24760861

  7. Recurrent nightmares and disorders of arousal in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Rosalia; Bromfield, Edward

    2004-06-30

    Sleep is known to be severely altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, sleep deprivation is one of the key factors contributing to cognitive deficits and drug resistance in TLE. In the past, "non-ictal" parasomnias, as well as parasomnia-like nocturnal episodes ultimately diagnosed as seizures, have been documented in epileptic patients. However, recurrence of possibly "ictal" parasomnias in TLE has not been adequately appreciated. Through questionnaires and diaries distributed to TLE patients and their families in a tertiary center for epilepsy, 20 out of 168 patients seen in the last 2 years have been identified as, probands and extensively recorded during sleep. Patients presented with confusional arousals were 16, 14 with nightmares, and 2 with sleep walking episodes. Episodes (25) corresponding to clinical or subclinical seizures have been video-polygraphically recorded in 10/20 patients. Therapy optimization, pharmacological or surgical, resolved the episodes in 17/20 patients. A better seizure control with improved quality of life can be achieved by increasing and extending the practice of nocturnal recording in TLE patients. PMID:15245763

  8. Turning the knots in your stomach into bows: Reappraising arousal improves performance on the GRE

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Blackstock, Erin; Schmader, Toni

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the benefits of interpreting physiological arousal as a challenge response on practice and actual Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores. Participants who were preparing to take the GRE reported to the laboratory for a practice GRE study. Participants assigned to a reappraisal condition were told arousal improves performance, whereas control participants were not given this information. We collected saliva samples at baseline and after the appraisal manipulation, which were then assayed for salivary alpha amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic nervous system activation. Reappraisal participants exhibited a significant increase in sAA and outperformed controls on the GRE-math section. One to three months later, participants returned to the lab and provided their score reports from their actual GRE. Again, reappraisal participants scored higher than controls on the GRE-math section. These findings illuminate the powerful influence appraisal has on physiology and performance both in and out of the laboratory. PMID:20161454

  9. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects. PMID:24729134

  10. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. PMID:19280624

  11. Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety. PMID:24180223

  12. Arousal and breathing responses to airway occlusion in healthy sleeping adults.

    PubMed

    Issa, F G; Sullivan, C E

    1983-10-01

    The arousal and breathing responses to total airway occlusion during sleep were measured in 12 normal subjects (7 males and 5 females) aged 25-36 yr. Subjects slept while breathing through a specially designed nosemask, which was glued to the nose with medical-grade silicon rubber. The lips were sealed together with a thin layer of Silastic. The nosemask was attached to a wide-bore (20 mm ID) rigid tube to allow a constant-bias flow of room air from a blower. Total airway occlusion was achieved by simultaneously inflating two rubber balloons fixed in the inspiratory and expiratory pipes. A total of 39 tests were done in stage III/IV nonrapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep in 11 subjects and 10 tests in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in 5 subjects. The duration of total occlusion tolerated before arousal from NREM sleep varied widely (range 0.9-67.0 s) with a mean duration of 20.4 +/- 2.3 (SE) s. The breathing response to occlusion in NREM sleep was characterised by a breath-by-breath progressive increase in suction pressure achieved by an increase in the rate of inspiratory pressure generation during inspiration. In contrast, during REM sleep, arousal invariably occurred after a short duration of airway occlusion (mean duration 6.2 +/- 1.2 s, maximum duration 11.8 s), and the occlusion induced a rapid shallow breathing pattern. Our results indicate that total nasal occlusion during sleep causes arousal with the response during REM sleep being more predictable and with a generally shorter latency than that in NREM sleep. PMID:6629941

  13. Perceived arousal of facial expressions of emotion modulates the N170, regardless of emotional category: Time domain and time-frequency dynamics.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Pedro R; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Chaves, Pedro L; Paiva, Tiago O; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2016-01-01

    Findings concerning the emotional modulation of the N170 component of the visual event-related potential are mixed. In the present report we tested the hypothesis that the emotional modulation of the N170 may be driven by the perceived emotional arousal of the stimuli, rather than by specific emotional categories. Fifty-four participants viewed facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear and happiness, plus low arousal neutral faces. All emotional categories were matched in arousal, while stimuli within each category varied parametrically in this dimension. The modulation of the electrocortical activity on the N170 time-window was analyzed in the time domain and via time-frequency decomposition. The effects of emotion and arousal were analyzed separately. In the time domain N170 amplitudes co-varied parametrically with perceived arousal, regardless of emotional category. This modulation was linearly associated with the power of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. Moreover, fear was associated with a trend for increased N170 amplitudes, enhanced alpha power, and increased broad band inter-trial phase coherence. These results support the views that a) the activity in N170 time window is fundamentally modulated by perceived arousal, b) the modulation of the N170 may be the product of an increased evoked response, rather than the result of phase resetting processes, and c) facial expressions of fear retain some processing primacy, that may be related to their increased value as environmental cues. PMID:26659012

  14. Determination of excipient based solubility increases using the CheqSol method.

    PubMed

    Etherson, Kelly; Halbert, Gavin; Elliott, Moira

    2014-04-25

    Aqueous solubility is an essential characteristic assessed during drug development to determine a compound's drug-likeness since solubility plays an important pharmaceutical role. However, nearly half of the drug candidates discovered today display poor water solubility; therefore methods have to be applied to increase solubility. Solubility determination using the CheqSol method is a novel rapid solubility screening technique for ionisable compounds. The aim of this study is to determine if the CheqSol method can be employed to determine solubility increases of four test drugs (ibuprofen, gliclazide, atenolol and propranolol) induced by non-ionising excipients such as hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and poloxamers 407 and 188. CheqSol assays were performed for the drugs alone or in combination with varying solubiliser concentrations. The measured intrinsic solubility of all four drugs increased with all the excipients tested in an excipient concentration dependent manner providing results consistent with previous literature. The results demonstrate that it may be possible to use this method to determine the solubility increases induced by non-ionic solubilising excipients with results that are comparable to standard equilibrium based solubility techniques. Since the technique is automated and requires only small drug quantities it may serve as a useful solubility or formulation screening tool providing more detailed physicochemical information than multiwell plate or similar visual systems. PMID:24513529

  15. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based on the fact that the sexually dimorphic neuropeptide vasopressin has its receptors in the part of the brain involved in music and dance performance (the basal ganglia), and its concentrations rise during sexual arousal in men. In addition, music, dance, and courtship phenotypes seem to be in part regulated by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis on the role of music in sexual selection. Further studies are clearly required. PMID:27372870

  16. Arousal recognition system based on heartbeat dynamics during auditory elicitation.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Mimma; Valenza, Gaetano; Greco, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on the recognition of different arousal levels, elicited by affective sounds, performed using estimates of autonomic nervous system dynamics. Specifically, as a part of the circumplex model of affect, arousal levels were recognized by properly combining information gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis of heartbeat dynamics, which was derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Affective sounds were gathered from the International Affective Digitized Sound System and grouped into four different levels of arousal. A group of 27 healthy volunteers underwent such elicitation while ECG signals were continuously recorded. Results showed that a quadratic discriminant classifier, as applied implementing a leave-one-subject-out procedure, achieved a recognition accuracy of 84.26%. Moreover, this study confirms the crucial role of heartbeat nonlinear dynamics for emotion recognition, hereby estimated through lagged Poincare plots. PMID:26737686

  17. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  18. The effects of valence and arousal on time perception in individuals with social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jung-Yi; Lee, Jang-Han

    2015-01-01

    Time distortion in individuals with social anxiety has been defined as the seemingly slower passage of time in social situations and is related to both arousal and valence. Consequently, adaptive behavior is disrupted and interpersonal situations avoided. We explored the effects of valence and arousal on time distortion in individuals with social anxiety. Participants were assigned to two groups, High Anxiety (HA) and Low Anxiety (LA), presented with four types of facial expression stimuli (positive-high arousal, positive-low arousal, negative-high arousal, and negative-low arousal), and asked to estimate the duration of stimulus presentation. Results indicated that, relative to other stimuli, the HA and LA groups perceived longer presentation for high-arousal negative and low-arousal positive stimuli, respectively. These findings suggest that anxious individuals’ time distortion was more severe in situations that evoked high arousal and involved negative emotion. PMID:26347679

  19. Effect of arousing stimuli on circulating corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of luteinizing hormone (LH) surges and locomotor activity in estradiol-treated ovariectomized (ovx+EB) Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Legan, S J; Peng, X; Yun, C; Duncan, M J

    2015-06-01

    In most proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure phase advances activity rhythms and blocks the preovulatory LH surge, which occurs 2h earlier the next day. Because wheel immobilization does not prevent these effects we hypothesized that arousal alone blocks and phase advances the LH surge. Ovariectomized (ovx) hamsters received a jugular vein cannula and estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle was injected sc. The next day (Day 1), at zeitgeber time (ZT) 4-5 (ZT 12 = lights off), after obtaining a blood sample, each hamster was exposed to constant darkness (DD), and either remained in her home cage or was transferred to a new cage and exposed to a running wheel or a 2-hour arousal paradigm. Blood samples were obtained in dim red light and activity was recorded hourly until ~ZT 10-11 on Days 1 and 2. For the next 1-2 weeks, activity was monitored in DD. Plasma LH and corticosterone were assessed by RIA. Novel wheel exposure or arousal at ZT 4 greatly attenuated the Day 1 LH surge in ovx+EB hamsters, and phase advanced the Day 2 LH surge by about 2h. In proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure led to a prolonged (>2h) increase in corticosterone levels only when LH surges were blocked. Phase advances in activity rhythms were enhanced by estradiol and arousal. The results suggest that estradiol modulates the effectiveness of non-photic stimuli. The role of the increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated with novel wheel-induced attenuation of LH surges in ovx+EB hamsters remains to be determined. PMID:25958077

  20. The hypocretins as sensors for metabolism and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Adamantidis, Antoine; de Lecea, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with hormonal imbalances and may result in metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. Therefore, circuits controlling both sleep and metabolism are likely to play a role in these physiopathological conditions. The hypocretin (Hcrt) system is a strong candidate for mediating both sleep and metabolic imbalances because Hcrt neurons are sensitive to metabolic hormones, including leptin and ghrelin, and modulate arousal and goal-orientated behaviours. This review discusses the role of Hcrt neurons as a sensors of energy balance and arousal and proposes new ways of probing local hypothalamic circuits regulating sleep and metabolism with unprecedented cellular specificity and temporal resolution. PMID:19047201

  1. Sensation-seeking and differentially arousing television commercials.

    PubMed

    Leone, C; D'Arienzo, J

    2000-12-01

    The authors predicted (a) that disinhibited consumers would react more favorably to advertising that was high in arousal and (b) that inhibited consumers would react more favorably to advertising that was low in arousal. They tested these predictions by having U.S. college students evaluate both the commercial and the product being marketed in 1 of 2 beer commercials. The prospective buyers then completed a measure of dispositional sensation-seeking tendencies. Although the participants who differed in disinhibition reacted differently to the 2 commercials, the nature of their responses was more complex than predicted. PMID:11195722

  2. Arousal, valence, and the uncanny valley: psychophysiological and self-report findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Wu, Lingdan; Pauli, Paul; Jancke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The main prediction of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) is that observation of humanlike characters that are difficult to distinguish from the human counterpart will evoke a state of negative affect. Well-established electrophysiological [late positive potential (LPP) and facial electromyography (EMG)] and self-report [Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM)] indices of valence and arousal, i.e., the primary orthogonal dimensions of affective experience, were used to test this prediction by examining affective experience in response to categorically ambiguous compared with unambiguous avatar and human faces (N = 30). LPP and EMG provided direct psychophysiological indices of affective state during passive observation and the SAM provided self-reported indices of affective state during explicit cognitive evaluation of static facial stimuli. The faces were drawn from well-controlled morph continua representing the UVH’ dimension of human likeness (DHL). The results provide no support for the notion that category ambiguity along the DHL is specifically associated with enhanced experience of negative affect. On the contrary, the LPP and SAM-based measures of arousal and valence indicated a general increase in negative affective state (i.e., enhanced arousal and negative valence) with greater morph distance from the human end of the DHL. A second sample (N = 30) produced the same finding, using an ad hoc self-rating scale of feelings of familiarity, i.e., an oft-used measure of affective experience along the UVH’ familiarity dimension. In conclusion, this multi-method approach using well-validated psychophysiological and self-rating indices of arousal and valence rejects – for passive observation and for explicit affective evaluation of static faces – the main prediction of the UVH. PMID:26236260

  3. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion.

    PubMed

    Gaub, S; Fisher, S E; Ehret, G

    2016-02-01

    Adult mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur in multiple behavioral and stimulus contexts associated with various levels of arousal, emotion and social interaction. Here, in three experiments of increasing stimulus intensity (water; female urine; male interacting with adult female), we tested the hypothesis that USVs of adult males express the strength of arousal and emotion via different USV parameters (18 parameters analyzed). Furthermore, we analyzed two mouse lines with heterozygous Foxp2 mutations (R552H missense, S321X nonsense), known to produce severe speech and language disorders in humans. These experiments allowed us to test whether intact Foxp2 function is necessary for developing full adult USV repertoires, and whether mutations of this gene influence instinctive vocal expressions based on arousal and emotion. The results suggest that USV calling rate characterizes the arousal level, while sound pressure and spectrotemporal call complexity (overtones/harmonics, type of frequency jumps) may provide indices of levels of positive emotion. The presence of Foxp2 mutations did not qualitatively affect the USVs; all USV types that were found in wild-type animals also occurred in heterozygous mutants. However, mice with Foxp2 mutations displayed quantitative differences in USVs as compared to wild-types, and these changes were context dependent. Compared to wild-type animals, heterozygous mutants emitted mainly longer and louder USVs at higher minimum frequencies with a higher occurrence rate of overtones/harmonics and complex frequency jump types. We discuss possible hypotheses about Foxp2 influence on emotional vocal expressions, which can be investigated in future experiments using selective knockdown of Foxp2 in specific brain circuits. PMID:26566793

  4. Sleep during arousal episodes as a function of prior torpor duration in hibernating European ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Strijkstra, A M; Daan, S

    1997-03-01

    EEG's were recorded in hibernating European ground squirrels during euthermic arousal episodes at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C. Spontaneous torpor bouts ranged from 6 to 15 days, body temperature during torpor was 7.5 degrees C. The torpor duration prior to EEG measurements was experimentally manipulated: the animals were induced to arouse by gentle handling after torpor of less then 1 day (n = 3), 1-2 days (n = 6), 3-4 days (n = 9) and 5-12 days (n = 9). The animals slept 71.5% of euthermic time, of which 61.4% NREM and 10.2% REM sleep. NREM percentage was slightly positively and REM percentage negatively correlated with prior torpor duration (TD). Spectral analysis showed changes in EEG activity during the euthermic phase in the slow wave frequency range (1-4 Hz) and in higher frequencies. Prior TD specifically affected the slow waves. Slow wave activity decreased exponentially during the euthermic phase. The initial slow wave activity showed a systematic increase with prior TD, which could be described by an exponentially saturating function, albeit with a relatively small time constant compared with spontaneous torpor duration. It is concluded that sleep during arousal episodes following torpor at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C is affected both in structure and intensity by prior TD. The results are consistent with the proposition that torpor inhibits the restorative function of sleep. PMID:9125697

  5. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will allowable increases be determined? 57.3202 Section 57.3202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Payment for Tuition and Other...

  6. 42 CFR 57.2003 - Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program. 57.2003 Section 57.2003 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Armed Forces...

  7. Multilevel analysis of facial expressions of emotion and script: self-report (arousal and valence) and psychophysiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The paper explored emotion comprehension in children with regard to facial expression of emotion. The effect of valence and arousal evaluation, of context and of psychophysiological measures was monitored. Indeed subjective evaluation of valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low), and contextual (facial expression vs. facial expression and script) variables were supposed to modulate the psychophysiological responses. Methods Self-report measures (in terms of correct recognition, arousal and valence attribution) and psychophysiological correlates (facial electromyography, EMG, skin conductance response, SCR, and heart rate, HR) were observed when children (N = 26; mean age = 8.75 y; range 6-11 y) looked at six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). The competencies about the recognition, the evaluation on valence and arousal was tested in concomitance with psychophysiological variations. Specifically, we tested for the congruence of these multiple measures. Results Log-linear analysis and repeated measure ANOVAs showed different representations across the subjects, as a function of emotion. Specifically, children’ recognition and attribution were well developed for some emotions (such as anger, fear, surprise and happiness), whereas some other emotions (mainly disgust and sadness) were less clearly represented. SCR, HR and EMG measures were modulated by the evaluation based on valence and arousal, with increased psychophysiological values mainly in response to anger, fear and happiness. Conclusions As shown by multiple regression analysis, a significant consonance was found between self-report measures and psychophysiological behavior, mainly for emotions rated as more arousing and negative in valence. The multilevel measures were discussed at light of dimensional attribution model. PMID:25261242

  8. Classical conditioning of sexual arousal in women and men: effects of varying awareness and biological relevance of the conditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Turner, Stefanie L

    2004-02-01

    Classical conditioning of sexual arousal has previously been demonstrated in human males but not in females. This study explored the role of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning in the activation of genital sexual arousal in both women and men, and assessed the effects of varying conditioned stimulus (CS) duration (subliminal/conscious) and relevance (sexually relevant/irrelevant). Twenty-seven female and 29 male participants received either subliminal or conscious presentations of a photograph of either a sexually relevant (abdomen of the opposite sex) or irrelevant (gun) CS+, which was followed by the unconditioned stimulus (US-erotic film clip). A CS-, a stimulus not paired with the US, was also included in the 11 conditioning trials. Ten participants were assigned to a control group that received unpaired presentations of the CS+, CS-, and the US. Both women and men showed more evidence of conditioning to the abdomen than to the gun when the CS was presented subliminally. When consciously perceived CSs were used, however, gender differences emerged. Men again showed the expected cue-to-consequence specificity but women showed the opposite effect, that is, conditioned arousal to the sexually irrelevant rather than to the relevant CS. The latter finding may be due to increased autonomic nervous system arousal associated with the irrelevant CS (gun). Skin conductance responses indicated more general arousal to the gun than to the male abdomen in women. This is the first study to compare the effects of a subliminal and conscious CS and to find classical conditioning of sexual arousal in women. PMID:14739689

  9. Extent and time-course of competition in visual cortex between emotionally arousing distractors and a concurrent task.

    PubMed

    Deweese, Menton M; Müller, Matthias; Keil, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally arousing cues automatically attract attentional resources, which may be at the cost of processing task-related information. Of central importance is how the visual system resolves competition for processing resources among stimuli differing in motivational salience. Here, we assessed the extent and time-course of competition between emotionally arousing distractors and task-related stimuli in a frequency-tagging paradigm. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were evoked using random-dot kinematograms that consisted of rapidly flickering (8.57 Hz) dots, superimposed upon emotional or neutral distractor pictures flickering at 12 Hz. The time-varying amplitude of the ssVEP evoked by the motion detection task showed a significant reduction to the task-relevant stream while emotionally arousing pictures were presented as distractors. Competition between emotionally arousing pictures and moving dots began 450 ms after picture onset and persisted for an additional 2600 ms. Competitive effects of the overlapping task and picture stream revealed cost effects for the motion detection task when unpleasant pictures were presented as distractors between 450 and 1650 ms after picture onset, where an increase in ssVEP amplitude to the flickering picture stimulus was at the cost of ssVEP amplitude to the flickering dot stimulus. Cost effects were generalized to all emotionally arousing contents between 1850 and 3050 ms after picture onset, where the greatest amount of competition was evident for conditions in which emotionally arousing pictures, compared to neutral, served as distractors. In sum, the processing capacity of the visual system as measured by ssVEPs is limited, resulting in prioritized processing of emotionally relevant cues. PMID:26790572

  10. Abiotic and biotic interactions determine whether increased colonization is beneficial or detrimental to metapopulation management.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Darren M; Rhodes, Jonathan R; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Nicol, Sam; Helmstedt, Kate J; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the colonization rate of metapopulations can improve persistence, but can also increase exposure to threats. To make good decisions, managers must understand whether increased colonization is beneficial or detrimental to metapopulation persistence. While a number of studies have examined interactions between metapopulations, colonization, and threats, they have assumed that threat dynamics respond linearly to changes in colonization. Here, we determined when to increase colonization while explicitly accounting for non-linear dependencies between a metapopulation and its threats. We developed patch occupancy metapopulation models for species susceptible to abiotic, generalist, and specialist threats and modeled the total derivative of the equilibrium proportion of patches occupied by each metapopulation with respect to the colonization rate. By using the total derivative, we developed a rule for determining when to increase metapopulation colonization. This rule was applied to a simulated metapopulation where the dynamics of each threat responded to increased colonization following a power function. Before modifying colonization, we show that managers must understand: (1) whether a metapopulation is susceptible to a threat; (2) the type of threat acting on a metapopulation; (3) which component of threat dynamics might depend on colonization, and; (4) the likely response of a threat-dependent variable to changes in colonization. The sensitivity of management decisions to these interactions increases uncertainty in conservation planning decisions. PMID:26948289

  11. The influence of arousal and expectation on eyewitness memory in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Park, Kevin Kiwon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of arousal and expectation on eyewitness memory. We exposed 97 participants to an immersive eyewitness experience by creating four virtual reality stimulus environments. The participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: arousing and expected, arousing and unexpected, nonarousing and expected, and nonarousing and unexpected. The results revealed that memory performance for an arousing encounter was significantly lower than that for a nonarousing encounter, and that memory performance for an unexpected environment was significantly lower compared with an expected one. In addition, memory performance was lowest in the condition that was both arousing and unexpected. No interaction between arousal and expectation was found. PMID:25405783

  12. Autonomic Arousals Related to Traffic Noise during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Griefahn, Barbara; Bröde, Peter; Marks, Anke; Basner, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the heart rate (HR) response to traffic noise during sleep and the influence of acoustic parameters, time of night, and momentary sleep stage on these responses. Participants: Twelve women and 12 men (19–28 years). Measurements and Results: The participants slept in the laboratory for 4 consecutive nights in each of 3 consecutive weeks and were exposed to aircraft, road, or rail traffic noise with weekly permutations. The 4 nights of each week consisted of a random sequence of a quiet night (32 dBA) and 3 nights during which aircraft, rail traffic, or road traffic noises occurred with maximum levels of 45–77 dBA. The polysomnogram and the electrocardiogram were recorded during all nights. In case of awakenings, the HR alterations consisted of monophasic elevations for >1 min, with mean maximum HR elevations of 30 bpm. Though obviously triggered by the noise events, the awakenings per se rather than the acoustical parameters determined the extent and pattern of the response. Without awakenings, HR responses were biphasic and consisted of initial accelerations with maximum HR elevations of about 9 bpm followed by decelerations below the baseline. These alterations were clearly influenced by the acoustic parameters (traffic mode, maximum level, rate of rise) as well as by the momentary sleep stage. Conclusions: Cardiac responses did not habituate to traffic noise within the night and may therefore play a key role in promoting traffic noise induced cardiovascular disease. If so, these consequences are more likely for responses accompanied by awakenings than for situations without awakenings. Citation: Griefahn B; Bröde P; Marks A; Basner M. Autonomic arousals related to traffic noise during sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):569-577. PMID:18457245

  13. Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiner, Arthur R.

    This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…

  14. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests. PMID:25749745

  15. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  16. Emotional Arousal and Attitude Change During Simulation Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Steven J.

    Psysiological and behavioral indices of emotional arousal and mood during performance in a simulation game were investigated. The hypotheses tested were: (1) there will be attitude change following participation in the social simulation game, Ghetto; (2) this change in attitude will be related to the players' emotional involvement in the game as…

  17. A Dose of Kindness: Empathic Arousal and Helping Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Jay S.; Batson, C. Daniel

    This paper explores the role of empathic arousal in mediating helping behavior. Undergraduates listened to a recording of a radio newscast that described the situation of a young woman whose parents had been killed in an automobile accident. Subjects were instructed either to imagine how the woman felt about her situation (imagine condition), or…

  18. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  19. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  20. Emotional Arousal of Beginning Physics Teachers during Extended Experimental Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…

  1. Weighted Vests, Stereotyped Behaviors and Arousal in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Sandra; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Misiaszek, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The homeostatic theory of stereotyped behaviors assumes that these behaviors modulate arousal. Weighted vests are used to decrease stereotyped behaviors in persons with autism because the input they provide is thought to serve the same homeostatic function. This small-n, randomized and blinded study measured the effects of wearing a weighted vest…

  2. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  3. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  4. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  5. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  6. Impaired Arousal in Older Adults is Associated with Prolonged Hospital Stay and Discharge to Skilled Nursing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Yevchak, Andrea M.; Han, Jin Ho; Doherty, Kelly; Archambault, Elizabeth G.; Kelly, Brittany; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Ely, E. Wesley; Rudolph, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor cognitive function is associated with negative consequences across settings of care, but research instruments are arduous for routine clinical implementation. This study examined the association between impaired arousal, as measured using an ultra-brief screen, and risk of two adverse clinical outcomes: hospital length of stay and discharge to a skilled nursing facility (SNF). Design, Setting, & Participants A secondary data analysis was conducted using two separate groups of medical ward patients: a VA medical center in the northeast (N=1,487, between 2010 and 2012) 60 years and older and a large tertiary care, university-based medical center (N=669, between 2007 and 2013) 65 years and older in the southeastern United States. Measurements The impact of impaired arousal, defined by the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) as anything other than “awake and alert,” was determined using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression for time to hospital discharge and logistic regression for discharge to a SNF. Hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported, respectively. Both models were adjusted age, sex, and dementia. Results The 2,156 total patients included in these groups had a mean age of 76 years, of whom 16.4% in group one and 28.5% in group two had impaired arousal. In the first group, patients with normal arousal spent an average of 5.9 days (SD 6.2) in the hospital, while those with impaired arousal spent 8.5 days (9.2). On any given day, patients with impaired arousal had 27% lower chance of being discharged (adjusted hazard ratio 0.73 (95%CI: 0.63 – 0.84). In the second group, individuals with normal arousal spent 3.8 (4.1) days in the hospital compared to 4.7 (4.6) for those with impaired arousal; indicating a 21% lower chance of being discharged [adjusted HR 0.79 (95%CI: 0.66 – 0.95). With regard to risk of discharge to SNF, those with impaired arousal in group 1 had a 65% higher risk than

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESESSION FACTORS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF DEVIANT AROUSAL

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession masturbation lowered arousal levels and both participants suppressed arousal to varying degrees. These outcomes suggest the potential for consideration and manipulation of presession factors as treatment components for sex offenders with developmental disabilities. PMID:22219524

  8. Metacognitive Confidence Increases with, but Does Not Determine, Visual Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Zizlsperger, Leopold; Kümmel, Florian; Haarmeier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    While perceptual learning increases objective sensitivity, the effects on the constant interaction of the process of perception and its metacognitive evaluation have been rarely investigated. Visual perception has been described as a process of probabilistic inference featuring metacognitive evaluations of choice certainty. For visual motion perception in healthy, naive human subjects here we show that perceptual sensitivity and confidence in it increased with training. The metacognitive sensitivity-estimated from certainty ratings by a bias-free signal detection theoretic approach-in contrast, did not. Concomitant 3Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) was applied in compliance with previous findings on effective high-low cross-frequency coupling subserving signal detection. While perceptual accuracy and confidence in it improved with training, there were no statistically significant tACS effects. Neither metacognitive sensitivity in distinguishing between their own correct and incorrect stimulus classifications, nor decision confidence itself determined the subjects' visual perceptual learning. Improvements of objective performance and the metacognitive confidence in it were rather determined by the perceptual sensitivity at the outset of the experiment. Post-decision certainty in visual perceptual learning was neither independent of objective performance, nor requisite for changes in sensitivity, but rather covaried with objective performance. The exact functional role of metacognitive confidence in human visual perception has yet to be determined. PMID:26981702

  9. Metacognitive Confidence Increases with, but Does Not Determine, Visual Perceptual Learning

    PubMed Central

    Zizlsperger, Leopold; Kümmel, Florian; Haarmeier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    While perceptual learning increases objective sensitivity, the effects on the constant interaction of the process of perception and its metacognitive evaluation have been rarely investigated. Visual perception has been described as a process of probabilistic inference featuring metacognitive evaluations of choice certainty. For visual motion perception in healthy, naive human subjects here we show that perceptual sensitivity and confidence in it increased with training. The metacognitive sensitivity–estimated from certainty ratings by a bias-free signal detection theoretic approach–in contrast, did not. Concomitant 3Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) was applied in compliance with previous findings on effective high-low cross-frequency coupling subserving signal detection. While perceptual accuracy and confidence in it improved with training, there were no statistically significant tACS effects. Neither metacognitive sensitivity in distinguishing between their own correct and incorrect stimulus classifications, nor decision confidence itself determined the subjects’ visual perceptual learning. Improvements of objective performance and the metacognitive confidence in it were rather determined by the perceptual sensitivity at the outset of the experiment. Post-decision certainty in visual perceptual learning was neither independent of objective performance, nor requisite for changes in sensitivity, but rather covaried with objective performance. The exact functional role of metacognitive confidence in human visual perception has yet to be determined. PMID:26981702

  10. Arousal-Augmented Priming Effects: Rock Music Videos and Sex Object Schemas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Christine Hall; Krygowski, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Investigates effects of undergraduate students' physiological arousal induced by physical activity on schematic priming effects from music videos. Finds that in high-arousal conditions priming effects were more extreme and more closely resembled music video content than in low-arousal conditions. (SR)

  11. Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-07-01

    Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080

  12. Genetically Determined Amerindian Ancestry Correlates with Increased Frequency of Risk Alleles for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, E; Webb, R; Rasmussen, A.; Kelly, J.A; Riba, L.; Kaufman, K.M.; Garcia-de la Torre, I.; Moctezuma, J.F.; Maradiaga-Ceceña, M.A.; Cardiel, M.; Acevedo, E.; Cucho-Venegas, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gamron, S.; Pons-Estel, B.A.; Vasconcelos, C.; Martin, J.; Tusié-Luna, T.; Harley, J.B.; Richardson, B.; Sawalha, A.H.; Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyze if genetically determined Amerindian ancestry predicts the increased presence of risk alleles of known susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms within 16 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a set of 804 Mestizo lupus patients and 667 Mestizo normal healthy controls. In addition, 347 admixture informative markers were genotyped. Individual ancestry proportions were determined using STRUCTURE. Association analysis was performed using PLINK, and correlation of the presence of risk alleles with ancestry was done using linear regression. Results A meta-analysis of the genetic association of the 16 SNPs across populations showed that TNFSF4, STAT4, PDCD1, ITGAM, and IRF5 were associated with lupus in a Hispanic-Mestizo cohort enriched for European and Amerindian ancestry. In addition, two SNPs within the MHC region, previously associated in a genome-wide association study in Europeans, were also associated in Mestizos. Using linear regression we predict an average increase of 2.34 risk alleles when comparing a lupus patient with 100% Amerindian ancestry to an SLE patient with 0% American Indian Ancestry (p<0.0001). SLE patients with 43% more Amerindian ancestry are predicted to carry one additional risk allele. Conclusion Amerindian ancestry increased the number of risk alleles for lupus. PMID:20848568

  13. Habituation of Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) to handling and movement during torpor to prevent artificial arousal.

    PubMed

    Christian, Sherri L; Rasley, Brian T; Roe, Tanna; Moore, Jeanette T; Harris, Michael B; Drew, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is a unique physiological adaptation characterized by periods of torpor that consist of repeated, reversible, and dramatic reductions of body temperature, metabolism, and blood flow. External and internal triggers can induce arousal from torpor in the hibernator. Studies of hibernating animals often require that animals be handled or moved prior to sampling or euthanasia but this movement can induce changes in the hibernation status of the animal. In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. Therefore, we assessed a method to induce habituation of torpid hibernators to handling and movement to reduce inadvertent arousals. A platform rocker was used to mimic motion experienced during transfer of an animal and changes in respiratory rate (RR) were used to assess responsiveness of torpid Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Urocitellus parryii). We found that movement alone did not induce a change in RR, however, exposure to handling induced an increase in RR in almost all AGS. This change in RR was markedly reduced with increased exposures, and all AGS exhibited a change in RR ≤ 1 by the end of the study. AGS habituated faster mid-season compared to early in the season, which mirrors other assessments of seasonal variation of torpor depth. However, AGS regained responsiveness when they were not exposed to daily handling. While AGS continued to undergo natural arousals during the study, occurrence of a full arousal was neither necessary for becoming habituated nor detrimental to the time required for habituation. These data suggest that even when torpid, AGS are able to undergo mechanosensory habituation, one of the simplest forms of learning, and provides a reliable way to reduce the sensitivity of torpid animals to handling. PMID:24847278

  14. The value of believing in free will: encouraging a belief in determinism increases cheating.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2008-01-01

    Does moral behavior draw on a belief in free will? Two experiments examined whether inducing participants to believe that human behavior is predetermined would encourage cheating. In Experiment 1, participants read either text that encouraged a belief in determinism (i.e., that portrayed behavior as the consequence of environmental and genetic factors) or neutral text. Exposure to the deterministic message increased cheating on a task in which participants could passively allow a flawed computer program to reveal answers to mathematical problems that they had been instructed to solve themselves. Moreover, increased cheating behavior was mediated by decreased belief in free will. In Experiment 2, participants who read deterministic statements cheated by overpaying themselves for performance on a cognitive task; participants who read statements endorsing free will did not. These findings suggest that the debate over free will has societal, as well as scientific and theoretical, implications. PMID:18181791

  15. Arousal of cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), comprised of activated fibroblasts or myofibroblasts, are found in stroma surrounding solid tumors; these myofibroblasts promote invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Activation of stromal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is induced by expression of cystoskeleton protein, palladin, at early stages in tumorigenesis and increases with neoplastic progression. Expression of palladin in fibroblasts is triggered by paracrine signaling from adjacent k-ras-expressing epithelial cells. Three-dimensional co-cultures of palladin-expressing fibroblasts and pancreatic cancer cells reveals that the activated fibroblasts lead the invasion by creating tunnels through the extracellular matrix through which the cancer cells follow. Invasive tunneling occurs as a result of the development of invadopodia-like cellular protrusions in the palladin-activated fibroblasts and the addition of a wounding/inflammatory trigger. Abrogation of palladin reduces the invasive capacity of these cells. CAF also play a role in cancer resistance and immuno-privilege, making the targeting of activators of these cells of interest for oncologists. PMID:23076142

  16. Assessment of Wakefulness and Brain Arousal Regulation in Psychiatric Research.

    PubMed

    Sander, Christian; Hensch, Tilman; Wittekind, Dirk Alexander; Böttger, Daniel; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, much knowledge has been gained about sleep being a heterogeneous condition with several distinct sleep stages that represent fundamentally different physiological states. The same applies for the wake state which also comprises distinct global functional states (called vigilance stages). However, various terms and concepts have been introduced describing different aspects of wakefulness, and accordingly several methods of assessment exist, e.g. sleep laboratory assessments (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Maintenance of Wakefulness Test), questionnaires (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), behavioural tasks (Psychomotor Vigilance Test) or electroencephalography (EEG)-based assessments (Alpha Attenuation Test, Karolinska Drowsiness Test). Furthermore, several theoretical concepts about the regulation of sleep and wakefulness have been put forward, and physiological correlates have been identified. Most relevant for healthy functioning is the regulation of brain arousal and the adaption of wakefulness to the environmental and situational needs so that the optimal balance between energy conservation and responsiveness can be obtained. Since one approach to the assessment of brain arousal regulation is the classification of EEG vigilance stages, a computer-based algorithm (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig) has been introduced, allowing classification of EEG vigilance stages in EEG recordings under resting conditions. The time course of EEG vigilance stages in EEGs of 15-20 min duration allows estimation of the individual arousal regulation (hyperstable, adaptive, or unstable vigilance pattern). The vigilance model of affective disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder links a disturbed arousal regulation to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and accordingly helps to explain and possibly also predict treatment effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions. PMID:26901462

  17. Resting state arousal and functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kleberg, Johan Lundin

    2015-05-01

    A recent study (Eilam-Stock T, Xu P, Cao M, Gu X, Van Dam NT, Anagnostou E, Kolevzon A, Soorya L, Park Y, Siller M, He Y, Hof PR, Fan J. Brain 137: 153-171, 2014) demonstrated that resting state electrodermal activity is correlated with different patterns of brain activity in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in typical controls. These results are considered in light of theories of atypical arousal in ASD. PMID:25080567

  18. Motivational intensity modulates the effects of positive emotions on set shifting after controlling physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted. PMID:26453484

  19. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Hama, Yuki; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid opening stretches mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle to activate the proprioceptive fiber supplied by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. This proprioception induces reflex contractions of the slow-twitch fibers in the levator palpebrae superioris and frontalis muscles to sustain eyelid and eyebrow positions against gravity. The cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalon potentially make gap-junctional connections with the locus coeruleus neurons. The locus coeruleus is implicated in arousal and autonomic function. Due to the relationship between arousal, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and skin conductance, we assessed whether upgaze with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation activates sympathetically innervated sweat glands and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we examined whether 60° upgaze induces palmar sweating and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex in 16 subjects. Sweating was monitored using a thumb-mounted perspiration meter, and prefrontal cortex activity was measured with 45-channel, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and 2-channel NIRS at Fp1 and Fp2. In 16 subjects, palmar sweating was induced by upgaze and decreased in response to downgaze. Upgaze activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with an accumulation of integrated concentration changes in deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin levels in 12 subjects. Upgaze phasically and degree-dependently increased deoxyhemoglobin level at Fp1 and Fp2, whereas downgaze phasically decreased it in 16 subjects. Unilateral anesthetization of mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle used to significantly reduce trigeminal proprioceptive evocation ipsilaterally impaired the increased deoxyhemoglobin level by 60° upgaze at Fp1 or Fp2 in 6 subjects. We concluded that upgaze with strong trigeminal proprioceptive evocation was sufficient to phasically activate sympathetically innervated sweat glands

  20. Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ferris, Craig F

    2006-01-01

    We describe the role of social odours in sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in biparental and cooperatively breeding primates. Social odours are complex chemical mixtures produced by an organism that can simultaneously provide information about species, kinship, sex, individuality and reproductive state. They are long lasting and have advantages over other modalities. Both sexes are sensitive to changes in odours over the reproductive cycle and experimental disruption of signals can lead to altered sexual behaviour within a pair. We demonstrate, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that social odours indicating reproductive state directly influence the brain areas responsible for sexual behaviour. Social odours also influence other brain areas typically involved in motivation, memory and decision making, suggesting that these signals have more complex functions in primates than mere sexual arousal. We demonstrate a rapid link between social odours and neuroendocrine responses that are modulated by a male's social status. Recent work on humans shows similar responses to social odours. We conclude with an integration of the importance of social odours on sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in socially biparental and cooperatively breeding species, suggesting new research directions to integrate social behaviour, neural activation and neuroendocrine responses. PMID:17118925

  1. Control of arousal through neuropeptide afferents of the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Gerard A

    2016-06-15

    The locus coeruleus-norepinephine (LC-NE) system is implicated in mediating several aspects of arousal. Alterations in LC neuronal discharge is associated with distinct changes in behavior, cognition, sensory processing and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Changes in LC output and subsequent release of NE in target brain regions help adjust arousal state to respond appropriately to environmental conditions and behavioral circumstances. One way in which LC activity is controlled is through release of endogenous neuropeptides. Based on the sleep-wake cycle and environmental cues specific neuropeptide afferent systems are activated, innervating the LC. These neuropeptides include: corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), orexin (ORX), endogenous opioids, substance P (SP), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS). This review summarizes studies examining the neuroanatomical projections of these neuropeptides, their receptors in the LC, the actions on LC neurons and downstream NE release, as well as the behavioral and cognitive effects associated individual neuropeptide-mediated innervation of the LC. Finally, the relationship between individual neuropeptides, the LC-NE system and various clinical disorders is discussed, providing evidence for possible therapeutic targets for treatment of several arousal- and stress-related disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26688115

  2. Sex differences in concordance rates between auditory event-related potentials and subjective sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Taylor L; Meana, Marta; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    Much research indicates men show a greater concordance between subjective and genital sexual arousal than do women. We investigated the relationship between subjective sexual arousal and brain activation in men and women. Subjective sexual arousal and auditory N1 and P3b ERP amplitudes were measured while 38 participants viewed erotic and non-erotic films. Most notably, there was a significant correlation between N1 amplitude and sexual arousal in men; for women, there was a significant correlation between the P3b amplitude and sexual arousal. ERP amplitudes were inversely associated with reported arousal, suggesting that sexual arousal interferes with early tone processing for men, and with later tone processing for women. Lastly, for women, pornography/erotica consumption was negatively correlated with P3b amplitudes, suggesting that women who consume more pornography/erotica may also show greater attention to erotic films. PMID:27125689

  3. The limits of arousal's memory-impairing effects on nearby information.

    PubMed

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all nonarousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when 2 pictures were presented together, an arousing picture did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  4. The toxin component of targeted anti-tumor toxins determines their efficacy increase by saponins.

    PubMed

    Weng, Alexander; Thakur, Mayank; Beceren-Braun, Figen; Bachran, Diana; Bachran, Christopher; Riese, Sebastian B; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

    2012-06-01

    Tumor-targeting protein toxins are composed of a toxic enzyme coupled to a specific cell binding domain that targets cancer-associated antigens. The anti-tumor treatment by targeted toxins is accompanied by dose-limiting side effects. The future prospects of targeted toxins for therapeutic use in humans will be determined by reduce side effects. Certain plant secondary metabolites (saponins) were shown to increase the efficacy of a particular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted toxin, paralleled by a tremendous decrease of side effects. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of substituting different toxin moieties fused to an EGF ligand binding domain on the augmentative ability of saponins for each against therapeutic potential of the saponin-mediated efficacy increase for different anti-tumor toxins targeting the EGFR. We designed several EGFR-targeted toxins varying in the toxic moiety. Each targeted toxin was used in combination with a purified saponin (SA1641), isolated from the ornamental plant Gypsophila paniculata L. SA1641 was characterized and the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase was investigated on EGFR-transfected NIH-3T3 cells. We observed a high dependency of the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase on the nature of toxin used for the construction of the targeted toxin, indicating high specificity. Structural alignments revealed a high homology between saporin and dianthin-30, the two toxic moieties that benefit most from the combination with SA1641. We further demonstrate that SA1641 did not influence the plasma membrane permeability, indicating an intracellular interaction of SA1641 and the toxin components of targeted toxins. Surface plasmon resonance measurements point to a transient binding of SA1641 to the toxin components of targeted toxins. PMID:22309811

  5. Germanium determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: an increased vapor pressure-chloride generation system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Volkan, Mürvet

    2011-03-15

    A new chloride generation system was designed for the direct, sensitive, rapid and accurate determination of the total germanium in complex matrices. It was aimed to improve the detection limit of chloride generation technique by increasing the vapor pressure of germanium tetrachloride (GeCl(4)). In order to do so, a novel joint vapor production and gas-liquid separation unit equipped with a home-made oven was incorporated to an ordinary nitrous oxide-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Several variables such as reaction time, temperature and acid concentration have been investigated. The linear range for germanium determination was 0.1-10 ng mL(-1) for 1 mL sampling volume with a detection limit (3s) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4% for nine replicates of a 1 ng mL(-1) germanium solution. The method was validated by the analysis of one non-certified and two certified geochemical reference materials, respectively, CRM GSJ-JR-2 (Rhyolite), and GSJ-JR-1 (Rhyolite), and GBW 07107 (Chinese Rock). Selectivity of the method was investigated for Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+), and Zn(2+) ions and ionic species of As(III), Sb(III), Te(IV), and Se(IV). PMID:21315908

  6. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  7. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n = 86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  8. CAP characteristics differ in patients with arousal parasomnias and frontal and temporal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Benbir, Gulcin; Kutlu, Ayse; Gozubatik-Celik, Gokcen; Karadeniz, Derya

    2013-08-01

    Arousal parasomnias (AP) and frontal and temporal epilepsies consist of pathologic arousals originating in abnormal thalamocortical circuits, reflecting increased sleep instability and arousal oscillations--the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). In this study, the authors aim to investigate the CAP characteristics in 27 patients with AP, 22 patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies, and age- and gender-matched 20 healthy subjects. The mean CAP sequence and cycle was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (P < 0.003). The total CAP duration was always higher in the patients with AP than in those with frontal and temporal epilepsies, reaching statistically significant level at the first (P = 0.044), second (P = 0.024), third (P = 0.010), and sixth (P < 0.001) sleep cycles. The duration of A1 in descending branch (P = 0.062) and trough phase of sleep cycles (P = 0.038) was longer in the patients with AP. The duration of A2 subtype of CAP in ascending branch (P = 0.039) and the number (P = 0.036) and duration (P = 0.050) of A3 subtype of CAP in descending branch of sleep cycles were higher in the patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies. This difference in CAP parameters might suggest that AP are associated with milder activation in specific brain areas, showing a similar evolution with physiologic homeostatic decrease in sleep synchronization. Frontal and temporal epilepsies, however, is associated with a moderate-to-powerful activation in wider brain networks. PMID:23912580

  9. Up-regulation of an extracellular superoxide dismutase-like activity in hibernating hamsters subjected to oxidative stress in mid- to late arousal from torpor.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Iwao; Kayano, Tohru; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ikeda, Masao; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2006-09-01

    Torpor-arousal cycles, one of the inherent features in hibernators, are associated with a rapid increase in body temperature and respiration, and it would lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, hibernators apparently tolerate this oxidative stress. We have observed in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) a maximal temperature shift and respiratory rate in mid- to late arousal (16-33 degrees C rectal temperature) from torpor. To examine plasma antioxidant status during arousal, we studied total superoxide radical-scavenging activity in plasma by electron spin resonance. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity reached a maximum at 32 degrees C, coincident with a peak in plasma uric acid levels, a ROS generation indicator. The up-regulated activity at 32 degrees C was attributable to the peak of the activity eluted at 260-kDa on gel-filtration chromatography, but was not to small antioxidant molecules such as ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol. The activity eluted at 260-kDa increased 3-fold at 32 degrees C compared with that of the torpid state, and was not detected either at 6 h after the onset of arousal or in the euthermic state. Moreover, the activity exhibited extracellular SOD-like properties: its induction in plasma by heparin injection and its affinity for heparin. Our results suggest that the 260-kDa extracellular SOD-like activity plays a role in the tolerance for the oxidative stress during arousal from torpor. PMID:16807121

  10. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    PubMed Central

    Clamor, Annika; Warmuth, A. Malika; Lincoln, Tania M.

    2015-01-01

    Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP)) may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N = 104; Mage = 27.7 years, SD = 11.2, range 18–70). Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses. PMID:26199758

  11. Influences of Sexual Sensation Seeking, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Arousal on Women’s Behavioral Intentions Related to Having Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly C.; George, William H.; Morrison, Diane M.; Parkhill, Michele R.; Abdallah, Devon A.

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study examined effects of alcohol consumption and sexual sensation seeking on unprotected sex intentions, taking into account sexual arousal, indirectly discouraging sex, and condom insistence. Women (N=173; M age = 25.02) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low dose (target blood alcohol level = .04), or high dose (target blood alcohol level = .08) beverage condition. Participants projected themselves into a hypothetical sexual interaction with a man in which no condom was available. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that both sexual sensation seeking and alcohol dose directly increased sexual arousal early in the interaction, but later sexual arousal indirectly increased unprotected sex intentions by decreasing endorsement of indirect discouragement and, in turn, condom insistence. These findings help to clarify the role of alcohol consumption and sensation seeking in women’s sexual decision making and point to the importance of examining it as a multi-stage process. PMID:19290686

  12. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

  13. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1989-08-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but the sexual orientation of individuals, when derived from the early stage of erectile response to brief stimuli that were from their onset of moderate erotic strength. PCR assessment has been of the degree of erection to stimuli of 2-10 min duration. No success has been reported using PCR measures of erection to classify subjects individually as to their sexual orientation. Classification of groups of 30 but not 6 homosexuals was successful using their PCRs to nudes. Attempts to identify rapists and pedophiles from normals, and aggressive from nonaggressive rapists and pedophiles by PCRs have failed to be replicated. In comparing PVRs and PCRs, Wheeler and Rubin used as stimuli three 10-min presentations of a film which apparently did not immediately introduce erotic material. This procedure would not elicit meaningful PVRs. Though never validated as a measure of individuals' sexual arousal, PCR measures of erection are currently widely recommended for assessment and determining treatment of individual sex offenders. If these assessments could affect or are believed by the offenders to affect the outcome of the legal processes in which they are involved, the procedure is not only scientifically unsupported, it is unethical. PMID:2673137

  14. Differential arousal regulation by prokineticin 2 signaling in the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Burton, Katherine J; Neal, Matthew L; Qiao, Yu; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Sun, Yanjun; Xu, Xiangmin; Ma, Yuanye; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the active phase to either day or night period for the diurnal and the nocturnal mammals are unclear. Here we report that prokineticin 2, previously shown as a circadian clock output molecule, is expressed in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and the expression of prokineticin 2 in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is oscillatory in a clock-dependent manner. We further show that the prokineticin 2 signaling is required for the activity and arousal suppression by light in the mouse. Between the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey, a signaling receptor for prokineticin 2 is differentially expressed in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and the superior colliculus, brain projection targets of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Blockade with a selective antagonist reveals the respectively inhibitory and stimulatory effect of prokineticin 2 signaling on the arousal levels for the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey. Thus, the mammalian diurnality or nocturnality is likely determined by the differential signaling of prokineticin 2 from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells onto their retinorecipient brain targets. PMID:27535380

  15. Predictive value of determinations of zinc protoporphyrin for increased blood lead concentrations.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Kristal-Boneh, E; Benbassat, J; Ashkanazi, R; Ribak, J

    1998-06-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and red cell zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations are widely used biomarkers for lead toxicity. It is uncertain, however, whether either or both are needed for monitoring lead exposure and how discordant PbB and ZPP values should be interpreted. We reviewed the results of PbB and ZPP determinations in 94 workers in a lead-battery plant over a 13-year period and retrieved all 807 sets of tests in which both PbB and ZPP were available, with a follow-up PbB value 6 months later. PbB exceeded 1.93 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) in 414 (51%), and 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL) in 105 (14%) of the blood samples. We derived the test properties of various ZPP concentrations for concurrent "toxic" PbB concentrations, defined as > or = 1.93 and 2.90 micromol/L (40 and 60 microg/dL). The results indicated that, given a population of lead-exposed workers with a 10% prevalence of PbB of > or = 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL), a policy of testing PbB only in those with ZPP > 0.71 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) would obviate 42% of the PbB tests, but would miss about three cases with toxic PbB concentrations in every 200 workers at risk. A finding of increased ZPP concentrations with a concurrent "nontoxic" PbB was associated with an increased risk of a toxic PbB concentration 6 months later. We conclude that (a) screening by testing only ZPP does not safeguard exposed persons against lead toxicity, and (b) the frequency of PbB monitoring should be guided by estimates of the risk of future lead toxicity in individual workers. PMID:9625054

  16. Environment as a potential key determinant of the continued increase of prostate cancer incidence in martinique.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980-2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer. PMID:22191038

  17. Are rapists differentially aroused by coercive sex in phallometric assessments?

    PubMed

    Lalumière, Martin L; Quinsey, Vernon L; Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Trautrimas, Caroline

    2003-06-01

    In this chapter we examine whether rapists are sexually aroused by coercive, nonconsensual sex. This question is theoretically important because it speaks to a potential sexual motivation underlying rape. It is also clinically important in that it may reveal an important assessment and treatment target. We first revisit and update quantitative reviews of studies that examined the phallometric responses of rapists and other men. We then present new data on the discriminative and diagnostic validity of a phallometric test for rapists. Finally, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues in phallometric assessment and the nature of rapists' sexual interests. PMID:12839900

  18. A Scale for Assessing the Severity of Arousal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Zhang, Bin; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Flamand, Mathilde; Noël de Fontréaux, Alix; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arousal disorders may have serious health consequences. Objective: To develop a scale assessing the severity of arousal disorders (Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale, PADSS). Setting: University hospital. Design: Controlled study. Participants: Consecutive patients (older than 15 y), with sleepwalking (SW) and/or sleep terrors (ST), subjects with previous SW/ST, normal controls and patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Intervention: The self-rated scale listed 17 parasomniac behaviors (PADSS-A), assessed their frequency from never to twice or more per night (PADSS-B) and evaluated the consequences (PADSS-C: disturbed sleep, injuries, fatigue, and psychological consequences). The clinimetric properties and face validity of the scale were tested. Results: Half of the 73 patients with SW/ST (more men than women) had injured themselves or others, whereas 15% had concomitant sexsomnia and 23% had amnestic eating behaviors. The total PADSS score (range: 0-50) was 19.4 ± 6.3 (range: 8-36) in this group, 11.7 ± 5.9 in 26 subjects with previous SW/ST, 8.8 ± 3.2 in 26 patients with RBD, and 2.0 ± 3.5 in 53 normal controls (P < 0.05). The PADSS demonstrated high sensitivity (83.6%), specificity (87.8%), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (0.79). The best cutoff for the total score was at 13/14. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: wandering and violence/handling. The complexity of behaviors emerging from N3 sleep (scored on videopolysomnography) positively correlated with scores for the PADSS-total, PADSS-A, PADSS-C, and the “violence/handling” factor. Conclusion: This scale had reasonable psychometric properties and could be used for screening and stratifying patients and for evaluating the effects of treatments. Citation: Arnulf I; Zhang B; Uguccioni G; Flamand M; Noël de Fontréaux A; Leu-Semenescu S; Brion A. A scale for assessing the severity of arousal disorders. SLEEP 2014;37(1):127-136. PMID

  19. The interaction of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention affects genital, but not subjective, sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone

    2008-04-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed. PMID:18325482

  20. AB040. Determinants of increase FeNO in individuals with suspected asthma

    PubMed Central

    Batsiou, Maria; Kreuzaler, Sandra; Gardener, Elizabeth; Ryan, Dermot; Gruffydd-Jones, Kevin; Thomas, Mike; Buhl, Roland; Syk, Jörgen; Copland, Anne; Freeman, Daryl; Lapperre, Therese S.; Godley, Clifford; Ohta, Ken; Tan, Tze L.; Chuan, Tan Ngiap; Thomas, Vicky; Raju, Priyanka; Harris, Mark; McLoughlin, Andrew; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Airway inflammation is the fundamental mechanism in asthma and can be measured non-invasively by means of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Both, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) diagnostics guidance 12 and British guideline on the management of asthma, are recommending the inclusion of FeNO testing as part of diagnosis in patients that have an intermediate probability of having asthma. Furthermore, FeNO testing is recommended as an option for monitoring response to corticosteroid treatment in patients with increased FeNO. However, there is a need for establishing routine data predictors for individuals with increased FeNO, to identify those that would benefit from FeNO measurement as a tool for aiding asthma diagnosis and monitoring treatment responsiveness. To provide a real-life predictive model for the identification of individuals at risk of asthma that have increased FeNO. Methods An analysis of real-life standard care and FeNO data derived from a randomised, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study entitled: ‘The evaluation of FeNO for predicting response to an inhaled corticosteroid in subjects with non-specific respiratory symptoms’ was carried out. Data from study participants with non-specific respiratory symptoms and an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score ≥1 were analysed cross-sectionally. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between FeNO levels, categorised in normal (≤25 ppb) and intermediate (>25 and <40 ppb)/high (≥40 ppb), and a number of determinants, including demographic variables, smoking status, history of atopy, number of short acting beta agonist (SABA) inhalers in the year preceding study participation, symptoms of cough, wheeze and dyspnoea, prior history of oral steroid use, blood eosinophil count (cut off 0.2×109/L) and forced expiratory volume in the first second percent predicted (FEV1% pred). Results Overall, 90 individuals were assessed

  1. Startle reflex hyporeactivity in Parkinson's disease: an emotion-specific or arousal-modulated deficit?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, K.M.; Okun, M.S.; Marsiske, M.; Fennell, E.B.; Bowers, D.

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrate reduced psychophysiologic reactivity to unpleasant pictures as indexed by diminished startle eyeblink magnitude (Bowers et al., 2006). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that this hyporeactivity was primarily driven by diminished reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli as opposed to other types of aversive pictures. This hypothesis was based on previous evidence suggesting amygdalar abnormalities in PD patients coupled with the known role of the amygdala in fear processing. To test this hypothesis, 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 controls viewed standardized sets of emotional pictures that depicted fear, disgust (mutilations, contaminations), pleasant, and neutral contents. Startle eyeblinks were elicited while subjects viewed these emotional pictures. Results did not support the hypothesis of a specific deficit to fear pictures. Instead, the PD patients had reduced reactivity to mutilation pictures relative to other types of negative pictures in the context of normal subjective ratings. Further analyses revealed that controls displayed a pattern of increased startle eyeblink magnitude for “high arousal” versus “low arousal” negative pictures, regardless of picture category, whereas startle eyeblink magnitude in the PD group did not vary by arousal level. These results suggest that previous findings of decreased aversion-modulated startle is driven by reduced reactivity to highly arousing negative stimuli rather than to a specific category (i.e., fear or disgust) of emotion stimuli. PMID:19428424

  2. Emotional Arousal, Blood Glucose Levels, and Memory Modulation: Three Laboratory Exercises in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between emotional arousal and cognition in humans represent an important field in cognitive neuroscience. Studies examining the characteristics of emotion-induced memory enhancement and the mechanisms through which these effects occur are becoming increasingly common. This article describes three affordable laboratory exercises of relevance to the growing interest in this field. Specifically, Experiment one reviews a protocol for examining memory, hypermnesia, reminiscence, and primacy/recency effects for emotional and neutral words. Experiments two and three provide opportunities to examine the relationships between blood glucose level and memory for either a list of pictures or the spatial location of pictures. Each laboratory exercise contains a certain amount of flexibility and is malleable to the specific needs of the instructor. For example, the use of blood glucose monitoring may be of value to a variety of different exercises examining stress and/or emotional arousal and the stimuli used in each of the protocols may be varied, creating opportunities for a number of different novel exercises. A series of questions have been provided at the end of each exercise in order to help stimulate inclass discussion. The potential application of this line of research in cognitive neuroscience is conveyed through a list of references where glucose has been used to attenuate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease, age-related cognitive decline, and other neuropsychological conditions. PMID:23493939

  3. Emotional arousal, blood glucose levels, and memory modulation: three laboratory exercises in cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Flint, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between emotional arousal and cognition in humans represent an important field in cognitive neuroscience. Studies examining the characteristics of emotion-induced memory enhancement and the mechanisms through which these effects occur are becoming increasingly common. This article describes three affordable laboratory exercises of relevance to the growing interest in this field. Specifically, Experiment one reviews a protocol for examining memory, hypermnesia, reminiscence, and primacy/recency effects for emotional and neutral words. Experiments two and three provide opportunities to examine the relationships between blood glucose level and memory for either a list of pictures or the spatial location of pictures. Each laboratory exercise contains a certain amount of flexibility and is malleable to the specific needs of the instructor. For example, the use of blood glucose monitoring may be of value to a variety of different exercises examining stress and/or emotional arousal and the stimuli used in each of the protocols may be varied, creating opportunities for a number of different novel exercises. A series of questions have been provided at the end of each exercise in order to help stimulate inclass discussion. The potential application of this line of research in cognitive neuroscience is conveyed through a list of references where glucose has been used to attenuate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease, age-related cognitive decline, and other neuropsychological conditions. PMID:23493939

  4. SMOKING DURING PREGNANCY: POSTNATAL EFFECTS ON AROUSAL AND ATTENTIONAL BRAIN SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Buchanan, R.; McKeon, K.; Skinner, R.D.; Wallace, T.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is known to produce lasting arousal, attentional and cognitive deficits in humans. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system (RAS), is known to modulate arousal, waking and REM sleep. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreases between 10 and 30 days postnatally in the rat, with the greatest decrease occurring at 12–21 days. Pregnant dams were exposed to 150 ml of cigarette smoke for 15 min, 3 times per day, from day E14 until parturition, and the pups allowed to mature. We analyzed a) intrinsic membrane properties of PPN neurons in slices from pups aged 12–21 days, and b) the sleep state-dependent P13 auditory evoked potential, which is generated by PPN outputs, in animals allowed to age to adolescence. We found significant changes in the intrinsic membrane properties of PPN cells in prenatally exposed animals compared to intact ones, rendering these cells more excitable. In addition, we found disturbances in the habituation to repetitive stimulation in adolescent, freely moving animals, suggestive of a deficit in the process of sensory gating. These findings could explain some of the differences seen in individuals whose parents smoked during pregnancy, especially in terms of their hypervigilance and increased propensity for attentional deficits and cognitive/behavioral disorders. PMID:17368773

  5. Generalized CNS arousal: An elementary force within the vertebrate nervous system.

    PubMed

    Calderon, D P; Kilinc, M; Maritan, A; Banavar, J R; Pfaff, D

    2016-09-01

    Why do animals and humans do anything at all? Arousal is the most powerful and essential function of the brain, a continuous function that accounts for the ability of animals and humans to respond to stimuli in the environment by producing muscular responses. Following decades of psychological, neurophysiological and molecular investigations, generalized CNS arousal can now be analyzed using approaches usually applied to physical systems. The concept of "criticality" is a state that illustrates an advantage for arousal systems poised near a phase transition. This property provides speed and sensitivity and facilitates the transition of the system into different brain states, especially as the brain crosses a phase transition from less aroused to more aroused states. In summary, concepts derived from applied mathematics of physical systems will now find their application in this area of neuroscience, the neurobiology of CNS arousal. PMID:27216213

  6. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    PubMed

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence. PMID:24715543

  7. REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

  8. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen B R E; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable. PMID:24523690

  9. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen B. R. E.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus–response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable. PMID:24523690

  10. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. PMID:24799137

  11. An Improved Technique for Increasing the Accuracy of Photometrically Determined Redshifts for ___Blended___ Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Ashley Marie; /Marietta Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The redshift of a galaxy can be determined by one of two methods; photometric or spectroscopic. Photometric is a term for any redshift determination made using the magnitudes of light in different filters. Spectroscopic redshifts are determined by measuring the absorption spectra of the object then determining the difference in wavelength between the 'standard' absorption lines and the measured ones, making it the most accurate of the two methods. The data for this research was collected from SDSS DR8 and then separated into blended and non-blended galaxy sets; the definition of 'blended' is discussed in the Introduction section. The current SDSS photometric redshift determination method does not discriminate between blended and non-blended data when it determines the photometric redshift of a given galaxy. The focus of this research was to utilize machine learning techniques to determine if a considerably more accurate photometric redshift determination method could be found, for the case of the blended and non-blended data being treated separately. The results show a reduction of 0.00496 in the RMS error of photometric redshift determinations for blended galaxies and a more significant reduction of 0.00827 for non-blended galaxies, illustrated in Table 2.

  12. Age differences in arousal and vigilance in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi).

    PubMed

    Hanson, M T; Coss, R G

    2001-11-01

    Newly emerged pup, juvenile, and adult California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi douglasii) were videorecorded at a seminatural field site in northern California. Video data revealed age differences in the budgeting of ground squirrel behavior, habitat use, and physiological arousal as indicated by morphometric analyses of tail piloerection. Adults and juveniles devoted their time to foraging in the open at feeding stations while displaying low to moderate levels of arousal, respectively. Pups remained vigilant on the fringe of covered habitats while displaying comparatively higher levels of arousal. Higher pup arousal may facilitate memory formation during early stages of development. PMID:11745313

  13. Effects of emotional arousal on memory binding in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that associative memory declines in normal aging and is severely affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, it is unclear whether and how this deficit can be minimized. The present study investigated whether emotional arousal improves associative memory in healthy younger and older adults and patients with probable AD. We examined the effect of arousal on memory for item-location associations. Arousal improved memory for item location similarly across the three groups, whereas valence had no effect in any groups. Overall, our results suggest that arousal has beneficial effects on associative memory in healthy older adults and patients with AD, as previously observed in younger adults. PMID:21977692

  14. Increasing Self-Determination: Teaching Students To Plan, Work, Evaluate, and Adjust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; Mithaug, Dennis E.; Cox, Phil; Peterson, Lori Y.; Van Dycke, Jamie L.; Cash, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effect of self-determination contracts for 8 students (ages 9-10) with severe emotional/behavioral problems. Students completed daily self-determination contracts to schedule their work, plan for work outcomes, evaluate progress, and adjust for the next day's activity. Pre- and post-assessment found significant academic…

  15. "Not for all the tea in China!" political ideology and the avoidance of dissonance-arousing situations.

    PubMed

    Nam, H Hannah; Jost, John T; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2013-01-01

    People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a "better president." This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed. PMID:23620724

  16. Spectral determination of concentrations of functionally diverse pigments in increasingly complex arctic tundra canopies.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Magney, Troy S; Logan, Barry A; Griffin, Kevin L; Eitel, Jan U H; Greaves, Heather; Prager, Case M; Vierling, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    As the Arctic warms, tundra vegetation is becoming taller and more structurally complex, as tall deciduous shrubs become increasingly dominant. Emerging studies reveal that shrubs exhibit photosynthetic resource partitioning, akin to forests, that may need accounting for in the "big leaf" net ecosystem exchange models. We conducted a lab experiment on sun and shade leaves from S. pulchra shrubs to determine the influence of both constitutive (slowly changing bulk carotenoid and chlorophyll pools) and facultative (rapidly changing xanthophyll cycle) pigment pools on a suite of spectral vegetation indices, to devise a rapid means of estimating within canopy resource partitioning. We found that: (1) the PRI of dark-adapted shade leaves (PRIo) was double that of sun leaves, and that PRIo was sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (V + A + Z) (r (2) = 0.59) and Chla/b (r (2) = 0.64); (2) A corrected PRI (difference between dark and illuminated leaves, ΔPRI) was more sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in changes to the epoxidation state of their xanthophyll cycle pigments (dEPS) (r (2) = 0.78, RMSE = 0.007) compared to the uncorrected PRI of illuminated leaves (PRI) (r (2) = 0.34, RMSE = 0.02); and (3) the SR680 index was correlated with each of (V + A + Z), lutein, bulk carotenoids, (V + A + Z)/(Chla + b), and Chla/b (r (2) range = 0.52-0.69). We suggest that ΔPRI be employed as a proxy for facultative pigment dynamics, and the SR680 for the estimation of constitutive pigment pools. We contribute the first Arctic-specific information on disentangling PRI-pigment relationships, and offer insight into how spectral indices can assess resource partitioning within shrub tundra canopies. PMID:27193900

  17. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Orekhova, Elena V.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response—automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN), and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component,—found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased, or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, “sensory gating” studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants “at risk” who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions. PMID:24567709

  18. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Orekhova, Elena V; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response-automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN), and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component,-found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased, or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, "sensory gating" studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants "at risk" who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions. PMID:24567709

  19. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  20. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger. PMID:25224182

  1. Mechanisms underlying sexual and affiliative behaviors of mice: relation to generalized CNS arousal

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Deborah N.; Choleris, Elena; Kavaliers, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The field of social neuroscience has grown dramatically in recent years and certain social responses have become amenable to mechanistic investigations. Toward that end, there has been remarkable progress in determining mechanisms for a simple sexual behavior, lordosis behavior. This work has proven that specific hormone-dependent biochemical reactions in specific parts of the mammalian brain regulate a biologically important behavior. On one hand, this sex behavior depends on underlying mechanisms of CNS arousal. On the other hand, it serves as a prototypical social behavior. The same sex hormones and the genes that encode their receptors as are involved in lordosis, also affect social recognition. Here we review evidence for a micronet of genes promoting social recognition in mice and discuss their biological roles. PMID:18985112

  2. Increased feelings with increased body signals

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Eduardo P. M.; Weinstock, Joel; Elliott, David; Summers, Robert; Tranel, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of psychology as a scientific endeavour, the question of whether the body plays a role in how a person experiences emotion has been the centre of emotion research. Patients with structural gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn's disease, provide an intriguing opportunity to study the influence of body signals on emotions and feelings. In the present study, emotionally salient films were presented to participants with Crohn's disease in either the active state (Crohn's-active, CA) or silent state (Crohn's-silent, CS), and to normal comparison (NC) participants. We hypothesized that CA participants would have increased feelings, compared with CS and NC participants, when viewing emotional films designed to elicit happiness, disgust, sadness and fear. Gastric myoelectrical activity (electrogastrogram, or EGG) was measured during the films, and after each film was presented, participants rated emotion intensity (arousal) and pleasantness (valence). All groups labelled the emotions similarly. In support of the hypothesis, CA participants showed an increase in subjective arousal for negative emotions compared with CS and NC participants. The CA participants also showed increased EGG during emotional film viewing, as well as a strong positive correlation of EGG with arousal ratings. Together, these findings can be taken as evidence that aberrant feedback from the gastrointestinal system up-regulates the intensity of feelings of negative emotions. PMID:18985099

  3. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Smith, Haleigh R; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B

    2015-07-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT(2A) receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1b(f/f/p)) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT(2A), but not 5-HT(2C), receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT(2A) receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  4. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  5. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Effects of psychostimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; González, Betina; Celeste Rivero-Echeto, María; Muñiz, Javier A; Luster, Brennon; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2015-11-01

    This review describes the interactions between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the thalamocortical system. Experiments using modulators of cholinergic receptors in the PPN clarified its role on psychostimulant-induced locomotion. PPN activation was found to be involved in the animal's voluntary search for psychostimulants. Every PPN neuron is known to generate gamma band oscillations. Voltage-gated calcium channels are key elements in the generation and maintenance of gamma band activity of PPN neurons. Calcium channels are also key elements mediating psychostimulant-induced alterations in the thalamic targets of PPN output. Thus, the PPN is a key substrate for maintaining arousal and REM sleep, but also in modulating psychostimulant self-administration. PMID:26779323

  6. The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Edward A; Smith, Kenneth H

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of music listening for performance on a 25-question portion of the analytical section of the Graduate Record Exam by 72 undergraduate students (M age 21.9 yr.). Five levels of an auditory condition were based on Mozart Piano Sonata No. 3 (K. 281), Movement I (Allegro); a rhythm excerpt; a melody excerpt; traffic sounds; and silence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the stimuli. After a 5-min., 43-sec. (length of the first Allegro movement) listening period, participants answered the questions. Analysis indicated participants achieved significantly higher mean scores after all auditory conditions than those in the silent condition. No statistically significant pairwise mean difference appeared between scores for the auditory conditions. Findings were interpreted in terms of an arousal framework, suggesting the higher means in all auditory conditions may reflect immediate exposure to auditory stimuli. PMID:19093601

  7. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Effects of psychostimulant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Bisagno, Verónica; González, Betina; Celeste Rivero-Echeto, María; Muñiz, Javier A.; Luster, Brennon; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the interactions between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the thalamocortical system. Experiments using modulators of cholinergic receptors in the PPN clarified its role on psychostimulant-induced locomotion. PPN activation was found to be involved in the animal’s voluntary search for psychostimulants. Every PPN neuron is known to generate gamma band oscillations. Voltage-gated calcium channels are key elements in the generation and maintenance of gamma band activity of PPN neurons. Calcium channels are also key elements mediating psychostimulant-induced alterations in the thalamic targets of PPN output. Thus, the PPN is a key substrate for maintaining arousal and REM sleep, but also in modulating psychostimulant self-administration. PMID:26779323

  8. Female nudity in advertisements, arousal and response: a parsimonious extension.

    PubMed

    LaTour, M S; Henthorne, T L

    1994-12-01

    This study extended a 1990 report of LaTour, Pitts, and Snook-Luther by further analysis. Relationships between the key dimensions of High Activation (tension) and General Activation (energy) and ratings of attitude toward the advertisement were analyzed in a test of two hypothetical models performed on ratings by 134 undergraduate business students who responded to the paper-and-pencil tests which operationalized the constructs. In addition, attitude toward the brand was added to the formulation to evaluate the tenability of direct effects of arousal on attitude toward the brand (Ab) and indirect effects "filtered through" attitude toward the advertisement (Aad). Analysis supported the idea that excessive rated tension induced from an erotic advertisement has negative consequences. As predicted, different structural relations between these variables occur under different conditions. PMID:7886193

  9. Teaching Students about Their Disabilities: Increasing Self-Determination Skills and Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to report the results of a pilot study that examined changes in self-awareness and self-concept. Seven self-determination lessons were implemented with 13 elementary, middle and high schoolers with disabilities in learning (i.e., learning disabilities and mild mental impairments). The lessons focused on teaching…

  10. 42 CFR 406.34 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Reenrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Peter M enrolled during his initial enrollment period, terminated his first coverage period in August... through March, 1980) were not enough to require any increase in the premium. Peter terminated his...

  11. 42 CFR 406.34 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Reenrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Peter M enrolled during his initial enrollment period, terminated his first coverage period in August... through March, 1980) were not enough to require any increase in the premium. Peter terminated his...

  12. 42 CFR 406.34 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Reenrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Peter M enrolled during his initial enrollment period, terminated his first coverage period in August... through March, 1980) were not enough to require any increase in the premium. Peter terminated his...

  13. 42 CFR 406.34 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Reenrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Peter M enrolled during his initial enrollment period, terminated his first coverage period in August... through March, 1980) were not enough to require any increase in the premium. Peter terminated his...

  14. Effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response and subjective sexual arousal: a comparison between women with sexual arousal disorder and sexually healthy women.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Laura S; Kuffel, Stephanie W; Heiman, Julia R

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated and compared the effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect in 17 women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) and 17 sexually healthy women. Positive and negative cognitive schemas were presented to participants before viewing sexually explicit video segments. They were asked to temporarily adopt both schemas, and vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in each schema condition. Participants in both groups had significantly greater vaginal response and reported more subjective sexual arousal in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition. Sexually healthy women demonstrated significantly higher subjective sexual arousal than women with FSAD, but there were no significant group differences in vaginal response. Moreover, participants in both groups reported higher levels of Positive Affect and Vigor in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition but higher levels of Negative Affect, Tension-Anxiety, and Anger-Hostility in the negative schema condition than in the positive schema condition. These findings demonstrate the impact of cognitions on sexual arousal, which has important implications for addressing cognitions in the treatment of FSAD. Moreover, these findings have implications for the conceptualization of FSAD, which may be best characterized as a complex, heterogeneous cluster of symptoms. PMID:18256919

  15. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  16. The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, David C.

    The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

  17. Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed sexual arousal, in response to nondeviant and pedophilic audiotapes, among inpatient adult male sexual offenders. Audiotapes describing consenting sexual intercourse created significantly greater arousal than did descriptions of physically forcible sexual/nonsexual activity with female minors. Correspondence of physiological measures with…

  18. Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

  19. Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

  20. Autonomic Arousal to Direct Gaze Correlates with Social Impairments among Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaartinen, Miia; Puura, Kaija; Makela, Tiina; Rannisto, Mervi; Lemponen, Riina; Helminen, Mika; Salmelin, Raili; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether autonomic arousal to direct gaze is related to social impairments among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Arousal was measured through skin conductance responses (SCR) while the participants (15 children with ASD and 16 control children) viewed a live face of another person. Impairments in social…

  1. Time-of-Day Effects in Arousal: Disrupted Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study…

  2. Arousing Primary Vulnerable Emotions in the Context of Unresolved Anger: "Speaking about" versus "Speaking to"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Gary M.; Rochman, Daniel; Amir, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Arousing and processing primary vulnerable emotions is a core change mechanism across a wide range of psychotherapies and clinical populations. This study examined the utility of 2 emotion-focused interventions--relational reframes and empty-chair enactments--in terms of arousing primary sadness associated with loss and longing among individuals…

  3. Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents…

  4. Direct Manipulation of Physiological Arousal in Induced Anxiety Therapy-Biofeedback Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Induced Anxiety is a brief psychotherapy procedure that teaches individuals to cope with negative effect by using relaxation techniques. This research investigated the role of physiological arousal in the affect induction phase of Induced Anxiety therapy by using biofeedback to facilitate arousal. Twenty-one college students suffering from…

  5. Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

  6. Low-Arousal Speech Noise Improves Performance in N-Back Task: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Jin, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity) and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits. PMID:24204607

  7. Optimal Pre-Competition Emotional Arousal of High School Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klavora, Peter

    A popular belief among leading sport psychologists has been that optimal performance of specific tasks in athletics is associated with different optimal emotional arousal levels of performers. This study was undertaken to test this generalization by examining possible differences in precompetition emotional arousal level of football players who…

  8. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  9. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  11. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  12. Increasing Flexibility in Children’s Online Processing of Grammatical and Nonce Determiners in Fluent Speech

    PubMed Central

    Zangl, Renate; Fernald, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments using online speech processing measures with 18- to 36-month-olds extended research by Gerken & McIntosh (1993) showing that young children’s comprehension is disrupted when the grammatical determiner in a noun phrase is replaced with a nonce determiner (the car vs. po car). In Expt. 1, 18-month-olds were slower and less accurate to identify familiar nouns on nonce-article than grammatical-article trials, although older children who produced determiners in their own speech showed no disruption. However, when tested on novel words in Expt. 2, even linguistically advanced 34-month-olds had greater difficulty identifying familiar as well as newly learned object names preceded by a nonce article. Children’s success in “listening through” an uninformative functor-like nonce syllable before a familiar noun was related to their level of grammatical competence, but their attention to the nonce article also varied with lexical familiarity and the overall redundancy of the processing context. PMID:22081762

  13. Effectiveness of direct and non-direct auditory stimulation on coma arousal after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Davis, Alice E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of direct and non-direct auditory stimulation on arousal in coma patients with severe traumatic brain injury and to compare the effects of direct vs. non-direct auditory stimulation. A crossover intervention study design was used. Nine participants who were comatose after a severe traumatic brain injury underwent direct and non-direct auditory stimulation. Direct auditory stimulation requires a higher level of interpersonal interaction between the patient and stimuli such as voices of family members, orientation by a nurse or family member and familiar music. In contrast, non-direct auditory stimuli were characterized as more general, less familiar, less interactive, indirect and not lively such as general music and TV sounds. Participants received both direct and non-direct auditory stimulation in randomized order for 15 minutes. Recovery of consciousness was measured with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Sensory Stimulation Assessment Measure (SSAM). The Friedman test with post hoc analysis by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test comparisons was used for data analysis. Patients who received both direct and non-direct auditory stimulation exhibited significantly increased GCS (p = 0.008) and SSAM scores (p = 0.008) over baseline. The improvement in SSAM scores after direct auditory stimulation was significantly greater than that after non-direct auditory stimulation (p = 0.021), but there was no statistically significant difference in GCS scores (p = 0.139). Auditory stimulation, in particular direct auditory stimulation, might be useful for improving the recovery of consciousness and increasing the arousal of comatose patients. The SSAM is more useful for detecting subtle changes from stimulation intervention than the GCS. PMID:27241789

  14. Determinants of Increased Opioid-Related Mortality in the United States and Canada, 1990–2013: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Veronique; Boikos, Constantina; Richardson, Robin; Harper, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We review evidence of determinants contributing to increased opioid-related mortality in the United States and Canada between 1990 and 2013. We identified 17 determinants of opioid-related mortality and mortality increases that we classified into 3 categories: prescriber behavior, user behavior and characteristics, and environmental and systemic determinants. These determinants operate independently but interact in complex ways that vary according to geography and population, making generalization from single studies inadvisable. Researchers in this area face significant methodological difficulties; most of the studies in our review were ecological or observational and lacked control groups or adjustment for confounding factors; thus, causal inferences are difficult. Preventing additional opioid-related mortality will likely require interventions that address multiple determinants and are tailored to specific locations and populations. PMID:24922138

  15. Stepping Up the Pressure: Arousal Can Be Associated with a Reduction in Male Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci; Westling, Erika H.; Creswell, J. David; Ebert, Jeffrey P.; Wallaert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann & Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal. Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed. PMID:18561301

  16. The moderating effects of stimulus valence and arousal on memory suppression.

    PubMed

    Marx, Brian P; Marshall, Peter J; Castro, Frank

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the separate and combined effects of stimulus valence and arousal on retrieval inhibition. Participants performed Anderson and Green's (2001) memory suppression task with stimuli varying across dimensions of valence and arousal. Memory was tested through free and cued recall as well as speeded recognition. Results showed that both stimulus valence and arousal influenced the extent to which participants successfully inhibited retrieval, but not in the ways anticipated. Specifically, the strongest inhibition effects were for highly arousing, pleasant words. In addition, unpleasant stimuli that were suppressed were better recalled during both cued and free-recall tasks than pleasant stimuli that were suppressed. Across all tests of memory performance, there were no significant differences between the experimental conditions for highly arousing, unpleasant words. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18410194

  17. Upbeat and happy: arousal as an important factor in studying attention.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Meghan M; Shore, David I

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of music-induced mood changes on different components of visual attention. Affective valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low) were manipulated by having participants listen to one of four versions of a Mozart Sonata that varied in mode (major or minor) and tempo (fast or slow). Attention was measured in three domains-alerting, orienting, and executive control. Affective valence and arousal had an effect on executive control, but not on alerting or orienting. Individuals who experienced positive valence had less efficient control over their responses than those who experienced negative valence, but only when arousal levels were high. Positive and negative valence did not influence executive control measures when arousal levels were low. These findings demonstrate that affective valence and arousal interact with one another to influence the processing of items in visual attention. PMID:22017613

  18. Acoustic Intensity Causes Perceived Changes in Arousal Levels in Music: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Roger T.; Bailes, Freya; Schubert, Emery

    2011-01-01

    Listener perceptions of changes in the arousal expressed by classical music have been found to correlate with changes in sound intensity/loudness over time. This study manipulated the intensity profiles of different pieces of music in order to test the causal nature of this relationship. Listeners (N = 38) continuously rated their perceptions of the arousal expressed by each piece. An extract from Dvorak's Slavonic Dance Opus 46 No 1 was used to create a variant in which the direction of change in intensity was inverted, while other features were retained. Even though it was only intensity that was inverted, perceived arousal was also inverted. The original intensity profile was also superimposed on three new pieces of music. The time variation in the perceived arousal of all pieces was similar to their intensity profile. Time series analyses revealed that intensity variation was a major influence on the arousal perception in all pieces, in spite of their stylistic diversity. PMID:21533095

  19. Adding fuel to fire: the impact of followers' arousal on ratings of charisma.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Juan Carlos; Mayo, Margarita; Shamir, Boas

    2007-11-01

    The authors conducted an experimental laboratory study and a longitudinal field study to investigate the impact of followers' arousal on ratings of charisma. Both studies examined 2 contrasting hypotheses: (a) the misattribution hypothesis, which posits a direct effect of arousal, and (b) the response-facilitation hypothesis, which posits an interactive effect of arousal and leaders' charismatic appeal on ratings of charisma. The overall results from both studies provide support for the response-facilitation hypothesis. In addition, the authors tested the hypothesis that arousal effects are limited to ratings of charisma. As expected, ratings of transactional leadership, in contrast with ratings of charisma, were not influenced by followers' arousal states. The authors discuss the implications of these results and offer suggestions for future research. PMID:18020798

  20. Increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin and hemosiderin iron determined by serum ferritin kinetics.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hisao; Tomita, Akihiro; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Maeda, Hideaki; Naoe, Tomoki

    2013-08-01

    We attempted to clarify the mechanism of the storage iron metabolism. A new program of serum ferritin kinetics was applied for studying the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin and hemosiderin iron in iron addition and removal in patients with a normal level of iron stores or iron overload. The change of ferritin iron in response to iron addition and removal was rapid in the initial stage, but it was slow later. In contrast, the change of hemosiderin iron was slow in the initial stage, but it became rapid later. These changes of ferritin and hemosiderin iron suggest that the turnover of ferritin iron is preferential to that of hemosiderin iron, and that the initially existed ferritin iron is gradually replaced by the ferritin iron recovered by taking iron from hemosiderin in iron mobilization. The crossing of the increasing curves of ferritin and hemosiderin iron in iron addition indicates a switching of the principal storage iron from ferritin to hemosiderin. The crossing point shifted toward a higher storage iron level in the increase of iron deposition. Iron storing capacity can be increased not only by the transformation of ferritin into hemosiderin, but also by the expansion of cell space as seen by hepatomegaly in hereditary hemochromatosis. The amounts of hemosiderin iron exceeded ferritin iron in all 10 patients with chronic hepatitis C even though they had normal storage iron levels. This suggests it is difficult to store iron in the form of ferritin in chronic hepatitis C. PMID:24640177

  1. 76 FR 66111 - Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... disabled and has an alcoholism or drug addiction condition that leaves him or her incapable of managing... entitled to disability benefits and has an alcoholism or drug addiction condition that makes the individual..., 2010 (75 FR 74123), along with the percentage increase in average wages from 2009 to 2010, as...

  2. 77 FR 65754 - Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... disabled and has an alcoholism or drug addiction condition that leaves him or her incapable of managing... beneficiary is entitled to disability benefits and has an alcoholism or drug addiction condition that makes..., 2011 (76 FR 66111), along with the percentage increase in average wages from 2010 to 2011, as...

  3. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... students, and necessary improvements in teaching equipment. Increases in patient care and research costs... maintenance and improvement of the educational system. These three categories of valid escalators of tuition... illustrative and not meant to be inclusive. (d) If the Secretary, after reviewing all available...

  4. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. PMID:26118962

  5. Increasing self-determination: teaching people with mental retardation to evaluate residential options.

    PubMed Central

    Faw, G D; Davis, P K; Peck, C

    1996-01-01

    The community living preferences of 4 institutionalized adults with mild mental retardation were identified using photographs that depicted a variety of residential characteristics. Individuals then were taught to obtain information regarding their preferences during tours of community group homes, to report that information to their social workers, and to evaluate the homes based on the information obtained. A multiple baseline across participants design showed that all 4 participants substantially increased their skills at asking questions, reporting information, and evaluating homes. the results indicate that people with mental retardation can take an active role in major lifestyle decisions that others have typically made for them. PMID:8682735

  6. Infant arousal in an en-face exchange with a new partner: effects of prematurity and perinatal biological risk.

    PubMed

    Eckerman, C O; Hsu, H C; Molitor, A; Leung, E H; Goldstein, R F

    1999-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants of higher (n = 18) and lower (n = 29) perinatal biological risk were contrasted at 4 months adjusted age with healthy full-term infants (n = 32) in their arousal during a standardized peekaboo game with an examiner. VLBW infants showed less positive arousal, more negative arousal, and 3 mixtures of behavioral cues across the peekaboo game seldom seen for full-term infants-strong cues of both positive and negative arousal, strong cues of negative arousal alone, and no strong cues of either positive or negative arousal. Contrary to expectations, perinatal biological risk did not strongly predict variations in arousal within the VLBW group. Possible changes in how internal and external sources of arousal are integrated provide one explanation for the presence of strong relationships between perinatal biological risk and social responsiveness near term age and their disappearance by 4 months of age. PMID:9923482

  7. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: Associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Cathy; Cooper, Peter J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The present study aimed to account for limitations of previous studies and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) using Actiheart heart rate monitors and software (Version 4) during rest and in response to a social and a non-social stressor in 60 anxious (30 socially anxious and 30 ‘other’ anxious), and 30 nonanxious sex-and age-matched 7–12 year olds. In addition, the effect of state anxiety during the tasks was explored. Results No group differences at rest or in response to stress were found. Importantly, however, with increases in state anxiety, all children, regardless of their anxiety diagnoses showed less autonomic responding (i.e., less change in HR and RSA from baseline in response to task) and took longer to recover once the stressor had passed. Limitations This study focused primarily on parasympathetic arousal and lacked measures of sympathetic arousal. Conclusion The findings suggest that childhood anxiety disorders may not be characterized by inflexible autonomic responding, and that previous findings to the contrary may have been the result of differences in subjective anxiety between anxious and nonanxious groups during the tasks, rather than a function of chronic autonomic dysregulation. PMID:25590763

  8. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    DOEpatents

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  9. Using pay-for-success to increase investment in the nonmedical determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Ian

    2014-11-01

    The combination of fee-for-service payments and the US health care system's standing commitment to treating existing illness discourages spending on the behavioral, social, and environmental (that is, the nonmedical) conditions that contribute most to long-term health. Pay-for-success, alternatively known as social impact bonds, or SIBs, offers a possible solution. The pay-for-success model relies on an investor that is willing to fund a nonmedical intervention up front while bearing the risk that the intervention may fail to prevent disease in the future. Should the intervention succeed, however, the investor is repaid in full by a predetermined payer (such as a public health agency) and receives an additional return on its investment as a reward for taking on the risk. Pay-for-success pilots are being developed to reduce asthma-related emergencies among children, poor birth outcomes, and the progression of prediabetes to diabetes, among other applications. These efforts, supported by key policy reforms such as public agency data sharing and coordinated care, promise to increase the number of evidence-based nonmedical service providers and seed a new market that values health, not just health care. PMID:25367983

  10. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models. PMID:24215647

  11. Dissociable Modulation of Overt Visual Attention in Valence and Arousal Revealed by Topology of Scan Path

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianguang; Jiang, Huihui; Jin, Yixiang; Chen, Nanhui; Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhengbo; Luo, Yuejia; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2011-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion), have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low). Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal) elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence) elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal. PMID:21494331

  12. Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa J.; Branson, Nicholas; Cody, Denis; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article discusses the impacts of arousal and emotional state on training animals using methods based on reward and punishment. Three-dimensional graphs are provided to offer a visual means to illustrate how arousal and emotional state may influence the effectiveness of reward and punishment depending on the behaviour being trained. Dogs and horses are used to illustrate this with reference to commonly trained behaviours in a predatory and a prey animal. Abstract Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them. PMID:26487403

  13. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  14. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  15. Vivid: How valence and arousal influence word processing under different task demands.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Wilkie, Gianna; Kuperberg, Gina

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine how different dimensions of emotion-valence and arousal-influence different stages of word processing under different task demands. In two experiments, two groups of participants viewed the same single emotional and neutral words while carrying out different tasks. In both experiments, valence (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral) was fully crossed with arousal (high and low). We found that the task made a substantial contribution to how valence and arousal modulated the late positive complex (LPC), which is thought to reflect sustained evaluative processing (particularly of emotional stimuli). When participants performed a semantic categorization task in which emotion was not directly relevant to task performance, the LPC showed a larger amplitude for high-arousal than for low-arousal words, but no effect of valence. In contrast, when participants performed an overt valence categorization task, the LPC showed a large effect of valence (with unpleasant words eliciting the largest positivity), but no effect of arousal. These data show not only that valence and arousal act independently to influence word processing, but that their relative contributions to prolonged evaluative neural processes are strongly influenced by the situational demands (and by individual differences, as revealed in a subsequent analysis of subjective judgments). PMID:26833048

  16. The strength of sexual arousal as a function of the age of the sex offender: comparisons among pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Barbaree, Howard E

    2005-10-01

    Previous research has shown that sexual arousability in human males declines from its peak in early adolescence until old age. This study compared the rates of decline in three groups of males: those most attracted sexually to prepubescent children (pedophiles), those most attracted to pubescent children (hebephiles), and those most attracted to physically mature persons (teleiophiles). The participants were 2,028 patients referred to Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health from 1995 to 2004 for evaluation of criminal or otherwise disturbing sexual behavior, but not for erectile or ejaculatory problems. All underwent phallometric assessment for erotic age-preference. This is a psychophysiological technique in which an individual's penile blood volume is monitored while he is presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults. The experimental measure of sexual arousability was the average of the participant's three greatest penile responses to any stimulus category, expressed in cubic cm of blood volume increase. The results showed that sexual arousability was an inverse function of age, and that there were no differences between the pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles in the rate at which arousability declined. PMID:16341604

  17. The Effects of Valence and Arousal on Associative Working Memory and Long-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Heiko C.; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotion can either facilitate or impair memory, depending on what, when and how memory is tested and whether the paradigm at hand is administered as a working memory (WM) or a long-term memory (LTM) task. Whereas emotionally arousing single stimuli are more likely to be remembered, memory for the relationship between two or more component parts (i.e., relational memory) appears to be worse in the presence of emotional stimuli, at least in some relational memory tasks. The current study investigated the effects of both valence (neutral vs. positive vs. negative) and arousal (low vs. high) in an inter-item WM binding and LTM task. Methodology/Principal Findings A five-pair delayed-match-to-sample (WM) task was administered. In each trial, study pairs consisted of one neutral picture and a second picture of which the emotional qualities (valence and arousal levels) were manipulated. These pairs had to be remembered across a delay interval of 10 seconds. This was followed by a probe phase in which five pairs were tested. After completion of this task, an unexpected single item LTM task as well as an LTM task for the pairs was assessed. As expected, emotional arousal impaired WM processing. This was reflected in lower accuracy for pairs consisting of high-arousal pictures compared to pairs with low-arousal pictures. A similar effect was found for the associative LTM task. However, the arousal effect was modulated by affective valence for the WM but not the LTM task; pairs with low-arousal negative pictures were not processed as well in the WM task. No significant differences were found for the single-item LTM task. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides additional evidence that processes during initial perception/encoding and post-encoding processes, the time interval between study and test and the interaction between valence and arousal might modulate the effects of “emotion” on associative memory. PMID:23300724

  18. Capability for suicide interacts with states of heightened arousal to predict death by suicide beyond the effects of depression and hopelessness

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Yen, Shirley; Joiner, Thomas; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2016-01-01

    Background States of heightened arousal (e.g., agitation, sleep disturbance) have been repeatedly linked to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, including attempts and death. Studies have further indicated that these states may be particularly pernicious among individuals who evidence high suicidal capability. The objective of this study was to examine the interactive effects of heightened arousal and the capability for suicide in the prospective prediction of death by suicide. We examine this relation beyond the effects of robust predictors of suicide, namely depression and hopelessness. Methods Participants were drawn from a larger study of undergraduates who completed baseline assessments during their freshman year and were then followed to time of death. The sample in this study only included individuals who had died by suicide (n=96) or other causes (n=542). Proxy measures to assess predictor variables were constructed using items from the MMPI, which was administered at baseline. An independent sample of clinical outpatients (n=was used to evaluate the construct validity of the proxy measures). Results Results were in line with expectation: heightened arousal interacted with capability for suicide to prospectively predict death by suicide, such that, as severity of heightened arousal symptoms increased, the likelihood of death by suicide increased among individuals high but not low on capability for suicide. Limitations Limitations include the use of proxy measures, the extended length of follow-up, and the homogeneity of the sample (i.e., primarily White males). Conclusion These findings add to an emerging literature that supports the moderating influence of capability for suicide on the relationship between states of heightened arousal on the likelihood of death by suicide. PMID:26342889

  19. Pupillary Contagion in Infancy: Evidence for Spontaneous Transfer of Arousal.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Christine; Wesevich, Victoria; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-07-01

    Pupillary contagion-responding to pupil size observed in other people with changes in one's own pupil-has been found in adults and suggests that arousal and other internal states could be transferred across individuals using a subtle physiological cue. Examining this phenomenon developmentally gives insight into its origins and underlying mechanisms, such as whether it is an automatic adaptation already present in infancy. In the current study, 6- and 9-month-olds viewed schematic depictions of eyes with smaller and larger pupils-pairs of concentric circles with smaller and larger black centers-while their own pupil sizes were recorded. Control stimuli were comparable squares. For both age groups, infants' pupil size was greater when they viewed large-center circles than when they viewed small-center circles, and no differences were found for large-center compared with small-center squares. The findings suggest that infants are sensitive and responsive to subtle cues to other people's internal states, a mechanism that would be beneficial for early social development. PMID:27207876

  20. Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

  1. 75 FR 74123 - Office of the Commissioner; Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Register of October 26, 2010, Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011. (75 FR 65696; FR Doc. 2010-26983) Subsequently we identified two wage- reporting irregularities. We have now... alcoholism or drug addiction condition that leaves him or her incapable of managing benefits) in 2011;...

  2. Social isolation during peri-adolescence or adulthood: effects on sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal in male rats.

    PubMed

    Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Bulygina, Veta V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Maslova, Larissa N

    2013-02-28

    Reproductive functions in adult organism are known to be affected by different factors. Effects of social environment at the postnatal ontogenesis attract particular attention since it has deep impact on the development of physiological and emotional state of an individual. Effects of chronic social isolation at different ages on male sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal were studied in Wistar rats. After weaning at the 21st [corrected] day of age, rats of one group were isolated for six weeks and after that they were housed in groups of five per cage for ten weeks (Iso3-9). Rats of the second group were housed in groups of five animals per cage till 13 weeks of age, and then they were isolated for six weeks (Iso13-19). Rats of the control group were housed in groups during the experiment. Adult 19 week- old male rats were tested under conditions of sexual arousal. The expression of sexual motivation was estimated as the behavioral activity of a male at the transparent perforated partition separating a receptive female. Isolation of adult male rats reduced the number of approaches to the partition, while the period of time a male spent at the partition was not changed and testosterone response was enhanced as compared to control rats. Chronic social isolation during peri-adolescence reduced sexual motivation and prevented arousal-induced elevation of testosterone. Plasma corticosterone increases at sexual arousal in the two groups of isolated rats did not differ from that in controls. Our results are evidence that social isolation during the post-maturity stage (Iso13-19) did not diminish the manifestation of sexual motivation and hormonal response to a receptive female, while isolation during peri-adolescence attenuated behavioral and hormonal expression of sexual arousal in adult males. PMID:23347014

  3. General Anesthesia and Altered States of Arousal: A Systems Neuroscience Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emery N.; Purdon, Patrick L.; Van Dort, Christa J.

    2011-01-01

    Placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia is crucial for safely and humanely performing most surgical and many nonsurgical procedures. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is considered a major mystery of modern medicine. Unconsciousness, induced by altered arousal and/or cognition, is perhaps the most fascinating behavioral state of general anesthesia. We perform a systems neuroscience analysis of the altered arousal states induced by five classes of intravenous anesthetics by relating their behavioral and physiological features to the molecular targets and neural circuits at which these drugs are purported to act. The altered states of arousal are sedation-unconsciousness, sedation-analgesia, dissociative anesthesia, pharmaco-logic non-REM sleep, and neuroleptic anesthesia. Each altered arousal state results from the anesthetic drugs acting at multiple targets in the central nervous system. Our analysis shows that general anesthesia is less mysterious than currently believed. PMID:21513454

  4. Allocation of attentional resources during habituation and dishabituation of male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; Over, R

    1999-12-01

    A secondary-task probe (tone) was presented intermittently while men viewed erotic film segments across a session involving 18 trials with the same film segment (habituation), then 2 trials with different film segments (novelty) and 2 trials with reinstatement of the original segment (dishabituation). Reaction time to the tone (an index of the extent processing resources were being committed to the erotic stimulus) shifted during the session in parallel with changes that occurred in penile tumescence and subjective sexual arousal. The decrease in sexual arousal over the first 18 trials in the session was accompanied by a progressively faster reaction to the tone, novel stimulation led to recovery of sexual arousal and a slower reaction to the tone, and on trials 21 and 22 sexual arousal and reaction time levels were above the values that prevailed immediately prior to novel stimulation. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between habituation and attention. PMID:10650440

  5. Tonic, phasic and cortical arousal in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bock, R D; Goldberger, L

    1985-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome involves a disturbance in arousal modulation. The experimental group consisted of 20 unmedicated subjects with the Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, and the control group of 20 subjects with chronic medical illnesses (haemophilia, von Willebrandt's disease and diabetes). There were differences between groups in the manner in which log conductance level changed over time during sound and light habituation experiments involving mild levels of stimulation with the Gilles de la Tourette group showing less change in arousal level over trials than the control group. No group differences were found in measures of phasic arousal, rate of spontaneous fluctuations and performance on two tasks that have been related to cortical arousal. It is suggested that the slower change in log conductance level in the Gilles de la Tourette group during the sound and light habituation experiments indicates that reticular activity is more persistent in these patients. PMID:3859582

  6. Memory for committing a crime: effects of arousal, proximity, and gender.

    PubMed

    Price, Heather L; Lee, Zina; Read, J Don

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the memories of active participants in an emotionally arousing crime. The present study used a mock crime paradigm to explore participant memories for a low, moderate, or highly arousing event. Forty-seven undergraduate participants committed a "theft" of an exam from a professor's office. Two weeks after the theft, participants completed a cognitive interview, recalled objects from the professor's office, and constructed a map of the route to and from the crime room. Arousal improved reports on a map recall task but no other recall indices. Although there was a general superiority of recall of proximal over distal details, arousal only infrequently interacted with proximity. Some support was found for proximity (spatial-temporal distinction) as a useful proxy for centrality. Future work will benefit from an examination of the overlap between definitions of centrality and proximity with more traditional stimuli. PMID:19353933

  7. Central Control of Circadian Phase in Arousal-Promoting Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Carrie E.; McKinley Brewer, Judy; Bittman, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Cells of the dorsomedial/lateral hypothalamus (DMH/LH) that produce hypocretin (HCRT) promote arousal in part by activation of cells of the locus coeruleus (LC) which express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives endogenous daily rhythms, including those of sleep and wakefulness. These circadian oscillations are generated by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop in which the Period (Per) genes constitute critical components. This cell-autonomous molecular clock operates not only within the SCN but also in neurons of other brain regions. However, the phenotype of such neurons and the nature of the phase controlling signal from the pacemaker are largely unknown. We used dual fluorescent in situ hybridization to assess clock function in vasopressin, HCRT and TH cells of the SCN, DMH/LH and LC, respectively, of male Syrian hamsters. In the first experiment, we found that Per1 expression in HCRT and TH oscillated in animals held in constant darkness with a peak phase that lagged that in AVP cells of the SCN by several hours. In the second experiment, hamsters induced to split their locomotor rhythms by exposure to constant light had asymmetric Per1 expression within cells of the middle SCN at 6 h before activity onset (AO) and in HCRT cells 9 h before and at AO. We did not observe evidence of lateralization of Per1 expression in the LC. We conclude that the SCN communicates circadian phase to HCRT cells via lateralized neural projections, and suggests that Per1 expression in the LC may be regulated by signals of a global or bilateral nature. PMID:23826226

  8. Neural activation in arousal and reward areas of the brain in day-active and night-active grass rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ruiz, A; Nixon, J P; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

    2010-01-20

    In the diurnal unstriped Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) access to a running wheel can trigger a shift in active phase preference, with some individuals becoming night-active (NA), while others continue to be day-active (DA). To investigate the contributions of different neural systems to the support of this shift in locomotor activity, we investigated the association between chronotype and Fos expression during the day and night in three major nuclei in the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic (ACh) arousal system - medial septum (MS), vertical and horizontal diagonal band of Broca (VDB and HDB respectively) -, and whether neural activation in these areas was related to neural activity in the orexinergic system. We also measured Fos expression in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cells of two components of the reward system that also participate in arousal - the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and supramammillary nucleus (SUM). NAs and DAs were compared to animals with no wheels. NAs had elevated Fos expression at night in ACh cells, but only in the HDB. In the non-cholinergic cells of the BF of NAs, enhanced nocturnal Fos expression was almost universally seen, but only associated with activation of the orexinergic system for the MS/VDB region. For some of the areas and cell types of the BF, the patterns of Fos expression of DAs appeared similar to those of NAs, but were never associated with activation of the orexinergic system. Also common to DAs and NAs was a general increase in Fos expression in non-dopaminergic cells of the SUM and anterior VTA. Thus, in this diurnal species, voluntary exercise and a shift to a nocturnal chronotype changes neural activity in arousal and reward areas of the brain known to regulate a broad range of neural functions and behaviors, which may be also affected in human shift workers. PMID:19837140

  9. The roles of sex, anxious reactivity to bodily arousal, and anxiety sensitivity in coping motives for cigarette smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Rojas, Sasha M; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests that smoking to cope among adolescents is associated with a number of problematic outcomes (e.g., greater smoking frequency, higher rates of dependence). It is thus imperative to better understand factors that may increase the likelihood of smoking to cope among adolescents. Research suggests anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with smoking to cope among adults, although the link between AS and coping motives for cigarette use among youth is less clear. Gender differences have also been noted in AS. The current study investigates this association using a biological challenge paradigm. Specifically, the indirect effects of anxious reactivity to bodily arousal on the relation between the physical and mental AS factors and coping motives for cigarette smoking were examined within a sample of 108 adolescent cigarette smokers. Gender was examined as a moderator. Results suggested significant indirect effects of self-reported anxiety in response to bodily arousal on the relation between physical AS and coping motives for cigarette smoking. This indirect effect was moderated by gender, such that it was significant for females but not males. Models examining AS mental concerns and psychophysiological responding to the challenge were not significant. These results suggest that, relative to their low AS counterparts, female adolescents high in physical concerns respond with elevated anxiety in response to interoceptive arousal and, in turn, endorse elevated coping-related smoking motives. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for understanding the nature and origins of coping-related smoking motives and how such information can be used to inform intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054780

  10. Amygdala responses to Valence and its interaction by arousal revealed by MEG.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Charalampos; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a crucial role in the processing of emotions. The precise nature of its involvement is however unclear. We hypothesized that ambivalent findings from neuroimaging studies that report amygdala's activity in emotions, are due to distinct functional specificity of amygdala's sub-divisions and specifically to differential reactivity to arousal and valence. The goal of the present study is to characterize the amygdala response to affective stimuli by disentangling the contributions of arousal and valence. Our hypothesis was prompted by recent reports claiming anatomical sub-divisions of amygdala based on cytoarchitecture and the functional maps obtained from diverse behavioral, emotional, and physiological stimulation. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings from 12 healthy individuals passively exposed to affective stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) collection using a 2 (Valence levels)× 2 (Arousal levels) design. Source power was estimated using a beamformer technique with the activations referring to the amygdala sub-divisions defined through probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Right laterobasal amygdala activity was found to mediate negative valence (elicited by unpleasant stimuli) while left centromedial activity was characterized by an interaction of valence by arousal (arousing pleasant stimuli). We did not find a main effect for amygdala activations in any of its sub-divisions for arousal modulation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings from non-invasive MEG data indicate for the first time, a distinct functional specificity of amygdala anatomical sub-divisions in the emotional processing. PMID:23688672

  11. Sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal: evidence for domain specificity in men and women.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F

    2014-08-01

    Men have been shown to estimate their likelihood of engaging in sexually coercive behaviors and also uncommon and unprotected sexual behaviors as higher when they are in an acute state of sexual arousal. The present research sought to test (1) whether sexual arousal effects could be replicated under more controlled laboratory settings, (2) whether women showed the same pattern of results, and (3) whether this effect was specific to sexual disinhibition or would generalize to non-sexual disinhibited behavior. In two experimental studies, male and female participants (Study 1: N = 84; Study 2: N = 86) were either sexually aroused by acoustically presented erotic narratives or listened to sexually non-arousing neutral narratives. Afterwards, they self-estimated their likelihood of engaging in a variety of behaviors that could be characterized as sexual or non-sexual disinhibited behavior. Results replicated the previously established effect of sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal for men and provided the first evidence for a similar effect in women. No arousal effects were observed for non-sexual behavior, rendering alternative explanations based on mere indifferent responding unlikely. The discussion focused on a plausible explanation for this effect. PMID:25091213

  12. Repeated extinction and reversal learning of an approach response supports an arousal-mediated learning model

    PubMed Central

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effects of repeated extinction and reversals of two conditional stimuli (CS+/CS−) on an appetitive conditioned approach response in rats. Three results were observed that could not be accounted for by a simple linear operator model such as the one proposed by Rescorla and Wagner (1972): (1) responding to a CS− declined faster when a CS+ was simultaneously extinguished; (2) reacquisition of pre-extinction performance recovered rapidly within one session; and (3) reversal of CS+/CS− contingencies resulted in a more rapid recovery to the current CS− (former CS+) than the current CS+, accompanied by a slower acquisition of performance to the current CS+. An arousal parameter that mediates learning was introduced to a linear operator model to account for these effects. The arousal-mediated learning model adequately fit the data and predicted data from a second experiment with different rats in which only repeated reversals of CS+/CS− were assessed. According to this arousal-mediated learning model, learning is accelerated by US-elicited arousal and it slows down in the absence of US. Because arousal varies faster than conditioning, the model accounts for the decline in responding during extinction mainly through a reduction in arousal, not a change in learning. By preserving learning during extinction, the model is able to account for relapse effects like rapid reacquisition, renewal, and reinstatement. PMID:21172410

  13. Repeated extinction and reversal learning of an approach response supports an arousal-mediated learning model.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Sanabria, Federico

    2011-05-01

    We assessed the effects of repeated extinction and reversals of two conditional stimuli (CS+/CS-) on an appetitive conditioned approach response in rats. Three results were observed that could not be accounted for by a simple linear operator model such as the one proposed by Rescorla and Wagner (1972): (1) responding to a CS- declined faster when a CS+ was simultaneously extinguished; (2) reacquisition of pre-extinction performance recovered rapidly within one session; and (3) reversal of CS+/CS- contingencies resulted in a more rapid recovery to the current CS- (former CS+) than the current CS+, accompanied by a slower acquisition of performance to the current CS+. An arousal parameter that mediates learning was introduced to a linear operator model to account for these effects. The arousal-mediated learning model adequately fit the data and predicted data from a second experiment with different rats in which only repeated reversals of CS+/CS- were assessed. According to this arousal-mediated learning model, learning is accelerated by US-elicited arousal and it slows down in the absence of US. Because arousal varies faster than conditioning, the model accounts for the decline in responding during extinction mainly through a reduction in arousal, not a change in learning. By preserving learning during extinction, the model is able to account for relapse effects like rapid reacquisition, renewal, and reinstatement. PMID:21172410

  14. How deeply does your mutant sleep? Probing arousal to better understand sleep defects in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Faville, R.; Kottler, B.; Goodhill, G. J.; Shaw, P. J.; van Swinderen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a critical model system for investigating sleep functions. Most studies use duration of inactivity to measure sleep. However, a defining criterion for sleep is decreased behavioral responsiveness to stimuli. Here we introduce the Drosophila ARousal Tracking system (DART), an integrated platform for efficiently tracking and probing arousal levels in animals. This video-based platform delivers positional and locomotion data, behavioral responsiveness to stimuli, sleep intensity measures, and homeostatic regulation effects – all in one combined system. We show how insight into dynamically changing arousal thresholds is crucial for any sleep study in flies. We first find that arousal probing uncovers different sleep intensity profiles among related genetic background strains previously assumed to have equivalent sleep patterns. We then show how sleep duration and sleep intensity can be uncoupled, with distinct manipulations of dopamine function producing opposite effects on sleep duration but similar sleep intensity defects. We conclude by providing a multi-dimensional assessment of combined arousal and locomotion metrics in the mutant and background strains. Our approach opens the door for deeper insights into mechanisms of sleep regulation and provides a new method for investigating the role of different genetic manipulations in controlling sleep and arousal. PMID:25677943

  15. A Novel Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Determination of Virtual Links' Weight to Increase Network Stability

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Abbas; Afsharfarnia, Abbas; Zarafshan, Faraneh; Al-Haddad, S. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of clusters is a serious issue in mobile ad hoc networks. Low stability of clusters may lead to rapid failure of clusters, high energy consumption for reclustering, and decrease in the overall network stability in mobile ad hoc network. In order to improve the stability of clusters, weight-based clustering algorithms are utilized. However, these algorithms only use limited features of the nodes. Thus, they decrease the weight accuracy in determining node's competency and lead to incorrect selection of cluster heads. A new weight-based algorithm presented in this paper not only determines node's weight using its own features, but also considers the direct effect of feature of adjacent nodes. It determines the weight of virtual links between nodes and the effect of the weights on determining node's final weight. By using this strategy, the highest weight is assigned to the best choices for being the cluster heads and the accuracy of nodes selection increases. The performance of new algorithm is analyzed by using computer simulation. The results show that produced clusters have longer lifetime and higher stability. Mathematical simulation shows that this algorithm has high availability in case of failure. PMID:25114965

  16. Effects of expectation and caffeine on arousal, well-being, and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Rainer; Grüner, Mauritz; Heiland, Alexandra; Keller, Martina; Kujanová, Zuzana; Peper, Martin; Riegl, Maximilian; Schmidt, Stefan; Volz, Petra; Walach, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the impact of expectation associated with placebo and caffeine ingestion. We used a three-armed, randomized, double-blind design. Two three-armed experiments varying instruction (true, false, control) investigated the role of expectations of changes in arousal (blood pressure, heart rate), subjective well-being, and reaction time (RT). In Experiment 1 (N = 45), decaffeinated coffee was administered, and expectations were produced in one group by making them believe they had ingested caffeinated coffee. In Experiment 2 (N = 45), caffeinated orange juice was given in both experimental groups, but only one was informed about the true content. In Experiment 1, a significant effect for subjective alertness was found in the placebo treatment compared to the control group. However, for RT and well-being no significant effects were found. In Experiment 2, no significant expectancy effects were found. Caffeine produced large effects for blood pressure in both treatments compared to the control group, but the effects were larger for the false information group. For subjective well-being (alertness, calmness), considerable but nonsignificant changes were found for correctly informed participants, indicating possible additivity of pharmacologic effect and expectations. The results tentatively indicate that placebo and expectancy effects primarily show through introspection. PMID:17228991

  17. Feelings of Disgust and Disgust-Induced Avoidance Weaken following Induced Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli. Methodology Participants were healthy women (n = 90) randomly allocated to one of three groups: the sexual arousal, the non-sexual positive arousal, or the neutral control group. Film clips were used to elicit the relevant mood state. Participants engaged in 16 behavioural tasks, involving sex related (e.g., lubricate the vibrator) and non-sex related (e.g., take a sip of juice with a large insect in the cup) stimuli, to measure the impact of sexual arousal on feelings of disgust and actual avoidance behaviour. Principal Findings The sexual arousal group rated the sex related stimuli as less disgusting compared to the other groups. A similar tendency was evident for the non-sex disgusting stimuli. For both the sex and non-sex related behavioural tasks the sexual arousal group showed less avoidance behaviour (i.e., they conducted the highest percentage of tasks compared to the other groups). Significance This study has investigated how sexual arousal interplays with disgust and disgust eliciting properties in women, and has demonstrated that this relationship goes beyond subjective report by affecting the actual approach to disgusting stimuli. Hence, this could explain how we still manage to engage in pleasurable sexual activity. Moreover, these findings suggest that low sexual arousal might be a key feature in the maintenance of

  18. Melatonin receptor signaling contributes to neuroprotection upon arousal from torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine; Ballinger, Mallory A; Andrews, Matthew T

    2015-11-15

    The brain of mammalian hibernators is naturally protected. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme changes in body temperature and brain perfusion as they cycle between lengthy torpor bouts and brief periods of euthermia called interbout arousals (IBAs). Arousal from torpor to IBA occurs rapidly, but there is no evidence of brain injury accompanying this extreme physiological transition. Production of the hormone melatonin accompanies arousal, suggesting that it plays a protective role at this time. Here, we investigated mechanisms of melatonin receptor-mediated protection in the brain of the hibernating ground squirrel. We administered the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (30 mg/kg ip) to ground squirrels at the predicted end of a torpor bout, triggering an arousal. We found that luzindole-treated animals exhibited caspase-3 activity two times higher than vehicle-treated animals in the hypothalamus at midarousal (P = 0.01), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for protection in this brain region. We also found a 30% decline in succinate-fueled mitochondrial respiration in luzindole-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals (P = 0.019), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for optimal mitochondrial function during arousal from torpor. The mitochondrial effects of luzindole treatment were seen only during the hibernation season, indicating that this effect is specifically important for arousal from torpor. These data provide evidence for the protective role of melatonin receptor signaling during the extreme physiological transition that occurs when a hibernating mammal arouses from torpor and provide further evidence for regional and seasonal changes in the hibernator brain. PMID:26354846

  19. Emotional arousal predicts observed social support in German and American couples talking about breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Baucom, Brian R; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Atkins, David C; Porter, Laura S; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Social support in couples often occurs during conversations and is an important predictor of positive outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Even though talking about cancer may be upsetting, vocally expressed emotional arousal and its association with social support have not been examined. The goal of this study was to examine the role of vocally encoded emotional arousal and social support behaviors in 129 German and American couples, assessed at baseline of clinical trials for women with breast cancer and their male partners. Range of fundamental frequency was used as a measure of expressed emotional arousal during videotaped interactions in which the women shared cancer-related concerns. Social support behaviors were assessed as specific social support behaviors at the talk-turn level (positive, neutral, and negative) and broader communication behaviors also relevant to social support at the global level (depth and articulation, caring, quality of communication) using the Social Support Interaction Coding System (Bradbury & Pasch, 1994). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Women displayed more positive, fewer neutral support-receiving behaviors, and greater depth and articulation if their own emotional arousal was higher. Women also displayed more neutral and (at the trend level) fewer positive support-receiving behaviors if their partners' emotional arousal was higher. Men's behaviors were not associated with their own or women's emotional arousal. Results indicate that it may be adaptive for women with cancer to openly experience their distress during social support conversations with their partners; high emotional arousal of the partners may interfere with this process. PMID:26075737

  20. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state.

    PubMed

    Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state (CLIS). Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at <4, ~7 and ~20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e., avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient's arousal, e.g., amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters. Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient's present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain

  1. Warming up and shipping out: arousal and emergence timing in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Czenze, Zenon J; Willis, Craig K R

    2015-07-01

    Phenology refers to the timing of events in the annual cycle of organisms. For temperate-zone mammals, hibernation is one such event, but little is known about its phenology. Hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts interspersed with energetically expensive arousals to normothermic Tb, and hibernators should benefit from mechanisms which reduce arousal costs and help them time arousals to coincide with foraging opportunities. In a previous study, we showed that, in contrast to hibernating bats from warmer climates, little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from central Canada abandon a circadian pattern to arousal in the middle of winter when there is no chance of feeding. Here, we used temperature telemetry to test whether they would re-synchronize arousals with normal foraging time (i.e. sunset) during late winter as the chance of foraging or emergence opportunities improves, and whether they would synchronize arousals with conspecifics, possibly to exploit social thermoregulation. We also used passive transponders to test whether energy reserves and/or sex differences in reproductive timing influence phenology and the sensitivity of emergence timing to environmental cues. In contrast to patterns in mid-winter, after 7 April 2013, bats synchronized arousals with sunset and with conspecifics. Females emerged earlier than males, and females in the best condition emerged first while body condition had no influence on male emergence timing. Both male and female bats appeared to time emergence with falling barometric pressure, a cue that predicts favourable foraging conditions for bats but which, unlike outside temperature, would have been readily detectable by bats inside the hibernaculum. Our results highlight hibernation traits associated with extreme winter energy limitation for insect-eating bats in cold climates and illustrate the influence of reproductive timing and environmental conditions on hibernation energetics and phenology. PMID:25809999

  2. Empathic arousal and social understanding in individuals with autism: evidence from fMRI and ERP measurements

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Chen, Chenyi; Chen, Shih-Chuan; Decety, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Lack of empathy is a hallmark of social impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the concept empathy encompasses several socio-emotional and behavioral components underpinned by interacting brain circuits. This study examined empathic arousal and social understanding in individuals with ASD and matched controls by combining pressure pain thresholds (PPT) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (study 1) and electroencephalography/event-related potentials and eye-tracking responses (study 2) to empathy-eliciting stimuli depicting physical bodily injuries. Results indicate that participants with ASD had lower PPT than controls. When viewing body parts being accidentally injured, increased hemodynamic responses in the somatosensory cortex (SI/SII) but decreased responses in the anterior mid-cingulate and anterior insula as well as heightened N2 but preserved late-positive potentials (LPP) were detected in ASD participants. When viewing a person intentionally hurting another, decreased hemodynamic responses in the medial prefrontal cortex and reduced LPP were observed in the ASD group. PPT was a mediator for the SI/SII response in predicting subjective unpleasantness ratings to others’ pain. Both ASD and control groups had comparable mu suppression, indicative of typical sensorimotor resonance. The findings demonstrate that, in addition to reduced pain thresholds, individuals with ASD exhibit heightened empathic arousal but impaired social understanding when perceiving others’ distress. PMID:23929944

  3. Empathic arousal and social understanding in individuals with autism: evidence from fMRI and ERP measurements.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Chen, Chenyi; Chen, Shih-Chuan; Decety, Jean; Cheng, Yawei

    2014-08-01

    Lack of empathy is a hallmark of social impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the concept empathy encompasses several socio-emotional and behavioral components underpinned by interacting brain circuits. This study examined empathic arousal and social understanding in individuals with ASD and matched controls by combining pressure pain thresholds (PPT) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (study 1) and electroencephalography/event-related potentials and eye-tracking responses (study 2) to empathy-eliciting stimuli depicting physical bodily injuries. Results indicate that participants with ASD had lower PPT than controls. When viewing body parts being accidentally injured, increased hemodynamic responses in the somatosensory cortex (SI/SII) but decreased responses in the anterior mid-cingulate and anterior insula as well as heightened N2 but preserved late-positive potentials (LPP) were detected in ASD participants. When viewing a person intentionally hurting another, decreased hemodynamic responses in the medial prefrontal cortex and reduced LPP were observed in the ASD group. PPT was a mediator for the SI/SII response in predicting subjective unpleasantness ratings to others' pain. Both ASD and control groups had comparable mu suppression, indicative of typical sensorimotor resonance. The findings demonstrate that, in addition to reduced pain thresholds, individuals with ASD exhibit heightened empathic arousal but impaired social understanding when perceiving others' distress. PMID:23929944

  4. Maternal and child contributions to cortisol response to emotional arousal in young children from low-income, rural communities.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T; Hibel, Leah C; Fortunato, Christine K

    2008-07-01

    Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother-infant dyads) and included families from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Maternal behavior, family income-to-need ratio and social advantage, and child temperament, attention, and mental development were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Maternal engagement in infancy was associated with greater cortisol reactivity at the infancy assessment and with reduced overall cortisol level at the toddler assessment. Also at the toddler assessment, child attention, mental development, and temperamental distress to novelty were associated with increased cortisol reactivity and regulation, whereas temperamental distress to limitations and African American ethnicity were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity. Findings are consistent with prior work linking early caregiving to the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response system and with a conceptual model in which developing temperament is characterized by the interplay of emotional reactivity and the emergence of the ability to effortfully regulate this reactivity using attention. PMID:18605837

  5. In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7 Tesla fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Eichner, Cornelius; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Setsompop, Kawin; Brown, Emery N.; Hamalainen, Matti S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Object To map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we utilized the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7 Tesla fMRI compared to 3 Tesla and the time efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1 mm-isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). Results The delineated Pearson’s correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. Conclusion Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson’s disease and other motor disorders. PMID:27126248

  6. Physiological Markers of Arousal Change with Psychological Treatment for Insomnia: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher B.; Kyle, Simon D.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Espie, Colin A.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Mullins, Anna E.; Postnova, Svetlana; Bartlett, Delwyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if Sleep Restriction Therapy for insomnia is associated with modifications to physiological arousal, indexed through overnight measures of plasma cortisol concentrations and core body temperature. Methods In a pre-to-post open label study design, eleven patients with chronic and severe Psychophysiological Insomnia underwent 5 weeks of Sleep Restriction Therapy. Results Eight (73%) patients out of 11 consented completed therapy and showed a decrease in insomnia severity pre-to-post treatment (mean (SD): 18.1 (2.8) versus 8.4 (4.8); p = .001). Six patients were analyzed with pre-to-post overnight measures of temperature and cortisol. Contrary to our hypothesis, significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol concentrations were found during the early morning at post-treatment compared to baseline (p < .01), while no change was observed in the pre-sleep phase or early part of the night. Core body temperature during sleep was however reduced significantly (overall mean [95% CI]: 36.54 (°C) [36.3, 36.8] versus 36.45 [36.2, 36.7]; p < .05). Conclusions Sleep Restriction Therapy therefore was associated with increased early morning cortisol concentrations and decreased core body temperature, supporting the premise of physiological changes in functioning after effective therapy. Future work should evaluate change in physiological variables associated with clinical treatment response. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTR 12612000049875 PMID:26683607

  7. Arousing "gentle passions" in young adolescents: Sustained experimental effects of value affirmations on prosocial feelings and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Reijntjes, Albert

    2012-01-01

    When people reflect on their important values, they may become more attuned to the needs of others. Two longitudinal field experiments examined whether a subtle value-affirmation manipulation can initiate relatively enduring increases in young adolescents' prosocial feelings (Study 1; Mage = 12.9) and prosocial behaviors (Study 2; Mage = 12.9). Participants completed a brief writing exercise that affirmed the values they deemed either most important (value-affirmation group) or unimportant (control group). As predicted, the value affirmation, coupled with a booster affirmation 6 weeks later, caused increases in prosocial feelings and behaviors over the 3-month study period. Antisocial students who were value-affirmed showed especially strong increases in prosocial behavior. These results suggest that "gentle passions" can be aroused in youth by cost- and time-efficient means. The practical utility of value affirmations will need to be evaluated in future work. PMID:21967565

  8. Is There a Relationship Between Tic Frequency and Physiological Arousal? Examination in a Sample of Children with Co-Occurring Tic and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conelea, Christine A.; Ramanujam, Krishnapriya; Walther, Michael R.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the contextual variable most commonly implicated in tic exacerbations. However, research examining associations between tics, stressors, and the biological stress response has yielded mixed results. This study examined whether tics occur at a greater frequency during discrete periods of heightened physiological arousal. Children with co-occurring tic and anxiety disorders (n = 8) completed two stress induction tasks (discussion of family conflict, public speech). Observational (tic frequencies) and physiological (heart rate) data were synchronized using The Observer XT, and tic frequencies were compared across periods of high and low heart rate. Tic frequencies across the entire experiment did not increase during periods of higher heart rate. During the speech task, tic frequencies were significantly lower during periods of higher heart rate. Results suggest that tic exacerbations may not be associated with heightened physiological arousal and highlight the need for further tic research using integrated measurement of behavioral and biological processes. PMID:24662238

  9. The relationship of male self-report of rape supportive attitudes, sexual fantasy, social desirability and physiological arousal to sexually coercive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Plaud, J J; Bigwood, S J

    1997-12-01

    Studies have supported the finding that sexually coercive behavior exists between males and females on college campuses and that when women say "no" to sexual behavior, men do not believe them. This study utilized penile plethysmography to investigate male sexual arousal to rape myth scenarios in a college population. The scenarios portrayed a woman who said "no" to sexually coercive intercourse behavior by a male. Results indicated that a low level of social desirability, sexual fantasies involving group sexual activity, as well as hurting and being hurt by a partner were associated with greater levels of physiological responding to coercive stimuli. Supportive attitudes about rape showed no relationship with physiological responding, yet did correlate with the sexual fantasy of being hurt by a partner, which was itself related to increased sexual arousal to sexually coercive audio stimuli. PMID:9403397

  10. Arousal and stability - The effects of five new sympathomimetic drugs suggest a new principle for the prevention of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Calkins, D. S.; Mandell, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Sympathomimetic agents are frequent components in antimotion-sickness drug combinations because of their usefulness in counteracting the sedation caused by stressful motion or resulting from the administration of other antimotion-sickness drugs. The noradrenergic neurochemistry of the brain's arousal-attentional systems prompted us to evaluate the efficacy of five new sympathomimetic drugs and to further define the role of arousal in susceptibility to motion. Subjects were orally administered methamphetamine (20 mg), phenmetrazine (25 mg), phentermine (37.5 mg), methylphenidate (20 mg), or pemoline (75 mg) 2 h prior to taking a Staircase Profile Test. All of the drugs increased resistance to stressful coriolis stimulation by 80-120 percent. Methylphenidate and pemoline showed fewer side effects. These findings, interpreted in conjunction with the documented inefficacy of most anticholinergic and antihistaminergic drugs tested to date, suggest that sympathomimetic drugs or a generalized state of arosusal can inhibit the development of motion sickness.

  11. Full of sound and fury, signifying something: the impact of autonomic arousal on EGM gambling.

    PubMed

    Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Signal, Tania; Dyer, Victoria

    2007-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to observe the influence of autonomic arousal on subsequent gambling behavior. Thirty-seven male and 32 female regular Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) players were recruited through newspaper advertisements. Participants were randomly assigned to either: (1) a control condition, or (2) an experimental condition that introduced a loud white-noise event (80 db) at fixed 120 s intervals throughout the 5-min EGM gambling session. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) measurements showed that the manipulation was successful in elevating autonomic arousal. The results showed differences in behavioral response to the manipulation based on prior experience with gambling problems. Persons with many gambling problems had lower average bet-sizes in the white-noise condition compared to the control, while those with few or no problems had higher average bet-sizes. The results suggest that arousal may provide different signals to gamblers with few versus many problems. Gamblers with many problems may interpret their arousal as a sign that they will soon lose money, while gamblers with few or no problems may associate feelings of arousal exclusively with winning. PMID:17357850

  12. Arousal, working memory capacity, and sexual decision-making in men.

    PubMed

    Spokes, Tara; Hine, Donald W; Marks, Anthony D G; Quain, Peter; Lykins, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether working memory capacity (WMC) moderated the relationship between physiological arousal and sexual decision making. A total of 59 men viewed 20 consensual and 20 non-consensual images of heterosexual interaction while their physiological arousal levels were recorded using skin conductance response. Participants also completed an assessment of WMC and a date-rape analogue task for which they had to identify the point at which an average Australian male would cease all sexual advances in response to verbal and/or physical resistance from a female partner. Participants who were more physiologically aroused by and spent more time viewing the non-consensual sexual imagery nominated significantly later stopping points on the date-rape analogue task. Consistent with our predictions, the relationship between physiological arousal and nominated stopping point was strongest for participants with lower levels of WMC. For participants with high WMC, physiological arousal was unrelated to nominated stopping point. Thus, executive functioning ability (and WMC in particular) appears to play an important role in moderating men's decision making with regard to sexually aggressive behavior. PMID:24696385

  13. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently), compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence) predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval. PMID:26938737

  14. Positive Affect and Cognitive Restoration: Investigating the Role of Valence and Arousal.

    PubMed

    Nealis, Logan J; van Allen, Zack M; Zelenski, John M

    2016-01-01

    Positive moods are thought to restore self-control resources following depletion. However, it is not well understood whether this effect is due to affective valence (pleasantness), arousal (activation), or a combination of both. Across four studies, we set out to investigate the role of positive moods on cognitive and behavioral measures of self-regulation in an ego-depletion paradigm. In studies 1 and 2, we independently manipulated affective valence and arousal and assessed self-regulation with a Stroop task. Results did not suggest a restorative effect of either on cognitive resources. In study 3, we employed both behavioral (the 'handgrip task') and cognitive (Stroop) assessments of self-regulation. Again, no significant effect of mood was observed on the Stroop task. Additionally, participants did not persist significantly longer on the handgrip task following a positive mood induction. Finally, in study 4, high vs. low states of arousal were manipulated and self-regulation was assessed via pre- and post-manipulation Stroop performance. In study 4, Stroop performance improved slightly more across time points for those in the high arousal condition than for those in the low arousal condition. Therefore, across four studies, we failed to find a consistent pattern of results suggesting that positive moods restore cognitive resources. PMID:26784026

  15. Observational stance as a predictor of subjective and genital sexual arousal in men and women.

    PubMed

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Spape, Jessica; Lykins, Amy D; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Observational stance refers to the perspective a person takes while viewing a sexual stimulus, either as a passive observer (observer stance) or an active participant (participant stance). The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between observational stance and sexual arousal (subjective and genital) across a range of sexual stimuli that do or do not correspond with a participant's sexual attraction (preferred or nonpreferred stimuli, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that, for men (n = 44), participant stance significantly predicted subjective and genital arousal. Women's (n = 47) observer and participant stance predicted subjective arousal but not genital arousal. Analysis of variance showed that participant stance was greatest under preferred sexual stimuli conditions for all groups of participants, while observer stance scores revealed a less consistent pattern of response. This was particularly true for opposite-sex-attracted women, whose ratings of observer stance were lowest for preferred stimuli. Observational stance does not appear to account for gender differences in specificity of sexual arousal; for men, however, participant stance uniquely predicted genital response after controlling for sexual attractions. Similarities in the relationships between men's and women's observational stance and sexual responses challenge previous claims of gender differences in how men and women view erotica. PMID:23514448

  16. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (<2 s) and long (>2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  17. Disentangling the roles of arousal and amygdala activation in emotional declarative memory.

    PubMed

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-09-01

    A large body of evidence in animals and humans implicates the amygdala in promoting memory for arousing experiences. Although the amygdala can trigger threat-related noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, in humans amygdala activation and noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal do not always concur. This raises the question how these two processes play a role in enhancing emotional declarative memory. This study was designed to disentangle these processes in a combined subsequent-memory/fear-conditioning paradigm with neutral items belonging to two conceptual categories as conditioned stimuli. Functional MRI, skin conductance (index of sympathetic activity), and pupil dilation (indirect index of central noradrenergic activity) were acquired throughout procedures. Recognition memory for individual items was tested 24 h later. We found that pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were higher on CS+ (associated with a shock) compared with CS- trials, irrespective of later memory for those items. By contrast, amygdala activity was only higher for CS+ items that were later confidently remembered compared with CS+ items that were later forgotten. Thus, amygdala activity and not noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, predicted enhanced declarative item memory. This dissociation is in line with animal models stating that the amygdala integrates arousal-related neuromodulatory changes to alter mnemonic processes elsewhere in the brain. PMID:27217115

  18. The association between testosterone, sexual arousal, and selective attention for erotic stimuli in men.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G M; Sherwin, B B

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-six, eugonadal men between the ages of 18 and 27 participated in this investigation of the relationship between sexual arousal, testosterone (T) levels, and the processing of sexual information. At each of the two test sessions, subjects gave a blood sample, listened to an erotic or neutral priming audiotape, and completed a dichotic listening task designed to assess selective attention for sexual stimuli. Subjective levels of sexual arousal to the audiotape and sexual attitudes and sexual experience were assessed by self-report measures. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no relationship between levels of free T and the strength of the selective attention bias for sexual stimuli. However, men who were more distracted by the sexual material in the task reported higher levels of sexual arousal to erotic imagery than men who were less distracted by the sexual material in the task (P less than 0.01). Moreover, men who were more sexually aroused by the erotic audiotape made significantly less shadowing errors in the erotic prime condition then they did during the neutral prime condition (P less than 0.05). There was a negative association between T and shadowing errors in the erotic prime condition (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that lower thresholds for sexual arousal are associated with a greater bias to attend to sexual information and that T may have effects on cognitive-motivational aspects of sexual behavior by enhancing attention to relevant stimuli. PMID:1937428

  19. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress. PMID:26186001

  20. Positive Affect and Cognitive Restoration: Investigating the Role of Valence and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Positive moods are thought to restore self-control resources following depletion. However, it is not well understood whether this effect is due to affective valence (pleasantness), arousal (activation), or a combination of both. Across four studies, we set out to investigate the role of positive moods on cognitive and behavioral measures of self-regulation in an ego-depletion paradigm. In studies 1 and 2, we independently manipulated affective valence and arousal and assessed self-regulation with a Stroop task. Results did not suggest a restorative effect of either on cognitive resources. In study 3, we employed both behavioral (the ‘handgrip task’) and cognitive (Stroop) assessments of self-regulation. Again, no significant effect of mood was observed on the Stroop task. Additionally, participants did not persist significantly longer on the handgrip task following a positive mood induction. Finally, in study 4, high vs. low states of arousal were manipulated and self-regulation was assessed via pre- and post-manipulation Stroop performance. In study 4, Stroop performance improved slightly more across time points for those in the high arousal condition than for those in the low arousal condition. Therefore, across four studies, we failed to find a consistent pattern of results suggesting that positive moods restore cognitive resources. PMID:26784026

  1. Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Bulbulia, Joseph; Schjødt, Uffe; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Wallot, Sebastian; Van Orden, Guy; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Collective rituals are present in all known societies, but their function is a matter of long-standing debates. Field observations suggest that they may enhance social cohesion and that their effects are not limited to those actively performing but affect the audience as well. Here we show physiological effects of synchronized arousal in a Spanish fire-walking ritual, between active participants and related spectators, but not participants and other members of the audience. We assessed arousal by heart rate dynamics and applied nonlinear mathematical analysis to heart rate data obtained from 38 participants. We compared synchronized arousal between fire-walkers and spectators. For this comparison, we used recurrence quantification analysis on individual data and cross-recurrence quantification analysis on pairs of participants' data. These methods identified fine-grained commonalities of arousal during the 30-min ritual between fire-walkers and related spectators but not unrelated spectators. This indicates that the mediating mechanism may be informational, because participants and related observers had very different bodily behavior. This study demonstrates that a collective ritual may evoke synchronized arousal over time between active participants and bystanders. It links field observations to a physiological basis and offers a unique approach for the quantification of social effects on human physiology during real-world interactions. PMID:21536887

  2. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Puig-Waldmüller, Estela; Fitch, W T

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females). We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music. PMID:26617511

  3. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M.; Puig-Waldmüller, Estela; Fitch, W. T.

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females). We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music. PMID:26617511

  4. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies

    PubMed Central

    Briefer, Elodie F.; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies (“F0” and “G0”), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution. PMID:25897781

  5. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress. PMID:26186001

  6. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie F; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies ("F0" and "G0"), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution. PMID:25897781

  7. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders. PMID:2346901

  8. The Impact of Threat Appeals on Fear Arousal and Driver Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Research 1990–2011

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Rachel N.; McDermott, Daragh T.; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2013-01-01

    The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044), conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a) to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b) to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c) to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, p<.01). The effect of threat appeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17). This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area. PMID:23690955

  9. “Not for All the Tea in China!” Political Ideology and the Avoidance of Dissonance-Arousing Situations

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H. Hannah; Jost, John T.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2013-01-01

    People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a “better president.” This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed. PMID:23620724

  10. Avoid violence, rioting, and outrage; approach celebration, delight, and strength: Using large text corpora to compute valence, arousal, and the basic emotions.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris; Keith, Jeff; Briesemeister, Benny B; Hofmann, Markus J; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Aristotle discussed the issue in Book II of his Rhetoric, humans have attempted to identify a set of "basic emotion labels". In this paper we propose an algorithmic method for evaluating sets of basic emotion labels that relies upon computed co-occurrence distances between words in a 12.7-billion-word corpus of unselected text from USENET discussion groups. Our method uses the relationship between human arousal and valence ratings collected for a large list of words, and the co-occurrence similarity between each word and emotion labels. We assess how well the words in each of 12 emotion label sets-proposed by various researchers over the past 118 years-predict the arousal and valence ratings on a test and validation dataset, each consisting of over 5970 items. We also assess how well these emotion labels predict lexical decision residuals (LDRTs), after co-varying out the effects attributable to basic lexical predictors. We then demonstrate a generalization of our method to determine the most predictive "basic" emotion labels from among all of the putative models of basic emotion that we considered. As well as contributing empirical data towards the development of a more rigorous definition of basic emotions, our method makes it possible to derive principled computational estimates of emotionality-specifically, of arousal and valence-for all words in the language. PMID:26147614

  11. Chronic procrastination among Turkish adults: exploring decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan

    2009-06-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of chronic procrastination (decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles) as functions of demographic variables among 354 Turkish adults (148 men, 206 women; M age = 38.7 years, SD = 8.26 years). Prevalence analyses showed that among Turkish participants, 17.5% were indecisive procrastinators, 13.8% were avoidant procrastinators, and 14.7% were arousal procrastinators. Results did not yield significant differences for gender or age on any forms of procrastination, which is consistent with other international samples. However, significant differences emerged depending on the number of children such that Turkish adults who had more than 3 children claimed to be more indecisive than they claimed to be arousal or avoidant procrastinators. Respondents with less than a graduate degree reported higher rates of indecision than did respondents with at least a graduate degree. PMID:19537606

  12. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    PubMed

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal. PMID:17118518

  13. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release

    PubMed Central

    Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Hu, Zhitao; Schafer, William R.; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus) and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH), touch sensitive (ALM and PLM), and stretch sensing (DVA) neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states. PMID:26154367

  14. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718

  15. Effects of fragrance on female sexual arousal and mood across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Graham, C A; Janssen, E; Sanders, S A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of fragrance on sexual response in women were investigated using subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal and of mood. Responses were obtained from female participants in three different fragrance conditions (female fragrance, male fragrance, and a "blank" or neutral substance), as they viewed erotic and sexually neutral films, and fantasized about sexual situations. Each woman was tested twice: during the midfollicular and periovulatory phases of her menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycle phase effects were apparent; self-report data indicated greater sexual arousal and more positive mood during the periovulatory than during the follicular phase. Results demonstrated a positive effect of the male fragrance on genital arousal during erotic fantasy, but this finding was apparent only during the follicular phase testing session. This effect did not appear to be mediated by any effects of fragrance on mood. PMID:10705769

  16. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11055527

  17. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and PMID:26789555

  18. Temporal dynamics of arousal and attention in 12-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wass, S V; Clackson, K; de Barbaro, K

    2016-07-01

    Research from the animal literature suggests that dynamic, ongoing changes in arousal lead to dynamic changes in an individual's state of anticipatory readiness, influencing how individuals distribute their attention to the environment. However, multiple peripheral indices exist for studying arousal in humans, each showing change on different temporal scales, challenging whether arousal is best characterized as a unitary or a heterogeneous construct. Here, in 53 typical 12-month-olds, we recorded heart rate (HR), head movement patterns, electrodermal activity (EDA), and attention (indexed via look duration) during the presentation of 20 min of mixed animations and TV clips. We also examined triggers for high arousal episodes. Using cross-correlations and auto-correlations, we found that HR and head movement show strong covariance on a sub-minute scale, with changes in head movement consistently preceding changes in HR. EDA showed significant covariance with both, but on much larger time-scales. HR and head movement showed consistent relationships with look duration, but the relationship is temporally specific: relations are observed between head movement, HR and look duration at 30 s time-lag, but not at larger time intervals. No comparable relationships were found for EDA. Changes in head movement and HR occurred before changes in look duration, but not for EDA. Our results suggest that consistent patterns of covariation between heart rate, head movement and EDA can be identified, albeit on different time-scales, and that associations with look duration are present for head movement and heart rate, but not for EDA. Our results suggests that there is a single construct of arousal that can identified across multiple measures, and that phasic changes in arousal precede phasic changes in look duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 623-639, 2016. PMID:26999073

  19. Inducing changes in arousal and valence: comparison of two mood induction procedures.

    PubMed

    Jallais, Christophe; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2010-02-01

    This research examined the relative effectiveness of two mood induction procedures (MIPs) for inducing four specific moods varying along the dimensions of both valence and arousal. Participants were randomly assigned either to an autobiographical recall or to a music and guided imagery MIP and underwent a happiness, serenity, anger, or sadness mood induction. The findings confirmed the effectiveness of the two MIPs in producing changes on both the valence and arousal dimensions of mood. The results also revealed an unexpected greater efficiency of the autobiographical recall than of the combined procedure. PMID:20160311

  20. Greater emotional arousal predicts poorer long-term memory of communication skills in couples

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Brian R.; Weusthoff, Sarah; Atkins, David; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have examined the importance of learning skills in behaviorally based couple interventions but none have examined predictors of long-term memory for skills. Associations between emotional arousal and long-term recall of communication skills delivered to couples during a behaviorally based relationship distress prevention program were examined in a sample of 49 German couples. Fundamental frequency (f0), a vocal measure of encoded emotional arousal, was measured during pre-treatment couple conflict. Higher levels of f0 were linked to fewer skills remembered 11 years after completing the program, and women remembered more skills than men. Implications of results for behaviorally based couple interventions are discussed. PMID:22542535

  1. Hepatic fat content is a determinant of metabolic phenotypes and increased carotid intima-media thickness in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huijie; Ma, Zhimin; Pan, Lingling; Xu, Yanfang; Shao, Jin; Huang, Zhufeng; Chen, Zheng; Sun, Qian; Liu, Changqin; Lin, Mingzhu; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are at relatively low risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aims to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation determines metabolic phenotype of obesity and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 485 obese adults (aged 40–65 years) who received magnetic resonance spectroscopy were divided into metabolically abnormally obesity (MAO) and MHO groups according to metabolic status. MHO individuals had lower levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than MAO individuals. In multivariable linear regression analyses, IHTG content was independently associated with metabolic syndrome components and CIMT. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the IHTG content displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for detecting the MAO phenotype (AUC = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.65–0.75) and increased CIMT (AUC = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.54–0.66) than BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percent. MHO individuals were 1.9 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have metabolic syndrome per 1 SD change in IHTG content in multivariable-adjusted models. Likewise, the risk for high CIMT increased 29% per 1 SD change in IHTG content [OR (95% CI):1.29(1.01–1.64)]. These findings suggest that hepatic fat is a potential predictor of metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26902311

  2. Hepatic fat content is a determinant of metabolic phenotypes and increased carotid intima-media thickness in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijie; Ma, Zhimin; Pan, Lingling; Xu, Yanfang; Shao, Jin; Huang, Zhufeng; Chen, Zheng; Sun, Qian; Liu, Changqin; Lin, Mingzhu; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) are at relatively low risk for the development of metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aims to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation determines metabolic phenotype of obesity and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 485 obese adults (aged 40-65 years) who received magnetic resonance spectroscopy were divided into metabolically abnormally obesity (MAO) and MHO groups according to metabolic status. MHO individuals had lower levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) than MAO individuals. In multivariable linear regression analyses, IHTG content was independently associated with metabolic syndrome components and CIMT. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the IHTG content displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) for detecting the MAO phenotype (AUC = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.65-0.75) and increased CIMT (AUC = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.54-0.66) than BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percent. MHO individuals were 1.9 times (p < 0.001) more likely to have metabolic syndrome per 1 SD change in IHTG content in multivariable-adjusted models. Likewise, the risk for high CIMT increased 29% per 1 SD change in IHTG content [OR (95% CI):1.29(1.01-1.64)]. These findings suggest that hepatic fat is a potential predictor of metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26902311

  3. The Increase in Frictional Resistance Caused by Various Types of Rivet Heads as Determined by Tests of Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B

    1938-01-01

    The increase in the frictional resistance of a surface caused by the presence of rivet heads was determined by towing four planing surfaces of the same dimensions. One surface was smooth and represented a surface without rivet heads or one with perfectly flush countersunk rivets. The other three surfaces were each fitted with the same number of full-size rivet heads but of a different type arranged in the same pattern on each surface. The surfaces were towed at speeds representative of the high water speeds encountered by seaplanes during take-off and the range of Reynolds Number covered by the test was from 4 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The rivet heads investigated were oval countersunk, brazier, and round for rivets having shanks 5/32 inch in diameter. The oval countersunk heads were sunk below the surface by dimpling the plating around them. The results of the tests showed that, for the rivet heads investigated, the increase in the friction coefficient of the surface is directly proportional to the height of the rivet head. The order of merit in regard to low resistance is flush countersunk, oval countersunk (whether sunk below the surface or not), brazier, and round.

  4. Neonatal brainstem function and 4-month arousal-modulated attention are jointly associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ira L; Gardner, Judith M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Phan, Ha T T; Kittler, Phyllis; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Parab, Santosh; Barone, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The authors evaluated the contribution of initially abnormal neonatal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and 4-month arousal-modulated attention visual preference to later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates. A longitudinal study design was used to compare NICU graduates with normal ABRs (n = 28) to those with initially abnormal ABRs (n = 46) that later resolved. At 4 months postterm age, visual preference (measured after feeding) for a random check pattern flashing at 1, 3, or 8 Hz and gestational age (GA) served as additional predictors. Outcome measures were PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) scores at 3.4 years (standard deviation = 1.2), and developmental quotients (DQ) obtained around the same age with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS). Preferences for higher rates of stimulation at 4 months were highly correlated with PDDBI scores (all P-values < 0.01) and the GMDS Hearing and Speech DQ, but only in those with initially abnormal ABRs. Effects were strongest for a PDDBI social competence measure most associated with a diagnosis of autism. For those with abnormal ABRs, increases in preference for higher rates of stimulation as infants were linked to nonlinear increases in severity of ASD at 3 years and to an ASD diagnosis. Abnormal ABRs were associated with later reports of repetitive and ritualistic behaviors irrespective of 4-month preference for stimulation. The joint occurrence of initially abnormal neonatal ABRs and preference for more stimulation at 4 months, both indices of early brainstem dysfunction, may be a marker for the development of autism in this cohort. PMID:23165989

  5. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  6. Stress and performance: an application of Gray's three-factor arousal theory to basketball free-throw shooting.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, R; Butz, J W; Kozar, B; Vaughn, R E

    1996-10-01

    The suitability of Gray's (1975) three-factor arousal theory as a model of human performance under stress was investigated in a study of basketball free-throw shooting. Free-throw attempts, made by members of an NCAA Division I men's varsity team, were videotaped during one full season. On the basis of Gray's theory, we predicted that increased stress (assumed to be present in games as opposed to practices) would be associated with longer pre-shot preparations and a greater incidence of overthrow shots. The prediction was confirmed by the results. Moreover, we found that free-throws were more frequently overthrown when attempted during crucial rather than non-crucial game situations. Further tests of the utility of Gray's theory are suggested. PMID:8941910

  7. Rape-myth congruent beliefs in women resulting from exposure to violent pornography: effects of alcohol and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-09-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers (N = 134) read an eroticized rape depiction after completing an alcohol administration protocol. As predicted, intoxicated participants were less likely to label the depicted events as rape than their sober counterparts. A path analytic model illustrated that participants' self-reported sexual arousal to the stimulus, as influenced by alcohol consumption and expectancies, resulted in increased rape myth congruent perceptions of the victim and decreased labeling of the incident as rape. Findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication during violent pornography exposure may ultimately result in women developing more calloused attitudes toward rape and rape victims. PMID:16893966

  8. Beyond pleasure and arousal: appetitive erotic stimuli modulate electrophysiological brain correlates of early attentional processing.

    PubMed

    Kuhr, Benjamin; Schomberg, Jessica; Gruber, Thomas; Quirin, Markus

    2013-03-27

    Previous studies investigating affective reactions to pictures that elicit a specific effect have mainly focused on the dimensions valence and arousal. Using an event-related picture-viewing paradigm in electroencephalography, we investigated whether erotica - that is appetitive, evolutionarily relevant stimuli - have effects on early stages of attentional processing that are distinct from those of other positive and arousing stimuli. Seventeen male students viewed arousing photos of erotic, nude women or pictures of extreme sport scenes, as well as control pictures of attractive, dressed women or daily activities. Erotic pictures differed from extreme sport pictures not only in late but also in early attentional processes, as indicated by event-related potentials appearing from 130 ms after stimulus onset (P1). The findings suggest (a) that the dimension of appetence should be considered in addition to valence and arousal when investigating psychophysiological reactions to affective-motivational stimuli and (b) that early attentional processing as mirrored by the P1 can be influenced by motivational systems. PMID:23426107

  9. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  10. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  11. Dissociation of Event-Related Potentials Indexing Arousal and Semantic Cohesion During Emotional Word Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Daniel G.; Cooper, Julie J.; Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Woldorff, Marty G.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that emotional stimuli elicit greater amplitude late positive-polarity potentials (LPPs) than neutral stimuli. This effect has been attributed to arousal, but emotional stimuli are also more semantically coherent than uncategorized neutral stimuli. ERPs were recorded during encoding of positive,…

  12. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  13. Effects of Emotional Arousal on Multiple Memory Systems: Evidence from Declarative and Procedural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Steidl, Stephan; Mohi-uddin, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents emotional modulation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the emotional modulation of striatum-dependent procedural memory. To address how emotional arousal influences declarative and procedural memory, the current study utilized (1) a picture recognition and (2) a…

  14. Cognitive Biases in the Interpretation of Autonomic Arousal: A Test of the Construal Bias Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Keith D.; Easter, Matthew A.; Summers, Jessica J.; Posada, Maria L.

    2009-01-01

    According to Bandura's construal bias hypothesis, derived from social cognitive theory, persons with the same heightened state of autonomic arousal may experience either pleasant or deleterious emotions depending on the strength of perceived self-efficacy. The current study tested this hypothesis by proposing that college students' preexisting…

  15. Sympathetic Arousal to a Vestibular Stressor in High and Low Hostile Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Joseph E.; Holland, Alissa K.; Stratton, Harrison J.; Harrison, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to extend the literature on hostility and a cerebral systems based model of sympathetic arousal to a vestibular-based stress. Several authors have concluded that autonomic stress reactivity in high hostile individuals must be interpersonally based, whereas healthy vestibular system functioning does not depend…

  16. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  17. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  18. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  19. Robust Unsupervised Arousal Rating: A Rule-Based Framework with Knowledge-Inspired Vocal Features

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Daniel; Lee, Chi-Chun; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2015-01-01

    Studies in classifying affect from vocal cues have produced exceptional within-corpus results, especially for arousal (activation or stress); yet cross-corpora affect recognition has only recently garnered attention. An essential requirement of many behavioral studies is affect scoring that generalizes across different social contexts and data conditions. We present a robust, unsupervised (rule-based) method for providing a scale-continuous, bounded arousal rating operating on the vocal signal. The method incorporates just three knowledge-inspired features chosen based on empirical and theoretical evidence. It constructs a speaker’s baseline model for each feature separately, and then computes single-feature arousal scores. Lastly, it advantageously fuses the single-feature arousal scores into a final rating without knowledge of the true affect. The baseline data is preferably labeled as neutral, but some initial evidence is provided to suggest that no labeled data is required in certain cases. The proposed method is compared to a state-of-the-art supervised technique which employs a high-dimensional feature set. The proposed framework achieves highly-competitive performance with additional benefits. The measure is interpretable, scale-continuous as opposed to discrete, and can operate without any affective labeling. An accompanying Matlab tool is made available with the paper. PMID:25705327

  20. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links with Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…

  1. The Effects of Novel Stimulation on Arousal Level in Young Children Alone and with a Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, J. Conrad

    To assess the effects of familiar social stimuli on arousal in a novel and mildly stressful environment, skin conductance was measured in 4-year-old nursery school children who experienced this environment under two conditions: (a) alone, and (b) in the presence of a close friend. The study was intended to test Zajonc's (1965) social facilitation…

  2. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  3. Physiological-Cognitive-Emotional Responses to Defense-Arousing Communication: Overview and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    A 328-item checklist, suitable for the self-reporting of responses to any stimulus event, was administered to 107 upper division college students in an attempt to investigate the physiological-cognitive-emotional responses to defense arousing communication and to discover a greater range of the key features of the phenomena of "defensiveness."…

  4. Posttrauma Numbing of Fear, Detachment, and Arousal Predict Delinquent Behaviors in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.; Horan, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This study elaborated on associations between youth's trauma-related emotional numbing across multiple affective domains (e.g., fear, sadness, happiness, anger) and delinquent behaviors. The study also examined whether the effects of posttrauma emotional numbing varied by the occurrence of posttrauma arousal symptoms. Participants were 123 middle…

  5. Emotional Arousal, Client Perceptual Processing, and the Working Alliance in Experiential Psychotherapy for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missirlian, Tanya M.; Toukmanian, Shake G.; Warwar, Serine H.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2005-01-01

    Early-, middle-, and late-phase client emotional arousal, perceptual processing strategies, and working alliance were examined in relation to treatment outcome on 4 measures in 32 clients who previously underwent experiential therapy for depression. Hierarchical regression analyses relating these variables to outcome indicated that results varied…

  6. The Functional Neuroanatomy of Male Psychosexual and Physiosexual Arousal: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Langguth, Berthold; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behavior is mandatory for conservation of species and mediated by a state of sexual arousal (SA), involving both complex mental processes and bodily reactions. An early neurobehavioral model of SA proposes cognitive, emotional, motivational, and autonomic components. In a comprehensive quantitative meta-analysis on previous neuroimaging findings, we provide here evidence for distinct brain networks underlying psychosexual and physiosexual arousal. Psychosexual (i.e., mental sexual) arousal recruits brain areas crucial for cognitive evaluation, top-down modulation of attention and exteroceptive sensory processing, relevance detection and affective evaluation, as well as regions implicated in the representation of urges and in triggering autonomic processes. In contrast, physiosexual (i.e., physiological sexual) arousal is mediated by regions responsible for regulation and monitoring of initiated autonomic processes and emotions and for somatosensory processing. These circuits are interconnected by subcortical structures (putamen and claustrum) that provide exchange of sensorimotor information and crossmodal processing between and within the networks. Brain deactivations may imply attenuation of introspective processes and social cognition, but be necessary to release intrinsic inhibition of SA. PMID:23674246

  7. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  8. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

  9. Speech Accommodation and the Effects of Cognitive Uncertainty and Physiological Arousal upon It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, John; La Riviere, Conrad

    In order to investigate speech accommodation--the way in which communicators influence each other's speaking patterns and rhythms--a study examined its occurrence, as well as the extent of a conversational partner's influence, and the influence of interpersonal uncertainty and differences in arousal level upon that accommodation process.…

  10. Adult Perceptions of Pain and Hunger Cries: A Synchrony of Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeskind, Philip Sanford; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male and female nonparent adults rated tape-recordings of initial, middle, and final 10-second segments of pain and hunger cries on four 7-point Likert-type scale items describing how urgent, arousing, aversive, and sick cry segments sounded. Results suggest that different segments of cries resulting from the same stimulus provide different…

  11. Temperament and arousal systems: A new synthesis of differential psychology and functional neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the unidimensional construct of General Arousal as utilised by models of temperament in differential psychology for example, to underlie 'Extraversion'. Evidence suggests that specialization within monoamine neurotransmitter systems contrasts with the attribution of a "general arousal" of the Ascending Reticular Activating System. Experimental findings show specialized roles of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin systems in hypothetically mediating three complementary forms of arousal that are similar to three functional blocks described in classical models of behaviour within kinesiology, clinical neuropsychology, psychophysiology and temperament research. In spite of functional diversity of monoamine receptors, we suggest that their functionality can be classified using three universal aspects of actions related to expansion, to selection-integration and to maintenance of chosen behavioural alternatives. Monoamine systems also differentially regulate analytic vs. routine aspects of activities at cortical and striatal neural levels. A convergence between main temperament models in terms of traits related to described functional aspects of behavioural arousal also supports the idea of differentiation between these aspects analysed here in a functional perspective. PMID:26969100

  12. Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

  13. The Experience of a Modern Dance Group: Arousal, Motivation, and Self-Rated Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, John H.; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Wilson, George V.; Nakamori, Kayo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the findings obtained in previous reversal theory based dance research by investigating dancers' perceptions of their own arousal levels and performance and their motivational states when performing. A group of modern dancers (n = 21), performing at a dance competition, acted as volunteer…

  14. Flooding and Systematic Desensitization: Efficacy in Subclinical Phobics as a Function of Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Yolanda; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Flooding and systematic desensitization procedures were investigated for possible interactions with subject arousal level on reduction in phobic reactions. No such interaction was found. Behaviorally and on GSR response, both flooding and systematic desensitization were effective, but only the latter was effective on subjective reports. (NG)

  15. The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11…

  16. Pro- and Anti-Social Behaviors Subsequent to Arousal and Observational Learning from Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; And Others

    Ninety-five college students participated in an investigation of the arousal and observational learning effects produced by television viewing. The subjects were assigned to one of three experimental television viewing conditions: a serious dramatic presentation with high physical and verbal violence, a comedy with high verbal conflict but no…

  17. Deindividuating Effects of Group Presence and Arousal on Stealing by Halloween Trick-or-Treaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Edward; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of group presence and arousal in deindividuation, a process that is theoretically related to performance of anti-social behavior. On Halloween night, 23 selected homes in Seattle, Washington, were prepared for experimental manipulation. All homes were set up so that observers could watch children…

  18. The accessory stimulus effect is mediated by phasic arousal: A pupillometry study.

    PubMed

    Tona, Klodiana-Daphne; Murphy, Peter R; Brown, Stephen B R E; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-07-01

    People usually respond faster to a visual stimulus when it is immediately preceded by a task-irrelevant, auditory accessory stimulus (AS). This AS effect occurs even in choice reaction time tasks, despite the fact that the AS carries no information about the correct response. Researchers often assume that the AS effect is mediated by a phasic arousal burst evoked by the AS, but direct evidence for that assumption is lacking. We conducted a pupillometry study to directly test the phasic arousal hypothesis. Participants carried out a demanding choice reaction time task with accessory stimuli occurring on 25% of the trials. Pupil diameter, a common index of arousal, was measured throughout the task. Standard analyses of task performance and pupil diameter showed that participants exhibited the typical AS effect, and that accessory stimuli evoked a reliable early pupil dilation on top of the more protracted dilation associated with the imperative stimulus. Moreover, regression analyses at the single-trial level showed that variation in reaction times on AS trials was selectively associated with pupil dilation during the early time window within which the AS had an effect, such that particularly large AS-evoked dilations were associated with especially fast responses. These results provide the first evidence that the AS effect is mediated by AS-evoked phasic arousal. PMID:27095087

  19. How does music arouse "chills"? Investigating strong emotions, combining psychological, physiological, and psychoacoustical methods.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2005-12-01

    Music can arouse ecstatic "chill" experiences defined as "goose pimples" and as "shivers down the spine." We recorded chills both via subjects' self-reports and physiological reactions, finding that they do not occur in a reflex-like manner, but as a result of attentive, experienced, and conscious musical enjoyment. PMID:16597800

  20. Self-Alert Training: Volitional Modulation of Autonomic Arousal Improves Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I.…