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Sample records for increases p53 stability

  1. Regulation of P53 stability in p53 mutated human and mouse hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hailfinger, Stephan; Jaworski, Maike; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Wanke, Ines; Schwarz, Michael

    2007-04-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is frequently mutated in cancer. We have investigated the regulation of P53 in p53 wild type mouse hepatoma cells (line 55.1c), in p53 heterozygeously mutated cells (56.1b) and in p53 defective cells (lines 56.1d, 70.4 and HUH7) under various experimental settings. The basal levels of P53 were low in 55.1c cells, but nuclear accumulation occurred upon UV-irradiation. Similarly, UV-exposure induced stabilization of P53 in the heterozygeously p53 mutated 56.1b hepatoma cells. By contrast, the 3 hepatoma lines, which lack transcriptionally active P53, demonstrated high basal nuclear concentrations of P53 protein and, unexpectedly, showed loss of P53 upon UV-irradiation. Expression of p53 mRNA was also decreased in p53 defective cells after 24 hr post UV-irradiation, which may be linked to induction of apoptosis of the irradiated cells under these conditions. Other stressors like H2O2 also mediated a decrease in P53 concentration in p53 defective cells. This effect occurred at very low concentrations and was already detectable 1-2 hr after exposure of cells. There were no signs of apoptosis of H2O2-exposed cells at this time point and no significant changes in p53 mRNA or MDM2 level. These unexpected findings indicate a new aspect related to regulation of P53 stability in cells with a defect in the tumor suppressor protein. PMID:17205518

  2. Stabilization of p53 in Influenza A Virus-infected Cells Is Associated with Compromised MDM2-mediated Ubiquitination of p53*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaodu; Deng, Xufang; Yan, Wenjun; Zhu, Zixiang; Shen, Yang; Qiu, Yafeng; Shi, Zixue; Shao, Donghua; Wei, Jianchao; Xia, Xianzhu; Ma, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) induces apoptosis of infected cells. In response to IAV infection, p53, a tumor suppressor involved in regulating apoptosis and host antiviral defense, accumulates and becomes activated. This study was undertaken to examine the mechanism of p53 accumulation in IAV-infected cells. Here we show that p53 accumulation in IAV-infected cells results from protein stabilization, which was associated with compromised Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination of p53. In IAV-infected cells, p53 was stabilized and its half-life was remarkably extended. The ladders of polyubiquitinated p53 were not detectable in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and were less sensitive to proteasome-mediated degradation. IAV infection did not affect the abundance of Mdm2, a major ubiquitin E3 ligase responsible for regulating p53 ubiquitination and degradation, but weakened the interaction between p53 and Mdm2. Viral nucleoprotein (NP) was able to increase the transcriptional activity and stability of p53. Furthermore, NP was found to associate with p53 and to impair the p53-Mdm2 interaction and Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination, demonstrating its role in inhibiting Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation. PMID:22474335

  3. The p53 target Wig-1 regulates p53 mRNA stability through an AU-rich element

    PubMed Central

    Vilborg, Anna; Glahder, Jacob A.; Wilhelm, Margareta T.; Bersani, Cinzia; Corcoran, Martin; Mahmoudi, Salah; Rosenstierne, Maiken; Grandér, Dan; Farnebo, Marianne; Norrild, Bodil; Wiman, Klas G.

    2009-01-01

    The p53 target gene Wig-1 encodes a double-stranded-RNA-binding zinc finger protein. We show here that Wig-1 binds to p53 mRNA and stabilizes it through an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3′ UTR of the p53 mRNA. This effect is mirrored by enhanced p53 protein levels in both unstressed cells and cells exposed to p53-activating stress agents. Thus, the p53 target Wig-1 is a previously undescribed ARE-regulating protein that acts as a positive feedback regulator of p53, with implications both for the steady-state levels of p53 and for the p53 stress response. Our data reveal a previously undescribed link between the tumor suppressor p53 and posttranscriptional gene regulation via AREs in mRNA. PMID:19805223

  4. p53 Loss Increases the Osteogenic Differentiation of BMSCs

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunlong; de Castro, Luis F; Shin, Min Hwa; Dubois, Wendy; Yang, Howard H.; Jiang, Shunlin; Mishra, Pravin J.; Ren, Ling; Gou, Hongfeng; Lal, Ashish; Khanna, Chand; Merlino, Glenn; Lee, Maxwell; Robey, Pamela G.; Huang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor, p53, plays a critical role in suppressing osteosarcoma. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) have been suggested to give rise to osteosarcomas. However, the role of p53 in BMSCs has not been extensively explored. Here, we report that p53 regulates the lineage choice of mouse BMSCs (mBMSCs). Compared to mBMSCs with wild type p53, mBMSCs deficient in p53 have enhanced osteogenic differentiation, but with similar adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The role of p53 in inhibiting osteogenic lineage differentiation is mainly through the action of Runx2, a master transcription factor required for the osteogenic differentiation of mBMSCs. We find that p53 indirectly represses the expression of Runx2 by activating the microRNA-34 family, which suppresses the translation of Runx2. Since osteosarcoma may derive from BMSCs, we examined whether p53 has a role in the osteogenic differentiation of osteosarcoma cells and found that osteosarcoma cells with p53 deletion have higher levels of Runx2 and faster osteogenic differentiation than those with wild type p53. A systems biology approach reveals that p53-deficient mBMSCs are more closely related to human osteosarcoma while mBMSCs with wild type p53 are similar to normal human BMSCs. In summary, our results indicate that p53 activity can influence cell fate specification of mBMSCs, and provide molecular and cellular insights into the observation that p53 loss is associated with increased osteosarcoma incidence. PMID:25524638

  5. Nucleolar protein GLTSCR2 stabilizes p53 in response to ribosomal stresses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S; Kim, J-Y; Kim, Y-J; Seok, K-O; Kim, J-H; Chang, Y-J; Kang, H-Y; Park, J-H

    2012-01-01

    p53 is a key regulator of cell growth and death by controlling cell cycle progression and apoptosis under conditions of stress such as DNA damage or oncogenic stimulation. As these processes are critical for cell function and inhibition of tumor development, p53 regulatory pathways are strictly monitored in cells. Recently, it was recognized that nucleolar proteins, including nucleophosmin/B23, ribosomal protein L11, and alternate reading frame (ARF), form the nucleolus-ARF-murine double minute 2 (MDM2) axis in p53 regulatory pathways, which increases p53 stability by suppressing the activity of MDM2. In this work, we show that nucleolar protein glioma tumor-suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2) translocates to the nucleoplasm under ribosomal stress, where it interacts with and stabilizes p53 and inhibits cell cycle progression without the involvement of the major upstream p53 regulator, ARF. Furthermore, ectopic expression of GLTSCR2 significantly suppressed growth of cancer cells in a xenograft animal model via p53-dependent pathway. Our data identify GLTSCR2 as a new member of the nucleolus–nucleoplasmic axis for p53 regulation. ARF-independent direct regulation of p53 by GLTSCR2 may be a key mechanism and therapeutic target for cell death or growth inhibition when nucleolus-ARF-p53 pathways are inactivated by genetic or epigenetic modifications of ARF, which are the second most common types of genetic change observed in human cancers. PMID:22522597

  6. p53 Maintains Genomic Stability by Preventing Interference between Transcription and Replication.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Constance Qiao Xin; Alexander, Irina; Lin, Zhaoru; Lim, Shuhui; Aning, Obed Akwasi; Kumar, Ramesh; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Pendharkar, Vishal; Ho, Vincent H B; Cheok, Chit Fang

    2016-04-01

    p53 tumor suppressor maintains genomic stability, typically acting through cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. We discovered a function of p53 in preventing conflicts between transcription and replication, independent of its canonical roles. p53 deficiency sensitizes cells to Topoisomerase (Topo) II inhibitors, resulting in DNA damage arising spontaneously during replication. Topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A)-DNA complexes preferentially accumulate in isogenic p53 mutant or knockout cells, reflecting an increased recruitment of TOP2A to regulate DNA topology. We propose that p53 acts to prevent DNA topological stress originating from transcription during the S phase and, therefore, promotes normal replication fork progression. Consequently, replication fork progression is impaired in the absence of p53, which is reversed by transcription inhibition. Pharmacologic inhibition of transcription also attenuates DNA damage and decreases Topo-II-DNA complexes, restoring cell viability in p53-deficient cells. Together, our results demonstrate a function of p53 that may underlie its role in tumor suppression. PMID:27052176

  7. UV irradiation leads to transient changes in phosphorylation and stability of tumor suppressor protein p53.

    PubMed

    Scheidtmann, K; Landsberg, G

    1996-12-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 is thought to play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the genome. DNA damage caused by genotoxic drugs, UV or gamma-irradiation leads to accumulation of p53 and activation of its DNA binding and transcriptional activities and subsequently to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. We investigated whether the apparent activation of p53 might be due to post-translational modification. The rat fibroblast cell lines REF52, 208F, and rat1 were irradiated with W-A and the synthesis, stability and phosphorylation state of p53 were investigated by pulse chase experiments, SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping. The three cell lines exhibited different sensitivities and biological responses to UV irradiation, REF52 cells responded with a growth arrest whereas 208F and rat1 cells underwent apoptosis. The fate of p53 was similar in all cases. Both the stability of p53 and its phosphorylation increased instantaneously but transiently. However, the amount of p53 that accumulated after UV treatment was much higher in 208F and rat1 than in REF52 cells. Interestingly, p53 that was synthesized early after irradiation was stable for more than 14 h whereas molecules synthesized 8 or more hours post irradiation were increasingly susceptible to degradation. Moreover, between 14 and 20 h after treatment, the rate of synthesis of p53 decreased to a level lower than in untreated cells suggesting negative feed back control. The expression of different p53-responsive genes, waf1/cip1, Gadd45, and bax was investigated by protein analyses. Surprisingly, p21(waf1) was expressed only in REF52 cells but not in the others. Furthermore, UV irradiation led only to a moderate increase of p21(waf1) expression. Expression of Gadd45 and box was detectable in both cell types but its expression did not change significantly upon UV treatment. Our results suggest i) that both cell types share a common pathway which upon UV irradiation results in enhanced

  8. Nucleolin inhibits Hdm2 by multiple pathways leading to p53 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A; Rorie, C J; Dimitrova, D; Daniely, Y; Borowiec, J A

    2006-11-23

    Nucleolin is a c-Myc-induced gene product with defined roles in ribosomal RNA processing and the inhibition of chromosomal DNA replication following stress. Here we find that changes in nucleolin protein levels in unstressed cells cause parallel changes in the amount of p53 protein. Alterations in p53 levels arise from nucleolin binding to the p53 antagonist Hdm2, resulting in the inhibition of both p53 ubiquitination and Hdm2 auto-ubiquitination. Nucleolin does not alter p53 ubiquitination by human papillomavirus E6, indicating that the effect is specific for Hdm2. Although the inhibition of ligase activity would be expected to stabilize Hdm2, we instead find that nucleolin also reduces Hdm2 protein levels, demonstrating that nucleolin inhibits Hdm2 using multiple mechanisms. Increases in nucleolin levels in unstressed cells led to higher expression of p21(cip1/waf1), a reduced rate of cellular proliferation, and an increase in apoptosis. Thus, nucleolin has a number of properties in common with the tumor suppressor ARF (alternate reading frame). We propose that nucleolin, like ARF, responds to hyperproliferative signals by upregulation of p53 through Hdm2 inhibition. PMID:16751805

  9. A role for Numb in p53 stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stephanie; Vousden, Karen H

    2008-01-01

    The cell-fate determinant Numb has recently been shown to help activate the tumor suppressor protein p53. Loss of Numb in breast cancers would result, therefore, in both the activation of the potential oncogene Notch and the diminution of tumor suppression by p53. PMID:18492217

  10. Iron Metabolism Regulates p53 Signaling through Direct Heme-p53 Interaction and Modulation of p53 Localization, Stability, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Sheng, Xiangpeng; Chang, ZeNan; Wu, Qian; Wang, Sheng; Xuan, Zongliang; Li, Dan; Wu, Yalan; Shang, Yongjia; Kong, Xiangtao; Yu, Long; Li, Lin; Ruan, Kangchen; Hu, Hongyu; Huang, Ying; Hui, Lijian; Xie, Dong; Wang, Fudi; Hu, Ronggui

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron excess is closely associated with tumorigenesis in multiple types of human cancers, with underlying mechanisms yet unclear. Recently, iron deprivation has emerged as a major strategy for chemotherapy, but it exerts tumor suppression only on select human malignancies. Here, we report that the tumor suppressor protein p53 is downregulated during iron excess. Strikingly, the iron polyporphyrin heme binds to p53 protein, interferes with p53-DNA interactions, and triggers both nuclear export and cytosolic degradation of p53. Moreover, in a tumorigenicity assay, iron deprivation suppressed wild-type p53-dependent tumor growth, suggesting that upregulation of wild-type p53 signaling underlies the selective efficacy of iron deprivation. Our findings thus identify a direct link between iron/heme homeostasis and the regulation of p53 signaling, which not only provides mechanistic insights into iron-excess-associated tumorigenesis but may also help predict and improve outcomes in iron-deprivation-based chemotherapy. PMID:24685134

  11. Cancer therapeutic approach based on conformational stabilization of mutant p53 protein by small peptides.

    PubMed

    Tal, Perry; Eizenberger, Shay; Cohen, Elad; Goldfinger, Naomi; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Oren, Moshe; Rotter, Varda

    2016-03-15

    The p53 tumor suppressor serves as a major barrier against malignant transformation. Over 50% of tumors inactivate p53 by point mutations in its DNA binding domain. Most mutations destabilize p53 protein folding, causing its partial denaturation at physiological temperature. Thus a high proportion of human tumors overexpress a potential potent tumor suppressor in a non-functional, misfolded form. The equilibrium between the properly folded and misfolded states of p53 may be affected by molecules that interact with p53, stabilizing its native folding and restoring wild type p53 activity to cancer cells. To select for mutant p53 (mutp53) reactivating peptides, we adopted the phage display technology, allowing interactions between mutp53 and random peptide libraries presented on phages and enriching for phage that favor the correctly folded p53 conformation. We obtained a large database of potential reactivating peptides. Lead peptides were synthesized and analyzed for their ability to restore proper p53 folding and activity. Remarkably, many enriched peptides corresponded to known p53-binding proteins, including RAD9. Importantly, lead peptides elicited dramatic regression of aggressive tumors in mouse xenograft models. Such peptides might serve as novel agents for human cancer therapy. PMID:26943582

  12. Cancer therapeutic approach based on conformational stabilization of mutant p53 protein by small peptides

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Perry; Eizenberger, Shay; Cohen, Elad; Goldfinger, Naomi; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Oren, Moshe; Rotter, Varda

    2016-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor serves as a major barrier against malignant transformation. Over 50% of tumors inactivate p53 by point mutations in its DNA binding domain. Most mutations destabilize p53 protein folding, causing its partial denaturation at physiological temperature. Thus a high proportion of human tumors overexpress a potential potent tumor suppressor in a non-functional, misfolded form. The equilibrium between the properly folded and misfolded states of p53 may be affected by molecules that interact with p53, stabilizing its native folding and restoring wild type p53 activity to cancer cells. To select for mutant p53 (mutp53) reactivating peptides, we adopted the phage display technology, allowing interactions between mutp53 and random peptide libraries presented on phages and enriching for phage that favor the correctly folded p53 conformation. We obtained a large database of potential reactivating peptides. Lead peptides were synthesized and analyzed for their ability to restore proper p53 folding and activity. Remarkably, many enriched peptides corresponded to known p53-binding proteins, including RAD9. Importantly, lead peptides elicited dramatic regression of aggressive tumors in mouse xenograft models. Such peptides might serve as novel agents for human cancer therapy. PMID:26943582

  13. MOZ increases p53 acetylation and premature senescence through its complex formation with PML.

    PubMed

    Rokudai, Susumu; Laptenko, Oleg; Arnal, Suzzette M; Taya, Yoichi; Kitabayashi, Issay; Prives, Carol

    2013-03-01

    Monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ)/KAT6A is a MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, Tip60 (MYST)-type histone acetyltransferase that functions as a coactivator for acute myeloid leukemia 1 protein (AML1)- and Ets family transcription factor PU.1-dependent transcription. We previously reported that MOZ directly interacts with p53 and is essential for p53-dependent selective regulation of p21 expression. We show here that MOZ is an acetyltransferase of p53 at K120 and K382 and colocalizes with p53 in promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies following cellular stress. The MOZ-PML-p53 interaction enhances MOZ-mediated acetylation of p53, and this ternary complex enhances p53-dependent p21 expression. Moreover, we identified an Akt/protein kinase B recognition sequence in the PML-binding domain of MOZ protein. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of MOZ at T369 has a negative effect on complex formation between PML and MOZ. As a result of PML-mediated suppression of Akt, the increased PML-MOZ interaction enhances p21 expression and induces p53-dependent premature senescence upon forced PML expression. Our research demonstrates that MOZ controls p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity via association with PML. PMID:23431171

  14. Stathmin regulates mutant p53 stability and transcriptional activity in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sonego, Maura; Schiappacassi, Monica; Lovisa, Sara; Dall'Acqua, Alessandra; Bagnoli, Marina; Lovat, Francesca; Libra, Massimo; D'Andrea, Sara; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Militello, Loredana; Napoli, Marco; Giorda, Giorgio; Pivetta, Barbara; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Barbareschi, Mattia; Valeri, Barbara; Canevari, Silvana; Colombatti, Alfonso; Belletti, Barbara; Del Sal, Giannino; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Stathmin is a p53-target gene, frequently overexpressed in late stages of human cancer progression. Type II High Grade Epithelial Ovarian Carcinomas (HG-EOC) represents the only clear exception to this observation. Here, we show that stathmin expression is necessary for the survival of HG-EOC cells carrying a p53 mutant (p53MUT) gene. At molecular level, stathmin favours the binding and the phosphorylation of p53MUT by DNA-PKCS, eventually modulating p53MUT stability and transcriptional activity. Inhibition of stathmin or DNA-PKCS impaired p53MUT–dependent transcription of several M phase regulators, resulting in M phase failure and EOC cell death, both in vitro and in vivo. In primary human EOC a strong correlation exists between stathmin, DNA-PKCS, p53MUT overexpression and its transcriptional targets, further strengthening the relevance of the new pathway here described. Overall our data support the hypothesis that the expression of stathmin and p53 could be useful for the identification of high risk patients that will benefit from a therapy specifically acting on mitotic cancer cells. PMID:23610071

  15. The conformationally flexible S9-S10 linker region in the core domain of p53 contains a novel MDM2 binding site whose mutation increases ubiquitination of p53 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Harumi; Burch, Lindsay R; Smith, Amanda J; Dornan, David; Wallace, Maura; Ball, Kathryn L; Hupp, Ted R

    2002-08-01

    Although the N-terminal BOX-I domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53 contains the primary docking site for MDM2, previous studies demonstrated that RNA stabilizes the MDM2.p53 complex using a p53 mutant lacking the BOX-I motif. In vitro assays measuring the specific activity of MDM2 in the ligand-free and RNA-bound state identified a novel MDM2 interaction site in the core domain of p53. As defined using phage-peptide display, the RNA.MDM2 isoform exhibited a notable switch in peptide binding specificity, with enhanced affinity for novel peptide sequences in either p53 or small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-U (snRNP-U) and substantially reduced affinity for the primary p53 binding site in the BOX-I domain. The consensus binding site for the RNA.MDM2 complex within p53 is SGXLLGESXF, which links the S9-S10 beta-sheets flanking the BOX-IV and BOX-V motifs in the core domain and which is a site of reversible conformational flexibility in p53. Mutation of conserved amino acids in the linker at Ser(261) and Leu(264), which bridges the S9-S10 beta-sheets, stimulated p53 activity from reporter templates and increased MDM2-dependent ubiquitination of p53. Furthermore, mutation of the conserved Phe(270) within the S10 beta-sheet resulted in a mutant p53, which binds more stably to RNA.MDM2 complexes in vitro and which is strikingly hyper-ubiquitinated in vivo. Introducing an Ala(19) mutation into the p53(F270A) protein abolished both RNA.MDM2 complex binding and hyper-ubiquitination in vivo, thus indicating that p53(F270A) protein hyper-ubiquitination depends upon MDM2 binding to its primary site in the BOX-I domain. Together, these data identify a novel MDM2 binding interface within the S9-S10 beta-sheet region of p53 that plays a regulatory role in modulating the rate of MDM2-dependent ubiquitination of p53 in cells. PMID:11925449

  16. Zinc Induces Apoptosis of Human Melanoma Cells, Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species, p53 and FAS Ligand.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, Mauro; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Bartozzi, Beatrice; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effect of zinc on the apoptosis of human melanoma cells, by studying the zinc-dependent modulation of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of p53 and FAS ligand proteins. We showed that zinc concentrations ranging from 33.7 μM to 75 μM Zn(2+) induced apoptosis in the human melanoma cell line WM 266-4. This apoptosis was associated with an increased production of intracellular ROS, and of p53 and FAS ligand protein. Treatment of tumor cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was able to prevent Zn(2+)-induced apoptosis, as well as the increase of p53 and FAS ligand protein induced by zinc. Zinc induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by increasing ROS and this effect may be mediated by the ROS-dependent induction of p53 and FAS/FAS ligand. PMID:26408691

  17. ABRO1 suppresses tumourigenesis and regulates the DNA damage response by stabilizing p53

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhong; Cao, Mengmeng; Dong, Jiahong; Li, Changyan; Xu, Wangxiang; Zhan, Yiqun; Wang, Xiaohui; Yu, Miao; Ge, Changhui; Ge, Zhiqiang; Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Abraxas brother 1 (ABRO1) has been reported to be a component of the BRISC complex, a multiprotein complex that specifically cleaves ‘Lys-63’-linked ubiquitin. However, current knowledge of the functions of ABRO1 is limited. Here we report that ABRO1 is frequently downregulated in human liver, kidney, breast and thyroid gland tumour tissues. Depletion of ABRO1 in cancer cells reduces p53 levels and enhances clone formation and cellular transformation. Conversely, overexpression of ABRO1 suppresses cell proliferation and tumour formation in a p53-dependent manner. We further show that ABRO1 stabilizes p53 by facilitating the interaction of p53 with USP7. DNA-damage induced accumulation of endogenous ABRO1 as well as translocation of ABRO1 to the nucleus, and the induction of p53 by DNA damage is almost completely attenuated by ABRO1 depletion. Our study shows that ABRO1 is a novel p53 regulator that plays an important role in tumour suppression and the DNA damage response. PMID:25283148

  18. NDRG1 links p53 with proliferation-mediated centrosome homeostasis and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Croessmann, Sarah; Wong, Hong Yuen; Zabransky, Daniel J.; Chu, David; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Mohseni, Morassa; Rosen, D. Marc; Scharpf, Robert B.; Cidado, Justin; Cochran, Rory L.; Parsons, Heather A.; Dalton, W. Brian; Erlanger, Bracha; Button, Berry; Cravero, Karen; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Beaver, Julia A.; Kachhap, Sushant; Hurley, Paula J.; Lauring, Josh; Park, Ben Ho

    2015-01-01

    The tumor protein 53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene is the most frequently somatically altered gene in human cancers. Here we show expression of N-Myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is induced by p53 during physiologic low proliferative states, and mediates centrosome homeostasis, thus maintaining genome stability. When placed in physiologic low-proliferating conditions, human TP53 null cells fail to increase expression of NDRG1 compared with isogenic wild-type controls and TP53 R248W knockin cells. Overexpression and RNA interference studies demonstrate that NDRG1 regulates centrosome number and amplification. Mechanistically, NDRG1 physically associates with γ-tubulin, a key component of the centrosome, with reduced association in p53 null cells. Strikingly, TP53 homozygous loss was mutually exclusive of NDRG1 overexpression in over 96% of human cancers, supporting the broad applicability of these results. Our study elucidates a mechanism of how TP53 loss leads to abnormal centrosome numbers and genomic instability mediated by NDRG1. PMID:26324937

  19. Exploiting Transient Protein States for the Design of Small-Molecule Stabilizers of Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Joerger, Andreas C.; Bauer, Matthias R.; Wilcken, Rainer; Baud, Matthias G.J.; Harbrecht, Hannes; Exner, Thomas E.; Boeckler, Frank M.; Spencer, John; Fersht, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The destabilizing p53 cancer mutation Y220C creates an extended crevice on the surface of the protein that can be targeted by small-molecule stabilizers. Here, we identify different classes of small molecules that bind to this crevice and determine their binding modes by X-ray crystallography. These structures reveal two major conformational states of the pocket and a cryptic, transiently open hydrophobic subpocket that is modulated by Cys220. In one instance, specifically targeting this transient protein state by a pyrrole moiety resulted in a 40-fold increase in binding affinity. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that both open and closed states of this subsite were populated at comparable frequencies along the trajectories. Our data extend the framework for the design of high-affinity Y220C mutant binders for use in personalized anticancer therapy and, more generally, highlight the importance of implementing protein dynamics and hydration patterns in the drug-discovery process. PMID:26636255

  20. SMG7 is a critical regulator of p53 stability and function in DNA damage stress response

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongwei; Cowen, Lauren; Yu, Guowu; Jiang, Wenguo; Tang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor functions as a transcription factor and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cellular response to DNA damage by activating various genes including those involved in cell cycle arrest. p53 stability is essential for its function during stress response; however, the molecular mechanism for DNA damage-induced stabilization of p53 is not fully understood. In our present study, we have identified SMG7 (suppressor with morphological defects in genitalia 7), also known as EST1C, as a novel p53-binding protein. SMG7 is an mRNA surveillance factor implicated in degradation of p53 mRNA-containing nonsense mutations, yet it is completely unknown whether SMG7 regulates p53 function. Here, we show that SMG7 has a crucial role in p53-mediated response to genotoxic stress by regulating p53 stability. Using somatic gene knockout, we found that deletion of SMG7 abrogates DNA damage-induced p53 stabilization, although it exhibits minimal effect on the basal levels of p53. Importantly, loss of SMG7 impairs p53-mediated activation of p21 and cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. Pharmacological inhibition of Mdm2, a major E3 ubiquitin ligase for p53, restored p53 stability in gamma-irradiated SMG7-deficient cells. Furthermore, SMG7 physically interacts with Mdm2 and promotes ATM-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of Mdm2 following ionizing radiation. Therefore, our present data demonstrate that SMG7 is critical for p53 function in DNA damage response, and reveal the SMG7-mediated phosphorylation of Mdm2 as a previously unknown mechanism for p53 regulation.

  1. SMG7 is a critical regulator of p53 stability and function in DNA damage stress response.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongwei; Cowen, Lauren; Yu, Guowu; Jiang, Wenguo; Tang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor functions as a transcription factor and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cellular response to DNA damage by activating various genes including those involved in cell cycle arrest. p53 stability is essential for its function during stress response; however, the molecular mechanism for DNA damage-induced stabilization of p53 is not fully understood. In our present study, we have identified SMG7 (suppressor with morphological defects in genitalia 7), also known as EST1C, as a novel p53-binding protein. SMG7 is an mRNA surveillance factor implicated in degradation of p53 mRNA-containing nonsense mutations, yet it is completely unknown whether SMG7 regulates p53 function. Here, we show that SMG7 has a crucial role in p53-mediated response to genotoxic stress by regulating p53 stability. Using somatic gene knockout, we found that deletion of SMG7 abrogates DNA damage-induced p53 stabilization, although it exhibits minimal effect on the basal levels of p53. Importantly, loss of SMG7 impairs p53-mediated activation of p21 and cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. Pharmacological inhibition of Mdm2, a major E3 ubiquitin ligase for p53, restored p53 stability in gamma-irradiated SMG7-deficient cells. Furthermore, SMG7 physically interacts with Mdm2 and promotes ATM-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of Mdm2 following ionizing radiation. Therefore, our present data demonstrate that SMG7 is critical for p53 function in DNA damage response, and reveal the SMG7-mediated phosphorylation of Mdm2 as a previously unknown mechanism for p53 regulation. PMID:27462439

  2. GW8510 Increases Insulin Expression in Pancreatic Alpha Cells through Activation of p53 Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Kubicek, Stefan; Vetere, Amedeo; He, Kaihui Hu; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Wagner, Bridget K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Expression of insulin in terminally differentiated non-beta cell types in the pancreas could be important to treating type-1 diabetes. Previous findings led us to hypothesize involvement of kinase inhibition in induction of insulin expression in pancreatic alpha cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Alpha (αTC1.6) cells and human islets were treated with GW8510 and other small-molecule inhibitors for up to 5 days. Alpha cells were assessed for gene- and protein-expression levels, cell-cycle status, promoter occupancy status by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and p53-dependent transcriptional activity. GW8510, a putative CDK2 inhibitor, up-regulated insulin expression in mouse alpha cells and enhanced insulin secretion in dissociated human islets. Gene-expression profiling and gene-set enrichment analysis of GW8510-treated alpha cells suggested up-regulation of the p53 pathway. Accordingly, the compound increased p53 transcriptional activity and expression levels of p53 transcriptional targets. A predicted p53 response element in the promoter region of the mouse Ins2 gene was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Further, inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase activities suppressed insulin induction by GW8510. Conclusions/Significance The induction of Ins2 by GW8510 occurred through p53 in a JNK- and p38-dependent manner. These results implicate p53 activity in modulation of Ins2 expression levels in pancreatic alpha cells, and point to a potential approach toward using small molecules to generate insulin in an alternative cell type. PMID:22242153

  3. p53 increases caspase-6 expression and activation in muscle tissue expressing mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Ladha, Safia; Nguyen, Yen T N; Qiu, Xiaofan; Deng, Yu; Huynh, Khuong T; Engemann, Sabine; Nielsen, Signe M; Becanovic, Kristina; Leavitt, Blair R; Hasholt, Lis; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Activation of caspase-6 in the striatum of both presymptomatic and affected persons with Huntington's disease (HD) is an early event in the disease pathogenesis. However, little is known about the role of caspase-6 outside the central nervous system (CNS) and whether caspase activation might play a role in the peripheral phenotypes, such as muscle wasting observed in HD. We assessed skeletal muscle tissue from HD patients and well-characterized mouse models of HD. Cleavage of the caspase-6 specific substrate lamin A is significantly increased in skeletal muscle obtained from HD patients as well as in muscle tissues from two different HD mouse models. p53, a transcriptional activator of caspase-6, is upregulated in neuronal cells and tissues expressing mutant huntingtin. Activation of p53 leads to a dramatic increase in levels of caspase-6 mRNA, caspase-6 activity and cleavage of lamin A. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from YAC128 mice, we show that this increase in caspase-6 activity can be mitigated by pifithrin-α (pifα), an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity, but not through the inhibition of p53's mitochondrial pro-apoptotic function. Remarkably, the p53-mediated increase in caspase-6 expression and activation is exacerbated in cells and tissues of both neuronal and peripheral origin expressing mutant huntingtin (Htt). These findings suggest that the presence of the mutant Htt protein enhances p53 activity and lowers the apoptotic threshold, which activates caspase-6. Furthermore, these results suggest that this pathway is activated both within and outside the CNS in HD and may contribute to both loss of CNS neurons and muscle atrophy. PMID:24070868

  4. p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein Stability and Transcriptional Activity Are Targeted by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Encoded Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 3

    PubMed Central

    Baresova, Petra; Musilova, Jana; Pitha, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses have developed numerous strategies to counteract the host cell defense. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a DNA tumor virus linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The virus-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 3 (vIRF-3) gene is a latent gene which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, antiviral immunity, and tumorigenesis. vIRF-3 was shown to interact with p53 and inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been established. Here, we show that vIRF-3 associates with the DNA-binding domain of p53, inhibits p53 phosphorylation on serine residues S15 and S20, and antagonizes p53 oligomerization and the DNA-binding affinity. Furthermore, vIRF-3 destabilizes p53 protein by increasing the levels of p53 polyubiquitination and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. Consequently, vIRF-3 attenuates p53-mediated transcription of the growth-regulatory p21 gene. These effects of vIRF-3 are of biological relevance since the knockdown of vIRF-3 expression in KSHV-positive BC-3 cells, derived from PEL, leads to an increase in p53 phosphorylation, enhancement of p53 stability, and activation of p21 gene transcription. Collectively, these data suggest that KSHV evolved an efficient mechanism to downregulate p53 function and thus facilitate uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumor growth. PMID:24248600

  5. USP4 inhibits p53 and NF-κB through deubiquitinating and stabilizing HDAC2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z; Hao, Q; Luo, J; Xiong, J; Zhang, S; Wang, T; Bai, L; Wang, W; Chen, M; Wang, W; Gu, L; Lv, K; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are major epigenetic modulators involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases including cancers. As HDACs are promising targets of cancer therapy, it is important to understand the mechanisms of HDAC regulation. In this study, we show that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4) interacts directly with and deubiquitinates HDAC2, leading to the stabilization of HDAC2. Accumulation of HDAC2 in USP4-overexpression cells leads to compromised p53 acetylation as well as crippled p53 transcriptional activation, accumulation and apoptotic response upon DNA damage. Moreover, USP4 targets HDAC2 to downregulate tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Taken together, our study provides a novel insight into the ubiquitination and stability of HDAC2 and uncovers a previously unknown function of USP4 in cancers. PMID:26411366

  6. USP4 inhibits p53 and NF-κB through deubiquitinating and stabilizing HDAC2.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Hao, Q; Luo, J; Xiong, J; Zhang, S; Wang, T; Bai, L; Wang, W; Chen, M; Wang, W; Gu, L; Lv, K; Chen, J

    2016-06-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are major epigenetic modulators involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases including cancers. As HDACs are promising targets of cancer therapy, it is important to understand the mechanisms of HDAC regulation. In this study, we show that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4) interacts directly with and deubiquitinates HDAC2, leading to the stabilization of HDAC2. Accumulation of HDAC2 in USP4-overexpression cells leads to compromised p53 acetylation as well as crippled p53 transcriptional activation, accumulation and apoptotic response upon DNA damage. Moreover, USP4 targets HDAC2 to downregulate tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Taken together, our study provides a novel insight into the ubiquitination and stability of HDAC2 and uncovers a previously unknown function of USP4 in cancers. PMID:26411366

  7. Metabolites of arsenic and increased DNA damage of p53 gene in arsenic plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Weihua; Wen Jinghua; Lu Lin; Liu Hua; Yang Jun; Cheng Huirong; Che Wangjun; Li Liang; Zhang Guanbei

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that monomethylarsonous acid is more cytotoxic and genotoxic than arsenate and arsenite, which may attribute to the increased levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we used hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to determine three arsenic species in urine of workers who had been working in arsenic plants,and calculated primary and secondary methylation indexes. The damages of exon 5, 6, 8 of p53 gene were determined by the method developed by Sikorsky, et al. Results show that the concentrations of each urinary arsenic species,and damage indexes of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene in the exposed population were significantly higher, but SMI was significantly lower than in the control group. The closely positive correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and PMI,MMA, DMA were found, but there was closely negative correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and SMI. Those findings suggested that DNA damage of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene existed in the population occupationally exposed to arsenic. For exon 5, the important factors may include the model of arsenic metabolic transformation, the concentrations of MMA and DMA, and the MMA may be of great importance. - Research Highlights: > In our study, the mean SMI for workers came from arsenic plants is 4.06, so they may be in danger. > There are more MMA, there are more damage of exon 5 of p53 gene. > MMA and damage of exon 5 of p53 gene may be useful biomarkers to assess adverse health effects caused by arsenic.

  8. An in silico algorithm for identifying stabilizing pockets in proteins: test case, the Y220C mutant of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Dennis; Bauer, Matthias R; Fersht, Alan R; Daggett, Valerie

    2016-09-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein performs a critical role in stimulating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to oncogenic stress. The function of p53 can be compromised by mutation, leading to increased risk of cancer; approximately 50% of cancers are associated with mutations in the p53 gene, the majority of which are in the core DNA-binding domain. The Y220C mutation of p53, for example, destabilizes the core domain by 4 kcal/mol, leading to rapid denaturation and aggregation. The associated loss of tumor suppressor functionality is associated with approximately 75 000 new cancer cases every year. Destabilized p53 mutants can be 'rescued' and their function restored; binding of a small molecule into a pocket on the surface of mutant p53 can stabilize its wild-type structure and restore its function. Here, we describe an in silico algorithm for identifying potential rescue pockets, including the algorithm's integration with the Dynameomics molecular dynamics data warehouse and the DIVE visual analytics engine. We discuss the results of the application of the method to the Y220C p53 mutant, entailing finding a putative rescue pocket through MD simulations followed by an in silico search for stabilizing ligands that dock into the putative rescue pocket. The top three compounds from this search were tested experimentally and one of them bound in the pocket, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance, and weakly stabilized the mutant. PMID:27503952

  9. Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2012-01-01

    The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii.

  10. Residues in the alternative reading frame tumor suppressor that influence its stability and p53-independent activities

    SciTech Connect

    Tommaso, Anne di; Hagen, Jussara; Tompkins, Van; Muniz, Viviane; Dudakovic, Amel; Kitzis, Alain; Ladeveze, Veronique; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2009-04-15

    The Alternative Reading Frame (ARF) protein suppresses tumorigenesis through p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. Most of ARF's anti-proliferative activity is conferred by sequences in its first exon. Previous work showed specific amino acid changes occurred in that region during primate evolution, so we programmed those changes into human p14ARF to assay their functional impact. Two human p14ARF residues (Ala{sup 14} and Thr{sup 31}) were found to destabilize the protein while two others (Val{sup 24} and Ala{sup 41}) promoted more efficient p53 stabilization and activation. Despite those effects, all modified p14ARF forms displayed robust p53-dependent anti-proliferative activity demonstrating there are no significant biological differences in p53-mediated growth suppression associated with simian versus human p14ARF residues. In contrast, p53-independent p14ARF function was considerably altered by several residue changes. Val{sup 24} was required for p53-independent growth suppression whereas multiple residues (Val{sup 24}, Thr{sup 31}, Ala{sup 41} and His{sup 60}) enabled p14ARF to block or reverse the inherent chromosomal instability of p53-null MEFs. Together, these data pinpoint specific residues outside of established p14ARF functional domains that influence its expression and signaling activities. Most intriguingly, this work reveals a novel and direct role for p14ARF in the p53-independent maintenance of genomic stability.

  11. Improving survival by exploiting tumor dependence on stabilized mutant p53 for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, EM; Yallowitz, AR; Li, D; Xu, S; Schulz, R; Proia, DA; Lozano, G; Dobbelstein, M; Moll, UM

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Missense mutations in p53 generate aberrant proteins with abrogated tumor suppressor functions that can also acquire oncogenic gain-of-functions (GOF) that promote malignant progression, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance1–5. Mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins undergo massive constitutive stabilization specifically in tumors, which is the key requisite for GOF6–8. Although currently 11 million patients worldwide live with tumors expressing highly stabilized mutp53, it is unknown whether mutp53 is a therapeutic target in vivo. Here we use a novel mutp53 mouse model expressing an inactivatible R248Q hotspot mutation (floxQ) to show that tumors depend on sustained mutp53 expression. Upon Tamoxifen-induced mutp53 ablation, allo-transplanted and autochthonous tumors curb their growth, thus extending animal survival by 37%, and advanced tumors undergo apoptosis and tumor regression or stagnation. The HSP90/HDAC6 chaperone machinery, which is significantly upregulated in cancer compared to normal tissues, is a major determinant of mutp53 stabilization9–12. We show that long-term HSP90 inhibition significantly extends the survival of mutp53 Q/−2 and H/H (R172H allele3) mice by 59% and 48%, respectively, but not their respective p53−/− littermates. This mutp53-dependent drug effect occurs in H/H mice treated with 17DMAG+SAHA and in H/H and Q/− mice treated with the potent Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib. Notably, drug activity correlates with induction of mutp53 degradation, tumor apoptosis and prevention of T-lymphomagenesis. These proof-of-principle data identify mutp53 as an actionable cancer-specific drug target. PMID:26009011

  12. Copper uptake is required for pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-mediated oxidation and protein level increase of p53 in cells.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Saori; Ortiz, Fausto; Zhu Sun, Xiu; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Mason, Andrew; Momand, Jamil

    2002-01-01

    The p53 tumour-suppressor protein is a transcription factor that activates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. The p53 protein is vulnerable to oxidation at cysteine thiol groups. The metal-chelating dithiocarbamates, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), diethyldithiocarbamate, ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate and H(2)O(2) were tested for their oxidative effects on p53 in cultured human breast cancer cells. Only PDTC oxidized p53, although all oxidants tested increased the p53 level. Inductively coupled plasma MS analysis indicated that the addition of 60 microM PDTC increased the cellular copper concentration by 4-fold, which was the highest level of copper accumulated amongst all the oxidants tested. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid, a membrane-impermeable Cu(I) chelator inhibited the PDTC-mediated copper accumulation. Bathocuproinedisulphonic acid as well as the hydroxyl radical scavenger d-mannitol inhibited the PDTC-dependent increase in p53 protein and oxidation. Our results show that a low level of copper accumulation in the range of 25-40 microg/g of cellular protein increases the steady-state levels of p53. At copper accumulation levels higher than 60 microg/g of cellular protein, p53 is oxidized. These results suggest that p53 is vulnerable to free radical-mediated oxidation at cysteine residues. PMID:11964141

  13. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase increases p53 levels in alloreactive human T cells, and both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and p53 suppress glucose uptake, glycolysis and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Spanoulis, Aginor; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses adaptive immunity by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and altering glucose metabolism. The tumor suppressor p53 also alters these cellular processes with similar results. The effect of IDO on p53 and on glucose metabolism was evaluated in alloreactive T cells. Mixed-lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) were performed in the presence or not of the IDO inhibitor, 1-dl-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) and/or the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT). Cell proliferation, glucose consumption and lactate production were assessed. 1-MT increased cell proliferation, glucose influx and lactate production, whereas PFT enhanced cell proliferation and glucose influx, leaving lactate production unaffected. In MLR-derived T cells, protein analysis revealed that IDO activated general control non-derepressible 2 kinase and induced p53, p-p53 (p53 phosphorylated at serine 15) and p21. In addition, both IDO and p53 decreased glucose transporter 1 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator and increased synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2. IDO also reduced lactate dehydrogenase-A and glutaminase 2 levels, whereas p53 left them unaffected. Neither 1-MT nor PFT affected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In conclusion, in alloreactive T cells, IDO increases p53 levels, and both IDO and p53 inhibit cell proliferation, glucose consumption and glycolysis. Lactate production and glutaminolysis are also suppressed by IDO, but not by p53. PMID:25064493

  14. Genetic p53 deficiency partially rescues the adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) phenotype at the expense of increased tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Else, Tobias; Trovato, Alessia; Kim, Alex C.; Wu, Yipin; Ferguson, David O.; Kuick, Rork D.; Lucas, Peter C.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Telomere dysfunction and shortening induce chromosomal instability and tumorigenesis. In this study, we analyze the adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) mouse, harboring a mutation in Tpp1/Acd. Additional loss of p53 dramatically rescues the acd phenotype in an organ-specific manner, including skin hyperpigmentation and adrenal morphology, but not germ cell atrophy. Survival to weaning age is significantly increased in Acdacd/acd p53−/− mice. On the contrary p53−/− and p53+/− mice with the Acdacd/acd genotype show a decreased tumor free survival compared to Acd+/+ mice. Tumors from Acdacd/acd p53+/− mice show a striking switch from the classical spectrum of p53−/− mice towards carcinomas. The acd mouse model provides further support for an in vivo role of telomere deprotection in tumorigenesis. Significance Critically shortened dysfunctional telomeres of the Terc−/− mice have been shown to impact tissue development and maintenance and lead to the occurrence of a pro-cancer genome. The present study examines the contribution of telomere shortening vs. telomere deprotection to the development of genetic instability and cancer. By studying the acd mouse, we show that telomere deprotection without significant telomere shortening is sufficient to induce tumor formation in the context of p53 absence. It also raises the possibility that telomere deprotection contributes to the high prevalence of carcinomas in humans. PMID:19477426

  15. CHIP stabilizes amyloid precursor protein via proteasomal degradation and p53-mediated trans-repression of β-secretase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amir Kumar; Pati, Uttam

    2015-08-01

    In patient with Alzheimer's disease (AD), deposition of amyloid-beta Aβ, a proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase/BACE1, forms senile plaque in the brain. BACE1 activation is caused due to oxidative stresses and dysfunction of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), which is linked to p53 inactivation. As partial suppression of BACE1 attenuates Aβ generation and AD-related pathology, it might be an ideal target for AD treatment. We have shown that both in neurons and in HEK-APP cells, BACE1 is a new substrate of E3-ligase CHIP and an inverse relation exists between CHIP and BACE1 level. CHIP inhibits ectopic BACE1 level by promoting its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thus reducing APP processing; it stabilizes APP in neurons, thus reducing Aβ. CHIP(U) (box) domain physically interacts with BACE1; however, both U-box and TPR domain are essential for ubiquitination and degradation of BACE1. Further, BACE1 is a downstream target of p53 and overexpression of p53 decreases BACE1 level. In HEK-APP cells, CHIP is shown to negatively regulate BACE1 promoter through stabilization of p53's DNA-binding conformation and its binding upon 5' UTR element (+127 to +150). We have thus discovered that CHIP regulates p53-mediated trans-repression of BACE1 at both transcriptional and post-translational level. We propose that a CHIP-BACE1-p53 feedback loop might control APP stabilization, which could further be utilized for new therapeutic intervention in AD. PMID:25773675

  16. CHIP stabilizes amyloid precursor protein via proteasomal degradation and p53-mediated trans-repression of β-secretase

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amir Kumar; Pati, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    In patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), deposition of amyloid-beta Aβ, a proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase/BACE1, forms senile plaque in the brain. BACE1 activation is caused due to oxidative stresses and dysfunction of ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), which is linked to p53 inactivation. As partial suppression of BACE1 attenuates Aβ generation and AD-related pathology, it might be an ideal target for AD treatment. We have shown that both in neurons and in HEK-APP cells, BACE1 is a new substrate of E3-ligase CHIP and an inverse relation exists between CHIP and BACE1 level. CHIP inhibits ectopic BACE1 level by promoting its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thus reducing APP processing; it stabilizes APP in neurons, thus reducing Aβ. CHIPUbox domain physically interacts with BACE1; however, both U-box and TPR domain are essential for ubiquitination and degradation of BACE1. Further, BACE1 is a downstream target of p53 and overexpression of p53 decreases BACE1 level. In HEK-APP cells, CHIP is shown to negatively regulate BACE1 promoter through stabilization of p53’s DNA-binding conformation and its binding upon 5′ UTR element (+127 to +150). We have thus discovered that CHIP regulates p53-mediated trans-repression of BACE1 at both transcriptional and post-translational level. We propose that a CHIP–BACE1–p53 feedback loop might control APP stabilization, which could further be utilized for new therapeutic intervention in AD. PMID:25773675

  17. A chromatin-independent role of Polycomb-like 1 to stabilize p53 and promote cellular quiescence.

    PubMed

    Brien, Gerard L; Healy, Evan; Jerman, Emilia; Conway, Eric; Fadda, Elisa; O'Donovan, Darragh; Krivtsov, Andrei V; Rice, Alan M; Kearney, Conor J; Flaus, Andrew; McDade, Simon S; Martin, Seamus J; McLysaght, Aoife; O'Connell, David J; Armstrong, Scott A; Bracken, Adrian P

    2015-11-01

    Polycomb-like proteins 1-3 (PCL1-3) are substoichiometric components of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that are essential for association of the complex with chromatin. However, it remains unclear why three proteins with such apparent functional redundancy exist in mammals. Here we characterize their divergent roles in both positively and negatively regulating cellular proliferation. We show that while PCL2 and PCL3 are E2F-regulated genes expressed in proliferating cells, PCL1 is a p53 target gene predominantly expressed in quiescent cells. Ectopic expression of any PCL protein recruits PRC2 to repress the INK4A gene; however, only PCL2 and PCL3 confer an INK4A-dependent proliferative advantage. Remarkably, PCL1 has evolved a PRC2- and chromatin-independent function to negatively regulate proliferation. We show that PCL1 binds to and stabilizes p53 to induce cellular quiescence. Moreover, depletion of PCL1 phenocopies the defects in maintaining cellular quiescence associated with p53 loss. This newly evolved function is achieved by the binding of the PCL1 N-terminal PHD domain to the C-terminal domain of p53 through two unique serine residues, which were acquired during recent vertebrate evolution. This study illustrates the functional bifurcation of PCL proteins, which act in both a chromatin-dependent and a chromatin-independent manner to regulate the INK4A and p53 pathways. PMID:26494712

  18. A chromatin-independent role of Polycomb-like 1 to stabilize p53 and promote cellular quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Brien, Gerard L.; Healy, Evan; Jerman, Emilia; Conway, Eric; Fadda, Elisa; O'Donovan, Darragh; Krivtsov, Andrei V.; Rice, Alan M.; Kearney, Conor J.; Flaus, Andrew; McDade, Simon S.; Martin, Seamus J.; McLysaght, Aoife; O'Connell, David J.; Armstrong, Scott A.; Bracken, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb-like proteins 1–3 (PCL1–3) are substoichiometric components of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that are essential for association of the complex with chromatin. However, it remains unclear why three proteins with such apparent functional redundancy exist in mammals. Here we characterize their divergent roles in both positively and negatively regulating cellular proliferation. We show that while PCL2 and PCL3 are E2F-regulated genes expressed in proliferating cells, PCL1 is a p53 target gene predominantly expressed in quiescent cells. Ectopic expression of any PCL protein recruits PRC2 to repress the INK4A gene; however, only PCL2 and PCL3 confer an INK4A-dependent proliferative advantage. Remarkably, PCL1 has evolved a PRC2- and chromatin-independent function to negatively regulate proliferation. We show that PCL1 binds to and stabilizes p53 to induce cellular quiescence. Moreover, depletion of PCL1 phenocopies the defects in maintaining cellular quiescence associated with p53 loss. This newly evolved function is achieved by the binding of the PCL1 N-terminal PHD domain to the C-terminal domain of p53 through two unique serine residues, which were acquired during recent vertebrate evolution. This study illustrates the functional bifurcation of PCL proteins, which act in both a chromatin-dependent and a chromatin-independent manner to regulate the INK4A and p53 pathways. PMID:26494712

  19. Physical Exercise Regulates p53 Activity Targeting SCO2 and Increases Mitochondrial COX Biogenesis in Cardiac Muscle with Age

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhengtang; He, Jie; Su, Yuhui; He, Qiang; Liu, Jingxia; Yu, Lu; Al-Attas, Omar; Hussain, Tajamul; Ding, Shuzhe; Ji, Liu; Qian, Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline the timelines of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and cytochrome c oxidase complex (COX) biogenesis in cardiac muscle with age, and to evaluate whether and how these age-related changes were attenuated by exercise. ICR/CD-1 mice were treated with pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), sacrificed and studied at different ages; ICR/CD-1 mice at younger or older ages were randomized to endurance treadmill running and sedentary conditions. The results showed that mRNA expression of p53 and its protein levels in mitochondria increased with age in cardiac muscle, accompanied by increased mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced expression of COX subunits and assembly proteins, and decreased expression of most markers in mitochondrial biogenesis. Most of these age-related changes including p53 activity targeting cytochrome oxidase deficient homolog 2 (SCO2), p53 translocation to mitochondria and COX biogenesis were attenuated by exercise in older mice. PFTμ, an inhibitor blocking p53 translocation to mitochondria, increased COX biogenesis in older mice, but not in young mice. Our data suggest that physical exercise attenuates age-related changes in mitochondrial COX biogenesis and p53 activity targeting SCO2 and mitochondria, and thereby induces antisenescent and protective effects in cardiac muscle. PMID:21750704

  20. Physical exercise regulates p53 activity targeting SCO2 and increases mitochondrial COX biogenesis in cardiac muscle with age.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhengtang; He, Jie; Su, Yuhui; He, Qiang; Liu, Jingxia; Yu, Lu; Al-Attas, Omar; Hussain, Tajamul; Ding, Shuzhe; Ji, Liu; Qian, Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline the timelines of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and cytochrome c oxidase complex (COX) biogenesis in cardiac muscle with age, and to evaluate whether and how these age-related changes were attenuated by exercise. ICR/CD-1 mice were treated with pifithrin-μ (PFTμ), sacrificed and studied at different ages; ICR/CD-1 mice at younger or older ages were randomized to endurance treadmill running and sedentary conditions. The results showed that mRNA expression of p53 and its protein levels in mitochondria increased with age in cardiac muscle, accompanied by increased mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced expression of COX subunits and assembly proteins, and decreased expression of most markers in mitochondrial biogenesis. Most of these age-related changes including p53 activity targeting cytochrome oxidase deficient homolog 2 (SCO2), p53 translocation to mitochondria and COX biogenesis were attenuated by exercise in older mice. PFTμ, an inhibitor blocking p53 translocation to mitochondria, increased COX biogenesis in older mice, but not in young mice. Our data suggest that physical exercise attenuates age-related changes in mitochondrial COX biogenesis and p53 activity targeting SCO2 and mitochondria, and thereby induces antisenescent and protective effects in cardiac muscle. PMID:21750704

  1. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels. PMID:26732534

  2. Increased p53 and decreased p21 accompany apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Gabriela; Linden, Rafael; Giangrande, Angela; Allodi, Silvana

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, leading the cell to apoptosis by the p53 pathway. This study evaluated some molecular markers of the apoptosis pathway induced by UVA, UVB and UVA+ UVB (Solar Simulator, SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) by immunoblotting the content of proteins p53, p21, phosphorylated AKT, BDNF, GDNF, activated caspase-3 (C3) and phosphohistone H3 (PH3); and by immunohistochemical tests of the cells labeled for PH3 and C3. After the fifth day of exposure, UVB radiation and SIM increased the protein content of p53, increasing the content of AKT and, somehow, blocking p21, increasing the content of activated caspase-3, which led the cells to apoptosis. The signs of death affected the increase in neurotrophins, such as BDNF and GDNF, stimulating the apoptotic cascade of events. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting showed that apoptosis was present in the brains of all UV groups, while the number of mitotic cells in the same groups decreased. In conclusion, environmental doses of UV can cause apoptosis by increasing p53 and decreasing p21, revealing an UV-damage pathway for U. cordatus. PMID:26807499

  3. Direct relationship between the level of p53 stabilization induced by rRNA synthesis-inhibiting drugs and the cell ribosome biogenesis rate.

    PubMed

    Scala, F; Brighenti, E; Govoni, M; Imbrogno, E; Fornari, F; Treré, D; Montanaro, L; Derenzini, M

    2016-02-25

    Many drugs currently used in chemotherapy work by hindering the process of ribosome biogenesis. In tumors with functional p53, the inhibition of ribosome biogenesis may contribute to the efficacy of this treatment by inducing p53 stabilization. As the level of stabilized p53 is critical for the induction of cytotoxic effects, it seems useful to highlight those cancer cell characteristics that can predict the degree of p53 stabilization following the treatment with inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis. In the present study we exposed a series of p53 wild-type human cancer cell lines to drugs such as actinomycin D (ActD), doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and CX-5461, which hinder ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis. We found that the amount of stabilized p53 was directly related to the level of ribosome biogenesis in cells before the drug treatment. This was due to different levels of inactivation of the ribosomal proteins-MDM2 pathway of p53 digestion. Inhibition of rRNA synthesis always caused cell cycle arrest, independent of the ribosome biogenesis rate of the cells, whereas apoptosis occurred only in cells with a high rDNA transcription rate. The level of p53 stabilization induced by drugs acting in different ways from the inhibition of ribosome biogenesis, such as hydroxyurea (HU) and nutlin-3, was independent of the level of ribosome biogenesis in cells and always lower than that occurring after the inhibition of rRNA synthesis. Interestingly, in cells with a low ribosome biogenesis rate, the combined treatment with ActD and HU exerted an additive effect on p53 stabilization. These results indicated that (i) drugs inhibiting ribosome biogenesis may be highly effective in p53 wild-type cancers with a high ribosome biogenesis rate, as they induce apoptotic cell death, and (ii) the combination of drugs capable of stabilizing p53 through different mechanisms may be useful for treating cancers with a low ribosome biogenesis rate. PMID:25961931

  4. Acute ammonia neurotoxicity in vivo involves increase in cytoplasmic protein P53 without alterations in other markers of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kosenko, Elena; Kaminsky, Yuri; Solomadin, Ilia; Marov, Nikolay; Venediktova, Natalia; Felipo, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2007-08-15

    Acute intoxication with large ammonia doses leads to activation of NMDA receptors in the brain, resulting in oxidative stress and disturbance of mitochondrial function. Altered mitochondrial function is a crucial step in some mechanisms of cellular apoptosis. This study assesses whether ammonia intoxication in vivo leads to induction of apoptotic markers such as permeability transition pore (PTP) formation, caspase-3, and caspase-9 activation, changes in p53 protein, or cytochrome c release. Acute ammonia intoxication did not affect caspase-9 or caspase-3 activities. The mitochondrial membrane potential also remained unaltered in non-synaptic brain mitochondria after injection of ammonia, indicating that ammonia did not induce PTP formation in brain in vivo. The nuclear level of p53 did not change, whereas its cytoplasmic level increased approximately two-fold. In agreement with the theory that translocation of the p53 from cytosol to nuclei is an essential step for induction of apoptosis we did not find apoptotic nuclei in brain of rats injected with ammonia. This supports the idea that ammonia neurotoxicity does not involve apoptosis and points to impaired p53 transfer from cytoplasm to nuclei as a possible preventer of apoptosis. We did not find any release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol after ammonia injection. Cytochrome c content was significantly reduced (30%) in brain mitochondria from rats injected with ammonia. This decrease may contribute to the reduced state 3 respiration, decreased respiratory control index, and disturbances in the mitochondrial electron transport chain in brain mitochondria from rats injected with ammonia. PMID:17551980

  5. Ell3 stabilizes p53 following CDDP treatment via its effects on ubiquitin-dependent and -independent proteasomal degradation pathways in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Won; Lim, Kee-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ock; Lee, Je-Yong; Kim, Jiewan; Park, Ji-Hoon; Yang, Kyung-Min; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Ko, Jeong-Jae; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 is unstable in quiescent cells and undergoes proteosomal degradation. Under conditions of cellular stress, p53 is rapidly stabilized by post-translational modification, thereby escaping degradation and translocating to the nucleus where it activates genes related to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Here, we report that the transcription elongation factor Ell3 sensitizes luminal type-cancer cell line, MCF7, which have wild-type p53, to the chemotherapeutic agent cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) by stabilizing p53. Overexpression of Ell3 in MCF7 cells suppressed the MDM2-mediated ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway. In addition, Ell3 promoted binding of p53 to NADH quinone oxidoreductase 1, which is linked to the ubiquitin-independent degradation of p53. We found that Ell3 activates interleukin-20 (IL20) expression, which is linked to the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Chemical inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling or molecular suppression of IL20 revealed that the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and IL20 are the main causes of p53 stabilization in Ell3-overexpressing MCF7 cells. These findings suggest that the ERK1/2 pathway can be targeted in the rational development of therapies to induce chemosensitization of breast cancer cells. PMID:26540344

  6. Increasing expression of gastrointestinal phenotypes and p53 along with histologic progression of intraductal papillary neoplasia of the liver.

    PubMed

    Shimonishi, Tomonori; Zen, Yoh; Chen, Tse-Ching; Chen, Miin-Fu; Jan, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Nimura, Yuji; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2002-05-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasia of the liver (IPN-L) was recently proposed as the name for intraductal papillary proliferation of neoplastic biliary epithelium with a fine fibrovascular stalk resembling intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas. We histochemically and immunohistochemically examined IPN-L alone or associated with hepatolithiasis, with an emphasis on the gastrointestinal metaplasia, nuclear p53 expression, and histologic progression. A total of 66 cases of IPN-L were divided into 4 groups: group 1, IPN-L with low-grade dysplasia (13 cases); group 2, IPN-L with high-grade dysplasia (20 cases); group 3, IPN-L lined with carcinoma in situ and no or microinvasion (19 cases); and group 4, group 3 with distinct invasive carcinoma (14 cases). It is suggested that IPN-L progresses from group 1 to group 4. As controls, 20 cases of nonneoplastic intrahepatic large bile ducts and 17 cases of nonpapillary invasive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) were used. Biliary epithelial hypersecretion of sialomucin rather than sulfomucin was prevalent in IPN-L, and this was associated with the progression of INP-L. Immunohistochemically, cytokeratin (CK) 20 and MUC2, a gastrointestinal marker, were expressed more frequently in IPN-L than in nonneoplastic bile ducts and nonpapillary ICC (P <0.01), and their incidence were significantly increased in parallel with the progression of IPN-L (P < 0.01). In contrast, expression of CK 7, a biliary marker, was decreased in IPN-L compared with nonpapillary ICC. Nuclear p53 immunostaining was detected in 30% of IPN-L as a whole and increased in tandem with the progression of IPN-L (P < 0.01). It is suggested that IPN-L forms a spectrum of biliary epithelial neoplasia with frequent gastrointestinal metaplasia, different from the usual nonpapillary ICC, and shows stepwise progression from the perspective of mucin profile, gastrointestinal metaplasia, and p53 nuclear expression. PMID:12094375

  7. The mitochondrial p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vaseva, Angelina V.; Moll, Ute M.

    2010-01-01

    p53 is one of the most mutated tumor suppressors in human cancers and as such has been intensively studied for a long time. p53 is a major orchestrator of the cellular response to a broad array of stress types by regulating apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, senescence, DNA repair and genetic stability. For a long time it was thought that these functions of p53 solely rely on its function as a transcription factor, and numerous p53 target genes have been identified [1]. In the last 8 years however, a novel transcription-independent proapoptotic function mediated by the cytoplasmic pool of p53 has been revealed. p53 participates directly in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by interacting with the multidomain members of the Bcl-2 family to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Our review will discuss these studies, focusing on recent advances in the field. PMID:19007744

  8. DNA damage induces down-regulation of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase, increases ceramide levels and triggers apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Teka-Ann S.; Filippov, Valery; Filippova, Maria; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Kangling; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J.

    2013-01-01

    DNA damaging agents typically induce an apoptotic cascade in which p53 plays a central role. However, absence of a p53-mediated response does not necessarily abrogate programmed cell death, due to the existence of p53-independent apoptotic pathways, such as those mediated by the pro-apoptotic molecule ceramide. We compared ceramide levels before and after DNA damage in human osteosarcoma (U2OS) and colon cancer (HCT116) cells that were either expressing or deficient in p53. When treated with mitomycin C, p53-deficient cells, but not p53-expressing cells, showed a marked increase in ceramide levels. Microarray analysis of genes involved in ceramide metabolism identified acid ceramidase (ASAH1, up-regulated), ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG, down-regulated), and galactosylceramidase (GALC, up-regulated) as the three genes most affected. Experiments employing pharmacological and siRNA agents revealed that inhibition of UGCG is sufficient to increase ceramide levels and induce cell death. When inhibition of UGCG and treatment with mitomycin C were combined, p53-deficient, but not p53-expressing cells, showed a significant increase in cell death, suggesting that the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism could be used to sensitize cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22349266

  9. Abrogation of p53 by its antisense in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells increases cyclin D1 via activation of Akt and promotion of cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Kumari, Ratna; Upadhyay, Ankur Kumar; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2007-11-15

    The p53 protein has been a subject of intense research interest since its discovery as about 50% of human cancers carry p53 mutations. Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequent genetic lesions in breast cancers suggesting a critical role of p53 in breast cancer development, growth and chemosensitivity. This report describes the derivation and characterization of MCF-7As53, an isogenic cell line derived from MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells in which p53 was abrogated by antisense p53 cDNA. Similar to MCF-7 and simultaneously selected hygromycin resistant MCF-7H cells, MCF-7As53 cells have consistent basal epithelial phenotype, morphology, and estrogen receptor expression levels at normal growth conditions. Present work documents investigation of molecular variations, growth kinetics, and cell cycle related studies in relation to absence of wild-type p53 protein and its transactivation potential as well. Even though wild-type tumor suppressor p53 is an activator of cell growth arrest and apoptosis-mediator genes such as p21, Bax, and GADD45 in MCF-7As53 cells, no alterations in expression levels of these genes were detected. The doubling time of these cells decreased due to depletion of G0/G1 cell phase because of constitutive activation of Akt and increase in cyclin D1 protein levels. This proliferative property was abrogated by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore this p53 null cell line indicates that p53 is an indispensable component of cellular signaling system which is regulated by caveolin-1 expression, involving Akt activation and increase in cyclin D1, thereby promoting proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  10. P53 nuclear stabilization is associated with FHIT loss and younger age of onset in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (SCCT) is expected to harbor unique clinico-pathological and molecular genetic features since a significant proportion of patients are young and exhibit no association with tobacco or alcohol. Methods We determined P53, epidermal growth factor receptor, microsatellite instability, human papilloma virus infection and loss of heterozygosity status at several tumor suppressor loci in one hundred and twenty one oral SCCT (SSCOT) samples and analyzed their association with clinico-pathological features and patient survival. Results Our results revealed a significantly higher incidence of p53 nuclear stabilization in early (as against late) onset SCCOT. FHIT loss was significantly associated with p53 nuclear stabilization and the association was stronger in patients with no history of tobacco use. Samples harboring mutation in p53 DNA binding domain or exhibiting p53 nuclear stabilization, were significantly associated with poor survival. Conclusion Our study has therefore identified distinct features in SCCOT tumorigenesis with respect to age and tobacco exposure and revealed possible prognostic utility of p53. PMID:25152695

  11. Subchronic oral toxicity and metabolite profiling of the p53 stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William D; Muzzio, Miguel; Detrisac, Carol J; Kapetanovic, Izet M; Kopelovich, Levy; McCormick, David L

    2011-11-18

    CP-31398 (N'-[2-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-4-quinazolinyl]-N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine dihydrochloride) is a styrylquinazoline that stabilizes the DNA binding conformation of p53, thereby maintaining the activity of p53 as a transcription factor and tumor suppressor. In consideration of the potential use of p53 stabilizers for cancer prevention and therapy, 28-day studies (with recovery) were performed to characterize the toxicity of CP-31398 in rats and dogs. In the rat study, groups of 15 CD rats/sex received daily gavage exposure to CP-31398 at 0, 40, 80, or 160mg/kg/day (0, 240, 480, or 960mg/m(2)/day). In the dog study, groups of five beagle dogs received daily gavage exposure to CP-31398 at 0, 10, 20, or 40mg/kg/day (0, 200, 400, or 800mg/m(2)/day). The high dose of CP-31398 induced mortality in both species: seven male rats and four female rats died as a result of hepatic infarcts, and two female dogs died as a result of hepatic necrosis without evidence of thrombosis. No deaths were seen in the mid- or low-dose groups in either species. In dogs, sporadic emesis was seen in the high dose and mid dose groups, and reductions in body weight gain were observed in all drug-exposed groups. CP-31398 induced mild anemia in both species; clinical pathology data also demonstrated hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, inflammatory reactions, and coagulopathies in rats in the high dose and mid dose groups. Treatment-related microscopic changes in high dose and mid dose rats were identified in the liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow, lung, adrenals, spleen, thymus, skeletal muscle, and ovary; microscopic changes in the liver, heart, lung, and adrenals persisted through the recovery period. In dogs, microscopic changes were identified in the central nervous system, lung, and liver; changes in all tissues remained at the end of the recovery period. The liver is the primary site of limiting toxicity for CP-31398 in rats, and is also a key site of toxicity in dogs. The

  12. Induction of MDM2-P2 transcripts correlates with stabilized wild-type p53 in betel- and tobacco-related human oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Ralhan, R; Sandhya, A; Meera, M; Bohdan, W; Nootan, S K

    2000-08-01

    MDM2, a critical element of cellular homeostasis mechanisms, is involved in complex interactions with important cell-cycle and stress-response regulators including p53. The mdm2-P2 promoter is a transcriptional target of p53. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mdm2-P2 transcripts and the status of the p53 gene in betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) to understand the mechanism of deregulation of MDM2 and p53 expression and their prognostic implications in oral tumorigenesis. Elevated levels of MDM2 proteins were observed in 11 of 25 (44%) oral hyperplastic lesions, nine of 15 (60%) dysplastic lesions, and 71 of 100 (71%) SCCs. The intriguing feature of the study was the identification and different subcellular localization of three isoforms of MDM2 (ie, 90 kd, 76 kd, and 57 kd) in oral SCCs and their correlation with p53 overexpression in each tumor. The hallmark of the study was the detection of mdm2-P2 transcripts in 12 of 20 oral SCCs overexpressing both MDM2 and p53 proteins while harboring wild-type p53 alleles. Furthermore, mdm2 amplification was an infrequent event in betel- and tobacco-associated oral tumorigenesis. The differential compartmentalization of the three isoforms of MDM2 suggests that each has a distinct function, potentially in the regulation of p53 and other gene products implicated in oral tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we report herein the first evidence suggesting that enhanced translation of mdm2-P2 transcripts (S-mdm2) may represent an important mechanism of overexpression and consequent stabilization and functional inactivation of wild-type p53 serving as an adverse prognosticator in betel- and tobacco-related oral cancer. The clinical significance of the functional inactivation of wild-type p53 by MDM2 is underscored by the significantly shorter median disease-free survival time (16 months) observed in p53/MDM2-positive cases as compared to those which did not show co-expression of

  13. Induction of MDM2-P2 Transcripts Correlates with Stabilized Wild-Type p53 in Betel- and Tobacco-Related Human Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ralhan, Ranju; Sandhya, Agarwal; Meera, Mathur; Bohdan, Wasylyk; Nootan, Shukla K.

    2000-01-01

    MDM2, a critical element of cellular homeostasis mechanisms, is involved in complex interactions with important cell-cycle and stress-response regulators including p53. The mdm2-P2 promoter is a transcriptional target of p53. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mdm2-P2 transcripts and the status of the p53 gene in betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) to understand the mechanism of deregulation of MDM2 and p53 expression and their prognostic implications in oral tumorigenesis. Elevated levels of MDM2 proteins were observed in 11 of 25 (44%) oral hyperplastic lesions, nine of 15 (60%) dysplastic lesions, and 71 of 100 (71%) SCCs. The intriguing feature of the study was the identification and different subcellular localization of three isoforms of MDM2 (ie, 90 kd, 76 kd, and 57 kd) in oral SCCs and their correlation with p53 overexpression in each tumor. The hallmark of the study was the detection of mdm2-P2 transcripts in 12 of 20 oral SCCs overexpressing both MDM2 and p53 proteins while harboring wild-type p53 alleles. Furthermore, mdm2 amplification was an infrequent event in betel- and tobacco-associated oral tumorigenesis. The differential compartmentalization of the three isoforms of MDM2 suggests that each has a distinct function, potentially in the regulation of p53 and other gene products implicated in oral tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we report herein the first evidence suggesting that enhanced translation of mdm2-P2 transcripts (S-mdm2) may represent an important mechanism of overexpression and consequent stabilization and functional inactivation of wild-type p53 serving as an adverse prognosticator in betel- and tobacco-related oral cancer. The clinical significance of the functional inactivation of wild-type p53 by MDM2 is underscored by the significantly shorter median disease-free survival time (16 months) observed in p53/MDM2-positive cases as compared to those which did not show co-expression of

  14. The p53 circuit board

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D.; Gallant-Behm, Corrie L.; Henry, Ryan E.; Fraikin, Jean-Luc; Espinosa, Joaquín M.

    2012-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is embedded in a large gene network controlling diverse cellular and organismal phenotypes. Multiple signaling pathways converge onto p53 activation, mostly by relieving the inhibitory effects of its repressors, MDM2 and MDM4. In turn, signals originating from increased p53 activity diverge into distinct effector pathways to deliver a specific cellular response to the activating stimuli. Much attention has been devoted to dissecting how the various input pathways trigger p53 activation and how the activity of the p53 protein itself can be modulated by a plethora of co-factors and post-translational modifications. In this review we will focus instead on the multiple configurations of the effector pathways. We will discuss how p53-generated signals are transmitted, amplified, resisted and eventually integrated by downstream gene circuits operating at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational level. We will also discuss how context-dependent variations in these gene circuits define the cellular response to p53 activation and how they may impact the clinical efficacy of p53-based targeted therapies. PMID:22333261

  15. Increased expression of SIRT2 is a novel marker of cellular senescence and is dependent on wild type p53 status.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Tarique; Khosla, Sanjeev; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2016-07-17

    Sirtuins (SIRT) belonging to the NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase III class of enzymes have emerged as master regulators of metabolism and longevity. However, their role in prevention of organismal aging and cellular senescence still remains controversial. In the present study, we now report upregulation of SIRT2 as a specific feature associated with stress induced premature senescence but not with either quiescence or cell death. Additionally, increase in SIRT2 expression was noted in different types of senescent conditions such as replicative and oncogene induced senescence using multiple cell lines. Induction of SIRT2 expression during senescence was dependent on p53 status as depletion of p53 by shRNA prevented its accumulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed the presence of p53 binding sites on the SIRT2 promoter suggesting its regulation by p53, which was also corroborated by the SEAP reporter assay. Overexpression or knockdown of SIRT2 had no effect on stress induced premature senescence, thereby indicating that SIRT2 increase is not a cause of senescence; rather it is an effect linked to senescence-associated changes. Overall, our results suggest SIRT2 as a promising marker of cellular senescence at least in cells with wild type p53 status. PMID:27229617

  16. Low Levels of p53 Protein and Chromatin Silencing of p53 Target Genes Repress Apoptosis in Drosophila Endocycling Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingqing; Mehrotra, Sonam; Ng, Wei Lun; Calvi, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is an important response to genotoxic stress that prevents oncogenesis. It is known that tissues can differ in their apoptotic response, but molecular mechanisms are little understood. Here, we show that Drosophila polyploid endocycling cells (G/S cycle) repress the apoptotic response to DNA damage through at least two mechanisms. First, the expression of all the Drosophila p53 protein isoforms is strongly repressed at a post-transcriptional step. Second, p53-regulated pro-apoptotic genes are epigenetically silenced in endocycling cells, preventing activation of a paused RNA Pol II by p53-dependent or p53-independent pathways. Over-expression of the p53A isoform did not activate this paused RNA Pol II complex in endocycling cells, but over-expression of the p53B isoform with a longer transactivation domain did, suggesting that dampened p53B protein levels are crucial for apoptotic repression. We also find that the p53A protein isoform is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in endocycling cells. In mitotic cycling cells, p53A was the only isoform expressed to detectable levels, and its mRNA and protein levels increased after irradiation, but there was no evidence for an increase in protein stability. However, our data suggest that p53A protein stability is regulated in unirradiated cells, which likely ensures that apoptosis does not occur in the absence of stress. Without irradiation, both p53A protein and a paused RNA pol II were pre-bound to the promoters of pro-apoptotic genes, preparing mitotic cycling cells for a rapid apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. Together, our results define molecular mechanisms by which different cells in development modulate their apoptotic response, with broader significance for the survival of normal and cancer polyploid cells in mammals. PMID:25211335

  17. Triptolide sensitizes AML cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via decrease of XIAP and p53-mediated increase of DR5.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bing Z; Mak, Duncan H; Schober, Wendy D; Dietrich, Martin F; Pinilla, Clemencia; Vassilev, Lyubomir T; Reed, John C; Andreeff, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are relatively resistant to tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We previously reported that triptolide, a potent anticancer agent from a Chinese herb, decreases XIAP in leukemic cells. We evaluated the combination of triptolide and TRAIL and found synergistic promotion of apoptosis in AML cells. XIAP-overexpressing U937 cells (U937XIAP) were more resistant to TRAIL than U937neo cells, and inhibition of XIAP with the small-molecule inhibitor 1396-11 enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis, implying XIAP as a resistance factor in AML. Furthermore, triptolide increased DR5 levels in OCI-AML3, while the DR5 increase was blunted in p53-knockdown OCI-AML3 and p53-mutated U937 cells, confirming a role for p53 in the regulation of DR5. In support of this finding, disruption of MDM2-p53 binding with subsequent increase in p53 levels by nutlin3a increased DR5 levels and sensitized OCI-AML3 cells to TRAIL. The combination of 1396-11 plus nutlin3a plus TRAIL was more effective than either the 1396-11 and TRAIL or nutlin3a and TRAIL combinations in OCI-AML3 cells, further supporting the role of triptolide as a sensitizer to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in part by independent modulation of XIAP expression and p53 signaling. Thus, the combination of triptolide and TRAIL may provide a novel strategy for treating AML by overcoming critical mechanisms of apoptosis resistance. PMID:18187663

  18. Transient stability of the helical pattern of region F19-L22 of the N-terminal domain of p53: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G

    2006-04-28

    Two molecular dynamics simulations of the region E17-N29 of p53 (p53(17-29)) at different temperatures were performed for a total time of 0.2 micros, to study the conformational landscape of this region. Previous studies have suggested that this region displays different structural motifs, such as helix of a double beta-turn, and that its secondary structure might be transiently stable. Interestingly, in this study it was found that the region F19-L25, and particularly its fragment F19-L22, display a stable, transient helical pattern at sub-microsecond periods. The region F19-L22, which contains one of the most important residues needed for the interaction of p53 with MDM2, seems to be formed and stabilized by the existence of one hydrophobic and one aromatic cluster. The main function of these clusters is to help their surrounding area to desolvate, to allow the hydrogen bond network, therefore favoring the formation of a stable helix. This preliminary study would be useful for a better understanding of the structure and function of the N-terminal domain of p53 and its implications for the control of different types of cancer. PMID:16530164

  19. CNOT3 contributes to early B cell development by controlling Igh rearrangement and p53 mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Morita, Masahiro; Hijikata, Atsushi; Fukuda-Yuzawa, Yoko; Adachi, Shungo; Isono, Kyoichi; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Natsume, Tohru; Fukao, Taro; Ohara, Osamu; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2015-08-24

    The CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex plays crucial roles in mRNA decay and translational repression induced by poly(A) tail shortening. Although the in vitro activities of each component of this complex have been well characterized, its in vivo role in immune cells remains unclear. Here we show that mice lacking the CNOT3 subunit of this complex, specifically in B cells, have a developmental block at the pro- to pre-B cell transition. CNOT3 regulated generation of germline transcripts in the VH region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, compaction of the locus, and subsequent Igh gene rearrangement and destabilized tumor suppressor p53 mRNA. The developmental defect in the absence of CNOT3 could be partially rescued by ablation of p53 or introduction of a pre-rearranged Igh transgene. Thus, our data suggest that the CCR4-NOT complex regulates B cell differentiation by controlling Igh rearrangement and destabilizing p53 mRNA. PMID:26238124

  20. P53 mutations in triple negative breast cancer upregulate endosomal recycling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) increasing its oncogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Iuliana; Lee, Annette; Vora, Reena; Budman, Daniel R

    2013-11-01

    There is no available targeted therapy for triple-negative or its more aggressive subtype, basal-like breast cancer. Multiple therapeutic strategies based on translational knowledge have not improved the treatment options for triple negative patients. As understanding of molecular pathways that drive tumor development is rapidly increasing, it is imperative to adapt our treatment strategies to perturbations in molecular pathways driving the malignant process. Basal-like breast cancers over-express EGFR (without mutations or EGFR gene amplifications) and have p53 mutations. While EGFR drives the malignant behavior in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), anti-EGFR therapies have fallen short of the expected results in clinical trials. Here we bring evidence that the less than optimal results of the anti-EGFR therapies may be explained in part by the increased potency of the EGFR signaling due to increased endosomal recycling. The functional connection between EGFR and endosomal trafficking in TNBC is mutant p53 found in the most aggressive forms of TNBC. Mutant p53 acquires oncogenic functions and binds p63 protein, a member of p53 family with tumor suppressor activities. In the absence of functional p63 there is an upregulation of endosomal recycling EGFR and integrin to the membrane with increased proinvasive abilities of cancer cells. Blocking endosomal trafficking combined with anti-EGFR treatments may result in better clinical outcomes in TNBC. PMID:23755891

  1. Allele Specific p53 Mutant Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Vazquez, Alexei; Levine, Arnold J.; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rescuing the function of mutant p53 protein is an attractive cancer therapeutic strategy. Using the NCI anticancer drug screen data, we identified two compounds from the thiosemicarbazone family that manifest increased growth inhibitory activity in mutant p53 cells, particularly for the p53R175 mutant. Mechanistic studies reveal that NSC319726 restores WT structure and function to the p53R175 mutant. This compound kills p53R172H knock-in mice with extensive apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in a 175-allele specific mutant p53 dependent manner. This activity depends upon the zinc ion chelating properties of the compound as well as redox changes. These data identify NSC319726 as a p53R175 mutant reactivator and as a lead compound for p53 targeted drug development. PMID:22624712

  2. Akt phosphorylates myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ), releases P-MAZ from the p53 promoter, and activates p53 transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ping; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2016-05-28

    The p53 protein is a cell cycle regulator. When the cell cycle progresses, p53 plays an important role in putting a brake on the G1 phase to prevent unwanted errors during cell division. Akt is a downstream kinase of receptor tyrosine kinase. Upon activation, Akt phorphorylates IKK that then phosphorylates IκB and releases NF-κB, leading to transcriptional activation of Dmp1. Dmp1 is a transcriptional activator of Arf. It has been known that oncogene activation stabilizes p53 through transcriptional activation of Arf, which then binds and inhibits Mdm2. In the current study, we show that myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ) is a transcriptional repressor of the p53 promoter. Akt phosphorylates MAZ at Thr385, and the phosphorylated MAZ is released from the p53 promoter, leading to transcriptional activation of p53, a new mechanism that contributes to increased p53 protein pool during oncogene activation. PMID:26902421

  3. The heme-p53 interaction: Linking iron metabolism to p53 signaling and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Sheng, Xiangpeng; Chang, ZeNan; Wu, Qian; Xie, Dong; Wang, Fudi; Hu, Ronggui

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported that heme binds to tumor suppressor p53 protein (TP53, best known as p53) and promotes its nuclear export and cytosolic degradation, whereas iron chelation stabilizes p53 protein and suppresses tumors in a p53-dependent manner. This not only provides mechanistic insights into tumorigenesis associated with iron excess, but also helps guide the administration of chemotherapy based on iron deprivation in the clinic. PMID:27308524

  4. The heme–p53 interaction: Linking iron metabolism to p53 signaling and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Sheng, Xiangpeng; Chang, ZeNan; Wu, Qian; Xie, Dong; Wang, Fudi; Hu, Ronggui

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported that heme binds to tumor suppressor p53 protein (TP53, best known as p53) and promotes its nuclear export and cytosolic degradation, whereas iron chelation stabilizes p53 protein and suppresses tumors in a p53-dependent manner. This not only provides mechanistic insights into tumorigenesis associated with iron excess, but also helps guide the administration of chemotherapy based on iron deprivation in the clinic. PMID:27308524

  5. Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  6. Mimulone-induced autophagy through p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway increases caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  7. Caught in the cross fire: p53 in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cooks, Tomer; Harris, Curtis C; Oren, Moshe

    2014-08-01

    The p53 transcription factor is a major tumor suppressor, whose diverse activities serve to ensure genome stability and inhibit neoplastic processes. In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that p53 also plays a broader role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, as well as contributing to tissue homeostasis in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. Chronic inflammation is a potential cancer-promoting condition, and as such is also within the radar of p53, which mounts a multifaceted attempt to prevent the escalation of chronic tissue imbalance into neoplasia. Recent understanding of the p53 pathway and other family members reveals a broad interaction with inflammatory elements such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokines, infectious agents and major immune-regulatory pathways like nuclear factor-kappaB. This complex cross talk is highly dependent on p53 status, as different p53 isoforms and p53 mutants can mediate different responses and even promote chronic inflammation and associated cancer, acting in the tumor cells as well as in the stromal and immune compartments. PMID:24942866

  8. Phosphorylation of p53: a Novel Pathway for p53 Inactivation in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Transformed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pise-Masison, Cynthia A.; Radonovich, Michael; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Appella, Ettore; Brady, John N.

    1998-01-01

    Inhibition of p53 function, through either mutation or interaction with viral or cellular transforming proteins, correlates strongly with the oncogenic potential. Only a small percentage of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-transformed cells carry p53 mutations, and mutated p53 genes have been found in only one-fourth of adult T-cell leukemia cases. In previous studies, we demonstrated that wild-type p53 is stabilized and transcriptionally inactive in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Further, the viral transcriptional activator Tax plays a role in both the stabilization and inactivation of p53 through a mechanism involving the first 52 amino acids of p53. Here we show for the first time that phosphorylation of p53 inactivates p53 by blocking its interaction with basal transcription factors. Using two-dimensional peptide mapping, we demonstrate that peptides corresponding to amino acids 1 to 19 and 387 to 393 are hyperphosphorylated in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Moreover, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated Ser15 and Ser392, we demonstrate increased phosphorylation of these amino acids. Since HTLV-1 p53 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner but fails to interact with TFIID, we tested whether phosphorylation of the N terminus of p53 affected p53-TFIID interaction. Using biotinylated peptides, we show that phosphorylation of Ser15 alone inhibits p53-TFIID interaction. In contrast, phosphorylation at Ser15 and -37 restores TFIID binding and blocks MDM2 binding. Our studies provide evidence that HTLV-1 utilizes the posttranslational modification of p53 in vivo to inactivate function of the tumor suppressor protein. PMID:9658074

  9. Renal cell carcinoma escapes death by p53 depletion through transglutaminase 2-chaperoned autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J H; Lee, J-S; Hong, D; Lee, S-H; Kim, N; Lee, W-K; Sung, T-W; Gong, Y-D; Kim, S-Y

    2016-01-01

    In renal cell carcinoma, transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) crosslinks p53 in autophagosomes, resulting in p53 depletion and the tumor's evasion of apoptosis. Inhibition of TGase 2 stabilizes p53 and induces tumor cells to enter apoptosis. This study explored the mechanism of TGase 2-dependent p53 degradation. We found that TGase 2 competes with human double minute 2 homolog (HDM2) for binding to p53; promotes autophagy-dependent p53 degradation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines under starvation; and binds to p53 and p62 simultaneously without ubiquitin-dependent recognition of p62. The bound complex does not have crosslinking activity. A binding assay using a series of deletion mutants of p62, p53 and TGase 2 revealed that the PB1 (Phox and Bem1p-1) domain of p62 (residues 85–110) directly interacts with the β-barrel domains of TGase 2 (residues 592–687), whereas the HDM2-binding domain (transactivation domain, residues 15–26) of p53 interacts with the N terminus of TGase 2 (residues 1–139). In addition to the increase in p53 stability due to TGase 2 inhibition, the administration of a DNA-damaging anti-cancer drug such as doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in RCC cell lines and synergistically reduced tumor volume in a xenograft model. Combination therapy with a TGase 2 inhibitor and a DNA-damaging agent may represent an effective therapeutic approach for treating RCC. PMID:27031960

  10. Renal cell carcinoma escapes death by p53 depletion through transglutaminase 2-chaperoned autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kang, J H; Lee, J-S; Hong, D; Lee, S-H; Kim, N; Lee, W-K; Sung, T-W; Gong, Y-D; Kim, S-Y

    2016-01-01

    In renal cell carcinoma, transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) crosslinks p53 in autophagosomes, resulting in p53 depletion and the tumor's evasion of apoptosis. Inhibition of TGase 2 stabilizes p53 and induces tumor cells to enter apoptosis. This study explored the mechanism of TGase 2-dependent p53 degradation. We found that TGase 2 competes with human double minute 2 homolog (HDM2) for binding to p53; promotes autophagy-dependent p53 degradation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines under starvation; and binds to p53 and p62 simultaneously without ubiquitin-dependent recognition of p62. The bound complex does not have crosslinking activity. A binding assay using a series of deletion mutants of p62, p53 and TGase 2 revealed that the PB1 (Phox and Bem1p-1) domain of p62 (residues 85-110) directly interacts with the β-barrel domains of TGase 2 (residues 592-687), whereas the HDM2-binding domain (transactivation domain, residues 15-26) of p53 interacts with the N terminus of TGase 2 (residues 1-139). In addition to the increase in p53 stability due to TGase 2 inhibition, the administration of a DNA-damaging anti-cancer drug such as doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in RCC cell lines and synergistically reduced tumor volume in a xenograft model. Combination therapy with a TGase 2 inhibitor and a DNA-damaging agent may represent an effective therapeutic approach for treating RCC. PMID:27031960

  11. Radiation response and cell cycle regulation of p53 rescued malignant keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Jongmans, Wim; Backendorf, Claude . E-mail: backendo@chem.leidenuniv.nl

    2005-10-15

    Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 were found in more than 90% of all human squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). To study the function of p53 in a keratinocyte background, a tetracycline-controlled p53 transgene was introduced into a human SCC cell line (SCC15), lacking endogenous p53. Conditional expression of wild-type p53 protein upon withdrawal of tetracycline was accompanied with increased expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} resulting in reduced cell proliferation. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that these cells were transiently arrested in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. However, when SCC15 cells expressing p53 were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), a clear shift from a G1/S to a G2/M cell cycle arrest was observed. This effect was greatly depending on the presence of wild-type p53, as it was not observed to the same extent in SCC15 cells lacking p53. Unexpectedly, the p53- and IR-dependent G2/M cell cycle arrest in the keratinocyte background was not depending on increased expression or stabilization of 14-3-3{sigma}, a p53-regulated effector of G2/M progression in colorectal cancer cells. In keratinocytes, 14-3-3{sigma} (stratifin) is involved in terminal differentiation and its cell cycle function in this cell type might diverge from the one it fulfills in other cellular backgrounds.

  12. The p53-dependent radioadaptive response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    We already reported that conditioning exposures at low doses, or at low dose-rates, lowered radiation-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells in vitro and in the spleens of mice in vivo. In this study, the aim was to characterize the p53-dependent radioadaptive response at the molecular level. We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 containing cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53-null. Cellular radiation sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. The accumulation of p53, Hdm2, and iNOS was analyzed with Western blotting. The quantification of chromosomal aberrations was estimated by scoring dicentrics per cell. In wtp53 cells, it was demonstrated that the lack of p53 accumulation was coupled with the activation of Hdm2 after low dose irradiation (0.02 Gy). Although NO radicals were only minimally induced in wtp53 cells irradiated with a challenging irradiation (6 Gy) alone, NO radicals were seen to increase about 2-4 fold after challenging irradiation following a priming irradiation (0.02 Gy). Under similar irradiation conditions with a priming and challenging irradiation in wtp53 cells, induction of radioresistance and a depression of chromosomal aberrations were observed only in the absence of Pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor), RITA or Nutlin-3 (p53-Hdm2 interaction inhibitors), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). On the other hand, in p53 dysfunctional cells, a radioadaptive response was not observed in the presence or absence of those inhibitors. Moreover, radioresistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of the radioadaptive response acting through the activation of Hdm2 and the depression of p53 accumulations.

  13. Targeting the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Cance, William G

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes data on translational studies to target the p53 pathway in cancer. It describes the functions of the p53 and Mdm-2 signaling pathways, and discusses current therapeutic approaches to target p53 pathways, including reactivation of p53. In addition, direct interaction and colocalization of the p53 and focal adhesion kinase proteins in cancer cells have been demonstrated, and different approaches to target this interaction are reviewed. This is a broad review of p53 function as it relates to the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of cancers. PMID:24012397

  14. P53 licensed to kill? Operating the assassin.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Susan; Louria-Hayon, Igal; Haupt, Ygal

    2003-01-01

    The p53 protein is a key player in the cellular response to stress. Proper regulation of p53 is imperative for the suppression of tumor development. This regulation is largely governed by its master inhibitor, Mdm2, which both blocks p53 activities and promotes its destabilization. This tight regulation of p53 by Mdm2 must be interrupted under stress conditions in order for p53 to be stabilized in an active form. A combined action of partner proteins and modifying enzymes is essential for the relief of p53 from Mdm2. The recent revelation of p53 association with the PML-nuclear bodies provides one explanation of how this regulatory network is coordinated within the nucleus in response to certain stress conditions. Thus, it is not only the nature of the p53 regulatory complex but also the spatial and temporal context of this association that governs the output inhibitory signals mediated by p53. PMID:12461776

  15. The E3 ubiquitin protein ligase HERC2 modulates the activity of tumor protein p53 by regulating its oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Amair-Pinedo, Fabiola; Peiró-Jordán, Roser; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2014-05-23

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that coordinates the cellular response to several kinds of stress. p53 inactivation is an important step in tumor progression. Oligomerization of p53 is critical for its posttranslational modification and its ability to regulate the transcription of target genes necessary to inhibit tumor growth. Here we report that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 interacts with p53. This interaction involves the CPH domain of HERC2 (a conserved domain within Cul7, PARC, and HERC2 proteins) and the last 43 amino acid residues of p53. Through this interaction, HERC2 regulates p53 activity. RNA interference experiments showed how HERC2 depletion reduces the transcriptional activity of p53 without affecting its stability. This regulation of p53 activity by HERC2 is independent of proteasome or MDM2 activity. Under these conditions, up-regulation of cell growth and increased focus formation were observed, showing the functional relevance of the HERC2-p53 interaction. This interaction was maintained after DNA damage caused by the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin. In these stressed cells, p53 phosphorylation was not impaired by HERC2 knockdown. Interestingly, p53 mutations that affect its tetramerization domain disrupted the HERC2-p53 interaction, suggesting a role for HERC2 in p53 oligomerization. This regulatory role was shown using cross-linking assays. Thus, the inhibition of p53 activity after HERC2 depletion can be attributed to a reduction in p53 oligomerization. Ectopic expression of HERC2 (residues 2292-2923) confirmed these observations. Together, these results identify HERC2 as a novel regulator of p53 signaling. PMID:24722987

  16. Metformin induces microRNA-34a to downregulate the Sirt1/Pgc-1α/Nrf2 pathway, leading to increased susceptibility of wild-type p53 cancer cells to oxidative stress and therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-09-01

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in cellular redox balance and resistance to oxidative stress. Sirt1 exhibits oncogenic properties in wild-type p53 cancer cells, whereas it acts as a tumor suppressor in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on Sirt1 expression in several cancer cell lines. Using human cancer cell lines that exhibit differential expression of p53, we found that metformin reduced Sirt1 protein levels in cancer cells bearing wild-type p53, but did not affect Sirt1 protein levels in cancer cell lines harboring mutant forms of p53. Metformin-induced p53 protein levels in wild-type p53 cancer cells resulted in upregulation of microRNA (miR)-34a. The use of a miR-34a inhibitor confirmed that metformin-induced miR-34a was required for Sirt1 downregulation. Metformin suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) expression and its downstream target Nrf2 in MCF-7 cells. Genetic tools demonstrated that the reduction of Sirt1 and Pgc-1α by metformin caused Nrf2 downregulation via suppression of PPARγ transcriptional activity. Metformin reduced heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase 2 but upregulated catalase expression in MCF-7 cells. Metformin-treated MCF-7 cells had no increase in basal levels of reactive oxygen species but were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Furthermore, upregulation of death receptor 5 by metformin-mediated Sirt1 downregulation enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type p53 cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that metformin induces miR-34a to suppress the Sirt1/Pgc-1α/Nrf2 pathway and increases susceptibility of wild-type p53 cancer cells to oxidative stress and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. PMID:24970682

  17. Supervillin-mediated Suppression of p53 Protein Enhances Cell Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiyou; Luna, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Integrin-based adhesions promote cell survival as well as cell motility and invasion. We show here that the adhesion regulatory protein supervillin increases cell survival by decreasing levels of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and downstream target genes. RNAi-mediated knockdown of a new splice form of supervillin (isoform 4) or both isoforms 1 and 4 increases the amount of p53 and cell death, whereas p53 levels decrease after overexpression of either supervillin isoform. Cellular responses to DNA damage induced by etoposide or doxorubicin include down-regulation of endogenous supervillin coincident with increases in p53. In DNA-damaged supervillin knockdown cells, p53 knockdown or inhibition partially rescues the loss of cell metabolic activity, a measure of cell proliferation. Knockdown of the p53 deubiquitinating enzyme USP7/HAUSP also reverses the supervillin phenotype, blocking the increase in p53 levels seen after supervillin knockdown and accentuating the decrease in p53 levels triggered by supervillin overexpression. Conversely, supervillin overexpression decreases the association of USP7 and p53 and attenuates USP7-mediated p53 deubiquitination. USP7 binds directly to the supervillin N terminus and can deubiquitinate and stabilize supervillin. Supervillin also is stabilized by derivatization with the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO1. These results show that supervillin regulates cell survival through control of p53 levels and suggest that supervillin and its interaction partners at sites of cell-substrate adhesion constitute a locus for cross-talk between survival signaling and cell motility pathways. PMID:23382381

  18. Structures of oncogenic, suppressor and rescued p53 core-domain variants: mechanisms of mutant p53 rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Wallentine, Brad D.; Wang, Ying; Tretyachenko-Ladokhina, Vira; Tan, Martha; Senear, Donald F.; Luecke, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined in order to gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which certain second-site suppressor mutations rescue the function of a significant number of cancer mutations of the tumor suppressor protein p53, X-ray crystallographic structures of four p53 core-domain variants were determined. These include an oncogenic mutant, V157F, two single-site suppressor mutants, N235K and N239Y, and the rescued cancer mutant V157F/N235K/N239Y. The V157F mutation substitutes a smaller hydrophobic valine with a larger hydrophobic phenylalanine within strand S4 of the hydrophobic core. The structure of this cancer mutant shows no gross structural changes in the overall fold of the p53 core domain, only minor rearrangements of side chains within the hydrophobic core of the protein. Based on biochemical analysis, these small local perturbations induce instability in the protein, increasing the free energy by 3.6 kcal mol{sup −1} (15.1 kJ mol{sup −1}). Further biochemical evidence shows that each suppressor mutation, N235K or N239Y, acts individually to restore thermodynamic stability to V157F and that both together are more effective than either alone. All rescued mutants were found to have wild-type DNA-binding activity when assessed at a permissive temperature, thus pointing to thermodynamic stability as the critical underlying variable. Interestingly, thermodynamic analysis shows that while N239Y demonstrates stabilization of the wild-type p53 core domain, N235K does not. These observations suggest distinct structural mechanisms of rescue. A new salt bridge between Lys235 and Glu198, found in both the N235K and rescued cancer mutant structures, suggests a rescue mechanism that relies on stabilizing the

  19. p53-directed translational control can shape and expand the universe of p53 target genes

    PubMed Central

    Zaccara, S; Tebaldi, T; Pederiva, C; Ciribilli, Y; Bisio, A; Inga, A

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of genome-wide transcriptome analyses focusing on p53-induced cellular responses in many cellular contexts keeps adding to the already numerous p53-regulated transcriptional networks. To investigate post-transcriptional controls as an additional dimension of p53-directed gene expression responses, we performed a translatome analysis through polysomal profiling on MCF7 cells upon 16 hours of doxorubicin or nutlin-3a treatment. The comparison between the transcriptome and the translatome revealed a considerable level of uncoupling, characterized by genes whose transcription variations did not correlate with translation variations. Interestingly, uncoupled genes were associated with apoptosis, DNA and RNA metabolism and cell cycle functions, suggesting that post-transcriptional control can modulate classical p53-regulated responses. Furthermore, even for well-established p53 targets that were differentially expressed both at the transcriptional and translational levels, quantitative differences between the transcriptome, subpolysomal and polysomal RNAs were evident. As we searched mechanisms underlying gene expression uncoupling, we identified the p53-dependent modulation of six RNA-binding proteins, where hnRNPD (AUF1) and CPEB4 are direct p53 transcriptional targets, whereas SRSF1, DDX17, YBX1 and TARDBP are indirect targets (genes modulated preferentially in the subpolysomal or polysomal mRNA level) modulated at the translational level in a p53-dependent manner. In particular, YBX1 translation appeared to be reduced by p53 via two different mechanisms, one related to mTOR inhibition and the other to miR-34a expression. Overall, we established p53 as a master regulator of translational control and identified new p53-regulated genes affecting translation that can contribute to p53-dependent cellular responses. PMID:24926617

  20. p53-directed translational control can shape and expand the universe of p53 target genes.

    PubMed

    Zaccara, S; Tebaldi, T; Pederiva, C; Ciribilli, Y; Bisio, A; Inga, A

    2014-10-01

    The increasing number of genome-wide transcriptome analyses focusing on p53-induced cellular responses in many cellular contexts keeps adding to the already numerous p53-regulated transcriptional networks. To investigate post-transcriptional controls as an additional dimension of p53-directed gene expression responses, we performed a translatome analysis through polysomal profiling on MCF7 cells upon 16 hours of doxorubicin or nutlin-3a treatment. The comparison between the transcriptome and the translatome revealed a considerable level of uncoupling, characterized by genes whose transcription variations did not correlate with translation variations. Interestingly, uncoupled genes were associated with apoptosis, DNA and RNA metabolism and cell cycle functions, suggesting that post-transcriptional control can modulate classical p53-regulated responses. Furthermore, even for well-established p53 targets that were differentially expressed both at the transcriptional and translational levels, quantitative differences between the transcriptome, subpolysomal and polysomal RNAs were evident. As we searched mechanisms underlying gene expression uncoupling, we identified the p53-dependent modulation of six RNA-binding proteins, where hnRNPD (AUF1) and CPEB4 are direct p53 transcriptional targets, whereas SRSF1, DDX17, YBX1 and TARDBP are indirect targets (genes modulated preferentially in the subpolysomal or polysomal mRNA level) modulated at the translational level in a p53-dependent manner. In particular, YBX1 translation appeared to be reduced by p53 via two different mechanisms, one related to mTOR inhibition and the other to miR-34a expression. Overall, we established p53 as a master regulator of translational control and identified new p53-regulated genes affecting translation that can contribute to p53-dependent cellular responses. PMID:24926617

  1. p53 and Mitochondrial Function in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David B.; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Morrison, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in dictating cell survival and death as a cellular sensor for a myriad of stresses including DNA damage, oxidative and nutritional stress, ischemia and disruption of nucleolar function. Activation of p53-dependent apoptosis leads to mitochondrial apoptotic changes via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways triggering cell death execution most notably by release of cytochrome c and activation of the caspase cascade. Although it was previously believed that p53 induces apoptotic mitochondrial changes exclusively through transcription-dependent mechanisms, recent studies suggest that p53 also regulates apoptosis via a transcription-independent action at the mitochondria. Recent evidence further suggests that p53 can regulate necrotic cell death and autophagic activity including mitophagy. An increasing number of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism and respiration are regulated by p53, which influences mitochondrial ROS production as well. Cellular redox homeostasis is also directly regulated by p53 through modified expression of pro- and anti-oxidant proteins. Proper regulation of mitochondrial size and shape through fission and fusion assures optimal mitochondrial bioenergetic function while enabling adequate mitochondrial transport to accommodate local energy demands unique to neuronal architecture. Abnormal regulation of mitochondrial dynamics has been increasingly implicated in neurodegeneration, where elevated levels of p53 may have a direct contribution as the expression of some fission/fusion proteins are directly regulated by p53. Thus, p53 may have a much wider influence on mitochondrial integrity and function than one would expect from its well-established ability to transcriptionally induce mitochondrial apoptosis. However, much of the evidence demonstrating that p53 can influence mitochondria through nuclear, cytosolic or intra-mitochondrial sites of action has yet to be

  2. High levels of p53 protein expression do not correlate with p53 gene mutations in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cesarman, E.; Inghirami, G.; Chadburn, A.; Knowles, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Strong immunohistochemical reactivity for p53 tumor suppressor gene product has been reported in a variety of different human malignancies including CD30- (Ki-1) positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Although high levels of p53 protein have been interpreted as abnormal, rapidly proliferating benign and neoplastic lymphoid cells may have increased p53 expression in the absence of structural alterations. On the other hand, mutations in the p53 gene can lead to a lack of p53 protein production. Structural alterations of the p53 gene have not been documented in cases of ALCL and the mechanism for an abnormal pattern of p53 expression in these lymphomas has not been elucidated. Therefore, to determine whether an altered pattern of p53 expression correlates with mutations in the p53 locus in ALCL, we analyzed the expression of p53 protein immunohistochemically, compared it with the proliferation index using monoclonal antibody Ki-67, and assessed the presence of mutations in exons 5 though 9 of the p53 gene using a single-strand conformation polymorphism assay in a panel of 17 ALCLs. Furthermore, we studied the presence of allelic deletions of chromosome 17p by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We found significant levels of p53 protein expression in 12 of the 15 cases studied, but identified mutations in only one of 17 cases. An allelic deletion in chromosome 17p was identified only in the one case containing a mutated p53 gene. Whereas the case containing structural alterations in the p53 gene did have strong p53 immunoreactivity, 11 cases that lacked p53 mutations in the regions examined also had significant levels of p53. Thus, our studies indicate that strong immunohistochemical reactivity for p53 is not a reliable indicator of the presence of structural alterations of p53 gene exons 5 through 9 in ALCL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8103295

  3. Expression of TP53 Isoforms p53β or p53γ Enhances Chemosensitivity in TP53null Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Silden, Elisabeth; Hjelle, Sigrun M.; Wergeland, Line; Sulen, André; Andresen, Vibeke; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe; Micklem, David R.; McCormack, Emmet; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore

    2013-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal truncated p53 alternative spliced isoforms, p53β and p53γ, are expressed at disparate levels in cancer and are suggested to influence treatment response and therapy outcome. However, their functional role in cancer remains to be elucidated. We investigated their individual functionality in the p53null background of cell lines H1299 and SAOS-2 by stable retroviral transduction or transient transfection. Expression status of p53β and p53γ protein was found to correlate with increased response to camptothecin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. Decreased DNA synthesis and clonogenicity in p53β and p53γ congenic H1299 was accompanied by increased p21(CIP1/WAF1), Bax and Mdm2 proteins. Chemotherapy induced p53 isoform degradation, most prominent for p53γ. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib substantially increased basal p53γ protein level, while the level of p53β protein was unaffected. Treatment with dicoumarol, a putative blocker of the proteasome-related NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase NQO1, effectively attenuated basal p53γ protein level in spite of bortezomib treatment. Although in vitro proliferation and clonogenicity assays indicated a weak suppressive effect by p53β and p53γ expression, studies of in vivo subcutaneous H1299 tumor growth demonstrated a significantly increased growth by expression of either p53 isoforms. This study suggests that p53β and p53γ share functionality in chemosensitizing and tumor growth enhancement but comprise distinct regulation at the protein level. PMID:23409163

  4. Expression of TP53 isoforms p53β or p53γ enhances chemosensitivity in TP53(null) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Silden, Elisabeth; Hjelle, Sigrun M; Wergeland, Line; Sulen, André; Andresen, Vibeke; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe; Micklem, David R; McCormack, Emmet; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore

    2013-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal truncated p53 alternative spliced isoforms, p53β and p53γ, are expressed at disparate levels in cancer and are suggested to influence treatment response and therapy outcome. However, their functional role in cancer remains to be elucidated. We investigated their individual functionality in the p53(null) background of cell lines H1299 and SAOS-2 by stable retroviral transduction or transient transfection. Expression status of p53β and p53γ protein was found to correlate with increased response to camptothecin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. Decreased DNA synthesis and clonogenicity in p53β and p53γ congenic H1299 was accompanied by increased p21((CIP1/WAF1)), Bax and Mdm2 proteins. Chemotherapy induced p53 isoform degradation, most prominent for p53γ. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib substantially increased basal p53γ protein level, while the level of p53β protein was unaffected. Treatment with dicoumarol, a putative blocker of the proteasome-related NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase NQO1, effectively attenuated basal p53γ protein level in spite of bortezomib treatment. Although in vitro proliferation and clonogenicity assays indicated a weak suppressive effect by p53β and p53γ expression, studies of in vivo subcutaneous H1299 tumor growth demonstrated a significantly increased growth by expression of either p53 isoforms. This study suggests that p53β and p53γ share functionality in chemosensitizing and tumor growth enhancement but comprise distinct regulation at the protein level. PMID:23409163

  5. Dynamics of Delayed p53 Mutations in Mice Given Whole-Body Irradiation at 8 Weeks

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kakihara, Hiroyo; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Imai, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing irradiation might induce delayed genotoxic effects in a p53-dependent manner. However, a few reports have shown a p53 mutation as a delayed effect of radiation. In this study, we investigated the p53 gene mutation by the translocation frequency in chromosome 11, loss of p53 alleles, p53 gene methylation, p53 nucleotide sequence, and p53 protein expression/phosphorylation in p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice after irradiation at a young age. Methods and Materials: p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup +/-} mice were exposed to 3 Gy of whole-body irradiation at 8 weeks of age. Chromosome instability was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. p53 allele loss was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and p53 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. p53 sequence analysis was performed. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: The translocation frequency in chromosome 11 showed a delayed increase after irradiation. In old irradiated mice, the number of mice that showed p53 allele loss and p53 methylation increased compared to these numbers in old non-irradiated mice. In two old irradiated p53{sup +/-} mice, the p53 sequence showed heteromutation. In old irradiated mice, the p53 and phospho-p53 protein expressions decreased compared to old non-irradiated mice. Conclusion: We concluded that irradiation at a young age induced delayed p53 mutations and p53 protein suppression.

  6. The combination of 5-fluorouracil plus p53 pathway restoration is associated with depletion of p53-deficient or mutant p53-expressing putative colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Catherine; Zhang, Xiang M; Tavaluc, Raluca T; Hart, Lori S; Dicker, David T; Wang, Wenge; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2009-11-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that rare populations of tumor-initiating cells may be resistant to therapy, lead to tumor relapse and contribute to poor prognosis for cancer patients. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of p53 pathway restoration in p53-deficient tumor cell populations using small molecules including ellipticine or its derivatives. We now establish a single cell p53-regulated green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-reporter system in human DLD1 colon tumor cells expressing mutant p53 protein. We use these p53-EGFP reporter DLD1 cells to investigate the status of p53 transcriptional activity in putative colon cancer stem cell populations following exposure to p53 pathway-restoring drugs and/or classical chemotherapy. We demonstrate induction of p53-specific EGFP reporter fluorescence following overexpression of p53 family member p73 by an Adenovirus vector. We further show that p53-reporter activity is induced in DLD1 putative cancer stem cell side-populations analyzed by their Hoechst dye efflux properties following treatment with the p53 pathway restoring drug ellipticine. Combination of ellipticine with the cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil resulted in increased cytotoxicity as compared to either agent alone and this was associated with depletion of putative cancer stem cell populations as compared with 5-FU alone treatment. Our results support the feasibility of therapeutic targeting of mutant p53 in putative cancer stem cells as well as the potential to enhance cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:19923910

  7. Graphene-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of phosphorylated p53 (S15)

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yunying; Chen, Aiqiong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-01

    We reported a graphene-based immunosensor for electrochemical quantification of phosphorylated p53 on serine 15 (phospho-p5315), a potential biomarker of gamma-radiation exposure. The principle is based on sandwich immunoassay and the resulting immunocomplex is formed among phospho-p53 capture antibody, phospho-p5315 antigen, biotinylated phospho-p5315 detection antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled streptavidin. The introduced HRP results in an electrocatalytic response to reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of thionine. Graphene served as sensor platform not only promotes electron transfer, but also increases the surface area to introduce a large amount of capture antibody, thus increasing the detection sensitivity. The experimental conditions including blocking agent, immunoreaction time and substrate concentration have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the increase of response current is proportional to the phospho-p5315 concentration in the range of 0.2–10 ng mL-1, with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL-1. The developed immunosensor exhibits acceptable stability and reproducibility and the assay results for phospho-p5315 are in good correlation with the known values. This easily fabricated immunosensor provides a new promising tool for analysis of phospho-p5315 and other phosphorylated proteins.

  8. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana T; Goos, Yvonne J; Pereboom, Tamara C; Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  9. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  10. NAT10 regulates p53 activation through acetylating p53 at K120 and ubiquitinating Mdm2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Tan, Yuqin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Liangliang; Ren, Pengwei; Deng, Hongkui; Luo, Jianyuan; Ke, Yang; Du, Xiaojuan

    2016-03-01

    As a genome guardian, p53 maintains genome stability by arresting cells for damage repair or inducing cell apoptosis to eliminate the damaged cells in stress response. Several nucleolar proteins stabilize p53 by interfering Mdm2-p53 interaction upon cellular stress, while other mechanisms by which nucleolar proteins activate p53 remain to be determined. Here, we identify NAT10 as a novel regulator for p53 activation. NAT10 acetylates p53 at K120 and stabilizes p53 by counteracting Mdm2 action. In addition, NAT10 promotes Mdm2 degradation with its intrinsic E3 ligase activity. After DNA damage, NAT10 translocates to nucleoplasm and activates p53-mediated cell cycle control and apoptosis. Finally, NAT10 inhibits cell proliferation and expression of NAT10 decreases in human colorectal carcinomas. Thus, our data demonstrate that NAT10 plays a critical role in p53 activation via acetylating p53 and counteracting Mdm2 action, providing a novel pathway by which nucleolar protein activates p53 as a cellular stress sensor. PMID:26882543

  11. p53 regulates the transcription of its Delta133p53 isoform through specific response elements contained within the TP53 P2 internal promoter.

    PubMed

    Marcel, V; Vijayakumar, V; Fernández-Cuesta, L; Hafsi, H; Sagne, C; Hautefeuille, A; Olivier, M; Hainaut, P

    2010-05-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 protein is activated by genotoxic stress and regulates genes involved in senescence, apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. Nine p53 isoforms have been described that may modulate suppressive functions of the canonical p53 protein. Among them, Delta133p53 lacks the 132 proximal residues and has been shown to modulate p53-induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. Delta133p53 is expressed from a specific mRNA, p53I4, driven by an alternative promoter P2 located between intron 1 and exon 5 of TP53 gene. Here, we report that the P2 promoter is regulated in a p53-dependent manner. Delta133p53 expression is increased in response to DNA damage by doxorubicin in p53 wild-type cell lines, but not in p53-mutated cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays using P2 promoter deletion constructs indicate that p53 binds functional response elements located within the P2 promoter. We also show that Delta133p53 does not bind specifically to p53 consensus DNA sequence in vitro, but competes with wild-type p53 in specific DNA-binding assays. Finally, we report that Delta133p53 counteracts p53-dependent growth suppression in clonogenic assays. These observations indicate that Delta133p53 is a novel target of p53 that may participate in a negative feedback loop controlling p53 function. PMID:20190805

  12. Epithelial cell-derived periostin functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer through stabilizing p53 and E-cadherin proteins via the Rb/E2F1/p14ARF/Mdm2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongjun; Liu, Rui; Fu, Jiao; Yang, Qi; Shi, Jing; Chen, Pu; Ji, Meiju; Shi, Bingyin; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Periostin is usually considered as an oncogene in diverse human cancers, including breast, prostate, colon, esophagus, and pancreas cancers, whereas it acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer. In gastric cancer, it has been demonstrated that periglandular periostin expression is decreased whereas stromal periostin expression is significantly increased as compared with normal gastric tissues. Moreover, periostin produced by stromal myofibroblasts markedly promotes gastric cancer cell growth. These observations suggest that periostin derived from different types of cells may play distinct biological roles in gastric tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the biological functions and related molecular mechanisms of epithelial cell-derived periostin in gastric cancer. Our data showed that periglandular periostin was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched normal gastric mucosa. In addition, its expression in metastatic lymph nodes was significantly lower than that in their primary cancer tissues. Our data also demonstrated that periglandular periostin expression was negatively associated with tumor stage. More importantly, restoration of periostin expression in gastric cancer cells dramatically suppressed cell growth and invasiveness. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved revealed that periostin restoration enhanced Rb phosphorylation and sequentially activated the transcription of E2F1 target gene p14(ARF), leading to Mdm2 inactivation and the stabilization of p53 and E-cadherin proteins. Strikingly, these effects of periostin were abolished upon Rb deletion. Collectively, we have for the first time demonstrated that epithelial cell-derived periostin exerts tumor-suppressor activities in gastric cancer through stabilizing p53 and E-cadherin proteins via the Rb/E2F1/p14(ARF)/Mdm2 signaling pathway. PMID:25486483

  13. Mutant p53: One, No One, and One Hundred Thousand

    PubMed Central

    Walerych, Dawid; Lisek, Kamil; Del Sal, Giannino

    2015-01-01

    Encoded by the mutated variants of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene, mutant p53 proteins are getting an increased experimental support as active oncoproteins promoting tumor growth and metastasis. p53 missense mutant proteins are losing their wild-type tumor suppressor activity and acquire oncogenic potential, possessing diverse transforming abilities in cell and mouse models. Whether various mutant p53s differ in their oncogenic potential has been a matter of debate. Recent discoveries are starting to uncover the existence of mutant p53 downstream programs that are common to different mutant p53 variants. In this review, we discuss a number of studies on mutant p53, underlining the advantages and disadvantages of alternative experimental approaches that have been used to describe the numerous mutant p53 gain-of-function activities. Therapeutic possibilities are also discussed, taking into account targeting either individual or multiple mutant p53 proteins in human cancer. PMID:26734571

  14. Watching the watcher: regulation of p53 by mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Aaron K; St Clair, Daret K

    2009-01-01

    p53 has been referred to as the ‘guardian of the genome’ because of its role in protecting the cell from DNA damage. p53 performs its duties by regulating cell-cycle progression and DNA repair and, in cases of irreparable DNA damage, by executing programmed cell death. Mitochondria are an important target of transcription-dependent and -independent actions of p53 to carry out the apoptotic function. However, increasing evidence suggests that p53 activity is regulated by mitochondria. Cellular insults that alter mitochondrial function can have important consequences on p53 activity. In light of these new findings, the following review focuses on p53/mitochondria connections, in particular how reactive oxygen species generated at mitochondria regulate p53 activity. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which mitochondria regulate p53 may have an impact on our understanding of the development and progression of many diseases, especially cancer. PMID:19243304

  15. Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 Enhances p53 Function and Represses Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Jeyran; Lock, Richard; Liu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) is a stress-induced p53-target gene whose expression is modulated by transcription factors such as p53, p73, and E2F1. TP53INP1 gene encodes two isoforms of TP53INP1 proteins, TP53INP1α and TP53INP1β, both of which appear to be key elements in p53 function. In association with homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2), TP53INP1 phosphorylates p53 protein at Serine-46. This enhances p53 protein stability and its transcriptional activity, leading to transcriptional activation of p53-target genes such as p21 and PIG3, cell growth arrest and apoptosis upon DNA damage stress. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of TP53INP1 indicate that TP53INP1 has an important role in cellular homeostasis and DNA damage response. Deficiency in TP53INP1 expression results in increased tumorigenesis, whereas TP53INP1 expression is repressed during early stages of cancer by factors such as miR-155. This review aims to summarize the roles of TP53INP1 in blocking tumor progression through p53-dependant and p53-independent pathways, as well as the elements which repress TP53INP1 expression, hence highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. PMID:23717325

  16. Cyclin G2 is a centrosome-associated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that influences microtubule stability and induces a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Arachchige Don, Aruni S.; Dallapiazza, Robert F.; Bennin, David A.; Brake, Tiffany; Cowan, Colleen E.; Horne, Mary C. . E-mail: mary-horne@uiowa.edu

    2006-12-10

    Cyclin G2 is an atypical cyclin that associates with active protein phosphatase 2A. Cyclin G2 gene expression correlates with cell cycle inhibition; it is significantly upregulated in response to DNA damage and diverse growth inhibitory stimuli, but repressed by mitogenic signals. Ectopic expression of cyclin G2 promotes cell cycle arrest, cyclin dependent kinase 2 inhibition and the formation of aberrant nuclei [Bennin, D. A., Don, A. S., Brake, T., McKenzie, J. L., Rosenbaum, H., Ortiz, L., DePaoli-Roach, A. A., and Horne, M. C. (2002). Cyclin G2 associates with protein phosphatase 2A catalytic and regulatory B' subunits in active complexes and induces nuclear aberrations and a G{sub 1}/S-phase cell cycle arrest. J Biol Chem 277, 27449-67]. Here we report that endogenous cyclin G2 copurifies with centrosomes and microtubules (MT) and that ectopic G2 expression alters microtubule stability. We find exogenous and endogenous cyclin G2 present at microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) where it colocalizes with centrosomal markers in a variety of cell lines. We previously reported that cyclin G2 forms complexes with active protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and colocalizes with PP2A in a detergent-resistant compartment. We now show that cyclin G2 and PP2A colocalize at MTOCs in transfected cells and that the endogenous proteins copurify with isolated centrosomes. Displacement of the endogenous centrosomal scaffolding protein AKAP450 that anchors PP2A at the centrosome resulted in the depletion of centrosomal cyclin G2. We find that ectopic expression of cyclin G2 induces microtubule bundling and resistance to depolymerization, inhibition of polymer regrowth from MTOCs and a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we determined that a 100 amino acid carboxy-terminal region of cyclin G2 is sufficient to both direct GFP localization to centrosomes and induce cell cycle inhibition. Colocalization of endogenous cyclin G2 with only one of two GFP-centrin-tagged centrioles

  17. A novel p53-binding domain in CUL7.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Jocelyn S; Arai, Takehiro; DeCaprio, James A

    2006-09-15

    CUL7 is a member of the cullin RING ligase family and forms an SCF-like complex with SKP1 and FBXW8. CUL7 is required for normal mouse embryonic development and cellular proliferation, and is highly homologous to PARC, a p53-associated, parkin-like cytoplasmic protein. We determined that CUL7, in a manner similar to PARC, can bind directly to p53 but does not affect p53 expression. We identified a discrete, co-linear domain in CUL7 that is conserved in PARC and HERC2, and is necessary and sufficient for p53-binding. The presence of p53 stabilized expression of this domain and we demonstrate that this p53-binding domain of CUL7 contributes to the cytoplasmic localization of CUL7. The results support the model that p53 plays a role in regulation of CUL7 activity. PMID:16875676

  18. A novel p53-binding domain in CUL7

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Jocelyn S.; Arai, Takehiro; De Caprio, James A. . E-mail: james_decaprio@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-09-15

    CUL7 is a member of the cullin RING ligase family and forms an SCF-like complex with SKP1 and FBXW8. CUL7 is required for normal mouse embryonic development and cellular proliferation, and is highly homologous to PARC, a p53-associated, parkin-like cytoplasmic protein. We determined that CUL7, in a manner similar to PARC, can bind directly to p53 but does not affect p53 expression. We identified a discrete, co-linear domain in CUL7 that is conserved in PARC and HERC2, and is necessary and sufficient for p53-binding. The presence of p53 stabilized expression of this domain and we demonstrate that this p53-binding domain of CUL7 contributes to the cytoplasmic localization of CUL7. The results support the model that p53 plays a role in regulation of CUL7 activity.

  19. Tumor suppressor protein Pdcd4 interacts with Daxx and modulates the stability of Daxx and the Hipk2-dependent phosphorylation of p53 at serine 46.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Wethkamp, N; Waters, L C; Carr, M D; Klempnauer, K-H

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein Pdcd4 is a nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling protein that has been implicated in the development of several types of human cancer. In the nucleus, Pdcd4 affects the transcription of specific genes by modulating the activity of several transcription factors. We have identified the Daxx protein as a novel interaction partner of Pdcd4. Daxx is a scaffold protein with roles in diverse processes, including transcriptional regulation, DNA-damage signaling, apoptosis and chromatin remodeling. We show that the interaction of both proteins is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Pdcd4 and the central part of Daxx, and that binding to Pdcd4 stimulates the degradation of Daxx, presumably by disrupting the interaction of Daxx with the de-ubiquitinylating enzyme Hausp. Daxx has previously been shown to serve as a scaffold for protein kinase Hipk2 and tumor suppressor protein p53 and to stimulate the phosphorylation of p53 at serine 46 (Ser-46) in response to genotoxic stress. We show that Pdcd4 also disrupts the Daxx-Hipk2 interaction and inhibits the phosphorylation of p53. We also show that ultraviolet irradiation decreases the expression of Pdcd4. Taken together, our results support a model in which Pdcd4 serves to suppress the phosphorylation of p53 in the absence of DNA damage, while the suppressive effect of Pdcd4 is abrogated after DNA damage owing to the decrease of Pdcd4. Overall, our data demonstrate that Pdcd4 is a novel modulator of Daxx function and provide evidence for a role of Pdcd4 in restraining p53 activity in unstressed cells. PMID:23536002

  20. Cellular adaptation to hypoxia and p53 transcription regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Xue-qun; Du, Ji-zeng

    2009-05-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human tumors. Meanwhile, under stress conditions, p53 also acts as a transcription factor, regulating the expression of a series of target genes to maintain the integrity of genome. The target genes of p53 can be classified into genes regulating cell cycle arrest, genes involved in apoptosis, and genes inhibiting angiogenesis. p53 protein contains a transactivation domain, a sequence-specific DNA binding domain, a tetramerization domain, a non-specific DNA binding domain that recognizes damaged DNA, and a later identified proline-rich domain. Under stress, p53 proteins accumulate and are activated through two mechanisms. One, involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM), is that the interaction between p53 and its down-regulation factor murine double minute 2 (MDM2) decreases, leading to p53 phosphorylation on Ser15, as determined by the post-translational mechanism; the other holds that p53 increases and is activated through the binding of ribosomal protein L26 (RPL26) or nucleolin to p53 mRNA 5( untranslated region (UTR), regulating p53 translation. Under hypoxia, p53 decreases transactivation and increases transrepression. The mutations outside the DNA binding domain of p53 also contribute to tumor progress, so further studies on p53 should also be focused on this direction. The subterranean blind mole rat Spalax in Israel is a good model for hypoxia-adaptation. The p53 of Spalax mutated in residue 172 and residue 207 from arginine to lysine, conferring it the ability to survive hypoxic conditions. This model indicates that p53 acts as a master gene of diversity formation during evolution. PMID:19434769

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and depsipeptide sensitize retinoblastoma cells to radiotherapy by increasing H2AX phosphorylation and p53 acetylation-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takeshi; Akiyama, Masaharu; Agawa-Ohta, Miyuki; Mikami-Terao, Yoko; Iwase, Satsuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Ida, Hiroyuki; Agata, Naoki; Yamada, Hisashi

    2010-10-01

    Although p53 is intact in most cases of retinoblastoma, it is largely inactivated by the ubiqutin-proteasome system through interaction with murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and murine double minute X (MDMX). The present study showed that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and depsipeptide (FK228) synergistically enhanced ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis, associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in Y79 and WER1-Rb1 human retinoblastoma cells. Both VPA and FK228 enhanced IR-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 preceding apoptosis. Exposure of cells to IR in the presence of VPA or FK228 induced the accumulation of p53 acetylated at Lys382 and phosphorylated at Ser46 through the reduction of binding affinity with MDM2 and MDMX. These results suggest that acetylation of p53 by HDAC inhibitors is a promising new therapeutic target in refractory retinoblastoma. PMID:20811699

  2. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK3β) Binds to and Promotes the Actions of p53*

    PubMed Central

    Watcharasit, Piyajit; Bijur, Gautam N.; Song, Ling; Zhu, Jianhui; Chen, Xinbin; Jope, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    The recent discovery of direct interactions between two important regulators of cell fate, the tumor suppressor p53 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), led us to examine the mechanism and outcomes of this interaction. Two regions of p53 were identified that regulate its binding to GSK3β. Deletion of the p53 activation domain-1 (AD1), but not mutations that prevent MDM2 binding through the AD1 domain, enhanced GSK3β binding to p53, indicating that the AD1 domain interferes with p53 binding to GSK3β. Deletion of the p53 basic domain (BD) abrogated GSK3β binding, and a ten amino acid region within the C-terminal BD domain was identified as necessary for binding to GSK3β. GSK3β activity was not required for p53 binding, but inhibition of GSK3β stabilized the association, suggesting a transient interaction during which active GSK3β promotes actions of p53. This regulatory role of GSK3β was demonstrated by large reductions of p53-induced increases in the levels of MDM2, p21, and Bax when GSK3β was inhibited. Besides promoting p53-mediated transcription, GSK3β also contributed to mitochondrial p53 apoptotic signaling. After DNA damage, mitochondrial GSK3β co-immunoprecipitated with p53 and was activated, and inhibition of GSK3β blocked cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Thus, GSK3β interacts with p53 in both the nucleus and mitochondria and promotes its actions at both sites. PMID:14523002

  3. A High-Throughput Cell-Based Screen Identified a 2-[(E)-2-Phenylvinyl]-8-Quinolinol Core Structure That Activates p53.

    PubMed

    Bechill, John; Zhong, Rong; Zhang, Chen; Solomaha, Elena; Spiotto, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    p53 function is frequently inhibited in cancer either through mutations or by increased degradation via MDM2 and/or E6AP E3-ubiquitin ligases. Most agents that restore p53 expression act by binding MDM2 or E6AP to prevent p53 degradation. However, fewer compounds directly bind to and activate p53. Here, we identified compounds that shared a core structure that bound p53, caused nuclear localization of p53 and caused cell death. To identify these compounds, we developed a novel cell-based screen to redirect p53 degradation to the Skip-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex in cells expressing high levels of p53. In a multiplexed assay, we coupled p53 targeted degradation with Rb1 targeted degradation in order to identify compounds that prevented p53 degradation while not inhibiting degradation through the SCF complex or other proteolytic machinery. High-throughput screening identified several leads that shared a common 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that stabilized p53. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that these compounds bound p53 with a KD of 200 ± 52 nM. Furthermore, these compounds increased p53 nuclear localization and transcription of the p53 target genes PUMA, BAX, p21 and FAS in cancer cells. Although p53-null cells had a 2.5±0.5-fold greater viability compared to p53 wild type cells after treatment with core compounds, loss of p53 did not completely rescue cell viability suggesting that compounds may target both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to inhibit cell proliferation. Thus, we present a novel, cell-based high-throughput screen to identify a 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that bound to p53 and increased p53 activity in cancer cells. These compounds may serve as anti-neoplastic agents in part by targeting p53 as well as other potential pathways. PMID:27124407

  4. A High-Throughput Cell-Based Screen Identified a 2-[(E)-2-Phenylvinyl]-8-Quinolinol Core Structure That Activates p53

    PubMed Central

    Bechill, John; Zhong, Rong; Zhang, Chen; Solomaha, Elena

    2016-01-01

    p53 function is frequently inhibited in cancer either through mutations or by increased degradation via MDM2 and/or E6AP E3-ubiquitin ligases. Most agents that restore p53 expression act by binding MDM2 or E6AP to prevent p53 degradation. However, fewer compounds directly bind to and activate p53. Here, we identified compounds that shared a core structure that bound p53, caused nuclear localization of p53 and caused cell death. To identify these compounds, we developed a novel cell-based screen to redirect p53 degradation to the Skip-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex in cells expressing high levels of p53. In a multiplexed assay, we coupled p53 targeted degradation with Rb1 targeted degradation in order to identify compounds that prevented p53 degradation while not inhibiting degradation through the SCF complex or other proteolytic machinery. High-throughput screening identified several leads that shared a common 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that stabilized p53. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that these compounds bound p53 with a KD of 200 ± 52 nM. Furthermore, these compounds increased p53 nuclear localization and transcription of the p53 target genes PUMA, BAX, p21 and FAS in cancer cells. Although p53-null cells had a 2.5±0.5-fold greater viability compared to p53 wild type cells after treatment with core compounds, loss of p53 did not completely rescue cell viability suggesting that compounds may target both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to inhibit cell proliferation. Thus, we present a novel, cell-based high-throughput screen to identify a 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that bound to p53 and increased p53 activity in cancer cells. These compounds may serve as anti-neoplastic agents in part by targeting p53 as well as other potential pathways. PMID:27124407

  5. Overexpression of p53 mRNA in colorectal cancer and its relationship to p53 gene mutation.

    PubMed Central

    el-Mahdani, N.; Vaillant, J. C.; Guiguet, M.; Prévot, S.; Bertrand, V.; Bernard, C.; Parc, R.; Béréziat, G.; Hermelin, B.

    1997-01-01

    We analysed the frequency of p53 mRNA overexpression in a series of 109 primary colorectal carcinomas and its association with p53 gene mutation, which has been correlated with short survival. Sixty-nine of the 109 cases (63%) demonstrated p53 mRNA overexpression, without any correlation with stage or site of disease. Comparison with p53 gene mutation indicated that, besides cases in which p53 gene mutation and p53 mRNA overexpression were either both present (40 cases) or both absent (36 cases), there were also cases in which p53 mRNA was overexpressed in the absence of any mutation (29 cases) and those with a mutant gene in which the mRNA was not overexpressed (four cases). Moreover, the mutant p53 tumours exhibited an increase of p53 mRNA expression, which was significantly higher in tumours expressing the mutated allele alone than in tumours expressing both wild- and mutated-type alleles. These data (1) show that p53 mRNA overexpression is a frequent event in colorectal tumours and is not predictive of the status of the gene, i.e. whether or not a mutation is present; (2) provide further evidence that p53 protein overexpression does not only result from an increase in the half-life of mutated p53 and suggest that inactivation of the p53 function in colorectal cancers involves at least two distinct mechanisms, including p53 overexpression and/or mutation; and (3) suggest that p53 mRNA overexpression is an early event, since it is not correlated with Dukes stage. PMID:9052405

  6. p53 and rapamycin are additive

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Judith; Huang, Jing; Jones, Diane; Dodds, Sherry G.; Williams, Charnae; Hubbard, Gene; Livi, Carolina B.; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan; Curiel, Tyler; Sharp, Z. Dave; Hasty, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase found in a complex (mTORC1) that enables macromolecular synthesis and cell growth and is implicated in cancer etiology. The rapamycin-FK506 binding protein 12 (FKBP12) complex allosterically inhibits mTORC1. In response to stress, p53 inhibits mTORC1 through a separate pathway involving cell signaling and amino acid sensing. Thus, these different mechanisms could be additive. Here we show that p53 improved the ability of rapamycin to: 1) extend mouse life span, 2) suppress ionizing radiation (IR)-induced senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and 3) increase the levels of amino acids and citric acid in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. This additive effect could have implications for cancer treatment since rapamycin and p53 are anti-oncogenic. PMID:26158292

  7. Novel small molecule induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Eun; Min, Yong Ki; Ha, Jae Du; Kim, Bum Tae; Lee, Woo Ghil . E-mail: bigguy@krict.re.kr

    2007-07-06

    Using high-throughput screening with small-molecule libraries, we identified a compound, KCG165 [(2-(3-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy)-1,10b-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c] quinazolin-5(6H)-one)], which strongly activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity. KCG165-induced phosphorylations of p53 at Ser{sup 6}, Ser{sup 15}, and Ser{sup 20}, which are all key residues involved in the activation and stabilization of p53. Consistent with these findings, KCG165 increased level of p53 protein and led to the accumulation of transcriptionally active p53 in the nucleus with the increased occupancy of p53 in the endogenous promoter region of its downstream target gene, p21{sup WAF1/CIP}. Notably, KCG165-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, we suggested topoisomerase II as the molecular target of KCG165. Together, these results indicate that KCG165 may have potential applications as an antitumor agent.

  8. Intestinal Dysplasia Induced by Simian Virus 40 T Antigen Is Independent of p53

    PubMed Central

    Markovics, Jennifer A.; Carroll, Patrick A.; Robles, M. Teresa Sáenz; Pope, Hannah; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Pipas, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing simian virus 40 large T antigen in enterocytes develop intestinal hyperplasia that progresses to dysplasia with age. Hyperplasia is dependent on T antigen binding to the retinoblastoma (pRb) family of tumor suppressor proteins. Mice expressing a truncated T antigen that inactivates the pRb-family, but is defective for binding p53, exhibit hyperplasia but do not progress to dysplasia. We hypothesized that the inhibition of the pRb family leads to entry of enterocytes into the cell cycle, resulting in hyperplasia, while inactivation of p53 is required for progression to dysplasia. Therefore, we examined T antigen/p53 complexes from the intestines of transgenic mice. We found that T antigen did not induce p53 stabilization, and we could not detect T antigen/p53 complexes in villus enterocytes. In contrast, T antigen expression led to a large increase in the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, mice in which pRb was inactivated by a truncated T antigen in a p53 null background exhibited intestinal hyperplasia but no progression to dysplasia. These data indicate that loss of p53 function does not play a role in T antigen-induced dysplasia in the intestine. Rather, some unknown function of T antigen is essential for progression beyond hyperplasia. PMID:15919904

  9. p53: Guardian of Ploidy

    PubMed Central

    Aylon, Yael; Oren, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Aneuploidy, often preceded by tetraploidy, is one of the hallmarks of solid tumors. Indeed, both aneuploidy and tetraploidy are oncogenic occurrences that are sufficient to drive neoplastic transformation and cancer progression. True to form, the tumor suppressor p53 obstructs propagation of these dangerous chromosomal events by either instigating irreversible cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. The tumor suppressor Lats2, along with other tumor inhibitory proteins such as BRCA1/2 and BubR1, are central to p53-dependent elimination of tetraploid cells. Not surprisingly, these proteins are frequently inactivated or downregulated in tumors, synergizing with p53 inactivation to establish an atmosphere of “tolerance” for a nondiploid state. PMID:21852209

  10. HAUSP-nucleolin interaction is regulated by p53-Mdm2 complex in response to DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Park, Jang-Joon; Gu, Bon-Hee; Kim, Jin-Ock; Park, Sang Gyu; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    HAUSP (herpes virus-associated ubiquitin specific protease, known as ubiquitin specific protease 7), one of DUBs, regulates the dynamics of the p53 and Mdm2 network in response to DNA damage by deubiquitinating both p53 and its E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2. Its concerted action increases the level of functional p53 by preventing proteasome-dependent degradation of p53. However, the protein substrates that are targeted by HAUSP to mediate DNA damage responses in the context of the HAUSP-p53-Mdm2 complex are not fully identified. Here, we identified nucleolin as a new substrate for HAUSP by proteomic analysis. Nucleolin has two HAUSP binding sites in its N- and C-terminal regions, and the mutation of HAUSP interacting peptides on nucleolin disrupts their interaction and it leads to the increased level of nucleolin ubiquitination. In addition, HAUSP regulates the stability of nucleolin by removing ubiquitin from nucleolin. Nucleolin exists as a component of the HAUSP-p53-Mdm2 complex, and both Mdm2 and p53 are required for the interaction between HAUSP and nucleolin. Importantly, the irradiation increases the HAUSP-nucleolin interaction, leading to nucleolin stabilization significantly. Taken together, this study reveals a new component of the HAUSP-p53-Mdm2 complex that governs dynamic cellular responses to DNA damage. PMID:26238070

  11. HAUSP-nucleolin interaction is regulated by p53-Mdm2 complex in response to DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Park, Jang-Joon; Gu, Bon-Hee; Kim, Jin-Ock; Park, Sang Gyu; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    HAUSP (herpes virus-associated ubiquitin specific protease, known as ubiquitin specific protease 7), one of DUBs, regulates the dynamics of the p53 and Mdm2 network in response to DNA damage by deubiquitinating both p53 and its E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mdm2. Its concerted action increases the level of functional p53 by preventing proteasome-dependent degradation of p53. However, the protein substrates that are targeted by HAUSP to mediate DNA damage responses in the context of the HAUSP-p53-Mdm2 complex are not fully identified. Here, we identified nucleolin as a new substrate for HAUSP by proteomic analysis. Nucleolin has two HAUSP binding sites in its N- and C-terminal regions, and the mutation of HAUSP interacting peptides on nucleolin disrupts their interaction and it leads to the increased level of nucleolin ubiquitination. In addition, HAUSP regulates the stability of nucleolin by removing ubiquitin from nucleolin. Nucleolin exists as a component of the HAUSP-p53-Mdm2 complex, and both Mdm2 and p53 are required for the interaction between HAUSP and nucleolin. Importantly, the irradiation increases the HAUSP-nucleolin interaction, leading to nucleolin stabilization significantly. Taken together, this study reveals a new component of the HAUSP-p53-Mdm2 complex that governs dynamic cellular responses to DNA damage. PMID:26238070

  12. Immunohistochemical Determination of p53 Protein Overexpression for Predicting p53 Gene Mutations in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Miao; Liu, Dechun; Ma, Qingyong; Feng, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether increased expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 indicates a p53 gene mutation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether p53 protein overexpression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) offers a diagnostic prediction for p53 gene mutations in HCC patients. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted with an end date of December 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of IHC-determined p53 protein overexpression in the prediction of p53 gene mutations in HCC. Sensitivity, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were also conducted. Results Thirty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the overall sensitivity and specificity for IHC-determined p53 overexpression in the diagnostic prediction of p53 mutations in HCC were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80–0.86) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.71–0.76), respectively. The summary positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 2.65 (95% CI: 2.21–3.18) and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.26–0.50), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of IHC-determined p53 overexpression in predicting p53 mutations ranged from 0.56 to 105.00 (pooled, 9.77; 95% CI: 6.35–15.02), with significant heterogeneity between the included studies (I2 = 40.7%, P = 0.0067). Moreover, subgroup and sensitivity analyses did not alter the results of the meta-analysis. However, potential publication bias was present in the current meta-analysis. Conclusion The upregulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 was indeed linked to p53 gene mutations. IHC determination of p53 overexpression can predict p53 gene mutations in HCC patients. PMID:27428001

  13. p53: a molecular marker for the detection of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Mark T; Vlatkovic, Nikolina

    2013-01-01

    Background The p53 gene is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer and accordingly has been the subject of intensive investigation for almost 30 years. Loss of p53 function due to mutations has been unequivocally demonstrated to promote cancer in both humans and in model systems. As a consequence, there exists an enormous body of information regarding the function of normal p53 in biology and the pathobiological consequences of p53 mutation. It has long been recognised that analysis of p53 has considerable potential as a tool for use in both diagnostic and, to a greater extent, prognostic settings and some significant progress has been made in both of these arenas. Objective To provide an overview of the biology of p53, particularly in the context of uses of p53 as a diagnostic tool. Methods A literature review focused upon the methods and uses of p53 analysis in the diagnosis of sporadic cancers, rare genetic disorders and in detection of residual disease. Conclusion p53 is currently an essential diagnostic for the rare inherited cancer prone syndrome (Li-Fraumeni) and is an important diagnostic in only a limited number of settings in sporadic disease. Research in specific cancers indicates that the uses of increasingly well informed p53 mutational analysis are likely to expand to other cancers. PMID:23495923

  14. p53 isoform profiling in glioblastoma and injured brain

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Rie; Giannini, Caterina; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Schroeder, Mark; Rogers, Joseph; Mastroeni, Diego; Scrable, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 has been found to be the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers; however, the frequency of p53 mutations varies from 10–70% across different cancer types. This variability can partly be explained by inactivating mechanisms aside from direct genomic polymorphisms. The p53 gene encodes 12 isoforms, which have been shown to modulate full-length p53 activity in cancer. In this study, we characterized p53 isoform expression patterns in glioblastoma, gliosis, non-tumor brain, and neural progenitor cells by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot, mass spectrometry, and RT-PCR. At the protein level, we found that the most consistently expressed isoform in glioblastoma, Δ40p53, was uniquely expressed in regenerative processes, such as those involving neural progenitor cells and gliosis compared to tumor samples. Isoform profiling of glioblastoma tissues revealed the presence of both Δ40p53 and full-length p53, neither of which were detected in non-tumor cerebral cortex. Upon xenograft propagation of tumors, p53 levels increased. The variability of overall p53 expression and relative levels of isoforms suggest fluctuations in subpopulations of cells with greater or lesser capacity for proliferation, which can change as the tumor evolves under different growth conditions. PMID:22824800

  15. [Punish or cherish: p53, metabolism and tumor suppression].

    PubMed

    Albagli, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The p53 gene is essential for tumor suppression, but how it does so remains unclear. Upon genotoxic or oncogenic stresses, increased p53 activity induces transient cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis, the three cornerstones of the so-called triumvirate. Accordingly, it has long been thought that p53 suppresses tumorigenesis by somehow counteracting cell proliferation or survival. However, several recently described genetically modified mice indicate that p53 can suppress tumorigenesis without triggering these three responses. Rather, as an important mechanism for tumor suppression, these mutant mice point to the ability of p53 to prevent the Warburg effect, that is to dampen glycolysis and foster mitochondrial respiration. Interestingly, these metabolic functions of p53 rely, in part, on its "unstressed" (basal) expression, a feature shared by its mechanistically linked anti-oxydant function. Together, these "conservative" activities of p53 may prevent tumor initiation by promoting and maintaining a normal oxidative metabolism and hence underly the "daily" tumor suppression by p53 in most cells. Conversely, destructive activities elicited by high p53 levels and leading to senescence or apoptosis provide a shield against partially or overtly transformed cells. This last situation, although relatively infrequent throughout life, is usual in experimental settings, which could explain the disproportionally high number of data implicating the triumvirate in tumor suppression by p53. PMID:26481026

  16. Transcription factors that interact with p53 and Mdm2.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A; Frazier, Donna P

    2016-04-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is activated upon cellular stresses such as DNA damage, oncogene activation, hypoxia, which transactivates sets of genes that induce DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or autophagy, playing crucial roles in the prevention of tumor formation. The central regulator of the p53 pathway is Mdm2 which inhibits transcriptional activity, nuclear localization and protein stability. More than 30 cellular p53-binding proteins have been isolated and characterized including Mdm2, Mdm4, p300, BRCA1/2, ATM, ABL and 53BP-1/2. Most of them are nuclear proteins; however, not much is known about p53-binding transcription factors. In this review, we focus on transcription factors that directly interact with p53/Mdm2 through direct binding including Dmp1, E2F1, YB-1 and YY1. Dmp1 and YB-1 bind only to p53 while E2F1 and YY1 bind to both p53 and Mdm2. Dmp1 has been shown to bind to p53 and block all the known functions for Mdm2 on p53 inhibition, providing a secondary mechanism for tumor suppression in Arf-null cells. Although E2F1-p53 binding provides a checkpoint mechanism to silence hyperactive E2F1, YB-1 or YY1 interaction with p53 subverts the activity of p53, contributing to cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. Thus, the modes and consequences for each protein-protein interaction vary from the viewpoint of tumor development and suppression. PMID:26132471

  17. p53 in the DNA-Damage-Repair Process.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ashley B; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The cells in the human body are continuously challenged by a variety of genotoxic attacks. Erroneous repair of the DNA can lead to mutations and chromosomal aberrations that can alter the functions of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, thus causing cancer development. As a central tumor suppressor, p53 guards the genome by orchestrating a variety of DNA-damage-response (DDR) mechanisms. Already early in metazoan evolution, p53 started controlling the apoptotic demise of genomically compromised cells. p53 plays a prominent role as a facilitator of DNA repair by halting the cell cycle to allow time for the repair machineries to restore genome stability. In addition, p53 took on diverse roles to also directly impact the activity of various DNA-repair systems. It thus appears as if p53 is multitasking in providing protection from cancer development by maintaining genome stability. PMID:27048304

  18. DNA damage-induced regulatory interplay between DAXX, p53, ATM kinase and Wip1 phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Brazina, Jan; Svadlenka, Jan; Macurek, Libor; Andera, Ladislav; Hodny, Zdenek; Bartek, Jiri; Hanzlikova, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Death domain-associated protein 6 (DAXX) is a histone chaperone, putative regulator of apoptosis and transcription, and candidate modulator of p53-mediated gene expression following DNA damage. DAXX becomes phosphorylated upon DNA damage, however regulation of this modification, and its relationship to p53 remain unclear. Here we show that in human cells exposed to ionizing radiation or genotoxic drugs etoposide and neocarzinostatin, DAXX became rapidly phosphorylated in an ATM kinase-dependent manner. Our deletion and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identified Serine 564 (S564) as the dominant ATM-targeted site of DAXX, and immunofluorescence experiments revealed localization of S564-phosphorylated DAXX to PML nuclear bodies. Furthermore, using a panel of human cell types, we identified the p53-regulated Wip1 protein phosphatase as a key negative regulator of DAXX phosphorylation at S564, both in vitro and in cells. Consistent with the emerging oncogenic role of Wip1, its DAXX-dephosphorylating impact was most apparent in cancer cell lines harboring gain-of-function mutant and/or overexpressed Wip1. Unexpectedly, while Wip1 depletion increased DAXX phosphorylation both before and after DNA damage and increased p53 stability and transcriptional activity, knock-down of DAXX impacted neither p53 stabilization nor p53-mediated expression of Gadd45a, Noxa, Mdm2, p21, Puma, Sesn2, Tigar or Wip1. Consistently, analyses of cells with genetic, TALEN-mediated DAXX deletion corroborated the notion that neither phosphorylated nor non-phosphorylated DAXX is required for p53-mediated gene expression upon DNA damage. Overall, we identify ATM kinase and Wip1 phosphatase as opposing regulators of DAXX-S564 phosphorylation, and propose that the role of DAXX phosphorylation and DAXX itself are independent of p53-mediated gene expression. PMID:25659035

  19. TRIM24 Is a p53-Induced E3-Ubiquitin Ligase That Undergoes ATM-Mediated Phosphorylation and Autodegradation during DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinav K.; Allton, Kendra; Duncan, Aundrietta D.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 protects cells from genomic insults and is a target of mutation in more than 50% of human cancers. Stress-mediated modification and increased stability of p53 promote p53 interaction with chromatin, which results in transcription of target genes that are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We recently discovered that TRIM24, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinates and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Here, we show that TRIM24 is destabilized by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of TRIM24S768 in response to DNA damage, which disrupts TRIM24-p53 interactions and promotes the degradation of TRIM24. Transcription of TRIM24 is directly induced by damage-activated p53, which binds p53 response elements and activates expression of TRIM24. Newly synthesized TRIM24 interacts with phosphorylated p53 to target it for degradation and termination of the DNA damage response. These studies indicate that TRIM24, like MDM2, controls p53 levels in an autoregulatory feedback loop. However, unlike MDM2, TRIM24 also targets activated p53 to terminate p53-regulated response to DNA damage. PMID:24820418

  20. Transcriptional Activation of p53 during Cold Induced Torpor in the 13-Lined Ground Squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Hefler, Joshua; Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p53 is located at the centre of multiple pathways relating the cellular response to stress. Commonly known as a tumor suppressor, it is responsible for initiating diverse actions to protect the integrity of the genome, ranging from cell cycle arrest to apoptosis. This study investigated the regulation of p53 protein in hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus during multiple stages of the torpor-arousal cycle. Transcript and protein levels of p53 were both elevated in the skeletal muscle during early and late torpor stages of the hibernation cycle. Nuclear localization of p53 was also increased during late torpor, and this is associated with an increase in its DNA binding activity and expression of p53 transcriptional targets p21CIP, gadd45α, and 14-3-3σ. The increase in p53 transcriptional activity appears to be independent of its phosphorylation at Ser-15, Ser-46, and Ser-392, consistent with an absence of checkpoint kinase activation during torpor. Sequence analysis revealed unique amino acid substitutions in the ground squirrel p53 protein, which may contribute to an increase in protein stability compared to nonhibernators. Overall, the study results provided evidences for a potential role of p53 in the protection of the skeletal muscle during torpor. PMID:26843984

  1. Transcriptional Activation of p53 during Cold Induced Torpor in the 13-Lined Ground Squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus

    PubMed Central

    Hefler, Joshua; Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor p53 is located at the centre of multiple pathways relating the cellular response to stress. Commonly known as a tumor suppressor, it is responsible for initiating diverse actions to protect the integrity of the genome, ranging from cell cycle arrest to apoptosis. This study investigated the regulation of p53 protein in hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus during multiple stages of the torpor-arousal cycle. Transcript and protein levels of p53 were both elevated in the skeletal muscle during early and late torpor stages of the hibernation cycle. Nuclear localization of p53 was also increased during late torpor, and this is associated with an increase in its DNA binding activity and expression of p53 transcriptional targets p21CIP, gadd45α, and 14-3-3σ. The increase in p53 transcriptional activity appears to be independent of its phosphorylation at Ser-15, Ser-46, and Ser-392, consistent with an absence of checkpoint kinase activation during torpor. Sequence analysis revealed unique amino acid substitutions in the ground squirrel p53 protein, which may contribute to an increase in protein stability compared to nonhibernators. Overall, the study results provided evidences for a potential role of p53 in the protection of the skeletal muscle during torpor. PMID:26843984

  2. Modulation of p53β and p53γ expression by regulating the alternative splicing of TP53 gene modifies cellular response.

    PubMed

    Marcel, V; Fernandes, K; Terrier, O; Lane, D P; Bourdon, J-C

    2014-09-01

    In addition to the tumor suppressor p53 protein, also termed p53α, the TP53 gene produces p53β and p53γ through alternative splicing of exons 9β and 9γ located within TP53 intron 9. Here we report that both TG003, a specific inhibitor of Cdc2-like kinases (Clk) that regulates the alternative splicing pre-mRNA pathway, and knockdown of SFRS1 increase expression of endogenous p53β and p53γ at mRNA and protein levels. Development of a TP53 intron 9 minigene shows that TG003 treatment and knockdown of SFRS1 promote inclusion of TP53 exons 9β/9γ. In a series of 85 primary breast tumors, a significant association was observed between expression of SFRS1 and α variant, supporting our experimental data. Using siRNA specifically targeting exons 9β/9γ, we demonstrate that cell growth can be driven by modulating p53β and p53γ expression in an opposite manner, depending on the cellular context. In MCF7 cells, p53β and p53γ promote apoptosis, thus inhibiting cell growth. By transient transfection, we show that p53β enhanced p53α transcriptional activity on the p21 and Bax promoters, while p53γ increased p53α transcriptional activity on the Bax promoter only. Moreover, p53β and p53γ co-immunoprecipitate with p53α only in the presence of p53-responsive promoter. Interestingly, although p53β and p53γ promote apoptosis in MCF7 cells, p53β and p53γ maintain cell growth in response to TG003 in a p53α-dependent manner. The dual activities of p53β and p53γ isoforms observed in non-treated and TG003-treated cells may result from the impact of TG003 on both expression and activities of p53 isoforms. Overall, our data suggest that p53β and p53γ regulate cellular response to modulation of alternative splicing pre-mRNA pathway by a small drug inhibitor. The development of novel drugs targeting alternative splicing process could be used as a novel therapeutic approach in human cancers. PMID:24926616

  3. Long Noncoding RNA MEG3 Interacts with p53 Protein and Regulates Partial p53 Target Genes in Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Juanjuan; Liu, Shanshan; Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Yuan; Tie, Yi; Zhu, Jie; Wei, Lixin; Jin, Yinghua; Fu, Hanjiang; Wu, Yongge; Zheng, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Maternally Expressed Gene 3 (MEG3) encodes a lncRNA which is suggested to function as a tumor suppressor. Previous studies suggested that MEG3 functioned through activation of p53, however, the functional properties of MEG3 remain obscure and their relevance to human diseases is under continuous investigation. Here, we try to illuminate the relationship of MEG3 and p53, and the consequence in hepatoma cells. We find that transfection of expression construct of MEG3 enhances stability and transcriptional activity of p53. Deletion analysis of MEG3 confirms that full length and intact structure of MEG3 are critical for it to activate p53-mediated transactivation. Interestingly, our results demonstrate for the first time that MEG3 can interact with p53 DNA binding domain and various p53 target genes are deregulated after overexpression of MEG3 in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, results of qRT-PCR have shown that MEG3 RNA is lost or reduced in the majority of HCC samples compared with adjacent non-tumorous samples. Ectopic expression of MEG3 in hepatoma cells significantly inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that MEG3 functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatoma cells through interacting with p53 protein to activate p53-mediated transcriptional activity and influence the expression of partial p53 target genes. PMID:26444285

  4. p53 Regulates Period2 Expression and the Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Takao; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic interconnectivity between circadian regulation and the genotoxic stress response remains poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of Period 2 (Per2), a circadian regulator, is directly regulated by p53 binding to a response element in the Per2 promoter. This p53 response element is evolutionarily conserved and overlaps with the E-Box element critical for BMAL1/CLOCK binding and its transcriptional activation of Per2 expression. Our studies reveal that p53 blocks BMAL1/CLOCK binding to the Per2 promoter leading to repression of Per2 expression. In the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), p53 expression and its binding to the Per2 promoter are under circadian control. Per2 expression in the SCN is altered by p53 deficiency or stabilization of p53 by Nutlin-3. Behaviorally, p53−/− mice have a shorter period length that lacks stability and they exhibit impaired photo-entrainment to a light pulse under a free-running state. Our studies demonstrate that p53 modulates mouse circadian behavior. PMID:24051492

  5. Functional Analysis of p53 Binding under Differential Stresses†

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Adam J.; Hammond, Ester M.; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia and DNA damage stabilize the p53 protein, but the subsequent effect that each stress has on transcriptional regulation of known p53 target genes is variable. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by CpG island (CGI) microarray hybridization to identify promoters bound by p53 under both DNA-damaging and non-DNA-damaging conditions in HCT116 cells. Using gene-specific PCR analysis, we have verified an association with CGIs of the highest enrichment (>2.5-fold) (REV3L, XPMC2H, HNRPUL1, TOR1AIP1, glutathione peroxidase 1, and SCFD2), with CGIs of intermediate enrichment (>2.2-fold) (COX7A2L, SYVN1, and JAG2), and with CGIs of low enrichment (>2.0-fold) (MYC and PCNA). We found little difference in promoter binding when p53 is stabilized by these two distinctly different stresses. However, expression of these genes varies a great deal: while a few genes exhibit classical induction with adriamycin, the majority of the genes are unchanged or are mildly repressed by either hypoxia or adriamycin. Further analysis using p53 mutated in the core DNA binding domain revealed that the interaction of p53 with CGIs may be occurring through both sequence-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, these experiments describe the identification of novel p53 target genes and the subsequent discovery of distinctly different expression phenomena for p53 target genes under different stress scenarios. PMID:16980608

  6. p53 isoforms regulate astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Turnquist, C; Horikawa, I; Foran, E; Major, E O; Vojtesek, B; Lane, D P; Lu, X; Harris, B T; Harris, C C

    2016-09-01

    Bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons have physiological roles in the central nervous system and an altered state or dysfunction of such interactions may be associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Astrocytes exert structural, metabolic and functional effects on neurons, which can be either neurotoxic or neuroprotective. Their neurotoxic effect is mediated via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) involving pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6), while their neuroprotective effect is attributed to neurotrophic growth factors (e.g., NGF). We here demonstrate that the p53 isoforms Δ133p53 and p53β are expressed in astrocytes and regulate their toxic and protective effects on neurons. Primary human astrocytes undergoing cellular senescence upon serial passaging in vitro showed diminished expression of Δ133p53 and increased p53β, which were attributed to the autophagic degradation and the SRSF3-mediated alternative RNA splicing, respectively. Early-passage astrocytes with Δ133p53 knockdown or p53β overexpression were induced to show SASP and to exert neurotoxicity in co-culture with neurons. Restored expression of Δ133p53 in near-senescent, otherwise neurotoxic astrocytes conferred them with neuroprotective activity through repression of SASP and induction of neurotrophic growth factors. Brain tissues from AD and ALS patients possessed increased numbers of senescent astrocytes and, like senescent astrocytes in vitro, showed decreased Δ133p53 and increased p53β expression, supporting that our in vitro findings recapitulate in vivo pathology of these neurodegenerative diseases. Our finding that Δ133p53 enhances the neuroprotective function of aged and senescent astrocytes suggests that the p53 isoforms and their regulatory mechanisms are potential targets for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27104929

  7. The ribosomal protein S26 regulates p53 activity in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Cui, D; Li, L; Lou, H; Sun, H; Ngai, S-M; Shao, G; Tang, J

    2014-04-24

    Ribosomal proteins have emerged as novel regulators of the Mdm2-p53 feedback loop, especially in the context of ribosomal stress. RPS26 is a recently identified Diamond-Blackfan Anemia-related ribosomal protein and its role in p53 activation has not been previously explored. In this study we found knockdown of RPS26 induced p53 stabilization and activation via a RPL11-dependent mechanism, resulting in p53-dependent cell growth inhibition. Moreover, RPS26 has the ability to interact with Mdm2 and inhibits Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination that leads to p53 stabilization upon overexpression. Importantly, we discovered that RPS26 knockdown impaired p53's ability to transcriptionally activate its target genes in response to DNA damage, without affecting its stability. Accordingly, the cells lost the ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. We further found that upon RPS26 knockdown, the DNA damage induced recruitment of p53 to the promoters of its target genes and p53 acetylation were both greatly reduced. In addition, RPS26 can interact with p53 independent of Mdm2 and coexist in a complex with p53 and p300. These data establish a role of RPS26 in DNA damage response by directly influencing p53 transcriptional activity, and suggest that RPS26 acts distinctively in different scenarios of p53 activation. Our finding also implicates p53 transcriptional activity control as an important mechanism of p53 regulation by ribosomal proteins. PMID:23728348

  8. P53 protein expression in human leukemia and lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Koníková, E; Kusenda, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of p53 protein overexpression in human leukemia and lymphoma cells. We examined PB and/or BM samples on a series of 111 patients with immunophenotypically defined hematological malignancies at diagnosis, in remission and in relapsed disease comparing to 20 control samples of healthy individuals. p53 protein has been studied by flow cytometry using three monoclonal antibodies specific for epitopes on N-terminus (Bp53-12, DO-1) and central region (DO-11) of p53 protein. Our findigs showed, that p53 expression may contribute to phenotype of leukemic cells and that overexpression of this protein is often associated with progression of disease. All samples of early B-ALL patients and samples of patients with immunophenotypically defined T- cell disorders examined at diagnosis of disease were p53 positive. Eleven of 19 patient samples from AML at diagnosis showed also increased expression of p53 protein. The cells of all patients who responded to therapy with complete immunophenotypically defined remission were p53 negative. Relapsed T-, B- ALL and AML develop p53 alteration. We reported positive p53 expression in cells of patients with advanced stages of CLL in comparison to them with initial stage of disease at examination. As well as in the group of B- cell lymphomas only samples of patients with generalized FCC lymphoma at diagnosis were p53 positive. We detected p53 positive cells in immunologically defined myeloid blast crisis of CML opposite to p53 negativity in chronic phase of disease. The finding of p53 positive BM cells without immunophenotypic blast markers in two of followed cases documented the contributing value of p53 detection in their characterization. On the basis of above findings we conclude, that cytofluorometric determination of p53 expression may contribute to the better definition of leukemic phenotype. Loss of the normal p53 function may be important in the genesis of some leukemias

  9. Loss of p53-regulatory protein IFI16 induces NBS1 leading to activation of p53-mediated checkpoint by phosphorylation of p53 SER37.

    PubMed

    Tawara, Hideyuki; Fujiuchi, Nobuko; Sironi, Juan; Martin, Sarah; Aglipay, Jason; Ouchi, Mutsuko; Taga, Makoto; Chen, Phang-Lang; Ouchi, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Our previous results that IFI16 is involved in p53 transcription activity under conditions of ionizing radiation (IR), and that the protein is frequently lost in human breast cancer cell lines and breast adenocarcinoma tissues suggesting that IFI16 plays a crucial role in controlling cell growth. Here, we show that loss of IFI16 by RNA interference in cell culture causes elevated phosphorylation of p53 Ser37 and accumulated NBS1 (nibrin) and p21WAF1, leading to growth retardation. Consistent with these observations, doxycyclin-induced NBS1 caused accumulation of p21WAF1 and increased phosphorylation of p53 Ser37, leading to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Wortmannin treatment was found to decrease p53 Ser37 phosphorylation in NBS-induced cells. These results suggest that loss of IFI16 activates p53 checkpoint through NBS1-DNA-PKcs pathway. PMID:17981542

  10. Negative regulation of beta4 integrin transcription by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 and p53 impairs tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bon, Giulia; Di Carlo, Selene E; Folgiero, Valentina; Avetrani, Paolo; Lazzari, Chiara; D'Orazi, Gabriella; Brizzi, Maria Felice; Sacchi, Ada; Soddu, Silvia; Blandino, Giovanni; Mottolese, Marcella; Falcioni, Rita

    2009-07-15

    Increased expression of alpha(6)beta(4) integrin in several epithelial cancers promotes tumor progression; however, the mechanism underlying its transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we show that depletion of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) activates beta(4) transcription that results in a strong increase of beta(4)-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt phosphorylation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion. In contrast, stabilization of HIPK2 represses beta(4) expression in wild-type p53 (wtp53)-expressing cells but not in p53-null cells or cells expressing mutant p53, indicating that HIPK2 requires a wtp53 to inhibit beta(4) transcription. Consistent with our in vitro findings, a strong correlation between beta(4) overexpression and HIPK2 inactivation by cytoplasmic relocalization was observed in wtp53-expressing human breast carcinomas. Under loss of function of HIPK2 or p53, the p53 family members TAp63 and TAp73 strongly activate beta(4) transcription. These data, by revealing that beta(4) expression is transcriptionally repressed in tumors by HIPK2 and p53 to impair beta(4)-dependent tumor progression, suggest that loss of p53 function favors the formation of coactivator complex with the TA members of the p53 family to allow beta(4) transcription. PMID:19567674

  11. Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ok Ran; Lim, In Kyoung

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin or X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.

  12. Regulation of iron homeostasis by the p53-ISCU pathway

    PubMed Central

    Funauchi, Yuki; Tanikawa, Chizu; Yi Lo, Paulisally Hau; Mori, Jinichi; Daigo, Yataro; Takano, Atsushi; Miyagi, Yohei; Okawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of iron in tissues increases the risk of cancer, but iron regulatory mechanisms in cancer tissues are largely unknown. Here, we report that p53 regulates iron metabolism through the transcriptional regulation of ISCU (iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme), which encodes a scaffold protein that plays a critical role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. p53 activation induced ISCU expression through binding to an intronic p53-binding site. Knockdown of ISCU enhanced the binding of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), a cytosolic Fe-S protein, to an iron-responsive element in the 5′ UTR of ferritin heavy polypeptide 1 (FTH1) mRNA and subsequently reduced the translation of FTH1, a major iron storage protein. In addition, in response to DNA damage, p53 induced FTH1 and suppressed transferrin receptor, which regulates iron entry into cells. HCT116 p53+/+ cells were resistant to iron accumulation, but HCT116 p53−/− cells accumulated intracellular iron after DNA damage. Moreover, excess dietary iron caused significant elevation of serum iron levels in p53−/− mice. ISCU expression was decreased in the majority of human liver cancer tissues, and its reduced expression was significantly associated with p53 mutation. Our finding revealed a novel role of the p53-ISCU pathway in the maintenance of iron homeostasis in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:26560363

  13. INGN 201: Ad-p53, Ad5CMV-p53, Adenoviral p53, INGN 101, p53 gene therapy--Introgen, RPR/INGN 201.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    products. Aventis Gencell will increase its equity stake in Introgen by investing $US 20 million in non-voting preferred shares of Introgen that will be convertible to Introgen common shares at a premium to the market price. Introgen will also receive a 5% equity stake in Aventis Gencell. Introgen intends to use the proceeds of Aventis Gencell's investment to fund the commercialisation of the p53 gene therapy product and to begin building its internal sales and marketing division to support the products anticipated market introduction. In April 2001, Aventis Pharma announced that it intended to spin off its gene therapy division, Aventis Gencell, as a separate operating company. In mid-2002, Aventis Pharma was still attempting to spin off Aventis Gencell but negotiations with venture capital partners had failed. Gene Logic (formerly OncorMed) of the US was contracted by Introgen to perform the p53 status testing for RPR/INGN 201 phase I clinical trials. In February 2003, Introgen announced it will streamline its phase III clinical trials for head and neck cancer to reduce spending, and that INGN 201 received Orphan Drug Status for head and neck cancer in the US. According to results (published in January 2003) of Introgen's phase II study of non-metastatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer (ineligible to receive surgery or combination therapy with radiation and cancer chemotherapy) treated with INGN 201 combined with radiation therapy, approximately 60% of patients' primary tumours regressed or disappeared after the combination therapy, as assessed by both biopsies and by CT scans 3 months after treatment. Investigators commented that further randomised trials are needed to follow-up on these observations. In February 2003, Introgen announced that it will move ahead with the development of registration plans for a non-small cell lung cancer indication for INGN 201, and is now including support for lung cancer registration in partnering discussions. RPR/INGN 201 is

  14. Release of targeted p53 from the mitochondrion as an early signal during mitochondrial dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein is an early response to low-level stressors. To investigate the fate of mitochondrial-sequestered p53, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) on a p53-deficient genetic background were transfected with p53-EGFP fusion protei...

  15. Tetramerization-defects of p53 result in aberrant ubiquitylation and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Lang, Valérie; Pallara, Chiara; Zabala, Amaia; Lobato-Gil, Sofia; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Farrás, Rosa; Hjerpe, Roland; Torres-Ramos, Monica; Zabaleta, Lorea; Blattner, Christine; Hay, Ronald T; Barrio, Rosa; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Aillet, Fabienne

    2014-07-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, senescence and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effect of single point mutations in the oligomerization domain (OD) on tetramerization, transcription, ubiquitylation and stability of p53. As predicted by docking and molecular dynamics simulations, p53 OD mutants show functional defects on transcription, Mdm2-dependent ubiquitylation and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. However, mutants unable to form tetramers are well degraded by the 20S proteasome. Unexpectedly, despite the lower structural stability compared to WT p53, p53 OD mutants form heterotetramers with WT p53 when expressed transiently or stably in cells wild type or null for p53. In consequence, p53 OD mutants interfere with the capacity of WT p53 tetramers to be properly ubiquitylated and result in changes of p53-dependent protein expression patterns, including the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and PUMA under basal and adriamycin-induced conditions. Importantly, the patient derived p53 OD mutant L330R (OD1) showed the more severe changes in p53-dependent gene expression. Thus, in addition to the well-known effects on p53 stability, ubiquitylation defects promote changes in p53-dependent gene expression with implications on some of its functions. PMID:24816189

  16. Pathologies Associated with the p53 Response

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Andrei V.; Komarova, Elena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although p53 is a major cancer preventive factor, under certain extreme stress conditions it may induce severe pathologies. Analyses of animal models indicate that p53 is largely responsible for the toxicity of ionizing radiation or DNA damaging drugs contributing to hematopoietic component of acute radiation syndrome and largely determining severe adverse effects of cancer treatment. p53-mediated damage is strictly tissue specific and occurs in tissues prone to p53-dependent apoptosis (e.g., hematopoietic system and hair follicles); on the contrary, p53 can serve as a survival factor in tissues that respond to p53 activation by cell cycle arrest (e.g., endothelium of small intestine). There are multiple experimental indications that p53 contributes to pathogenicity of acute ischemic diseases. Temporary reversible suppression of p53 by small molecules can be an effective and safe approach to reduce severity of p53-associated pathologies. PMID:20595398

  17. Low p53 Binding Protein 1 (53BP1) Expression Is Associated With Increased Local Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Neboori, Hanmanth J.R.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wu Hao; Yang Qifeng; Aly, Amal; Goyal, Sharad; Schiff, Devora; Moran, Meena S.; Golhar, Ryan; Chen Chunxia; Moore, Dirk; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the expression of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) has prognostic significance in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (BCS+RT). Methods and Materials: A tissue microarray of early-stage breast cancer treated with BCS+RT from a cohort of 514 women was assayed for 53BP1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Through log-rank tests and univariate and multivariate models, the staining profile of each tumor was correlated with clinical endpoints, including ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival (IBRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 477 (93%) evaluable tumors, 63 (13%) were scored as low. Low expression of 53BP1 was associated with worse outcomes for all endpoints studied, including 10-year IBRFS (76.8% vs. 90.5%; P=.01), OS (66.4% vs. 81.7%; P=.02), CSS (66.0% vs. 87.4%; P<.01), DMFS (55.9% vs. 87.0%; P<.01), and RFS (45.2% vs. 80.6%; P<.01). Multivariate analysis incorporating various clinico-pathologic markers and 53BP1 expression found that 53BP1 expression was again an independent predictor of all endpoints (IBRFS: P=.0254; OS: P=.0094; CSS: P=.0033; DMFS: P=.0006; RFS: P=.0002). Low 53BP1 expression was also found to correlate with triple-negative (TN) phenotype (P<.01). Furthermore, in subset analysis of all TN breast cancer, negative 53BP1 expression trended for lower IBRFS (72.3% vs. 93.9%; P=.0361) and was significant for worse DMFS (48.2% vs. 86.8%; P=.0035) and RFS (37.8% vs. 83.7%; P=.0014). Conclusion: Our data indicate that low 53BP1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for local relapse among other endpoints in early-stage breast cancer and TN breast cancer patients treated with BCS+RT. These results should be verified in larger cohorts of patients to validate their clinical

  18. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation. PMID:26734569

  19. Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Nanocarrier in a Multienzyme Labeling Amplification Strategy for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Immunoassay of Phosphorylated p53 (S392)

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Wang, Limin; Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-01-06

    P53 phosphorylation plays an important role in many biological processes and might be used as a potential biomarker in clinical diagnoses. We report a new electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of phosphorylated p53 at Ser392 (phospho-p53-392) based on graphene oxide (GO) as a nanocarrier in multienzymes amplification strategy. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by using the bioconjugates featuring horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and p53392 signal antibody (p53Ab2) linked to functionalized GO (HRP-p53Ab2-GO) at high ratio of HRP/p53Ab2. After a sandwich immunoreaction, the HRP-p53Ab2-GO captured onto the electrode surface produced an amplified electrocatalytic response by the reduction of enzymatically oxidized thionine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The increase of response current was proportional to the phospho-p53 concentration in the range of 0.02 to 2 nM with the detection limit of 0.01 nM, which was 10-fold lower than that of traditional sandwich electrochemical measurement for p53. The amplified immunoassay developed in this work shows acceptable stability and reproducibility and the assay results for phospho-p53 spiked in human plasma also show good recovery (92%~103.8%). This simple and low-cost immunosensor shows great promise for detection of other phosphorylated proteins and clinical applications.

  20. E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 negatively regulates tumor suppressor p53 to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Zhang, C; Wang, X L; Ly, P; Belyi, V; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Young, K H; Hu, W; Feng, Z

    2014-11-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 has a key role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing tumorigenesis through its regulation of cellular stress responses, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. To ensure its proper levels and functions in cells, p53 is tightly regulated mainly through post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 as a novel p53 target gene and negative regulator to regulate p53-mediated stress responses. In response to stress, such as DNA damage, p53 binds to the p53 responsive element in the promoter of the TRIM32 gene and transcriptionally induces the expression of TRIM32 in cells. In turn, TRIM32 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 degradation through ubiquitination. Thus, TRIM32 negatively regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in response to stress. TRIM32 is frequently overexpressed in different types of human tumors. TRIM32 overexpression promotes cell oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that as a novel p53 target and a novel negative regulator for p53, TRIM32 has an important role in regulation of p53 and p53-mediated cellular stress responses. Furthermore, our results also revealed that impairing p53 function is a novel mechanism for TRIM32 in tumorigenesis. PMID:25146927

  1. Limiting the power of p53 through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is critical in restraining the activities of the p53 tumor suppressor. Numerous E3 and E4 ligases regulate p53 levels. Additionally, deubquitinating enzymes that modify p53 directly or indirectly also impact p53 function. When alterations of these proteins result in increased p53 activity, cells arrest in the cell cycle, senesce, or apoptose. On the other hand, alterations that result in decreased p53 levels yield tumor-prone phenotypes. This review focuses on the physiological relevance of these important regulators of p53 and their therapeutic implications. PMID:25128494

  2. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53Δ31, a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop. PMID:27033104

  3. Nitric oxide evoked p53-accumulation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Brüne, Bernhard; Schneiderhan, Nicole

    2003-04-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 accumulates under conditions of cellular stress and affects cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. This has been exemplified for endogenously produced or exogenously supplied nitric oxide (NO) and thus accounts at least in part for cell destructive signaling qualities of this bioactive molecule and/or derived reactive nitrogen species. However, detailed mechanisms of toxicity and pathways of cell demise remain to be elucidated. Establishing that NO-treatment left the ubiquitination and the p53-Mdm2 interaction intact may point to an impaired nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling to account for p53 stabilization. This was verified by heterokaryon analysis. We conclude that attenuated nuclear export contributes to stabilization and activation of p53 under the influence of NO. PMID:12628747

  4. The nucleolar SUMO-specific protease SMT3IP1/SENP3 attenuates Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} SMT3IP1 interacts with p53 and Mdm2, and desumoylates both proteins. {yields} SMT3IP1 competes with p53 for binding to the central acidic domain of Mdm2. {yields} SMT3IP1 binding to Mdm2 inhibits Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation. {yields} We postulate that SMT3IP1 acts as a new regulator of the p53-Mdm2 pathway. -- Abstract: SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification plays multiple roles in several cellular processes. Sumoylation is reversibly regulated by SUMO-specific proteases. SUMO-specific proteases have recently been implicated in cell proliferation and early embryogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that a nucleolar SUMO-specific protease, SMT3IP1/SENP3, controls the p53-Mdm2 pathway. We found that SMT3IP1 interacts with p53 and Mdm2, and desumoylates both proteins. Overexpression of SMT3IP1 in cells resulted in the accumulation of Mdm2 in the nucleolus and increased stability of the p53 protein. In addition, SMT3IP1 bound to the acidic domain of Mdm2, which also mediates the p53 interaction, and competed with p53 for binding. Increasing expression of SMT3IP1 suppressed Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, the desumoylation activity of SMT3IP1 was not necessary for p53 stabilization. These results suggest that SMT3IP1 is a new regulator of the p53-Mdm2 pathway.

  5. Prospective therapeutic applications of p53 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gudkov, Andrei V. . E-mail: gudkov@ccf.org; Komarova, Elena A.

    2005-06-10

    p53, in addition to being a key cancer preventive factor, is also a determinant of cancer treatment side effects causing excessive apoptotic death in several normal tissues during cancer therapy. p53 inhibitory strategy has been suggested to protect normal tissues from chemo- and radiotherapy, and to treat other pathologies associated with stress-mediated activation of p53. This strategy was validated by isolation and testing of small molecule p53 inhibitor pifithrin-{alpha} that demonstrated broad tissue protecting capacity. However, in some normal tissues and tumors p53 plays protective role by inducing growth arrest and preventing cells from premature entrance into mitosis and death from mitotic catastrophe. Inhibition of this function of p53 can sensitize tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy, thus opening new potential application of p53 inhibitors and justifying the need in pharmacological agents targeting specifically either pro-apoptotic or growth arrest functions of p53.

  6. TRIM25 has a dual function in the p53/Mdm2 circuit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Elabd, S; Hammer, S; Solozobova, V; Yan, H; Bartel, F; Inoue, S; Henrich, T; Wittbrodt, J; Loosli, F; Davidson, G; Blattner, C

    2015-11-12

    P53 is an important tumor suppressor that, upon activation, induces growth arrest and cell death. Control of p53 is thus of prime importance for proliferating cells, but also for cancer therapy, where p53 activity contributes to the eradication of tumors. Mdm2 functionally inhibits p53 and targets the tumor suppressor protein for degradation. In a genetic screen, we identified TRIM25 as a novel regulator of p53 and Mdm2. TRIM25 increased p53 and Mdm2 abundance by inhibiting their ubiquitination and degradation in 26 S proteasomes. TRIM25 co-precipitated with p53 and Mdm2 and interfered with the association of p300 and Mdm2, a critical step for p53 polyubiquitination. Despite the increase in p53 levels, p53 activity was inhibited in the presence of TRIM25. Downregulation of TRIM25 resulted in an increased acetylation of p53 and p53-dependent cell death in HCT116 cells. Upon genotoxic insults, TRIM25 dampened the p53-dependent DNA damage response. The downregulation of TRIM25 furthermore resulted in massive apoptosis during early embryogenesis of medaka, which was rescued by the concomitant downregulation of p53, demonstrating the functional relevance of the regulation of p53 by TRIM25 in an organismal context. PMID:25728675

  7. Deregulation of Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated p53 Translation in Cancer Cells with Defective p53 Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Halaby, Marie-Jo; Harris, Benjamin R. E.; Miskimins, W. Keith; Cleary, Margot P.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor and its subsequent activation following DNA damage are critical for its protection against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the 5′ untranslated region of the p53 mRNA. However, the connection between IRES-mediated p53 translation and p53's tumor suppressive function is unknown. In this study, we identified two p53 IRES trans-acting factors, translational control protein 80 (TCP80), and RNA helicase A (RHA), which positively regulate p53 IRES activity. Overexpression of TCP80 and RHA also leads to increased expression and synthesis of p53. Furthermore, we discovered two breast cancer cell lines that retain wild-type p53 but exhibit defective p53 induction and synthesis following DNA damage. The levels of TCP80 and RHA are extremely low in both cell lines, and expression of both proteins is required to significantly increase the p53 IRES activity in these cells. Moreover, we found cancer cells transfected with a shRNA against TCP80 not only exhibit decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA but also display defective p53 induction and diminished ability to induce senescence following DNA damage. Therefore, our findings reveal a novel mechanism of p53 inactivation that links deregulation of IRES-mediated p53 translation with tumorigenesis. PMID:26391949

  8. Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link Fruiting Body Reduces the Growth of a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line by Increasing Cellular Levels of p53 and p21.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Sousa, Diana; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Lima, Raquel T

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link, an edible entomopathogenic fungus widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, has numerous potential medicinal properties including antitumor activity. The methanolic extract of C. militaris fruiting body was recently shown to have tumor cell growth inhibitory activity in several human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, the mechanism of action involved is still not known. This work aimed at further studying the effect of the methanolic extract of C. militaris regarding its antitumor mechanism of action, using the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460) as a model. Results showed that treatment with the extract decreased cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and increased apoptosis. In addition, the extract increased the levels of p53 and p21. Moreover, an increase in p-H2A.X and 53BP1 levels, together with an increase in the number of 53BP1 foci/cell (all indicative of DNA damage), were also observed after treatment with the extract. This work suggests that this extract affected NCI-H460 cellular viability through a mechanism involving DNA damage and p53 activation. This further supports the potential of this extract as a source of bioactive compounds, which may be used in anticancer strategies. PMID:26263965

  9. The degradation of p53 and its major E3 ligase Mdm2 is differentially dependent on the proteasomal ubiquitin receptor S5a

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, A; Dayal, S; Das, J; Robertson, P; Menendez, S; Saville, M K

    2014-01-01

    p53 and its major E3 ligase Mdm2 are both ubiquitinated and targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Despite the importance of this in regulating the p53 pathway, little is known about the mechanisms of proteasomal recognition of ubiquitinated p53 and Mdm2. In this study, we show that knockdown of the proteasomal ubiquitin receptor S5a/PSMD4/Rpn10 inhibits p53 protein degradation and results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated p53. Overexpression of a dominant-negative deletion of S5a lacking its ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIM)s, but which can be incorporated into the proteasome, also causes the stabilization of p53. Furthermore, small-interferring RNA (siRNA) rescue experiments confirm that the UIMs of S5a are required for the maintenance of low p53 levels. These observations indicate that S5a participates in the recognition of ubiquitinated p53 by the proteasome. In contrast, targeting S5a has no effect on the rate of degradation of Mdm2, indicating that proteasomal recognition of Mdm2 can be mediated by an S5a-independent pathway. S5a knockdown results in an increase in the transcriptional activity of p53. The selective stabilization of p53 and not Mdm2 provides a mechanism for p53 activation. Depletion of S5a causes a p53-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, demonstrating that p53 can have a dominant role in the response to targeting S5a. This study provides evidence for alternative pathways of proteasomal recognition of p53 and Mdm2. Differences in recognition by the proteasome could provide a means to modulate the relative stability of p53 and Mdm2 in response to cellular signals. In addition, they could be exploited for p53-activating therapies. This work shows that the degradation of proteins by the proteasome can be selectively dependent on S5a in human cells, and that this selectivity can extend to an E3 ubiquitin ligase and its substrate. PMID:24121268

  10. Cerebellum Development and Tumorigenesis: A p53-Centric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barthelery, Nicolas J; Manfredi, James J

    2016-05-01

    The p53 protein has been extensively studied for its role in suppressing tumorigenesis, in part through surveillance and maintenance of genomic stability. p53 has been associated with the induction of a variety of cellular outcomes including cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. This occurs primarily, but not exclusively, through transcriptional activation of specific target genes. By contrast, the participation of p53 in normal developmental processes has been largely understudied. This review focuses on possible functions of p53 in cerebellar development. It can be argued that a better understanding of such mechanisms will provide needed insight into the genesis of certain embryonic cancers including medulloblastomas, and thus lead to more effective therapies. PMID:27085812

  11. Activation of p53 with Ilimaquinone and Ethylsmenoquinone, Marine Sponge Metabolites, Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Chung, Kyu Jin; Hwang, In Hyun; Gwak, Jungsuk; Park, Seoyoung; Ju, Bong Gun; Yun, Eunju; Kim, Dong-Eun; Chung, Young-Hwa; Na, MinKyun; Song, Gyu-Yong; Oh, Sangtaek

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an essential role in the cellular response to stress through regulating the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we used a cell-based reporter system for the detection of p53 response transcription to identify the marine sponge metabolites, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone, as activators of the p53 pathway. We demonstrated that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone efficiently stabilize the p53 protein through promotion of p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 in both HCT116 and RKO colon cancer cells. Moreover, both compounds upregulate the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1, a p53-dependent gene, and suppress proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase-3 cleavage and the population of cells that positively stained with Annexin V-FITC, both of which are typical biochemical markers of apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy was elicited by both compounds, as indicated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta formations and LC3-II turnover in HCT116 cells. Our findings suggest that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone exert their anti-cancer activity by activation of the p53 pathway and may have significant potential as chemo-preventive and therapeutic agents for human colon cancer. PMID:25603347

  12. Phosphorylation of Tip60 by GSK-3 determines the induction of PUMA and apoptosis by p53

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Céline; Wissler, Manuela; Brauns-Schubert, Prisca; Wang, Shang-Jui; Tang, Yi; Sigloch, Florian C.; Mellert, Hestia; Brandenburg, Martin; Lindner, Silke E.; Breit, Bernhard; Green, Douglas R.; McMahon, Steven B.; Borner, Christoph; Gu, Wei; Maurer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Summary Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60S86A mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, Histone 4 acetylation and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86-phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53. PMID:21658600

  13. Sodium orthovanadate inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akinori; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Suzuki, Norio; Aoki, Shin; Ito, Azusa; Nanao, Tomohisa; Ohya, Soichiro; Yoshino, Minako; Zhu, Jin; Enomoto, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Funatsu, Osamu; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ikekita, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Sodium orthovanadate (vanadate) inhibits the DNA-binding activity of p53, but its precise effects on p53 function have not been examined. Here, we show that vanadate exerts a potent antiapoptotic activity through both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms relative to other p53 inhibitors, including pifithrin (PFT) alpha. We compared the effects of vanadate to PFTalpha and PFTmicro, an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Vanadate suppressed p53-associated apoptotic events at the mitochondria, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the conformational change of Bax and Bak, the mitochondrial translocation of p53, and the interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. Similarly, vanadate suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of a mitochondrially targeted temperature-sensitive p53 in stable transfectants of SaOS-2 cells. In radioprotection assays, which rely on p53, vanadate completely protected mice from a sublethal dose of 8 Gy and partially from a lethal dose of 12 Gy. Together, our findings indicated that vanadate effectively suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis by both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways, and suggested that both pathways must be inhibited to completely block p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20048077

  14. p53MVA therapy in patients with refractory gastrointestinal malignancies elevates p53-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Nicola R; Carrol, Mary; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Qian, Dajun; Lim, Dean; Leong, Lucille; Chu, Peiguo; Kim, Joseph; Chao, Joseph; Fakih, Marwan; Yen, Yun; Espenschied, Jonathan; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Diamond, Don J; Chung, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a Phase I trial of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine delivering wild type human p53 (p53MVA) in patients with refractory gastrointestinal cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Three patients were vaccinated with 1.0 × 108 pfu p53MVA followed by nine patients at 5.6 × 108 pfu. Toxicity was classified using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria and clinical responses were assessed by CT scan. Peripheral blood samples were collected pre- and post-immunization for immunophenotyping, monitoring of p53MVA induced immune response and examination of PD-1 checkpoint inhibition in vitro. RESULTS: p53MVA immunization was well tolerated at both doses, with no adverse events above grade 2. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showing enhanced recognition of a p53 overlapping peptide library were detectable after the first immunization, particularly in the CD8+ T cell compartment (p=0.03). However in most patients this did not expand further with the second and third immunization. The frequency of PD-1+ T cells detectable in patients PBMC was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Furthermore, the frequency of PD-1+ CD8+ T cells showed an inverse correlation with the peak CD8+ p53 response (p=0.02) and antibody blockade of PD-1 in vitro increased the p53 immune responses detected after the second or third immunizations. Induction of strong T cell and antibody responses to the MVA backbone were also apparent. CONCLUSION: p53MVA was well tolerated and induced robust CD8+ T cell responses. Combination of p53MVA with immune checkpoint inhibition could help sustain immune responses and lead to enhanced clinical benefit. PMID:24987057

  15. Pla2g16 phospholipase mediates gain-of-function activities of mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shunbin; Tu, Huolin; Kollareddy, Madhusudhan; Pant, Vinod; Li, Qin; Zhang, Yun; Jackson, James G; Suh, Young-Ah; Elizondo-Fraire, Ana C; Yang, Peirong; Chau, Gilda; Tashakori, Mehrnoosh; Wasylishen, Amanda R; Ju, Zhenlin; Solomon, Hilla; Rotter, Varda; Liu, Bin; El-Naggar, Adel K; Donehower, Lawrence A; Martinez, Luis Alfonso; Lozano, Guillermina

    2014-07-29

    p53(R172H/+) mice inherit a p53 mutation found in Li-Fraumeni syndrome and develop metastatic tumors at much higher frequency than p53(+/-) mice. To explore the mutant p53 metastatic phenotype, we used expression arrays to compare primary osteosarcomas from p53(R172H/+) mice with metastasis to osteosarcomas from p53(+/-) mice lacking metastasis. For this study, 213 genes were differentially expressed with a P value <0.05. Of particular interest, Pla2g16, which encodes a phospholipase that catalyzes phosphatidic acid into lysophosphatidic acid and free fatty acid (both implicated in metastasis), was increased in p53(R172H/+) osteosarcomas. Functional analyses showed that Pla2g16 knockdown decreased migration and invasion in mutant p53-expressing cells, and vice versa: overexpression of Pla2g16 increased the invasion of p53-null cells. Furthermore, Pla2g16 levels were increased upon expression of mutant p53 in both mouse and human osteosarcoma cell lines, indicating that Pla2g16 is a downstream target of the mutant p53 protein. ChIP analysis revealed that several mutant p53 proteins bind the Pla2g16 promoter at E26 transformation-specific (ETS) binding motifs and knockdown of ETS2 suppressed mutant p53 induction of Pla2g16. Thus, our study identifies a phospholipase as a transcriptional target of mutant p53 that is required for metastasis. PMID:25024203

  16. p53 activation by Ni(II) is a HIF-1α independent response causing caspases 9/3-mediated apoptosis in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Victor C.; Morse, Jessica L.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2013-06-15

    Hypoxia mimic nickel(II) is a human respiratory carcinogen with a suspected epigenetic mode of action. We examined whether Ni(II) elicits a toxicologically significant activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which is typically associated with genotoxic responses. We found that treatments of H460 human lung epithelial cells with NiCl{sub 2} caused activating phosphorylation at p53-Ser15, accumulation of p53 protein and depletion of its inhibitor MDM4 (HDMX). Confirming the activation of p53, its knockdown suppressed the ability of Ni(II) to upregulate MDM2 and p21 (CDKN1A). Unlike DNA damage, induction of GADD45A by Ni(II) was p53-independent. Ni(II) also increased p53-Ser15 phosphorylation and p21 expression in normal human lung fibroblasts. Although Ni(II)-induced stabilization of HIF-1α occurred earlier, it had no effect on p53 accumulation and Ser15 phosphorylation. Ni(II)-treated H460 cells showed no evidence of necrosis and their apoptosis and clonogenic death were suppressed by p53 knockdown. The apoptotic role of p53 involved a transcription-dependent program triggering the initiator caspase 9 and its downstream executioner caspase 3. Two most prominently upregulated proapoptotic genes by Ni(II) were PUMA and NOXA but only PUMA induction required p53. Knockdown of p53 also led to derepression of antiapoptotic MCL1 in Ni(II)-treated cells. Overall, our results indicate that p53 plays a major role in apoptotic death of human lung cells by Ni(II). Chronic exposure to Ni(II) may promote selection of resistant cells with inactivated p53, providing an explanation for the origin of p53 mutations by this epigenetic carcinogen. - Highlights: • Ni(II) is a strong activator of the transcription factor p53. • Apoptosis is a principal form of death by Ni(II) in human lung epithelial cells. • Ni(II)-activated p53 triggers caspases 9/3-mediated apoptotic program. • NOXA and PUMA are two main proapoptotic genes induced by Ni(II). • HIF-1α and p53 are independent

  17. Disruption of focal adhesion kinase and p53 interaction with small molecule compound R2 reactivated p53 and blocked tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a 125 kDa non-receptor kinase that plays a major role in cancer cell survival and metastasis. Methods We performed computer modeling of the p53 peptide containing the site of interaction with FAK, predicted the peptide structure and docked it into the three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of FAK involved in the complex with p53. We screened small molecule compounds that targeted the site of the FAK-p53 interaction and identified compounds (called Roslins, or R compounds) docked in silico to this site. Results By different assays in isogenic HCT116p53+/+ and HCT116 p53-/- cells we identified a small molecule compound called Roslin 2 (R2) that bound FAK, disrupted the binding of FAK and p53 and decreased cancer cell viability and clonogenicity in a p53-dependent manner. In addition, dual-luciferase assays demonstrated that the R2 compound increased p53 transcriptional activity that was inhibited by FAK using p21, Mdm-2, and Bax-promoter targets. R2 also caused increased expression of p53 targets: p21, Mdm-2 and Bax proteins. Furthermore, R2 significantly decreased tumor growth, disrupted the complex of FAK and p53, and up-regulated p21 in HCT116 p53+/+ but not in HCT116 p53-/- xenografts in vivo. In addition, R2 sensitized HCT116p53+/+ cells to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. Conclusions Thus, disruption of the FAK and p53 interaction with a novel small molecule reactivated p53 in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and can be effectively used for development of FAK-p53 targeted cancer therapy approaches. PMID:23841915

  18. Cutaneous HPV23 E6 prevents p53 phosphorylation through interaction with HIPK2.

    PubMed

    Muschik, Dorothea; Braspenning-Wesch, Ilona; Stockfleth, Eggert; Rösl, Frank; Hofmann, Thomas G; Nindl, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation (UV) is the major risk factor for the development of skin cancer. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests cutaneotropic human papillomaviruses (HPV) from the beta genus to play a causal role as a co-factor in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) operates as a potential suppressor in skin tumorigenesis and is stabilized by UV-damage. HIPK2 is an important regulator of apoptosis, which forms a complex with the tumor suppressor p53, mediating p53 phosphorylation at Ser 46 and thus promoting pro-apoptotic gene expression. In our study, we demonstrate that cutaneous HPV23 E6 protein directly targets HIPK2 function. Accordingly, HPV23 E6 interacts with HIPK2 both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, upon massive UVB-damage HPV23 E6 co-localizes with endogenous HIPK2 at nuclear bodies. Functionally, we demonstrate that HPV23 E6 inhibits HIPK2-mediated p53 Ser 46 phosphorylation through enforcing dissociation of the HIPK2/p53 complex. In addition, HPV23 E6 co-accumulates with endogenous HIPK2 upon UV damage suggesting a mechanism by which HPV23 E6 keeps HIPK2 in check after UV damage. Thus, cutaneous HPV23 E6 prevents HIPK2-mediated p53 Ser 46 phosphorylation, which may favour survival of UV-damaged keratinocytes and skin carcinogenesis by apoptosis evasion. PMID:22110707

  19. p53 regulates the mevalonate pathway in human glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Laezza, C; D'Alessandro, A; Di Croce, L; Picardi, P; Ciaglia, E; Pisanti, S; Malfitano, A M; Comegna, M; Faraonio, R; Gazzerro, P; Bifulco, M

    2015-01-01

    The mevalonate (MVA) pathway is an important metabolic pathway implicated in multiple aspects of tumorigenesis. In this study, we provided evidence that p53 induces the expression of a group of enzymes of the MVA pathway including 3′-hydroxy-3′-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, MVA kinase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase and farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1, in the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line, U343 cells, and in normal human astrocytes, NHAs. Genetic and pharmacologic perturbation of p53 directly influences the expression of these genes. Furthermore, p53 is recruited to the gene promoters in designated p53-responsive elements, thereby increasing their transcription. Such effect was abolished by site-directed mutagenesis in the p53-responsive element of promoter of the genes. These findings highlight another aspect of p53 functions unrelated to tumor suppression and suggest p53 as a novel regulator of the MVA pathway providing insight into the role of this pathway in cancer progression. PMID:26469958

  20. Long story short: p53 mediates innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Miciak, Jessica; Bunz, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The story of p53 and how we came to understand it is punctuated by fundamental insights into the essence of cancer. In the decades since its discovery, p53 has been shown to be centrally involved in most, if not all, of the cellular processes that maintain tissue homeostasis. Extensive functional analyses of p53 and its tumor-associated mutants have illuminated many of the common defects shared by most cancer cells. As the central character in a tale that continues to unfold, p53 has become increasingly familiar and yet remains surprisingly inscrutable. New relationships periodically come to light, and surprising, novel activities continue to emerge, thereby revealing new dimensions and aspects of its function. What lies at the very core of this complex protagonist? What is its prime motivation? As every avid reader knows, the elements of character are profoundly shaped by adversity--originating from within and without. And so it is with p53. This review will briefly recap the coordinated responses of p53 to viral infection, and outline a hypothetical model that would explain how an abundance of seemingly unrelated phenotypic attributes may in the end reflect a singular function. All stories eventually draw to a conclusion. This epic tale may eventually leave us with the realization that p53, most simply described, is a protein that evolved to mediate immune surveillance. PMID:26951863

  1. MDM2-p53 Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xuan; Franklin, Derek A; Dong, Jiahong; Zhang, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in the TP53 gene and overexpression of MDM2, a transcriptional target and negative regulator of p53, are commonly observed in cancers. The MDM2-p53 feedback loop plays an important role in tumor progression and thus, increased understanding of the pathway has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for cancer patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has emerged as one of the most commonly diagnosed forms of human cancer; yet, the current treatment for HCC is less effective than those used against other cancers. We review the current studies of the MDM2-p53 pathway in cancer with a focus on HCC, and specifically discuss the impact of p53 mutations along with other alterations of the MDM2-p53 feedback loop in HCC. We also discuss the potential diagnostic and prognostic applications of p53 and MDM2 in malignant tumors as well as therapeutic avenues that are being developed to target the MDM2-p53 pathway. PMID:25477334

  2. p53 and the pathogenesis of skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2007-11-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene and gene product are among the most diverse and complex molecules involved in cellular functions. Genetic alterations within the p53 gene have been shown to have a direct correlation with cancer development and have been shown to occur in nearly 50% of all cancers. p53 mutations are particularly common in skin cancers and UV irradiation has been shown to be a primary cause of specific 'signature' mutations that can result in oncogenic transformation. There are certain 'hot-spots' in the p53 gene where mutations are commonly found that result in a mutated dipyrimidine site. This review discusses the role of p53 from normal function and its dysfunction in pre-cancerous lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. Additionally, special situations are explored, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome in which there is an inherited p53 mutation, and the consequences of immune suppression on p53 mutations and the resulting increase in non-melanoma skin cancer in these patients.

  3. Coordination of the Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Activities of p53 in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Tian; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a key role in the cellular response to various stresses. Most previous studies have focused on either the nuclear or cytoplasmic proapoptotic functions of p53, ignoring the combination of both functions. To explore how the two functions of p53 are coordinated in the DNA damage response via computer simulation, we construct a model for the p53 network comprising coupled positive and negative feedback loops involving p53, Mdm2, and Akt, as well as PUMA and Bax. In our model p53 is stabilized and accumulates in the nucleus and cytoplasm upon DNA damage. Nuclear p53 induces expression of Mdm2, PTEN, PUMA, and Bax. Cytoplasmic p53 is then released from the p53·Bcl-xL complex by PUMA to activate Bax directly. We find that the switching between low and high protein levels underlies the decision between cell survival and death. Moreover, a balance between the nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 levels and appropriate levels of Akt and PUMA are required for reliable cell fate decision. Our results indicate that coordination of the transcription-dependent and -independent activities of p53 is important in determining cellular outcomes. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism for p53-mediated cellular responses and provide clues to p53-based cancer therapy. PMID:20858413

  4. STAT5A is regulated by DNA damage via the tumor suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal K; Cass, Jamaica; Raptis, Leda; Craig, Andrew W; Bourdeau, Véronique; Varma, Sonal; SenGupta, Sandip; Elliott, Bruce E; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Here we report that the STAT5A transcription factor is a direct p53 transcriptional target gene. STAT5A is well expressed in p53 wild type cells but not in p53-null cells. Inhibition of p53 reduces STAT5A expression. DNA damaging agents such as doxorubicin also induced STAT5A expression in a p53 dependent manner. Two p53 binding sites were mapped in the STAT5A gene and named PBS1 and PBS2; these sites were sufficient to confer p53 responsiveness in a luciferase reporter gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PBS2 has constitutive p53 bound to it, while p53 binding to PBS1 required DNA damage. In normal human breast lobules, weak p53 staining correlated with regions of intense STAT5A staining. Interestingly, in a cohort of triple negative breast tumor tissues there was little correlation between regions of p53 and STAT5A staining, likely reflecting a high frequency of p53 mutations that stabilize the protein in these tumors. We thus reveal an unexpected connection between cytokine signaling and p53. PMID:26876578

  5. DNA-mediated oxidation of p53.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Kathryn N; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2014-06-01

    Transcription factor p53 is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer. As a redox-active protein in direct contact with DNA, p53 can directly sense oxidative stress through DNA-mediated charge transport. Electron hole transport occurs over long distances through the π-stacked bases and leads to the oxidative dissociation of p53. The extent of protein dissociation depends upon the redox potential of the DNA in direct contact with each p53 monomer. The DNA sequence dependence of p53 oxidative dissociation was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using oligonucleotides containing both synthetic and human p53 consensus sequences with an appended photooxidant, anthraquinone. Greater p53 dissociation is observed from sequences containing low-redox potential purine regions, particularly guanine triplets. Using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of irradiated anthraquinone-modified DNA, the DNA damage sites corresponding to sites of preferred electron hole localization were determined. The resulting DNA damage preferentially localizes to guanine doublets and triplets. Oxidative DNA damage is inhibited in the presence of p53, but only at sites in direct contact with p53. From these data, predictions about the sensitivity of human p53-binding sites to oxidative stress as well as possible biological implications have been made. On the basis of our data, the guanine pattern within the purine region of each p53-binding site determines the response of p53 to DNA oxidation, yielding for some sequences the oxidative dissociation of p53 from a distance and thereby providing another potential role for DNA charge transport chemistry within the cell. PMID:24853816

  6. p53 modulates homologous recombination by transcriptional regulation of the RAD51 gene

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Lopez, Carmen; Lazaro-Trueba, Iciar; Kerr, Peter; Lord, Christopher J; Dexter, Tim; Iravani, Marjan; Ashworth, Alan; Silva, Augusto

    2006-01-01

    DNA repair by homologous recombination is involved in maintaining genome stability. Previous data report that wild-type p53 suppresses homologous recombination and physically interacts with Rad51. Here, we show the in vivo binding of wild-type p53 to a p53 response element in the promoter of Rad51 and the downregulation of Rad51 messenger RNA and protein by wild-type p53, favoured by DNA damage. Moreover, wild-type p53 inhibits Rad51 foci formation in response to double-strand breaks, whereas p53 contact mutant R280K fails to repress Rad51 mRNA and protein expression and Rad51 foci formation. We propose that transcriptional repression of Rad51 by p53 participates in regulating homologous recombination, and impaired Rad51 repression by p53 mutants may contribute to malignant transformation. PMID:16322760

  7. Inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity by human cytomegalovirus UL44.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yejin; Kim, Mi-Na; Young Choi, Eun; Heon Kim, Jung; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Cha, Chang-Yong

    2012-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates cellular synthesis of DNA and proteins and induces transition of the cell cycle from G(1) to S and G(2) /M phase, in spite of increased amounts of p53 in the infected cells. The immediate early protein IE2-86  kDa (IE86) tethers a transcriptional repression domain to p53; however, its repression of p53 function is not enough to abrogate the G(1) checkpoint function of p53. Other HCMV proteins that suppress the activity of p53 were investigated in this study. Of the HCMV proteins that bind to p53 when assessed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis, HCMV UL44 was chosen as a candidate protein. It was found that reporter gene containing p53 consensus sequence was activated by transfection with wild type p53, but when plasmids of p53 with IE86 or UL44 were co-transfected, p53 transcriptional activity was decreased to 3-7% of the p53 control in a dose-dependent manner. When the deletion mutant of UL44 was co-transected with p53, the carboxyl one-third portion of UL44 had little effect on inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity. The amount of mRNA p21 was measured in H1299 by real time PCR after transfection of the combination of p53 and UL44 vectors and it was found that p21 transcription by p53 was inhibited dose-dependently by UL44. Increased G0/G1 and decreased S phases in p53 wild type-transfected H1299 cells were recovered to the level of p53 mutant type-transfected ones by the additional transfection of UL44 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the transcriptional activity of p53 is suppressed by UL44 as well as by IE86. PMID:22376288

  8. p53 mutation heterogeneity in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Soussi, T. . E-mail: thierry.soussi@free.fr; Lozano, G.

    2005-06-10

    The p53 gene is inactivated in about 50% of human cancers and the p53 protein is an essential component of the cell response induced by genotoxic stresses such as those generated by radiotherapy or chemotherapy. It is therefore highly likely that these alterations are an important component in tumor resistance to therapy. The particular characteristics of these alterations, 80% of which are missense mutations leading to functionally heterogeneous proteins, make p53 a unique gene in the class of tumor suppressor genes. A considerable number of mutant p53 proteins probably have an oncogenic activity per se and therefore actively participate in cell transformation. The fact that the apoptotic and antiproliferative functions of p53 can be dissociated in certain mutants also suggests another level of complexity in the relationships between p53 inactivation and neoplasia.

  9. Mutant p53: one name, many proteins

    PubMed Central

    Freed-Pastor, William A.; Prives, Carol

    2012-01-01

    There is now strong evidence that mutation not only abrogates p53 tumor-suppressive functions, but in some instances can also endow mutant proteins with novel activities. Such neomorphic p53 proteins are capable of dramatically altering tumor cell behavior, primarily through their interactions with other cellular proteins and regulation of cancer cell transcriptional programs. Different missense mutations in p53 may confer unique activities and thereby offer insight into the mutagenic events that drive tumor progression. Here we review mechanisms by which mutant p53 exerts its cellular effects, with a particular focus on the burgeoning mutant p53 transcriptome, and discuss the biological and clinical consequences of mutant p53 gain of function. PMID:22713868

  10. The emerging role of p53 in exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2014-03-01

    The major tumour suppressor protein, p53, is one of the most well-studied proteins in cell biology. Often referred to as the Guardian of the Genome, the list of known functions of p53 include regulatory roles in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, angiogenesis, DNA repair and cell senescence. More recently, p53 has been implicated as a key molecular player regulating substrate metabolism and exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. In this context, the study of p53 therefore has obvious implications for both human health and performance, given that impaired mitochondrial content and function is associated with the pathology of many metabolic disorders such as ageing, type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer, as well as reduced exercise performance. Studies on p53 knockout (KO) mice collectively demonstrate that ablation of p53 content reduces intermyofibrillar (IMF) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondrial yield, reduces cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α protein content whilst also reducing mitochondrial respiration and increasing reactive oxygen species production during state 3 respiration in IMF mitochondria. Additionally, p53 KO mice exhibit marked reductions in exercise capacity (in the magnitude of 50 %) during fatiguing swimming, treadmill running and electrical stimulation protocols. p53 may regulate contractile-induced increases in mitochondrial content via modulating mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) content and/or activity, given that p53 KO mice display reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA, Tfam messenger RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, upon muscle contraction, p53 is phosphorylated on serine 15 and subsequently translocates to the mitochondria where it forms a complex with Tfam to modulate expression of mitochondrial-encoded subunits of the COX complex. In human skeletal muscle, the exercise-induced phosphorylation of p53(Ser15) is enhanced in conditions

  11. Changes in O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Homeostasis Activate the p53 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz; Madan, Rashna; Chien, Jeremy; Dias, Wagner Barbosa; Slawson, Chad

    2016-09-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification consisting of the addition of a single N-acetylglucosamine sugar to serine and threonine residues in proteins by the enzyme O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), whereas the enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes the modification. In cancer, tumor samples present with altered O-GlcNAcylation; however, changes in O-GlcNAcylation are not consistent between tumor types. Interestingly, the tumor suppressor p53 is modified by O-GlcNAc, and most solid tumors contain mutations in p53 leading to the loss of p53 function. Because ovarian cancer has a high frequency of p53 mutation rates, we decided to investigate the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and p53 function in ovarian cancer. We measured a significant decrease in O-GlcNAcylation of tumor tissue in an ovarian tumor microarray. Furthermore, O-GlcNAcylation was increased, and OGA protein and mRNA levels were decreased in ovarian tumor cell lines not expressing the protein p53. Treatment with the OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G (TMG), silencing of OGA, or overexpression of OGA and OGT led to p53 stabilization, increased nuclear localization, and increased protein and mRNA levels of p53 target genes. These data suggest that changes in O-GlcNAc homeostasis activate the p53 pathway. Combination treatment of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin with TMG decreased tumor cell growth and enhanced cell cycle arrest without impairing cytotoxicity. The effects of TMG on tumor cell growth were partially dependent on wild type p53 activation. In conclusion, changes in O-GlcNAc homeostasis activate the wild type p53 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, and OGA inhibition has the potential as an adjuvant treatment for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:27402830

  12. The polymorphisms of P53 codon 72 and MDM2 SNP309 and renal cell carcinoma risk in a low arsenic exposure area

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chao-Yuan; Su, Chien-Tien; Chu, Jan-Show; Huang, Shu-Pin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Yang, Hsiu-Yuan; Chung, Chi-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chang; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2011-12-15

    Our recent study demonstrated the increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with high urinary total arsenic levels among people living in a low arsenic exposure area. Genomic instability is important in arsenic carcinogenesis. This study evaluated the relationship between the polymorphisms of p53, p21, and MDM2, which plays a role in gene stability, and the arsenic-related RCC risk. Here, we found that p53 Pro/Pro genotype and MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype significantly increased RCC risk compared to the p53 Arg/Arg genotype and MDM2 SNP309 TT genotype. RCC patients with the p53Arg/Arg genotype had a signicantly low percentage of inorganic arsenic, a low percentage of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and a high percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which indicates efcient arsenic methylation capacity. Subjects with the p53 Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro genotype or MDM2 SNP309 TG + GG genotype, in conjunction with high urinary total arsenic ({>=} 14.02 {mu}g/L), had a signicantly higher RCC risk than those with the p53 Arg/Arg or MDM2 SNP309 TT genotypes and low urinary total arsenic. Taken together, this is the first study to show that a variant genotype of p53 Arg{sup 72}Pro or MDM2 SNP309 may modify the arsenic-related RCC risk even in a non-obvious arsenic exposure area. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subjects with p53 Pro/Pro or MDM2 GG genotype significantly increased RCC risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant multiplicative joint effect of p53 and p21 on RCC risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RCC patients with p53 Arg/Arg genotype had efficient arsenic methylation capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Joint effect of p53 or MDM2 genotype and high urinary total arsenic on RCC risk.

  13. FAK and p53 protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Cance, William G

    2011-09-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase plays a major role in cell adhesion, motility, survival, proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. In 2004, we have cloned the promoter sequence of FAK and found that p53 inhibits its activity (BBA, v. 1678, 2004). In 2005, we were the first group to show that FAK and p53 proteins directly interact in the cells (JBC, v. 280, 2005). We have shown that FAK and p53 proteins interact in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus by immunoprecipitation, pull-down and confocal microscopy assays. We have shown that FAK inhibited activity of p53 with the transcriptional targets: p21, Bax and Mdm-2 through protein-protein interactions. We identified the 7 amino-acid site in p53 that is involved in interaction with FAK protein. The present review will discuss the interaction of FAK and p53 proteins and discuss the mechanism of FAK-p53 loop regulation: inhibition of FAK promoter activity by p53 protein and also inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity by FAK protein. PMID:21355845

  14. PML IV/ARF interaction enhances p53 SUMO-1 conjugation, activation, and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Ivanschitz, Lisa; Takahashi, Yuki; Jollivet, Florence; Ayrault, Olivier; Le Bras, Morgane; de Thé, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) recruit multiple partners, including p53 and many of its regulators. NBs are believed to facilitate several posttranslational modifications and are key regulators of senescence. PML, the organizer of NBs, is expressed as a number of splice variants that all efficiently recruit p53 partners. However, overexpression of only one of them, PML IV, triggers p53-driven senescence. Here, we show that PML IV specifically binds ARF, a key p53 regulator. Similar to ARF, PML IV enhances global SUMO-1 conjugation, particularly that of p53, resulting in p53 stabilization and activation. ARF interacts with and stabilizes the NB-associated UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme, possibly explaining PML IV-enhanced SUMOylation. These results unexpectedly link two key tumor suppressors, highlighting their convergence for global control of SUMO conjugation, p53 activation, and senescence induction. PMID:26578773

  15. The transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program is a major contributor to nutlin-induced apoptosis in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Vaseva, Angelina V; Marchenko, Natalia D; Moll, Ute M

    2009-06-01

    Strategies to induce p53 activation in tumors that retain wild-type p53 are promising for cancer therapy. Nutlin is a potent and selective pharmacological MDM2 inhibitor that competitively binds to its p53-binding pocket, thereby leading to non-genotoxic p53 stabilization and activation of growth arrest and apoptosis pathways. Nutlin-induced apoptosis is thought to occur via p53's transcriptional program. Here we report that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program plays an important role in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated tumor cell death. Aside from nuclear stabilization, Nutlin causes cytoplasmic p53 accumulation and translocation to mitochondria. Monoubiquitinated p53, originating from a distinct cytoplasmic pool, is the preferred p53 species that translocates to mitochondria in response to stress. Nutlin does not interfere with MDM2's ability to monoubiquitinate p53, due to the fact that MDM2-p53 complexes are only partially disrupted and that Nutlin-stabilized MDM2 retains its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Nutlin-induced mitochondrial p53 translocation is rapid and associated with cytochrome C release that precedes induction of p53 target genes. Specific inhibition of mitochondrial p53 translocation by Pifithrin mu reduces the apoptotic Nutlin response by 2.5-fold, underlining the significance of p53's mitochondrial program in Nutlin-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53, either via alpha-Amanitin or the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor Pifithrin alpha, not only fails to inhibit, but greatly potentiates Nutlin-induced apoptosis. In sum, the direct mitochondrial program is a major mechanism in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, at least in some tumors the transcriptional p53 activities in net balance not only are dispensable for the apoptotic Nutlin response, but appear to actively block its therapeutic effect. PMID:19411846

  16. The transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program is a major contributor to nutlin-induced apoptosis in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaseva, Angelina V.; Marchenko, Natalia D.; Moll, Ute M.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to induce p53 activation in tumors that retain wild-type p53 are promising for cancer therapy. Nutlin is a potent and selective pharmacological MDM2 inhibitor that competitively binds to its p53-binding pocket, thereby leading to non-genotoxic p53 stabilization and activation of growth arrest and apoptosis pathways. Nutlin-induced apoptosis is thought to occur via p53’s transcriptional program. Here we report that the transcription-independent mitochondrial p53 program plays an important role in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated tumor cell death. Aside from nuclear stabilization, Nutlin causes cytoplasmic p53 accumulation and translocation to mitochondria. Monoubiquitinated p53, originating from a distinct cytoplasmic pool, is the preferred p53 species that translocates to mitochondria in response to stress. Nutlin does not interfere with MDM2’s ability to monoubiquitinate p53, due to the fact that MDM2-p53 complexes are only partially disrupted and that Nutlin-stabilized MDM2 retains its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Nutlin-induced mitochondrial p53 translocation is rapid and associated with cytochrome C release that precedes induction of p53 target genes. Specific inhibition of mitochondrial p53 translocation by Pifithrin μ reduces the apoptotic Nutlin response by 2.5-fold, underlining the significance of p53’s mitochondrial program in Nutlin-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, blocking the transcriptional arm of p53, either via α-Amanitin or the p53-specific transcriptional inhibitor Pifithrin α, not only fails to inhibit, but greatly potentiates Nutlin-induced apoptosis. In sum, the direct mitochondrial program is a major mechanism in Nutlin-induced p53-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, at least in some tumors the transcriptional p53 activities in net balance not only are dispensable for the apoptotic Nutlin response, but appear to actively block its therapeutic effect. PMID:19411846

  17. Mitochondrial death functions of p53

    PubMed Central

    Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor network plays a fundamental surveillance role in both homeostatic and adaptive cell biology. p53 is one of the most important barriers against malignant derailment of normal cells, orchestrating growth arrest, senescence, or cell death by linking many different pathways in response to genotoxic and non-genotoxic insults. p53 is the key broadband sensor for numerous cellular stresses such as DNA damage, hypoxia, oxidative stress, oncogenic signaling, and nucleolar stress. The crucial tumor suppressive and tissue homeostasis activity of p53 is its ability to activate cell death via multiple different pathways. A well-characterized biochemical function of p53 in the regulation of apoptosis is its role as a potent transcriptional regulator. p53 activates a panel of proapoptotic genes from the mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor programs while repressing antiapoptotic Bcl2 family genes. In addition, over the last 10 y a growing body of evidence has also defined direct extranuclear non-transcriptional p53 activities within mitochondria-mediated cell death pathways that are based on p53 protein accumulation in cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments and protein-protein interactions. To date, transcription-independent p53-mediated cell death regulation has been described for apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Because mitochondrial dysregulation is central to the development of a number of pathologic processes such as cancer and neurodegenerative and age-related diseases, understanding the direct roles of p53 protein in mitochondria has high translational impact and could facilitate the development of novel drug targets to combat these diseases. In this review we will mainly focus on mechanisms of p53-mediated transcription-independent cell death pathways at mitochondria. PMID:27308326

  18. Targeting the p53 signaling pathway in cancer therapy - The promises, challenges, and perils

    PubMed Central

    Stegh, Alexander H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Research over the past three decades has identified p53 as a multifunctional transcription factor, which regulates the expression of >2,500 target genes. p53 impacts myriad, highly diverse cellular processes, including the maintenance of genomic stability and fidelity, metabolism, longevity, and represents one of the most important and extensively studied tumor suppressors. Activated by various stresses, foremost genotoxic damage, hypoxia, heat shock and oncogenic assault, p53 blocks cancer progression by provoking transient or permanent growth arrest, by enabling DNA repair or by advancing cellular death programs. This potent and versatile anti-cancer activity profile, together with genomic and mutational analyses documenting inactivation of p53 in more than 50% of human cancers, motivated drug development efforts to (re-) activate p53 in established tumors. Areas covered In this review the complexities of p53 signaling in cancer are summarized. Current strategies and challenges to restore p53’s tumor suppressive function in established tumors, i.e. adenoviral gene transfer and small molecules to activate p53, to inactivate p53 inhibitors and to restore wild type function of p53 mutant proteins are discussed. Expert opinion It is indubitable that p53 represents an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer therapies. Whether p53 is ‘druggable’, however, remains an area of active research and discussion, as p53 has pro-survival functions and chronic p53 activation accelerates aging, which may compromise the long-term homeostasis of an organism. Thus, the complex biology and dual functions of p53 in cancer prevention and age-related cellular responses pose significant challenges on the development of p53-targeting cancer therapies. PMID:22239435

  19. UBE4B targets phosphorylated p53 at serines 15 and 392 for degradation.

    PubMed

    Du, Cheng; Wu, Hong; Leng, Roger P

    2016-01-19

    Phosphorylation of p53 is a key mechanism responsible for the activation of its tumor suppressor functions in response to various stresses. In unstressed cells, p53 is rapidly turned over and is maintained at a low basal level. After DNA damage or other forms of cellular stress, the p53 level increases, and the protein becomes metabolically stable. However, the mechanism of phosphorylated p53 regulation is unclear. In this study, we studied the kinetics of UBE4B, Hdm2, Pirh2, Cop1 and CHIP induction in response to p53 activation. We show that UBE4B coimmunoprecipitates with phosphorylated p53 at serines 15 and 392. Notably, the affinity between UBE4B and Hdm2 is greatly decreased after DNA damage. Furthermore, we observe that UBE4B promotes endogenous phospho-p53(S15) and phospho-p53(S392) degradation in response to IR. We demonstrate that UBE4B and Hdm2 repress p53S15A, p53S392A, and p53-2A(S15A, S392A) functions, including p53-dependent transactivation and growth inhibition. Overall, our results reveal that UBE4B plays an important role in regulating phosphorylated p53 following DNA damage. PMID:26673821

  20. The critical role of catalase in prooxidant and antioxidant function of p53

    PubMed Central

    Kang, M Y; Kim, H-B; Piao, C; Lee, K H; Hyun, J W; Chang, I-Y; You, H J

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is an important regulator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, although downstream mediators of p53 remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that p53 and its downstream targets, p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2) and p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), physically and functionally interact with catalase for efficient regulation of intracellular ROS, depending on stress intensity. Under physiological conditions, the antioxidant functions of p53 are mediated by p53R2, which maintains increased catalase activity and thereby protects against endogenous ROS. After genotoxic stress, high levels of p53 and PIG3 cooperate to inhibit catalase activity, leading to a shift in the oxidant/antioxidant balance toward an oxidative status, which could augment apoptotic cell death. These results highlight the essential role of catalase in p53-mediated ROS regulation and suggest that the p53/p53R2–catalase and p53/PIG3–catalase pathways are critically involved in intracellular ROS regulation under physiological conditions and during the response to DNA damage, respectively. PMID:22918438

  1. Lysosomal destabilization in p53-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xi-Ming; Li, Wei; Dalen, Helge; Lotem, Joseph; Kama, Rachel; Sachs, Leo; Brunk, Ulf T.

    2002-01-01

    The tumor suppressor wild-type p53 can induce apoptosis. M1-t-p53 myeloid leukemic cells have a temperature-sensitive p53 protein that changes its conformation to wild-type p53 after transfer from 37°C to 32°C. We have now found that these cells showed an early lysosomal rupture after transfer to 32°C. Mitochondrial damage, including decreased membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, and the appearance of apoptotic cells occurred later. Lysosomal rupture, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis were all inhibited by the cytokine IL-6. Some other compounds can also inhibit apoptosis induced by p53. The protease inhibitor N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone inhibited the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited only cytochrome c release, and the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole inhibited only the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast to IL-6, these other compounds that inhibited some of the later occurring mitochondrial damage did not inhibit the earlier p53-induced lysosomal damage. The results indicate that apoptosis is induced by p53 through a lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway that is initiated by lysosomal destabilization, and that this pathway can be dissected by using different apoptosis inhibitors. These findings on the induction of p53-induced lysosomal destabilization can also help to formulate new therapies for diseases with apoptotic disorders. PMID:11959917

  2. Mutant p53 (p53-R248Q) functions as an oncogene in promoting endometrial cancer by up-regulating REGγ.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihui; Bao, Wei; Jiang, Feizhou; Che, Qi; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Fangyuan; Tong, Huan; Dai, Chenyun; He, Xiaoying; Liao, Yun; Liu, Binya; Sun, Jing; Wan, Xiaoping

    2015-05-01

    P53 mutation plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer (EC), here we report that the gain-of-function mutant p53-R248Q targets the proteasome activator REGγ to promote EC progression. Increased p53 expression significantly correlated with high pathological grade and lymph node metastasis in EC specimens. Manipulation of p53-R248Q in EC cells caused coincident changes in REGγ expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with PCR further indicated that p53-R248Q bound to the REGγ gene promoter at a p53 responsive element. Silencing of REGγ in EC cells attenuated the cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, whereas overexpression of p53-R248Q rescued these activities. Overexpression of REGγ also induced an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype. Moreover, a mouse xenograft tumor model showed that REGγ promoted tumor growth, further demonstrating a p53-R248Q-REGγ oncogenic pathway. Finally, examination of EC and normal endometrium specimens confirmed the oncogenic role of REGγ, in that REGγ was more highly overexpressed in p53-positive specimens than in p53-negative specimens. Our data suggest that REGγ is a promising therapeutic target for EC with the p53-R248Q mutation. PMID:25697482

  3. Regulation of rheumatoid synoviocyte proliferation by endogenous p53 induction

    PubMed Central

    Migita, K; Tanaka, F; Yamasaki, S; Shibatomi, K; Ida, H; Kawakami, A; Aoyagi, T; Kawabe, Y; Eguchi, K

    2001-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor protein protects cells from tumorigenic alterations by inducing either cell growth arrest or apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous p53 expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts which show transformed-appearing phenotypes. Type B synovial cells (fibroblast-like synovial cells) were exposed to a proteasome inhibitor, carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal (MG-132). During this process, the expressions of p53 and p21 were examined by Western blot. Cell cycle analysis of the synovial cells was determined by DNA staining using propidium iodide (PI). Inhibition of proteasome resulted in the accumulation of p53 which was followed by an increase in the amount of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor, p21. As a consequence, the retinoblastoma gene product, Rb, remained in the hypophosphorylated state, thus preventing PDGF-stimulated synovial cells from progressing into S-phase. This study shows that endogenous p53, which is inducible in rheumatoid synovial cells, is functionally active based on the findings that its expression blocks the G1/S transition by inhibiting the CDK-mediated phosphorylation of Rb via p21 induction. Thus the induction of p53 using proteasome inhibitor may provide a new approach in the treatment of RA. PMID:11703379

  4. A p53 growth arrest protects fibroblasts from anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    McCormack, E S; Bruskin, A M; Borzillo, G V

    1997-01-01

    Reversible inhibitors of the cell cycle such as the TGF-betas have been exploited to protect dividing cells from exposure to anticancer drugs and radiation. Here, rat embryo fibroblast (REF) lines expressing different p53 mutations were used to test whether the p53 growth arrest could also chemoprotect cells from high doses of anticancer drugs. Whereas the doubling times of the different REF lines at 37 degrees C were similar, cells bearing temperature-sensitive mutations (mouse 135V or human 143A) were growth arrested at 31 degrees C. Temperature-dependent p53 activity was associated with increased levels of MDM2 and p21/WAF1, and the induction of an integrated p53-responsive luciferase gene. The REF lines exhibited similar sensitivities to common anticancer drugs when grown at 37 degrees C. However, when exposed to the same agents following transient incubation at 31 degrees C, the p53-arrested cells exhibited a marked survival advantage as shown by colony-forming assays. Chemoprotection was not universal, in that colony formation was not enhanced significantly after treatment with cisplatin or 5-fluorouracil, two drugs which can cause cellular damage throughout the cell cycle. Like other negative growth regulators, an activated p53 checkpoint may mediate the survival of cells exposed to drugs that target DNA synthesis or mitosis. PMID:9351895

  5. Characterization of p53 expression in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle; Tee, Catherine; Zeng, Fanxing; Sherry, James P; Dixon, Brian; Bols, Niels C; Duncker, Bernard P

    2011-11-01

    The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a critical component of cell cycle checkpoint responses. It upregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in response to DNA damage and other cellular perturbations, and promotes apoptosis when DNA repair pathways are overwhelmed. Given the high incidence of p53 mutations in human cancers, it has been extensively studied, though only a small fraction of these investigations have been in non-mammalian systems. For the present study, an anti-rainbow trout p53 polyclonal antibody was generated. A variety of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues and cell lines were examined through western blot analysis of cellular protein extracts, which revealed relatively high p53 levels in brain and gills. To evaluate the checkpoint response of rainbow trout p53, RTbrain-W1 and RTgill-W1 cell lines were exposed to varying concentrations of the DNA damaging agent bleomycin and ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea. In contrast to mammals, these checkpoint-inducing agents provoked no apparent increase in rainbow trout p53 levels. These results infer the presence of alternate DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in rainbow trout cells. PMID:21767662

  6. 2-Sulfonylpyrimidines: Mild alkylating agents with anticancer activity toward p53-compromised cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthias R; Joerger, Andreas C; Fersht, Alan R

    2016-09-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 has the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Many of p53's oncogenic mutants are just destabilized and rapidly aggregate, and are targets for stabilization by drugs. We found certain 2-sulfonylpyrimidines, including one named PK11007, to be mild thiol alkylators with anticancer activity in several cell lines, especially those with mutationally compromised p53. PK11007 acted by two routes: p53 dependent and p53 independent. PK11007 stabilized p53 in vitro via selective alkylation of two surface-exposed cysteines without compromising its DNA binding activity. Unstable p53 was reactivated by PK11007 in some cancer cell lines, leading to up-regulation of p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. More generally, there was cell death that was independent of p53 but dependent on glutathione depletion and associated with highly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as also found for the anticancer agent PRIMA-1(MET)(APR-246). PK11007 may be a lead for anticancer drugs that target cells with nonfunctional p53 or impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in a wide variety of mutant p53 cells. PMID:27551077

  7. PHTS, a novel putative tumor suppressor, is involved in the transformation reversion of HeLaHF cells independently of the p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Dehua; Fan, Wufang; Liu, Guohong; Nguy, Vivian; Chatterton, Jon E.; Long Shilong; Ke, Ning; Meyhack, Bernd; Bruengger, Adrian; Brachat, Arndt; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang . E-mail: li@immusol.com

    2006-04-01

    HeLaHF is a non-transformed revertant of HeLa cells, likely resulting from the activation of a putative tumor suppressor(s). p53 protein was stabilized in this revertant and reactivated for certain transactivation functions. Although p53 stabilization has not conclusively been linked to the reversion, it is clear that the genes in p53 pathway are involved. The present study confirms the direct role of p53 in HeLaHF reversion by demonstrating that RNAi-mediated p53 silencing partially restores anchorage-independent growth potential of the revertant through the suppression of anoikis. In addition, we identified a novel gene, named PHTS, with putative tumor suppressor properties, and showed that this gene is also involved in HeLaHF reversion independently of the p53 pathway. Expression profiling revealed that PHTS is one of the genes that is up-regulated in HeLaHF but not in HeLa. It encodes a putative protein with CD59-like domains. RNAi-mediated PHTS silencing resulted in the partial restoration of transformation (anchorage-independent growth) in HeLaHF cells, similar to that of p53 gene silencing, implying its tumor suppressor effect. However, the observed increased transformation potential by PHTS silencing appears to be due to an increased anchorage-independent proliferation rate rather than suppression of anoikis, unlike the effect of p53 silencing. p53 silencing did not affect PHTS gene expression, and vice versa, suggesting PHTS may function in a new and p53-independent tumor suppressor pathway. Furthermore, over-expression of PHTS in different cancer cell lines, in addition to HeLa, reduces cell growth likely via induced apoptosis, confirming the broad PHTS tumor suppressor properties.

  8. Microbial Regulation of p53 Tumor Suppressor.

    PubMed

    Zaika, Alexander I; Wei, Jinxiong; Noto, Jennifer M; Peek, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    p53 tumor suppressor has been identified as a protein interacting with the large T antigen produced by simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). Subsequent research on p53 inhibition by SV40 and other tumor viruses has not only helped to gain a better understanding of viral biology, but also shaped our knowledge of human tumorigenesis. Recent studies have found, however, that inhibition of p53 is not strictly in the realm of viruses. Some bacterial pathogens also actively inhibit p53 protein and induce its degradation, resulting in alteration of cellular stress responses. This phenomenon was initially characterized in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that commonly infects the human stomach and is strongly linked to gastric cancer. Besides H. pylori, a number of other bacterial species were recently discovered to inhibit p53. These findings provide novel insights into host-bacteria interactions and tumorigenesis associated with bacterial infections. PMID:26379246

  9. Microbial Regulation of p53 Tumor Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Zaika, Alexander I.; Wei, Jinxiong; Noto, Jennifer M.; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    p53 tumor suppressor has been identified as a protein interacting with the large T antigen produced by simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). Subsequent research on p53 inhibition by SV40 and other tumor viruses has not only helped to gain a better understanding of viral biology, but also shaped our knowledge of human tumorigenesis. Recent studies have found, however, that inhibition of p53 is not strictly in the realm of viruses. Some bacterial pathogens also actively inhibit p53 protein and induce its degradation, resulting in alteration of cellular stress responses. This phenomenon was initially characterized in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that commonly infects the human stomach and is strongly linked to gastric cancer. Besides H. pylori, a number of other bacterial species were recently discovered to inhibit p53. These findings provide novel insights into host–bacteria interactions and tumorigenesis associated with bacterial infections. PMID:26379246

  10. Xenogeneic human p53 DNA vaccination by electroporation breaks immune tolerance to control murine tumors expressing mouse p53.

    PubMed

    Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Trieu, Janson; Lee, Sung Yong; He, Liangmei; Tsai, Ya-Chea; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The pivotal role of p53 as a tumor suppressor protein is illustrated by the fact that this protein is found mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. In most cases, mutations in p53 greatly increase the otherwise short half-life of this protein in normal tissue and cause it to accumulate in the cytoplasm of tumors. The overexpression of mutated p53 in tumor cells makes p53 a potentially desirable target for the development of cancer immunotherapy. However, p53 protein represents an endogenous tumor-associated antigen (TAA). Immunization against a self-antigen is challenging because an antigen-specific immune response likely generates only low affinity antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells. This represents a bottleneck of tumor immunotherapy when targeting endogenous TAAs expressed by tumors. The objective of the current study is to develop a safe cancer immunotherapy using a naked DNA vaccine. The vaccine employs a xenogeneic p53 gene to break immune tolerance resulting in a potent therapeutic antitumor effect against tumors expressing mutated p53. Our study assessed the therapeutic antitumor effect after immunization with DNA encoding human p53 (hp53) or mouse p53 (mp53). Mice immunized with xenogeneic full length hp53 DNA plasmid intramuscularly followed by electroporation were protected against challenge with murine colon cancer MC38 while those immunized with mp53 DNA were not. In a therapeutic model, established MC38 tumors were also well controlled by treatment with hp53 DNA therapy in tumor bearing mice compared to mp53 DNA. Mice vaccinated with hp53 DNA plasmid also exhibited an increase in mp53-specific CD8(+) T-cell precursors compared to vaccination with mp53 DNA. Antibody depletion experiments also demonstrated that CD8(+) T-cells play crucial roles in the antitumor effects. This study showed intramuscular vaccination with xenogeneic p53 DNA vaccine followed by electroporation is capable of inducing potent antitumor effects against tumors expressing mutated

  11. p53 suppresses hyper-recombination by modulating BRCA1 function

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chao; Zhang, Fengmei; Luo, Yue; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Xipeng; Guo, Gongshe; Powell, Simon N.; Feng, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Both p53 and BRCA1 are tumor suppressors and are involved in a number of cellular processes including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and DNA damage repair. Some studies have suggested that the association of BRCA1 and p53 is required for transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell replication and DNA repair pathways. However, the relationship between the two proteins in molecular mechanisms of DNA repair is still not clear. Therefore, we sought to determine whether there is a functional link between p53 and BRCA1 in DNA repair. Firstly, using a plasmid recombination substrate, pDR-GFP, integrated into the genome of breast cancer cell line MCF7, we have demonstrated that p53 suppressed Rad51-mediated hyper-recombinational repair by two independent cell models of HPV-E6 induced p53 inactivation and p53 knockdown assay. Our study further indicated that p53 mediated homologous recombination (HR) through inhibiting BRCA1 over-function via mechanism of transcription regulation in response to DNA repair. Since it was found p53 and BRCA1 existed in a protein complex, indicating both proteins may be associated at post-transcriptional level. Moreover, defective p53-induced hyper-recombination was associated with cell radioresistance and chromosomal stability, strongly supporting the involvement of p53 in the inhibition of hyper-recombination, which led to genetic stability and cellular function in response to DNA damage. In addition, it was found that p53 loss rescued BRCA1 deficiency via recovering HR and chromosomal stability, suggesting that p53 is also involved in the HR-inhibition independently of BRCA1. Thus, our data indicated that p53 was involved in inhibiting recombination by both BRCA1-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and there is a functional link between p53-suppression and BRCA1-promotion in regulation of HR activity at transcription level and possible post-transcription level. PMID:26162908

  12. p53 alteration in morphologically normal/benign breast tissue in patients with triple-negative high-grade breast carcinomas: breast p53 signature?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Stolla, Moritz; Ring, Brian Z; Yang, Qi; Laughlin, Todd S; Rothberg, Paul G; Skinner, Kristin; Hicks, David G

    2016-09-01

    p53 alterations have been identified in approximately 23% of breast carcinomas, particularly in hormone receptor-negative high-grade carcinomas. It is considered to be an early event in breast carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, the putative precursor lesion of high-grade breast carcinoma remains elusive. Breast excision specimens from 93 triple-negative high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, 48 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/Her2-negative non-high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, and 50 mammoplasty breasts were selected. At least 2 tissue blocks with tumor and adjacent benign tissue were sectioned and subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for p53. TP53 gene sequencing was performed on select tumors. Further immunohistochemistry staining for ER and Ki-67 was performed on consecutive sections of tissue with p53-positive normal/benign cells. Of the 93 high-grade carcinomas, 51 (55%) were positive for p53 alteration, whereas only 3 (6.25%) of the 48 non-high-grade carcinomas were p53 altered. Focal p53 positivity in adjacent normal/benign breast tissue was identified in 19 cases, and 18 of them also had p53 alteration in their carcinomas. Only 1 case had focal p53 staining in normal/benign tissue, but the tumor was negative for p53 alteration. No p53 staining positivity was identified in the mammoplasty specimens. The p53-stained normal/benign cells were ER negative and did not show an increase in the Ki-67 labeling index. These findings indicate that the p53 staining positivity in normal/benign breast tissue is not a random event. It could be considered as the "p53 signature" in breast and serve as an indicator for future potential risk of p53-positive high-grade breast carcinoma. PMID:27246177

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 in Wilms' tumors correlates with unfavorable outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, C.; Thorner, P.; Malkin, D.; Yeger, H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of p53 in the pathogenesis and progression of Wilms' tumors is only partly understood. Although p53 mutations were initially reported only in anaplastic Wilms' tumors, we had reported that, of two of twenty-one cases that had a p53 mutation, one tumor showed no evidence of anaplasia. To determine the significance of p53 expression in all clinical stages of Wilms' tumor, twenty-eight cases were analyzed for p53 immunoreactivity. Paraffin sections were immunolabeled with two different monoclonal antibodies, recognizing both mutant and wild-type p53. Fifteen of sixteen tumors in the recurrent/metastatic group and three of twelve tumors in the nonmetastatic/nonrecurrent group showed p53 immunopositivity. Only one of three positive tumors in the latter group showed moderate to strong positivity, whereas twelve of sixteen metastatic/recurrent tumors revealed a similar degree of p53 positivity. The positivity was stronger in the metastasis/recurrences as compared with the corresponding primary tumor. Western blot analysis revealed p53 expression in all of the Wilms' tumors tested, suggesting its involvement in the development of Wilms' tumors. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis performed on twenty-three of these tumors revealed p53 mutations in four of fourteen recurrent/metastatic tumors and none in the nonmetastatic/nonrecurrent group. Our results show that, whereas 60% of cases were immunopositive for p53 protein, mutations were detected in only 16% of tumors, indicating that wild-type p53 protein is retained in the other tumors. We conclude that p53 immunopositivity strongly correlates with recurrence/metastasis in Wilms' tumors. Furthermore, the accumulation of p53 in these tumors is not only due to mutations but may also involve stabilization of normal p53 with other proteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8623926

  14. PACT is a negative regulator of p53 and essential for cell growth and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Deng, Binwei; Xing, Guichun; Teng, Yan; Tian, Chunyan; Cheng, Xuan; Yin, Xiushan; Yang, Juntao; Gao, Xue; Zhu, Yunping; Sun, Qihong; Zhang, Lingqiang; Yang, Xiao; He, Fuchu

    2007-05-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis in response to various types of stress, whereas excess p53 activity creates unwanted effects. Tight regulation of p53 is essential for maintaining normal cell growth. p53-associated cellular protein-testes derived (PACT, also known as P2P-R, RBBP6) is a 250-kDa Ring finger-containing protein that can directly bind to p53. PACT is highly up-regulated in esophageal cancer and may be a promising target for immunotherapy. However, the physiological role of the PACT-p53 interaction remains largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the disruption of PACT in mice leads to early embryonic lethality before embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5), accompanied by an accumulation of p53 and widespread apoptosis. p53-null mutation partially rescues the lethality phenotype and prolonged survival to E11.5. Endogenous PACT can interact with Hdm2 and enhance Hdm2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p53 as a result of the increase of the p53-Hdm2 affinity. Consequently, PACT represses p53-dependent gene transcription. Knockdown of PACT significantly attenuates the p53-Hdm2 interaction, reduces p53 polyubiquitination, and enhances p53 accumulation, leading to both apoptosis and cell growth retardation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the PACT-p53 interaction plays a critical role in embryonic development and tumorigenesis and identify PACT as a member of negative regulators of p53. PMID:17470788

  15. p53 negatively regulates Aurora A via both transcriptional and posttranslational regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky; Phan, Liem; Ivan, Cristina; Sood, Anil K.; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    p53 plays an important role in mitotic checkpoint, but what its role is remains enigmatic. Aurora A is a Ser/Thr kinase involved in correcting progression of mitosis. Here, we show that p53 is a negative regulator for Aurora A. We found that p53 deficiency leads to Aurora A elevation. Ectopic expression of p53 or DNA damage-induced expression of p53 can suppress the expression of Aurora A. Mechanistic studies show that p53 is a negative regulator for Aurora A expression through both transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. p53 knockdown in cancer cells reduces the level of p21, which, in turn, increases the activity of CDK2 followed by induction of Rb1 hyperphosphorylation and its dissociation with transcriptional factor E2F3. E2F3 can bind to Aurora A gene promoter, potentiating Aurora A gene expression and p53 deficiency, enhancing the binding of E2F3 on Aurora A promoter. Also, p53 deficiency leads to decelerating Aurora A’s turnover rate, due to the fact that p53 deficiency causes the downregulation of Fbw7α, a component of E3 ligase of Aurora A. Consistently, p53 knockdown-mediated Aurora A elevation is mitigated when Fbw7α is ectopically expressed. Thus, p53-mediated Aurora A degradation requires Fbw7α expression. Significantly, inverse correlation between p53 and Aurora A elevation is translated into the deregulation of centrosome amplification. p53 knockdown leads to high percentages of cells with abnormal amplification of centrosome. These data suggest that p53 is an important negative regulator of Aurora A, and that loss of p53 in many types of cancer could lead to abnormal elevation of Aurora A and dysregulated mitosis, which provides a growth advantage for cancer cells. PMID:22894933

  16. Expression of p53β and Δ133p53 isoforms in different gastric tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wansheng; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Hongmei; Ma, Jingrong; Zhong, Hua; Jiao, Jianxin; Gao, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to detect the mRNA of p53β and Δ133p53 isoforms in three gastric carcinoma cell lines and tissues of superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, gastric carcinoma, or paracancerous area. Nested reverse transcription PCR was used to detect the mRNA of p53β and Δ133p53 isoforms in tissues of superficial gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, MKN45, KATO III), gastric adenocarcinoma, and paracancerous lesion. The amplified products were shown by agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression difference among various tissues was analyzed by x2 tests. The positive rates of ∆133p53 mRNA were 73.3% (11/15) in gastric adenocarcinoma and 20% (3/15) in paracancerous tissue, whereas the positive rates of p53β mRNA were 20% (3/15) in gastric adenocarcinoma and 66.7% (10/15) in paracancerous tissue. The difference between adenocarcinoma and paracancerous tissues was significant (P<0.05). The positive rates of ∆133p53 mRNA were 25% (5/20), 50% (15/30), and 75% (15/20), respectively, in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and gastric adenocarcinoma; the positive rates of p53β mRNA were 65% (13/20), 33.3% (10/30), and 25% (5/20), respectively, in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The difference between adenocarcinoma and superficial gastritis samples was significant (P<0.05). Both p53β and ∆133p53 mRNAs were positive in MKN45; only p53β mRNA was detected in SGC7901; neither p53β nor ∆133p53 mRNA was detected in KATO III. ∆133p53 and p53β, which are possible indicators for the diagnosis and biological therapy of gastric carcinoma, were expressed differentially in different gastric tissues. PMID:26617756

  17. The transcription factor CREBZF is a novel positive regulator of p53

    PubMed Central

    López-Mateo, Irene; Villaronga, M. Ángeles; Llanos, Susana; Belandia, Borja

    2012-01-01

    CREBZF is a member of the mammalian ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. Here, we describe a novel functional interaction between CREBZF and the tumor suppressor p53. CREBZF was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using HEY1, recently characterized as an indirect p53 activator, as bait. CREBZF interacts in vitro with both HEY1 and p53, and CREBZF expression stabilizes and activates p53. Moreover, CREBZF cooperates synergistically with HEY1 to enhance p53 transcriptional activity. On the other hand, partial depletion of endogenous CREBZF diminishes p53 protein levels and inhibits HEY1-mediated activation of p53. CREBZF-positive effects on p53 signaling may reflect, at least in part, an observed induction of posttranslational modifications in p53 known to prevent its degradation. CREBZF expression protects HCT116 cells from UV radiation-induced cell death. In addition, CREBZF expression confers sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, a p53-activating chemotherapeutic drug. Our study suggests that CREBZF may participate in the modulation of p53 tumor suppressor function. PMID:22983008

  18. Transcriptional repressor NIR interacts with the p53-inhibiting ubiquitin ligase MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Kristina; Förster, Juliane; Schüle, Roland; Roemer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    NIR (novel INHAT repressor) can bind to p53 at promoters and inhibit p53-mediated gene transactivation by blocking histone acetylation carried out by p300/CBP. Like NIR, the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 can also bind and inhibit p53 at promoters. Here, we present data indicating that NIR, which shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, not only binds to p53 but also directly to MDM2, in part via the central acidic and zinc finger domain of MDM2 that is also contacted by several other nucleolus-based MDM2/p53-regulating proteins. Like some of these, NIR was able to inhibit the ubiquitination of MDM2 and stabilize MDM2; however, unlike these nucleolus-based MDM2 regulators, NIR did not inhibit MDM2 to activate p53. Rather, NIR cooperated with MDM2 to repress p53-induced transactivation. This cooperative repression may at least in part involve p300/CBP. We show that NIR can block the acetylation of p53 and MDM2. Non-acetylated p53 has been documented previously to more readily associate with inhibitory MDM2. NIR may thus help to sustain the inhibitory p53:MDM2 complex, and we present evidence suggesting that all three proteins can indeed form a ternary complex. In sum, our findings suggest that NIR can support MDM2 to suppress p53 as a transcriptional activator. PMID:24413661

  19. The transcription factor CREBZF is a novel positive regulator of p53.

    PubMed

    López-Mateo, Irene; Villaronga, M Ángeles; Llanos, Susana; Belandia, Borja

    2012-10-15

    CREBZF is a member of the mammalian ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. Here, we describe a novel functional interaction between CREBZF and the tumor suppressor p53. CREBZF was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using HEY1, recently characterized as an indirect p53 activator, as bait. CREBZF interacts in vitro with both HEY1 and p53, and CREBZF expression stabilizes and activates p53. Moreover, CREBZF cooperates synergistically with HEY1 to enhance p53 transcriptional activity. On the other hand, partial depletion of endogenous CREBZF diminishes p53 protein levels and inhibits HEY1-mediated activation of p53. CREBZF-positive effects on p53 signaling may reflect, at least in part, an observed induction of posttranslational modifications in p53 known to prevent its degradation. CREBZF expression protects HCT116 cells from UV radiation-induced cell death. In addition, CREBZF expression confers sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, a p53-activating chemotherapeutic drug. Our study suggests that CREBZF may participate in the modulation of p53 tumor suppressor function. PMID:22983008

  20. Simian virus 40 T antigen can regulate p53-mediated transcription independent of binding p53.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, J J; Jiang, D; Srinivasan, A; Pipas, J M; Robbins, P D

    1997-01-01

    A simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen mutant containing only the N-terminal 136 amino acids, able to bind to Rb and p300 but not p53, partially inhibited p53-mediated transcription without affecting the ability of p53 to bind DNA. These results suggest that SV40 T antigen can regulate p53-mediated transcription either directly through protein-protein association or indirectly through interaction with factors which may function to confer p53-mediated transcription. PMID:9188637

  1. Shifting p53-induced senescence to cell death by TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3) gene through posttranslational modification of p53 protein.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ok Ran; Ryu, Min Sook; Lim, In Kyoung

    2016-09-01

    Cellular senescence and apoptosis can be regulated by p53 activity, although the underlying mechanism of the switch between the two events remains largely unknown. Cells exposed to cancer chemotherapy can escape to senescence phenotype rather than undergoing apoptosis. By employing adenoviral transduction of p53 or TIS21 genes, we observed shifting of p53 induced-senescence to apoptosis in EJ bladder cancer cells, which express H-RasV12 and mutant p53; transduction of p53 increased H-RasV12 expression along with senescence phenotypes, whereas coexpression with TIS21 (p53+TIS21) induced cell death rather than senescence. The TIS21-mediated switch of senescence to apoptosis was accompanied by nuclear translocation of p53 protein and its modifications on Ser-15 and Ser-46 phosphorylation and acetylations on Lys-120, -320, -373 and -382 residues. Mechanistically, TIS21(/BTG2) regulated posttranslational modification of p53 via enhancing miR34a and Bax expressions as opposed to inhibiting SIRT1 and Bcl2 expression. At the same time, TIS21 increased APAF-1 and p53AIP1 expressions, but inhibited the interaction of p53 with iASPP. In vitro tumorigenicity was significantly reduced in the p53+TIS21 expresser through inhibiting micro-colony proliferation by TIS21. Effect of TIS21 on the regulation of p53 activity was confirmed by knockdown of TIS21 expression by RNA interference. Therefore, we suggest TIS21 expression as an endogenous cell death inducer at the downstream of p53 gene, which might be useful for intractable cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27208501

  2. Protective role of p53 in skin cancer: Carcinogenesis studies in mice lacking epidermal p53.

    PubMed

    Page, Angustias; Navarro, Manuel; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Casanova, M Llanos; Paramio, Jesús M; Bravo, Ana; Ramirez, Angel

    2016-04-12

    p53 is a protein that causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence, being crucial in the process of tumor suppression in several cell types. Different in vitro and animal models have been designed for the study of p53 role in skin cancer. These models have revealed opposing results, as in some experimental settings it appears that p53 protects against skin cancer, but in others, the opposite conclusion emerges. We have generated cohorts of mice with efficient p53 deletion restricted to stratified epithelia and control littermates expressing wild type p53 and studied their sensitivity to both chemically-induced and spontaneous tumoral transformation, as well as the tumor types originated in each experimental group. Our results indicate that the absence of p53 in stratified epithelia leads to the appearance, in two-stage skin carcinogenesis experiments, of a higher number of tumors that grow faster and become malignant more frequently than tumors arisen in mice with wild type p53 genotype. In addition, the histological diversity of the tumor type is greater in mice with epidermal p53 loss, indicating the tumor suppressive role of p53 in different epidermal cell types. Aging mice with p53 inactivation in stratified epithelia developed spontaneous carcinomas in skin and other epithelia. Overall, these results highlight the truly protective nature of p53 functions in the development of cancer in skin and in other stratified epithelia. PMID:26959115

  3. Protective role of p53 in skin cancer: Carcinogenesis studies in mice lacking epidermal p53

    PubMed Central

    Page, Angustias; Navarro, Manuel; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P.; Casanova, M. Llanos; Paramio, Jesús M.; Bravo, Ana; Ramirez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    p53 is a protein that causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence, being crucial in the process of tumor suppression in several cell types. Different in vitro and animal models have been designed for the study of p53 role in skin cancer. These models have revealed opposing results, as in some experimental settings it appears that p53 protects against skin cancer, but in others, the opposite conclusion emerges. We have generated cohorts of mice with efficient p53 deletion restricted to stratified epithelia and control littermates expressing wild type p53 and studied their sensitivity to both chemically-induced and spontaneous tumoral transformation, as well as the tumor types originated in each experimental group. Our results indicate that the absence of p53 in stratified epithelia leads to the appearance, in two-stage skin carcinogenesis experiments, of a higher number of tumors that grow faster and become malignant more frequently than tumors arisen in mice with wild type p53 genotype. In addition, the histological diversity of the tumor type is greater in mice with epidermal p53 loss, indicating the tumor suppressive role of p53 in different epidermal cell types. Aging mice with p53 inactivation in stratified epithelia developed spontaneous carcinomas in skin and other epithelia. Overall, these results highlight the truly protective nature of p53 functions in the development of cancer in skin and in other stratified epithelia. PMID:26959115

  4. R248Q mutation--Beyond p53-DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jeremy W K; Lama, Dilraj; Lukman, Suryani; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra S; Sim, Adelene Y L

    2015-12-01

    R248 in the DNA binding domain (DBD) of p53 interacts directly with the minor groove of DNA. Earlier nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies indicated that the R248Q mutation resulted in conformation changes in parts of DBD far from the mutation site. However, how information propagates from the mutation site to the rest of the DBD is still not well understood. We performed a series of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to dissect sterics and charge effects of R248 on p53-DBD conformation: (i) wild-type p53 DBD; (ii) p53 DBD with an electrically neutral arginine side-chain; (iii) p53 DBD with R248A; (iv) p53 DBD with R248W; and (v) p53 DBD with R248Q. Our results agree well with experimental observations of global conformational changes induced by the R248Q mutation. Our simulations suggest that both charge- and sterics are important in the dynamics of the loop (L3) where the mutation resides. We show that helix 2 (H2) dynamics is altered as a result of a change in the hydrogen bonding partner of D281. In turn, neighboring L1 dynamics is altered: in mutants, L1 predominantly adopts the recessed conformation and is unable to interact with the major groove of DNA. We focused our attention the R248Q mutant that is commonly found in a wide range of cancer and observed changes at the zinc-binding pocket that might account for the dominant negative effects of R248Q. Furthermore, in our simulations, the S6/S7 turn was more frequently solvent exposed in R248Q, suggesting that there is a greater tendency of R248Q to partially unfold and possibly lead to an increased aggregation propensity. Finally, based on the observations made in our simulations, we propose strategies for the rescue of R248Q mutants. PMID:26442703

  5. p14(ARF) Prevents Proliferation of Aneuploid Cells by Inducing p53-Dependent Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Lorena; Barra, Viviana; Lentini, Laura; Spatafora, Sergio; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Weakening the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint by reduced expression of its components induces chromosome instability and aneuploidy that are hallmarks of cancer cells. The tumor suppressor p14(ARF) is overexpressed in response to oncogenic stimuli to stabilize p53 halting cell progression. Previously, we found that lack or reduced expression of p14(ARF) is involved in the maintenance of aneuploid cells in primary human cells, suggesting that it could be part of a pathway controlling their proliferation. To investigate this aspect further, p14(ARF) was ectopically expressed in HCT116 cells after depletion of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint MAD2 protein that was used as a trigger for aneuploidy. p14(ARF) Re-expression reduced the number of aneuploid cells in MAD2 post-transcriptionally silenced cells. Also aberrant mitoses, frequently displayed in MAD2-depleted cells, were decreased when p14(ARF) was expressed at the same time. In addition, p14(ARF) ectopic expression in MAD2-depleted cells induced apoptosis associated with increased p53 protein levels. Conversely, p14(ARF) ectopic expression did not induce apoptosis in HCT116 p53KO cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor suppressor p14(ARF) may have an important role in counteracting proliferation of aneuploid cells by activating p53-dependent apoptosis. PMID:25752701

  6. Reversible induction of translational isoforms of p53 in glucose deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, D; Katoch, A; Das, A; Sharathchandra, A; Lal, R; Roy, P; Das, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 is a master transcription regulator, indispensable for controlling several cellular pathways. Earlier work in our laboratory led to the identification of dual internal ribosome entry site (IRES) structure of p53 mRNA that regulates translation of full-length p53 and Δ40p53. IRES-mediated translation of both isoforms is enhanced under different stress conditions that induce DNA damage, ionizing radiation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, oncogene-induced senescence and cancer. In this study, we addressed nutrient-mediated translational regulation of p53 mRNA using glucose depletion. In cell lines, this nutrient-depletion stress relatively induced p53 IRES activities from bicistronic reporter constructs with concomitant increase in levels of p53 isoforms. Surprisingly, we found scaffold/matrix attachment region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1), a predominantly nuclear protein is abundant in the cytoplasm under glucose deprivation. Importantly under these conditions polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein, an established p53 ITAF did not show nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization highlighting the novelty of SMAR1-mediated control in stress. In vivo studies in mice revealed starvation-induced increase in SMAR1, p53 and Δ40p53 levels that was reversible on dietary replenishment. SMAR1 associated with p53 IRES sequences ex vivo, with an increase in interaction on glucose starvation. RNAi-mediated-transient SMAR1 knockdown decreased p53 IRES activities in normal conditions and under glucose deprivation, this being reflected in changes in mRNAs in the p53 and Δ40p53 target genes involved in cell-cycle arrest, metabolism and apoptosis such as p21, TIGAR and Bax. This study provides a new physiological insight into the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor in nutrient starvation, also suggesting important functions of the p53 isoforms in these conditions as evident from the downstream transcriptional target activation. PMID:25721046

  7. The therapeutic potential of p53 reactivation by nutlin-3a in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma with wild-type or mutated p53.

    PubMed

    Drakos, E; Atsaves, V; Schlette, E; Li, J; Papanastasi, I; Rassidakis, G Z; Medeiros, L J

    2009-12-01

    p53 is expressed frequently, but is rarely mutated in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) tumours. Nutlin-3a is a recently developed small molecule that targets Mdm2, a critical negative regulator of p53, and disrupts the p53-Mdm2 interaction resulting in p53 stabilization and activation. We show that nutlin-3a activates p53 in ALK+ ALCL cells carrying a wild type (wt) or mutated but partially functional p53 gene resulting in p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell-cycle arrest was associated with upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Nutlin-3a-induced apoptotic cell death was accompanied by Bax and Puma upregulation, downregulation of Bcl-xl, survivin, and caspase-3 cleavage, and this was reduced when p53-dependent transactivation activity was inhibited by pifithrin-alpha, or when pifithrin-mu was used to inhibit direct p53 targeting of mitochondria. Nutlin-3a sensitized the activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in wt-p53 ALK+ ALCL cells, in part, through upregulation of DR-5 and downregulation of c-Flip(S/L), and was synergistic with TRAIL in cell death induction. In addition, nutlin-3a treatment enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity against ALK+ ALCL cells harbouring mt p53, and this was associated with p73 upregulation. These data suggest that disruption of the p53-mdm2 interaction by nutlin-3a offers a novel therapeutic approach for ALK+ ALCL patients. PMID:19741726

  8. Aggregation tendencies in the p53 family are modulated by backbone hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Cino, Elio A; Soares, Iaci N; Pedrote, Murilo M; de Oliveira, Guilherme A P; Silva, Jerson L

    2016-01-01

    The p53 family of proteins is comprised of p53, p63 and p73. Because the p53 DNA binding domain (DBD) is naturally unstable and possesses an amyloidogenic sequence, it is prone to form amyloid fibrils, causing loss of functions. To develop p53 therapies, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of p53 instability and aggregation. Light scattering, thioflavin T (ThT) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) assays showed that p53 DBD aggregates faster and to a greater extent than p63 and p73 DBDs, and was more susceptible to denaturation. The aggregation tendencies of p53, p63, and p73 DBDs were strongly correlated with their thermal stabilities. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations indicated specific regions of structural heterogeneity unique to p53, which may be promoted by elevated incidence of exposed backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs). The results indicate regions of structural vulnerability in the p53 DBD, suggesting new targetable sites for modulating p53 stability and aggregation, a potential approach to cancer therapy. PMID:27600721

  9. Aggregation tendencies in the p53 family are modulated by backbone hydrogen bonds

    PubMed Central

    Cino, Elio A.; Soares, Iaci N.; Pedrote, Murilo M.; de Oliveira, Guilherme A. P.; Silva, Jerson L.

    2016-01-01

    The p53 family of proteins is comprised of p53, p63 and p73. Because the p53 DNA binding domain (DBD) is naturally unstable and possesses an amyloidogenic sequence, it is prone to form amyloid fibrils, causing loss of functions. To develop p53 therapies, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of p53 instability and aggregation. Light scattering, thioflavin T (ThT) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) assays showed that p53 DBD aggregates faster and to a greater extent than p63 and p73 DBDs, and was more susceptible to denaturation. The aggregation tendencies of p53, p63, and p73 DBDs were strongly correlated with their thermal stabilities. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations indicated specific regions of structural heterogeneity unique to p53, which may be promoted by elevated incidence of exposed backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs). The results indicate regions of structural vulnerability in the p53 DBD, suggesting new targetable sites for modulating p53 stability and aggregation, a potential approach to cancer therapy. PMID:27600721

  10. Identification of a Sequence Element from p53 That Signals for Mdm2-Targeted Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jijie; Chen, Dongli; Rosenblum, Jamie; Rubin, Rachel M.; Yuan, Zhi-Min

    2000-01-01

    The binding of Mdm2 to p53 is required for targeting p53 for degradation. p73, however, binds to Mdm2 but is refractory to Mdm2-mediated degradation, indicating that binding to Mdm2 is not sufficient for degradation. By utilizing the structural homology between p53 and p73, we generated p53-p73 chimeras to determine the sequence element unique to p53 essential for regulation of its stability. We found that replacing an element consisting of amino acids 92 to 112 of p53 with the corresponding region of p73 results in a protein that is not degradable by Mdm2. Removal of amino acids 92 to 112 of p53 by deletion also results in a non-Mdm2-degradable protein. Significantly, the finding that swapping this fragment converts p73 from refractory to sensitive to Mdm2-mediated degradation supports the conclusion that the amino acids 92 to 112 of p53 function as a degradation signal. We propose that the presence of an additional protein recognizes the degradation signal and coordinates with Mdm2 to target p53 for degradation. Our finding opens the possibility of searching for the additional protein, which most likely plays a critical role in the regulation of p53 stability and therefore function. PMID:10648610

  11. Expression of p53 in endometrial polyps with special reference to the p53 signature.

    PubMed

    Sho, Tomoko; Hachisuga, Toru; Kawagoe, Toshinori; Urabe, Rie; Kurita, Tomoko; Kagami, Seiji; Shimajiri, Shohei; Fujino, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    We herein examined the significance of the p53 expression in endometrial polyps (EMPs). A total of 133 EMPs, including 62 premenopausal and 71 postmenopausal women with EMP, were immunohistochemically studied for the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, Ki-67 and p53. Apoptotic cells were identified using a TUNEL assay. A DNA sequence analysis of TP53 exons 5 to 9 was performed. Among the premenopausal EMPs, a multivariate analysis showed the labeling index (LI) for Ki-67 to correlate significantly with that for p53 (P<0.001), but not that for apoptosis. On the contrary, among the postmenopausal EMPs, the LI for Ki-67 correlated significantly with that for apoptosis (P<0.001). The p53 signature (p53S) was defined by endometrial epithelial cells, which are morphologically benign in appearance but display 12 or more consecutive epithelial cell nuclei with strong p53 immunostaining. The p53S was found in nine (12.7%) postmenopausal EMPs (mean age: 70.2 years). The median Ki-67 index for the p53S was 7%, with no significant difference from that of the glands of the postmenopausal EMPs without the p53S (P=0.058). The median apoptotic index for the p53S was 0%, which was significantly lower than that of the postmenopausal EMPs without the p53S (P=0.002). Two of four p53Ss showed TP53 mutations according to the DNA sequence analysis. The presence of the p53S is not rare in postmenopausal EMPs with an advanced age. Among postmenopausal EMPs, the LI of Ki-67 significantly correlates with that of apoptosis. However, such a positive correlation between the LI of Ki-67 and apoptosis is not observed in p53S. PMID:26727623

  12. p53, Stem Cells, and Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Spike, Benjamin T.; Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    p53 is well recognized as a potent tumor suppressor. In its classic role, p53 responds to genotoxic insults by inducing cell cycle exit or programmed cell death to limit the propagation of cells with corrupted genomes. p53 is also implicated in a variety of other cellular processes in which its involvement is less well understood including self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming. These activities represent an emerging area of intense interest for cancer biologists, as they provide potential mechanistic links between p53 loss and the stem cell–like cellular plasticity that has been suggested to contribute to tumor cell heterogeneity and to drive tumor progression. Despite accumulating evidence linking p53 loss to stem-like phenotypes in cancer, it is not yet understood how p53 contributes to acquisition of “stemness” at the molecular level. Whether and how stem-like cells confer survival advantages to propagate the tumor also remain to be resolved. Furthermore, although it seems reasonable that the combination of p53 deficiency and the stem-like state could contribute to the genesis of cancers that are refractory to treatment, direct linkages and mechanistic underpinnings remain under investigation. Here, we discuss recent findings supporting the connection between p53 loss and the emergence of tumor cells bearing functional and molecular similarities to stem cells. We address several potential molecular and cellular mechanisms that may contribute to this link, and we discuss implications of these findings for the way we think about cancer progression. PMID:21779509

  13. Roscovitine-activated HIP2 kinase induces phosphorylation of wt p53 at Ser-46 in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Schmitz, M Lienhard; Ranftler, Carmen

    2007-03-01

    Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells are relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy due to the lack of caspase-3 activity. We reported recently that roscovitine (ROSC), a potent cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor, arrests human MCF-7 breast cancer cells in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle and concomitantly induces apoptosis. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to ROSC also strongly activates the wt p53 tumor suppressor protein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The p53 level increased despite upregulation of Hdm-2 protein and was attributable to the site-specific phosphorylation at Ser-46. The p53 protein phosphorylated at serine 46 causes the up-regulation of the p53AIP1 protein, a component of mitochondria. In the present study we identified the pathway mediating ROSC-induced p53 activation. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to ROSC activated homeodomain-intereacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2). The overexpression of wild-type but not kinase inactive HIPK2 increased the basal and ROSC-induced level of p53 phosphorylation at Ser-46 and strongly enhanced the rate of apoptosis in cells exposed to ROSC. We show that HIPK2 is activated by ROSC and mediates ROSC-induced P-Ser-46-p53, thereby stabilizing wt p53 and increasing the efficacy of drug-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. These results identify HIPK2 as a component of the ROSC-induced signaling pathway leading to the stabilization and activation of wt p53 protein. PMID:17203463

  14. Nucleolar stress with and without p53

    PubMed Central

    James, Allison; Wang, Yubo; Raje, Himanshu; Rosby, Raphyel; DiMario, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A veritable explosion of primary research papers within the past 10 years focuses on nucleolar and ribosomal stress, and for good reason: with ribosome biosynthesis consuming ~80% of a cell’s energy, nearly all metabolic and signaling pathways lead ultimately to or from the nucleolus. We begin by describing p53 activation upon nucleolar stress resulting in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. The significance of this mechanism cannot be understated, as oncologists are now inducing nucleolar stress strategically in cancer cells as a potential anti-cancer therapy. We also summarize the human ribosomopathies, syndromes in which ribosome biogenesis or function are impaired leading to birth defects or bone narrow failures; the perplexing problem in the ribosomopathies is why only certain cells are affected despite the fact that the causative mutation is systemic. We then describe p53-independent nucleolar stress, first in yeast which lacks p53, and then in other model metazoans that lack MDM2, the critical E3 ubiquitin ligase that normally inactivates p53. Do these presumably ancient p53-independent nucleolar stress pathways remain latent in human cells? If they still exist, can we use them to target >50% of known human cancers that lack functional p53? PMID:25482194

  15. Nucleolar stress with and without p53.

    PubMed

    James, Allison; Wang, Yubo; Raje, Himanshu; Rosby, Raphyel; DiMario, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A veritable explosion of primary research papers within the past 10 years focuses on nucleolar and ribosomal stress, and for good reason: with ribosome biosynthesis consuming ~80% of a cell's energy, nearly all metabolic and signaling pathways lead ultimately to or from the nucleolus. We begin by describing p53 activation upon nucleolar stress resulting in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. The significance of this mechanism cannot be understated, as oncologists are now inducing nucleolar stress strategically in cancer cells as a potential anti-cancer therapy. We also summarize the human ribosomopathies, syndromes in which ribosome biogenesis or function are impaired leading to birth defects or bone narrow failures; the perplexing problem in the ribosomopathies is why only certain cells are affected despite the fact that the causative mutation is systemic. We then describe p53-independent nucleolar stress, first in yeast which lacks p53, and then in other model metazoans that lack MDM2, the critical E3 ubiquitin ligase that normally inactivates p53. Do these presumably ancient p53-independent nucleolar stress pathways remain latent in human cells? If they still exist, can we use them to target >50% of known human cancers that lack functional p53? PMID:25482194

  16. SMC3 knockdown triggers genomic instability and p53-dependent apoptosis in human and zebrafish cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    Background The structural maintenance of chromosome 3 (SMC3) protein is a constituent of a number of nuclear multimeric protein complexes that are involved in DNA recombination and repair in addition to chromosomal segregation. Overexpression of SMC3 activates a tumorigenic cascade through which mammalian cells acquire a transformed phenotype. This has led us to examine in depth how SMC3 level affects cell growth and genomic stability. In this paper the effect of SMC3 knockdown has been investigated. Results Mammalian cells that are SMC3 deficient fail to expand in a clonal population. In order to shed light on the underlying mechanism, experiments were conducted in zebrafish embryos in which cell competence to undergo apoptosis is acquired at specific stages of development and affects tissue morphogenesis. Zebrafish Smc3 is 95% identical to the human protein, is maternally contributed, and is expressed ubiquitously at all developmental stages. Antisense-mediated loss of Smc3 function leads to increased apoptosis in Smc3 expressing cells of the developing tail and notocord causing morphological malformations. The apoptosis and the ensuing phenotype can be suppressed by injection of a p53-specific MO that blocks the generation of endogenous p53 protein. Results in human cells constitutively lacking p53 or BAX, confirmed that a p53-dependent pathway mediates apoptosis in SMC3-deficient cells. A population of aneuploid cells accumulated in zebrafish embryos following Smc3-knockdown whereas in human cells the transient downregulation of SMC3 level lead to the generation of cells with amplified centrosome number. Conclusion Smc3 is required for normal embryonic development. Its deficiency affects the morphogenesis of tissues with high mitotic index by triggering an apoptotic cascade involving p53 and the downstream p53 target gene bax. Cells with low SMC3 level display centrosome abnormalities that can lead to or are the consequence of dysfunctional mitosis and

  17. BAC transgenic mice provide evidence that p53 expression is highly regulated in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Zhang, G X; Zhou, Y; Zhang, C X; Xie, Y Y; Xiang, C; He, X Y; Zhang, Q; Liu, G

    2015-01-01

    p53 is an important tumor suppressor and stress response mediator. Proper control of p53 level and activity is tightly associated with its function. Posttranslational modifications and the interactions with Mdm2 and Mdm4 are major mechanisms controlling p53 activity and stability. As p53 protein is short-lived and hardly detectable in unstressed situations, less is known on its basal level expression and the corresponding controlling mechanisms in vivo. In addition, it also remains obscure how p53 expression might contribute to its functional regulation. In this study, we established bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic E.coli β-galactosidase Z gene reporter mice to monitor p53 expression in mouse tissues and identify important regulatory elements critical for the expression in vivo. We revealed preferentially high level of p53 reporter expressions in the proliferating, but not the differentiated compartments of the majority of tissues during development and tissue homeostasis. In addition, tumors as well as regenerating tissues in the p53 reporter mice also expressed high level of β-gal. Furthermore, both the enhancer box sequence (CANNTG) in the p53 promoter and the 3′ terminal untranslated region element were critical in mediating the high-level expression of the reporter. We also provided evidence that cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene was a critical player regulating p53 mRNA expression in proliferating cells and tissues. Finally, we found robust p53 activation preferentially in the proliferating compartment of mouse tissues upon DNA damage and the proliferating cells exhibited an enhanced p53 response as compared with cells in a quiescent state. Together, these results suggested a highly regulated expression pattern of p53 in the proliferating compartment controlled by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, and such regulated p53 expression may impose functional significance upon stress by setting up a precautionary mode in

  18. The expanding regulatory universe of p53 in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fesler, Andrew; Zhang, Ning; Ju, Jingfang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppresser gene TP53 is one of the most frequently deleted or mutated genes in gastrointestinal cancers. As a transcription factor, p53 regulates a number of important protein coding genes to control cell cycle, cell death, DNA damage/repair, stemness, differentiation and other key cellular functions. In addition, p53 is also able to activate the expression of a number of small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) through direct binding to the promoter region of these miRNAs.  Many miRNAs have been identified to be potential tumor suppressors by regulating key effecter target mRNAs. Our understanding of the regulatory network of p53 has recently expanded to include long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Like miRNA, lncRNAs have been found to play important roles in cancer biology.  With our increased understanding of the important functions of these non-coding RNAs and their relationship with p53, we are gaining exciting new insights into the biology and function of cells in response to various growth environment changes. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the ever expanding involvement of non-coding RNAs in the p53 regulatory network and its implications for our understanding of gastrointestinal cancer.

  19. The impact of p53 loss on murine plasmacytoma development.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sabine; Wiener, Francis

    2002-01-01

    Mouse plasmacytomas (PCTs) are characterized by c-myc-activating translocations that juxtapose c-myc on chromosome 15 onto one of the immunoglobulin loci (IgH on chromosome 12, IgK on chromosome 6, or IgA on chromosome 16). To assess the impact of p53 loss on PCT genesis, we induced PCTs in p53-deficient BALB/cRb6.15 mouse strains. We show that p53 loss accelerates tumor development and causes a shift in the typical translocation patterns. PCTs that carry variant T(6;15) translocations become as frequent as those with typical T(12;15) translocations (41.66%). In addition, in the absence of p53, the number of translocation-negative PCTs increases from less than 1% to 16.66%. It is noteworthy that neither the shortened latency periods nor the shift in translocation patterns had an impact on the incidence of PCT development. The 42.2% incidence in N3p53-/- mice is similar to the percentages recorded in groups of conventional BALB/cAn mice. The possible mechanisms underlying the accelerated tumorigenesis and the shift in translocation patterns are discussed. PMID:12067213

  20. Synergistic efficacy of sorafenib and genistein in growth inhibition by down regulating angiogenic and survival factors and increasing apoptosis through upregulation of p53 and p21 in malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification or non-amplification.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Subhasree; Karmakar, Surajit; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2010-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is an extracranial, solid, and heterogeneous malignancy in children. The conventional therapeutic modalities are mostly ineffective and thus new therapeutic strategies for malignant neuroblastoma are urgently warranted. We examined the synergistic efficacy of combination of sorafenib (SF) and genistein (GST) in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ (N-Myc amplified) and SH-SY5Y (N-Myc non-amplified) cell lines. MTT assay showed dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and the combination therapy more prominently inhibited the cell proliferation in both cell lines than either treatment alone. Apoptosis was confirmed morphologically by Wright staining. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle phase distribution and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed increase in subG1 DNA content and early apoptosis, respectively, after treatment with the combination of drugs. Apoptosis was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Combination therapy showed activation of caspase-8, cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in p53 and p21 expression, down regulation of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1, and increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio to trigger apoptosis. Down regulation of MDR, hTERT, N-Myc, VEGF, FGF-2, NF-κB, p-Akt, and c-IAP2 indicated suppression of angiogenic and survival pathways. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac into cytosol indicated involvement of mitochondia in apoptosis. Increases in proteolytic activities of calpain and caspase-3 were also confirmed. Our results suggested that combination of SF and GST inhibited angiogenic and survival factors and increased apoptosis via receptor and mitochondria mediated pathways in both neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and SH-SY5Y cell lines. Thus, this combination of drugs could be a potential therapeutic strategy against human malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification or non-amplification. PMID:19777160

  1. Exogenous p53 and ASPP2 expression enhances rAdV-TK/GCV-induced death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells lacking functional p53

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xianghua; Wei, Feili; Yin, Jiming; Zang, Yunjin; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) in combination with ganciclovir (GCV) has emerged as a potential new method for treating cancer. We hypothesize that the efficacy of HSV-TK/GCV therapy is at least partially dependent on p53 status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Using recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAdV), TK, p53, and ASPP2 were overexpressed individually and in combination in Hep3B (p53 null) and HepG2 (p53 wild-type) cell lines and in primary HCC tumor cells. p53 overexpression induced death in Hep3B cells, but not HepG2 cells. ASPP2 overexpression increased rAdV-TK/GCV-induced HepG2 cell death by interacting with endogenous p53. Similarly, ASPP2 reduced survival in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated primary HCC cells expressing p53 wild-type but not a p53 R249S mutant. Mutated p53 was unable to bind to ASPP2, suggesting that the increase in rAdV-TK/GCV-induced cell death resulting from ASPP2 overexpression was dependent on its interaction with p53. Additionally, γ-H2AX foci, ATM phosphorylation, Bax, and p21 expression increased in rAdV-TK/GCV-treated HepG2 cells as compared to Hep3B cells. This suggests that the combined use of HSV-TK, GCV, rAdV-p53 and rAdV-ASPP2 may improve therapeutic efficacy in HCC patients lacking functional p53. PMID:26934443

  2. Jmjd5 functions as a regulator of p53 signaling during mouse embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishimura, Akihiko; Terashima, Minoru; Tange, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Genetic studies have shown that aberrant activation of p53 signaling leads to embryonic lethality. Maintenance of a fine balance of the p53 protein level is critical for normal development. Previously, we have reported that Jmjd5, a member of the Jumonji C (JmjC) family, regulates embryonic cell proliferation through the control of Cdkn1a expression. Since Cdkn1a is the representative p53-regulated gene, we have examined whether the expression of other p53 target genes is coincidentally upregulated with Cdkn1a in Jmjd5-deficient embryos. The expression of a subset of p53-regulated genes was increased in both Jmjd5 hypomorphic mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and Jmjd5-deficient embryos at embryonic day 8.25 without the induced expression of Trp53. Intercrossing of Jmjd5-deficient mice with Trp53 knockout mice showed that the growth defect of Jmjd5 mutant cells was significantly recovered under a Trp53 null genetic background. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in Jmjd5 hypomorphic MEFs indicated the increased recruitment of p53 at several p53 target gene loci, such as Cdkn1a, Pmaip1, and Mdm2. These results suggest that Jmjd5 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of a subset of p53-regulated genes, possibly through the control of p53 recruitment at the gene loci. In Jmjd5-deficient embryos, the enhanced recruitment of p53 might result in the abnormal activation of p53 signaling leading to embryonic lethality. PMID:26334721

  3. Regulation of p53 in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts following hyperosmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Enghoff, Maria Stine; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to analyze the regulation of p53 expression in NIH3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of increasing hyperosmotic stress. Expression of p53 showed a biphasic response pattern in NIH3T3 cells under increasing osmotic stress (337 mOsm to 737 mOsm) with a maximum at 587 mOsm. Under isotonic conditions p53 expression increased after addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 indicating that cellular p53 levels in unperturbed cells is kept low by proteasomal degradation. However, under hypertonic conditions p53 synthesis as well as p53 degradation were significantly reduced and it is demonstrated that the increase in p53 expression observed when tonicity is increased from 337 to 587 mOsm reflects that degradation is more inhibited than synthesis, whereas the decrease in p53 expression at higher tonicities reflects that synthesis is more inhibited than degradation. The activity of the p53 regulating proteins p38 MAP kinase and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 were studied as a function of increasing osmolarity. MDM2 protein expression was unchanged at all osmolarities, whereas MDM2 phosphorylation (Ser166) increased at osmolarities up to 537 mOsm and remained constant at higher osmolarities. Phosphorylation of p38 increased at osmolarities up to 687 mOsm which correlated with an increased phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15) and the decreased p53 degradation. Caspase-3 activity increased gradually with hypertonicity and at 737 mOsm both Caspase-3 activity and annexin V binding are high even though p53 expression and activity are low, indicating that initiation of apoptosis under severe hypertonic conditions is not strictly controlled by p53. PMID:26056062

  4. Regulation of p53 in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts following hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Enghoff, Maria Stine; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this project was to analyze the regulation of p53 expression in NIH3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of increasing hyperosmotic stress. Expression of p53 showed a biphasic response pattern in NIH3T3 cells under increasing osmotic stress (337 mOsm to 737 mOsm) with a maximum at 587 mOsm. Under isotonic conditions p53 expression increased after addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 indicating that cellular p53 levels in unperturbed cells is kept low by proteasomal degradation. However, under hypertonic conditions p53 synthesis as well as p53 degradation were significantly reduced and it is demonstrated that the increase in p53 expression observed when tonicity is increased from 337 to 587 mOsm reflects that degradation is more inhibited than synthesis, whereas the decrease in p53 expression at higher tonicities reflects that synthesis is more inhibited than degradation. The activity of the p53 regulating proteins p38 MAP kinase and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 were studied as a function of increasing osmolarity. MDM2 protein expression was unchanged at all osmolarities, whereas MDM2 phosphorylation (Ser(166)) increased at osmolarities up to 537 mOsm and remained constant at higher osmolarities. Phosphorylation of p38 increased at osmolarities up to 687 mOsm which correlated with an increased phosphorylation of p53 (Ser(15)) and the decreased p53 degradation. Caspase-3 activity increased gradually with hypertonicity and at 737 mOsm both Caspase-3 activity and annexin V binding are high even though p53 expression and activity are low, indicating that initiation of apoptosis under severe hypertonic conditions is not strictly controlled by p53. PMID:26056062

  5. Roscovitine up-regulates p53 protein and induces apoptosis in human HeLaS(3) cervix carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Wandl, Stefanie; Kramer, Matthias P; Pickem, Christian; Krystof, Vladimir; Hajek, Susanne B

    2008-12-01

    Exposure of human HeLaS(3) cervix carcinoma cells to high doses of conventional cytostatic drugs, e.g. cisplatin (CP) strongly inhibits their proliferation. However, most cytostatic agents are genotoxic and may generate a secondary malignancy. Therefore, therapeutic strategy using alternative, not cytotoxic drugs would be beneficial. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by pharmacological inhibitors became recently a promising therapeutic option. Roscovitine (ROSC), a selective CDK inhibitor, efficiently targets human malignant cells. ROSC induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ROSC also activates p53 protein. Activation of p53 tumor suppressor protein is essential for induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Considering the fact that in HeLaS(3) cells wt p53 is inactivated by the action of HPV-encoded E6 oncoprotein, we addressed the question whether ROSC would be able to reactivate p53 protein in them. Their exposure to ROSC for 24 h induced cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and reduced the number of viable cells. Unlike CP, ROSC in the used doses did not induce DNA damage and was not directly cytotoxic. Despite lack of detectable DNA lesions, ROSC activated wt p53 protein. The increase of p53 levels was attributable to the ROSC-mediated protein stabilization. Further analyses revealed that ROSC induced site-specific phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser46. After longer exposure, ROSC induced apoptosis in HeLaS(3) cells. These results indicate that therapy of HeLaS(3) cells by ROSC could offer an advantage over that by CP due to its increased selectivity and markedly reduced risk of generation of a secondary cancer. PMID:18846503

  6. The proto-oncogene PBF binds p53 and is associated with prognostic features in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Read, Martin L; Seed, Robert I; Modasia, Bhavika; Kwan, Perkin P K; Sharma, Neil; Smith, Vicki E; Watkins, Rachel J; Bansal, Sukhchain; Gagliano, Teresa; Stratford, Anna L; Ismail, Tariq; Wakelam, Michael J O; Kim, Dae S; Ward, Stephen T; Boelaert, Kristien; Franklyn, Jayne A; Turnell, Andrew S; McCabe, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF) is a transforming gene capable of eliciting tumor formation in xenograft models. However, the precise role of PBF in tumorigenesis and its prognostic value as a cancer biomarker remain largely uncharacterised, particularly in malignancies outside the thyroid. Here, we provide the first evidence that PBF represents a promising prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Examination of a total of 39 patients demonstrated higher PBF expression at both the mRNA (P = 0.009) and protein (P < 0.0001) level in colorectal tumors compared to matched normal tissue. Critically, PBF was most abundant in colorectal tumors associated with Extramural Vascular Invasion (EMVI), increased genetic instability (GI) and somatic TP53 mutations, all features linked with recurrence and poorer patient survival. We further demonstrate by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation that PBF binds to the tumor suppressor protein p53, as well as to p53 mutants (Δ126-132, M133K, V197E, G245D, I255F and R273C) identified in the colorectal tumors. Importantly, overexpression of PBF in colorectal HCT116 cells interfered with the transcriptional activity of p53-responsive genes such as mdm2, p21 and sfn. Diminished p53 stability (> 90%; P < 0.01) was also evident with a concurrent increase in ubiquitinated p53. Human colorectal tumors with wild-type TP53 and high PBF expression also had low p53 protein levels (P < 0.05), further emphasizing a putative interaction between these genes in vivo. Overall, these results demonstrate an emerging role for PBF in colorectal tumorigenesis through regulating p53 activity, with implications for PBF as a prognostic indicator for invasive tumors. PMID:25408419

  7. A defect in the p53 response pathway induced by de novo purine synthesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bronder, Julie L; Moran, Richard G

    2003-12-01

    p53 is believed to sense cellular ribonucleotide depletion in the absence of DNA strand breaks and to respond by imposition of a p21-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. We now report that the p53-dependent G1 checkpoint is blocked in human carcinoma cell lines after inhibition of de novo purine synthesis by folate analogs inhibitory to glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GART). p53 accumulated in HCT116, MCF7, or A549 carcinoma cells upon GART inhibition, but, surprisingly, transcription of several p53 targets, including p21cip1/waf1, was impaired. The mechanism of this defect was examined. The p53 accumulating in these cells was nuclear but was not phosphorylated at serines 6, 15, and 20, nor was it acetylated at lysines 373 or 382. The DDATHF-stabilized p53 bound to the p21 promoter in vitro and in vivo but did not activate histone acetylation over the p53 binding sites in the p21 promoter that is an integral part of the transcriptional response mediated by the DNA damage pathway. We concluded that the robust initial response of the p53 pathway to GART inhibitors is not transcriptionally propagated to target genes due to a defect in p53 post-translational modifications and a failure to open chromatin structure despite promoter binding of this unmodified p53. PMID:14517211

  8. Regulation of myo-inositol biosynthesis by p53-ISYNA1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, Tomoyuki; Tanikawa, Chizu; Mori, Jinichi; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    In response to various cellular stresses, p53 exerts its tumor suppressive effects such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence through the induction of its target genes. Recently, p53 was shown to control cellular homeostasis by regulating energy metabolism, glycolysis, antioxidant effect, and autophagy. However, its function in inositol synthesis was not reported. Through a microarray screening, we found that five genes related with myo-inositol metabolism were induced by p53. DNA damage enhanced intracellular myo-inositol content in HCT116 p53+/+ cells, but not in HCT116 p53-/- cells. We also indicated that inositol 3-phosphate synthase (ISYNA1) which encodes an enzyme essential for myo-inositol biosynthesis as a direct target of p53. Activated p53 regulated ISYNA1 expression through p53 response element in the seventh exon. Ectopic ISYNA1 expression increased myo-inositol levels in the cells and suppressed tumor cell growth. Knockdown of ISYNA1 caused resistance to adriamycin treatment, demonstrating the role of ISYNA1 in p53-mediated growth suppression. Furthermore, ISYNA1 expression was significantly associated with p53 mutation in bladder, breast cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our findings revealed a novel role of p53 in myo-inositol biosynthesis which could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27035231

  9. Altered p53 in microdissected, metachronous, premalignant and malignant oral lesions from the same patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y-Q; Pavelic, Z P; Wang, L-J; McDonald, J S; Gleich, L; Munck-Wikland, E; Dacic, S; Danilovic, Z; Pavelic, L J; Wilson, K M; Gluckman, J L; Stambrook, P J

    1995-01-01

    Aims—To determine whether mutant p53 alleles harboured by malignant tumours of the oral cavity were also present in previous premalignant lesions at the same site. Methods—Paraffin embedded tumour specimens along with their premalignant counterparts were analysed for p53 alterations using immunohistochemistry, microdissection, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and DNA sequencing. Results—Malignant lesions from five of eight patients showed overexpression of p53 protein by immunohistochemistry. Upon DNA sequencing, two of these five specimens had p53 mutations. Of the five patients whose cancers showed p53 overexpression by immunohistochemistry, three had previous premalignant lesions that also had immunohistochemically detectable p53 protein. However, DNA sequencing showed that none of these three had mutations in the p53 gene. The remaining five premalignant lesions had no immunohistochemically detectable p53 protein. Conclusions—Some premalignant lesions have increased p53 protein which can be detected by staining with antibody to p53. This staining is not caused by mutations in p53 that are found in subsequent tumours at the same site. Images PMID:16696020

  10. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism leads to p53 genetic inactivation and transformation in neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartesaghi, Stefano; Graziano, Vincenzo; Galavotti, Sara; Henriquez, Nick V.; Betts, Joanne; Saxena, Jayeta; Minieri, Valentina; A, Deli; Karlsson, Anna; Martins, L. Miguel; Capasso, Melania; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Brandner, Sebastian; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Salomoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and genomic instability have been implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple tissues. High-grade glioma (HGG), one of the most lethal human neoplasms, displays genetic modifications of Krebs cycle components as well as electron transport chain (ETC) alterations. Furthermore, the p53 tumor suppressor, which has emerged as a key regulator of mitochondrial respiration at the expense of glycolysis, is genetically inactivated in a large proportion of HGG cases. Therefore, it is becoming evident that genetic modifications can affect cell metabolism in HGG; however, it is currently unclear whether mitochondrial metabolism alterations could vice versa promote genomic instability as a mechanism for neoplastic transformation. Here, we show that, in neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs), which can act as HGG cell of origin, inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism leads to p53 genetic inactivation. Impairment of respiration via inhibition of complex I or decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number leads to p53 genetic loss and a glycolytic switch. p53 genetic inactivation in ETC-impaired neural stem cells is caused by increased reactive oxygen species and associated oxidative DNA damage. ETC-impaired cells display a marked growth advantage in the presence or absence of oncogenic RAS, and form undifferentiated tumors when transplanted into the mouse brain. Finally, p53 mutations correlated with alterations in ETC subunit composition and activity in primary glioma-initiating neural stem cells. Together, these findings provide previously unidentified insights into the relationship between mitochondria, genomic stability, and tumor suppressive control, with implications for our understanding of brain cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25583481

  11. Divergence between the high rate of p53 mutations in skin carcinomas and the low prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moch, C; Moysan, A; Lubin, R; Salmonière, P de La; Soufir, N; Galisson, F; Vilmer, C; Venutolo, E; Pelletier, F Le; Janin, A; Basset-Séguin, N

    2001-01-01

    Circulating anti-p53 antibodies have been described and used as tumoural markers in patients with various cancers and strongly correlate with the p53 mutated status of the tumours. No study has yet looked at the prevalence of such antibodies in skin carcinoma patients although these tumours have been shown to be frequently p53 mutated. Most skin carcinoma can be diagnosed by examination or biopsy, but aggressive, recurrent and/or non-surgical cases' follow up would be helped by a biological marker of residual disease. We performed a prospective study looking at the prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies using an ELISA technique in a series of 105 skin carcinoma patients in comparison with a sex- and age-matched control skin carcinoma-free group (n = 130). Additionally, p53 accumulation was studied by immunohistochemistry to confirm p53 protein altered expression in a sample of tumours. Anti-p53 antibodies were detected in 2.9% of the cases, with a higher prevalence in patients suffering from the more aggressive squamous cell type (SCC) of skin carcinoma (8%) than for the more common and slowly growing basal cell carcinoma type or BCC (1.5%). p53 protein stabilization could be confirmed in 80% of tumours studied by IHC. This low level of anti-p53 antibody detection contrasts with the high rate of p53 mutations reported in these tumours. This observation shows that the anti-p53 humoral response is a complex and tissue-specific mechanism. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747330

  12. An inducible mouse model for skin cancer reveals distinct roles for gain- and loss-of-function p53 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Caulin, Carlos; Nguyen, Thao; Lang, Gene A.; Goepfert, Thea M.; Brinkley, Bill R.; Cai, Wei-Wen; Lozano, Guillermina; Roop, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in ras and p53 are the most prevalent mutations found in human nonmelanoma skin cancers. Although some p53 mutations cause a loss of function, most result in expression of altered forms of p53, which may exhibit gain-of-function properties. Therefore, understanding the consequences of acquiring p53 gain-of-function versus loss-of-function mutations is critical for the generation of effective therapies for tumors harboring p53 mutations. Here we describe an inducible mouse model in which skin tumor formation is initiated by activation of an endogenous K-rasG12D allele. Using this model we compared the consequences of activating the p53 gain-of-function mutation p53R172H and of deleting the p53 gene. Activation of the p53R172H allele resulted in increased skin tumor formation, accelerated tumor progression, and induction of metastasis compared with deletion of p53. Consistent with these observations, the p53R172H tumors exhibited aneuploidy associated with centrosome amplification, which may underlie the mechanism by which p53R172H exerts its oncogenic properties. These results clearly demonstrate that p53 gain-of-function mutations confer poorer prognosis than loss of p53 during skin carcinogenesis and have important implications for the future design of therapies for tumors that exhibit p53 gain-of-function mutations. PMID:17607363

  13. The role of p53 in ribosomopathies.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Thomas, George

    2011-04-01

    Impaired ribosome biogenesis is the underlying cause of the pathological conditions collectively known as ribosomopathies. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the mechanisms by which deficiencies in ribosome biogenesis interfere with developmental processes leading eventually to the emergence of these diseases. In recent years it has become clear that perturbation of this process triggers a cell-cycle checkpoint that, through activation of the tumor-suppressor p53, leads to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Indeed, evidence is accumulating from studies in animal models that the unscheduled activation of p53 is responsible for perturbations in tissue homeostasis that cause the development of ribosomopathies such as Treacher-Collins syndrome (TCS) and 5q(-) syndrome. These findings imply that inhibition of p53, or better, of mechanisms that specifically lead to p53 activation in response to inhibition of ribosome biogenesis, could be targeted in the treatment of ribosomopathies where activation of p53 is shown to play a pathogenic role. PMID:21435506

  14. Accumulation of Tumor Suppressor P53 in Rat Muscle After a Space Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Wang, X.; Fukuda, S.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Nagaoka, S.

    Tumor suppressor p53 functions as a cell cycle checkpoint under stressful conditions. Early studies have shown that genotoxic stress activates p53 pathway. Recently, many kinds of non-genotoxic stress such as heat shock, cold shock, and low pH also have been found to activate p53 pathway. The effects on living organism remains to be explored. Here, we show that an 18-day space flight induced a 3.6 fold accumulation of p53 in rat skeletal muscle. This results suggests that the p53 pathway plays a role in safeguarding genomic stability against the stressful space environments and supports our previous observation of p53 accumulation in rat skin after a space flight

  15. Tetramer formation of tumor suppressor protein p53: Structure, function, and applications.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Rui; Toguchi, Yu; Nomura, Takao; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2016-11-01

    Tetramer formation of p53 is essential for its tumor suppressor function. p53 not only acts as a tumor suppressor protein by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress, but it also regulates other cellular processes, including autophagy, stem cell self-renewal, and reprogramming of differentiated cells into stem cells, immune system, and metastasis. More than 50% of human tumors have TP53 gene mutations, and most of them are missense mutations that presumably reduce tumor suppressor activity of p53. This review focuses on the role of the tetramerization (oligomerization), which is modulated by the protein concentration of p53, posttranslational modifications, and/or interactions with its binding proteins, in regulating the tumor suppressor function of p53. Functional control of p53 by stabilizing or inhibiting oligomer formation and its bio-applications are also discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 598-612, 2016. PMID:26572807

  16. Transcriptional regulation of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) by the tumor suppressor protein p53.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Nathalia Meireles; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Melendez, Matias Eliseo; Waters, Timothy; Swann, Peter; Hainaut, Pierre; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro

    2012-12-15

    Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) belongs to the superfamily of uracil DNA glycosylases (UDG) and is the first enzyme in the base-excision repair pathway (BER) that removes thymine from G:T mismatches at CpG sites. This glycosylase activity has also been found to be critical for active demethylation of genes involved in embryonic development. Here we show that wild-type p53 transcriptionally regulates TDG expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase assays indicate that wild-type p53 binds to a domain of TDG promoter containing two p53 consensus response elements (p53RE) and activates its transcription. Next, we have used a panel of cell lines with different p53 status to demonstrate that TDG mRNA and protein expression levels are induced in a p53-dependent manner under different conditions. This panel includes isogenic breast and colorectal cancer cell lines with wild-type or inactive p53, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines lacking p53 or expressing a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant and normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Induction of TDG mRNA expression is accompanied by accumulation of TDG protein in both nucleus and cytoplasm, with nuclear re-localization occurring upon DNA damage in p53-competent, but not -incompetent, cells. These observations suggest a role for p53 activity in TDG nuclear translocation. Overall, our results show that TDG expression is directly regulated by p53, suggesting that loss of p53 function may affect processes mediated by TDG, thus negatively impacting on genetic and epigenetic stability. PMID:23165212

  17. Transcriptional regulation of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) by the tumor suppressor protein p53

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Nathalia Meireles; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Melendez, Matias Eliseo; Waters, Timothy; Swann, Peter; Hainaut, Pierre; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) belongs to the superfamily of uracil DNA glycosylases (UDG) and is the first enzyme in the base-excision repair pathway (BER) that removes thymine from G:T mismatches at CpG sites. This glycosylase activity has also been found to be critical for active demethylation of genes involved in embryonic development. Here we show that wild-type p53 transcriptionally regulates TDG expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase assays indicate that wild-type p53 binds to a domain of TDG promoter containing two p53 consensus response elements (p53RE) and activates its transcription. Next, we have used a panel of cell lines with different p53 status to demonstrate that TDG mRNA and protein expression levels are induced in a p53-dependent manner under different conditions. This panel includes isogenic breast and colorectal cancer cell lines with wild-type or inactive p53, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines lacking p53 or expressing a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant and normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Induction of TDG mRNA expression is accompanied by accumulation of TDG protein in both nucleus and cytoplasm, with nuclear re-localization occurring upon DNA damage in p53-competent, but not -incompetent, cells. These observations suggest a role for p53 activity in TDG nuclear translocation. Overall, our results show that TDG expression is directly regulated by p53, suggesting that loss of p53 function may affect processes mediated by TDG, thus negatively impacting on genetic and epigenetic stability. PMID:23165212

  18. TRIM32 is a novel negative regulator of p53

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    To ensure proper function, the tumor suppressor p53 is tightly regulated through different post-translational modifications, particularly ubiquitination. Recently, TRIM32 was identified as a p53-regulated gene and an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53. Thus, TRIM32 and p53 form a novel auto-regulatory negative feedback loop for p53 regulation in cells. PMID:27308422

  19. TRIM32 is a novel negative regulator of p53.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    To ensure proper function, the tumor suppressor p53 is tightly regulated through different post-translational modifications, particularly ubiquitination. Recently, TRIM32 was identified as a p53-regulated gene and an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53. Thus, TRIM32 and p53 form a novel auto-regulatory negative feedback loop for p53 regulation in cells. PMID:27308422

  20. Involvement of S100A14 protein in cell invasion by affecting expression and function of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 via p53-dependent transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Chunpeng; Luo, Aiping; Ding, Fang; Ma, Jianlin; Yang, Shouhui; Tian, Yanyan; Tong, Tong; Zhan, Qimin; Liu, Zhihua

    2012-05-18

    S100 proteins have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. As a member of S100 proteins, the role of S100A14 in carcinogenesis has not been fully understood. Here, we showed that ectopic overexpression of S100A14 promotes motility and invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. We investigated the underlying mechanisms and found that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 is obviously increased after S100A14 gene overexpression. Inhibition of MMP2 by a specific MMP2 inhibitor at least partly reversed the invasive phenotype of cells overexpressing S100A14. By serendipity, we found that S100A14 could affect p53 transactivity and stability. Thus, we further investigated whether the effect of MMP2 by S100A14 is dependent on p53. A series of biochemical assays showed that S100A14 requires functional p53 to affect MMP2 transcription, and p53 potently transrepresses the expression of MMP2. Finally, RT-quantitative PCR analysis of human breast cancer specimens showed a significant correlation between S100A14 mRNA expression and MMP2 mRNA expression in cases with wild-type p53 but not in cases with mutant p53. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that S100A14 promotes cell motility and invasiveness by regulating the expression and function of MMP2 in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:22451655

  1. Elevated transcription of the p53 gene in early S-phase leads to a rapid DNA-damage response during S-phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Paula; Polson, Amanda; Reisman, David

    2011-09-01

    p53 induces the transcription of genes that negatively regulate progression of the cell cycle in response to DNA damage or other cellular stressors, and thus participates in maintaining genome stability. Under stress conditions, p53 must be activated to prohibit the replication of cells containing damaged DNA. However, in normal, non-stressed cells, p53 activity must be inhibited. Previous studies have demonstrated that p53 transcription is activated before or during early S-phase in cells progressing from G(0)/G(1) into S-phase. Since this is not what would be predicted from a gene involved in growth arrest and apoptosis, in this study, we provide evidence that this induction occurs to provide sufficient p53 mRNA to ensure a rapid response to DNA damage before exiting S-phase. When comparing exponentially growing Swiss3T3 cells to those synchronized to enter S-phase simultaneously and treated with the DNA damaging agent camptothecin, we found that with cells in S-phase, p53 protein levels increased earlier, Bax and p21 transcription was activated earlier and to a greater extent and apoptosis occurred earlier and to a greater extent. These findings are consistent with p53 transcription being induced in S-phase to provide for a rapid DNA-damage response during S-phase of the cell cycle. PMID:21710255

  2. p53 Represses the Oncogenic Sno-MiR-28 Derived from a SnoRNA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng; Bracken, Cameron P.; Pillman, Katherine A.; Lawrence, David M.; Goodall, Gregory J.; Callen, David F.; Neilsen, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    p53 is a master tumour repressor that participates in vast regulatory networks, including feedback loops involving microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate p53 and that themselves are direct p53 transcriptional targets. We show here that a group of polycistronic miRNA-like non-coding RNAs derived from small nucleolar RNAs (sno-miRNAs) are transcriptionally repressed by p53 through their host gene, SNHG1. The most abundant of these, sno-miR-28, directly targets the p53-stabilizing gene, TAF9B. Collectively, p53, SNHG1, sno-miR-28 and TAF9B form a regulatory loop which affects p53 stability and downstream p53-regulated pathways. In addition, SNHG1, SNORD28 and sno-miR-28 are all significantly upregulated in breast tumours and the overexpression of sno-miR-28 promotes breast epithelial cell proliferation. This research has broadened our knowledge of the crosstalk between small non-coding RNA pathways and roles of sno-miRNAs in p53 regulation. PMID:26061048

  3. p53 Represses the Oncogenic Sno-MiR-28 Derived from a SnoRNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Bracken, Cameron P; Pillman, Katherine A; Lawrence, David M; Goodall, Gregory J; Callen, David F; Neilsen, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    p53 is a master tumour repressor that participates in vast regulatory networks, including feedback loops involving microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate p53 and that themselves are direct p53 transcriptional targets. We show here that a group of polycistronic miRNA-like non-coding RNAs derived from small nucleolar RNAs (sno-miRNAs) are transcriptionally repressed by p53 through their host gene, SNHG1. The most abundant of these, sno-miR-28, directly targets the p53-stabilizing gene, TAF9B. Collectively, p53, SNHG1, sno-miR-28 and TAF9B form a regulatory loop which affects p53 stability and downstream p53-regulated pathways. In addition, SNHG1, SNORD28 and sno-miR-28 are all significantly upregulated in breast tumours and the overexpression of sno-miR-28 promotes breast epithelial cell proliferation. This research has broadened our knowledge of the crosstalk between small non-coding RNA pathways and roles of sno-miRNAs in p53 regulation. PMID:26061048

  4. Chk2 regulates transcription-independent p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Chen; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Motoyama, Noboru . E-mail: motoyama@nils.go.jp

    2005-07-29

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. The protein kinase Chk2 is an important regulator of p53 function in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Cells derived from Chk2-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of apoptosis by IR, and this resistance has been thought to be a result of the defective transcriptional activation of p53 target genes. It was recently shown, however, that p53 itself and histone H1.2 translocate to mitochondria and thereby induces apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner in response to IR. We have now examined whether Chk2 also regulates the transcription-independent induction of apoptosis by p53 and histone H1.2. The reduced ability of IR to induce p53 stabilization in Chk2-deficient thymocytes was associated with a marked impairment of p53 and histone H1 translocation to mitochondria. These results suggest that Chk2 regulates the transcription-independent mechanism of p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing stabilization of p53 in response to IR.

  5. p53 Suppresses Tetraploid Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Takuro; Yamamoto, Masamichi; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Nagao, Yasumitsu; Hatada, Izuho

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian tetraploid embryos die in early development because of defects in the epiblast. Experiments with diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice, obtained via the aggregation of embryonic stem cells, clarified that while tetraploid cells are excluded from epiblast derivatives, diploid embryos with tetraploid extraembryonic tissues can develop to term. Today, this method, known as tetraploid complementation, is usually used for rescuing extraembryonic defects or for obtaining completely embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived pups. However, it is still unknown why defects occur in the epiblast during mammalian development. Here, we demonstrated that downregulation of p53, a tumour suppressor protein, rescued tetraploid development in the mammalian epiblast. Tetraploidy in differentiating epiblast cells triggered p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, suggesting the activation of a tetraploidy checkpoint during early development. Finally, we found that p53 downregulation rescued tetraploid embryos later in gestation. PMID:25752699

  6. Crosstalk between the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and the tumor suppressors p53 and p27 determines cisplatin sensitivity and limits the effectiveness of an IGF-1R pathway inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Davaadelger, Batzaya; Duan, Lei; Perez, Ricardo E; Gitelis, Steven; Maki, Carl G

    2016-05-10

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in multiple cancers and can promote proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. Multiple IGF-1R inhibitors have been developed as potential therapeutics. However, these inhibitors have failed to increase patient survival when given alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents. The reason(s) for the disappointing clinical effect of these inhibitors is not fully understood. Cisplatin (CP) activated the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and stabilized p53 in osteosarcoma (OS) cells. p53 knockdown reduced IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 activation by CP, and IGF-1R inhibition reduced the accumulation of p53. These data demonstrate positive crosstalk between p53 and the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway in response to CP. Further studies showed the effect of IGF-1R inhibition on CP response is dependent on p53 status. In p53 wild-type cells treated with CP, IGF-1R inhibition increased p53s apoptotic function but reduced p53-dependent senescence, and had no effect on long term survival. In contrast, in p53-null/knockdown cells, IGF-1R inhibition reduced apoptosis in response to CP and increased long term survival. These effects were due to p27 since IGF-1R inhibition stabilized p27 in CP-treated cells, and p27 depletion restored apoptosis and reduced long term survival. Together, the results demonstrate 1) p53 expression determines the effect of IGF-1R inhibition on cancer cell CP response, and 2) crosstalk between the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and p53 and p27 can reduce cancer cell responsiveness to chemotherapy and may ultimately limit the effectiveness of IGF-1R pathway inhibitors in the clinic. PMID:27050276

  7. Δ113p53/Δ133p53 converts P53 from a repressor to a promoter of DNA double-stand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lu; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In response to DNA damage, p53 (TP53, best known as p53) is quickly activated leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis to ensure genomic integrity; however, this represses DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Our recent work revealed that Δ113p53/Δ133p53 protein is accumulated at a later stage upon DNA DSB stress to switch p53 signaling from repression to promotion of DNA DSB repair. PMID:27308550

  8. Addiction of lung cancer cells to GOF p53 is promoted by up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor through multiple contacts with p53 transactivation domain and promoter

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Catherine A.; Pearsall, Isabella; Singh, Shilpa; Windle, Brad; Deb, Swati P.; Grossman, Steven R.; Yeudall, W. Andrew; Deb, Sumitra

    2016-01-01

    Human lung cancers harboring gain-of-function (GOF) p53 alleles express higher levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We demonstrate that a number of GOF p53 alleles directly upregulate EGFR. Knock-down of p53 in lung cancer cells lowers EGFR expression and reduces tumorigenicity and other GOF p53 properties. However, addiction of lung cancer cells to GOF p53 can be compensated by overexpressing EGFR, suggesting that EGFR plays a critical role in addiction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using lung cancer cells expressing GOF p53 alleles showed that GOF p53 localized to the EGFR promoter. The sequence where GOF p53 is found to interact by ChIP seq can act as a GOF p53 response element. The presence of GOF p53 on the EGFR promoter increased histone H3 acetylation, indicating a mechanism whereby GOF p53 enhances chromatin opening for improved access to transcription factors (TFs). ChIP and ChIP-re-ChIP with p53, Sp1 and CBP histone acetylase (HAT) antibodies revealed docking of GOF p53 on Sp1, leading to increased binding of Sp1 and CBP to the EGFR promoter. Up-regulation of EGFR can occur via GOF p53 contact at other novel sites in the EGFR promoter even when TAD-I is inactivated; these sites are used by both intact and TAD-I mutated GOF p53 and might reflect redundancy in GOF p53 mechanisms for EGFR transactivation. Thus, the oncogenic action of GOF p53 in lung cancer is highly dependent on transactivation of the EGFR promoter via a novel transcriptional mechanism involving coordinated interactions of TFs, HATs and GOF p53. PMID:26820293

  9. 2-Phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) uncovers a necrotic process regulated by oxidative stress and p53.

    PubMed

    Mattiolo, Paolo; Barbero-Farran, Ares; Yuste, Víctor J; Boix, Jacint; Ribas, Judit

    2014-10-01

    2-Phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) or pifithrin-μ is a promising anticancer agent with preferential toxicity for cancer cells. The type of cell death and the molecular cascades activated by this compound are controversial. Here, we demonstrate PES elicits a caspase- and BAX/BAK-independent non-necroptotic necrotic cell death, since it is not inhibited by necrostatin-1. This process is characterized by an early generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in p53 up-regulation. Accordingly, thiolic antioxidants protect cells from PES-induced death. Furthermore, inhibiting the natural sources of glutathione with l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) strongly cooperates with PES in triggering cytotoxicity. Genetically modified p53-null or p53 knocked-down cells show resistance to PES-driven necrosis. The predominant localization of p53 in chromatin-enriched fractions added to the up-regulation of the p53-responsive gene p21, strongly suggest the involvement of a transcription-dependent p53 program. On the other hand, we report an augmented production of ROS in p53-positive cells that, added to the increased p53 content in response to PES-elicited ROS, suggests that p53 and ROS are mutually regulated in response to PES. In sum, p53 up-regulation by ROS triggers a positive feedback loop responsible of further increasing ROS production and reinforcing PES-driven non-necroptotic necrosis. PMID:25139326

  10. β-Catenin C-terminal signals suppress p53 and are essential for artery formation.

    PubMed

    Riascos-Bernal, Dario F; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Cao, Longyue Lily; Dunaway, Charlene M; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Sibinga, Nicholas E S

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of the tumour suppressor p53 is incompatible with embryogenesis, but how p53 is controlled is not fully understood. Differential requirements for p53 inhibitors Mdm2 and Mdm4 during development suggest that these control mechanisms are context-dependent. Artery formation requires investment of nascent endothelial tubes by smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here, we find that embryos lacking SMC β-catenin suffer impaired arterial maturation and die by E12.5, with increased vascular wall p53 activity. β-Catenin-deficient SMCs show no change in p53 levels, but greater p53 acetylation and activity, plus impaired growth and survival. In vivo, SMC p53 inactivation suppresses phenotypes caused by loss of β-catenin. Mechanistically, β-catenin C-terminal interactions inhibit Creb-binding protein-dependent p53 acetylation and p53 transcriptional activity, and are required for artery formation. Thus in SMCs, the β-catenin C-terminus indirectly represses p53, and this function is essential for embryogenesis. These findings have implications for angiogenesis, tissue engineering and vascular disease. PMID:27499244