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Sample records for increasing organic loading

  1. Increased Cloud Activation Potential of Secondary Organic Aerosol for Atmospheric Mass Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    King, Stephanie M.; Rosenoern, Thomas; Shilling, John E.; Chen, Qi; Martin, Scot T.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m-3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate) Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m-3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m-3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. Of possible changes in surface tension, effective molecular weight, and effective density, a sensitivity analysis implicated a decrease of up to 10% in surface tension at low mass loadings as the plausible dominant mechanism for the observed increase in CCN activity.

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of solid waste: Effect of increasing organic loading rates and characterization of the solubilised organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The impact of stepwise increase in OLR (up to 7.5kgVS/m(3)d) on methane production, reactor performance and solubilised organic matter production in a high-loading reactor were investigated. A reference reactor operated at low OLR (<2.0kgVS/m(3)d) was used solely to observe the methane potential of the feed substrate. Specific methane yield was 0.33lCH(4)/gVS at the lowest OLR and dropped by about 20% at the maximum OLR, while volumetric methane production increased from 0.35 to 1.38m(3)CH(4)/m(3)d. At higher loadings, solids hydrolysis was affected, with consequent transfer of poorly-degraded organic material into the drain solids. Biodegradability and size-fractionation of the solubilised COD were characterized to evaluate the possibility of a second stage liquid reactor. Only 18% of the organics were truly soluble (<1kD). The rest were in colloidal and very fine particulate form which originated from grass and cow manure and were non-biodegradable. PMID:23334011

  3. [Effect of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on the Formation and Stabilization Process of Aerobic Granular Sludge].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-peng; Wang, Jan-fang; Qian, Fei-yue; Wang, Yan; Chen, Chong-jun; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of organic loading rate ( OLR) on the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS), a lab-scale cylindrical SBR reactor (sodium acetate as carbon source) was constructed and inoculated with collected sewage sludge. The evolution of morphology, microbial activity and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) characteristics of sludge samples in the reactor were recorded and analyzed. The results showed that AGS has the highest growth rate under the condition of 3. 20-4. 84 kg.(m3.d)-1 OLR, and a selective discharging strategy of the floccular sludge was suggested to maintain the predominance of AGS in reactor. The accumulated sludge concentration, SVI30, mean granule size, settling velocity and SOUR value of the AGS in steady-state operated SBR was 23. 9 g.L-1, 20 mL.g-1, 1. 4 mm, 102 m.h-1 and 50. 2 mg.(g.h)-1, respectively. The granulation process not only obviously changed the sludge appearance, but also significantly improved the microbial activity. Meanwhile, linear correlation was observed between the variation of protein/polysaccharide concentration and the granule size of AGS. Thus, variation of protein/ polysaccharide concentration of the EPS could be applied as an indicator for optimization of the cultivation method of AGS. PMID:26717698

  4. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  5. Reduced temperature hydrolysis at 134 °C before thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at increasing organic load.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Cesarini, R; Mininni, G

    2013-09-01

    The performance of thermophilic digestion of waste activated sludge, either untreated or thermal pretreated, was evaluated through semi-continuous tests carried out at organic loading rates in the range of 1-3.7 kg VS/m(3)d. Although the thermal pretreatment at T=134 °C proved to be effective in solubilizing organic matter, no significant gain in organics degradation was observed. However, the digestion of pretreated sludge showed significant soluble COD removal (more than 55%) whereas no removal occurred in control reactors. The lower the initial sludge biodegradability, the higher the efficiency of thermal pretreated digestion was observed, in particular as regards higher biogas and methane production rates with respect to the parallel untreated sludge digestion. Heat balance of the combined thermal hydrolysis/thermophilic digestion process, applied on full-scale scenarios, showed positive values for direct combustion of methane. In case of combined heat and power generation, attractive electric energy recoveries were obtained, with a positive heat balance at high load. PMID:23792658

  6. Effects of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum on bacterial production and carbon flow in experimental benthic systems under increasing organic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinga, Ronald; Kop, Arjen J.; Malschaert, Johannes F. P.; Van Duyl, Fleur C.

    1997-05-01

    Effects of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum on benthic bacterial production were studied in marine sediment boxcosms, to which different amounts of organic matter (30, 60 and 90 g C m -2) were added. Bacterial production was estimated from incorporation rates of 3H-labelled leucine. The distribution of organic carbon in the boxcosm sediments was monitored. Measurements were done over a period of 27 days after the introduction of organic matter. Non-enriched boxcosms were used as controls. In macrobenthos-free boxcosms, the bacterial response to organic-matter additions mainly took place in the organic-matter layer on the sediment surface and in the upper 3 mm of the sediment. In the presence of E. cordatum, more organic matter was transported into the sediment, and the bacterial production rates in deeper sediment layers were higher. Increasing the organic loading did not further enhance these rates. It is concluded that E. cordatum stimulates bacterial production in deeper sediment layers by increasing the transport of organic matter into the sediment and perhaps also by promoting its degradation. At an increasing load with organic matter, the relative importance of the effects of E. cordatum decreases.

  7. Application of immobilized and granular dried anaerobic biomass for stabilizing and increasing anaerobic bio-systems tolerance for high organic loads and phenol shocks.

    PubMed

    Massalha, Nedal; Brenner, Asher; Sheindorf, Chaim; Sabbah, Isam

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the stability and tolerance of continuous-flow bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic methanogens in three different configurations: (R1) dried granular biomass immobilized in PAC-enriched hydrophilic polyurethane foam, (R2) dried granular biomass, and (R3) wet granular biomass. These systems were tested under two different organic loading rates (OLR) of 6.25 and 10.94 (gCOD/(Lreactor∗d)), using a glucose-based synthetic mixture. The effect of an instantaneous shock load of phenol (5g/L for three days), and of phenol inclusion in the feed (0.5g/L) were also tested. At the lower OLR, all reactors performed similarly, however, increasing the OLR lead to a significant biomass washout and failure of R3. Biomass in R1 was more tolerant to phenol shock load than R2, though activity was recovered in both systems after about one month. PAC provided protection and shortened the adaptation time for 0.5g/L phenol that continuously was fed. PMID:26318929

  8. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  9. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L⁻¹·day⁻¹ indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  10. Optimisation of digester performance with increasing organic loading rate for mono- and co-digestion of grass silage and dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of mono-digesting grass silage, dairy slurry and the co-digestion of the two substrates at a range of concentrations with a specific focus on digester performance while increasing organic loading rate (OLR). The results show that the higher the proportion of grass silage in the substrate mix the higher the specific methane yield (SMY) achieved. Optimum conditions were assessed for 100% grass silage at an OLR of 3.5 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) generating a SMY of 398 L CH4 kg(-1) VS equating to a biomethane efficiency of 1.0. For co-digestion of grass silage with 20% dairy slurry the optimum condition was noted at an OLR of 4.0 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) generating a SMY of 349L CH4 kg(-1) VS and a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. Hydraulic retention times of less than 20 days proved to be a limiting factor in the operation of farm digesters. PMID:25444886

  11. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  12. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simren K.; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P.; Baines, Deborah L.; Moore, Luke S.P.; Holmes, Alison H.; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  13. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simren K; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P; Baines, Deborah L; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  14. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: exploring increasing sensitivity to nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald

    2010-08-01

    Hypoxia is a critical issue in the Gulf of Mexico that has challenged management efforts in recent years by an increase in hypoxia sensitivity to nitrogen loads. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the recent increase in sensitivity. Two commonly cited mechanisms are bottom-water reducing conditions preventing nitrification and thus denitrification, leading to more N recycling and production of oxygen-consuming organic matter, and carryover of organic matter from previous years increasing oxygen demand, making the system more sensitive. We use models informed by these mechanisms and fit with Bayesian inference to explore changes in Gulf of Mexico hypoxia sensitivity. We show that a model including an annually fit parameter representing variation in the fraction of nutrient loading and recycling contributing to bottom water oxygen demand provides a good fit to observations and is not improved by explicit inclusion of organic matter carryover to subsequent years. Both models support two stepwise increases in system sensitivity during the period of record. This change in sensitivity has greatly increased the nutrient reduction needed to achieve the established hypoxia goal. If the Gulf remains at the current state of sensitivity, our analysis suggests a roughly 70% reduction of spring TN loads from the 1988-1996 average of 6083 ton/day may be required. PMID:20608722

  15. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    PubMed

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield. PMID:26524448

  16. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe working load increase. 1919.77 Section 1919.77 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... load increase. (a) In no case shall safe working loads be increased beyond the manufacturer's...

  17. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  18. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small. PMID:27165691

  19. Sagittal rotational stiffness and damping increase in a porcine lumbar spine with increased or prolonged loading.

    PubMed

    Zondervan, Robert L; Popovich, John M; Radcliffe, Clark J; Pathak, Pramod K; Reeves, N Peter

    2016-02-29

    While the impact of load magnitude on spine dynamic parameters (stiffness and damping) has been reported, it is unclear how load history (exposure to prolonged loading) affects spine dynamic parameters in sagittal rotation. Furthermore, it is unknown if both spine stiffness and damping are equally affected to prolonged loading. Using a pendulum testing apparatus, the effect of load magnitude and load history on spine sagittal rotational stiffness and damping was assessed. Nine porcine lumbar functional spine units (FSUs) were tested in an increasing compressive load phase (ICP: 44.85, 68.55, 91.75, 114.6kg) and then a decreasing compressive load phase (DCP: 91.75, 68.55, and 44.85kg). Each trial consisted of flexing the FSU 5° and allowing it to oscillate unconstrained. During the ICP, both stiffness and damping linearly increased with load. However, in the DCP, stiffness and damping values were significantly higher than the identical load collected during the ICP, suggesting load history affects sagittal rotational dynamic parameters. In addition, spine damping was more affected by load history than spine stiffness. These results highlight the importance of controlling load magnitude and history when assessing spine dynamic parameters. PMID:26892899

  20. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  1. Changes in global and regional modularity associated with increasing working memory load

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Using graph theory measures common to complex network analyses of neuroimaging data, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of increasing working memory processing load on functional brain network topology in a cohort of young adults. Measures of modularity in complex brain networks quantify how well a network is organized into densely interconnected communities. We investigated changes in both the large-scale modular organization of the functional brain network as a whole and regional changes in modular organization as demands on working memory increased from n = 1 to n = 2 on the standard n-back task. We further investigated the relationship between modular properties across working memory load conditions and behavioral performance. Our results showed that regional modular organization within the default mode and working memory circuits significantly changed from 1-back to 2-back task conditions. However, the regional modular organization was not associated with behavioral performance. Global measures of modular organization did not change with working memory load but were associated with individual variability in behavioral performance. These findings indicate that regional and global network properties are modulated by different aspects of working memory under increasing load conditions. These findings highlight the importance of assessing multiple features of functional brain network topology at both global and regional scales rather than focusing on a single network property. PMID:25520639

  2. The effect of shock loading on the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor at constant organic loading rate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The influences of organic loading disturbances on the process performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating potato-processing wastewater were investigated. For this purpose, while the reactor was operated at steady state conditions with organic loading rate of 5.5 kg COD/m3 · day, an instant acetate concentration increase (1 g/L) was introduced to the reactor. During the shock loading test of acetate, it was observed that the overall process performance was adversely affected by all the shock loading, however, the system reached steady state conditions less than 24 hours of operation indicating that thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor is resistant to shock loading and be capable of returning its normal conditions within a short time period. PMID:24872886

  3. Direct effect of increased hemodynamic load on cardiac mass.

    PubMed

    Korecky, B; Masika, M

    1991-04-01

    The hearts of rats were transplanted into the abdomens of recipients of the same inbred strain by attaching the stumps of aorta and pulmonary artery end to side to the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava, respectively, of the recipient. The transplant functions as a denervated "nonworking" Langendorff heart; the recipient in situ heart serves as a normal control. One week after surgery, an onset of atrophy is observed in the transplanted heart, which stabilizes after 2 weeks; the in situ heart grows normally. Using this model, we increased the load of the left ventricle (LV) in the transplant by inserting a permanent polyethylene cannula into its aortic orifice during surgery to induce valvular incompetence and/or stenosis (TPE group). This resulted in significantly increased LV systolic pressure (115 +/- 5 versus 95 +/- 3 mm Hg) and a significantly increased rate-pressure product (34.7 +/- 1.7 versus 24.4 +/- 1.4 mm Hg.min-1 x 10(3) as compared with rats with control transplants (TC group). The LV mass in the TPE group decreased to only 85 +/- 4.8% of the mass of the corresponding in situ recipient heart as compared with 59 +/- 2.6% in the TC group (p less than 0.001). In three cases in the TPE group with highest overload, we observed about 20% larger LV mass in transplanted hearts as compared with the corresponding recipient in situ hearts. These results indicate that the increased load significantly attenuated the atrophy observed in LV of the isotransplants. This attenuation could be correlated with the increment of load as indicated by higher peak LV pressures and higher rate-pressure products. PMID:2009614

  4. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  5. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTRACTORS - HYDRAULIC VERSUS ORGANIC LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional and alternative flow configurations of rotating biological contractors were compared for soluble organic carbon and ammonia-nitrogen removal. Each treatment train contained eight shafts with a cumulative surface area of 800,000 ft sq. The hydraulic bay used the conve...

  6. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments are reviewed and the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types are compared.

  7. TRICKLING FILTER/SOLIDS CONTACT PERFORMANCE WITH ROCK FILTERS AT HIGH ORGANIC LOADINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of the trickling filter/solids contact (TF/SC) process at high organic loadings was studied at the Morro Bay-Cayucos treatment plant. The average secondary effluent TSS increased only slightly (from 13 mg/L to 15 mg/L) when the filter BOD5 loading was doubled from...

  8. Vulnerability of boreal zone for increased nitrogen loading due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Holmberg, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The observed rapid warming of the boreal zone that has been observed in Finland (0.14 °C by decade) is expected to continue (http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/). Also precipitation is assumed to increase in future. These changes may increase nitrogen (N) loading from terrestrial environments to water bodies by accelerating soil organic matter decay and by increasing runoff. Nitrogen is limiting nutrient in the Baltic Sea but also in some lakes, so increased loading may increase eutrophication. Further, high nitrate levels in drinking water may cause methaemoglobin anemia for humans, and nitrate is also connected to increased risk of diabetes and cancer. Thus EU has set upper limits to nitrate concentration in drinking water. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409) is a project about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone. We simulated N loading from two boreal catchments to the receiving waters by the dynamic, catchment scale model INCA in different climate change and land use change scenarios. We calculated land use specific N loading values for these two well monitored catchments that belong to the LTER (The Long Term Ecological Research) monitoring network. We upscaled the results to the larger river basin, combining them with the information on drinking water supply to assess the vulnerability. Specific emphasis was paid on nitrate concentrations in soil water and groundwater. In general, land use change has higher influence on N loading than increase in precipitation and temperature alone. Peak runoff will sift from snow melting peak in April to late autumn and winter. Growing season will become longer allowing more efficient vegetation uptake of nutrients. Small groundwater aquifers and private wells in the middle of agricultural fields will be in the risk of increased N concentrations, if agricultural N loading increases due to changes in agricultural patterns and land use change.

  9. Highly Loaded Behavior of Kinesins Increases the Robustness of Transport Under High Resisting Loads

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Woochul; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2015-01-01

    Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which walk by repeating a mechanochemical cycle. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its cargo about 1 μm in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively. This long range of transport by a team of kinesins is surprising because the motion of the cargo in cells can be hindered by other particles. To reveal how the kinesins are able to accomplish their tasks of transport in harsh intracellular circumstances, stochastic studies on the kinesin motion are performed by considering the binding and unbinding of kinesins to microtubules and their dependence on the force acting on kinesin molecules. The unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state of kinesin are modeled. The statistical characterization of the instants and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of unbound kinesin being at given locations. It is predicted that a group of kinesins has a more efficient transport than a single kinesin from the perspective of velocity and run length. Particularly, when large loads are applied, the leading kinesin remains bound to the microtubule for long time which increases the chances of the other kinesins to bind to the microtubule. To predict effects of this behavior of the leading kinesin under large loads on the collective transport, the motion of the cargo is studied when the cargo confronts obstacles. The result suggests that the behavior of kinesins under large loads prevents the early termination of the transport which can be caused by the interference with the static or moving obstacles. PMID:25734978

  10. Effect of organic loading rate and feedstock composition on foaming in manure-based biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Angelidaki, I

    2013-09-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. In the present study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock composition on foaming was elucidated in continuous reactor experiments. By stepwise increasing the OLR and the concentration of proteins or lipids in the substrate, foaming in biogas reactors was investigated. No foam formation was observed at the OLR of 3.5 g volatile solids/(L-reactor·day). Organic loading was the main factor affecting foam formation in manure digester, while the organic composition, such as content of proteins or lipids were factors that in combination with the organic loading were triggering foaming. More specifically, gelatine could initiate foam formation at a lower OLR than sodium oleate. Moreover, the volume of foam produced by gelatine was relatively stable and was not increased when further increasing either OLR or gelatine concentration in the feed. PMID:23850819

  11. Sibling competition and hunger increase allostatic load in spotted hyaenas.

    PubMed

    Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert; Dehnhard, Martin; Helms, Janine; East, Marion L

    2013-06-23

    Allostatis is the process of maintaining homeostatis through behavioural or physiological responses to challenges, and its cumulative energetic cost is termed allostatic load. The allostatic load hypothesis predicts that hunger and the mechanisms that establish and maintain social dominance should have a strong impact on allostatic load. In spotted hyaenas, dominance between twin siblings emerges during intense early competition for maternal milk and involves trained winner/loser effects. Conflict over access to teats declines with age as behavioural dominance conventions are established. In young litters, the allostatic load of subordinates measured in terms of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations (fGMCs) should be higher than that of dominants. When low milk provisioning threatens survival, hungry subordinates are more assertive, particularly when competing against a dominant sister. Dominants challenged by assertive subordinates should have allostatic loads and fGMCs above those of dominants with subordinates that adhere to dominance conventions. We show that in young litters, subordinates had significantly higher fGMCs than dominants, and dominant sisters had significantly higher fGMCs than dominant brothers. When hungry, both dominants and subordinates had significantly higher fGMCs than when fed. Our results provide evidence that hunger and sibling competition affect allostatic load in spotted hyaenas. PMID:23616643

  12. Sibling competition and hunger increase allostatic load in spotted hyaenas

    PubMed Central

    Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert; Dehnhard, Martin; Helms, Janine; East, Marion L.

    2013-01-01

    Allostatis is the process of maintaining homeostatis through behavioural or physiological responses to challenges, and its cumulative energetic cost is termed allostatic load. The allostatic load hypothesis predicts that hunger and the mechanisms that establish and maintain social dominance should have a strong impact on allostatic load. In spotted hyaenas, dominance between twin siblings emerges during intense early competition for maternal milk and involves trained winner/loser effects. Conflict over access to teats declines with age as behavioural dominance conventions are established. In young litters, the allostatic load of subordinates measured in terms of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations (fGMCs) should be higher than that of dominants. When low milk provisioning threatens survival, hungry subordinates are more assertive, particularly when competing against a dominant sister. Dominants challenged by assertive subordinates should have allostatic loads and fGMCs above those of dominants with subordinates that adhere to dominance conventions. We show that in young litters, subordinates had significantly higher fGMCs than dominants, and dominant sisters had significantly higher fGMCs than dominant brothers. When hungry, both dominants and subordinates had significantly higher fGMCs than when fed. Our results provide evidence that hunger and sibling competition affect allostatic load in spotted hyaenas. PMID:23616643

  13. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  14. Polymer etching in the oxygen afterglow - Increased etch rates with increased reactor loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1989-01-01

    Reactor loading has an effect on the etch rate (rate of decrease of film thickness) of films of polyvinylfluoride (Tedlar) and polyethylene exposed in the afterglow of an RF discharge in oxygen. The etch rate is found to increase with the total surface area of the polymer exposed in the reactor. The etch rates of polypyromellitimide (Kapton H) and polystyrene under these conditions are very low. However, the etch rate of these polymers is greatly enhanced by adding either Tedlar or polyethylene to the reactor. A kinetic model is proposed based on the premise that the oxygen atoms produced by the RF discharge react with Tedlar or polyethylene to produce a much more reactive species, which dominates the etching of the polymers studied.

  15. Ecological determinism increases with organism size.

    PubMed

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Srivastava, Diane S; Marino, Nicholas A C; Azevedo, Fernanda D; Dib, Viviane; Lopes, Paloma M; Rosado, Alexandre S; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Esteves, Francisco A

    2012-07-01

    After much debate, there is an emerging consensus that the composition of many ecological communities is determined both by species traits, as proposed by niche theory, as well as by chance events. A critical question for ecology is, therefore, which attributes of species predict the dominance of deterministic or stochastic processes. We outline two hypotheses by which organism size could determine which processes structure ecological communities, and we test these hypotheses by comparing the community structure in bromeliad phytotelmata of three groups of organisms (bacteria, zooplankton, and macroinvertebrates) that encompass a 10 000-fold gradient in body size, but live in the same habitat. Bacteria had no habitat associations, as would be expected from trait-neutral stochastic processes, but still showed exclusion among species pairs, as would be expected from niche-based processes. Macroinvertebrates had strong habitat and species associations, indicating niche-based processes. Zooplankton, with body size between bacteria and macroinvertebrates, showed intermediate habitat associations. We concluded that a key niche process, habitat filtering, strengthened with organism size, possibly because larger organisms are both less plastic in their fundamental niches and more able to be selective in dispersal. These results suggest that the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes may be predictable from organism size. PMID:22919920

  16. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or original design limitations unless such increase meets with the manufacturer's approval. Where the manufacturer's services are not available, or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering...

  17. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or original design limitations unless such increase meets with the manufacturer's approval. Where the manufacturer's services are not available, or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering...

  18. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or original design limitations unless such increase meets with the manufacturer's approval. Where the manufacturer's services are not available, or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering...

  19. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or original design limitations unless such increase meets with the manufacturer's approval. Where the manufacturer's services are not available, or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering...

  20. Cyclic loading of tendon fascicles using a novel fatigue loading system increases interleukin-6 expression by tenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Legerlotz, K; Jones, G C; Screen, H R C; Riley, G P

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive strain or ‘overuse’ is thought to be a major factor contributing to the development of tendinopathy. The aims of our study were to develop a novel cyclic loading system, and use it to investigate the effect of defined loading conditions on the mechanical properties and gene expression of isolated tendon fascicles. Tendon fascicles were dissected from bovine-foot extensors and subjected to cyclic tensile strain (1 Hz) at 30% or 60% of the strain at failure, for 0 h (control), 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, or 5 h. Post loading, a quasi-static test to failure assessed damage. Gene expression at a selected loading regime (1 h at 30% failure strain) was analyzed 6 h post loading by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared with unloaded controls, loading at 30% failure strain took 5 h to lead to a significant decrease in failure stress, whereas loading to 60% led to a significant reduction after 15 min. Loading for 1 h at 30% failure strain did not create significant structural damage, but increased Collagen-1-alpha-chain-1 and interleukin-6 (IL6) expression, suggesting a role of IL6 in tendon adaptation to exercise. Correlating failure properties with fatigue damage provides a method by which changes in gene expression can be associated with different degrees of fatigue damage. PMID:22092479

  1. Higher organism load associated with failure of azithromycin to treat rectal chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Kong, F Y S; Tabrizi, S N; Fairley, C K; Phillips, S; Fehler, G; Law, M; Vodstrcil, L A; Chen, M; Bradshaw, C S; Hocking, J S

    2016-09-01

    Repeat rectal chlamydia infection is common in men who have sex with men (MSM) following treatment with 1 g azithromycin. This study describes the association between organism load and repeat rectal chlamydia infection, genovar distribution, and efficacy of azithromycin in asymptomatic MSM. Stored rectal chlamydia-positive samples from MSM were analysed for organism load and genotyped to assist differentiation between reinfection and treatment failure. Included men had follow-up tests within 100 days of index infection. Lymphogranuloma venereum and proctitis diagnosed symptomatically were excluded. Factors associated with repeat infection, treatment failure and reinfection were investigated. In total, 227 MSM were included - 64 with repeat infections [28·2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 22·4-34·5]. Repeat positivity was associated with increased pre-treatment organism load [odds ratio (OR) 1·7, 95% CI 1·4-2·2]. Of 64 repeat infections, 29 (12·8%, 95% CI 8·7-17·8) were treatment failures and 35 (15·4%, 95% CI 11·0-20·8) were reinfections, 11 (17·2%, 95% CI 8·9-28·7) of which were definite reinfections. Treatment failure and reinfection were both associated with increased load (OR 2·0, 95% CI 1·4-2·7 and 1·6, 95% CI 1·2-2·2, respectively). The most prevalent genovars were G, D and J. Treatment efficacy for 1 g azithromycin was 83·6% (95% CI 77·2-88·8). Repeat positivity was associated with high pre-treatment organism load. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to evaluate azithromycin's efficacy and whether extended doses can overcome rectal infections with high organism load. PMID:27180823

  2. Load-bearing increase in alumina evoked by introduction of a functional glass gradient

    PubMed Central

    Dorthé, Erik; Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Alumina is the most commonly used ceramic in orthopedics due mainly to its wear resistance and chemical inertness. However, alumina has relatively low load-bearing capacity compared to other advanced ceramics, such as zirconia. We hypothesized that grading the elastic modulus at the surfaces may substantially increase the load-bearing capacity of alumina. In this study, graded structures were fabricated by infiltrating glass into dense alumina plates, resulting in a diminished modulus at the surface layers. The plates were then bonded to polycarbonate substrates and subjected to flexural loading with various loading rates spanning five orders of magnitude (dynamic fatigue) in water. Infiltrated specimens showed an increase in flexural load over homogenous controls for all loading rates, despite the graded alumina exhibiting greater load rate dependence than their homogenous counterparts. Our results indicate that controlled elastic gradients at the surface could be highly beneficial in improving the load-bearing capacity of alumina ceramics. PMID:22639492

  3. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  4. A trend towards increasing viral load in newly diagnosed HIV-infected inpatients in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wang, Z; Huang, A; Yuan, J; Wei, D; Ye, H

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral blood viral load is an important indicator of viral production and clearance. Previous studies have suggested that viral load might predict the rate of decrease in CD4+ cell count and progression to AIDS and death. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the trends in HIV-1 viral load in southeast China. Among inpatients newly diagnosed with HIV infection, we found that viral load has increased over the past decade from 4·20 log10 copies/ml in 2002 to 6·61 log10 copies/ml in 2014, with a mean increase of 0·19 log10 copies/ml each year. However, the CD4+ cell count was stable and insensitive to changes in viral load. Thus, increasing viral load appears to be an emerging trend in newly diagnosed HIV-infected inpatients. PMID:26732896

  5. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Tripathi, Sachchida; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs throughout the world, it contains substantial quantity of liquid water and generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but it also has the potential to form highly oxidized secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient aerosols. On the other hand higher organic aerosols (OA) loading tend to decrease the overall oxidation level (O/C) of the particle phase organics, due to enhanced partitioning of less oxidized organics from gas to particle phase. However, combined impact of these two parameters; aqueous oxidation and OA loading, on the overall oxidation ratio (O/C) of ambient OA has never been studied. To assess this, real time ambient sampling using HR-ToF-AMS was carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. In first 3 weeks of this campaign, very high OA loading is (134 ± 42 μg/m3) observed (termed as high loading or HL period) while loading is substantially reduced from 2nd January, 2016 (56 ± 20 μg/m3, termed as low loading or LL period) . However, both the loading period was affected by several fog episodes (10 in HL and 7 in LL), thus providing the opportunity of studying the combined effects of fog and OA loading on OA oxidation. It is found that O/C ratio is very strongly anti-correlated with OA loading in both the loading period, however, slope of this ant-correlation is much steep during HL period than in LL period. Source apportionment of OA revealed that there is drastic change in the types of OA from HL to LL period, clearly indicating difference in OA composition from HL to LL period. During foggy night continuous oxidation of OA is observed from early evening to early morning with 15-20% enhancement in O/C ratio, while the same is absent during non-foggy period, clearly indicating the efficient fog processing of ambient OA. It is also found that night time fog aqueous oxidation can be as effective as daytime photo chemistry in oxidation of OA. Fog

  6. Superexchange Charge Transport in Loaded Metal Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tobias; Liu, Jianxi; Wächter, Tobias; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Welle, Alexander; Mugnaini, Veronica; Meded, Velimir; Zharnikov, Michael; Wöll, Christof; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-26

    In the past, nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been mostly studied for their huge potential with regard to gas storage and separation. More recently, the discovery that the electrical conductivity of a widely studied, highly insulating MOF, HKUST-1, improves dramatically when loaded with guest molecules has triggered a huge interest in the charge carrier transport properties of MOFs. The observed high conductivity, however, is difficult to reconcile with conventional transport mechanisms: neither simple hopping nor band transport models are consistent with the available experimental data. Here, we combine theoretical results and new experimental data to demonstrate that the observed conductivity can be explained by an extended hopping transport model including virtual hops through localized MOF states or molecular superexchange. Predictions of this model agree well with precise conductivity measurements, where experimental artifacts and the influence of defects are largely avoided by using well-defined samples and the Hg-drop junction approach. PMID:27359160

  7. What Is Being Done to Increase Organ Donation?

    PubMed

    Scheuher, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The need for organs greatly outnumbers the amount of organs donated for transplantation. This is true for all countries around the world. Many organizations globally have been created to solve this problem. Spain has been very successful with its drive to increase organ donation. Educational campaigns are a great tool being utilized by all countries and the medical communities to promote a positive perception of organ donation. These campaigns include using the television industry, raising money for travel expenses, and education seminars. This article looks at the different groups and programs aimed at increasing organ donation. PMID:27254645

  8. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues. PMID:27019167

  9. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao

    2015-01-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. PMID:26504138

  10. Fate of alkylphenolic compounds during activated sludge treatment: impact of loading and organic composition.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Ewan J; Bagnall, John P; Soares, Ana; Koh, Yoong K K; Chiu, Tze Y; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N; Cartmell, Elise

    2011-01-01

    The impact of loading and organic composition on the fate of alkylphenolic compounds in the activated sludge plant (ASP) has been studied. Three ASP designs comprising carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification treatment were examined to demonstrate the impact of increasing levels of process complexity and to incorporate a spectrum of loading conditions. Based on mass balance, overall biodegradation efficiencies for nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), short chain carboxylates (NP(1-3)EC) and nonylphenol (NP) were 37%, 59%, and 27% for the carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification ASP, respectively. The presence of a rich community of ammonia oxidizing bacteria does not necessarily facilitate effective alkylphenolic compound degradation. However, a clear correlation between alkylphenolic compound loading and long chain ethoxylate compound biodegradation was determined at the three ASPs, indicating that at higher initial alkylphenolic compound concentrations (or load), greater ethoxylate biotransformation can occur. In addition, the impact of settled sewage organic composition on alkylphenolic compound removal was evaluated. A correlation between the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to alkylphenolic compound concentration and biomass activity was determined, demonstrating the inhibiting effect of bulk organic matter on alkylphenol polyethoxylate transformation activity. At all three ASPs the biodegradation pathway proposed involves the preferential biodegradation of the amphiphilic ethoxylated compounds, after which the preferential attack of the lipophilic akylphenol moiety occurs. The extent of ethoxylate biodegradation is driven by the initial alkylphenolic compound concentration and the proportion of COD constituted by the alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) and their metabolites relative to the bulk organic concentration of the sewage composed of proteins, acids, fats

  11. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production.

    PubMed

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37°C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% - 6% - 13% - 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS(-1), obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids. PMID:24820663

  12. Effects of Increasing Task Load on Memory Impairment in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Holland, Tony; Hall, Scott; Crayton, Lissa

    2005-01-01

    The effect of increasing the number of stimuli to be recalled was investigated to evaluate whether sensitivity for memory impairment was enhanced in adults with Down syndrome when using higher task load. Three levels of load were compared across three groups of adults: those with cognitive deterioration, no cognitive deterioration over age 40, and…

  13. STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF THE DIII-D TOROIDAL FIELD COIL TO INCREASED LATERAL LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    REIS,E.E; CHIN,E

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Recent calibration shots in which full toroidal field (TF) coil current interacted with the maximum poloidal field coils have produced increased lateral loads on the outer sections of the TF-coil. The increased lateral loads have resulted in deflections that have been sufficient to cause the TF-coil to contact adjacent equipment and produce a transient short to ground within the coil. The six outer turns of each TF-coil bundle are clamped together by insulated preloaded studs to provide increased bending stiffness. These sections of the outer bundles depend on friction to react the lateral loads as a bundle rather than six individual turns. A major concern is that the increased loads will produce slip between turns resulting in excessive lateral deflections and possible damage to the insulating sleeve on the preloaded studs. A finite element structural model of the TF-coil was developed for the calculation of deflections and the shear load distribution throughout the coil for the applied lateral loads from a full current calibration shot. The purpose of the updated structural model is to correlate the applied lateral loads to the total shear force between the unbonded sections of the outer turns. An allowable integrated lateral load applied to the outer turns is established based on the maximum shear force that can be reacted by friction. A program that calculates the magnetic fields and integrated lateral load along the outer turns can be incorporated into the plasma control system. The integrated load can then be compared to the calculated allowable value prior to execution of calibration shots. Calibration shots with a calculated total lateral load greater than the allowable value will be prevented.

  14. Biomethanation from enzymatically hydrolyzed brewer's spent grain: Impact of rapid increase in loadings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyu; Tao, Yu; Temudo, Margarida; Bijl, Henk; Kloek, Joris; Ren, Nanqi; van Lier, Jules B; de Kreuk, Merle

    2015-08-01

    Enzymatically hydrolyzed brewer's spent grain (BSG) was digested in two expanded granular sludge beds (EGSBs, named BSG1 and BSG2, respectively). Both reactors were operated with the same organic loading rate (OLR) from 1 to 10kgCODm(-3)d(-1) during the first 45days. Hereafter a rapid OLR increase was applied to BSG2 from 10 to 16kgCODm(-3)d(-1) within three weeks, while the OLR of BSG1 was increased by less than 2kgCODm(-3)d(-1) in the same period. Results showed that a 30% decrease in COD removal and 70% decrease in methane yield appeared in BSG2 after the rapid OLR increase, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulated more than thirty times compared to BSG1. The biomass structure deteriorated and 15% of the biomass was lost from the BSG2 reactor. 454-PyroTag and qPCR analysis revealed a rapid growth of acidifiers (i.e., Bacteroides) and a unique microbial community in BSG2 following the rapid increase in OLR. PMID:25941758

  15. Exploratory study of reactivity in organic compounds subjected to shock loading. [Diphenylhexadiyne

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    An exploratory study of chemical reactions occurring in organic compounds under shock loading has been carried out. Early results on shock reactivity of the organic compounds acrylamide, adamantane, hexamethylenetetramine, naphthalene, and 1,6-diphenyl-2,4-hexadiyne have established two points: (1) organic reactions occur under shock loading; and (2) chemical structure strongly influences shock reactivity.

  16. Increased alpha-9 human papillomavirus species viral load in human immunodeficiency virus positive women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR-HPV viral load are associated with the development of cancer. This study investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, HIV viral load and CD4 count on the HR-HPV viral load; and also investigated the predictors of cervical abnormalities. Methods Participants were 292 HIV-negative and 258 HIV-positive women. HR-HPV viral loads in cervical cells were determined by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results HIV-positive women had a significantly higher viral load for combined alpha-9 HPV species compared to HIV-negative women (median 3.9 copies per cell compared to 0.63 copies per cell, P = 0.022). This was not observed for individual HPV types. HIV-positive women with CD4 counts >350/μl had significantly lower viral loads for alpha-7 HPV species (median 0.12 copies per cell) than HIV-positive women with CD4 ≤350/μl (median 1.52 copies per cell, P = 0.008), but low CD4 count was not significantly associated with increased viral load for other HPV species. High viral loads for alpha-6, alpha-7 and alpha-9 HPV species were significant predictors of abnormal cytology in women. Conclusion HIV co-infection significantly increased the combined alpha-9 HPV viral load in women but not viral loads for individual HPV types. High HR-HPV viral load was associated with cervical abnormal cytology. PMID:24484380

  17. Iron deficiency and bioavailability in anaerobic batch and submerged membrane bioreactors (SAMBR) during organic shock loads.

    PubMed

    Ketheesan, Balachandran; Thanh, Pham Minh; Stuckey, David C

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of Fe(2+) and its bioavailability for controlling VFAs during organic shock loads in batch reactors and a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). When seed grown under Fe-sufficient conditions (7.95±0.05mgFe/g-TSS), an organic shock resulted in leaching of Fe from the residual to organically bound and soluble forms. Under Fe-deficient seed conditions (0.1±0.002mgFe/gTSS), Fe(2+) supplementation (3.34mgFe(2+)/g-TSS) with acetate resulted in a 2.1-3.9 fold increase in the rate of methane production, while with propionate it increased by 1.2-1.5 fold compared to non-Fe(2+) supplemented reactors. Precipitation of Fe(2+) as sulphides and organically bound Fe were bioavailable to methanogens for acetate assimilation. The results confirmed that the transitory/long term limitations of Fe play a significant role in controlling the degradation of VFAs during organic shock loads due to their varying physical/chemical states, and bioavailability. PMID:27015020

  18. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  19. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  20. EFFECTS OF VENTILATION RATES AND PRODUCT LOADING ON ORGANIC EMISSION RATES FROM PARTICLEBOARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effects of ventilation rates and product loading on organic emission rates from particleboard. Recently, investigators have confirmed the presence of varied and significant amounts of organic compounds in indoor environment, including compounds known or su...

  1. Nitrogen removal from high organic loading wastewater in modified Ludzack-Ettinger configuration MBBR system.

    PubMed

    Torkaman, Mojtaba; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Tahmasebian, Sepehr; Andalibi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    A moving bed biofilm reactor with pre-denitrification configuration was fed with a synthetic wastewater containing high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. By changing different variables including ammonium and COD loading, nitrification rate in the aerobic reactor and denitrification rate in the anoxic reactor were monitored. Changing the influent loading was achieved via adjusting the inlet COD (956-2,096 mg/L), inlet ammonium (183-438 mg/L), and hydraulic retention time of the aerobic reactor (8, 12, and 18 hours). The overall organic loading rate was in the range of 3.60-17.37 gCOD/m2·day, of which 18.5-91% was removed in the anoxic reactor depending on the operational conditions. Considering the complementary role of the aerobic reactor, the overall COD removal was in the range 87.3-98.8%. In addition, nitrification rate increased with influent ammonium loading, the maximum rate reaching 3.05 gNH4/m2·day. One of the most important factors affecting nitrification rate was influent C:N entering the aerobic reactor, by increasing which nitrification rate decreased asymptotically. Nitrate removal efficiency in the anoxic reactor was also controlled by the inlet nitrate level entering the anoxic reactor. Furthermore, by increasing the nitrate loading rate from 0.91 to 3.49 gNO/m3·day, denitrification rate increased from 0.496 to 2.47 gNO/m3·day. PMID:26465296

  2. Anaerobic slurry co-digestion of poultry manure and straw: effect of organic loading and temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volume of 70 L was used. The digestion operated at 25°C, 30°C and 35°C with organic loading rates of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 kg Volatile solid/m3d and a HRT of 15 days. At a temperature of 35°C, the methane yield was increased by 43% compared to 25°C. Anaerobic co-digestion appeared feasible with a loading rate of 3.0 kg VS/m3d at 35°C. At this state, the specific methane yield was calculated about 0.12 m3/kg VS with a methane content of 53–70.2% in the biogas. The volatile solid (VS) removal was 72%. As a result of volatile fatty acid accumulation and decrease in pH, when the loading rate was less than 1 or greater than 4 kg VS/m3d, the process was inhibited or overloaded, respectively. Both the lower and higher loading rates resulted in a decline in the methane yield. PMID:24502409

  3. Musculoskeletal stiffness changes linearly in response to increasing load during walking gait.

    PubMed

    Caron, Robert R; Lewis, Cara L; Saltzman, Elliot; Wagenaar, Robert C; Holt, Kenneth G

    2015-04-13

    Development of biologically inspired exoskeletons to assist soldiers in carrying load is a rapidly expanding field. Understanding how the body modulates stiffness in response to changing loads may inform the development of these exoskeletons and is the purpose of the present study. Seventeen subjects walked on a treadmill at a constant preferred walking velocity while nine different backpack loading conditions ranging from 12.5% to 40% bodyweight (BW) were introduced in an ascending and then descending order. Kinematic data were collected using Optotrak, a 3D motion analysis system, and used to estimate the position of the center of mass (COM). Two different estimates of stiffness were computed for the stance phase of gait. Both measures of stiffness were positively and linearly related to load magnitudes, with the slopes of the relationships being larger for the descending than the ascending conditions. These results indicate that changes in mechanical stiffness brought about in the musculoskeletal system vary systematically during increases in load to ensure that critical kinematic variables measured in a previous publication remain invariant (Caron et al., 2013). Changes in stiffness and other kinematics measured at the 40% BW condition suggest a boundary in which gait stiffness control limit is reached and a new gait pattern is required. Since soldiers are now carrying up to 96% of body weight, the need for research with even heavier loads is warranted. These findings have implications on the development of exoskeletons to assist in carrying loads. PMID:25678200

  4. Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruthi, Y. Avasn; Das, N. Lakshmana; Hossain, Kaizar; Sarma, K. S. S.; Rawat, K. P.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB treatment of the wastewater has found to be very effective in reducing the pathogens as well as organic load. EB dose of 1.5 kGy was sufficient for complete elimination of total coli forms. The experimental results elucidated the reduction of biological oxygen demand—BOD (35 and 51.7%) in both inlet and outlet sewage samples. Similarly reduction of chemical oxygen demand—COD was observed (37.54 and 52.32%) in both sewage samples with respect to increase in irradiation doses (0.45-6 kGy). The present study demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation for disinfection of sewage and to increase the water quality of the wastewater by decreasing BOD and COD. So, the irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation, in industry for cooling purpose and some selected domestic purposes.

  5. Improved in vitro efficacy of gold nanoconstructs by increased loading of G-quadruplex aptamer.

    PubMed

    Dam, Duncan Hieu M; Lee, Raymond C; Odom, Teri W

    2014-05-14

    This paper describes how in vitro efficacy of aptamer-loaded gold nanostars (Apt-AuNS) can be enhanced by the increased loading of a G-quadruplex homodimer AS1411 (Apt) on the AuNS surface. In a low pH buffer environment, the loading density of Apt on AuNS was increased up to 2.5 times that obtained using the conventional salt-aging process. These highly loaded AuNS nanoconstructs (*Apt-AuNS) were taken up in pancreatic cancer and fibrosarcoma cells ca. 2 times more and at faster rates compared to Apt-AuNS. When a similar number of AuNS carriers was internalized by the cancer cells, the amount of AS1411 delivered via *Apt-AuNS was effectively double that of Apt-AuNS, and *Apt-AuNS resulted in an average of 42% increase in cell death. These results suggest that increasing the loading density on AuNS could provide a simple means to improve uptake as well as in vitro efficacy of the nanoconstructs in cancer cells. PMID:24689438

  6. Increased energy harvesting and reduced accelerative load for backpacks via frequency tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Longhan; Cai, Mingjing

    2015-06-01

    In this research, a backpack-based frequency-tuneable harvesting device was developed to harvest part of the human kinetic energy during walking and to relieve part of the accelerative load of the backpack from the bearer. The harvester employed a tuning mechanism to adjust the stretch ratio of the springs to adjust the system's stiffness so that the harvesting device can work in an appropriate status to generate more power and relieve a greater load from the bearer. The analysis indicates that adjusting the stiffness harvesting system to fit well with various external excitation conditions, can not only achieve more power output but also relieve part of the accelerative load from the bearer; and the experimental results agreed with the simulation. Compared with previous work, the harvester in this work had a higher efficiency in energy harvesting and could relieve an increased accelerative load from the bearer.

  7. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weixiao; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Singer, Heinz; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Berg, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Twenty percent of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1-5 μg/g), pesticides (11-284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5-224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4-430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River's average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m(3)/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m(3) of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary

  8. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    SciTech Connect

    Solli, Linn Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS{sup −1}, obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  9. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized.more » Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less

  10. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.

  11. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system. PMID:26241842

  12. Adaptation of endoplasmic reticulum exit sites to acute and chronic increases in cargo load

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Hesso; Weiss, Matthias; Tani, Katsuko; Kaufman, Randal J; Hauri, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The biogenesis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites (ERES) involves the formation of phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate (PI4) and Sec16, but it is entirely unknown how ERES adapt to variations in cargo load. Here, we studied acute and chronic adaptive responses of ERES to an increase in cargo load for ER export. The acute response (within minutes) to increased cargo load stimulated ERES fusion events, leading to larger but less ERES. Silencing either PI4-kinase IIIα (PI4K-IIIα) or Sec16 inhibited the acute response. Overexpression of secretory cargo for 24 h induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), upregulated COPII, and the cells formed more ERES. This chronic response was insensitive to silencing PI4K-IIIα, but was abrogated by silencing Sec16. The UPR was required as the chronic response was absent in cells lacking inositol-requiring protein 1. Mathematical model simulations further support the notion that increasing ERES number together with COPII levels is an efficient way to enhance the secretory flux. These results indicate that chronic and acute increases in cargo load are handled differentially by ERES and are regulated by different factors. PMID:18650939

  13. Wet deposition loadings of organic contaminants to Lake Ontario: Assessing the influence of precipitation from urban and rural sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Robson, Matthew; Diamond, Miriam L.; Bradley, Lisa E.; Backus, Sean

    2011-09-01

    Wet deposition to Lake Ontario has been examined through a comparison of concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in precipitation at three sites on the north shore of Lake Ontario: one rural, one suburban, and one urban site. Concentrations of ΣPAHs, BFRs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes and γ-HCH in precipitation are highest at the urban site, while concentrations of other OCPs were similar across all three sites. Loadings via wet deposition range from 0.42 kg year -1 for Σchlordanes to 1900 kg year -1 for ΣPAHs. The distribution of concentrations reflects the use/emission pattern of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and indicates that concentrations in precipitation are predominantly the result of local sources rather than long-range transport from other regions. While elevated urban concentrations increase wet deposition in the urban region itself, this influence decreases rapidly downwind of the urban area. Chemical loads in precipitation from the highly urbanized regions bordering the Great Lakes are estimated to increase wet deposition loadings to lake areas adjacent to the urban areas. Estimates of annual wet deposition loadings of POPs to Lake Ontario indicate that when considering the influence of elevated loadings from Toronto, loadings via precipitation are 2.5%-42% higher depending on the compound, with the greatest relative increase in loadings resulting from PCBs and Σchlordanes.

  14. Sex-based differences in lifting technique under increasing load conditions: A principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, P S; Stevenson, J M; Graham, R B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a sex-based difference in lifting technique across increasing-load conditions. Eleven male and 14 female participants (n = 25) with no previous history of low back disorder participated in the study. Participants completed freestyle, symmetric lifts of a box with handles from the floor to a table positioned at 50% of their height for five trials under three load conditions (10%, 20%, and 30% of their individual maximum isometric back strength). Joint kinematic data for the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar and thoracic spine were collected using a two-camera Optotrak motion capture system. Joint angles were calculated using a three-dimensional Euler rotation sequence. Principal component analysis (PCA) and single component reconstruction were applied to assess differences in lifting technique across the entire waveforms. Thirty-two PCs were retained from the five joints and three axes in accordance with the 90% trace criterion. Repeated-measures ANOVA with a mixed design revealed no significant effect of sex for any of the PCs. This is contrary to previous research that used discrete points on the lifting curve to analyze sex-based differences, but agrees with more recent research using more complex analysis techniques. There was a significant effect of load on lifting technique for five PCs of the lower limb (PC1 of ankle flexion, knee flexion, and knee adduction, as well as PC2 and PC3 of hip flexion) (p < 0.005). However, there was no significant effect of load on the thoracic and lumbar spine. It was concluded that when load is standardized to individual back strength characteristics, males and females adopted a similar lifting technique. In addition, as load increased male and female participants changed their lifting technique in a similar manner. PMID:26851478

  15. Additional weight load increases freezing of gait episodes in Parkinson's disease; an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Senja H G; Nonnekes, Jorik; van Bon, Geert; Snijders, Anke H; Duysens, Jacques; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Oude Nijhuis, Lars B

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait is an episodic gait disorder,characterized by the inability to generate effective forward stepping movements. The pathophysiology underlying freezing of gait remains insufficiently understood, and this hampers the development of better treatment strategies.Preliminary evidence suggests that impaired force control during walking may contribute to freezing episodes, with difficulty to unload the swing leg and initiate the swing phase. Here, we used external loading to manipulate force control and to investigate its influence on freezing of gait.Twelve Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait performed three contrasting tasks: (1) loaded gait while wearing a belt fortified with lead weights; (2) weight supported gait using a parachute harness connected to a rigid metal cable running above the gait trajectory; and (3)normal gait. Gait tasks were used to provoke freezing episodes, including rapid 360° turns. Freezing episodes were quantified using blinded, videotaped clinical assessment. Furthermore, ground reaction forces and body kinematics were recorded. Loading significantly increased the mean number of freezing episodes per trial compared to the normal gait condition (P<0.05), but the effect of weight support was not consistent. Loading particularly increased the number of freezing episodes during rapid short steps. Step length was significantly smaller during loaded gait compared to normal gait (P<0.05), but changes in anticipatory postural adjustments were not different.Our results may point to impaired force control playing a key role in freezing of gait. Future studies should further investigate the mechanism, i.e., the contribution of deficient load feedback, and evaluate which forms of weight support might offer treatment opportunities. PMID:24658705

  16. Organized Pneumonia Secondary to Increasing Doses of Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Consuegra Vanegas, Angélica; Matachana Martínez, María; Cordero Lorenzana, Lourdes; Vidal García, Iria; Montero Martínez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy have a role in the control of tumor growth, progression, and recurrence in high-grade gliomas. Temozolomide has been incorporated as the main chemotherapy agent for managing these tumors. Here, we present a case of a patient who developed a severe organizing pneumonia after increasing doses of temozolomide for a high-grade glioma. PMID:26487994

  17. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2–C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible. PMID:25881597

  18. Land Cover and Nutrient Loads Explain Changes in Enzymatic Processing of Stream Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosen, J. D.; Febria, C.; McDonough, O.; Palmer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use has been shown to alter organic matter composition as well as its processing, export, and retention in headwater streams. Human activities also increase stream nutrient loading and in turn organic matter processing by heterotrophic microbial communities. Using microbial extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) assays combined with dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence spectroscopy, we investigated the interaction between catchment land use, nutrient limitation, heterotrophic microbial communities, and carbon processing in five forested and three urbanized Coastal Plain headwater streams (Maryland, USA). EEA measures microbial production of heterotrophic extracellular enzymes, including aminopeptidase, which facilitates the breakdown of organic nitrogen and phosphatase which facilitates breakdown of organic phosphate. DOM fluorescence spectroscopy enables rapid quantification of different organic matter fluorophores (e.g., amino acid-, humic acid-, and fulvic acid-like). Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of DOM fluorescence can be coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) for detailed quantitative analysis. Samples were collected quarterly from May 2011 to July 2012 and characterized using both EEA and EEM. We show that significant differences in stream EEA are explained by DOM fluorescence, land cover, and inorganic nutrient inputs. Specifically, urbanized sites were characterized by relatively low ortho-phosphate concentrations, high inorganic nitrogen concentrations, high phosphatase EEA, and greater amino acid-like DOM fluorescence. Aminopeptidase activity increased with increasing amino acid-like DOM fluorescence (i.e., a labile form of DOM for microbes) in forested streams. By contrast aminopeptidase activity did not respond to increasing amino acid-like fluorescence in urbanized streams. This points to a difference in limitation in inorganic nutrients between stream types. Thus, we hypothesize that stream microbial communities

  19. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Nandasiri, Manjula I; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B Peter; Jenks, Jeromy; Schaef, Herbert T; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F; Nune, Satish K

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) and the properties depended on the amount of GO added. MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited a significant increase in the thermal conductivity (by approximately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of the base fluid (methanol) was increased by about 20%. The increase in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to GO functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model. PMID:27302196

  20. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B. Peter; Jenks, Jeromy; Schaef, Herbert T.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F.; Nune, Satish K.

    2016-06-01

    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) and the properties depended on the amount of GO added. MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited a significant increase in the thermal conductivity (by approximately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of the base fluid (methanol) was increased by about 20%. The increase in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to GO functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model.

  1. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B. Peter; Jenks, Jeromy; Schaef, Herbert T.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F.; Nune, Satish K.

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) and the properties depended on the amount of GO added. MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited a significant increase in the thermal conductivity (by approximately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of the base fluid (methanol) was increased by about 20%. The increase in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to GO functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model. PMID:27302196

  2. The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part II: Quantification of specific organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Littke, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    The major goal of this study was to investigate the organic pollution of a river on a quantitative basis. To this end, 14 anthropogenic contaminants which were identified in Lippe River water samples as reported in part I (Dsikowitzky et al., submitted parallel to this manuscript) were surveyed. Dissolved organic loads of the specific compounds were calculated on the basis of their concentrations in water and river runoff on the day of sampling. The organic loads of each compound were compiled along the longitudinal section of the river in order to generate individual spatial pollution profiles. It was observed that distribution of organic loads along the river showed distinctive patterns, depending upon the input situation and physico-chemical properties of the compound. The compounds were classified into three types of which Type 1, due to their stability in the aqueous phase, are of special interest for potential application as anthropogenic markers. PMID:15519373

  3. Rheological behavior of physicochemical sludges during methanogenesis suppression and hydrogen production at different organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Contreras, Juan Manuel; López-Escobar, Luis A; Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Cantú-Lozano, Denis; Ortiz-Ceballos, Angel I

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the rheological behavior of raw physicochemical sludges and sludges that were digested at different organic loading rates (OLRs) (1, 5, 10 and 15 gVS L(-1) d(-1)) during methanogenesis suppression to produce hydrogen anaerobically. The Herschel-Bulkley model was used to describe the rheology of these sludges with specific properties. The results indicate that the Herschel-Bulkley model adequately described the rheology ([Formula: see text] ≠ 0) of this type of fluids (R(2) > 0.98). In addition, the raw physicochemical sludges and those that were digested at different OLRs had dilatant behaviors (n > 1), which increased with increasing OLR. These results identified the apparent viscosity, yield stress, pH and OLR conditions that allow for the production and suppression of methane, as well as the conditions that guarantee the production of hydrogen. PMID:26943338

  4. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  5. Increased levels of FFA during passive heat loading after a 2-week repeated heat load in Koreans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Kim, Tae Wook

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated heat load is closely related to circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFA) during repeated passive heat loading (PHL), defined as immersion of the lower body up to an umbilical level in hot water, 42 ± 0.5 °C (three times/week, 30 min/day) for 2 weeks. There were significant correlations between mean body temperature and FFA before and after repeated heat load ( p < 0.001, respectively), and the level of FFA was significantly higher after repeated heat load during PHL ( p < 0.01). The threshold of mean body temperature for lipolysis was lowered by repeated heat load and enhanced lipolysis during PHL. However, caution is needed for diabetic individuals.

  6. Response of a continuous biomethanation process to transient organic shock loads under controlled and uncontrolled pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-04-15

    The organic loading rate (OLR) is a critical factor that controls the treatment efficiency and biogas production in anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, organic shock loads may cause significant process imbalances accompanied by a drop in pH and acid accumulation or even failure. This study investigated the response of a continuous mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor to a series of transient organic shock loads of the substrate whey permeate, a high-strength organic wastewater from cheese making. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads of increasing magnitude (a one-day pulse of elevated feed organic concentration) under controlled (near 7) and uncontrolled pH conditions at a fixed HRT of 10 days. The reactor was resilient to up to a shock load of up to 8.0 g SCOD/L·d under controlled pH conditions but failed to recover from the serious imbalance caused by a 3.0-g SCOD/L·d shock load, thus indicating the critical effect of pH on system resilience. The acidified reactor was not restored by interrupted feeding under the acidic conditions that were formed (pH ≤ 4.5) but was successfully restored after pH adjustment to 7. The reactor subsequently reverted to continuous mode without pH control and showed a performance comparable to the stable performance at the design OLR of 1.0 g SCOD/L·d. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically in association with disturbances in the reactor conditions, whereas the archaeal community structure remained simple and less variable during the shock loading experiments. The structural shifts of the bacterial community were well correlated with the process performance changes, and performance recovery was generally accompanied by recovery of the bacterial community structure. The overall results suggest that the reactor pH, rather than simply acting as an accumulation of organic acids, had a crucial effect on the resilience and robustness of the microbial community and thus on the reactor performance under organic

  7. Loading of Gemcitabine on chitosan magnetic nanoparticles increases the anti-cancer efficacy of the drug.

    PubMed

    Parsian, Maryam; Unsoy, Gozde; Mutlu, Pelin; Yalcin, Serap; Tezcaner, Aysen; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-08-01

    Targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs increase the efficacy, while decreasing adverse effects. Among various delivery systems, chitosan coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CsMNPs) gained attention with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and targetability under magnetic field. This study aimed to increase the cellular uptake and efficacy of Gemcitabine. CsMNPs were synthesized by in situ co-precipitation and Gemcitabine was loaded onto the nanoparticles. Nanoparticle characterization was performed by TEM, FTIR, XPS, and zeta potential. Gemcitabine release and stability was analyzed. The cellular uptake was shown. Cytotoxicity of free-Gemcitabine and Gem-CsMNPs were examined on SKBR and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by XTT assay. Gemcitabine loading was optimized as 30µM by spectrophotometric analyses. Drug release was highest (65%) at pH 4.2, while it was 8% at pH 7.2. This is a desired release characteristic since pH of tumor-tissue and endosomes are acidic, while the blood-stream and healthy-tissues are neutral. Peaks reflecting the presence of Gemcitabine were observed in FTIR and XPS. At neutral pH, zeta potential increased after Gemcitabine loading. TEM images displayed, Gem-CsMNPs were 4nm with uniform size-distribution and have spherical shape. The cellular uptake and targetability of CsMNPs was studied on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. IC50 value of Gem-CsMNPs was 1.4 fold and 2.6 fold lower than free-Gem on SKBR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines respectively, indicating the increased efficacy of Gemcitabine when loaded onto nanoparticles. Targetability by magnetic field, stability, size distribution, cellular uptake and toxicity characteristics of CsMNPs in this study provides a useful targeted delivery system for Gemcitabine in cancer therapy. PMID:27181067

  8. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function. PMID:26997623

  9. Increased joint loads during walking--a consequence of pain relief in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2006-12-01

    Joint pain is a primary symptom in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the effect of pain and pain relief on the knee joint mechanics of walking is not clear. In this study, the effects of local knee joint analgesia on knee joint loads during walking were studied in a group of knee osteoarthritis patients. A group of healthy subjects was included as a reference group. The joint loads were calculated from standard gait analysis data obtained with standardised walking speed (4 km/h). The gait analyses were performed before and after pain relief by intra-articular injections of 10 mL lidocaine (1%). Pre-injection measurements revealed lower joint loads in the OA group compared to the reference group. Following injections pain during walking decreased significantly and the joint loads increased in the OA group during the late single support phase to a level comparable to the reference group. Although the patients walked with less compressive knee joint forces compared to the reference group, the effects of pain relief may accelerate the degenerative changes. PMID:17011194

  10. The stiffness of bone marrow cell-knit composites is increased during mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Bruinink, A; Siragusano, D; Ettel, G; Brandsberg, T; Brandsberg, F; Petitmermet, M; Müller, B; Mayer, J; Wintermantel, E

    2001-12-01

    A novel device for mechanical stimulation of primary adult rat bone marrow cells cultured on three-dimensional knitted textiles has been prototyped. A method has been developed ensuring a well-defined, high-density, and reproducible cell seeding on the knitted fabric. After culturing for 18-52 days the cell-knit composites were subjected to uniaxial 2% stretching and relaxation. The frequency was altered between 0.1 Hz (196 min, loading phase) and 0.01 Hz (360 min, resting phase). Identically treated knits without cells exhibited a slight stiffness reduction, whereas the stiffness of knits with cells increased from cycle to cycle. The stiffness increase was found to depend on the duration of the culture period before mechanical loading. Our data suggest that the extracellular matrix deposited by the cells on the knit and intact microtubuli of living cells cause the observed stiffness increase. In comparison to the unstrained static cell-knit composites cell proliferation and bone cell differentiation were reduced by the mechanical load. PMID:11603589

  11. Increased interstitial loading reduces the effect of microstructural variations in cardiac tissue

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical propagation in diseased and aging hearts is strongly influenced by structural changes that occur in both the intracellular and interstitial spaces of cardiac tissue; however, very few studies have investigated how interactions between the two spaces affect propagation at the microscale. In this study, we used one-dimensional microstructural computer models of interconnected ventricular myocytes to systematically investigate how increasing the effective interstitial resistivity (ρoeff) influences action potential propagation in fibers with variations in intracellular properties such as cell coupling and cell length. Changes in ρoeff were incorporated into a monodomain model using a correction to the intracellular properties that was based on bidomain simulations. The results showed that increasing ρoeff in poorly coupled one-dimensional fibers alters the distribution of electrical load at the microscale and causes propagation to become more continuous. In the poorly coupled fiber, this continuous state is characterized by decreased gap junction delay, sustained conduction velocity, increased sodium current, reduced maximum upstroke velocity, and increased safety factor. Long, poorly coupled cells experience greater loading effects than short cells and show the greatest initial response to changes in ρoeff. In inhomogeneous fibers with adjacent well-coupled and poorly coupled regions, increasing ρoeff in the poorly coupled region also reduces source-load mismatch, which delays the onset of conduction block and reduces the dispersion of repolarization at the transition between the two regions. Increasing the ρoeff minimizes the effect of cell-to-cell variations and may influence the pattern of activation in critical regimes characterized by low intercellular coupling, microstructural heterogeneity, and reduced or abnormal membrane excitability. PMID:20097772

  12. Organic-matter loading determines regime shifts and alternative states in an aquatic ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, Jennie; Baiser, Benjamin; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Slow changes in underlying state variables can lead to “tipping points,” rapid transitions between alternative states (“regime shifts”) in a wide range of complex systems. Tipping points and regime shifts routinely are documented retrospectively in long time series of observational data. Experimental induction of tipping points and regime shifts is rare, but could lead to new methods for detecting impending tipping points and forestalling regime shifts. By using controlled additions of detrital organic matter (dried, ground arthropod prey), we experimentally induced a shift from aerobic to anaerobic states in a miniature aquatic ecosystem: the self-contained pools that form in leaves of the carnivorous northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. In unfed controls, the concentration of dissolved oxygen ([O2]) in all replicates exhibited regular diurnal cycles associated with daytime photosynthesis and nocturnal plant respiration. In low prey-addition treatments, the regular diurnal cycles of [O2] were disrupted, but a regime shift was not detected. In high prey-addition treatments, the variance of the [O2] time series increased until the system tipped from an aerobic to an anaerobic state. In these treatments, replicate [O2] time series predictably crossed a tipping point at ∼45 h as [O2] was decoupled from diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and respiration. Increasing organic-matter loading led to predictable changes in [O2] dynamics, with high loading consistently driving the system past a well-defined tipping point. The Sarracenia microecosystem functions as a tractable experimental system in which to explore the forecasting and management of tipping points and alternative regimes. PMID:23613583

  13. Effect of organic loading rate on anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated Scenedesmus sp. biomass.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, C; Sialve, B; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2013-02-01

    Biogas production is one of the means to produce a biofuel from microalgae. Biomass consisting mainly of Scenedesmus sp. was thermally pretreated and optimum pretreatment length (1 h) and temperature (90 °C) was selected. Different chemical composition among batches stored at 4 °C for different lengths of time resulted in organic matter hydrolysis percentages ranging from 3% to 7%. The lower percentages were attributed to cell wall thickening observed during storage for 45 days. The different hydrolysis percentages did not cause differences in anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment of Scenedesmus sp. at 90 °C for 1h increased methane production 2.9 and 3.4-fold at organic loading rates (OLR) of 1 and 2.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), respectively. Regardless the OLR, inhibition caused by organic overloading or ammonia toxicity were not detected. Despite enhanced methane production, anaerobic biodegradability of this biomass remained low (32%). Therefore, this microalga is not a suitable feedstock for biogas production unless a more suitable pretreatment can be found. PMID:23247149

  14. The influence of cavitation damage upon high temperature creep under stationary and non-stationary loading conditions. Part III: Creep at steady increasing load and true stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boček, M.; Hoffmann, M.

    1984-11-01

    In this paper for ideally plastic materials the influence of high temperature cavitation damage upon creep at steady increasing loads is investigated. The damage function A(t) enters a constitutive equation for plastíc flow through an effective stress σ e. For given loading conditions the latter is derived from the solution of Hart's tensile test equation. In the present paper the case of time linear increase in load ( F = constant) and in true stress ( /.s = constant) is investigated. The creep equations for cavitating as well as for non-cavitating materials are derived and the volume change during creep at /.F = constant are calculated.

  15. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on the post-dredging increase in internal phosphorus loading across the sediment-water interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Shao, Shiguang; Shen, Qiushi; Fan, Chengxin; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Qilin

    2016-04-01

    Dredging is frequently used in the river mouths of eutrophic lakes to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading from the sediment. However, the accumulation of P-adsorbed suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the inflowing rivers negatively affects the post-dredging sediment-water interface and ultimately increases internal P loading. Here, a 360-d experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of riverine SPM on the efficacy of dredging in reducing internal P loading. SPM was added to dredged and undredged sediments collected from the confluence area of Lake Chaohu. Several parameters related to internal P loading, including oxygen profile, soluble reactive P, and ferrous iron across the sediment-water interface, organic matter, alkaline phosphatase activity, and P fractions, were measured throughout the experimental period. The results showed that the P content (especially mobile P) in the sediment increased to the pre-dredging level with the accumulation of SPM in the dredged sediment. In addition, the P flux across the sediment-water interface increased with the accumulation of SPM. Several characteristics of SPM, including high organic matter content, mobile P, high activity of alkaline phosphatase, and high biological activity, were considered correlated with the post-dredging increase in internal P loading. Overall, this study showed that the heavily contaminated riverine SPM regulates the long-term efficacy of dredging as a nutrient management option in the confluence area. Management is needed to avoid or reduce this phenomenon during dredging projects of this nature. PMID:26766534

  16. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to ∼ 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

  17. Dilute bidispersed tube flow: Role of interclass collisions at increased loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borée, J.; Caraman, N.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents measurements and analysis of a bidispersed two-phase flow system at low (11%) and moderate (110%) mass loadings in a fully developed pipe flow. Our goal is to provide data and analysis showing the role of interclass collisions. The mass distribution of the particles mixture is therefore chosen in order to promote collisions between large 90μm and 60μm glass beads. Velocity statistics up to and including the third-order moments at both mass loadings are presented. The radial turbulent transport of longitudinal and radial fluctuating kinetic stresses is much higher for the particles than for the fluid phase. Dominant effects in the radial balance of the kinetic stresses are discussed. The signature of interparticle collisions is observed by comparing measurements at high- and low-mass loadings. In particular, at higher-mass loading, we measure a decrease of the streamwise kinetic stress of the large particles over the entire section of the tube. On the other hand, the streamwise kinetic stress of the 60μm particles decreases in the high shear region only. The most striking result is the strong increase of the radial fluctuating velocities of the glass beads and of the radial transport of the radial fluctuating kinetic energy. The expected phenomenology is an important contribution of interparticle collisions to the radial variance νp' associated with a damping of the longitudinal kinetic stresses. This damping is more important for the 90μm glass beads than for the 60μm glass beads because the 60μm particles receive kinetic energy from 90μm particles. The redistribution mechanisms via collisions are expected to be largest in the near wall region where the anisotropy of the fluctuating motion is high. An analysis of the collision frequency in different regions of the flow shows that, even at Mj=110%, the mean time scale between collisions is of the order or larger than the particles aerodynamic time constant. Therefore, collisions cannot

  18. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants. PMID:27214000

  19. When Interference Helps: Increasing Executive Load to Facilitate Deception Detection in the Concealed Information Test

    PubMed Central

    Visu-Petra, George; Varga, Mihai; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem), and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift). The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift) was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants). The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior. PMID:23543918

  20. Effects of +Gz Loads on Structural Organization of Central Autonomic Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Sukhoterin, A F; Pashchenko, P S

    2015-09-01

    Structural alterations in the central autonomic nuclei (dorsal vagal complex and intermediolateral nucleus) of the centrifuged random-bred male rats subjected to +Gz loads were examined. Acute exposure to gravitational loads predominantly produced the reactive changes in these nuclei, while persistently repeated regular loads resulted in cumulation of the destructive alterations. The structural perturbations in the central autonomic nuclei can disturb the autonomic regulation of physiological functions. The character of such disturbances is partially determined by the peculiarities in structural organization of these nuclei. PMID:26463057

  1. The effect of organic loading rate on foam initiation during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ganidi, Nafsika; Tyrrel, Sean; Cartmell, Elise

    2011-06-01

    The impact of increasing organic load on anaerobic digestion foaming was studied at both full and bench scale. Organic loadings of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 kg VS m(-3) were applied to bench-scale digesters. Foaming was monitored at a full scale digester operated in a comparable organic loading range over 15 months. The bench scale batch studies identified 2.5 kg VS m(-3) as a critical threshold for foam initiation while 5 kg VS m(-3) resulted in persistent foaming. Investigation of a full scale foaming event corroborated the laboratory observation that foaming may be initiated at a loading rate of ≥ 2.5 kg VS m(-3). Experimental findings on foam composition and differences in the quality characteristics between foaming and non-foaming sludges indicated that foam initiation derived from the combined effect of the liquid and gas phases inside a digester and that the solids/biomass ultimately stabilized foaming. PMID:21507623

  2. Periostin Deficiency Increases Bone Damage and Impairs Injury Response to Fatigue Loading in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gineyts, Evelyne; Ammann, Patrick; Conway, Simon J.; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn-/- and Postn+/+ mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn+/+ mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS) increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn+/+ mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn-/- mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn+/+. Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn-/-, but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn-/- , and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn-/- mice. Contrary to Postn+/+ , which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA) after fatigue, Postn-/- showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures. PMID:24167618

  3. Periostin deficiency increases bone damage and impairs injury response to fatigue loading in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gineyts, Evelyne; Ammann, Patrick; Conway, Simon J; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn(-/-) and Postn(+/+) mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn(+/+) mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS) increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn(+/+) mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn(-/-) mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn(+/+). Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn(-/-), but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn(-/-), and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn(-/-) mice. Contrary to Postn(+/+), which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA) after fatigue, Postn(-/-) showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures. PMID

  4. Taking the easy way out? Increasing implementation effort reduces probability maximizing under cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christin; Newell, Ben R

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive load has previously been found to have a positive effect on strategy selection in repeated risky choice. Specifically, whereas inferior probability matching often prevails under single-task conditions, optimal probability maximizing sometimes dominates when a concurrent task competes for cognitive resources. We examined the extent to which this seemingly beneficial effect of increased task demands hinges on the effort required to implement each of the choice strategies. Probability maximizing typically involves a simple repeated response to a single option, whereas probability matching requires choice proportions to be tracked carefully throughout a sequential choice task. Here, we flipped this pattern by introducing a manipulation that made the implementation of maximizing more taxing and, at the same time, allowed decision makers to probability match via a simple repeated response to a single option. The results from two experiments showed that increasing the implementation effort of probability maximizing resulted in decreased adoption rates of this strategy. This was the case both when decision makers simultaneously learned about the outcome probabilities and responded to a dual task (Exp. 1) and when these two aspects were procedurally separated in two distinct stages (Exp. 2). We conclude that the effort involved in implementing a choice strategy is a key factor in shaping repeated choice under uncertainty. Moreover, highlighting the importance of implementation effort casts new light on the sometimes surprising and inconsistent effects of cognitive load that have previously been reported in the literature. PMID:26884088

  5. Muscle receptor organs do not mediate load compensation during body roll and defense response extensions in the crayfish Cherax destructor.

    PubMed

    Patullo, B W; Faulkes, Z; Macmillan, D L

    2001-12-01

    It has been proposed that the abdominal muscle receptor organ (MRO) of decapod crustaceans acts in a sensory feedback loop to compensate for external load. There is not yet unequivocal evidence of MRO activity during slow abdominal extension in intact animals, however. This raises the possibility that MRO involvement in load compensation is context-dependent. We recorded from MRO tonic stretch receptors (SRs) in freely behaving crayfish (Cherax destructor) during abdominal extension occurring during two different behaviors: body roll and the defense response. Abdominal extensions are similar in many respects in both behaviors, although defense response extensions are more rapid. In both situations, SR activity typically ceased when the abdominal extension commenced, even if the joint of the SR being monitored was mechanically prevented from extending by a block. Since extensor motor neuron activity increased when the abdomen was prevented from extending, we concluded that the load compensation occurring in these behaviors was not mediated by the MROs. PMID:11748627

  6. Incremental training intensities increases loads on the lower back of elite female rowers.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, Erica M; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar-pelvic kinematics change in response to increasing rowing stroke rates, but little is known about the effect of incremental stroke rates on changes in joint kinetics and their implications for injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of incremental rowing intensities on lower limb and lumbar-pelvic kinetics. Twelve female rowers performed an incremental test on a rowing ergometer. Kinematic data of rowers' ankle, knee, hip and lumbar-pelvic joints, as well as external forces at the handle, seat and foot-stretchers of the rowing machine were recorded. Inter-segmental moments and forces were calculated using inverse dynamics and were compared across stroke rates using repeated measures ANOVA. Rowers exhibited increases in peak ankle and L5/S1 extensor moments, reductions in peak knee moments and no change in peak hip moments, with respect to stroke rate. Large shear and compressive forces were seen at L5/S1 and increased with stroke rate (P < 0.05). This coincided with increased levels of lumbar-pelvic flexion. High levels of lumbar-pelvic loading at higher stroke rates have implications with respect to injury and indicated that technique was declining, leading to increased lumbar-pelvic flexion. Such changes are not advantageous to performance and can potentially increase the risk of developing injuries. PMID:26090702

  7. Increased systolic load causes adverse remodeling of fetal aortic and mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Tibayan, Frederick A; Louey, Samantha; Jonker, Sonnet; Espinoza, Herbert; Chattergoon, Natasha; You, Fanglei; Thornburg, Kent L; Giraud, George

    2015-12-15

    While abnormal hemodynamic forces alter fetal myocardial growth, little is known about whether such insults affect fetal cardiac valve development. We hypothesized that chronically elevated systolic load would detrimentally alter fetal valve growth. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep received either a continuous infusion of adult sheep plasma to increase fetal blood pressure, or a lactated Ringer's infusion as a volume control beginning on day 126 ± 4 of gestation. After 8 days, mean arterial pressure was higher in the plasma infusion group (63.0 mmHg vs. 41.8 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mitral annular septal-lateral diameter (11.9 mm vs. 9.1 mm, P < 0.05), anterior leaflet length (7.7 mm vs. 6.4 mm, P < 0.05), and posterior leaflet length (P2; 4.0 mm vs. 3.0 mm, P < 0.05) were greater in the elevated load group. mRNA levels of Notch-1, TGF-β2, Wnt-2b, BMP-1, and versican were suppressed in aortic and mitral valve leaflets; elastin and α1 type I collagen mRNA levels were suppressed in the aortic valves only. We conclude that sustained elevated arterial pressure load on the fetal heart valve leads to anatomic remodeling and, surprisingly, suppression of signaling and extracellular matrix genes that are important to valve development. These novel findings have important implications on the developmental origins of valve disease and may have long-term consequences on valve function and durability. PMID:26354842

  8. Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly-wintering shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, R.E., Jr.; Summers, R.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds at northern latitudes during the nonbreeding season typically carry relatively large lipid stores and exhibit an up-regulation of lean tissues associated with digestion and thermogenesis. Intraspecific variation in these tissues across sites primarily reflects differences in environmental conditions. Rock (Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues, 1873)) and Purple (Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764)) sandpipers are closely related species having the most northerly nonbreeding distributions among shorebirds, living at latitudes up to 61°N in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and up to 71°N in northern Norway, respectively. Cook Inlet is the coldest known site used by nonbreeding shorebirds, and the region’s mudflats annually experience extensive coverage of foraging sites by sea and shore-fast ice. Accordingly, Rock Sandpipers increase their fat stores to nearly 20% of body mass during winter. In contrast, Purple Sandpipers exploit predictably ice-free rocky intertidal foraging sites and maintain low (<6.5%) fat stores. Rock Sandpipers increase the mass of lean tissues from fall to winter, including contour feathers, stomach, and liver components. They also have greater lean pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle and liver and kidney tissues compared with Purple Sandpipers in winter. This demonstrates a combined emphasis on digestive processes and thermogenesis, whereas Purple Sandpipers primarily augment organs associated with digestive processes. The high winter fat loads and increased lean tissues of Rock Sandpipers in Cook Inlet reflect the region’s persistent cold and abundant but sporadically unavailable food resources.

  9. Tolerance to organic loading rate by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Liu, Fu-biao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Sodium acetate as carbon source, tolerance to organic loading rate (OLR) by aerobic granular sludge in a cyclic aerobic granular reactor (CAGR) was investigated by gradually increasing the influent COD. AGS could maintain stability in the continuous flow reactor under OLR⩽15kg/m(3)d in the former 65 days, and SVI, granulation rate, average particle size and water content was 21 ml/g, 98%, 1.8mm and 97.2% on the 65th day. However, AGS gradually disintegrated after the 66 th day when OLR increased to 18 kg/m(3)d, and granules' properties deteriorated rapidly in a short time. High removal rates to pollutants were achieved by CAGR in the former 65 days, but the removal rates of pollutants dropped sharply from the 66 th day. With the increase of OLR and particle size, anaerobic cores inside the granules were formed by massive dead cells, while instability of anaerobic core eventually led to the collapse of the system. PMID:25710570

  10. Annual loads of organic contaminants in Chesapeake Bay contributed through fluvial transport

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.D.; Lippa, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    Organic contaminants in fluvial transport, atmospheric deposition, urban runoff, and shoreline erosion are being quantified and compared in an effort to understand contaminant inputs and mass balances in Chesapeake Bay. Concentrations of nine organonitrogen and organophosphorus (organo-N/P) pesticides, eight organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and four polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in fluvial transport were determined at the Susquehanna, Potomac, and James River fall lines for the period of March 1992 through February 1993. Together these rivers account for ca. 75% of the freshwater inflow to the bay from fluvial sources. Sampling was conducted monthly during base flow conditions and during all major storm events. Analysis of nanogram and picogram per liter concentrations of the organic contaminants was performed for both the dissolved and particulate phases of the surface water samples. Daily fluvial loads were calculated using an iterative-increment method from concentration and discharge data, and the resulting daily load estimates were summed to provide annual loads. Loads contributed by the three tributaries from March 1992 through February 1993 were 6.9 metric tons for the organo-N/P pesticides, 0.73 metric tons for the OC compounds and PCBs, and 1.2 metric tons for the PAH. Preliminary comparisons show that loads from fluvial transport are generally greater than other sources for most contaminants except PAH, where atmospheric deposition and urban runoff contribute greater loads of some compounds.

  11. Caffeine increases sweating sensitivity via changes in sudomotor activity during physical loading.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2011-11-01

    We assessed the effect of caffeine on sudomotor activity and sweating sensitivity during physical loading. Both physiological responses could occur due to energy expenditure. Subjects were 13 athletically trained males (22.1 ± 3.7 years old, 174.2 ± 5.4 cm tall, and weighing 70.9 ± 4.6 kg, with maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max] of 53.6 ± 4.4 mL/kg/minute). The study involved a within-subject, random, crossover design. Tests were performed following the ingestion of 3 mg/kg caffeine. The physical loading involved running for 30 minutes at 60% VO(2)max (24.0 ± 0.5°C, 40 ± 3.0% relative humidity). Tympanic temperature (TYMP) was significantly higher in the caffeine-consuming group (Caffe-I) at pre-exercise (40 minutes after caffeine intake and immediately before running) (P<.05). Mean body temperature (mT(b)) was significantly higher in the Caffe-I group at pre- and post-exercise (30 min after start of running) (P<.05). Onset time of localized sweating was significantly shorter in the Caffe-I group (P<.01), but localized sweat volume and active sweat gland output (per single gland) was significantly higher in the Caffe-I group (P<.001). Activated sweat gland density was significantly increased in the Caffe-I group on the abdomen and thigh (P<.01). In conclusion, caffeine ingestion caused not only increases in TYMP and mT(b) through thermogenesis, but also an increased sweating sensitivity via changes in sudomotor activity. PMID:21883004

  12. Development of the Zebra load region for increased capability plasma diagnostics and improved Leopard laser access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanovitskiy, Alexey; Presura, R.; Ivanov, V. V.; Haboub, A.; Plachaty, C.; Kindel, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    A new geometry for the load area in the Zebra (1MA pulse generator) is developed. It will form the basis for future experiments requiring Leopard (1057nm, 50TW laser) to Zebra coupling and give extended capability to z-pinch diagnostics. This required the development of a new current return, which allows laser access and installation of the OD 4'' parabolic mirror for the x-ray radiography, isochoric heating and magnetized plasma experiments, and accommodates wire-array z-pinch loads, to which the laser may then be coupled. In addition, this configuration allows diagnostics access close to the plasma, leading to a significant increase of the spatial resolution for imaging of z-pinches, as well as the photon flux in imaging and spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas. These diagnostics will allow coupling of the Leopard beam for x-ray laser probing of the pinch plasma and we will test point-projection x-ray backlighting of the pinch plasma.

  13. Increased loading rates and specific methane yields facilitated by digesting grass silage at thermophilic rather than mesophilic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Voelklein, M A; Rusmanis, D; Murphy, J D

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to advance the understanding of thermophilic grass digestion. Late harvested grass silage was fermented at thermophilic conditions at increasing organic loading rates (OLR). Stable digestion took place at an OLR between 3 and 4gVSL(-1)d(-1). This enabled specific methane yields (SMY) as high as 405LCH4kgVS(-1). An accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA), accompanied by a gradual deterioration of pH, FOS/TAC (ratio of VFA to alkalinity) arose at an OLR between 5 and 7gVSL(-1)d(-1), yet inhibition did not occur. SMY decreased with reduced retention time ranging between 336 and 358LCH4kgVS(-1) at OLR 7 and 5gVSL(-1)d(-1) respectively. The biomethane efficiencies remained high (92-103%) at corresponding retention times. Comparative results indicated a superior performance with respect to higher loading and SMY as compared with mesophilic conditions. PMID:27268433

  14. Whey treatment by AnSBBR with circulation: effects of organic loading, shock loads, and alkalinity supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Roberto A; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of volumetric loading rate (VLR), shock load, and alkalinity supplementation on the efficiency and stability of an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR) containing polyurethane foam cubes. Mixing in the reactor, which was kept at 30 +/- 1 degrees C, occurred by recirculating the liquid phase. The reactor treated 2.5 l cheese whey in 8-h cycles, at concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 g COD l-1, which corresponded to VLRs of 3, 6, and 12 g COD l-1 day-1, respectively. Application of single-cycle shock loads of 6, 12, and 24 g COD l-1 day-1 did not impair reactor performance. In addition, for VLRs of 3, 6, and 12 g COD l-1 day-1, alkalinity supplementation to the influent, at the end of each assay, could be reduced to 75, 50, and 50%, respectively, in relation to supplementation at the beginning of the assay. During reactor operation a viscous polymer-like material was formed between the polyurethane foam cubes, which increased at higher VLR. Finally, addition of salts to the influent improved reactor efficiency. PMID:18057453

  15. Microbial population dynamics in response to increasing loadings of pre-hydrolyzed pig manure in an expanded granular sludge bed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyu; Tao, Yu; Gao, Dawen; Liu, Gang; Chen, Chunhong; Ren, Nanqi; van Lier, Jules B; de Kreuk, Merle

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, pig manure (PM) has been regarded as a valuable substrate for energy and resource recovery via bioprocesses such as anaerobic digestion (AD), however, the efficiency of digesting raw PM is limited by the presence of refractory compounds. In this study, we applied a series of pretreatment on raw PM, consisting of subsequent thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, tyndallization and filtration. The liquid PM hydrolysates were fed to an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for the production of biogas. The general performance and population dynamics of the EGSB reactor were assessed during an extended operational period of 339 days. An efficient and stable digestion process was achieved under high organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 21 kg-COD/(m(3)·d), agreeing with a sludge loading rate of 0.75 kg-COD/(kg-VSS·d), 1600 mg-NH4(+)-N/L and 17 mg/L of free ammonia nitrogen. The tyndallization decreased the total amount of active cells from 1 × 10(8) to 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml. Hence, bio-augmentation with pigs' intestinal microbiota was absent and the community dynamics were mainly credited to the composition of the substrate (i.e. PM hydrolysates) and the environmental conditions inside the reactor. The results showed the influence of both the seed community and the imposed loading rates on the evolutionary trajectory of the EGSB microbial community. Four bacterial genera (Clostridium, Cytophaga, Bacillus and Bacteroides) and two methanogenic genera (Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium) dominated the communities. An obvious shift from aceticlastic Methanosaeta to hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium appeared when the OLR was increased to over 10 kg-COD/(m(3)·d). PMID:26378729

  16. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ENVIRONMENTAL LOADINGS FROM MANUFACTURE OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a methodology for estimating multimedia environmental loadings of a 'new' organic chemical (Section 2), the output data of which can be used to determine population exposure (within and without the manufacturing process plant battery limits) and to isolate th...

  17. Effect of increased load on scapular kinematics during manual wheelchair propulsion in individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Raina, Shashank; McNitt-Gray, Jill L; Mulroy, Sara; Requejo, Philip S

    2012-04-01

    Repetitive loading of the upper extremity musculature during activities like wheelchair propulsion can lead to fatigue of surrounding musculature causing irregular segment kinematics. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of increase in load on the kinematics of the scapula in users with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Data were collected on 18 participants (11 with paraplegia and 7 with tetraplegia) using an electromagnetic motion tracking system (100Hz) and force sensing pushrim (200Hz). The participants propelled under no load and loaded conditions at their customary propulsion velocity. On average a 60N increase in force was elicited with the experimental protocol. Users with tetraplegia showed significant increases (p<.05) in the rate of change of scapular angles in the upward/downward rotation and the retraction/protraction direction under the loaded conditions, whereas users with paraplegia only showed difference in the retraction/protraction rotation direction. Overall both user populations moved towards position of increased downward rotation, anterior tilt and protraction with increase in load hence increasing the risk of impingement. This experiment adds depth to our understanding of dynamic scapular kinematics during wheelchair propulsion under different loading conditions and differences in scapular control between users with paraplegia and tetraplegia. PMID:21782267

  18. Effects of Increased Loading on In Vivo Tendon Properties: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    WIESINGER, HANS-PETER; KÖSTERS, ALEXANDER; MÜLLER, ERICH; SEYNNES, OLIVIER R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction In vivo measurements have been used in the past two decades to investigate the effects of increased loading on tendon properties, yet the current understanding of tendon macroscopic changes to training is rather fragmented, limited to reports of tendon stiffening, supported by changes in material properties and/or tendon hypertrophy. The main aim of this review was to analyze the existing literature to gain further insights into tendon adaptations by extracting patterns of dose-response and time-course. Methods PubMed/Medline, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies examining the effect of training on material, mechanical, and morphological properties via longitudinal or cross-sectional designs. Results Thirty-five of 6440 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. The key findings were i) the confirmation of a nearly systematic adaptation of tendon tissue to training, ii) the important variability in the observed changes in tendon properties between and within studies, and iii) the absence of a consistent incremental pattern regarding the dose-response or the time-course relation of tendon adaptation within the first months of training. However, long-term (years) training was associated with a larger tendon cross-sectional area, without any evidence of differences in material properties. Our analysis also highlighted several gaps in the existing literature, which may be addressed in future research. Conclusions In line with some cross-species observations about tendon design, tendon cross-sectional area allegedly constitutes the ultimate adjusting parameter to increased loading. We propose here a theoretical model placing tendon hypertrophy and adjustments in material properties as parts of the same adaptive continuum. PMID:25563908

  19. Naloxone increases water and electrolyte excretion after water loading in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Leehey, D J; Gollapudi, P; Deakin, A; Reid, R W

    1991-11-01

    Endogenous opioids may be involved in the pathogenesis of ascites and edema in patients with liver cirrhosis. We administered the opioid antagonist naloxone (5 mg bolus followed by a 0.06 mg/min infusion) to eight male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and ascites and to five healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects and determined the effects of naloxone on water and electrolyte excretion after a nonsustained water load (20 ml/kg). In comparison with saline vehicle infusion carried out in the same subjects, naloxone administration resulted in a 50% increase in urine output and creatinine clearance and twofold increases in sodium and potassium excretion in patients with cirrhosis. Fractional sodium and potassium excretion, minimal urinary osmolality, plasma vasopressin and aldosterone levels, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were not affected by naloxone treatment. The diuretic effect of naloxone was not observed in control subjects. Plasma naloxone levels were about six times higher in patients with cirrhosis than in control subjects (probably because of impaired metabolism of the drug) but only a weak correlation was found between drug levels and the degree of diuresis observed. The diuretic effect of naloxone may be related to an increase in glomerular filtration rate, possibly in conjunction with altered tubular reabsorption. PMID:1940589

  20. Increasing the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new category of advanced porous materials undergoing study by many researchers for their vast variety of both novel structures and potentially useful properties arising from them. Their high porosities, tunable structures, and convenient process of introducing both customizable functional groups and unsaturated metal centers have afforded excellent gas sorption and separation ability, catalytic activity, luminescent properties, and more. However, the robustness and reactivity of a given framework are largely dependent on its metal-ligand interactions, where the metal-containing clusters are often vulnerable to ligand substitution by water or other nucleophiles, meaning that the frameworks may collapsemore » upon exposure even to moist air. Other frameworks may collapse upon thermal or vacuum treatment or simply over time. This instability limits the practical uses of many MOFs. In order to further enhance the stability of the framework, many different approaches, such as the utilization of high-valence metal ions or nitrogen-donor ligands, were recently investigated. This review details the efforts of both our research group and others to synthesize MOFs possessing drastically increased chemical and thermal stability, in addition to exemplary performance for catalysis, gas sorption, and separation.« less

  1. Reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations associated with organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tomoyuki; Haruta, Shin; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hanajima, Dai; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    Organic loading conditions are an important factor influencing reactor performances in methanogenic bioreactors. Yet the underlying microbiological basis of the process stability, deterioration, and recovery remains to be understood. Here, structural responses of the bacterial and archaeal populations to the change of organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester were investigated by process analyses and 16S rRNA gene-based molecular approaches. The biogas was produced stably without the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at low organic loading rates (OLRs) in the beginning of reactor operation. Increasing OLR in stages disrupted the stable reactor performance, and high OLR conditions continued the deteriorated performance with slight biogas production and high accumulation of VFAs. Thereafter, the gradual decrease of OLR resulted in the recovery from the deterioration, giving rise to the stable performance again. The stable performances before and after the high OLR conditions conducted were associated with compositionally similar but not identical methanogenic consortia. The bacterial and archaeal populations were synchronously changed at both the transient phases toward the deteriorated performance and in recovery process, during which the dynamic shift of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens including the recently identified Methanomassiliicoccus might contribute to the maintenance of the methanogenic activity. The distinctive bacterial population with a high predominance of Methanobacterium formicicum as archaeal member was found for the deteriorated performance. The results in this study indicate the coordinated reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations in response to functional states induced by the change of organic loading conditions in the anaerobic digester. PMID:25293692

  2. Organic loading rate: A promising microbial management tool in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Robert M W; Coulon, Frédéric; Villa, Raffaella

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of changes in organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock on the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and their potential use as a bioengineering management tool to improve stability of anaerobic digesters. Digesters were exposed to one or two changes in OLR using the same or different co-substrates (Fat Oil and Grease waste (FOG) and/or glycerol). Although all the OLR fluctuations produced a decrease in biogas and methane production, the digesters exposed twice to glycerol showed faster recovery towards stable conditions after the second OLR change. This was correlated with the composition of the VFAs produced and their mode of production, from parallel to sequential, resulting in a more efficient recovery from inhibition of methanogenesis. The change in acids processing after the first OLR increase induced a shift in the microbial community responsible of the process optimisation when the digesters were exposed to a subsequent OLR increase with the same feedstock. When the digesters were exposed to an OLR change with a different feedstock (FOG), the recovery took 7d longer than with the same one (glycerol). However, the microbial community showed functional resilience and was able to perform similarly to pre-exposure conditions. Thus, changes in operational conditions can be used to influence microbial community structure for anaerobic digestion (AD) optimisation. Finally, shorter recovery times and increased resilience of digesters were linked to higher numbers of Clostridia incertae sedis XV, suggesting that this group may be a good candidate for AD bioaugmentation to speed up recovery after process instability or OLR increase. PMID:27214347

  3. Cellular and molecular responses to increased skeletal muscle loading after irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation of rat skeletal muscles before increased loading has been shown to prevent compensatory hypertrophy for periods of up to 4 wk, possibly by preventing satellite cells from proliferating and providing new myonuclei. Recent work suggested that stem cell populations exist that might allow irradiated muscles to eventually hypertrophy over time. We report that irradiation essentially prevented hypertrophy in rat muscles subjected to 3 mo of functional overload (OL-Ir). The time course and magnitude of changes in cellular and molecular markers of anabolic and myogenic responses were similar in the OL-Ir and the contralateral nonirradiated, overloaded (OL) muscles for the first 3-7 days. These markers then returned to control levels in OL-Ir muscles while remaining elevated in OL muscles. The number of myonuclei and amount of DNA were increased markedly in OL but not OL-Ir muscles. Thus it appears that stem cells were not added to the irradiated muscles in this time period. These data are consistent with the theory that the addition of new myonuclei may be required for compensatory hypertrophy in the rat.

  4. Increase in Levels of Stratospheric Chlorine and Fluorine Loading between 1985 and 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C.; Lowes, L. L.; Mahieu, E.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Ko, M. K. W.; Sze, N. D.; Weisenstein, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing ratios of 3.44 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) and 1.23 ppbv for HCl and HF above 50 km, surrogates for total chlorine and fluorine, have been measured by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment on a March 1992 flight of the Space Shuttle. Compared to the measured values obtained on a 1985 flight, these correspond to a 37% and 62% increase for HCl and HF, respectively. The derived trend in HCl (approx. 0.13 ppbv per year) is in good agreement with the model-predicted increase in chlorine loading of 0.13 ppbv per year, and with the measured trends in HCl total column abundance from reported ground-based observations. The main source of this change can be attributed to the release of man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC's). This new value for HCl represents an upper limit to the inorganic chlorine concentration in the stratosphere available for participation in photochemical processes which destroy ozone.

  5. Loading rate increases during barefoot running in habitually shod runners: Individual responses to an unfamiliar condition.

    PubMed

    Tam, Nicholas; Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Coetzee, Devon R; van Pletsen, Leanri; Tucker, Ross

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of barefoot running on initial loading rate (LR), lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics, and neuromuscular control in habitually shod runners with an emphasis on the individual response to this unfamiliar condition. Kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from 51 habitually shod runners during overground running in a barefoot and shod condition. Joint kinetics and stiffness were calculated with inverse dynamics. Inter-individual initial LR variability was explored by separating individuals by a barefoot/shod ratio to determine acute responders/non-responders. Mean initial LR was 54.1% greater in the barefoot when compared to the shod condition. Differences between acute responders/non-responders were found at peak and initial contact sagittal ankle angle and at initial ground contact. Correlations were found between barefoot sagittal ankle angle at initial ground contact and barefoot initial LR. A large variability in biomechanical responses to an acute exposure to barefoot running was found. A large intra-individual variability was found in initial LR but not ankle plantar-dorsiflexion between footwear conditions. A majority of habitually shod runners do not exhibit previously reported benefits in terms of reduced initial LRs when barefoot. Lastly, runners who increased LR when barefoot reduced LRs when wearing shoes to levels similar seen in habitually barefoot runners who do adopt a forefoot-landing pattern, despite increased dorsiflexion. PMID:27131176

  6. Salmon contributions to dissolved organic matter and nutrient loads in a coastal stream in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J. B.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska, spawning salmon can have a substantial effect on the water quality of coastal watersheds because salmon move large quantities of marine nutrients into terrestrial freshwater streams. We are measuring the effects of salmon on loads of inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Peterson Creek near Juneau, Alaska. Peterson Creek receives sizable runs of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbushca) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon during the late summer (mid-August through mid-September). To test the effects of salmon on water quality, samples were collected above and below a barrier waterfall on Peterson Creek. During salmon spawning, concentrations of ammonium (NH4+) were up to two orders of magnitude higher at the downstream salmon-influenced site, while soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) increased by more than an order of magnitude at the downstream site. For the entire salmon spawning period, concentrations of NH4+, SRP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly higher at the downstream site compared to the upstream site, however nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were not significantly different between sites. Characterization of DOC samples using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the DOC leached from salmon had a large protein component compared to DOC at the upstream site which was dominated by humic material. These results suggest that salmon provide a pulse of inorganic N and P as well as labile DOC to surface waters during the spawning period. Concurrent measurements of discharge will allow us to assess the importance of salmon-derived nutrients in the seasonal nutrient budget of Peterson Creek.

  7. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample was divided into childhood-onset BP (age and BP onset <12 years; n = 192), adolescents with early-onset BP (age ≥12 years and BP onset <12 years; n = 136), and adolescents with late-onset BP (age and BP onset ≥12 years; n = 110). Lifetime family history of psychiatric illness was ascertained for first- and second-degree relatives through both direct interview of caretakers and the Family History Screen. Results After significant demographic and clinical factors were controlled for, children and adolescents with childhood-onset BP showed higher percentages of positive first-degree family history for depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, conduct, and substance dependence disorders and suicidal behaviors compared with adolescents with late onset. Subjects with childhood-onset BP also showed elevated familial loading for depression and attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder in second-degree relatives. Conclusions These data support a model that postulates a higher density of familial risk for a broad range of psychopathology in childhood-onset BP. PMID:17242623

  8. The response of epiphytic bacteria on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara (Hydrocharitaceae) to increasing nutrient loadings.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xianlei; Yao, Ling; Gao, Guang; Xie, Yinfeng; Zhang, Yingying; Tang, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of water column nutrient loading on epiphytic bacteria, we determined the abundance and community composition of epiphytic bacteria on the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara during the growth season (June-October) under four different nutrient concentrations (nitrogen (N)-phosphorus (P) in mg L(-1) : 0.5-0.05, 1.0-0.1, 5.0-0.5, 10.0-1.0; hereafter NP-1, NP-2, NP-3, NP-4, respectively), using epifluorescence microscopy method and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, respectively. Relative to low nutrient conditions (NP-1), there was no significant effect on the epiphytic bacterial community, and even a decrease in the number of epiphytic bacteria, which linked to the well growth status of host macrophytes at moderate nutrient conditions (NP-2). However, further nutrient enrichment induced significant increase in the abundance of epiphytic bacteria, and marked changes in the community structures of epiphytic bacteria. Furthermore, at high nutrient conditions, epiphytic bacterial communities varied widely temporally, and were not stable compared with those at the lower nutrient conditions. These results indicated that the effects of nutrient enrichment on epiphytic bacteria were nonlinear and dependent on the nutrient concentrations in the water. PMID:27143295

  9. An unexpected truth: increasing nitrate loading can decrease nitrate export from watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarizadeh Bardsiri, A.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discharge of anthropogenic nitrate (e.g., from partially treated sewage, return flows from agricultural irrigation, and runoff from animal feeding operations) to streams can negatively impact both human and ecosystem health. Managing these many point and non-point sources to achieve some specific end-point—for example, reducing the annual mass of nitrate exported from a watershed—can be a challenge, particularly in rapidly growing urban areas. Adding to this complexity is the fact that streams are not inert: they too can add or remove nitrate through assimilation (e.g., by stream-associated plants and animals) and microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions that occur in streambed sediments (e.g., respiration, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). By coupling a previously published correlation for in-stream processing of nitrate [Mulholland et al., Nature, 2008, 452, 202-205] with a stream network model of the Jacksons Creek watershed (Victoria, Australia) I demonstrate that managing anthropogenic sources of stream nitrate without consideration of in-stream processing can result in a number of non-intuitive "surprises"; for example, wastewater effluent discharges that increase nitrate loading but decrease in-stream nitrate concentrations can reduce the mass of nitrate exported from a watershed.

  10. [Influence of organic loading rate on the start-up of a sequencing airlift aerobic granular reactor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Yuan; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Gao, Lin-Lin; Ma, De-Fang; Zhang, Yu-Meng; Li, Ke-Yu

    2012-10-01

    The cultivation and stability of aerobic granular sludge in a three sequencing airlift internal-loop aerobic granular fluidized beds (R1-R3) under different organic loading rates (OLR) were investigated, where the selective pressure was un-controlled. R1 and R2 were start-up at the COD loading of 7 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) and 3 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) respectively, and R3 was start-up at an increasing COD loading rates of 1.5-3 kg x (m3 x d)(-1). The results showed that the aerobic granules could be formed successfully in all the reactors, however, filamentous bulking happened as the reactor was start-up at an aimed OLR (R1 and R2). It seems the overgrowth of filamentous could be controlled effectively by means of increasing OLR gradually. The granular development characteristics, the physical characteristics and extracellular polymeric substances contents were analyzed especially during the aerobic granules cultivation. Compared with the granules in R1 and R2, aerobic granules formed in R3 presented clearer outer morphology and compact structure, advanced COD removal efficiency and a significant increase in polysaccharides, resulted an enhanced stability. PMID:23233984

  11. Load and distribution of organic matter and nutrients in a separated household wastewater stream.

    PubMed

    Todt, Daniel; Heistad, Arve; Jenssen, Petter D

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater from a source-separated sanitation system connected to 24 residential flats was analysed for the content of organic matter and nutrients and other key parameters for microbiological processes used in the treatment and reuse of wastewater. Black water (BW) was the major contributor to the total load of organic matter and nutrients in the wastewater, accounting for 69% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 83% of total nitrogen (N) and 87% of phosphorus (P). With a low COD/N ratio and high content of free ammonia, treating BW alone is a challenge in traditional biological nitrogen removal approaches. However, its high nitrogen concentration (1.4-1.7 g L(-1)) open up for nutrient reuse as well as for novel, more energy efficient N-removal technologies. Grey water (GW) contained low amounts of nutrients relative to organic matter, and this may limit biological treatment processes under certain conditions. GW contains a higher proportion of soluble, readily degradable organic substances compared with BW, which facilitates simple, decentralized treatment approaches. The concentration of organic matter and nutrients varied considerably between our study and other studies, which could be related to different toilet flushing volumes and water use habits. The daily load per capita, on the other hand, was found to be in line with most of the reported studies. PMID:25495947

  12. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  13. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  14. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  15. The Survival of Meteorite Organic Compounds with Increasing Impact Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Friedrich; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The majority of carbonaceous meteorites studied today are thought to originate in the asteroid belt. Impacts among asteroidal objects generate heat and pressure that may have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. Very little is known about the shock related chemical evolution of organic matter relevant to this stage of the cosmic history of biogenic elements and compounds. The present work continues our study of the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach was to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in a matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to a simulated hypervelocity impact. The molecular compositions of products were then analyzed to determine the degree of survival of the original compounds. Insofar as results associated with velocities < 8 km/sec may be relevant to impacts on planetary surfaces (e.g., oblique impacts, impacts on small outer planet satellites) or grain-grain collisions in the interstellar medium, then our experiments will be applicable to these environments as well.

  16. Increasing Cognitive Load Reduces Interference from Masked Appetitive and Aversive but Not Neutral Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Uher, Rudolf; Brooks, Samantha J.; Bartholdy, Savani; Tchanturia, Kate; Campbell, Iain C.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between cognition and emotion are important for survival, often occurring in the absence of awareness. These interactions have been proposed to involve competition between cognition and emotion for attentional resources. Emotional stimuli have been reported to impair performance on cognitive tasks of low, but not high, load if stimuli are consciously perceived. This study explored whether this load-dependent interference effect occurred in response to subliminal emotional stimuli. Masked emotional (appetitive and aversive), but not neutral, stimuli interfered with performance accuracy but not response time on a cognitive task (n-back) at low (1-back), but not high (2-back) load. These results show that a load-dependent interference effect applies to masked emotional stimuli and that the effect generalises across stimulus categories with high motivational value. This supports models of selective attention that propose that cognition and emotion compete for attentional resources. More specifically, interference from masked emotional stimuli at low load suggests that attention is biased towards salient stimuli, while dissipation of interference under high load involves top-down regulation of attention. Our data also indicate that top-down goal-directed regulation of attention occurs in the absence of awareness and does not require metacognitive monitoring or evaluation of bias over behaviour, i.e., some degree of self-regulation occurs at a non-conscious level. PMID:24709953

  17. Increased Quantum Dot Loading by pH Control Reduces Interfacial Recombination in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Katherine E; Herron, Steven M; Bent, Stacey F

    2015-08-25

    The power conversion efficiency of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) hinges on interfacial charge transfer. Increasing quantum dot (QD) loading on the TiO2 anode has been proposed as a means to block recombination of electrons in the TiO2 to the hole transport material; however, it is not known whether a corresponding increase in QD-mediated recombination processes might lead to an overall higher rate of recombination. In this work, a 3-fold increase in PbS QD loading was achieved by the addition of an aqueous base to negatively charge the TiO2 surface during Pb cation deposition. Increased QD loading improved QDSSC device efficiencies through both increased light absorption and an overall reduction in recombination. Unexpectedly, we also found increased QD size had the detrimental effect of increasing recombination. Kinetic modeling of the effect of QD size on interfacial charge transfer processes provided qualitative agreement with the observed variation in recombination lifetimes. These results demonstrate a robust method of improving QD loading, identify the specific mechanisms by which increased QD deposition impacts device performance, and provide a framework for future efforts optimizing the device architecture of QDSSCs. PMID:26244426

  18. Use of social media and college student organizations to increase support for organ donation and advocacy: a case report.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Anthony M; Peltier, James W; Dahl, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    This report focuses on the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics organ procurement organization's efforts to increase deceased organ and tissue donation by using social media and personalized messages targeting members of university student organizations, their families, and their friends. A grant from the US Department of Health and Human Services funded a 2-year study to (1) identify barriers/opportunities for increasing awareness, attitudes, and behaviors related to organ and tissue donation; (2) implement an intervention using social media and personalized message to increase knowledge, support, and donor registrations; (3) measure impact on awareness and attitudinal and behavioral changes within the organization; and (4) assess behavioral measures across a host of social media analytics and organ donor registrations. The results show increases in knowledge about and support for organ donation, including a 20% increase in donor registration. As a result, funding was secured to continue the project for an additional 2 years. PMID:23187063

  19. The link between organic aerosol mass loading and degree of oxygenation: an α-pinene photooxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffenberger, L.; Barmet, P.; Slowik, J. G.; Praplan, A. P.; Dommen, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-09-01

    A series of smog chamber (SC) experiments was conducted to identify driving factors responsible for the discrepancy between ambient and SC aerosol degree of oxygenation. An Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer is used to compare mass spectra from α-pinene photooxidation with ambient aerosol. Composition is compared in terms of the fraction of organic mass measured at m/z 44 (f44), a surrogate for carboxylic/organic acids as well as the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C), vs. f43, a surrogate for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. Low (near-ambient) organic mass concentrations were found to be necessary to obtain oxygenation levels similar to those of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) commonly identified in ambient measurements. The effects of organic mass loading and OH (hydroxyl radical) exposure were decoupled by inter-experiment comparisons at the same integrated OH concentration. On average, an OH exposure of 2.9 ± 1.3 × 107 cm-3 h is needed to increase f44 by 1% during aerosol aging. For the first time, LV-OOA-like aerosol from the abundant biogenic precursor α-pinene was produced in a smog chamber by oxidation at typical atmospheric OH concentrations. Significant correlation between measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and reference LV-OOA mass spectra is shown by Pearson's R2 values larger than 0.90 for experiments with low organic mass concentrations between 1.5 and 15 μg m-3 at an OH exposure of 4 × 107 cm-3 h, corresponding to about two days oxidation time in the atmosphere, based on a global mean OH concentration of ∼1 × 106 cm-3. Not only is the α-pinene SOA more oxygenated at low organic mass loadings, but the functional dependence of oxygenation on mass loading is enhanced at atmospherically-relevant precursor concentrations. Since the degree of oxygenation influences the chemical, volatility and hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol, smog chamber studies must be performed at near

  20. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R.; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L−1) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L−1 d−1). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:27431196

  1. Risedronate does not reduce mechanical loading-related increases in cortical and trabecular bone mass in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Meakin, Lee B.; Galea, Gabriel L.; Jackson, Brendan F.; Lanyon, Lance E.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Russell, R. Graham G.; Price, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    To establish whether the combination of anti-resorptive therapy with mechanical loading has a negative, additive or synergistic effect on bone structure, we assessed the separate and combined effects of risedronate and non-invasive dynamic loading on trabecular and cortical bone. Seventeen-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were given daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle (n = 20) or risedronate at a dose of 0.15, 1.5, 15 or 150 μg/kg/day (n = 10 in each) for 17 days. From the fourth day of treatment, the right tibiae were subjected to a single period of axial loading (40 cycles/day) for three alternate days per week for two weeks. The left tibiae were used as internal controls. Trabecular and cortical sites in the tibiae were analyzed by high-resolution micro-computed tomography and imaging of fluorochrome labels. In the non-loaded tibiae, treatment with the higher doses of risedronate at 15 or 150 μg/kg/day resulted in higher trabecular bone volume and trabecular number than in vehicle-treated controls, whereas such treatment was associated with no differences in cortical bone volume at any dose. In the loaded tibiae, loading induced increases in trabecular and cortical bone volume compared with contra-lateral controls primarily through increased trabecular thickness and periosteal expansion, respectively, independently of risedronate treatment. In conclusion, the response to mechanical loading in both trabecular and cortical bone in mice is therefore not impaired by short-term treatment with risedronate, even over a 1000-fold dose range. In considering the optimization of treatments for osteoporosis, it is reassuring that anti-resorptive therapy and mechanical loading can exert independent beneficial effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bisphosphonates. PMID:21497678

  2. SALT LOADING INCREASES URINARY EXCRETION OF LINOLEIC ACID DIOLS AND TRIOLS IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary linoleate (LA) metabolite excretion was investigated in subjects exposed to a salt loading/salt depletion regimen. Twelve healthy subjects were recruited from the New Orleans population (pre-Katrina) and admitted to Tulane-LSU Charity Hospital GCRC after a 5-day outpatient lead in phase on a...

  3. Cognitive load and emotional processing in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Electrocortical evidence for increased distractibility

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) may be characterized by emotion regulation deficits attributable to an imbalance between top-down (i.e., goal-driven) and bottom-up (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. In prior work, these attentional processes were examined by presenting unpleasant and neutral pictures within a working memory paradigm. The late positive potential (LPP) measured attention toward task-irrelevant pictures. Results from this prior work showed that working memory load reduced the LPP across participants; however, this effect was attenuated for individuals with greater self-reported state anxiety, suggesting reduced top-down control. In the current study, the same paradigm was used with 106 medication-free, female participants – 71 with GAD and 35 without GAD. Unpleasant pictures elicited larger LPPs, and working memory load reduced the picture-elicited LPP. Compared to healthy controls, participants with GAD showed large LPPs to unpleasant pictures presented under high working memory load. Self-reported symptoms of anhedonic depression were related to a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP elicited by neutral pictures. These results indicate that individuals with GAD show less flexible modulation of attention when confronted with unpleasant stimuli. Furthermore, among those with GAD, anhedonic depression may broaden attentional deficits to neutral distracters. PMID:24933276

  4. Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mureşan, Cosmin; Mirleau, Pascal; Heeb, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    The preen gland is a holocrine sebaceous gland of the avian integument which produces an oily secretion that is spread on the plumage during preening. It has been suggested that birds may defend themselves against feather-degrading bacteria (FDB) and other potential pathogens using preen gland secretions. However, besides some in vitro studies, the in vivo bacterial inhibitory effects of the preen oil on the abundance of feather-associated bacterial species has not yet been studied in passerines. Here we tested the effect of gland removal on the abundance of FDB and other-cultivable bacterial loads (OCB) of male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Our results did not support earlier results on in vitro antibacterial activity of preen oil against FDB since the absence of the preen gland did not significantly affect their loads related to the control birds. In contrast, we found that preen gland removal led to higher loads of OCB. This result suggests that the antimicrobial spectrum of the preen oil is broader than previously thought and that, by reducing the overall feather bacterial loads, the preen gland could help birds to protect themselves against a variety of potentially harmful bacteria. PMID:23288399

  5. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  6. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  7. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  8. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus (EPA test method 100.3) effects of feeding and organism loading rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methodology of USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specifies that the Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry weight of no less than 50:1. It ...

  9. Biological treatment of mining wastewaters by fixed-bed bioreactors at high organic loading.

    PubMed

    Bratkova, Svetlana; Koumanova, Bogdana; Beschkov, Venko

    2013-06-01

    Acid wastewaters contaminated with Fe - 1000 mg L(-1) and Cu - 100 mg L(-1) were remediated by microbial sulfate-reduction at high organic loading (theoretical TOC/SO4(2-) ratio 1.1) in a laboratory installation. The installation design includes a fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor for sulfate-reduction, a chemical reactor, a settler and a three-sectional bioreactor for residual organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide removal. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are immobilized on saturated zeolite in the fixed-bed bioreactor. The source of carbon and energy for bacteria was concentrated solution, containing ethanol, glycerol, lactate and citrate. Heavy metals removal was achieved by produced H2S at sulfate loading rate 88 mg L(-1)h(-1). The effluent of the anaerobic bioreactor was characterized with high concentrations of acetate and ethanol. The design of the second bioreactor (presence of two aerobic and an anoxic zones) makes possible the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification as well as the efficiently removal of residual organic compounds and H2S. PMID:23611703

  10. Evaluation of increased cesium loading on submerged demineralizer system (SDS) zeolite beds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) is being installed at the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) Nuclear Power Station for decontamination of the Containment Building (CB) sump water and Reactor Coolant System (RCS) water. A Department of Energy (DOE) Task Force was assembled to evaluate the relative technical and financial benefits in storing, shipping, treating, and disposing of SDS zeolite liners, assuming that the liners will be loaded to a level higher than that (10,000 Ci/liner) originally planned by General Public Utilities (GPU). The DOE-SDS Task Force concludes that it is technically feasible to load the zeolite liners used in the SDS to levels up to 60,000 Ci of cesium per liner without additional preoperational testing. This would result in approximately ten such liners. The Task Force further concludes that these liners can be safely handled, stored, transported, and vitrified.

  11. Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Stores Among Salt Marshes Subjected to Increasing Watershed Nitrogen Loadings in Southern New England

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal salt marshes are ecosystems located between the uplands and sea, and because of their location are subject to increasing watershed nutrient loadings and rising sea levels. Residential development along the coast is intense, and there is a significant relationship between...

  12. Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kate A; Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated ammonium nitrogen removal and nitrogen transformations in three-year-old, batch-operated, subsurface wetland microcosms. Treatments included replicates of Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, and unplanted controls when influent carbon was excluded, and C. rostrata with an influent containing organic carbon. A series of 10-day batch incubations were conducted over a simulated yearlong cycle of seasons. The presence of plants significantly enhanced ammonium removal during both summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) conditions, but significant differences between plant species were evident only in summer when C. rostrata outperformed T. latifolia. The effect of organic carbon load was distinctly seasonal, enhancing C. rostrata ammonium removal in winter but having an inhibitory effect in summer. Season did not influence ammonium removal in T. latifolia or unplanted columns. Net production of organic carbon was evident year-round in units without an influent organic carbon source, but was enhanced in summer, especially for C. rostrata, which produced significantly more than T. latifolia and unplanted controls. No differences in production were evident between species in winter. COD values for C. rostrata microcosms with and without influent organic carbon converged within 24 hours in winter and 7 days in summer. Gravel sorption, microbial immobilization and sequential nitrification/denitrification appear to be the major nitrogen removal mechanisms. All evidence suggests differences between season and species are due to differences in seasonal variation of root-zone oxidation. PMID:15921269

  13. Deep ploughing increases agricultural soil organic matter stocks.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Viridiana; Don, Axel; Well, Reinhard; Nieder, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    Subsoils play an important role within the global C cycle, since they have high soil organic carbon (SOC) storage capacity due to generally low SOC concentrations. However, measures for enhancing SOC storage commonly focus on topsoils. This study assessed the long-term storage and stability of SOC in topsoils buried in arable subsoils by deep ploughing, a globally applied method for breaking up hard pans and improving soil structure to optimize crop growing conditions. One effect of deep ploughing is translocation of SOC formed near the surface into the subsoil, with concomitant mixing of SOC-poor subsoil material into the 'new' topsoil. Deep-ploughed croplands represent unique long-term in situ incubations of SOC-rich material in subsoils. In this study, we sampled five loamy and five sandy soils that were ploughed to 55-90 cm depth 35-50 years ago. Adjacent, similarly managed but conventionally ploughed subplots were sampled as reference. The deep-ploughed soils contained on average 42 ± 13% more SOC than the reference subplots. On average, 45 years after deep ploughing, the 'new' topsoil still contained 15% less SOC than the reference topsoil, indicating long-term SOC accumulation potential in the topsoil. In vitro incubation experiments on the buried sandy soils revealed 63 ± 6% lower potential SOC mineralisation rates and also 67 ± 2% lower SOC mineralisation per unit SOC in the buried topsoils than in the reference topsoils. Wider C/N ratio in the buried sandy topsoils than in the reference topsoils indicates that deep ploughing preserved SOC. The SOC mineralisation per unit SOC in the buried loamy topsoils was not significantly different from that in the reference topsoils. However, 56 ± 4% of the initial SOC was preserved in the buried topsoils. It can be concluded that deep ploughing contributes to SOC sequestration by enlarging the storage space for SOC-rich material. PMID:26994321

  14. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

    PubMed Central

    Paleckis, Vidas; Mickevičius, Mantas; Snieckus, Audrius; Streckis, Vytautas; Pääsuke, Mati; Rutkauskas, Saulius; Steponavičiūtė, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9) performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP), patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1) steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2) larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3) increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4) increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement. Key points Frequent drop jump training induces activation mode dependent muscle torque depression late in the training period. No significant changes in the thickness of patellar and Achilles tendons are observed during frequent training, while CSA increases towards the end of training period. Longitudinal effect for jump height but not for muscle strength is evident

  15. Towards a quasi-complete reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosol load and composition (organic and inorganic) over Europe since 1920 inferred from Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.

    2013-07-01

    Seasonally resolved chemical ice core records available from the Col du Dôme glacier (4250 m elevation, French Alps), are here used to reconstruct past aerosol load and composition of the free European troposphere from before World War II to present. Available ice core records include inorganic (Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) and organic (carboxylates, HCHO, humic-like substances, dissolved organic carbon, water-insoluble organic carbon, and black carbon) compounds and fractions that permit reconstructing the key aerosol components and their changes over the past. It is shown that the atmospheric load of submicron aerosol has been increased by a factor of 3 from the 1921-1951 to 1971-1988 years, mainly as a result of a large increase of sulfate (a factor of 5), ammonium and water-soluble organic aerosol (a factor of 3). Thus, not only growing anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and ammonia have caused the enhancement of the atmospheric aerosol load but also biogenic emissions producing water-soluble organic aerosol. This unexpected change of biospheric source of organic aerosol after 1950 needs to be considered and further investigated in scenarios dealing with climate forcing by atmospheric aerosol.

  16. Towards a quasi-complete reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosol load and composition (organic and inorganic) over Europe since 1920 inferred from Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonally resolved chemical ice core records available from the Col du Dôme glacier (4250 m elevation, French Alps) are here revisited in view to reconstruct past aerosol load of the free European troposphere from prior World War II to present. The extended array of inorganic (Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) and organic (carboxylates, HCHO, HUmic LIke Substances, dissolved organic carbon, water insoluble organic carbon, and black carbon) compounds and fractions already investigated permit to examine the overall aerosol composition and its change over the past. It is shown that the atmospheric load of submicron aerosol has been increased by a factor of 3 from the 1921-1951 to 1971-1988 years, mainly as a result of a large increase of sulfate (a factor of 5), ammonium and water-soluble organic aerosol (a factor of 3). It is shown that not only growing anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and ammonia have caused the enhancement of the atmospheric aerosol load but also biogenic emissions producing water soluble organic aerosol. This unexpected change of biospheric source of organic aerosol after 1950 needs to be considered and further investigated in scenarii dealing with climate forcing by atmospheric aerosol.

  17. Influence of increased mechanical loading by hypergravity on the microtubule cytoskeleton and prostaglandin E2 release in primary osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, Nancy D.; Steele, Charles R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2005-01-01

    Cells respond to a wide range of mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear and strain, although the contribution of gravity to cell structure and function is not understood. We hypothesized that bone-forming osteoblasts are sensitive to increased mechanical loading by hypergravity. A centrifuge suitable for cell culture was developed and validated, and then primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation were mechanically loaded using hypergravity. We measured microtubule network morphology as well as release of the paracrine factor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In immature osteoblasts, a stimulus of 10x gravity (10 g) for 3 h increased PGE2 2.5-fold and decreased microtubule network height 1.12-fold without affecting cell viability. Hypergravity (3 h) caused dose-dependent (5-50 g) increases in PGE2 (5.3-fold at 50 g) and decreases (1.26-fold at 50 g) in microtubule network height. PGE2 release depended on duration but not orientation of the hypergravity load. As osteoblasts differentiated, sensitivity to hypergravity declined. We conclude that primary osteoblasts demonstrate dose- and duration-dependent sensitivity to gravitational loading, which appears to be blunted in mature osteoblasts.

  18. Concentrations, loads, and yields of organic carbon in streams of agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kronholm, Scott; Capel, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon is cycled to and from large reservoirs in the atmosphere, on land, and in the ocean. Movement of organic carbon from the terrestrial reservoir to the ocean plays an important role in the global cycling of carbon. The transition from natural to agricultural vegetation can change the storage and movement of organic carbon in and from a watershed. Samples were collected from 13 streams located in hydrologically and agriculturally diverse watersheds, to better understand the variability in the concentrations and loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the streams, and the variability in watershed yields. The overall annual median concentrations of DOC and POC were 4.9 (range: 2.1–6.8) and 1.1 (range: 0.4–3.8) mg C L−1, respectively. The mean DOC watershed yield (± SE) was 25 ± 6.8 kg C ha−1 yr−1. The yields of DOC from these agricultural watersheds were not substantially different than the DOC yield from naturally vegetated watersheds in equivalent biomes, but were at the low end of the range for most biomes. Total organic carbon (DOC + POC) annually exported from the agricultural watersheds was found to average 0.03% of the organic carbon that is contained in the labile plant matter and top 1 m of soil in the watershed. Since the total organic carbon exported from agricultural watersheds is a relatively small portion of the sequestered carbon within the watershed, there is the great potential to store additional carbon in plants and soils of the watershed, offsetting some anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  19. Effect of increased load of high-strength food wastewater in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge on bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) has been widely used to improve reactor performance, especially methane production. In this study, we applied two different operating temperatures (thermophilic and mesophilic) and gradually increased the load of food wastewater (FWW) to investigate the bacterial communities during the AcoD of waste activated sludge (WAS) and FWW. As the load of FWW was increased, methane production rate (MPR; L CH4/L d) and methane content (%) in both Thermophilic AcoD (TAcoD) and Mesophilic AcoD (MAcoD) increased significantly; the highest MPR and methane content in TAcoD (1.423 L CH4/L d and 68.24%) and MAcoD (1.233 L CH4/L d and 65.21%) were observed when the FWW mixing ratio was 75%. However, MPR and methane yield in both reactors decreased markedly and methane production in TAcoD ceased completely when only FWW was fed into the reactor, resulting from acidification of the reactor caused by accumulation of organic acids. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed a decrease in bacterial diversity in TAcoD and a markedly different composition of bacterial communities between TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load. For example, Bacterial members belonging to two genera Petrotoga (assigned to phylum Thermotogae) and Petrimonas (assigned to phylum Bacteroidetes) became dominant in TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load, respectively. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed higher bacterial and archaeal populations (expressed as 16S rRNA gene concentration) in TAcoD than MAcoD with an increase in FWW load and showed maximum population when the FWW mixing ratio was 75% in both reactors. Collectively, this study demonstrated the dynamics of key bacterial communities in TAcoD and MAcoD, which were highly affected by the load of FWW. PMID:27155112

  20. Effect of organic loading rate during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath; Vaidya, Atul N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) on subsequent methane (CH4) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied in a laboratory-scale digester. The experiment was performed in 2L anaerobic digester under different experimental conditions using different input mass co-digested with inoculum and organic loading rate (OLR) for 27days at 38±2°C. Three digesters (digesters 1, 2 and 3) were operated at initial loading of 5.1, 10.4 and 15.2g/L CODS per batch which were reduced to 77.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Cumulative biogas productions were 9.3, 10.7 and 17.7L in which CH4 yields were 84.3, 101.0 and 168.4mL/gVS removal in digesters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The observed COD removal was found to be influenced on variation in CH4 production. Co-efficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.67 and 0.74 in digesters 1 and 2, respectively. PMID:26733440

  1. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-10-01

    The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87 samples were collected from three estuarine transects which were studied in three seasons, covering a salinity range between 0 and 6.8, and DOC concentrations from 1572 μmol l-1 in freshwater to 222 μmol l-1 in coastal waters. CDOM absorption coefficient, aCDOM(375) values followed the trend in DOC concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m-1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence the prediction in wavelengths above 520 nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC-CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44 g C m-2 yr-1, and 1.67 to 11.5 aCDOM(375) yr-1, respectively.

  2. The role of irrigation runoff and winter rainfall on dissolved organic carbon loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Ohara, Noriaki; Kavvas, M. Levent; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horwath, William R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of land use/land cover and agriculture practices on stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Willow Slough watershed (WSW) from 2006 to 2008. The 415 km2watershed in the northern Central Valley, California is covered by 31% of native vegetation and the remaining 69% of agricultural fields (primarily alfalfa, tomatoes, and rice). Stream discharge and weekly DOC concentrations were measured at eight nested subwatersheds to estimate the DOC loads and yields (loads/area) using the USGS developed stream load estimation model, LOADEST. Stream DOC concentrations peaked at 18.9 mg L−1 during summer irrigation in the subwatershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use, demonstrating the strong influence of agricultural activities on summer DOC dynamics. These high concentrations contributed to DOC yields increasing up to 1.29 g m−2 during the 6 month period of intensive agricultural activity. The high DOC yields from the most agricultural subwatershed during the summer irrigation period was similar throughout the study, suggesting that summer DOC loads from irrigation runoff would not change significantly in the absence of major changes in crops or irrigation practices. In contrast, annual DOC yields varied from 0.89 to 1.68 g m−2 yr−1 for the most agricultural watershed due to differences in winter precipitation. This suggests that variability in the annual DOC yields will be largely determined by the winter precipitation, which can vary significantly from year to year. Changes in precipitation patterns and intensities as well as agricultural practices have potential to considerably alter the DOC dynamics.

  3. Biofilm increases permeate quality by organic carbon degradation in low pressure ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Chomiak, A; Traber, J; Morgenroth, E; Derlon, N

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the influence of biofouling of ultrafiltration membranes on the removal of organic model foulants and ultimately on the quality of permeate. Gravity Driven Membrane ultrafiltration (GDM) membrane systems were operated with modified river water during five weeks without control of the biofilm formation. Three GDM systems were studied: two systems with biofilms exposed to (A) variable or (B) constant load of organic foulants, and (C) one system operated without biofilm and exposed to constant foulant loading. Biodegradable dextran or non-biodegradable polystyrene sulfonate model foulants were tested. Substrate biodegradability was confirmed by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) and by degradation batch tests (D). The GDM systems (A) and (B) were fed with pre-filtered river water supplemented with dextran (Dex) of 1, 150 or 2000 kDa, or polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) of 1 or 80 kDa at concentrations of 2-3.5 mgC L(-1). In exp. (C) the feed water consisted of deionized water with 25 mgC L(-1) of either PSS 1, 80 kDa or Dex 2000 kDa. The biofilm formation on UF membrane surfaces controlled the foulant permeation and thus the permeate quality. Biofilms exposed to continuous foulant loading (exp. B) degraded low molecular weight (LMW) biodegradable foulants (1 kDa Dex), which improved the permeate quality. For high molecular weight (HMW) substrates (150, 2000 kDa Dex), the improvement of the permeate quality was observed after 7 days of biofilm formation, and resulted from the foulant hydrolysis followed by degradation. For non-biodegradable foulants, an improvement of 20% of the retention was observed for the polystyrene (1, 80 kDa PSS) due to the presence of biofilms on membrane surfaces. For variable foulant loading (exp. A) the biofilms hydrolysed the large biodegradable foulants but did not degraded them fully, which resulted a deterioration of the permeate quality (except for the LMW dextran (1 kDa) that was fully degraded). Overall, the "biofilm

  4. Do aggregate stability and soil organic matter content increase following organic inputs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; van Leeuwen, Jeroen P.; Bloem, Jaap; Steffens, Markus; Vala Ragnarsdóttir, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is facing several challenges such as loss of soil organic matter (SOM); thus, sustainable farming management practices are needed. Organic farming is growing as an alternative to conventional farming; in Iceland approximately 1% and in Austria 16% of utilized agricultural area is under organic farming practice. We analyzed the effect of different farming practices (organic, and conventional) on soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in grassland soils in Iceland and cropland soils in Austria. Organic farms differed from conventional farms by absence of chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. At these farms, we investigated soil physicochemical (e.g. soil texture, pH, CAL-extractable P and K) and microbiological properties (fungal and bacterial biomass and activity). The effects of farming practices on soil macroaggregate stability and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between different fractions were studied following a density fractionation. In Iceland, we sampled six grassland sites on Brown (BA) and Histic (HA) Andosols; two sites on extensively managed grasslands, two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. In Austria, we sampled four cropland sites on Haplic Chernozems; two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. We found significantly higher macroaggregate stability in the organic compared to the conventional grasslands in Iceland. In contrast, slightly higher macroaggregation in conventional compared to the organic farming practice was found in croplands in Austria, although the difference was not significant. Macroaggregates were positively correlated with fungal biomass in Iceland, and with Feo and fungal activity in Austria. In Austria, SOM content and nutrient status (except for lower CAL-extractable P at one site) were similar between organic and conventional farms. Our results show that the organic inputs may have enhanced macroaggregation in organic farming

  5. Fast formation of aerobic granules by combining strong hydraulic selection pressure with overstressed organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    The combined strong hydraulic selection pressure (HSP) with overstressed organic loading rate (OLR) as a fast granulation strategy was used to enhance aerobic granulation. To investigate the wide applicability of this strategy to different scenarios and its relevant mechanism, different settling times, different inoculums, different exchange ratios, different reactor configurations, and different shear force were used in this study. It was found that clear granules were formed within 24 h and steady state reached within three days when the fast granulation strategy was used in a lab-scale reactor seeded with well settled activated sludge (Reactor 2). However, granules appeared after 2-week operation and reached steady state after one month at the traditional step-wise decreased settling time from 20 to 2 min with OLR of 6 g COD/L·d (Reactor 1). With the fast granulation strategy, granules appeared within 24 h even with bulking sludge as seed to start up Reactor 3, but 6-day lag phase was observed compared with Reactor 2. Both Reactor 2 and Reactor 3 experienced sigmoidal growth curve in terms of biomass accumulation and granule size increase after granulation. In addition, the reproducible results in pilot-scale reactors (Reactor 5 and Reactor 6) with diameter of 20 cm and height/diameter ratio (H/D) of 4 further proved that reactor configuration and fluid flow pattern had no effect on the aerobic granulation when the fast granulation strategy was employed, but biomass accumulation experienced a short lag phase too in Reactor 5 and Reactor 6. Although overstressed OLR was favorable for fast granulation, it also led to the fluffy granules after around two-week operation. However, the stable 6-month operation of Reactor 3 demonstrated that the rapidly formed granules were able to maintain long-term stability by reducing OLR from 12 g COD/L·d to 6 g COD/L·d. A mechanism of fast granulation with the strategy of combined strong HSP and OLR was proposed to explain

  6. l-Tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles increase the antitumoral activity of direct electric current in a metastatic melanoma cell model

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Vânia Emerich Bucco; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Holandino, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of tumor growth induced by treatment with direct electric current (DC) has been reported in several models. One of the mechanisms responsible for the antitumoral activity of DC is the generation of oxidative species, known as chloramines. With the aim of increasing chloramine production in the electrolytic medium and optimizing the antitumoral effects of DC, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with the amino acid tyrosine were obtained. The physical–chemical characterization showed that the NPs presented size in nanometric range and monomodal distribution. A slightly negative electrokinetic potential was also found in both blank NPs and l-tyrosine-loaded PCL NPs. The yield of the loading process was approximately 50%. Within 3 h of dissolution assay, a burst release of about 80% l-tyrosine was obtained. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DC was significantly increased when associated with l-tyrosine-loaded NPs, using a murine multidrug-resistant melanoma cell line model. This study showed that the use of the combination of nanotechnology and DC has a promising antineoplastic potential and opens a new perspective in cancer therapy. PMID:21187948

  7. Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Moore, Eric; Kurtz, Andrew; Portier, Evan; Alleau, Yvan; Merrell, David

    2014-09-01

    The compositions and loadings of organic matter in soils and sediments from a diverse range of environments along the Fly River system were determined to investigate carbon transport and sequestration in this region. Soil horizons from highland sites representative of upland sources have organic carbon contents (%OC) that range from 0.3 to 25 wt%, carbon:nitrogen ratios (OC/N) that range from 7 to 25 mol/mol, highly negative stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13Corg < -26‰) and variable concentrations of lignin phenols (1 < LP < 5 mg/100 mg OC). These compositions reflect inputs from local vegetation, with contributions from bedrock carbon in the deeper mineral horizons. Soils developed on the levees of active floodplains receive inputs of allochthonous materials by overbank deposition as well as autochthonous inputs from local vegetation. In the forested upper floodplain reaches, %OC contents are lower than upland soils (0.8-1.5 wt%) as are OC/N ratios (9-15 mol/mol) while δ13Corg (-25 to -28‰) and LP (2-6 mg/100 mg OC) values are comparable to upland soils. These results indicate that organic matter present in these active floodplain soils reflect local (primarily C3) vegetation inputs mixed with allochthonous organic matter derived from eroded bedrock. In the lower reaches of the floodplain, which are dominated by swamp grass vegetation, isotopic compositions were less negative (δ13Corg > -25‰) and non-woody vegetation biomarkers (cinnamyl phenols and cutin acids) more abundant relative to upper floodplain sites. Soils developed on relict Pleistocene floodplain terraces, which are typically not flooded and receive little sediment from the river, were characterized by low %OC contents (<0.6 wt%), low OC/N ratios (<9 mol/mol), more positive δ13Corg signatures (>-21‰) and low LP concentrations (∼3 mg/100 mg OC). These relict floodplain soils contain modern carbon that reflects primarily local (C3 or C4) vegetation sources. Total suspended solids

  8. Fine-scale monitoring of shifts in microbial community composition after high organic loading in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater sometimes undergoes unexpected changes in physicochemical parameters, such as organic carbon concentration. The aim of this study was to understand how microbial communities in activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) adapt to high organic loading and maintain their degradation ability during reactor operation. A pilot-scale MBR was operated for 19 days. On day 8, the concentration of organic matter in the synthetic wastewater increased from 450 to 900 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. Even under conditions of high organic loading, COD removal rates were high, ranging from 85.3 to 91.4%. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that microbial communities changed drastically with increased organic loading. After day 8, Aquabacterium- and Azospira-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the class β-proteobacteria became dominant; this potentially enhanced the degradation of organic substances and decreased activated sludge microbial diversity. Due to the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) for degradation of organic substances, DO levels in the reactor decreased. This led to an increase in a subset of OTUs related to not only aerobic but also anaerobic bacteria, e.g., those in the class Clostridia. During this period, anaerobic microorganisms may have contributed to the degradation of organic substances to maintain MBR performance. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing also made it possible to identify yet-to-be cultured or minor microorganisms affiliated with the candidate phylogenetic division SR1 and ammonia-oxidizing archaea in activated sludge. PMID:26541428

  9. Increased level of soluble adenosine deaminase in bone marrow of visceral leishmaniasis patients: an inverse relation with parasite load.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ambak K; Kumar, Prabin; Saini, Sheetal; Thakur, Chandreshwar P; Seth, Tulika; Mitra, Dipendra K

    2016-09-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) which degrades adenosine to inosine, is known to be pro-inflammatory molecule in many diseases. Adenosine suppresses the functioning of the immune system and thus promotes dissemination of the parasite. In our previous finding, the level of soluble ADA in serum of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was found to be increased as compared to healthy controls. However, it cannot be fairly interpreted unless their level is demonstrated at the disease site, where the parasite resides. We designed this study to correlate the level of soluble ADA (sADA) with parasitic load at the disease site i.e. bone marrow (BM). We found increased levels of sADA in BM as compared to the unaffected BM. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation is observed between the parasite load and level of sADA at the disease site. PMID:27447233

  10. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. PMID:25280042

  11. The link between organic aerosol mass loading and degree of oxygenation: an α-pinene photooxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffenberger, L.; Barmet, P.; Slowik, J. G.; Praplan, A. P.; Dommen, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-07-01

    A series of smog chamber (SC) experiments was conducted to identify factors responsible for the discrepancy between ambient and SC aerosol degree of oxygenation. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer is used to compare mass spectra from α-pinene photooxidation with ambient aerosol. Composition is compared in terms of the fraction of particulate CO2+, a surrogate for carboxylic acids, vs. the fraction of C2H3O+, a surrogate for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones, as well as in the Van Krevelen space, where the evolution of the atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H : C) vs. the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C) is investigated. Low (near-ambient) organic mass concentrations were found to be necessary to obtain oxygenation levels similar to those of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) commonly identified in ambient measurements. The effects of organic mass loading and OH (hydroxyl radical) exposure were decoupled by inter-experiment comparisons at the same integrated OH concentration. An OH exposure between 3 and 25 × 107 cm-3 h is needed to increase O : C by 0.05 during aerosol aging. For the first time, LV-OOA-like aerosol from the abundant biogenic precursor α-pinene was produced in a smog chamber by oxidation at typical atmospheric OH concentrations. Significant correlation between measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and reference LV-OOA mass spectra is shown by Pearson's R2 values larger than 0.90 for experiments with low organic mass concentrations between 1.2 and 18 μg m-3 at an OH exposure of 4 × 107 cm-3 h, corresponding to about two days of oxidation time in the atmosphere, based on a global mean OH concentration of ~ 1 × 106 cm-3. α-Pinene SOA is more oxygenated at low organic mass loadings. Because the degree of oxygenation influences the chemical, volatility and hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol, smog chamber studies must be performed at near-ambient concentrations to accurately simulate

  12. Warming Rather Than Increased Precipitation Increases Soil Recalcitrant Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Grassland after 6 Years of Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Chen, Chengrong; Wang, Yanfen; Smaill, Simeon; Clinton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C) in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC) storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0–10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P = 0.038) and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10–20 cm depth (P = 0.082). In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0–10 cm depth (both P<0.05), indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10–20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland. PMID:23341995

  13. Cutaneous biocompatible rutin-loaded gelatin-based nanoparticles increase the SPF of the association of UVA and UVB filters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Graziola, Fabiana; Chacra, Nádia Araci Bou; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros de; Flórido, Ana Catarina; Mota, Joana; Rosado, Catarina; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of natural ingredients, such as rutin, can offer improvements in sun protection effectiveness. This strategy can provide enhanced flavonoid content and produces an improved bioactive compound with new physical and functional characteristics. As an alternative to common synthetic-based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed and associated with ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (EHDP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in sunscreen formulations. The purpose of this study was to develop rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and characterize their physicochemical, thermal, functional and safety properties. Rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles increased antioxidant activity by 74% relative to free-rutin (FR) solution. Also, this new ingredient upgraded the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) by 48%, indicating its potential as a raw material for bioactive sunscreens. The safety profile indicated that GNPs and glutaraldehyde (GTA) decreased HaCaT cell viability in a concentration/time-dependent manner. However, both blank nanoparticles (B-NC) and rutin-loaded nanoparticles (R-NC) had good performance on skin compatibility tests. These results functionally characterized rutin-loaded nanoparticles as a safe SPF enhancer in sunscreens, especially in association with UV filters. PMID:26428697

  14. Solid-base loaded WO3 photocatalyst for decomposition of harmful organics under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kako, Tetsuya; Meng, Xianguang; Ye, Jinhua

    2015-10-01

    Composite of NaBiO3-loaded WO3 with a mixing ratio of 10:100 was prepared for photocatalytic harmful-organic-contaminant decomposition. The composite properties were measured using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), and valence band-X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (VB-XPS). The results exhibited that the potentials for top of the valence band and bottom of conduction band for NaBiO3 can be estimated, respectively, as +2.5 V and -0.1 to 0 V. Furthermore, WO3, NaBiO3, and the composite showed IPA oxidation properties under visible-light irradiation. Results show that the composite exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity about 2-propanol (IPA) decomposition into CO2 than individual WO3 or NaBiO3 because of charge separation promotion and the base effect of NaBiO3.

  15. Organization of volcanic plumbing through magmatic lensing by magma chambers and volcanic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Dufek, Josef; Manga, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The development of discrete volcanic centers reflects a focusing of magma ascending from the source region to the surface. We suggest that this organization occurs via mechanical interactions between magma chambers, volcanic edifices, and dikes and that the stresses generated by these features may localize crustal magma transport before the first eruption occurs. We develop a model for the focusing or "lensing" of rising dikes by magma chambers beneath a free surface, and we show that chambers strongly modulate dike focusing by volcanic edifices. We find that the combined mechanical effects of chambers, edifice loading, and dike propagation are strongly coupled. Chambers deeper than ˜20 km below the surface with magmatic overpressure in the range of 20-100 MPa should dominate dike focusing, while more shallow systems are affected by both edifice and chamber focusing.

  16. The determination of organomercurials in surface waters containing high organic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, T.M.; Arrecis, J.J.; Witt, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    A method to measure trace quantities of methyl mercuric chloride and other organomercurials in surface waters containing high organic loads has been developed. Since organomercurials are usually present at ultra trace levels (0.02 to 0.2 ng/L) in surface waters, sample pre concentration is often necessary. This paper outlines the use of solid phase extraction to achieve the desired pre concentration. The compounds are then separated using gas chromatography and detected using an atomic fluorescence detector. Unlike the conventional approach which employs ethylation, there is no need to derivative the organomercurials to their more volatile ethylated analogs, and direct injection of the SPE extract onto a column is possible. Moreover this technique lends itself to a limited amount of automation, and higher throughput. Results from the analysis of surface waters from the Florida Everglades will be presented.

  17. Organic loading rate impact on biohydrogen production and microbial communities at anaerobic fluidized thermophilic bed reactors treating sugarcane stillage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Samantha Christine; Rosa, Paula Rúbia Ferreira; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high organic loading rates (OLR) (60.0-480.00 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) on biohydrogen production at 55°C, from sugarcane stillage for 15,000 and 20,000 mg CODL(-1), in two anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR1 and AFBR2). It was obtained, for H2 yield and content, a decreasing trend by increasing the OLR. The maximum H2 yield was observed in AFBR1 (2.23 mmol g COD added(-1)). The volumetric H2 production was proportionally related to the applied hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 4, 2 and 1h and verified in AFBR1 the highest value (1.49 L H2 h(-1)L(-1)). Among the organic acids obtained, there was a predominance of lactic acid (7.5-22.5%) and butyric acid (9.4-23.8%). The microbial population was set with hydrogen-producing fermenters (Megasphaera sp.) and other organisms (Lactobacillus sp.). PMID:24632626

  18. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick T; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T; Weidel, Brian C; Zwart, Jacob A; Jones, Stuart E

    2016-08-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L(-1) in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning). PMID:26919470

  19. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Zwart, Jacob A.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L−1 in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning).

  20. Effects of feedstock carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading on foaming potential in mesophilic food waste anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Tanimu, Musa Idris; Mohd Ghazi, Tinia Idaty; Harun, Mohd Razif; Idris, Azni

    2015-05-01

    Foaming problem which occurred occasionally during food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated with the Malaysian FW by stepwise increase in organic loading (OL) from 0.5 to 7.5 g VS/L. The FW feedstock with carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 17 was upgraded to C/N ratio of 26 and 30 by mixing with other wastes. The digestion which was carried out at 37 °C in 1-L batch reactors showed that foam formation initiated at OL of 1.5 g VS/L and was further enhanced as OL of feedstock was increased. The digestion foaming reached its maximum at OL of 5.5 g VS/L and did not increase further even when OL was increased to 7.5 g VS/Ld. Increase in the C/N ratio of feedstock significantly enhanced the microbial degradation activity, leading to better removal of foam causing intermediates and reduced foaming in the reactor by up to 60%. PMID:25761621

  1. Invertebrate response to nutrient-driven epiphytic load increase in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castejón-Silvo, Inés; Domínguez, Marta; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient increases in coastal systems are becoming a world-wide concern since they promote strong structural and functional changes in shallow ecosystems. Increased nutrient availability in the water column may strongly enhance the leaf epiphytic communities of key habitat-forming species such as seagrasses through a bottom-up mechanism, competing for light and nutrients with the leaves. Epiphytes support an abundant and diverse community of resident invertebrates which fuel higher trophic levels in Posidonia oceanica food webs. We evaluated the response of seagrass, epiphytes and the invertebrate community to an experimental increase of water column nutrient availability. Nutrient increase was followed by a rise of epiphyte biomass. The increase in epiphytic biomass promoted invertebrate abundance, but appeared to have negative effects on P. oceanica shoot size. On the other hand, the increase in invertebrate abundance did not seem to control epiphytic biomass, which was not reversed to pre-nutrient enrichment levels. This work suggests that the abundance of invertebrate populations is limited by epiphyte biomass, through food or habitat provision, in P. oceanica systems and points to nutrients as the main driver of epiphyte biomass during summer. The results illustrate the control mechanisms at community level in P. oceanica meadows and the possible responses of a threatened ecosystem to human impact such as eutrophication.

  2. Investigation of Anion-Exchange and Immunoaffinity Particle-Loaded Membranes for the Isolation of Charged Organic Analytes from Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Wilson, G.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Anion-exchange and immunoaffinity particle loaded membranes (PLMs) were investigated as a mechanism for the isolation of charged organic analytes from water. Kinetic properties determined theoretically included dynamic capacity, pressure drop (??P), residence and diffusion times (Tr, Td), and total membrane porosity (???T). These properties were confirmed through experimental evaluation, and the PLM method showed significant improvement over conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-exchange formats. Recoveries of more than 90% were observed for a variety of test compounds at flow rates up to 70 mL/min (equipment-limited maximum flow rate). A fast-flow immunoaffinity column was developed using antibodies (Abs) attached to the PLMs. Reproducible recoveries (88% ?? 4%) were observed at flow rates up to 70 mL/min for the antibody (Ab)-loaded PLMs. Findings indicate increased selectivity over anion-exchange PLMs and conventional SPE or ion-exchange methods and rapid Ab-antigen binding rates given the excellent mass-transfer characteristics of the PLMs.

  3. Increased calcium loading and inotropy without greater cell death in hypoxic rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kondo, R P; Apstein, C S; Eberli, F R; Tillotson, D L; Suter, T M

    1998-12-01

    To test whether contractile function in "hypoxic" myocytes treated with high glucose (19.5 mM) can be improved by increasing intracellular Ca2+ without accelerating cell contracture or death, we challenged metabolically inhibited, paced myocytes with high extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) and measured simultaneously cell shortening and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). NaCN exposure at a physiological [Ca2+]o level (1.2 mM) caused a decline of contractile function to 58 +/- 8% of the pre-NaCN value (P < 0.001) but increased systolic and diastolic [Ca2+]i by 104 +/- 17 and 37 +/- 9% above baseline (P < 0.01), respectively. Consequent doubling of [Ca2+]o to 2.4 mM, in the presence of NaCN, immediately restored contractile function, and twitch amplitude after 18 min was 123 +/- 14% (P < 0.001) of baseline pre-NaCN values, whereas systolic [Ca2+]i increased further to 225 +/- 63% (P < 0.05) and diastolic [Ca2+]i to 73 +/- 16% above baseline (P < 0.01). This marked increase in [Ca2+]i had no deleterious effect on myocyte diastolic function or survival. These results suggest that if adequate metabolic substrate is provided, contractile function in metabolically inhibited, hypoxic myocytes can be restored by increasing [Ca2+]i without causing short-term cell injury. PMID:9843829

  4. The effect of organic loading rate on VFA/COD ratio for methane production from an EGSB reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Yuan, Linjiang; Liu, Wenhui

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA/COD ratio for continuous production of methane using an expanded granular sludge bed(EGSB) reactor for 200 d. Reactor performances were studied in treating high OLRs ranging from 4.91 +/- 0.54 to 16.79 +/- 1.62 g-COD l(-1)d(-1) of glucose-based synthetic wastewater in a mesophilic condition. Results showed that performance of anaerobic fermentation system was distinctly influenced by OLR in terms of organic removal efficiency, VFA yield, methane production rate and system stability.Acetic and propionic acids accounted for 80-90% of total VFA, and presented highest VFA concentration and composition of VFA showed minor changes with OLR variation. Moreover, an increase in OLR increased VFA/COD ratio in the whole operation period and high VFA/COD ratio could inhibit methanogenesis at high OLR (16.79 +/- 1.62 g-COD l(-1) d(-1)). PMID:26364485

  5. Effect of organic loading on nitrification and denitrification in a marine sediment microcosm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caffrey, J.M.; Sloth, N.P.; Kaspar, H.F.; Blackburn, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of organic additions on nitrification and denitrification were examined in sediment microcosms. The organic material, heat killed yeast, had a C/N ratio of 7.5 and was added to sieved, homogenized sediments. Four treatments were compared: no addition (control, 30 g dry weight (dw) m-2 mixed throughout the 10 cm sediment column (30 M), 100 g dw m-2 mixed throughout sediments (100M), and 100 g dw m-2 mixed into top 1 cm (100S). After the microcosms had been established for 7-11 days, depth of O2 penetration, sediment-water fluxes and nitrification rates were measured. Nitrification rates were measured using three different techniques: N-serve and acetylene inhibition in intact cores, and nitrification potentials in slurries. Increased organic additions decreased O2 penetration from 2.7 to 0.2 mm while increasing both O2 consumption, from 30 to 70 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, and NO3- flux into sediments. Nitrification rates in intact cores were similar for the two methods. Highest rates occurred in the 30 M treatment, while the lowest rate was measured in the 100S treatment. Total denitrification rates (estimated from nitrification and nitrate fluxes) increased with increased organic addition, because of the high concentrations of NO3- (40 ??M) in the overlying water. The ratio of nitrification: denitrification was used as an indication of the importance of nitrification as the NO3- supply for denitrification. This ratio decreased from 1.55 to 0.05 with increased organic addition.

  6. Organic acid dipping of catfish fillets: effect on color, microbial load, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bal'a, M F; Marshall, D L

    1998-11-01

    Microbiological and color changes of catfish fillets were determined following dip treatment in solutions at 4 degrees C of 2% acetic, citric, hydrochloric, lactic, malic, or tartaric acid. Fillets were inoculated with an eight-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes prior to dipping. L. monocytogenes, coliform, and aerobic plate counts and surface pH and Hunter color were measured at 0, 2, 5, and 8 days of storage at 4 degrees C. Acid dipping reduced surface pH and L. monocytogenes, coliform, and aerobic microbial loads. Little microbial proliferation was observed on acid-treated fillets, however, controls had a distinct foul odor and microbial loads in excess of 10(6) CFU/g by day 8. On untreated fillets, L. monocytogenes counts did not increase during storage, perhaps due to competitive inhibition by normal catfish microflora. Hunter color analysis revealed lighter and yellower acid-treated fillets than untreated controls, with malic acid producing the least bleaching. The shelf life of refrigerated fillets increased when fillets were acid dipped. It remains to be established if this enhanced microbial quality also parallels sensory acceptability. PMID:9829187

  7. Increased nitrogen availability counteracts climatic change feedback from increased temperature on boreal forest soil organic matter degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhagen, Bjorn; Nilsson, Mats; Oquist, Mats; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Sparrman, Tobias; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2014-05-01

    Over the last century, the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have increased dramatically, greatly exceeding pre-industrial levels that had prevailed for the preceding 420 000 years. At the same time the annual anthropogenic contribution to the global terrestrial nitrogen cycle has increased and currently exceeds natural inputs. Both temperature and nitrogen levels have profound effects on the global carbon cycle including the rate of organic matter decomposition, which is the most important biogeochemical process that returns CO2 to the atmosphere. Here we show for the first time that increasing the availability of nitrogen not only directly affects the rate of organic matter decomposition but also significantly affects its temperature dependence. We incubated litter and soil organic matter from a long-term (40 years) nitrogen fertilization experiment in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) forest at different temperatures and determined the temperature dependence of the decomposition of the sample's organic matter in each case. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of the decomposition of fresh plant litter but strongly reduced that for humus soil organic matter. The Q10 response of the 0-3 cm soil layer decreased from 2.5±0.35 to an average of 1.9±0.21 over all nitrogen treatments, and from 2.2±0.19 to 1.6±0.16 in response to the most intense nitrogen fertilization treatment in the 4-7 cm soil layer. Long-term nitrogen additions also significantly affected the organic chemical composition (as determined by 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy) of the soil organic matter. These changes in chemical composition contributed significantly (p<0.05) to the reduced Q10 response. These new insights into the relationship between nitrogen availability and the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition will be important for understanding and predicting how increases in global temperature and rising anthropogenic

  8. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  9. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  10. Bioremediation of high organic load lagoon sediments: compost addition and priming effects.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, G; Giovannelli, D; Montano, C; Milanovic, V; Ciani, M; Manini, E

    2013-03-01

    Lagoons are often affected by eutrophication phenomena, due to their shallow nature, high productivity, weak hydrodynamism and anthropic exploitation. Bioremediation techniques have been widely used in the treatment of chemical pollution; however, no information is available on the use of bioremediation of organic-rich sediments. In the present study, we investigated the priming effects following compost addition to organic-rich lagoon sediments, and the effects of this compost addition on degradation and cycling of organic detritus, transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels, and in situ prokaryotic community structure. There was a positive response to treatment, particularly during the first days after compost addition. The compost had a stimulating effect on degradation activity of the prokaryotic community. This occurred despite an increase in available organic matter, as the community was more efficient at removing it. These data are supported by the prokaryotic community structure analysis, which revealed no changes in the in situ community following compost addition. This priming effect enhancement through compost addition represents an efficient method to treat organic-rich sediments. PMID:23273326

  11. Development of a new neutron monitor using a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasolonjatovo, A. H. D.; Shiomi, T.; Kim, E.; Nakamura, T.; Nunomiya, T.; Endo, A.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2002-10-01

    A new type of neutron dose monitor was developed by using a 12.7 cm diameter×12.7 cm long boron-loaded organic liquid scintillation detector BC523A. This detector aims to have a response in the wide energy range of thermal energy to 100 MeV by using the H and C reactions to the fast neutrons of organic liquid and the 10B(n, α) reaction to thermalized neutrons in the liquid. The response functions of this detector were determined by the Monte Carlo simulation in the energy region from thermal energy to 100 MeV. Using these response functions, the spectrum-weighted dose function, G-function, to get the neutron dose from the light output spectrum of the detector was also determined by the unfolding technique. The calculated G-function was applied to determine the neutron dose in real neutron fields having energies ranging from thermal energy to several tens of MeV, where the light output spectra were measured with the BC523A detector. The thus-obtained ambient doses and effective doses show rather good agreement with the fluence-to-dose conversion factor given by ICRP 74. This detector will be useful as a wide-energy range neutron monitor.

  12. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  13. Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is impaired among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the brain activation deficit for low-level or increased-load WM among adults with ADHD. A total of 20 adults with ADHD and controls were recruited according to diagnostic interviewing by a psychiatrist. Phonological and visual-spatial 2-back and 3-back tasks were performed under functional magnetic resonance scanning. The results demonstrated that both the adults with ADHD and the controls exhibited activation of the fronto-parietal network for WM, and the intensity was greater in the adult ADHD group. The ADHD group had higher brain activation over the bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal lobe, hippocampus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) for phonological WM than the control group. When the task loading increased from 2-back to 3-back tasks, the adults with ADHD perceived greater difficulty. The control group exhibited increased brain activation over the frontal-parietal network in response to increased phonological WM load. However, the ADHD group showed decreased brain activation over the left precuneus, insula, and SMA. Further analysis demonstrated that the ADHD group exhibited a greater decrease in brain activation over the left fronto-parietal network, including the precuneus, SMA, insula/inferior frontal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, than the control group. These results suggest that adults with ADHD pay more effort to low demanding phonological WM. On the other hand, brain activation of the left fronto-parietal network is impaired when the demands of WM exceed the capacity of adults with ADHD. PMID:23645101

  14. Aggravated phosphorus limitation on biomass production under increasing nitrogen loading: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Niu, Shuli; Yu, Guirui

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), either individually or in combination, have been demonstrated to limit biomass production in terrestrial ecosystems. Field studies have been extensively synthesized to assess global patterns of N impacts on terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to our knowledge, no synthesis has been done so far to reveal global patterns of P impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, especially under different nitrogen (N) levels. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of impacts of P addition, either alone or with N addition, on aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass production (BGB), plant and soil P concentrations, and N : P ratio in terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, our meta-analysis quantitatively confirmed existing notions: (i) colimitation of N and P on biomass production and (ii) more P limitation in tropical forest than other ecosystems. More importantly, our analysis revealed new findings: (i) P limitation on biomass production was aggravated by N enrichment and (ii) plant P concentration was a better indicator of P limitation than soil P availability. Specifically, P addition increased AGB and BGB by 34% and 13%, respectively. The effect size of P addition on biomass production was larger in tropical forest than grassland, wetland, and tundra and varied with P fertilizer forms, P addition rates, or experimental durations. The P-induced increase in biomass production and plant P concentration was larger under elevated than ambient N. Our findings suggest that the global limitation of P on biomass production will become severer under increasing N fertilizer and deposition in the future. PMID:26463578

  15. Role of insulin-like growth factor-I in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to increased loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptations in muscle mass stimulated by changes in muscle loading state entail alternations in the synthesis and degradation of myofiber proteins and the modulation of myonuclear number such that the ratio between the number of myonuclei and the size of the myofibers remains relatively constant. As depicted schematically in Figure 2.6, the literature regarding the role of IGF-in mediating muscle adaptation to alterations in loading state suggests the following conclusions: During periods of increased loading, myofibers upregulate the expression and secretion of IGF-I. Acting as an autocrine and/or paracrine growth factor, IGF-I stimulates myofiber anabolic processes. Acting as a paracrine growth factor, IGF-I also stimulates adjacent satellite cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate. Continued myofiber production of IGF-I stimulates some satellite cells to differentiate and then fuse with myofibers, thus providing additional myonuclei in order to maintain or reestablish the myonucleus to myofiber size ratios of the enlarged myofibers.

  16. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Inputs from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Increase Responses of Planktonic Metabolic Rates to Warming.

    PubMed

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Conley, Daniel J; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Lindh, Markus V; Pinhassi, Jarone; Kritzberg, Emma S

    2015-10-01

    Increased anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems in the last century are threatening their biodiversity and functioning. Global warming and increases in nutrient loadings are two major stressors affecting these systems. Global warming is expected to increase both atmospheric and water temperatures and increase precipitation and terrestrial runoff, further increasing organic matter and nutrient inputs to coastal areas. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations frequently exceed those of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in aquatic systems. Many components of the DON pool have been shown to supply nitrogen nutrition to phytoplankton and bacteria. Predictions of how global warming and eutrophication will affect metabolic rates and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the future are needed to elucidate their impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we experimentally determine the effects of simultaneous DON additions and warming on planktonic community metabolism in the Baltic Sea, the largest coastal area suffering from eutrophication-driven hypoxia. Both bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic rates changed in relation to temperature. DON additions from wastewater treatment plant effluents significantly increased the activation energies for community respiration and gross primary production. Activation energies for community respiration were higher than those for gross primary production. Results support the prediction that warming of the Baltic Sea will enhance planktonic respiration rates faster than it will for planktonic primary production. Higher increases in respiration rates than in production may lead to the depletion of the oxygen pool, further aggravating hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. PMID:26356812

  17. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At -20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

  18. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At −20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

  19. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins—envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)—have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4+ T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. PMID:26763429

  20. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins-envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)-have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4(+) T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. PMID:26763429

  1. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (P<0.05), indicating an increased oxygen load. Mouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient’s habitual breathing route than a patient interview. PMID:24169579

  2. Effects of organic loading rate and effluent recirculation on the performance of two-stage anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhuang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Wanqin; Dong, Renjie

    2013-10-01

    The effects of organic loading rates (OLR) and effluent recirculation on dynamics of acidogenic and methanogenic processes in two-stage anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste were investigated. Two systems were performed at OLRs of 1.3, 1.7, 2.1 and 2.6 g VS/L/d. One system recirculated the effluent from the methanogenic reactor to acidogenic reactor. With increasing OLRs, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration increased to approximately 8500 mg/L in acidogenic digester, where pH decreased from 6.4 to 5.2. Daily biogas production and methane content in methanogenic reactor increased from 1.2 to 4.4 L/d and from 27.4% to 60.5%, respectively. However, inhibition of hydrolysis in acidogenic reactor was demonstrated under the OLR of 2.6 g VS/L/d without recirculation, thus indicating system overloading. Effluent recirculation shown a considerable positive effect on alleviating VFA inhibition and improving biogas production in acidogenic reactor because of the effect of dilution and pH adjustment, particularly at high OLRs. PMID:23973975

  3. Effects of Extensive Beetle-Induced Forest Mortality on Aromatic Organic Carbon Loading and Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillard, B.; Mikkelson, K. M.; Dickenson, E.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought and warmer temperatures associated with climate change have caused increased pest-induced forest mortality with impacts on biogeochemical and hydrologic processes. To better understand the seasonal impacts of bark beetle infestation on water quality, samples were collected regularly over two overlapping snow free seasons at surface water intakes of six water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado displaying varying levels of bark beetle infestation (high >40%, moderate 20-40%, and low <20%). Organic carbon concentrations were typically 3 to 6 times higher in waters sourced from high beetle-impacted watersheds compared to moderate and low impact watersheds, revealing elevated specific ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence, and humic-like intensity indicative of elevated aromatic carbon signatures. Accordingly, an increase in disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential of 400 to 600% was quantified when contrasted with watersheds containing less tree mortality. Beetle impact exasperated seasonal increases in carbon loading and DBP formation potential following both runoff and precipitation events indicating windows when enhanced water treatment may be utilized by water providers in highly infested regions. Additionally, elevated carbon concentrations throughout the summer and fall along with peaks following precipitation events provide evidence of shifting hydrologic flow paths in areas experiencing high forest mortality from decreased tree water uptake and interception. Collectively, these results demonstrate the need for continued watershed protection and monitoring with a changing climate as the resultant perturbations can have adverse effects on biogeochemistry and water quality in heavily impacted areas.

  4. Increased Circulatory Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Multiple Organ Failure: Bile Duct Ligation in Rat as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats exhibit cholestasis, increased systemic oxidative stress, and liver fibrosis, which ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that can decrease the synthesis of nitric oxide. BDL rats have higher plasma and hepatic ADMA levels, which may be due to increased hepatic protein arginine methyltransferase-1 and decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase expression. BDL rats also exhibit renal and brain damage characterized by increased tissue ADMA concentrations. The increased plasma ADMA levels and multiple organ damages seen here are also observed following multiple organ failures associated with critical illness. This review discusses the dysregulation of ADMA in major organs in BDL rats and the role of increased ADMA in multiple organ damages. PMID:24603538

  5. Organic Carbon Trends, Loads, and Yields to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, Water Years 1980 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saleh, Dina K.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    Organic carbon, nutrient, and suspended sediment concentration data were analyzed for the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins for the period 1980-2000. The data were retrieved from three sources: the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval System, and the California Interagency Ecological Program's relational database. Twenty sites were selected, all of which had complete records of daily streamflow data. These data met the minimal requirements of the statistical programs used to estimate trends, loads, and yields. The seasonal Kendall program was used to estimate trends in organic carbon, nutrient, and suspended sediment. At all 20 sites, analyses showed that in the 145 analyses for the seven constituents, 95 percent of the analyses had no significant trend. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were significant only for four sites: the American River at Sacramento, the Sacramento River sites near Freeport, Orestimba Creek at River Roads near Crows Landing, and the San Joaquin River near Vernalis. Loads were calculated using two programs, ESTIMATOR and LOADEST2. The 1998 water year was selected to describe loads in the Sacramento River Basin. Organic carbon, nutrient, and suspended sediment loads at the Sacramento River sites near Freeport included transported loads from two main upstream sites: the Sacramento River at Verona and the American River at Sacramento. Loads in the Sacramento River Basin were affected by the amount of water diverted to the Yolo Bypass (the amount varies annually, depending on the precipitation and streamflow). Loads at the Sacramento River sites near Freeport were analyzed for two hydrologic seasons: the irrigation season (April to September) and the nonirrigation season (October to March). DOC loads are lower during the irrigation season then they are during the nonirrigation season. During the irrigation season, water with low

  6. Optical performance of mesostructured composite silica film loaded with organic dye.

    PubMed

    Guli, Mina; Chen, Shijian; Zhang, Dingke; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Jianxi; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Li

    2014-01-10

    A mesoporous composite silica film loaded with organic dye has been successfully synthesized by a solgel reaction process and a simple postgrafting method at room temperature. The composite film was characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and laser performance, and the results confirmed the existence of dyes in the channels of the silica film. A blue-shift and fluorescence property in the PL spectrum was observed from the composite film compared with that of dye molecules in C₂H₅OH solution. The spectrum narrowing phenomena has been observed when the composite film is pumped at λp=355  nm by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. A narrower, higher peak was observed in emission spectra from the mesostructured composite silica film compared with the PL spectrum of dye in C₂H₅OH solution. There is a substantial reduction in the full width at half-maximum of the emitting light, which results in peaks with linewidths of 26 nm or more. This collapse of the emission spectrum is one of the signatures of the presence of amplified spontaneous emission. PMID:24514063

  7. Screening of 47 organic microcontaminants in agricultural irrigation waters and their soil loading.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Preciado, D; Jiménez-Cartagena, C; Matamoros, V; Bayona, J M

    2011-01-01

    Reclaimed water usage for crop irrigation is viewed both as an excellent sustainable water source and as a potential entrance for emerging organics into the food chain. This concern is backed by the already documented pollutant crop uptake potential. In the present study, irrigation waters used in agricultural fields (Torroella de Montgri, NE Spain) were screened for 47 analytes in a two year study (2007-2008). A total of 26 contaminants belonging to different chemical classes namely, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, phenolic estrogens, antioxidants and disinfection by-products, were detected. Marked differences in concentration trends for the different chemical classes were evidenced from 2007 to 2008, and attributed to a persistent drought endured by the region in 2008. Also, loading mass rates of chemical classes were estimated based on crop irrigation regimes and they ranged from 0.8 to 121.3 g ha(-1) per crop cycle. These values were contrasted with those obtained for other water sources from countries where crop irrigation is commonly practiced. Finally, crops grown under these irrigation regimes, namely alfalfa and apple, were analyzed and 5 anthropogenic compounds were identified and quantitated, whose concentrations ranged from 13.9 to 532 ng g(-1) (fresh weight). PMID:20961595

  8. Cooperative loading and release behavior of a metal-organic receptor.

    PubMed

    Gan, Quan; Ronson, Tanya K; Vosburg, David A; Thoburn, John D; Nitschke, Jonathan R

    2015-02-11

    In order to design artificial chemical systems that are capable of achieving complex functions, it is useful to design synthetic receptors that mimic their biological counterparts. Biological functions are underpinned by properties that include specific binding with high affinity and selectivity, cooperativity, and release triggered by external stimuli. Here we show that a metal-organic receptor constructed through subcomponent self-assembly can selectively and cooperatively load and release oxocarbon anions. The flexible coordination spheres of its cadmium(II) centers allow the receptor to dynamically adjust its structure upon exchanging four triflate or triflimide counterions for two oxocarbon anions, resulting in strong cooperativity and very tight binding, with an apparent association constant for C5O5(2-) of 5 × 10(10) M(-1). Substituting the cadmium(II) ions for copper(I) by switching solvent prompted a structural reorganization and release of the oxocarbon anions. Its cooperative behavior allows the receptor to carry a greater payload than would be possible in a noncooperative analogue. PMID:25615799

  9. Nonenzymatic amperometric organic peroxide sensor based on nano-cobalt phthalocyanine loaded functionalized graphene film.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Chen, Lijian; Xu, Minrong; Su, Haichao; Ai, Shiyun

    2012-01-27

    An enzyme-free amperometric method was established for the electrochemical reduction tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) on the utilization of nano-cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) loaded functionalized graphene (FGR) and to create a highly responsive organic peroxide sensor. FGR was synthesized with a simple and fast method of electrolysis with potassium hexafluorophosphate (KPF(6)) solution as electrolyte under the static current of 0.2A. In the present work, FGR was dispersed in the solution of CoPc to fabricate chemical modified electrode to detect TBHP. The electro-reduction of TBHP can be catalyzed by FGR-CoPc, which has an excellent electrocatalytical activity due to the synergistic effect of the FGR with CoPc. The sensor can be applied to the quantification of TBHP with a linear range covering from 0.0260 to 4.81 mM, a high sensitivity of 13.64 A M(-1), and a low detection limit of 5 μM. This proposed sensor was designed as a simple, robust, and cheap analytical device for the determination of TBHP in body lotion. PMID:22177066

  10. Scaffolding Writing Using Feedback in Students' Graphic Organizers--Novice Writers' Relevance of Ideas and Cognitive Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chien Ching; Tan, Seng Chee

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to find out two outcomes of feedback in the novice writers' graphic organizers, which are the novice writers' ability to align their ideas to their writing goal, and their perceived germane, metacognitive, extraneous and intrinsic cognitive loads when generating and revising ideas based on the feedback. Data was gathered from the…

  11. Alteration of 14C-Assimilate Partitioning in Leaves of Soybeans Having Increased Reproductive Loads at One Node 1

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Dale R.; Brun, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the partitioning of recently fixed carbon between starch and water-soluble compounds could be altered by increasing the pod load in the leaf axil, and if the presence of source leaves acropetal to such a node would influence the partitioning of carbon within the subtending leaf. Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Hodgson 78) were grown to full-bloom in a controlled environment chamber, and then deflowered at all nodes except the eighth. This treatment resulted in an 83% increase in the number of pods at the eighth node. At 24 days after flowering, one-half of the treated plants were girdled above the untreated node. Forty-two hours later, the eighth trifoliolate was pulsed with 14CO2 and sampled for radiolabeled starch and water-soluble compounds (WSC) at 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24th after labeling. When no girdling was applied above the increased pod load at the eighth node more label was accumulated by the pod walls (+6.9%) and seeds (+6.3%) when compared to the controls. Starch accumulation was not altered in the labeled leaf of the nongirdled plants. When the stem was girdled above the eighth node, significantly less starch was retained in the labeled leaf. Girdling also resulted in an increase in label accumulation by the pod walls (+5.4%) and seeds (+6.6%). These data suggest that the plant will change the distribution patterns of assimilate to supply added sink demand before altering the partitioning of recently fixed carbon in the subtending leaf. PMID:16663754

  12. Effect of organic load on the performance and methane production of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Roberto Antonio; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Canto, Catarina Simone Andrade; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Currently, there is an increasing demand for the production of biodiesel and, consequently, there will be an increasing need to treat wastewaters resulting from the production process of this biofuel. The main objective of this work was, therefore, to investigate the effect of applied volumetric organic load (AVOL) on the efficiency, stability, and methane production of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor applied to the treatment of effluent from biodiesel production. As inert support, polyurethane foam cubes were used in the reactor and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. Increase in AVOL resulted in a drop in organic matter removal efficiency and increase in total volatile acids in the effluent. AVOLs of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) resulted in removal efficiencies of 92%, 81%, 67%, and 50%, for effluent filtered samples, and 91%, 80%, 63%, and 47%, for non-filtered samples, respectively, whereas total volatile acids concentrations in the effluent amounted to 42, 145, 386 and 729 mg HAc L(-1), respectively. Moreover, on increasing AVOL from 1.5 to 4.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) methane production increased from 29.5 to 55.5 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1). However, this production dropped to 36.0 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1) when AVOL was increased to 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1), likely due to the higher concentration of volatile acids in the reactor. Despite the higher concentration of volatile acids at the highest AVOL, alkalinity supplementation to the influent, in the form of sodium bicarbonate, at a ratio of 0.5-1.3 g NaHCO(3) g COD (fed) (-1) , was sufficient to maintain the pH near neutral and guarantee process stability during reactor operation. PMID:21494753

  13. Influence of high organic loads during the summer period on the performance of hybrid constructed wetlands (VSSF + HSSF) treating domestic wastewater in the Alps region.

    PubMed

    Foladori, P; Ortigara, A R C; Ruaben, J; Andreottola, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the limits for the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) in mountain regions (such as the Alps) is associated with the considerable land area requirements. In some mountain areas, the treatment of domestic wastewater at popular tourist destinations is particularly difficult during the summer, when the presence of visitors increases hydraulic and organic loads. This paper aims to evaluate whether a hybrid CW plant designed on the basis of the resident population only, can treat also the additional load produced by the floating population during the tourist period (summer, when temperatures are favourable for biological treatment), without a drastic decrease of efficiency and without clogging problems. The research was carried out by considering two operational periods: the first one was based on literature indications (3.2 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit) and the second one assumed higher hydraulic and organic loads (1.3 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit). The removal efficiency in the hybrid CW system decreased slightly from 94 to 88% for COD removal and from 78 to 75% for total N removal, even after applying a double hydraulic (from 55 to 123 L m(-2) d(-1)) and organic load (from 37 to 87 g COD m(-2) d(-1) and from 4.4 to 10.3 g TKN m(-2) d(-1)). The results showed that in the summer period the application of high loads did not affect the efficiency of the hybrid CW plant significantly, suggesting that it is possible to refer the CW design to the resident population only, with subsequent considerable savings in superficial area. PMID:22339024

  14. Organic N and P in eutrophic fjord sediments - rates of mineralization and consequences for internal nutrient loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdemarsen, T.; Quintana, C. O.; Flindt, M. R.; Kristensen, E.

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient release from the sediments in shallow eutrophic estuaries may counteract reductions of the external nutrient load and prevent or prolong ecosystem recovery. The magnitude and temporal dynamics of this potential source, termed internal nutrient loading, is poorly understood. We quantified the internal nutrient loading driven by microbial mineralization of accumulated organic N (ON) and P (OP) in sediments from a shallow eutrophic estuary (Odense Fjord, Denmark). Sediments were collected from eight stations within the system and nutrient production and effluxes were measured over a period of ~ 2 years. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) effluxes were high initially but quickly faded to low and stable levels after 50-200 days, whereas PO43- effluxes were highly variable in the different sediments. Mineralization patterns suggested that internal N loading would quickly (< 200 days) fade to insignificant levels, whereas internal PO43- loading could be sustained for extended time (years). When results from all stations were combined, internal N loading and P loading from the fjord bottom was up to 121 × 103 kg N yr-1 (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and 22 × 103 kg P yr-1 (3.6 kg P ha-1 yr-1) corresponding to 6 (N) and 36% (P) of the external nutrient loading to the system. We conclude that the internal N loading resulting from degradation of accumulated ON is low in shallow eutrophic estuaries, whereas microbial mineralization of accumulated OP is a potential source of P. Overall it appears that, in N-limited eutrophic systems, internal nutrient resulting from mineralization of ON and OP in sediments is of minor importance.

  15. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  16. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  17. Characterization of the bacterial community involved in the bioflocculation process of wastewater organic matter in high-loaded MBRs.

    PubMed

    Faust, L; Szendy, M; Plugge, C M; van den Brink, P F H; Temmink, H; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-06-01

    High-loaded membrane bioreactors (HL-MBRs), i.e., bioreactors equipped with a membrane for biomass retention and operated at extremely short sludge and hydraulic retention times, can concentrate sewage organic matter to facilitate subsequent energy and chemical recovery from these organics. Bioflocculation, accomplished by microorganisms that produce extracellular polymers, is a very important mechanism in these reactors. Bacterial diversity of the sludge and supernatant fraction of HL-MBRs operated at very short sludge retention times (0.125, 0.5, and 1 day) were determined using a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library approach and compared to the diversity in sewage. Already at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 0.125 day, a distinct bacterial community developed compared to the community in sewage. Bioflocculation, however, was low and the majority of the bacteria, especially Arcobacter, were present in the supernatant fraction. Upon increasing SRT from 0.125 to 1 day, a much stronger bioflocculation was accompanied by an increased abundance of Bacteroidetes in the (solid) sludge fraction: 27.5 % at an SRT of 0.5 day and 46.4 % at an SRT of 1 day. Furthermore, cluster analysis of DGGE profiles revealed that the bacterial community structure in the sludge was different from that in the supernatant. To localize specific bacterial classes in the sludge flocs, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out with three different bacterial probes. This showed that Betaproteobacteria formed clusters in the sludge flocs whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were mainly present as single cells. PMID:25634019

  18. Pulse shape discrimination capability of metal-loaded organic liquid scintillators for a short-baseline reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. R.; Han, B. Y.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Kang, Jeongsoo; Khan, N.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, J. Y.; Siyeon, Kim; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Yeongduk; Ko, Y. J.; Lee, Jaison; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Lee, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Park, Hyeonseo; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Seo, K. M.; Seon, Gwang-Min; Yeo, I. S.; Yeo, K. M.

    2015-05-01

    A new short-baseline (SBL) reactor neutrino experiment is proposed to investigate a reactor anti-neutrino anomaly. A liquid scintillator (LS) is used to detect anti-neutrinos emitted from a Hanaro reactor, and the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) ability of the metal-loaded organic LSs is evaluated on small-scale laboratory samples. PSD can be affected by selecting different base solvents, and several of the LSs used two different organic base solvents, such as linear alkyl benzene and di-isopropylnaphthalene. For the metallic content, gadolinium (Gd) or lithium (6Li) was loaded into a home-made organic LS and into a commercially available liquid scintillation cocktail. A feasibility study was performed for the PSD using several different liquid scintillation cocktails. In this work, the preparation and the PSD characteristics of a promising candidate, which will be used in an above-ground environment, are summarized and presented.

  19. Financial incentives to increase Canadian organ donation: quick fix or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Gill, John S; Klarenbach, Scott; Barnieh, Lianne; Caulfield, Timothy; Knoll, Greg; Levin, Adeera; Cole, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the United States, the potential to increase organ donation in Canada may be sufficient to meet the need for transplantation. However, there has been no national coordinated effort to increase organ donation. Strategies that do not involve payment for organs, such as investment in health care resources to support deceased donor organ donation and introduction of a remuneration framework for the work of deceased organ donation, should be prioritized for implementation. Financial incentives that may be permitted under existing legislation and that pose little risk to existing donation sources should be advanced, including the following: payment of funeral expenses for potential donors who register their decision on organ donation during life (irrespective of the decision to donate or actual organ donation) and removal of disincentives for directed and paired exchange living donation, such as payment of wages, payment for pain and suffering related to the donor surgery, and payment of directed living kidney donors for participation in Canada's paired exchange program. In contrast, it would be premature to contemplate a regulated system of organ sales that would require a paradigm shift in the current approach to organ donation and legislative change to implement. PMID:24200461

  20. Prospective audit to evaluate the potential of the coronial system to increase solid organ donation

    PubMed Central

    Twamley, Huw; Haigh, Andrew; Williment, Claire; Hudson, Cara; Whitney, Julie; Neuberger, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anecdotal evidence suggests that organ donation from deceased donors referred to the Coroner/Procurator Fiscal (PF) could be increased if all followed best practice. The aim of this prospective audit was to establish how referrals affected organ donation and to develop evidence-based guidelines to ensure that organ donation can be facilitated safely without interfering in the Coroner/PF's investigative process. Design Prospective audit. Setting All acute National Health Service Hospitals in the UK where deceased organ donation was considered. Participants 1437 deceased patients who met the eligibility criteria for organ donation and were referred to Coroner/PF. Main outcome measures Number of cases where permission for transplantation was given, number of organs where permission was refused and number of organs which might have been transplanted if all had followed best practice. Results Full permission for organ retrieval was given in 87% cases and partial permission in 9%. However, if full permission had been given where no autopsy was performed or restrictions seemed unjustified, up to 77 organs (22 lungs, 22 kidneys, 9 pancreases, 9 livers, 8 hearts and 7 small bowels) could have been available for transplant. Conclusions Coroners/PFs and their officers show strong support for transplantation but improvement in practice could result in a small but significant increase in life-saving and life-enhancing transplants. PMID:27401356

  1. Organic Acid Excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron Increases with Ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Vrabl, Pamela; Fuchs, Viktoria; Pichler, Barbara; Schinagl, Christoph W.; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions, or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi. In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium-limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2–7), and ammonium or phosphate-limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7). Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids. Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation, and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e., overflow metabolism, charge balance, and aggressive acidification hypothesis. PMID:22493592

  2. Oceanic loading of wildfire-derived organic compounds from a small mountainous river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunsinger, G.B.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Warrick, J.A.; Alexander, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs) export substantial amounts of sediment into the world's oceans. The concomitant yield of organic carbon (OC) associated with this class of rivers has also been shown to be significant and compositionally unique. We report here excessively high loadings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin, and levoglucosan, discharged from the Santa Clara River into the Santa Barbara Channel. The abundance of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin in Santa Barbara Channel sediments ranged from 201.7 to 1232.3 ng gdw-1, 1.3 to 6.9 ??g gdw-1, and 0.3 to 2.2 mg per 100 mg of the sedimentary OC, respectively. Assuming a constant rate of sediment accumulation, the annual fluxes of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin, to the Santa Barbara Channel were respectively, 885.5 ?? 170.2 ng cm-2 a-1, 3.5 ?? 1.9 ??g cm-2 a-1 and 1.4 ?? 0.3 mg per 100 mg OC cm-2 a-1, over ???30 years. The close agreement between PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin abundance suggests that the depositional flux of these compounds is largely biomass combustion-derived. To that end, use of the Santa Clara River as a model for SMRs suggests this class of rivers may be one of the largest contributors of pyrolyzed carbon to coastal systems and the open ocean. Wildfire associated carbon discharged from other high yield fluvial systems, when considered collectively, may be a significant source of lignin, pyrolytic PAHs, and other pyrogenic compounds to the ocean. Extrapolating these methods over geologic time may offer useful historical information about carbon sequestration and burial in coastal sediments and affect coastal carbon budgets. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. A high-resolution conceptual model for diffuse organic micropollutant loads in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Christian; Honti, Mark; Ghielmetti, Nico

    2013-04-01

    The ecological state of surface waters has become the dominant aspect in water quality assessments. Toxicity is a key determinant of the ecological state, but organic micropollutants (OMP) are seldom monitored with the same spatial and temporal frequency as for example nutrients, mainly due the demanding analytical methods and costs. However, diffuse transport pathways are at least equally complex for OMPs as for nutrients and there are still significant knowledge gaps. Moreover, concentrations of the different compounds would need to be known with fairly high temporal resolution because acute toxicity can be as important as the chronic one. Fully detailed mechanistic models of diffuse OMP loads require an immense set of site-specific knowledge and are rarely applicable for catchments lacking an exceptional monitoring coverage. Simple empirical methods are less demanding but usually work with more temporal aggregation and that's why they have limited possibilities to support the estimation of the ecological state. This study presents a simple conceptual model that aims to simulate the concentrations of selected organic micropollutants with daily resolution at 11 locations in the stream network of a small catchment (46 km2). The prerequisite is a known hydrological and meteorological background (daily discharge, precipitation and air temperature time series), a land use map and some historic measurements of the desired compounds. The model is conceptual in the sense that all important diffuse transport pathways are simulated separately, but each with a simple empirical process rate. Consequently, some site-specific observations are required to calibrate the model, but afterwards the model can be used for forecasting and scenario analysis as the calibrated process rates typically describe invariant properties of the catchment. We simulated 6 different OMPs from the categories of agricultural and urban pesticides and urban biocides. The application of agricultural

  4. Interpreting the effect of increasing COD loading rates on the performance of a pre-anoxic MBBR system: implications on the attached and suspended biomass dynamics and nitrification-denitrification activity.

    PubMed

    Lima, P S; Dezotti, M; Bassin, J P

    2016-06-01

    A pre-anoxic MBBR system was subjected to increasing organic loading rates up to 18 gCOD/(m(2) day). At 3 gCOD/(m(2) day), most of the incoming organic matter was removed via denitrification. However, at higher loads, anoxic COD removal became limited by the nitrite/nitrate supply from the aerobic reactor, which assumed an important role in this conversion. Despite the application of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (<2 mg/L) in this tank, nitrification was observed to be nearly complete until 8 gCOD/(m(2) day). As the organic input was increased, the maximum specific nitrifying activity gradually declined. Activity tests suggested that an oxygen-limited environment was established in the biofilm. At lower loads [3-8 gCOD/(m(2) day)], the nitrification product obtained was affected by the DO concentration, whereas from 16 to 21 gCOD/(m(2) day), nitrite/nitrate profiles were likely associated with microbial stratification in the biofilm. The results also indicated that the role of the suspended biomass in the overall nitrification and denitrification can be very significant in high loaded MBBRs and should not be neglected, even at low HRTs. PMID:26941244

  5. [Comparative analysis of gas exchange and cardiorespiratory systems reactions to increasing normobaric hypoxia and physical load of swimmers and skiers].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekin, S G; Divert, V E; Mel'nikov, V N; Vodianitskiĭ, S N; Girenko, L A

    2013-01-01

    Qualification comparable groups of young men engaged in cyclic kinds of sports were tested with stepwise accruing loads on bicycle ergometer and 25-minute exponential increasing normobaric hypoxia to final concentration of 10% oxygen. Group of skiers, having the greatest values of the maximal oxygen consumption at muscular work, show the relaxed cardiorespiratory reactions and more falling of blood oxygen in the hypoxia. The swimmers, having restrictions of ventilatory function in the course of trainings, form preadaptation to hypoxia with changes of external respiration and gas exchange functions that allows at hypoxia to better oxygen sate the blood in lungs. The joint assessment of aerobic capacity at physical work and physiological reactions to hypoxia shows the direct relation between individual maximal oxygen consumption and the descent rate of blood oxygen saturation at accruing hypoxia that can be useful at an assessment of a sportsman functional state and its correction at training processes. PMID:23668078

  6. Change of teicoplanin loading dose requirement for incremental increases of systemic inflammatory response syndrome score in the setting of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takafumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Takata, Tohru; Irie, Keiichi; Sano, Kazunori; Imakyure, Osamu; Mishima, Kenichi; Futagami, Koujiro

    2016-08-01

    Background Target trough concentrations are recommended for teicoplanin (TEIC) to minimize its adverse effects and to maximize efficacy in sepsis caused by grampositive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, optimal doses to attain proper trough values in patients with sepsis have not yet been well established for TEIC. Objective This study investigated whether the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score could predict the pharmacokinetics of TEIC in patients with sepsis. Setting This study was conducted at Fukuoka University Hospital in Japan. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients using TEIC between April 2012 and March 2015. SIRS positive was defined as infection with a SIRS score ≥2. Estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a Bayesian method. Creatinine clearance rates were estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (eCcr). Main outcome measure Change of TEIC loading dose requirement for incremental increases of SIRS score. Results In total, 133 patients were enrolled: 50 non-SIRS patients and 83 patients with SIRS. The TEIC plasma trough concentration was significantly lower in SIRS than non-SIRS patients (15.7 ± 7.1 vs. 20.1 ± 8.6 μg/mL; P < 0.01), although there was no significant difference in the loading dose administered. Moreover, SIRS scores were increasingly predictive of eCcr and TEIC clearance in a stepwise manner. To achieve the target trough concentration (15-30 μg/mL), the optimal doses required in non-SIRS versus SIRS patients were 12-24 versus 18-30 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the first 48 h. Conclusions These findings suggest that the pharmacokinetics of TEIC are altered in SIRS patients, who required higher doses than non-SIRS patients to achieve the target trough concentration. We suggest that the SIRS score can become a new modality to determine the initial TEIC loading dose. PMID:27125378

  7. Edge loading does not increase wear rates of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene articulations.

    PubMed

    Halma, Jelle J; Señaris, Jose; Delfosse, Daniel; Lerf, Reto; Oberbach, Thomas; van Gaalen, Steven M; de Gast, Arthur

    2014-11-01

    The mal-positioning of total hip arthroplasty components can result in edge loading conditions. Purpose of this study was to determine if the wear rate of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene increases under edge loading conditions. The literature was reviewed to determine which of the commonly used hip bearings is the most forgiving to implant mal-orientation. Two 28-mm ceramic-on-ceramic articulations were tested in vitro: pure alumina (PAL) ceramic versus the new alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ). Two 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene articulations were tested in vitro: conventional ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) versus highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) stabilized with vitamin E. All bearings were tested at standard and at highest possible inclination angles. Hip simulator tests were run for five million cycles based on N = 3 tests per condition. The average wear rate of ATZ-on-ATZ is 0.024 mm(3) /Mcycles at 45° and 0.018 mm(3) /Mcycles at 65°. Wear rate of PAL-on-PAL is between 0.02 and 0.03 mm(3) /Mcycles at 45°, as well as 65°. The wear rate of UHMWPE was 31 ± 1 mm(3) /Mcycles at an inclination angle of 45° and 26 ± 1 mm(3) /Mcycles at 80°. The wear rate of vitamin E stabilized HXLPE was 5.9 ± 0.2 mm(3) /Mcycles at 45° and 5.8 ± 0.2 mm(3) /Mcycles at 80°. Edge loading does not increase the wear rate of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene articulations. The newest biomaterials showed markedly lower wear rates compared with their conventional counterparts. ATZ-on-ATZ showed the lowest wear rate of all tested pairings, but the vitamin E stabilized HXLPE seems to be the most forgiving material when it comes to implant mal-orientation. PMID:24652696

  8. Multiarticular isokinetic high-load eccentric training induces large increases in eccentric and concentric strength and jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Christos; Theodosiou, Konstantinos; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Gkantiraga, Evangelia; Gissis, Ioannis; Sambanis, Michalis; Souglis, Athanasios; Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term eccentric exercise training using a custom-made isokinetic leg press device, on concentric and eccentric strength and explosiveness as well as jumping performance. Nineteen healthy males were divided into an eccentric (ECC, n = 10) and a control group (CG, n = 9). The ECC group trained twice per week for 8 weeks using an isokinetic hydraulic leg press machine against progressively increasing resistance ranging from 70 to 90% of maximal eccentric force. Jumping performance and maximal force generating capacity were measured before and after eccentric training. In the ECC group, drop jump (DJ) height and maximal power were increased by 13.6 ± 3.2% (p < 0.01) and 25.8 ± 1.2% (p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was decreased by 17.6 ± 2.6% (p < 0.01). Changes in ankle, knee, and hip joint angles were also reduced by 33.9 ± 1.1%, 31.1 ± 1.0%, and 32.4 ± 1.6% (all p < 0.01), respectively, indicating an increase in muscle stiffness during the DJ. Maximal eccentric and concentric leg press force was increased by 64.9 ± 5.5% (p < 0.01) and 32.2 ± 8.8% (p < 0.01), respectively, and explosiveness, measured as force attained in the first 300 milliseconds, was increased by 49.1 ± 4.8% (p < 0.01) and 77.1 ± 7.7% (p < 0.01), respectively. The CG did not show any statistically significant changes in all parameters measured. The main findings of this study were that maximal concentric and eccentric force, explosiveness, and DJ performance were markedly increased after only 16 training sessions, possibly because of the high eccentric load attained during the bilateral eccentric leg press exercise performed on this custom-made device. PMID:24626142

  9. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  10. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phil; Capone, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids. PMID:23751119

  11. Increases in tropical rainfall driven by changes in frequency of organized deep convection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jackson; Jakob, Christian; Rossow, William B; Tselioudis, George

    2015-03-26

    Increasing global precipitation has been associated with a warming climate resulting from a strengthening of the hydrological cycle. This increase, however, is not spatially uniform. Observations and models have found that changes in rainfall show patterns characterized as 'wet-gets-wetter' and 'warmer-gets-wetter'. These changes in precipitation are largely located in the tropics and hence are probably associated with convection. However, the underlying physical processes for the observed changes are not entirely clear. Here we show from observations that most of the regional increase in tropical precipitation is associated with changes in the frequency of organized deep convection. By assessing the contributions of various convective regimes to precipitation, we find that the spatial patterns of change in the frequency of organized deep convection are strongly correlated with observed change in rainfall, both positive and negative (correlation of 0.69), and can explain most of the patterns of increase in rainfall. In contrast, changes in less organized forms of deep convection or changes in precipitation within organized deep convection contribute less to changes in precipitation. Our results identify organized deep convection as the link between changes in rainfall and in the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere, thus providing a framework for obtaining a better understanding of changes in rainfall. Given the lack of a distinction between the different degrees of organization of convection in climate models, our results highlight an area of priority for future climate model development in order to achieve accurate rainfall projections in a warming climate. PMID:25810207

  12. Removal of volatile organic compounds at extreme shock-loading using a scaled-up pilot rotating drum biofilter.

    PubMed

    Sawvel, Russell A; Kim, Byung; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2008-11-01

    A pilot-scale rotating drum biofilter (RDB), which is a novel biofilter design that offers flexible flow-through configurations, was used to treat complex and variable volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, including shock loadings, emanating from paint drying operations at an Army ammunition plant. The RDB was seeded with municipal wastewater activated sludge. Removal efficiencies up to 86% and an elimination capacity of 5.3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) hr(-1) were achieved at a filter-medium contact time of 60 sec. Efficiency increased at higher temperatures that promote higher biological activity, and decreased at lower pH, which dropped down to pH 5.5 possibly as a result of carbon dioxide and volatile fatty acid production and ammonia consumption during VOC degradation. In comparison, other studies have shown that a bench-scale RDB could achieve a removal efficiency of 95% and elimination capacity of 331 g COD m(-3) hr(-1). Sustainable performance of the pilot-scale RDB was challenged by the intermittent nature of painting operations, which typically resulted in 3-day long shutdown periods when bacteria were not fed. This challenge was overcome by adding sucrose (2 g/L weekly) as an auxiliary substrate to sustain metabolic activity during shutdown periods. PMID:19044156

  13. Dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure at high organic loading rates in psychrophilic sequence batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-05-01

    Cow manure with bedding is renewable organic biomass available around the year on dairy farms. Developing efficient and cost-effective psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) processes could contribute to solving farm-related environmental, energy, and manure management problems in cold-climate regions. This study was to increase the organic loading rate (OLR), fed to a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of 27% total solid dairy manure (cow feces and wheat straw) in sequence batch reactor (PDAD-SBR), by 133 to 160%. The PDAD-SBR process operated at treatment cycle length of 21 days and OLR of 7.0 and 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) (5.2 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.0 g volatile solids (VS) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1)) for four successive cycles (84 days) produced average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 147.1 ± 17.2 and 143.2 ± 11.7 normalized liters (NL) CH4 kg(-1) VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.45 at OLR of 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. The VS removal averaged around 57.4 ± 0.5 and 60.5 ± 5.7% at OLR 7.0 and 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1), respectively. PMID:25773978

  14. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Rahmani, Arshad H; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML) mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox) or etoposide (ETP) were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98%) in liposomes (Lip) prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP)-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the groups of mice treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). PMID:25926730

  15. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket.

    PubMed

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria; Krämer, Heiko; Rückerl, Dominik; Söderhäll, J Arvid; Gupta, Shashank; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Kühne, Ronald; Freund, Christian; Jung, Günther; Falk, Kirsten; Rötzschke, Olaf

    2006-12-15

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are a key element of the cellular immune response. Encoded by the MHC they are a family of highly polymorphic peptide receptors presenting peptide antigens for the surveillance by T cells. We have shown that certain organic compounds can amplify immune responses by catalyzing the peptide loading of human class II MHC molecules HLA-DR. Here we show now that they achieve this by interacting with a defined binding site of the HLA-DR peptide receptor. Screening of a compound library revealed a set of adamantane derivatives that strongly accelerated the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce allergic or autoimmune reactions in an allele-selective manner. PMID:17005558

  16. Anaerobic digester foaming in full-scale cylindrical digesters--effects of organic loading rate, feed characteristics, and mixing.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bhargavi; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2014-05-01

    Cylindrical anaerobic digesters (AD) were investigated to determine the causes and contributors of AD foaming due to the following: organic loading rate (OLR) and mixing effects, waste activated sludge (WAS) storage effects and foam suppression mixing at the surface of AD, and the effects of primary sludge (PS) solids fraction in the feed sludge. No foaming was observed over the duration of the study, indicating absence of a primary foaming cause even though the suspected contributors to AD foaming were present. Total solids and temperature profiles showed that reducing mixing frequency did not significantly impact digester performance or the homogeneity of the digester contents. The results showed that high organic loading rates, reduced mixing, and feed sludge storage by themselves do not cause foaming in most ADs when the primary foaming cause is absent. Reduced mixing and surface sludge sprays are practical strategies to control AD foaming. PMID:24650532

  17. Inhibition of BACH1 (FANCJ) helicase by backbone discontinuity is overcome by increased motor ATPase or length of loading strand

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rigu; Sharma, Sudha; Doherty, Kevin M.; Sommers, Joshua A.; Cantor, Sharon B.; Brosh, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The BRCA1 associated C-terminal helicase (BACH1) associated with breast cancer has been implicated in double strand break (DSB) repair. More recently, BACH1 (FANCJ) has been genetically linked to the chromosomal instability disorder Fanconi Anemia (FA). Understanding the roles of BACH1 in cellular DNA metabolism and how BACH1 dysfunction leads to tumorigenesis requires a comprehensive investigation of its catalytic mechanism and molecular functions in DNA repair. In this study, we have determined that BACH1 helicase contacts with both the translocating and the non-translocating strands of the duplex are critical for its ability to track along the sugar phosphate backbone and unwind dsDNA. An increased motor ATPase of a BACH1 helicase domain variant (M299I) enabled the helicase to unwind the backbone-modified DNA substrate in a more proficient manner. Alternatively, increasing the length of the 5′ tail of the DNA substrate allowed BACH1 to overcome the backbone discontinuity, suggesting that BACH1 loading mechanism is critical for its ability to unwind damaged DNA molecules. PMID:17145708

  18. Increased zinc and copper availability in organic waste amended soil potentially involving distinct release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tella, Marie; Bravin, Matthieu N; Thuriès, Laurent; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Collin, Blanche; Chaurand, Perrine; Legros, Samuel; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining the fate of trace elements (TE) following soil organic waste (OW) application. We used a unique combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses, to determine TE speciation, with incubation experiments for in situ monitoring of TE availability patterns over a time course with the technique of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). We showed that copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) availability were both increased in OW-amended soil, but their release was controlled by distinct mechanisms. Zn speciation in OW was found to be dominated by an inorganic species, i.e. Zn sorbed on Fe oxides. Zn desorption from Fe oxides could explain the increase in Zn availability in OW-amended soil. Cu speciation in OW was dominated by organic species. Cu release through the mineralization of organic carbon from OW was responsible for the increase in Cu availability. PMID:26854699

  19. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  20. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sharon S.; Tusch, Erich S.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models. PMID:27536226

  1. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sharon S; Tusch, Erich S; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models. PMID:27536226

  2. Increased Fluvial Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes over 130 Years of Land-Use Change in the Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noacco, V.; Howden, N. J. K.; Wagener, T.; Worrall, F.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates drivers of changing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in the UK's River Thames basin between 1881 and 2011. Specifically, we consider how impacts of land-use change drive increases in DOC concentrations and fluxes at the basin outlet. First, we estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in the Thames basin for the period. Second, SOC losses due to land-use change are partitioned into DOC lost to surface waters through runoff, DOC leached into deeper soils and groundwater, and losses to the atmosphere as CO2. SOC stocks for each year are calculated from a large database of typical SOC levels for land-uses present in the Thames basin and are combined with literature values of transition times for SOC to adjust to a new level following land-use change. We also account for climate change effects on SOC stock due to temperature increases, which reduces SOC stocks as soil organic matter turnover rates increase. Soil carbon fluxes are calculated as the inter-annual change in SOC. We use a 130 year record of DOC concentration in the Thames, and parameters from previous long-term nitrate modeling, to constrain estimates of fluvial DOC rises caused by SOC losses. We developed a sewage model to evaluate the relative contribution of point and diffuse sources to the total DOC flux. The results show that sewage effluent point sources do not contribute to DOC concentration at the monitoring point, except for isolated periods of exceptionally low flow. Our work shows for the majority of years, diffuse sources are the main contributor to annual DOC loads. Moreover even though there are many small inter-annual variations in DOC concentration, the major change in both estimated SOC storage and fluvial DOC export occurred during WWII due to substantial changes in land-use, the legacy of which continues to date.

  3. Processes leading to increased soil organic carbon in a Mojave Desert ecosystem under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, A.; Evans, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    We observed increased soil organic carbon (SOC) following ten years of elevated atmospheric CO2 treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility in the Mojave Desert. Physical and chemical fractions of surface soils collected under the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata (Larrea), and plant interspace were analyzed for particle size, plant-derived n-alkanes, microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) to explore potential mechanisms causing the observed increase in SOC. SOC concentrations under Larrea in bulk soils, coarse particulate organic matter (POM), fine POM and mineral-bound soil organic matter (SOM) under elevated CO2 were greater than those under ambient CO2 by 34%, 45%, 26% and 20%, respectively. Under Larrea, n-alkane concentrations were 52% greater under elevated compared to ambient CO2. Such increases in coarse POM and n-alkane concentrations suggest litter input from Larrea was at least one source for increased SOC under elevated CO2. While there was no significant difference in PLFA abundance between the CO2 treatments, elevated CO2 significantly increased the fungi to bacterial PLFA ratio. In addition, fungal and bacterial NLFA and NLFA 16:1ω5, a biomarker of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2. These observations plus others suggest that Larrea allocated more photosynthate belowground to increased root exudation rather than increased fine root growth under elevated CO2. Thus, increased root exudates and microbial residues as well as episodic increases in litter input from Larrea are mechanisms behind the increased SOC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 did not increase SOC in surface soils in plant interspace despite incorporation of CO2 labeled with 13C under elevated CO2.

  4. Increasing Text Comprehension and Graphic Note Taking Using a Partial Graphic Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel H.; Katayama, Andrew D.; Beth, Alicia; Odom, Susan; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Vanderveen, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    In 3 quasi-experiments using intact classrooms and 1 true experiment using random assignment, students completed partially complete graphic organizers (GOs) or studied complete GOs that covered course content. The partial task led to increased overall examination performance in all experiments. Also, the authors measured students' note-taking…

  5. Does Accelerated Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in the Presence of Plants Increase Plant N Availability?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant roots can increase microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition via rhizosphere priming effects. It is virtually unknown how differences in the priming effect among plant species and soil type affect N mineralization and plant uptake. In a greenhouse experiment, we tested whe...

  6. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  7. "Project ACTS": An Intervention to Increase Organ and Tissue Donation Intentions among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…

  8. ON THE EXISTENCE OF A FACTOR INCREASING TISSUE PERMEABILITY IN ORGANS OTHER THAN TESTICLE

    PubMed Central

    Claude, Albert; Duran-Reynals, F.

    1934-01-01

    Many of the organs from animals of both sexes, including the ovary, have been found to contain in various proportion a factor or factors increasing tissue permeability. The potency exhibited by such active extracts was always less than that of extracts from testicle. Blood serum was found to be devoid of any spreading property. PMID:19870315

  9. Maternal Dietary Loads of Alpha-Tocopherol Increase Synapse Density and Glial Synaptic Coverage in the Hippocampus of Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Salucci, S.; Ambrogini, P.; Lattanzi, D.; Betti, M.; Gobbi, P.; Galati, C.; Galli, F.; Cuppini, R.; Minelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Gliasynapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses) was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional Tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant gliasynapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning. PMID:24998923

  10. Influence of Organic Load on Biohydrogen Production in an AnSBBR Treating Glucose-Based Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Souza, L P; Lullio, T G; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2015-06-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with immobilized biomass (AnSBBR) was applied to the production of biohydrogen treating a glucose-based wastewater. The influence of the applied volumetric organic load was studied by varying the concentration of influent at 3600 and 5250 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) and cycle lengths of 4, 3, and 2 h resulting in volumetric organic loads of 10.5 to 31.1 g COD L(-1). The results revealed system stability in the production of biohydrogen and substrate consumption. The best performance was an organic removal (COD) of 24 % and carbohydrate removal (glucose) of 99 %. Volumetric and specific molar productivity were 60.9 mol H2 m(-3) day(-1) and 5.8 mol H2 kg SVT(-1) day(-1) (biogas containing 40 % H2 and no CH4) at 20.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (5250 mg COD L(-1) and 3 h). The yield between produced hydrogen and removed organic matter in terms of carbohydrates was 0.94 mol H2 Mol GLU(-1) (biogas containing 52 % H2 and no CH4) at 10.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (3600 mg COD L(-1) and 4 h), corresponding to 23 and 47 % of the theoretical values of the acetic and butyric acid metabolic routes, respectively. Metabolites present at significant amounts were ethanol, acetic acid, and butyric acid. The conditions with higher influent concentration and intermediate cycle length, and the condition with lower influent concentration and longer cycle showed the best results in terms of productivity and yield, respectively. This indicates that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the biogas production, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter also involves substrate consumption. PMID:25900436