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Decreased treatment times with aerosolized iloprost following increase in power levels for the I-neb Adaptive Aerosol Delivery (AAD) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The I-neb AAD System (I-neb) is the 3 rd generation AAD System following HaloLite and Prodose. We compared in vitro iloprost output rates, treatment times, MMADs for the three generations of AAD Systems (I-neb, power levels 6, 10 and 15). A breathing simulator was used to measure output rates, treatment times; an impactor setup for determination of MMADs. Mean

Robert Van Dyke; Kurt Nikander


Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain.  


Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. PMID:24602440

Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami



Evaluation of the Implementation of a Rapid Response Treatment Protocol for Patients with Acute Onset Stroke: Can We Increase the Number of Patients Treated and Shorten the Time Needed?  

PubMed Central

Aims This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a rapid response treatment protocol for patients presenting with acute onset ischemic stroke. Improvements of routines surrounding the admission and treatment of patients with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), such as door-to-needle (DTN) times, and increasing the numbers of patients treated are discussed. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 320) treated with IVT for acute onset ischemic stroke at the Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, between 2003 and 2012. In 2009, a succession of changes to pre- and intra-hospital routines were made as well as an improvement in the education of primary health care physicians, nurses and paramedics involved in the treatment of acute onset stroke patients (rapid response treatment protocol). Analyses of DTN times, onset-to-needle times and the number of patients treated per year were carried out to ascertain the effect of the changes made. The primary aim was to analyze DTN times to look for any changes, and the secondary aim was to analyze changes in the number of patients treated per year. Results In the years after the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol, we saw an improvement in the median DTN time with a decrease from 73 to 50 min in the first year (p = 0.03), a decrease of 45 min in the second year (p = 0.01) and a decrease of 31 min in the third year (p < 0.001). Similarly, an improvement in the number of patients treated per year was seen after enhancements in the treatment chain were made. A significant, 27-fold increase was shown when the number of patients treated in 2012 was compared with all patients treated in all years prior to the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol. Conclusions The implementation of the rapid treatment protocol for acute onset ischemic stroke patients led to a significant decrease in the DTN time at our center. These improvements also produced an increase in the number of patients treated per year. The extension of the therapeutic window from 3 to 4.5 h for the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator also played a role in the increased treatment numbers.

Advani, Rajiv; Naess, Halvor; Kurz, Martin W.



Does debt market timing increase firm value?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey evidence indicates that firm managers try to time debt markets when choosing the maturity of new debt issues, but we do not know whether these strategies increase firm value. This research examines differences in value across nontimers and timers, where timers are defined as firms that follow either a naïve strategy of choosing long-term debt when the term premium

Kyojik Song



The increasing efficacy of breast cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women and although identification of this multi-system disease has increased, the survival rates have not dramatically altered over the past four decades. Optimium treatment of patients with breast cancer is a subject of great debate and traditionally may be divided into surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone manipulation.Halsted's radical mastectomy, although initially superseded by

A. Gordon



Human Cortical Excitability Increases with Time Awake  

PubMed Central

Prolonged wakefulness is associated not only with obvious changes in the way we feel and perform but also with well-known clinical effects, such as increased susceptibility to seizures, to hallucinations, and relief of depressive symptoms. These clinical effects suggest that prolonged wakefulness may be associated with significant changes in the state of cortical circuits. While recent animal experiments have reported a progressive increase of cortical excitability with time awake, no conclusive evidence could be gathered in humans. In this study, we combine transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor cortical excitability in healthy individuals as a function of time awake. We observed that the excitability of the human frontal cortex, measured as the immediate (0–20 ms) EEG reaction to TMS, progressively increases with time awake, from morning to evening and after one night of total sleep deprivation, and that it decreases after recovery sleep. By continuously monitoring vigilance, we also found that this modulation in cortical responsiveness is tonic and not attributable to transient fluctuations of the level of arousal. The present results provide noninvasive electrophysiological evidence that wakefulness is associated with a steady increase in the excitability of human cortical circuits that is rebalanced during sleep.

Huber, Reto; Maki, Hanna; Rosanova, Mario; Casarotto, Silvia; Canali, Paola; Casali, Adenauer G.; Tononi, Giulio



Wait Time for Treatment in Hospital Emergency Departments: 2009  


... NCHS Data Brief Number 102, August 2012 Wait Time for Treatment in Hospital Emergency Departments: 2009 On ... emergency department crowding, ambulance diversion, boarding Has wait time for treatment in EDs increased? Between 2003 and ...


Circadian timing in cancer treatments.  


The circadian timing system is composed of molecular clocks, which drive 24-h changes in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, cell cycle events, DNA repair, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. The cellular circadian clocks are coordinated by endogenous physiological rhythms, so that they tick in synchrony in the host tissues that can be damaged by anticancer agents. As a result, circadian timing can modify 2- to 10-fold the tolerability of anticancer medications in experimental models and in cancer patients. Improved efficacy is also seen when drugs are given near their respective times of best tolerability, due to (a) inherently poor circadian entrainment of tumors and (b) persistent circadian entrainment of healthy tissues. Conversely, host clocks are disrupted whenever anticancer drugs are administered at their most toxic time. On the other hand, circadian disruption accelerates experimental and clinical cancer processes. Gender, circadian physiology, clock genes, and cell cycle critically affect outcome on cancer chronotherapeutics. Mathematical and systems biology approaches currently develop and integrate theoretical, experimental, and technological tools in order to further optimize and personalize the circadian administration of cancer treatments. PMID:20055686

Lévi, Francis; Okyar, Alper; Dulong, Sandrine; Innominato, Pasquale F; Clairambault, Jean



Maternal Baicalin Treatment Increases Fetal Lung Surfactant Phospholipids in Rats  

PubMed Central

Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to stimulate surfactant protein (SP)-A gene expression in human lung epithelial cell lines (H441). The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal baicalin treatment could increase lung surfactant production and induce lung maturation in fetal rats. This study was performed with timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. One-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Day 18 of gestation. Two-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were injected with vehicle alone on Day 18 of gestation. On Day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Maternal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased saturated phospholipid when compared with control group and total phospholipid in fetal lung tissue when compared with control and 1-day baicalin groups. Antenatal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased maternal growth hormone when compared with control group. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA expression and maternal serum corticosterone levels were comparable among the three experimental groups. Maternal baicalin treatment increases pulmonary surfactant phospholipids of fetal rat lungs and the improvement was associated with increased maternal serum growth hormone. These results suggest that antenatal baicalin treatment might accelerate fetal rat lung maturation.

Chen, Chung-Ming; Wang, Leng-Fang; Cheng, Kur-Ta



Consensus on Increasing Learning Time Builds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five years ago, the still-resonant report "A Nation at Risk" urged schools to add more time--an hour to the usual six hour day and 20-40 days to the typical 180-day ear--to ward off a "rising tide of mediocrity" in American education. Today, city, school, state, and national leaders are engaged in a renewed effort to do just that. Under…

Gewertz, Catherine



Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures  

PubMed Central

Background Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as identify other surgical risk factors. Methods We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution’s level I trauma center during a recent five year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Results Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8 hours vs. 2.2 hours in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, p<0.0001). In the bicolumnar fracture group, use of dual-incision medial and lateral plating as compared to single incision lateral locked plating had statistically similar infection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, p<0.001) as independent predictors of surgical site infection. Conclusions Operative times approaching three hours and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches.

Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan



Pedestrian Timing Treatment for Coordinated Signal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedestrian timing has always been one of the major issues while developing signal timing plans for coordinated signal systems. There are two alternative treatments on pedestrian timings: timing based on pedestrian minimums where the required pedestrian crossing times are accommodated in the signal phase splits, and timing based on vehicle minimums where the phase splits are determined only based on

Zong Z. Tian; Tom Urbanik; Kent K. Kacir; Mark A. Vandehey; Howard Long


Increasing Time to Baccalaureate Degree in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time to completion of the baccalaureate degree has increased markedly in the United States over the past three decades. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 and the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, we show that the increase in time to degree is localized among those who begin their…

Bound, John; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Turner, Sarah



Reconsidering the Temporal Increase in Fathers’ Time with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 1977 Quality of Employment Survey and the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce this study showed that the temporal increase in fathers’ time with children was three times larger on non-workdays than workdays.\\u000a Multivariate analyses revealed that both work (e.g., job autonomy) and family (presence of young children, dependence on wives’\\u000a earnings) factors increased men’s time with

David J. Maume



Therapeutic recreation treatment time during inpatient rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Objective Following spinal cord injury (SCI), certified therapeutic recreation specialists (CTRSs) work with patients during rehabilitation to re-create leisure lifestyles. Although there is much literature available to describe the benefits of recreation, little has been written about the process of inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation therapeutic recreation (TR) programs or the effectiveness of such programs. To delineate how TR time is used during inpatient rehabilitation for SCI. Methods Six rehabilitation centers enrolled 600 patients with traumatic SCI for an observational study. CTRSs documented time spent on each of a set of specific TR activities during each patient encounter. Patterns of time use are described, for all patients and by neurologic category. Ordinary least-squares stepwise regression models are used to identify patient and injury characteristics predictive of total treatment time (overall and average per week) and time spent in TR activities. Results Ninety-four percent of patients enrolled in the SCIRehab study participated in TR. Patients received a mean total of 17.5 hours of TR; significant differences were seen in the amount of time spent in each activity among and within neurologic groups. The majority (76%) of patients participated in at least one structured therapeutic outing. Patient and injury characteristics explained little of the variation in time spent within activities. Conclusion The large amount of variability seen in TR treatment time within and among injury group categories, which is not explained well by patient and injury characteristics, sets the stage for future analyses to associate treatments with outcomes.

Gassaway, Julie; Dijkers, Marcel; Rider, Cecelia; Edens, Kelly; Cahow, Claire; Joyce, Joan



Long term myriocin treatment increases MRP1 transport activity  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of myriocin treatment, which extensively depletes sphingolipids from cells, on multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1) efflux activity in MRP1 expressing cells and isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Our data reveal that both short term (3 days) and long term (7 days) treatment effectively reduce the cellular sphingolipid content to the same level. Intriguingly, a two-fold increase in MRP1-mediated efflux activity was observed following long term treatment, while short term treatment had no impact. Very similar data were obtained with plasma membrane vesicles isolated from myriocin-treated cells. Exploiting the cell-free vesicle system, Michaelis–Menten analysis revealed that the intrinsic MRP1 activity remained unaltered; however, the fraction of active transporter molecules increased. We demonstrate that the latter effect is due to an enhanced recruitment of MRP1 into lipid raft fractions, thereby promoting MRP1 activity.

Meszaros, Peter; Klappe, Karin; van Dam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan W.



Oestrogen treatment for increased bleeding in Norplant users: preliminary results.  


A clinical study was conducted to assess the effects of oestrogen in controlling increased endometrial bleeding problems in the first year of Norplant use. Three treatment groups were studied: (i) 50 micrograms ethinyl oestradiol (EE); (ii) a combined pill containing 30 micrograms EE and 150 micrograms levonorgestrel (LNG); and (iii) placebo. Based on menstrual diary records, women with prolonged, frequent or irregular bleeding, as defined by World Health Organization criteria, were randomly allocated to one treatment for 21 days. A first endometrial biopsy was taken before commencing treatment and a second biopsy at either day 14 or 21 of treatment. Following treatment, all subjects kept a menstrual diary card for 90 days. In this preliminary study, 48 subjects had completed the full 90 day post-treatment record. Within 21 days of EE treatment, the number of bleeding/spotting days was reduced significantly (P < 0.02). In the 90 days following treatment, the administration of EE and EE + LNG significantly decreased the number of bleeding/spotting days (P < 0.05). There was no reduction in the number of bleeding/spotting episodes in the EE and EE + LNG groups, but the length of each bleeding/spotting episode was significantly shorter (P < 0.05). Histopathological findings of endometrium on day 0 revealed consistent progestogenic effects, and there was no apparent change in response by day 14 or 21 of EE or EE + LNG treatment. The results of this study confirm the clinical effectiveness of EE and EE + LNG for the treatment of irregular, frequent and prolonged bleeding in Norplant users. PMID:8982752

Witjaksono, J; Lau, T M; Affandi, B; Rogers, P A



Explosive evolutionary radiations: decreasing speciation or increasing extinction through time?  


A common pattern in time-calibrated molecular phylogenies is a signal of rapid diversification early in the history of a radiation. Because the net rate of diversification is the difference between speciation and extinction rates, such "explosive-early" diversification could result either from temporally declining speciation rates or from increasing extinction rates through time. Distinguishing between these alternatives is challenging but important, because these processes likely result from different ecological drivers of diversification. Here we develop a method for estimating speciation and extinction rates that vary continuously through time. By applying this approach to real phylogenies with explosive-early diversification and by modeling features of lineage-accumulation curves under both declining speciation and increasing extinction scenarios, we show that a signal of explosive-early diversification in phylogenies of extant taxa cannot result from increasing extinction and can only be explained by temporally declining speciation rates. Moreover, whenever extinction rates are high, "explosive early" patterns become unobservable, because high extinction quickly erases the signature of even large declines in speciation rates. Although extinction may obscure patterns of evolutionary diversification, these results show that decreasing speciation is often distinguishable from increasing extinction in the numerous molecular phylogenies of radiations that retain a preponderance of early lineages. PMID:18452577

Rabosky, Daniel L; Lovette, Irby J



Increased Timing Variability in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that impaired time perception and the neural circuitry underlying internal timing mechanisms may contribute to severe psychiatric disorders, including psychotic and mood disorders. The degree to which alterations in temporal perceptions reflect deficits that exist across psychosis-related phenotypes and the extent to which mood symptoms contribute to these deficits is currently unknown. In addition, compared to schizophrenia, where timing deficits have been more extensively investigated, sub-second timing has been studied relatively infrequently in bipolar disorder. The present study compared sub-second duration estimates of schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SA), non-psychotic bipolar disorder (BDNP), bipolar disorder with psychotic features (BDP), and healthy non-psychiatric controls (HC) on a well-established time perception task using sub-second durations. Participants included 66 SZ, 37 BDNP, 34 BDP, 31 SA, and 73 HC who participated in a temporal bisection task that required temporal judgements about auditory durations ranging from 300 to 600 milliseconds. Timing variability was significantly higher in SZ, BDP, and BDNP groups compared to healthy controls. The bisection point did not differ across groups. These findings suggest that both psychotic and mood symptoms may be associated with disruptions in internal timing mechanisms. Yet unexpected findings emerged. Specifically, the BDNP group had significantly increased variability compared to controls, but the SA group did not. In addition, these deficits appeared to exist independent of current symptom status. The absence of between group differences in bisection point suggests that increased variability in the SZ and bipolar disorder groups are due to alterations in perceptual timing in the sub-second range, possibly mediated by the cerebellum, rather than cognitive deficits.

Bolbecker, Amanda R.; Westfall, Daniel R.; Howell, Josselyn M.; Lackner, Ryan J.; Carroll, Christine A.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Hetrick, William P.



Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods  


Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.



Time is tight: how higher economic value of time increases feelings of time pressure.  


The common heuristic association between scarcity and value implies that more valuable things appear scarcer (King, Hicks, & Abdelkhalik, 2009), an effect we show applies to time as well. In a series of studies, we found that both income and wealth, which affect the economic value of time, influence perceived time pressure. Study 1 found that changes in income were associated with changes in perceived time pressure. Studies 2-4 showed that experimentally manipulating time's perceived economic value caused greater feelings of time pressure and less patient behavior. Finally, Study 5 demonstrated that the relationship between income and time pressure was strengthened when participants were randomly assigned to think about the precise economic value of their time. PMID:21244125

DeVoe, Sanford E; Pfeffer, Jeffrey



False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.  


Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed. PMID:22963741

Sherman, Susan M



Model Predictive Control of HIFU Treatments in 3D for Treatment Time Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real time model predictive feedback controller has been integrated with a combined Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanner and 256-element ultrasound phased array system to improve High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatments. The objective of this research is to use a model based feedback controller to improve the quality of HIFU treatments by adjusting the power, heating time and cooling time of each applied pulse based on the measured MR temperatures. A prototype controller has been evaluated in simulations and agar phantom experiments. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed real time MR control, including a 65% reduction in treatment time, and increase dose uniformity in the treatment volume with all normal tissue safety constraints satisfied.

Blankespoor, A.; Payne, A.; Todd, N.; Skliar, M.; Roell, S.; Roland, J.; Parker, D.; Roemer, R.



Increased commuting to school time reduces sleep duration in adolescents.  


Active travel to school has been referred to as one way of increasing the level of daily physical exercise, but the actual impacts on student's general health are not clear. Recently, a possible association between active travel to school and the duration of sleep was suggested. Thus, the aim was of this study to investigate the associations between the type of transportation and travel time to school, the time in bed and sleepiness in the classroom of high school students. Information on sleeping habits and travel to school of 1126 high school students were analyzed, where 55.1% were girls with an average age of 16.24 (1.39) years old, in Santa Maria Municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Multiple linear regression and adjusted prevalence rates analyses were carried out. The frequency of active travel found was 61.8%. Associations between time in bed, sleepiness in the classroom and the type of transportation (active or passive) were not identified. Nevertheless, the time in bed was inversely associated with the travel time (p?=?0.036) and with a phase delay. In the adjusted analysis, active travel was more incident for the students of schools in the suburbs (PR: 1.68; CI: 1.40-2.01) in comparison with the students of schools in the center. Therefore, longer trips were associated with a reduction of sleep duration of morning and night groups. Interventions concerning active travel to school must be carried out cautiously in order not to cause a reduction of the sleeping time. PMID:24152062

Pereira, Erico Felden; Moreno, Claudia; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli



Increased Constrictor Tone Induced by Ouabain-Treatment in Rats  

PubMed Central

Ouabain-induced hypertension in rodents provides a model to study cardiovascular changes associated with human hypertension. We examined vascular function in rats after long-term treatment with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ouabain (Oua, ~25 ?g·day?1) or placebo for 8 weeks. Blood pressure increased in ouabain-treated animals, reaching 30% above baseline SBP after 7 weeks. At the end of treatment, vascular responses were studied in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) by wire myography. Contraction to potassium chloride (KCl) in intact and denuded arteries showed greater sensitivity in Oua-treated animals. Contraction to phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) were similar between groups with a lower response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in Oua-treated arteries. Sensitivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1) was higher in Oua-treated arteries. Na+-K+ ATPase activity was decreased in MRA from Oua-treated animals, whereas protein expression of the Na+-K+-ATPase ?2 isoform was increased in heart and unchanged in mesenteric artery. Pre-incubation with indomethacin (10?5M) or L-NAME (10?4M) abolished the differences in KCl response and Na+-K+ ATPase activity. Changes in MRA are consistent with enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity, a contributor to the increased vascular tone observed in this model of hypertension.

Pulgar, Victor M.; Jeffers, Anne B.; Rashad, Hanadi M.; Diz, Debra I.; Aileru, Azeez A.



Increased constrictor tone induced by ouabain treatment in rats.  


Ouabain (Oua)-induced hypertension in rodents provides a model to study cardiovascular changes associated with human hypertension. We examined vascular function in rats after a long-term treatment with Oua. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with Oua (? 25 µg/d) or placebo for 8 weeks. Blood pressure increased in Oua-treated animals, reaching 30% above baseline systolic blood pressure after 7 weeks. At the end of treatment, vascular responses were studied in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) by wire myography. Contraction to potassium chloride in intact and denuded arteries showed greater sensitivity in Oua-treated animals. Contraction to phenylephrine and relaxation to acetylcholine were similar between groups with a lower response to sodium nitroprusside in Oua-treated arteries. Sensitivity to endothelin-1 was higher in Oua-treated arteries. Na?-K? ATPase activity was decreased in MRAs from Oua-treated animals, whereas protein expression of the Na?-K? ATPase ?? isoform was increased in heart and unchanged in mesenteric artery. Preincubation with indomethacin (10?? M) or N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10?? M) abolished the differences in potassium chloride response and Na?-K? ATPase activity. Changes in MRAs are consistent with enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity, a contributor to the increased vascular tone observed in this model of hypertension. PMID:23615157

Pulgar, Victor M; Jeffers, Anne B; Rashad, Hanadi M; Diz, Debra I; Aileru, Azeez A



Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells and thus to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has been attracting increasing interest in recent years. A great deal of effort has been made to better understand and predict the progression to cancer using mathematical models; these mostly consider the evolution of a well-mixed cell population, even though pre-cancerous cells often evolve in highly structured epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to assess two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other. We find that in the presence of clonal interference, spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer, leads to a patchwork structure of non-uniformly sized clones and decreases the survival probability of virtually neutral (passenger) mutations, and that genetic distance begins to increase over a characteristic length scale Lc. These characteristic features of clonal interference may help us to predict the onset of cancers with pronounced spatial structure and to interpret spatially sampled genetic data obtained from biopsies. Our estimates suggest that clonal interference likely occurs in the progression of colon cancer and possibly other cancers where spatial structure matters.

Martens, Erik A.; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C.; Hallatschek, Oskar



Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer.  


Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes which lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells, and thus, to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has been experiencing increasing interest in recent years. Many efforts have been made to better understand and predict the progression to cancer using mathematical models; these mostly consider the evolution of a well-mixed cell population, even though pre-cancerous cells often evolve in highly structured epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to assess two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other. We find that in the presence of clonal interference, spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer, leads to a patchwork structure of non-uniformly sized clones, decreases the survival probability of virtually neutral (passenger) mutations, and that genetic distance begins to increase over a characteristic length scale L(c). These characteristic features of clonal interference may help to predict the onset of cancers with pronounced spatial structure and to interpret spatially-sampled genetic data obtained from biopsies. Our estimates suggest that clonal interference likely occurs in the progression of colon cancer, and possibly other cancers where spatial structure matters. PMID:22707911

Martens, Erik A; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C; Hallatschek, Oskar



Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes which lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells, and thus, to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has been experiencing increasing interest in recent years. Many efforts have been made to better understand and predict the progression to cancer using mathematical models; these mostly consider the evolution of a well-mixed cell population, even though pre-cancerous cells often evolve in highly structured epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to assess two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other. We find that in the presence of clonal interference, spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer, leads to a patchwork structure of non-uniformly sized clones, decreases the survival probability of virtually neutral (passenger) mutations, and that genetic distance begins to increase over a characteristic length scale Lc. These characteristic features of clonal interference may help to predict the onset of cancers with pronounced spatial structure and to interpret spatially-sampled genetic data obtained from biopsies. Our estimates suggest that clonal interference likely occurs in the progression of colon cancer, and possibly other cancers where spatial structure matters.

Martens, Erik A.; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C.; Hallatschek, Oskar



Orthodontic treatment practices in Finnish municipal health centres with differing timing of treatment.  


The aim of this study was to compare orthodontic practices in eight Finnish municipal health centres selected on the basis of an earlier survey to represent early and late timing of treatment. The health centres were grouped according to the mean age of starting treatment; earlier versus later than 9 years of age. A random sample of 16 and 18 year olds (n = 2325) living in these municipalities were invited for a clinical examination, and 1109 adolescents participated. The participants reported on their previous or ongoing orthodontic treatment by means of a questionnaire. Data on orthodontic treatment received were collected from the dental files of the adolescents who reported a treatment history and for those who did not recall exactly whether or not they had received orthodontic treatment. Analysis of the non-respondents was made on the basis of their dental files. Differences between the features of orthodontic treatment in the early and late starting health centres were analysed using a two-tailed t-test. In the early group, 70 per cent, and in the late group 42 per cent, of adolescents had a history of orthodontic treatment. General dentists carried out 90 per cent of the treatment in the early group and specialists every third treatment in the late group. An early start resulted in more frequent visits (P = 0.004) and a longer treatment duration (P < 0.001), while later timing resulted in an increase in the number of appliances (P < 0.001). PMID:19276156

Pietilä, I; Pietilä, T; Svedström-Oristo, A-L; Varrela, J; Alanen, P




PubMed Central

Background: Instructional forms of advance care planning depend upon patients' ability to predict their future treatment preferences. However, preferences may change with changes in patients' health states. Methods: We performed in-home interviews with 226 older community-dwelling persons with advanced cancer, congestive heart failure, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at least every four months for up to 2 years. Patients were asked to rate whether treatment for their illness would be acceptable if it resulted in one of four health states. Results: The likelihood of rating as acceptable treatment resulting in mild (OR [95% confidence interval]) (1.11 [1.06, 1.16]) and severe (OR 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]) functional disability increased with each month of participation. Patients who had a decline in their ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living were more likely to rate as acceptable treatment resulting in the states of mild (OR 1.23 [1.08, 1.40]) and severe (OR 1.23 [1.11, 1.37]) disability. Although the overall likelihood of rating treatment resulting in a state of pain as acceptable did not change over time (OR 0.98 [0.96, 1.01]), patients who experienced moderate to severe pain were more likely to rate this treatment as acceptable (OR 2.55 [1.56, 4.19]) than those who did not. Conclusions: For some patients, the acceptability of treatment resulting in certain diminished states of health increases over time, and increased acceptability is more likely among patients experiencing a decline in that same domain. These changes pose a challenge to advance care planning, which asks patients to predict their future treatment preferences.

Fried, Terri R.; Byers, Amy L.; Gallo, William T.; Ness, Peter H. Van; Towle, Virginia R.; O'Leary, John R.; Dubin, Joel A.



Treatment of nasal polyposis in Byzantine times.  


The goal of this study was to describe the therapeutic methods and surgical techniques used during Byzantine times (AD 324-1453) for a disease that has occupied physicians since antiquity: nasal polyps. The original Greek-language texts of the Byzantine medical writers, most of which were published after the 17th century, were studied in order to identify the early knowledge of the definition, symptoms, conservative treatments, and surgical intervention in cases of this disease. A considerable number of conservative treatments, etiologic and local (with inunctions or blowing of caustic substances), with evident influence from Roman medicine, were identified even in the early Byzantine medical texts (4th century). Further, some surgical techniques were described that seem to constitute evolution of the Hippocratic tradition. From the study of the original texts of Byzantine medical writers, their interest in the rhinological diseases is evident; in the case of nasal polyps, new techniques were mentioned. The first meticulous intranasal surgical removal of polyps was described. These techniques, obviously developed during the Hellenistic period, initially influenced European medicine and later the rest of the world. PMID:11007093

Lascaratos, J G; Segas, J V; Assimakopoulos, D A



Does Cognitive Function Increase over Time in the Healthy Elderly?  

PubMed Central

Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ? 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ? 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults.

de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sebastien



Time-multiplexed beamforming for noninvasive microwave hyperthermia treatment.  


A noninvasive microwave beamforming strategy is proposed for selective localized heating of biological tissue. The proposed technique is based on time multiplexing of multiple beamformers. We investigate the effectiveness of the time-multiplexed beamforming in the context of brain hyperthermia treatment by using a high-fidelity numerical head phantom of an adult female from the Virtual Family (IT'IS Foundation) as our testbed. An operating frequency of 1 GHz is considered to balance the improved treatment resolution afforded by higher frequencies against the increased penetration through the brain afforded by lower frequencies. The exact head geometry and dielectric properties of biological tissues in the head are assumed to be available for the creation of patient-specific propagation models used in beamformer design. Electromagnetic and thermal simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain method are used to evaluate the hyperthermia performance of time-multiplexed beamforming and conventional beamforming strategies. The proposed time-multiplexing technique is shown to reduce the unintended heating of healthy tissue without affecting the treatment temperature or volume. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated for target locations in three different regions of the brain. This approach has the potential to improve microwave-induced localized heating for cancer treatment via hyperthermia or heat-activated chemotherapeutic drug release. PMID:21216700

Zastrow, Earl; Hagness, Susan C; Van Veen, Barry D; Medow, Joshua E



Increasing biogas production by thermal (70 °C) sludge pre-treatment prior to thermophilic anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of a low temperature pre-treatment (70°C) on the efficiency of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary waste sludge. Firstly, effect of sludge pre-treatment time (9, 24, 48 and 72h) was evaluated by the increase in volatile dissolved solids (VDSs), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas production in thermophilic batch

Ivet Ferrer; Sergio Ponsá; Felícitas Vázquez



Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.  


This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. PMID:24886905

Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander



This is an exciting time in the treatment of lymphoma.  


... Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma "This is an exciting time in the treatment of lymphoma." Past Issues / Summer ... best medication for each patient, indicates the best time for treatments, and sheds light on the patient's ...


Interval Diagrams: Increasing Efficiency of Symbolic Real-Time Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we suggest interval diagram techniques for formal verification of real-time systems modeled by means of timed au- tomata. Interval diagram techniques are based on interval deci- sion diagrams (IDDs)—representing sets of system configurations of, e.g., timed automata—and interval mapping diagrams(IMDs)— modeling their transition behavior. IDDs are canonical rep resenta- tions of Boolean functions and allow for their

Karsten Strehl; Timed Automata



Increasing the time resolution of a multichannel scaler.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of an economical buffer unit which will extend the time resolution of a multichannel scaler to better than 100 nsec. The buffered multiscaler produces a system which has negligible dead time between the bins even at the highest resolutions. It is suitable for use in any digital signaling averaging application which meets certain conditions.

Silverberg, E. C.; Steggerda, C. A.



Obesity Increases the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion during Infertility Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examines the relationship between body mass and the risk of spontaneous abortion in a large cohort of patients who received infertility treatment.Research Methods and Procedures: This is a retrospective study using data on pregnancies (n = 2349) achieved after treatment in a tertiary medical center from 1987 to 1999. One pregnancy per subject was included, and the

Jim X. Wang; Michael J. Davies; Robert J. Norman; Jim Wang



Using wastewater for cooling: Increasing water reuse poses treatment challenges  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for control of biofouling, scale, corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems are discussed. Techniques involving water reuse and using wastewater as makeup are emphasized, and associated problems are identified. Appropriate chemical treatments, including biocides and biostats, biodispersants, sludge dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and supplementary chemical treatments, are outlined. New and developing technologies reviewed include microorganism control based on biodispersants and on enzymes.

Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs. International Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)



Response Time Analysis in Cognitive Tasks with Increasing Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, speeded tasks with differing assumed difficulties of the trials are regarded as a special class of simple cognitive tasks. Exploratory latent growth modeling with data-driven shape of a growth curve and nonlinear structured latent curve modeling with predetermined monotonically increasing functions were used to analyze…

Dodonov, Yury S.; Dodonova, Yulia A.



The sine wave protocol: decrease movement time without increasing errors.  


ABSTRACT. Practice tracking a sine wave template has been shown (J. B. Boyle, D. Kennedy, & C. H. Shea, 2012) to greatly enhance performance on a difficult Fitts task of the same amplitude. The purpose of the experiment was to replicate this finding and determine whether enhancements related to the sine wave practice are specific to the amplitude experienced during the sine wave practice. Following sine wave or Fitts task practice with amplitudes of 16° or 24°, participants were tested under the conditions they had practiced under (Test 1) and then all groups were tested under Fitts task conditions (Test 2; ID = 6, amplitude = 16°). Participants who practiced with the sine wave templates were able to move faster on Test 2 where a 16° amplitude Fitts task was used than participants that had practiced either the 16° or 24° amplitude Fitts tasks. The movements produced by the sine groups on Test 2 were not only faster than the movements of the Fitts groups on Test 2, but dwell time was lower with percent time to peak velocity and harmonicity higher for the Sine groups than for the Fitts groups. The decreased movement times for the sine groups on Test 2 were accomplished with hits or endpoint variability similar to that of the Fitts group. PMID:24787616

Boyle, Jason B; Kennedy, Deanna M; Wang, Chaoyi; Shea, Charles H



Influence of choroidal perfusion on retinal temperature increase during retinal laser treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most retinal laser treatments the therapeutic effect is initiated by a transient temperature increase at and around the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Especially in long exposure time treatments like Transpupillary Thermotherapy (TTT) choroidal perfusion has a strong influence on the realized temperature at the fundus. The fundus blood circulation and therefore the heat dissipation is influenced by the intraocular pressure (IOP), which is investigated in the study presented here. In order to reduce the choroidal perfusion, the IOP is increased by injection of physiological saline solution into the eye of anaesthetized rabbits. The fundus is irradiated with 3.64 W/cm2 by means of a TTT-laser (? = 810 nm) for t = 20 s causing a retinal temperature increase. Realtime temperature determination at the irradiated spot is achieved by a non invasive optoacoustic technique. Perfusion can be reduced by increasing IOP, which leads to different temperature increases when irradiating the retina. This should be considered for long time laser treatments.

Herrmann, Katharina; Flöhr, Christian; Stalljohann, Jens; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela; Kandulla, Jochen; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf



Increasing patient adherence to gastroenterology treatment and prevention regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gastroenterology treatments would be minimally effective if patients did not adhere to prescribed therapeutic regimens. However, considerable evidence exists that patients often do not adhere. Factors associated with nonadherence include the physician’s or other health care provider’s behavior, the prescribed regimen, and the illness. These factors affect patient adherence such that: 1) patients do not have the skills or

Rona L Levy; Andrew D Feld



Early postnatal dexamethasone treatment and increased incidence of cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo study the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of children who participated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of early postnatal dexamethasone treatment for prevention of chronic lung disease.METHODSThe original study compared a three day course of dexamethasone (n = 132) with a saline placebo (n = 116) administered from before 12 hours of age in preterm infants, who

E S Shinwell; M Karplus; D Reich; Z Weintraub; S Blazer; D Bader; S Yurman; T Dolfin; A Kogan; S Dollberg; E Arbel; M Goldberg; I Gur; N Naor; L Sirota; S Mogilner; A Zaritsky; M Barak; E Gottfried



Herbst Appliance: The Timing of Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years one of the more challenging and investigated areas of orthodontia is the 'phenomena' of growth stimulation. This 'area' has received increased attention in the last 15 years with regards to the Herbst appliance. The Herbst appliance which ...

K. C. Boyle



Increasing the fatigue limit of a high-strength bearing steel by a deep cryogenic treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-strength steels typically fail from inclusions. Therefore, to increase the fatigue limit of high-strength steels it is necessary to modify the inclusions and/or the surrounding matrix. The goal must be a higher threshold for crack initiation and/or crack propagation. One possibility to reach this goal seems to be a deep cryogenic treatment which is reported to completely transform the retained austenite as well as to facilitate the formation of fine carbides. Therefore, specimens were annealed before or after deep cryogenic treatment, which was carried out with different cooling and heating rates as well as different soaking times at -196° C. Hardness and retained austenite measurements and fatigue experiments were used to evaluate the different sequences of treatments mentioned above. The fatigue limit increases only after some of the sequences. The results show that the soaking times are not relevant for the fatigue limit but it is very important to temper the specimens before the deep cryogenic treatment. Also, repeated deep cryogenic treatments had a positive influence on the fatigue limit.

Kerscher, E.; Lang, K.-H.



Risperidone Treatment Increases CB1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Body weight gain is a common side effect of treatment with antipsychotics, but the mechanisms underlying this weight gain are unknown. Several factors may be involved in antipsychotic-induced body weight gain including the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), the serotonin receptor 2C, the ghrelin receptor, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin and proopiomelanocortin. We investigated whether the expression of these factors was affected

Anna Secher; Henriette Husum; Birgitte Holst; Kristoffer Lihme Egerod; Erling Mellerup



Focus on Increasing Treatment Self-Efficacy to Improve Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment Adherence  

PubMed Central

Purpose Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment self-efficacy is the confidence held by an individual in her or his ability to follow treatment recommendations, including specific HIV care such as initiating and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study was to explore the potential mediating role of treatment adherence self-efficacy in the relationships between Social Cognitive Theory constructs and self- reported ART adherence. Design Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2011 and included 1,414 participants who lived in the United States or Puerto Rico and were taking antiretroviral medications. Methods Social cognitive constructs were tested specifically: behaviors (three adherence measures each consisting of one item about adherence at 3-day and 30-day along with the adherence rating scale), cognitive or personal factors (the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess for depressive symptoms, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) to assess physical functioning, one item about physical condition, one item about comorbidity), environmental influences (the Social Capital Scale, one item about social support), and treatment self-efficacy (HIV Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale). Analysis included descriptive statistics and regression. Results The average participant was 47 years old, male, and a racial or ethnic minority, had an education of high school or less, had barely adequate or totally inadequate income, did not work, had health insurance, and was living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome for 15 years. The model provided support for adherence self-efficacy as a robust predictor of ART adherence behavior, serving a partial mediating role between environmental influences and cognitive or personal factors. Conclusions Although other factors such as depressive symptoms and lack of social capital impact adherence to ART, nurses can focus on increasing treatment self-efficacy through diverse interactional strategies using principles of adult learning and strategies to improve health literacy. Clinical Relevance Adherence to ART reduces the viral load thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality and risk of transmission to uninfected persons. Nurses need to use a variety of strategies to increase treatment self-efficacy.

Nokes, Kathleen; Johnson, Mallory O.; Webel, Allison; Rose, Carol Dawson; Phillips, J. Craig; Sullivan, Kathleen; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Chen, Wei-Ti; Brion, John; Eller, Lucille; Kirksey, Kenn; Wantland, Dean; Portillo, Carmen; Corless, Inge B.; Voss, Joachim; Iipinge, Scholastika; Spellmann, Mark; Holzemer, William L.



Increasing the ductility of martensitic steels by heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The toughness of nickel, stainless, and complex alloyed martensitic steels at room and cryogenic temperatures can be increased by stabilizing 10\\\\2-25% austenite in a dispersed state.2.A large amount of stable austenite can be obtained in Fe\\\\t-Ni, Fe\\\\t-Cr\\\\t-Ni, and other martensitic steels by heating them 30\\\\2-80\\\\dg above the beginning temperature of the reverse transformation for long periods (2\\\\2-3 h).With increasing nickel

V. I. Kozlovskaya; Ya. M. Potak; Yu. F. Orzhekhovskii



Increasing survival time decreases the cost-effectiveness of using "test & treat'' to eliminate HIV epidemics.  


Treating HIV-infected individuals reduces their viral load, consequently increasing their survival time and decreasing their infectivity. It has been proposed that universal testing and treatment (i.e., universal "test & treat'') could lead to HIV elimination and would be extremely cost-effective. It is now being debated whether to use a universal "test & treat'' approach in the "real-world'' as a prevention strategy to control HIV epidemics. However current modeling predictions of the impact, and cost-effectiveness, of universal `"est & treat'' strategies are based on an unrealistically short survival time for treated individuals. Here we use mathematical modeling and a longer, more realistic, survival time. We model the potential impact of a universal "test & treat'' strategy in South Africa. Our results show that increasing the length of the survival time on treatment, although beneficial to individuals, reduces the probability of eliminating HIV and decreases the cost-effectiveness of using universal "test & treat'' strategies. Therefore our results show that individual-level benefits and public health benefits will conflict when using "test &treat'' strategies to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:24245641

Wagner, Bradley G; Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally



Strategies for increasing treatment adherence in bipolar disorder.  


Although bipolar disorder cannot be cured, effective medications are available that can shorten the duration of illness episodes and reduce the rates of relapse. Unfortunately, treatment nonadherence is common among patients with bipolar disorder. Factors contributing to nonadherence vary, and nonadherence can be deliberate or accidental. Strategies to improve medication adherence include forming a strong alliance with patients, educating patients and their caregivers about the disorder and the importance of adherence, simplifying medication regimens, monitoring tolerability and proactively addressing adverse effects, and treating comorbid illnesses. PMID:22401485

Thase, Michael E



Common Prostate Cancer Treatment May Increase Diabetes Risk

Even for just a few months, the use of androgen deprivation therapy to treat men with prostate cancer that hasn't metastasized may significantly increase the risk of diabetes and cardiac-related effects, including heart attack, according to a study in the September 20, 2006, Journal of Clinical Oncology.


Providing Performance Feedback for Teachers to Increase Treatment Fidelity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviewed a method for increasing teachers' use of behavior-specific praise, which is especially important for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. The use of performance feedback has been researched fairly extensively and has yielded positive outcomes when compared with other forms of consultation. This article…

Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.



Treatments to Increase Social Awareness and Social Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is an extensive literature on methods for increasing the social awareness and social skills of people with autism spectrum\\u000a disorders (ASDs) of every diagnostic category and every age. This work varies in research quality from the mediocre to the\\u000a exemplary, although the exemplary are outnumbered by the less rigorous. One reason for the focus on treating social behaviors\\u000a is

Suzannah J. Ferraioli; Sandra L. Harris


Method of increasing hydrocarbon production by remedial well treatment  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for increasing the production of hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon-containing subterranean formation having impaired permeability as a result of formation invasion by aqueous fluids comprising contacting the formation with a penetrating solvent capable of disrupting at least a portion of any aqueous layer present on solid surfaces within the formation and a cationic perfluoro compound whereby the compound is absorbed onto the solid surfaces of the formation the cationic perfluoro compound being selected from the group consisting of a compound or mixtures of compounds.

Penny, G.S.; Briscoe, J.E.



A Role for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Increasing the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurocognitive impairments are prevalent in persons seeking treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These impairments and their physical, social, psychological and occupational consequences vary in severity across persons, much like those resulting from traumatic brain injury; however, due to their slower course of onset, alcohol-related cognitive impairments are often overlooked both within and outside of the treatment setting. Evidence suggests that cognitive impairments can impede treatment goals through their effects on treatment processes. Although some recovery of alcohol-related cognitive impairments often occurs after cessation of drinking (time-dependent recovery), the rate and extent of recovery is variable across cognitive domains and individuals. Following a long hiatus in scientific interest, a new generation of research aims to facilitate treatment process and improve AUD treatment outcomes by directly promoting cognitive recovery (experience-dependent recovery). This review updates knowledge about the nature and course of cognitive and brain impairments associated with AUD, including cognitive effects of adolescent AUD. We summarize current evidence for indirect and moderating relationships of cognitive impairment to treatment outcome, and discuss how advances in conceptual frameworks of brain-behavior relationships are fueling the development of novel AUD interventions that include techniques for cognitive remediation. Emerging evidence suggests that such interventions can be effective in promoting cognitive recovery in persons with AUD and other substance use disorders, and potentially increasing the efficacy of AUD treatments. Finally, translational approaches based on cognitive science, neurophysiology, and neuroscience research are considered as promising future directions for effective treatment development that includes cognitive rehabilitation.

Bates, Marsha E.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Nguyen, Tam T.



Conductive fractures and staged treatments increase reservoir productivity  

SciTech Connect

One of the least understood keys to successful hydraulic fracturing is the conductivity of the induced fracture. Laboratory studies of permeability, especially in proppant-packed simulated fractures, have been routinely performed for the past 30 years. Conductivity studies in recent years, such as work by the Stim-Lab Inc. consortium, take into account more realistic downhole conditions. These conductivity tests include effects of changing temperature and closure pressure, varied proppant loading (psf), embedment of different proppants into the fracture faces, varying fracturing fluids and additives, filter cake deposition, leak off, and time considerations. Linear-flow cells are used with core slabs of a medium-hard sandstone, placed in a system of fluid mixing and additive addition to simulate downhole conditions.

Ebinger, C.D.; Hunt, E.



On temporomandibular disorders. Time trends, associated factors, treatment need and treatment outcome.  


During the last few decades, and especially during the 1990s, an increase in musculoskeletal pain conditions and stress-related ill-health has been observed in Sweden. At the same time, an improvement in the oral health of the population has been noted. The overall aim of this thesis was to acquire knowledge relating to possible time trends for the presence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the population. A further objective was to study factors that possibly influence the presence of these disorders and the outcome of their treatment. Studies I-III are based on a series of repeated cross-sectional population-based investigations. Three independent samples of 130 individuals in the age groups of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years were randomly selected from the inhabitants of the city of Jönköping, Sweden in 1983, 1993 and 2003. The total participation rate was 21%, 22% and 29% respectively. The participants were examined using a questionnaire, interview and a clinical examination of the stomatognathic system regarding the presence of symptoms and signs indicative of TMD. Study IV is a retrospective survey of a clinical sample of patients referred to and treated at the Department of Stomatognathic Physiology, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, in 1995-2002. The overall frequencies of symptoms and the rates for some clinical signs and consequently of an estimated treatment need in adults increased during the study period. In 2003, the prevalence of frequent headache in 20-year-olds, mainly females, had markedly increased. The reports of bruxism among adults increased from 1983 to 2003. Awareness of bruxism and self-perceived health impairment were associated with TMD symptoms and signs. A favourable treatment outcome was observed for the majority of patients with common TMD sub-diagnoses and no strong predictors of treatment outcome were found. In conclusion, the results suggest some time trends towards an increased prevalence in the overall symptoms and some signs indicative of TMD in the Swedish adult population during the time period 1983-2003. A profound understanding of the social determinants of health is recommended when planning public health resources. PMID:23437642

Köhler, Alkisti Anastassaki



Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.



Subgroups Analysis when Treatment and Moderators are Time-varying  

PubMed Central

Prevention scientists are often interested in understanding characteristics of participants that are predictive of treatment effects because these characteristics can be used to inform the types of individuals who benefit more or less from treatment or prevention programs. Often, effect moderation questions are examined using subgroups analysis or, equivalently, using covariate × treatment interactions in the context of regression analysis. This article focuses on conceptualizing and examining causal effect moderation in longitudinal settings in which both treatment and the putative moderators are time-varying. Studying effect moderation in the time-varying setting helps identify which individuals will benefit more or less from additional treatment services on the basis of both individual characteristics and their evolving outcomes, symptoms, severity, and need. Examining effect moderation in these longitudinal settings, however, is difficult because moderators of future treatment may themselves be affected by prior treatment (for example, future moderators may be mediators of prior treatment). This article introduces moderated intermediate causal effects in the time-varying setting, describes how they are part of Robins’ Structural Nested Mean Model, discusses two problems with using a traditional regression approach to estimate these effects, and describes a new approach (a 2-stage regression estimator) to estimate these effects. The methodology is illustrated using longitudinal data to examine the time-varying effects of receiving community-based substance abuse treatment as a function of time-varying severity (or need).

Almirall, Daniel; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Murphy, Susan A.



Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.



Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.



Increased stress tolerance of matured pig oocytes after high hydrostatic pressure treatment.  


The present paper describes a method which uses high hydrostatic pressure as a pre-treatment to in vitro matured porcine oocytes to improve their survival rates in the subsequent processes including cryopreservation, parthenogenetic activation and embryo culture. In Experiment I oocytes were treated with different pressure impulses in the range of 20-80 MPa (200-800 times greater than atmospheric pressure) for 30-120 min at 24 degrees C. For parthenogenetic activation a single dc of 12.5 kV/cm was used, to test shock tolerance of the treated vs. control oocytes and also compare their developmental competence evaluated with continued in vitro development. The upper limit of pressure tolerance was found in the 40 MPa range. In Experiment II oocytes pre-treated with pressures in the 20-40 MPa range were vitrified with the Cryotop method, and parthenogenetically activated subsequently with combined electric (single dc of 1.25 kV/cm) and chemical treatment after warming. According to our investigations performed with a total of 1980 oocytes and 3-5 replicates, pressure treatment increased cleavage and blastocyst rates after activation and cleavage rates after vitrification followed by activation. Our results indicate that the sublethal pressure treatment may induce specific responses in oocytes increasing their resistance and developmental competence. The mechanism that may lie behind the observations is the sublethal stress-induced post-transcriptional activation of shock proteins in the oocytes. Further investigations are needed to reveal the biophysical and molecular biological background of the findings and to optimize the protocol of pressure pre-treatment in both animal- and human-assisted reproductive technology (ART) to increase the efficiency of in vitro procedures. PMID:18329829

Pribenszky, Cs; Du, Y; Molnár, M; Harnos, A; Vajta, G



Does Integrated Trauma-Informed Substance Abuse Treatment Increase Treatment Retention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized group design study that explored whether trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment results in longer residential treatment stays and improved outcomes compared with treatment-as-usual. We used a subsample (N = 461) of participants in the Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and…

Amaro, Hortensia; Chernoff, Miriam; Brown, Vivian; Arevalo, Sandra; Gatz, Margaret



Do diagnostic and treatment delays for colorectal cancer increase risk of death?  

PubMed Central

Background Using 1998-2005 SEER-Medicare data, we examined the effect of diagnostic and treatment delays on all-cause and colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific death among U.S. adults aged ?66 years with invasive colon or rectal cancer. We hypothesized that longer delays would be associated with a greater risk of death. Methods We defined diagnostic and treatment delays, respectively, as days between 1) initial medical consult for CRC symptoms and pathologically-confirmed diagnosis (maximum: 365 days) and 2) pathologically-confirmed diagnosis and treatment (maximum: 120 days). Cases (CRC deaths) and controls (deaths due to other causes or censored) were matched on survival time. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment factors. Results Median diagnostic delays were 60 (colon) and 40 (rectal) days and treatment delays were 13 (colon) and 16 (rectal) days in 10,663 patients. Colon cancer patients with the longest diagnostic delays (8-12 months vs. 14-59 days) had higher odds of all-cause (aOR: 1.31 CI: 1.08-1.58) but not CRC-specific death. Colon cancer patients with the shortest treatment delays (<1 vs. 1-2 weeks) had higher odds of all-cause (aOR: 1.23 CI: 1.01-1.49) but not CRC-specific death. Among rectal cancer patients, delays were not associated with risk of all-cause or CRC-specific death. Conclusions Longer delays of up to 1 year after symptom onset and 120 days for treatment did not increase odds of CRC-specific death. There may be little clinical benefit in detecting and treating existing symptomatic disease earlier. Screening prior to symptom onset must remain the primary goal to reduce CRC incidence, morbidity, and mortality.

Pruitt, Sandi L.; Harzke, Amy Jo; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Schootman, Mario



Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the tox...

J. B. Pickett H. L. Martin G. A. Diener



Increasing rates of low-risk prostate cancer incidence in USAF servicemen and selection of treatments  

PubMed Central

Purpose Periodic Health Assessments have been mandated for United States Air Force (USAF) servicemen since the mid-1990s. Consequently, we determined whether USAF prostate cancer incidence rates have increased thereafter, how these tumors segregate into low- and intermediate/high-risk categories and treatment choices. Methods We queried the Department of Defense Automated Central Tumor Registry for prostate cancers diagnosed in USAF servicemen between 1991–2008 to determine incidence rates, disease risk category and treatments selected. Results Age-adjusted rates in white active duty servicemen diagnosed for the most recent period (2005/2008) increased 3 fold relative to the rate in the earliest period (1991–1994) and a similar trend was evident for African American servicemen. Moreover, relative to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population, prostate cancer rates among active duty USAF men between 1995 and 2008 were significantly increased for both racial groups. Importantly, a significantly greater proportion of active duty servicemen (62 %) than retirees (40 %) presented with low-risk disease (PSA < 10 ng/ml, Gleason Sum <7, T1a-T2a clinical staging). For those individuals with low-risk disease, a significantly greater percentage of active duty servicemen opted for curative surgery compared with retirees (93 and 53 % respectively). Conclusion Prostate cancer incidence rates for USAF servicemen have increased over time exceeding rates for the SEER population. Moreover, while the majority of cases are characterized as low-risk, aggressive management is selected.

del Junco, Deborah J.; Fox, Erin E.; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Koda, Erik; Rogers, David; Canby-Hagino, Edith; Kim, Jeri; Pettaway, Curtis; Boyd, Douglas D.



Increasing Adherence to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment with a Group Social Cognitive Therapy Treatment Intervention: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine whether a social cognitive therapy (SCT) intervention increases continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use compared to equivalent social interaction (SI) time. Participants: Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) referred for CPAP therapy. Intervention: Participants received a 30-min group education session regarding OSA and CPAP. Groups of three to four participants were then randomly assigned to an SCT session or social interaction. Measurements: CPAP usage was assessed at 7 nights, then 1, 3, and 6 months. The two primary outcomes were adherence, usage ? 4 h per night at 6 months, and uptake of CPAP. Questionnaires were given pretreatment and posttreatment. Results: Two hundred six individuals were randomized to SI (n = 97) or SCT (n = 109). CPAP uptake was not different between groups (82% in SI, 88% in SCT groups, P = 0.35). There were no differences between groups in adherence: 63-66% at 1 week, and at 6 months 55-47% (P = 0.36). Higher pretreatment apnea-hypopnea index, higher baseline self-efficacy, and use of CPAP (? 4 h) at 1 week were independent predictors of CPAP adherence at 6 months. CPAP adherence increased by a factor of 1.8 (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0) for every one-unit increase in self-efficacy. There was no difference between groups postintervention in self-efficacy scores, sleepiness, mood, or sleep quality. Conclusions: In this randomized trial, a single SCT application did not increase adherence when compared with SI time. Although self-efficacy scores prior to CPAP predicted adherence, self-efficacy was not increased by the interventions. Increasing intensity and understanding of SCT interventions may be needed to improve CPAP adherence. Clinical Trials Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12607000424404. Citation: Bartlett D; Wong K; Richards D; Moy E; Espie CA; Cistulli PA; Grunstein R. Increasing adherence to obstructive sleep apnea treatment with a group social cognitive therapy treatment intervention: a randomized trial. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1647-1654.

Bartlett, Delwyn; Wong, Keith; Richards, Dianne; Moy, Emma; Espie, Colin A.; Cistulli, Peter A.; Grunstein, Ronald



Evaluation of medical treatments to increase survival of ebullism in guinea pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight carriers run a constant risk of exposure to vacuum. Above 63,000 ft (47 mmHg), the ambient pressure falls below the vapor pressure of water at 37 C, and tissue vaporization (ebullism) begins. Little is know about appropriate resuscitative protocols after such an ebullism exposure. This study identified injury patterns and mortality rates associated with ebullism while verifying effectiveness of traditional pulmonary resuscitative techniques. Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to 87,000 ft for periods of 40 to 115 sec. After descent, those animals that did not breathe spontaneously were given artificial ventilation by bag and mask for up to 15 minutes. Those animals surviving were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups--hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), ground-level oxygen (GLO2), and ground-level air (GLAIR). The HBO group was treated on a standard treatment table 6A while the GLO2 animals received O2 for an equivalent length of time. Those animals in the GLAIR group were observed only. All surviving animals were humanely sacrified at 48 hours. Inflation of the animal's lungs after the exposure was found to be difficult and, at times, impossible. This may be due to surfactant disruption at the alveolar lining. Electron microscopy identified a disruption of the surfactant layer in animals that did not survive initial exposure. Mortality was found to increase with exposure time: 40 sec--0 percent; 60 sec--6 percent; 70 sec--40 percent; 80 sec--13 percent; 100 sec--38 percent; 110 sec--40 percent; and 115 sec--100 percent. There was no difference in the delayed mortality among the treatment groups (HBO--15 percent, GLO2--11 percent, GLAIR--11 percent). However, since resuscitation was ineffective, the effectiveness of any post-exposure treatment was severely limited. Preliminary results indicate that reuscitation of guinea pigs following ebullism exposure is difficult, and that current techniques (such as traditional CPR) may not be appropriate.

Stegmann, Barbara J.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Wolf, E. G.; Derion, Toniann; Fanton, J. W.; Davis, H.; Kemper, G. B.; Scoggins, Terrell E.



PEGylation of bacteriophages increases blood circulation time and reduces T-helper type 1 immune response.  


The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is of growing concern, and must be counteracted by alternative antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages represent the natural enemies of bacteria. However, the strong immune response following application of phages and rapid clearance from the blood stream are hurdles which need to be overcome. Towards our goal to render phages less immunogenic and prolong blood circulation time, we have chemically modified intact bacteriophages by conjugation of the non-immunogenic polymer monomethoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to virus proteins. As a proof of concept, we have used two different polyvalent and strictly virulent phages of the Myoviridae, representing typical candidates for therapeutical approaches: Felix-O1 (infects Salmonella) and A511 (infects Listeria). Loss of phage infectivity after PEGylation was found to be proportional to the degree of modification, and could be conveniently controlled by adjusting the PEG concentration. When injected into naïve mice, PEGylated phages showed a strong increase in circulation half-life, whereas challenge of immunized mice did not reveal a significant difference. Our results suggest that the prolonged half-life is due to decreased susceptibility to innate immunity as well as avoidance of cellular defence mechanisms. PEGylated viruses elicited significantly reduced levels of T-helper type 1-associated cytokine release (IFN-? and IL-6), in both naïve and immunized mice. This is the first study demonstrating that PEGylation can increases survival of infective phage by delaying immune responses, and indicates that this approach can increase efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. PMID:21261844

Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Jang, Eun-Hye; Klumpp, Jochen; Hagens, Steven; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Loessner, Martin J



PEGylation of bacteriophages increases blood circulation time and reduces T-helper type 1 immune response  

PubMed Central

Summary The increasing occurrence of antibiotic?resistant pathogens is of growing concern, and must be counteracted by alternative antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages represent the natural enemies of bacteria. However, the strong immune response following application of phages and rapid clearance from the blood stream are hurdles which need to be overcome. Towards our goal to render phages less immunogenic and prolong blood circulation time, we have chemically modified intact bacteriophages by conjugation of the non?immunogenic polymer monomethoxy?polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to virus proteins. As a proof of concept, we have used two different polyvalent and strictly virulent phages of the Myoviridae, representing typical candidates for therapeutical approaches: Felix?O1 (infects Salmonella) and A511 (infects Listeria). Loss of phage infectivity after PEGylation was found to be proportional to the degree of modification, and could be conveniently controlled by adjusting the PEG concentration. When injected into naïve mice, PEGylated phages showed a strong increase in circulation half?life, whereas challenge of immunized mice did not reveal a significant difference. Our results suggest that the prolonged half?life is due to decreased susceptibility to innate immunity as well as avoidance of cellular defence mechanisms. PEGylated viruses elicited significantly reduced levels of T?helper type 1?associated cytokine release (IFN?? and IL?6), in both naïve and immunized mice. This is the first study demonstrating that PEGylation can increases survival of infective phage by delaying immune responses, and indicates that this approach can increase efficacy of bacteriophage therapy.

Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Jang, Eun-Hye; Klumpp, Jochen; Hagens, Steven; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Loessner, Martin J.



Overestimation of the second time interval replaces time-shrinking when the difference between two adjacent time intervals increases  

PubMed Central

When the onsets of three successive sound bursts mark two adjacent time intervals, the second time interval can be underestimated when it is physically longer than the first time interval by up to 100 ms. This illusion, time-shrinking, is very stable when the first time interval is 200 ms or shorter (Nakajima et al., 2004, Perception, 33). Time-shrinking had been considered a kind of perceptual assimilation to make the first and the second time interval more similar to each other. Here we investigated whether the underestimation of the second time interval was replaced by an overestimation if the physical difference between the neighboring time intervals was too large for the assimilation to take place; this was a typical situation in which a perceptual contrast could be expected. Three experiments to measure the overestimation/underestimation of the second time interval by the method of adjustment were conducted. The first time interval was varied from 40 to 280 ms, and such overestimations indeed took place when the first time interval was 80–280 ms. The overestimations were robust when the second time interval was longer than the first time interval by 240 ms or more, and the magnitude of the overestimation was larger than 100 ms in some conditions. Thus, a perceptual contrast to replace time-shrinking was established. An additional experiment indicated that this contrast did not affect the perception of the first time interval substantially: The contrast in the present conditions seemed unilateral.

Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Emi; Yamashita, Miki; Haraguchi, Yuki



Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline treatment increases serum cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophages  

PubMed Central

Objective Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD) treatment has been reported to reduce the severity of chronic inflammation and to increase serum HDL cholesterol. We determined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, whether SDD affects the ability of serum to facilitate cholesterol removal from macrophages. Methods Forty-five postmenopausal osteopenic women with periodontitis were randomly assigned to take placebo (n=26) or doxycycline hyclate (20 mg, n=19) tablets twice daily for 2 years. Serum samples were collected at baseline, 1-year, and 2-year appointments. The cholesterol efflux capacity of serum from cultured human macrophages (THP-1) was measured. Results SDD subjects demonstrated a significant increase in serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages at both time points, compared to baseline (p < 0.04 for each). Mean cholesterol efflux levels over the first year of follow-up were 3.0 percentage points (unit change) higher among SDD subjects compared to placebo subjects (p = 0.010), while there was no significant difference in 2-year changes. There were no significant differences in the changes of apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-II, or serum amyloid A levels between the groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that SDD treatment may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this patient group by increasing the cholesterol efflux capacity of serum.

Salminen, Aino; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Payne, Jeffrey B.; Stoner, Julie A.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Golub, Lorne M.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Thompson, David M.; Sorsa, Timo



Increasing Paid Work Time? A New Puzzle for Multinational Time-Diary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This explores the reasons that paid work time may be rising, at least in anglophone countries. Three explanations are discussed. (1) An historical reversal of the work/leisure gradient with respect to social position or social status. This gradient was once positive, but is now negative; evidence of this change from 11 developed countries is drawn…

Gershuny, Jonathan



Probiotic treatment reduces blood glucose levels and increases systemic absorption of gliclazide in diabetic rats.  


The action of gliclazide, a sulphonylurea with beneficial extrapancreatic effects in diabetes, may be enhanced by administering probiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of probiotics on gliclazide pharmacokinetics and the effect of both probiotics and gliclazide on blood glucose levels in healthy and diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats (2 to 3 months, weight 350 +/- 50 g) were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n =10), two of which were treated with alloxan i.v. 30 mg/kg to induce diabetes. One group of healthy and one group of diabetic rats were then gavaged with probiotics (75 mg/kg) for three days after which a gliclazide suspension (20 mg/kg) was administered by gavage to all groups. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein at various time points for 10 hours post-administration for the determination of blood glucose and gliclazide serum concentrations. It was found that probiotic treatment had no effect on blood glucose levels in healthy rats, but it reduced them (up to 2-fold; p < 0.01) in diabetic rats. Probiotic treatment reduced gliclazide bioavailability in healthy rats (3-fold) whereas it increased gliclazide bioavailability in diabetic rats (2-fold; p < 0.01). Gliclazide had no effect on blood glucose levels in either healthy or diabetic rats despite the changes in its bioavailability. In conclusion, the probiotic treatment of diabetic rats increases gliclazide bioavailability and lowers blood glucose levels by insulin-independent mechanisms, suggesting that the administration of probiotics may be beneficial as adjunct therapy in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:18777945

Al-Salami, Hani; Butt, Grant; Fawcett, J Paul; Tucker, Ian G; Golocorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Mikov, Momir



Perturbative treatment of a general driven time-dependent oscillator in a time-dependent basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the possibility of applying the time-dependent perturbation theory to the systems with a time-dependent unperturbed part. Analyses indicate that time-dependent perturbation theory is valid even if the unperturbed Hamiltonian H0 depends on time, provided that the pseudostationary states of H0 are known. It is also shown that this new perturbative treatment provides a useful tool for tackling the problem of a general driven time-dependent oscillator.

Lo, C. F.



Preweaning treatment with methamphetamine induces increases in both corticosterone and ACTH in rats.  


Treatment with methamphetamine (MA) on postnatal days P11-20 induces adult spatial learning and memory deficits without affecting monoamine levels in various brain regions. In this study, we examined the pituitary and adrenal response of animals administered MA four times daily on P11, P11-15, or from P11 to P20. Corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels were assessed over a 1-hour period following MA exposure. On P11, MA produced marked elevations of both CORT and ACTH; this is during the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP). On P15 and P20, the maximal effect of MA on CORT titers was observed at 30 min, with lower, but still significantly increased, levels at 60 min compared to controls. Males receiving MA on P15 had higher levels of ACTH than did control males, while no differences were noted among females. On P20, MA treatment resulted in higher levels of ACTH relative to vehicle-injected controls, but levels were not different from controls that were only weighed at each drug administration. MA treatment inhibited body, but not brain weight gain, resulting in hippocampal weights that were heavier in the MA-treated animals when expressed as a percent of body weight. The elevations of adrenal steroids by MA, during late phases of hippocampal neurogenesis, may contribute to neuronal alterations that are later manifested in deficits of learning and memory. PMID:11106868

Williams, M T; Inman-Wood, S L; Morford, L L; McCrea, A E; Ruttle, A M; Moran, M S; Rock, S L; Vorhees, C V



A Money Management-Based Substance Use Treatment Increases Valuation of Future Rewards  

PubMed Central

Objective A positive association between delay discounting and substance use has been documented; substance users tend to discount future rewards more than non-users. However, studies detailing the responsiveness of delay discounting to interventions are lacking, and few have examined how any behavioral intervention affects delay discounting and whether these effects moderate changes in substance abuse. This study assesses the effectiveness of a money management intervention, Advisor-Teller Money Manager (ATM), in reducing delay discounting over time and the relationship of these effects to changes in cocaine use. Method Ninety psychiatric patients with histories of cocaine and/or alcohol use were randomly assigned to 36-weeks of ATM treatment or to a minimal-attention control condition. Delay discounting and cocaine use were measured throughout the intervention with a 52-week follow up measure of cocaine use. Analyses were conducted of (a) the effect of ATM on slopes of delay discounting and cocaine abstinence and (b) the relationship between change in delay discounting and change in cocaine abstinence. Results The ATM intervention was associated with significantly less delay discounting and less cocaine use over time relative to controls. Increases in delay discounting were associated with decreased abstinence from cocaine. Conclusions ATM treatment decreased delay discounting rates and these effects extended to cocaine use. Concrete conceptualizations of future events, as occur in financial planning, with higher perceived probability may account for higher valuation of future rewards in counseled patients.

Black, Anne C.; Rosen, Marc I.



Potential treatment options and future research to increase hepatitis C virus treatment response rate  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a liver-tropic blood-borne pathogen that affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Although acute infections are usually asymptomatic, up to 90% of HCV infections persist with the possibility of long-term consequences such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, steatosis, insulin resistance, or hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, HCV-associated liver disease is a major public health concern. Although the currently available standard of care therapy of pegylated interferon ? plus ribavirin successfully treats infection in a subset of patients, the development of more effective, less toxic HCV antivirals is a health care imperative. This review not only discusses the limitations of the current HCV standard of care but also evaluates upcoming HCV treatment options and how current research elucidating the viral life cycle is facilitating the development of HCV-specific therapeutics that promise to greatly improve treatment response rates both before and after liver transplantation.

TenCate, Veronica; Sainz, Bruno; Cotler, Scott J; Uprichard, Susan L



Preoperative waiting time increased the risk of periprosthetic infection in patients with femoral neck fracture  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a devastating complication of arthroplasty. Today, most displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly are treated with arthroplasty. We estimated the incidence of and risk factors for PJI in primary arthroplasty after femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods Patients admitted for a femoral neck fracture in 2008 and 2009 were registered prospectively. We studied clinical, operative, and infection data in 184 consecutive patients. Results 9% of the patients developed a PJI. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated organisms. We found that preoperative waiting time was associated with PJI and also with urinary tract infection. The median preoperative waiting time was 37 (11–136) h in the infection group as opposed to 26 (4–133) h in the group with no infection (p = 0.04). The difference remained statistically significant after adjusted analysis. The success of treatment with debridement and retention of the prosthesis was limited, and 5 of the 17 patients with PJI ended up with a resection arthroplasty. The 1-year mortality rate was 21% in the patients with no infection, and it was 47% in the infection group (p = 0.03). Interpretation We found a high incidence of PJI in this elderly population treated with arthroplasty after hip fracture, with possibly devastating outcome. The length of stay preoperatively increased the risk of developing PJI.



Causal Inference for Time-Varying Instructional Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors propose a strategy for studying the effects of time-varying instructional treatments on repeatedly observed student achievement. This approach responds to three challenges: (a) The yearly reallocation of students to classrooms and teachers creates a complex structure of dependence among responses; (b) a child's learning outcome under a…

Hong, Guanglei; Raudenbush, Stephen W.



Direct and Indirect Time Inputs and Assertive Community Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an appealing community program model because it proposes to provide individuals with coping skills that allow them to maintain independent lives in their communities and it offers the potential to decrease inpatient stays and increase community tenure. But, it is not without its limitations. Critics point out that ACT's unique elements also make it a

Carolyn S. Dewa; Salinda Horgan; Dianne McIntyre; Gail Robinson; Terry Krupa; Shirley Eastabrook



Increasing spelling achievement: an analysis of treatment procedures utilizing an alternating treatments design.  

PubMed Central

Two studies which examine the effectiveness of spelling remediation procedures are reported. In both studies, an alternating treatment design was employed. In the first study, positive practice overcorrection plus positive reinforcement was compared to positive practice alone and a no-remediation control condition. In the second study, positive practice plus positive reinforcement was compared to a traditional corrective procedure plus positive reinforcement and a traditional procedure when used alone. Results of both studies indicated that the combined positive practice plus positive reinforcement procedure was more efficient and that it was preferred by the children. Following brief training under this combined procedure, all children demonstrated 100% spelling accuracy.

Ollendick, T H; Matson, J L; Esveldt-Dawson, K; Shapiro, E S



Occupational therapy treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational therapy (OT) is a critical component of the rehabilitation process after spinal cord injury (SCI), the constitution of which has not been studied or documented in full detail previously. Objective To describe the type and distribution of SCI rehabilitation OT activities, including the amount of time spent on evaluation and treatment, and to discuss predictors (patient and injury characteristics) of the amount of time dedicated to OT treatment activities. Methods Six inpatient rehabilitation centers enrolled 600 patients with traumatic SCI in the first year of the SCIRehab. Occupational therapists documented 32 512 therapy sessions including time spent and specifics of each therapeutic activity. Analysis of variance and contingency tables/chi-square tests were used to test differences across neurologic injury groups for continuous and categorical variables. Results SCIRehab patients received a mean total of 52 hours of OT over the course of their rehabilitation stay. Statistically significant differences among four neurologic injury groups were seen in time spent on each OT activity. The activities that consumed the most OT time (individual and group sessions combined) were strengthening/endurance exercises, activities of daily living (ADLs), range of motion (ROM)/stretching, education, and a grouping of ‘therapeutic activities’ that included tenodesis training, fine motor activities, manual therapy, vestibular training, edema management, breathing exercise, cognitive retraining, visual/perceptual training desensitization, and don/doff adaptive equipment. Seventy-seven percent of OT work occurred in individual treatment sessions, with the most frequent OT activity involving ADLs. The variation in time (mean minutes per week) spent on OT ROM/stretching, ADLs, transfer training, assessment, and therapeutic activities can be explained in part by patient and injury characteristics, such as admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, neurologic injury group, and the medical severity of illness score. Conclusion OT treatment patterns for patients with traumatic SCI show much variation in activity selection and time spent on activities, within and among neurologic level of injury groups. Some of the variation can be explained by patient and injury characteristics. Almost all patients with SCI participated in strengthening/endurance and ROM/stretching exercises during OT treatment and these two activities are where the most time was spent when therapy provided in individual and group settings was combined. ADL work consumed the most time in individual therapy sessions.

Foy, Teresa; Perritt, Ginger; Thimmaiah, Deepa; Heisler, Lauren; Offutt, Jennifer Lookingbill; Cantoni, Kara; Hseih, Ching-Hui; Gassaway, Julie; Ozelie, Rebecca; Backus, Deborah



Initial treatment patterns over time for anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.  


Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors are rare neoplasms with no standard approach to treatment. We sought to determine patterns of treatment delivered over time and identify clinical correlates of specific strategies using an international retrospective cohort of 1013 patients diagnosed from 1981-2007. Prior to 1990, most patients received radiotherapy (RT) alone as initial postoperative treatment. After 1990, approximately 50% of patients received both RT and chemotherapy (CT) sequentially and/or concurrently. Treatment with RT alone became significantly less common (67% in 1980-1984 vs 5% in 2005-2007, P < .0001). CT alone was more frequently administered in later years (0% in 1980-1984 vs 38% in 2005-2007; P < .0001), especially in patients with 1p19q codeleted tumors (57% of codeleted vs 4% with no deletion in 2005-2007; P < .0001). Temozolomide replaced the combination of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) among patients who received CT alone or with RT (87% vs 2% in 2005-2007). In the most recent time period, patients with 1p19q codeleted tumors were significantly more likely to receive CT alone (with temozolomide), whereas RT with temozolomide was a significantly more common treatment strategy than either CT or RT alone in cases with no deletion (P < .0001). In a multivariate polytomous logistic regression model, the following were significantly associated with type of treatment delivered: date (5-year interval) of diagnosis (P < .0001), 1p19q codeletion (P < .0001), pure anaplastic oligodendroglioma histology (P < .01), and frontal lobe predominance (P < .05). Limited level 1 evidence is currently available to guide treatment decisions, and ongoing phase III trials will be critical to understanding the optimal therapy. PMID:22661585

Panageas, Katherine S; Iwamoto, Fabio M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Aldape, Kenneth D; Rivera, Andreana L; Eichler, April F; Louis, David N; Paleologos, Nina A; Fisher, Barbara J; Ashby, Lynn S; Cairncross, J Gregory; Roldán Urgoiti, Gloria B; Wen, Patrick Y; Ligon, Keith L; Schiff, David; Robins, H Ian; Rocque, Brandon G; Chamberlain, Marc C; Mason, Warren P; Weaver, Susan A; Green, Richard M; Kamar, Francois G; Abrey, Lauren E; Deangelis, Lisa M; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Rosenblum, Marc K; Lassman, Andrew B



Early administration of oral oseltamivir increases the benefits of influenza treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to evaluate the benefit of early treatment of influenza illness using oral oseltamivir. This open-label, multicentre international study investigated the relationship between the interval from illness onset to first dose (time-to-treatment) and illness duration in the intent-to-treat infected population using accelerated failure time (AFT) modelling. A total of 1426 patients (12-70 years) presenting within 48 h of

F. Y. Aoki; M. D. Macleod; P. Paggiaro; O. Carewicz; A. El Sawy; C. Wat; M. Griffiths; E. Waalberg; P. Ward; F. Hoffmann-La Roche



An Increasing Prominent Disease of Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background. During the past two decades, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) had surpassed Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the predominant isolate from patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) in Asian countries, the United States, and Europe, and it tended to spread globally. Since the clinical symptom is atypical, the accurate and effective diagnosis and treatment of K. pneumoniae liver abscesses (KLAs) are very necessary. Methods. Here, we have comprehensively clarified the epidemiology and pathogenesis of KLA, put emphases on the clinical presentations especially the characteristic radiographic findings of KLA, and thoroughly elucidated the most effective antibiotic strategy of KLA. Results. K1 serotype is strongly associated with KLA especially in diabetic patients. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were two main diagnostic methods of KLA in the past. Most of KLAs have solitary, septal lobular abscesses in the right lobe of liver, and they are mainly monomicrobial. Broad-spectrum antibiotics combined with the US-guided percutaneous drainage of liver abscesses can increase their survival rates, but surgical intervention still has its irreplaceable position. Conclusion. The imaging features contribute to the early diagnosis, and the percutaneous intervention combined with an aminoglycoside plus either an extended-spectrum betalactam or a second- or third-generation cephalosporin is a timely and effective treatment of KLA.

Liu, Yun; Wang, Ji-yao; Jiang, Wei



A method to increase optical timing spectra measurement rates using a multi-hit TDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for using a modern time to digital converter (TDC) to increase the data collection rate for optical timing measurements such as scintillator decay times. It extends the conventional delayed coincidence method, where a synchronization signal ``starts'' a TDC and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sampling the optical signal ``stops'' the TDC. Data acquisition rates are low with

W. W. Moses



High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient.

Pre, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.



Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li2O-9Al2O3-38TiO2-39P2O5 glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi2(PO4)3 from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

Sonigra, Dhiren; Soman, Swati; Kulkarni, Ajit R.



Quiet-time electron increases, a measure of conditions in the outer solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible explanation for quiet-time electron increases, increases in the intensity of 3-12 MeV interplanetary electrons that have been reported by McDonald, Cline and Simnett, is discussed. It is argued that the electrons in quiet-time increases are galactic in origin, but that the observed increases are not the result of any variation in the modulation of these particles in the inner solar system. It is suggested instead that quiet-time increases may occur when more electrons than normal penetrate a modulating region that lies far beyond the orbit of earth. The number of electrons penetrating this region may increase when field lines that have experienced an unusually large random walk in the photosphere are carried by the solar wind out to the region. As evidence for this increased random walk, it is shown that five solar rotations before most of the quiet-time increases there is an extended period when the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy, as is measured by the Deep River neutron monitor, is relatively low. Five rotations delay time implies that the proposed modulating region lies at approximately 30 AU from the Sun, assuming that the average solar wind speed is constant over this distance at approximately 400 km/sec.

Fisk, L. A.; Vanhollebeke, M.



Waiting for a hand: saccadic reaction time increases in proportion to hand reaction time when reaching under a visuomotor reversal  

PubMed Central

Although eye movement onset typically precedes hand movement onset when reaching to targets presented in peripheral vision, arm motor commands appear to be issued at around the same time, and possibly in advance, of eye motor commands. A fundamental question, therefore, is whether eye movement initiation is linked or yoked to hand movement. We addressed this issue by having participants reach to targets after adapting to a visuomotor reversal (or 180° rotation) between the position of the unseen hand and the position of a cursor controlled by the hand. We asked whether this reversal, which we expected to increase hand reaction time (HRT), would also increase saccadic reaction time (SRT). As predicted, when moving the cursor to targets under the reversal, HRT increased in all participants. SRT also increased in all but one participant, even though the task for the eyes—shifting gaze to the target—was unaltered by the reversal of hand position feedback. Moreover, the effects of the reversal on SRT and HRT were positively correlated across participants; those who exhibited the greatest increases in HRT also showed the greatest increases in SRT. These results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the initiation of eye and hand movements are linked. In particular, the results suggest that the initiation of an eye movement to a manual target depends, at least in part, on the specification of hand movement.

Armstrong, Irene T.; Judson, Melissa; Munoz, Douglas P.; Johansson, Roland S.; Flanagan, J. Randall



Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Increases for the First Time Since 1993  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineering Increases for the First Time Since 1993 (January 11, 2001) This Data Brief presents ... and engineering graduate students through 1999. Data are presented on trends in number of graduate ...


Nonresponse to Interferon-? Based Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection Is Associated with Increased Hazard of Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background The long-term consequences of unsuccessful interferon-? based hepatitis C treatment on liver disease progression and survival have not been fully explored. Methods and Findings We performed retrospective analyses to assess long-term clinical outcomes among treated and untreated patients with hepatitis C virus in two independent cohorts from a United States Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a University Teaching Hospital. Eligible patients underwent liver biopsy during consideration for interferon-? based treatment between 1992 and 2007. They were assessed for the probability of developing cirrhosis and of dying during follow-up using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by pretreatment liver fibrosis stage and adjusted for known risk factors for cirrhosis and characteristics affecting treatment selection. The major predictor was a time-dependent covariate for treatment outcome among four patient groups: 1) patients with sustained virological response to treatment; 2) treatment relapsers; 3) treatment nonresponders; and 4) never treated patients. Treatment nonresponders in both cohorts had a statistically significantly increased hazard of cirrhosis compared to never treated patients, as stratified by pretreatment liver fibrosis stage and adjusted for clinical and psychosocial risk factors that disproportionately affect patients who were ineligible for treatment (Veterans Affairs HR?=?2.35, CI 1.18–4.69, mean follow-up 10 years, and University Hospital HR?=?5.90, CI 1.50–23.24, mean follow-up 7.7 years). Despite their increased risk for liver disease progression, the overall survival of nonresponders in both cohorts was not significantly different from that of never treated patients. Conclusion These unexpected findings suggest that patients who receive interferon-? based therapies but fail to clear the hepatitis C virus may have an increased hazard of cirrhosis compared to untreated patients.

Shen, Hui; Lerrigo, Robert; Yee, Russell M.; Sheen, Edward; Wu, Richard; Monto, Alexander



Elevated night-time temperatures increase growth in seedlings of two tropical pioneer tree species.  


Increased night-time temperatures, through their influence on dark respiration, have been implicated as a reason behind decreasing growth rates in tropical trees in the face of contemporary climate change. Seedlings of two neo-tropical tree species (Ficus insipida and Ochroma pyramidale) were grown in controlled-environment chambers at a constant daytime temperature (33°C) and a range of increasing night-time temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31°C) for between 39 d and 54 d. Temperature regimes were selected to represent a realistic baseline condition for lowland Panama, and a rise in night-time temperatures far in excess of those predicted for Central America in the coming decades. Experiments were complemented by an outdoor open-top chamber study in which night-time temperatures were elevated by 2.4°C above ambient. Increasing night-time temperatures resulted in > 2-fold increase in biomass accumulation in growth-chamber studies despite an increase in leaf-level dark respiration. Similar trends were seen in open-top chambers, in which elevated night-time temperatures resulted in stimulation of growth. These findings challenge simplistic considerations of photosynthesis-directed growth, highlighting the role of temperature-dependent night-time processes, including respiration and leaf development as drivers of plant performance in the tropics. PMID:23278464

Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus



Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.



Time Delay Embedding Increases Estimation Precision of Models of Intraindividual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the precision of parameters estimated from local samples of time dependent functions. We find that "time delay embedding," i.e., structuring data prior to analysis by constructing a data matrix of overlapping samples, increases the precision of parameter estimates and in turn statistical power compared to standard…

von Oertzen, Timo; Boker, Steven M.



NIH study finds increases in risk of certain leukemias related to treatment

A new study describes the pattern of risk for chemotherapy-related acute myeloid leukemia among adult cancer survivors over the past three decades who have previously been treated with chemotherapy for other cancers. These patterns coincide with major shifts in treatment practices. In particular, the study found that the risk of treatment-related AML among patients treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma has increased steadily during the last few decades.


Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.



Association of Hemodialysis Treatment Time and Dose With Mortality and the Role of Race and Sex  

PubMed Central

Background The association of survival with characteristics of thrice-weekly hemodialysis (HD) treatment including dose or duration of treatment has not been completely elucidated, especially among different race and sex categories. Study Design We examined the associations of time-averaged and quarterly varying (time-dependent) delivered HD dose and treatment time and 5-year (7/2001–6/2006) survival. Setting/Participants 88,153 thrice-weekly treated HD patients from DaVita dialysis clinics. Predictors HD treatment dose (single pool Kt/V) and treatment time. Outcomes/Other Measurements Five-year mortality. Results Thrice-weekly treatment time below 3 hrs (but >=2.5 hrs) per HD session compared to 3.5 hrs or longer (but <5 hrs) was associated with increased death risk independent of Kt/V dose. The greatest survival gain of higher HD dose was associated with a Kt/V approaching the 1.6 to 1.8 range, beyond which the survival gain was minimal, non-existent or even tended to reverse in African American men and those with 4 to 5 hrs of HD treatment. In non-Hispanic white women, a Kt/V above 1.8 continued to exhibit survival advantage trends esp. in time-dependent models. Limitations Our results may incorporate uncontrolled confounding. Achieved Kt/V may have different associations than targeted Kt/V. Conclusions HD treatment dose and time appear to have different associations with survival among different sex or race groups. Randomized controlled trials may be warranted to examine these associations across different racial and demographics groups.

Miller, Jessica E; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Nissenson, Allen R.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Streja, Elani; Van Wyck, David; Greenland, Sander; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar



Is PIC Dwell Time Associated with Increased Infection Risk in Infants?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate blood stream infection risk associated with catheter dwell time. Design: We performed a retrospective study of 1540 peripherally inserted catheters placed in 882 infants from August 2002 until November 2005. Setting: The Duke University Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is an academic level III nursery. Methods: A catheter related blood stream infection was defined as a positive blood culture that was documented >24 hours after catheter placement or within 72 hours of catheter removal. We used multivariable logistic regression to control for dwell time of catheter, weight at insertion, birth weight, gestational age, day of insertion, position of catheter, and gender. Results: We identified 135 cases of catheter related blood stream infection. The mean catheter dwell time was 12.2 days (range, 0-113 days) and mean time to blood stream infection 10.8 days (range, 1-57 days). Increasing catheter dwell time was associated with a lower risk of blood stream infection (OR 0.975; 95% CI, 0.954-0.996, P=0.02). Conclusions: No increase risk of catheter related blood stream infection was observed with increasing catheter dwell time. This may have been due to improved nutrition, decreased need for other invasive devices, and maturation of the infants' skin and immune system as catheter dwell time increased.

Smith, P. Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Schultz, Eric; Guo, Rose; Nowell, Lisa; Smithwick, Mary Laura; Thornburg, Courtney D.



Photodynamic treatment of pooled coumarin plasma for external quality assessment of the prothrombin time  

PubMed Central

Aims—To determine the conditions of photodynamic inactivation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) added to pooled coumarin plasma and the effects of the photodynamic treatment on the prothrombin times and international normalised ratio (INR) in a Netherlands national external quality assessment scheme. Methods—Pooled coumarin plasma samples were illuminated with visible light in the presence of 1 µM methylene blue. Inactivation conditions for VSV in pooled coumarin plasma were determined using an end point dilution assay. Plasma illuminated for 20 minutes was mixed with red blood cells and mailed to participants of the Netherlands external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. Prothrombin times and INRs were determined with various thromboplastin reagents. Results—Photodynamic treatment using 1 µM methylene blue and 700 W/m2 caused 4.7 log inactivation of VSV in pooled coumarin plasma. Fibrinogen and coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X were decreased slightly by the treatment. These conditions caused prolongation of the prothrombin time in EQA surveys. The magnitude of the effect was different for various thromboplastin reagents. The increase of the INR was negligible when measured with the Thrombotest reagent. With other reagents, an approximately 5–16% increase of the INR was observed. Interlaboratory variation of the INR was not affected by photodynamic treatment. Conclusions—Photodynamic treatment of pooled coumarin plasma is very effective for the inactivation of some enveloped viruses such as VSV, but has only a limited effect on the prothrombin time and INR. Photodynamic treatment can be used to improve the viral safety of coumarin plasma for EQA of the prothrombin time and INR. Key Words: prothrombin time • international normalised ratio • external quality assessment • photodynamic treatment

van den Besselaar, A M H P; Moor, A



Formaldehyde treatment increases the immunogenicity and decreases the toxicity of Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin.  


Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) is a tripartite AB toxin, which causes DNA damage in affected cells. We investigated the effects of formaldehyde on the chemical, biological, and immunological properties of the HdCDT complex, which was purified by immobilizing the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-CdtB fusion protein, followed by binding of the CdtA and CdtC recombinant proteins. The HdCDT was treated with increasing concentrations of formaldehyde in the presence of lysine. The treatment of HdCDT at 1 and 0.1 mg protein/ml with 320 and 80 mM of formaldehyde, respectively, resulted in the complete abrogation of cytotoxic activity, loss of DNase activity, and loss of binding capacity to HeLa cells. The toxoid showed protein bands of 75-150 kDa in SDS-PAGE, composed of the three cross-linked CDT components detected by immunoblotting. Three doses of 10 microg protein/mouse of the formaldehyde-treated HdCDT elicited toxin-neutralizing antibodies at titers about 200 times higher than those elicited by the native toxin. The described methodology may be applied to produce immunogenic toxoids from other CDTs, which might be used as candidate components in vaccines against CDT-producing bacteria, including H. ducreyi. PMID:17289219

Lagergård, Teresa; Lundqvist, Annika; Wising, Catharina; Gabrielsson, Vivianne; Ahlman, Karin



Increased cerebral activation after behavioral treatment for memory deficits in MS.  


Deficits in new learning and memory are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), though few studies have examined the efficacy of memory retraining in MS. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that the modified Story Memory Technique (mSMT) significantly improves new learning and memory in MS. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was designed to examine changes in cerebral activation following mSMT treatment. Sixteen individuals with clinically definite MS were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 8) or placebo-control (n = 8) groups, matched for age, education, and disease characteristics. Baseline and follow-up fMRI was collected during performance of learning and memory tasks. No baseline activation differences on fMRI were seen between groups. After treatment, greater activation was evident in the treatment group during performance of a memory task within a widespread cortical network involving frontal, parietal, precuneus, and parahippocampal regions. All participants in the treatment group showed increased activation in frontal and temporal regions in particular. In contrast, the control group showed no significant changes in cerebral activation at follow-up. A significant association was found between increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus and improved memory performance post-treatment. The increased activation seen likely reflects increased use of strategies taught during treatment when learning new information. This study is the first to demonstrate a significant change in cerebral activation resulting from a behavioral memory intervention in an MS sample. Behavioral interventions can show significant changes in the brain, validating clinical utility. PMID:22237819

Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Wylie, Glenn; Leavitt, Victoria; Deluca, John



In situ and real-time optical investigation of nitrogen plasma treatment of polycarbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycarbonates are very attractive polymeric materials with extensive applications in optical technology as well as for replacing conventional rigid substrates, such as glass. The use of plasma treatments has been successfully employed for improving their surface properties and increasing adhesion of subsequent functional coatings. The objective of this study is to employ in situ and real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry for a detailed investigation of the effect of nitrogen plasma treatment using a pulsed DC voltage, on the optical properties of polycarbonates. Measurements taken before, during and after plasma treatment showed the formation of a surface overlayer in which macromolecular chain scission takes place. The evolution of the overlayer thickness and its bonding has been investigated in detail. Also, the study of the surface nano-topography of polycarbonates by atomic force microscopy showed that plasma treatment increases the surface roughness.

Laskarakis, A.; Kassavetis, S.; Gravalidis, C.; Logothetidis, S.



Correcting radiation survey data to account for increased leakage during intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments require more beam-on time and produce more linac head leakage to deliver similar doses to conventional, unmodulated, radiotherapy treatments. It is necessary to take this increased leakage into account when evaluating the results of radiation surveys around bunkers that are, or will be, used for IMRT. The recommended procedure of applying a monitor-unit based workload correction factor to secondary barrier survey measurements, to account for this increased leakage when evaluating radiation survey measurements around IMRT bunkers, can lead to potentially costly overestimation of the required barrier thickness. This study aims to provide initial guidance on the validity of reducing the value of the correction factor when applied to different radiation barriers (primary barriers, doors, maze walls, and other walls) by evaluating three different bunker designs.Methods: Radiation survey measurements of primary, scattered, and leakage radiation were obtained at each of five survey points around each of three different radiotherapy bunkers and the contribution of leakage to the total measured radiation dose at each point was evaluated. Measurements at each survey point were made with the linac gantry set to 12 equidistant positions from 0° to 330°, to assess the effects of radiation beam direction on the results.Results: For all three bunker designs, less than 0.5% of dose measured at and alongside the primary barriers, less than 25% of the dose measured outside the bunker doors and up to 100% of the dose measured outside other secondary barriers was found to be caused by linac head leakage.Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IMRT workload corrections are unnecessary, for survey measurements made at and alongside primary barriers. Use of reduced IMRT workload correction factors is recommended when evaluating survey measurements around a bunker door, provided that a subset of the measurements used in this study are repeated for the bunker in question. Reduction of the correction factor for other secondary barrier survey measurements is not recommended unless the contribution from leakage is separately evaluated.

Kairn, T. [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V. [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)



Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

N'djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.



An increase in cardiac alpha 1 -adrenoceptors following chronic clonidine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic treatment (22 days) of rats with clonidine (0.5 mg\\/kg s.c. twice a day followed by 20 h of withdrawal) resulted in a significant increase in the specific [3H]WB4101 binding to ventricular and intraventricular septal a1-adrenoceptors but no alteration of the atrial a1-adrenoceptors. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increase in the [3H]WB4101 binding to the clonidine-treated cardiac tissues was due

Shizuo Yamada; Henry I. Yamamura; William R. Roeske



Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process  

SciTech Connect

A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility.

Blanchard, A.



Analysis of the effects of increasing delivered dialysis treatment to malnourished peritoneal dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the effects of increasing delivered dialysis treatment to malnourished peritoneal dialysis patients.BackgroundPoor nutrition is associated with a loss of residual renal function and inferior clinical outcome in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The value of increasing the PD dose in these individuals is unclear.MethodsAn open, prospective, longitudinal, “intention to treat” study was performed on a whole PD population. All

Simon J Davies; Louise Phillips; Anne M Griffiths; Patrick F Naish; Gavin I Russell



Prompts to Disrupt Sitting Time and Increase Physical Activity at Work, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study was to assess change in sitting and physical activity behavior in response to a workplace intervention to disrupt prolonged sitting time. Methods Sixty office workers were randomized to either a Stand group (n = 29), which received hourly prompts (computer-based and wrist-worn) to stand up, or a Step group (n = 31), which received the same hourly prompts and an additional prompt to walk 100 steps or more upon standing. An ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sitting and physical activity behavior on the same 3 consecutive workdays during baseline and intervention periods. Mixed-effect models with random intercepts and random slopes for time were performed to assess change between groups and across time. Results Both groups significantly reduced duration of average sitting bouts (Stand group, by 16%; Step group, by 19%) and the number of sitting bouts of 60 minutes or more (Step group, by 36%; Stand group, by 54%). The Stand group significantly reduced total sitting time (by 6.6%), duration of the longest sitting bout (by 29%), and number of sitting bouts of 30 minutes or more (by 13%) and increased the number of sit-to-stand transitions (by 15%) and standing time (by 23%). Stepping time significantly increased in the Stand (by 14%) and Step (by 29%) groups, but only the Step group significantly increased (by 35%) the number of steps per workday. Differences in changes from baseline to intervention between groups were not significant for any outcome. Conclusion Interventions that focus on disrupting sitting time only in the workplace may result in less sitting. When sitting time disruptions are paired with a physical activity prompt, people may be more likely to increase their workday physical activity, but the effect on sitting time may be attenuated.

Rote, Aubrianne E.; Welch, Whitney A.; Maeda, Hotaka; Hart, Teresa L.; Cho, Young Ik; Strath, Scott J.



Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.



Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a common pathology with increasing incidence, and is associated with increased mortality and healthcare costs. Several treatment options for obesity are currently available ranging from behavioral modifications to pharmaceutical agents. Many popular dietary supplements claim to enhance weight loss by acting as metabolic stimulators, however direct tests of their effect on metabolism have not been performed. Purpose This work identified the effects popular dietary supplements on metabolic rate and mitochondrial biosynthesis in human skeletal muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with popular dietary supplements at varied doses for 24 hours. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), an important stimulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis, was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Mitochondrial content was measured using flow cytometry confirmed with confocal microscopy. Glycolytic metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Total relative metabolism was quantified using WST-1 end point assay. Results Treatment of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells with dietary supplements OxyElite Pro (OEP) or Cellucore HD (CHD) induced PGC-1? leading to significantly increased mitochondrial content. Glycolytic and oxidative capacities were also significantly increased following treatment with OEP or CHD. Conclusion This is the first work to identify metabolic adaptations in muscle cells following treatment with popular dietary supplements including enhanced mitochondrial biosynthesis, and glycolytic, oxidative and total metabolism.



Increasing Treatment Seeking Among At-Risk Service Members Returning from Warzones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose a randomized controlled clinical trial of 1,200 military service members who are at increased risk for suicide but not currently in behavioral health treatment for the purpose of determining if a brief intervention improves the initiation of tr...

T. Stecker



An increasing number of calcium oxalate stone events worsens treatment outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of calcium oxalate stone events worsens treatment outcome. Current practice recommends metabolic evaluation of patients who have formed multiple renal stones, but not those with one stone or temporally remote stones. This presumes that recentness and recurrence imply greater risk of new future stones. We hypothesize that number of stones reflects how long patients are permitted to

Joan H Parks; Fredric L Coe



Increase in RF surface resistance of niobium as a result of acid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have systematically studied the effect on R s (surface resistance) of several different acid mixtures and the conditions of their use. Reverse electropolishing, which generates large quantities of hydrogen at the niobium surface, can drastically increase Rs. Rs can be decreased by subsequent heat treatment for 2 h at 200-300°C, indicating that the hydrogen is concentrated in a

D. Moffat; P. Barnes; J. Kirchgessner; H. Padamsee; J. Potts; D. Rubin; J. Sears; Q. ShuS; D. Proch



Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin increases antibody titers after hepatitis B vaccination in dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin increases antibody titers after hepatitis B vaccination in dialysis patients. The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on the immune system of hemodialysis patients has been studied by evaluating their response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccination. Fifty hemodialysis patients were given four doses of 20 ?g recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine (SKF) at an interval

Jacques J Sennesael; Patricia Van der Niepen; Dierik L Verbeelen



Increased bcl-2 Protein Levels in Rat Primary Astrocyte Culture Following Chronic Lithium Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 protein, bcl-2, is an important anti-apoptotic factor that has been implicated in lithium’s neuroprotective effect. However, most studies have focused on assessing the effects of lithium in neurons, ignoring examination of bcl-2 in astrocytes, which also influence neuronal survival and are affected in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic lithium treatment also elevates bcl-2 expression in astrocytes compared with neuronal and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures. Methods: Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal, and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures were prepared from the cerebral cortices of 18-day embryos. The cell cultures were treated with lithium (1 mM) or vehicle for 24 h or 7 days. Thereafter, bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Results: Chronic, but not acute, lithium treatment significantly increased bcl-2 protein levels in the astrocyte cultures compared with the vehicle-treated cultures. While lithium treatment increased bcl-2 protein levels in both neuronal and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures, the elevations fell short of statistical significance compared with the respective vehicle-treated cultures. However, neither acute nor chronic lithium treatment affected bcl-2 mRNA levels in any of the three cell types studied. Conclusion: Increased bcl-2 levels in rat primary astrocyte cultures following chronic lithium treatment suggest astrocytes are also a target of lithium’s action. In light of the evidence showing decreased numbers of glial cells in the post-mortem brain of patients bipolar disorder with and increased glial numbers following lithium treatment, the findings of this study indicate that lithium’s action on astrocytes may account, at least in part, for its therapeutic effects in bipolar disorder.

Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; J. Warsh, Jerry; Zare, Hamid Reza



Increasing the critical time step: micro-inertia, inertia penalties and mass scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explicit time integration is a popular method to simulate the dynamical behaviour of a system. Unfortunately, explicit time integration is only conditionally stable: the time step must be chosen not larger than the so-called "critical time step", otherwise the numerical solution may become unstable. To reduce the CPU time needed to carry out simulations, it is desirable to explore methods that increase the critical time step, which is the main objective of our paper. To do this, first we discuss and compare three approaches to increase the critical time step: micro-inertia formulations from continuum mechanics, inertia penalties which are used in computational mechanics, and mass scaling techniques that are mainly used in structural dynamics. As it turns out, the similarities between these methods are significant, and in fact they are identical in 1D if linear finite elements are used. This facilitates interpretation of the additional parameters in the various methods. Next, we derive, for a few simple finite element types, closed-form expressions for the critical time step with micro-structural magnification factors. Finally, we discuss computational overheads and some implementational details.

Askes, Harm; Nguyen, Duc C. D.; Tyas, Andy



Stability Switches in a Host-Pathogen Model as the Length of a Time Delay Increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destabilising effects of a time delay in mathematical models are well known. However, delays are not necessarily destabilising. In this paper, we explore an example of a biological system where a time delay can be both stabilising and destabilising. This example is a host-pathogen model, incorporating density-dependent prophylaxis (DDP). DDP describes when individual hosts invest more in immunity when population densities are high, due to the increased risk of infection in crowded conditions. In this system, as the delay length increases, there are a finite number of switches between stable and unstable behaviour. These stability switches are demonstrated and characterised using a combination of numerical methods and analysis.

Reynolds, Jennifer J. H.; Sherratt, Jonathan A.; White, Andrew



Erythropoietin treatment elevates haemoglobin concentration by increasing red cell volume and depressing plasma volume  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin (Epo) has been suggested to affect plasma volume, and would thereby possess a mechanism apart from erythropoiesis to increase arterial oxygen content. This, and potential underlying mechanisms, were tested in eight healthy subjects receiving 5000 IU recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) for 15 weeks at a dose frequency aimed to increase and maintain haematocrit at approximately 50%. Red blood cell volume was increased from 2933 ± 402 ml before rHuEpo treatment to 3210 ± 356 (P < 0.01), 3117 ± 554 (P < 0.05), and 3172 ± 561 ml (P < 0.01) after 5, 11 and 13 weeks, respectively. This was accompanied by a decrease in plasma volume from 3645 ± 538 ml before rHuEpo treatment to 3267 ± 333 (P < 0.01), 3119 ± 499 (P < 0.05), and 3323 ± 521 ml (P < 0.01) after 5, 11 and 13 weeks, respectively. Concomitantly, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were reduced. This maintained blood volume relatively unchanged, with a slight transient decrease at week 11, such that blood volume was 6578 ± 839 ml before rHuEpo treatment, and 6477 ± 573 (NS), 6236 ± 908 (P < 0.05), and 6495 ± 935 ml (NS), after 5, 11 and 13 weeks of treatment. We conclude that Epo treatment in healthy humans induces an elevation in haemoglobin concentration by two mechanisms: (i) an increase in red cell volume; and (ii) a decrease in plasma volume, which is probably mediated by a downregulation of the rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis. Since the relative contribution of plasma volume changes to the increments in arterial oxygen content was between 37.9 and 53.9% during the study period, this mechanism seems as important for increasing arterial oxygen content as the well-known erythropoietic effect of Epo.

Lundby, Carsten; Thomsen, Jonas Juhl; Boushel, Robert; Koskolou, Maria; Warberg, J?rgen; Calbet, Jose A L; Robach, Paul



Wait times from presentation to treatment for colorectal cancer: A population-based study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The wait time from cancer diagnosis to treatment has been a recent focus of cancer care in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in wait times from patient presentation to treatment (overall health system wait time [OWT]) for colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, diagnosed between 2001 and 2005, and their first definitive treatments were identified from the population-based Manitoba Cancer Registry (Winnipeg, Manitoba). By linkage to Manitoba Health and Healthy Living’s administrative databases, a patient’s first gastrointestinal investigation (abdominal radiological imaging, lower gastrointestinal endoscopy or fecal occult blood test) before CRC diagnosis was identified. The index contact with the health care system was estimated from the date of the visit with the physician who ordered the first gastroenterological investigation. The OWT was defined as the time from the index contact to the first treatment, while diagnostic delay was defined as the time from the index contact to the diagnosis of CRC. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of OWT. RESULTS: The OWT was estimated for 2552 cases of CRC over the five years that were examined. The median OWT increased from 61 days in 2001 to 95 days in 2005 (P<0.001). Most of the increase was in diagnostic wait times (median of 44 days in 2001 versus 64 days in 2005 [P<0.001]). Year of diagnosis, older age, urban residence and diagnosis at a teaching facility were independent predictors of OWT. CONCLUSIONS: The OWT from presentation to treatment of CRC in Manitoba steadily increased between 2001 and 2005, mostly due to diagnostic delays.

Singh, H; De Coster, C; Shu, E; Fradette, K; Latosinksy, S; Pitz, M; Cheang, M; Turner, D



Economic evaluation of the photo-Fenton process. Mineralization level and reaction time: the keys for increasing plant efficiency.  


The use of the solar photo-Fenton process is proposed to degrade Paracetamol in water in order to form biodegradable reaction intermediates which can be finally removed with a downstream biological treatment. Firstly, biodegradability enhancement with photo-Fenton treatment time has been evaluated; the minimum mineralization level should be at least 18.6% where Paracetamol has been degraded and biodegradability efficiency is higher than 40%. 20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 200 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2) were selected in a lab-scale study looking at Paracetamol's degradation rate and organic carbon mineralization rate. As a result of scaling up the process at a pilot plant, 157.5 mg L(-1) of Paracetamol (?1 mM) was treated in 25 min of photo-Fenton treatment achieving the desired biodegradability. A further economic evaluation shows how the proposed treatment strategy markedly increases plant efficiency, resulting in an 83.33% reduction in reagent cost and a 79.11% reduction in costs associated with reaction time. Total cost is reduced from 3.4502 €/m(3) to 0.7392 €/m(3). PMID:21232848

Santos-Juanes Jordá, L; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Ortega Gómez, E; Cabrera Reina, A; Román Sánchez, I M; Casas López, J L; Sánchez Pérez, J A



Elevation of night-time temperature increases terpenoid emissions from Betula pendula and Populus tremula  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to have an important role in plant adaptation to high temperatures. The impacts of increasing night-time temperature on daytime terpenoid emissions and related gene expression in silver birch (Betula pendula) and European aspen (Populus tremula) clones were studied. The plants were grown under five different night-time temperatures (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22?°C) while daytime temperature was kept at a constant 22?°C. VOC emissions were collected during the daytime and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In birch, emissions per leaf area of the C11 homoterpene 4,8-dimethy1-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT) and several sesquiterpenes were consistently increased with increasing night-time temperature. Total sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions showed an increase at higher temperatures. In aspen, emissions of DMNT and ?-ocimene increased from 6?°C to 14?°C, while several other monoterpenes and the SQTs (Z,E)-?-farnesene and (E,E)-?-farnesene increased up to 18?°C. Total monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission peaked at 18?°C, whereas isoprene emissions decreased at 22?°C. Leaf area increased across the temperature range of 6–22?°C by 32% in birch and by 59% in aspen. Specific leaf area (SLA) was also increased in both species. The genetic regulation of VOC emissions seems to be very complex, as indicated by several inverse relationships between emission profiles and expression of several regulatory genes (DXR, DXS, and IPP). The study indicates that increasing night temperature may strongly affect the quantity and quality of daytime VOC emissions of northern deciduous trees.

Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; Maenpaa, Maarit; Hassinen, Viivi; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Malec, Lukas; Rousi, Matti; Pietikainen, Liisa; Tervahauta, Arja; Karenlampi, Sirpa; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Oksanen, Elina J.



Increasing the coherence time of Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometers with optical control of dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Atom interferometers using Bose-Einstein condensate that is confined in a waveguide and manipulated by optical pulses have been limited by their short coherence times. We present a theoretical model that offers a physically simple explanation for the loss of contrast and propose the method for increasing the fringe contrast by recombining the atoms at a different time. A simple, quantitatively accurate, analytical expression for the optimized recombination time is presented and used to place limits on the physical parameters for which the contrast may be recovered.

Stickney, James A.; Zozulya, Alex A. [Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 (United States); Anderson, Dana Z. [Department of Physics and JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)



Increasing the coherence time of Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometers with optical control of dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atom interferometers using Bose-Einstein condensate that is confined in a waveguide and manipulated by optical pulses have been limited by their short coherence times. We present a theoretical model that offers a physically simple explanation for the loss of contrast and propose the method for increasing the fringe contrast by recombining the atoms at a different time. A simple, quantitatively accurate, analytical expression for the optimized recombination time is presented and used to place limits on the physical parameters for which the contrast may be recovered.

Stickney, James A.; Anderson, Dana Z.; Zozulya, Alex A.



Surgical Operative Time Increases the Risk of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Robotic Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of operative time on the risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: We reviewed the records of all patients at our institution who underwent RARP by a single surgeon from January 2007 until April 2011. Clinical and pathologic information and VTE incidence were recorded for each patient and analyzed by use of logistic regression to evaluate for association with VTE risk. All patients had mechanical prophylaxis, and beginning in February 2008, a single dose of unfractionated heparin, 5000 U, was administered before surgery. Results: A total of 549 consecutive patients were identified, with a median follow-up period of 8 months. During the initial 30 days postoperatively, 10 patients (1.8%) had a VTE (deep venous thrombosis in 7 and pulmonary embolism in 3). The median operative time was 177 minutes (range, 121–360 minutes). An increase in operative time of 30 or 60 minutes was associated with 1.6 and 2.8 times increased VTE risks. A 5-point increase in body mass index and need for blood transfusion were also associated with increased risk of VTEs (odds ratios of 2.0 and 11.8, respectively). Heparin prophylaxis was not associated with a significant VTE risk reduction but also was not associated with a significant increase in estimated blood loss (P = .23) or transfusion rate (P = .37). Conclusion: A prolonged operative time increases the risk of symptomatic VTEs after RARP. Future studies are needed to evaluate the best VTE prophylactic approach in patients at risk.

Wong, Kelvin; Sado, Martins; Leverson, Glen E.; Patel, Sutchin R.; Downs, Tracy M.; Jarrard, David F.



Kudzu Extract Treatment Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol in Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Isoflavone administration in the form of a purified extract from the herbal medication kudzu root has been shown to reduce, but not eliminate, alcohol consumption in alcohol-abusing and alcohol-dependent men. The precise mechanism of this action is unknown, but one possible explanation for these results is that the isoflavones in kudzu might actually increase the intensity or duration of alcohol’s effects and thus delay the desire for subsequent drinks. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods Twelve (12) healthy adult men and women (27.5±1.89 yrs old) who consumed moderate amounts of alcohol (7.8±0.63 drinks/week) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which they were treated with either kudzu extract (total isoflavone dose of 750 mg/day) or matched placebo for nine days. On days 8 and 9, participants received an acute challenge of ethyl alcohol (either 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg alcohol). During the challenges the following measures were collected: subjective effects, psychomotor (body sway), cognitive performance (vigilance/reaction time), physiological measures (heart rate and skin temperature), and plasma ethanol concentration. Results Alcohol resulted in a dose-related alteration in subjective measures of intoxication, impairment of stance stability, and vigilance/reaction time. Kudzu extract did not alter participants’ subjective responses to the alcohol challenge or to alcohol’s effects on stance stability or vigilance/reaction time. However, individuals treated with kudzu extract experienced a slightly more rapid rise in plasma ethanol levels, but only after the 0.7 g/kg dose. This transient effect during the first 30 minutes of the ascending plasma alcohol curve lasted only 10-15 minutes; there were no differences in peak plasma alcohol levels or alcohol elimination kinetics. Additionally, kudzu pretreatment enhanced the effects of the 0.7 g/kg dose of alcohol on heart rate and skin temperature. Conclusions These data suggest that individuals who drink alcohol while being treated with kudzu extract experience no adverse consequences and further, the reported reductions in alcohol intake after kudzu extract treatment are not related to an alteration in alcohol’s subjective or psychomotor effects.

Penetar, David M.; MacLean, Robert R.; McNeil, Jane F.; Lukas, Scott E.



AMPK expression and phosphorylation are increased in rodent muscle after chronic leptin treatment.  


We have previously reported that chronic leptin administration (2 wk) increases fatty acid (FA) oxidation and triacylglycerol hydrolysis in rodent soleus muscle. Acute stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) results in a repartitioning of FA toward oxidation and away from esterification in rodent soleus muscle and has recently been shown to be responsible, at least in part, for the acute stimulatory effect of leptin on FA oxidation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the effects of chronic leptin treatment on muscle FA metabolism are mediated in part through an increased expression and/or activation of AMPK and a subsequent phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and a decrease in malonyl-CoA content. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were infused for 2 wk with leptin (0.5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) using subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps. Control and pair-fed animals received saline-filled implants. Leptin levels were elevated approximately fourfold (P < 0.001) in treated animals, relative to controls. Chronic leptin treatment resulted in an approximately 2- to 3-fold greater protein expression of AMPK catalytic (alpha(2)) and regulatory (beta(2)) units as well as a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in Thr(172) phosphorylation of AMPK in both soleus and white gastrocnemius muscles. The increased expression/phosphorylation of AMPK was not the result of an altered energy status of the muscle. Correspondingly, there was also a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation after leptin treatment in soleus and white gastrocnemius. In spite of the measured increase in ACC phosphorylation after leptin treatment, we were unable to detect a decrease in resting malonyl-CoA content in either muscle. However, taken as a whole, our data support recent evidence in rodent muscle that leptin stimulates FA oxidation through stimulation of AMPK and a subsequent downregulation of ACC activity. PMID:12441311

Steinberg, Gregory R; Rush, James W E; Dyck, David J



Acceptability of adolescents' occlusion in Finnish municipal health centres with differing timing of orthodontic treatment.  


The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability of occlusion among orthodontically treated and untreated adolescents in eight Finnish municipal health centres applying different timing of treatment. A random sample of 16- and 18-year olds (n = 2325) living in these municipalities was invited for a clinical examination, and 1109 adolescents participated. Two calibrated orthodontists blindly examined the participants for the acceptability of occlusion with the Occlusal Morphology and Function Index. The history of orthodontic treatment was elicited by questionnaire. The impact of the history and timing of treatment on the acceptability of occlusion was analysed with logistic regression analysis. The history of orthodontic treatment decreased the odds for acceptability of morphology [odds ratio (OR) = 0.719, 95 per cent confidence limit (CL), P = 0.016] and acceptability of function (OR = 0.724, 95 per cent CL, P = 0.018). The early timing of treatment increased the odds for acceptability of morphology (OR = 1.370, 95 per cent CL, P = 0.042) and of function (OR = 1.420, 95 per cent CL, P = 0.023). No substantial differences were observed in the acceptability of occlusion between the early and late timing health centres. However, the proportion of subjects with acceptable occlusion was slightly higher in the early than in the late timing group. These findings suggest that when examining the effect of timing on treatment outcome, factors other than acceptability of occlusion should be concomitantly evaluated. Consequently, in this context, the duration and cost of treatment need to be investigated. PMID:19755611

Pietilä, Ilpo; Pietilä, Terttu; Svedström-Oristo, Anna-Liisa; Varrela, Juha; Alanen, Pentti



Improving Reading Achievement Through Increased Motivation, Specific Skill Enhancement, and Practice Time for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The action research project report began when the teacher researchers determined that students at Sites A and B struggled with reading achievement. The purpose of the project was to improve students' reading achievement through increased motivation, specific skill instruction, and additional practice time. The project involved 26 students: 17…

Ecklund, Britt K.; Lamon, Kathryn M.



Improving Student Attitudes and Writing Abilities through Increased Writing Time and Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving student abilities and attitudes toward writing through increased writing time and opportunities. The targeted population consists of second, third, fourth, and fifth grade students at the elementary level in a growing middle class community located in the northwest suburban area of Chicago, Illinois.…

Gau, Elisabeth; Hermanson, Jennifer; Logar, Michele; Smerek, Christine


Proper accounting for time increases crop-based biofuels' greenhouse gas deficit versus petroleum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global warming intensities of crop-based biofuels and fossil fuels differ not only in amount but also in their discharge patterns over time. Early discharges, for example, from market-mediated land use change, will have created more global warming by any time in the future than later discharges, owing to the slow decay of atmospheric CO2. A spreadsheet model of this process, BTIME, captures this important time pattern effect using the Bern CO2 decay model to allow fuels to be compared for policy decisions on the basis of their real warming effects with a variety of user-supplied parameter values. The model also allows economic discounting of climate effects extended far into the future. Compared to approaches that simply sum greenhouse gas emissions over time, recognizing the physics of atmospheric CO2 decay significantly increases the deficit relative to fossil fuel of any biofuel causing land use change.

O'Hare, M.; Plevin, R. J.; Martin, J. I.; Jones, A. D.; Kendall, A.; Hopson, E.



Adolescent silymarin treatment increases anxiety-like behaviors in adult mice.  


Adolescence is one of the most important periods of brain development in mammals. There is increasing evidence that some medicines during this period can affect brain and behavioral functions in adulthood. Silymarin (SM), a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum, is known as a hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective drug. Although researchers have extensively studied the effects of SM during adulthood, to date there is no information on the effects of this drug during the stages of brain development on behavioral functions in adulthood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of adolescent SM treatment on body weight and anxiety-like behaviors in adult male and female mice. Adolescent NMRI mice (postnatal day 30-50) were treated orally with water or SM (50 and 100?mg/kg). Animals were weighed during drug treatment and were then subjected to open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box tests from postnatal day 70. The results indicated that adolescent SM treatment increased anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box in adult mice, while not altering body weight. Collectively, these findings suggest that adolescent SM treatment may have profound effects on the development of brain and behavior in adulthood. PMID:24978280

Kosari-Nasab, Morteza; Rabiei, Afshin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar



Preweaning treatment with methamphetamine induces increases in both corticosterone and ACTH in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with methamphetamine (MA) on postnatal days P11–20 induces adult spatial learning and memory deficits without affecting monoamine levels in various brain regions. In this study, we examined the pituitary and adrenal response of animals administered MA four times daily on P11, P11–15, or from P11 to P20. Corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels were assessed over a 1-hour

Michael T Williams; Sandra L Inman-Wood; LaRonda L Morford; Anne E McCrea; Amie M Ruttle; Mary S Moran; Stephanie L Rock; Charles V Vorhees



MD Anderson study shows new approach connecting smokers to quit lines increases smoking cessation treatment enrollment

Self-identified smokers directly connected to a tobacco cessation quit line are 13 times more likely to enroll in a treatment program as compared to smokers who are handed a quit line referral card and encouraged to call on their own, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and published online in JAMA Internal Medicine.


[Clinical significance of and treatment options for increased lipoprotein(a)].  


Lipoprotein(a) has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases for decades. However, only recent research revealed more about its physiological function and its role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The authors summarize the physiological role of lipoprotein(a), causes and treatment of elevated lipoprotein(a) level, and the association between lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24733102

Zsíros, Noémi; Paragh, György; Harangi, Mariann



Continuous retrograde blood cardioplegia ensures prolonged aortic cross-clamping time without increasing the operative risk.  


The aim of this study was to assess whether the continuous retrograde blood cardioplegia ensures prolonged aortic cross-clamping time without increasing the operative risk. From 1996 to 2003, 204 consecutive patients who had cardiac procedure requiring aortic cross-clamping time > or = 150 min, were prospectively included in this study: low risk group (EuroSCORE < or = 2) 50 patients, medium risk group (EuroSCORE 3-5) 68 patients, high risk group (EuroSCORE > or = 6) 86 patients. The myocardial protection associated induction of cardiac arrest by antegrade injection of hyperkalemic warm blood, continuous retrograde intermediate lukewarm (20 degrees C) blood cardioplegia, retrograde warm blood reperfusion and systemic normothermia. The mean aortic clamping time was 187+/-45 min (range 150-436 min). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 245+/-73 min (range 168-653 min). The operative mortality was 8.3% (17 patients). The mean predicted mortality of the population studied (EuroSCORE logistic method) was 8.4%+/-12 (range 0.87%-76.15%) with a 95% confidence interval of 6.7% to 10%. The observed mortality was not different from the predicted mortality. Continuous retrograde intermediate lukewarm blood cardioplegia associated with systemic normothermia allows prolonged aortic clamping time for complex intervention without increase of operative mortality and morbidity. PMID:17670602

Bezon, Eric; Choplain, Jean Noël; Khalifa, Ahmed Abdel Aziz; Numa, Habib; Salley, Nicolas; Barra, Jean Aubert



A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ?1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

Fuangrod, Todsaporn [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada) [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kuncic, Zdenka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)



Increasing the electron spin coherence time by coherent optical control of the nuclear spin fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single electron spin plays a central role for spin-based quantum information science and electronic devices. One crucial requirement for the future success is to have a long quantum coherence time. It has been demonstrated that in III-V materials, the electron spin coherence time deteriorates rapidly due to the hyperfine coupling with the nuclear environment. Here, we report the increase of the electron spin coherence time by optical controlled suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations through coherent dark-state spectroscopy. The experiment is performed in a single negatively charged InAs self assembled quantum dot (SAQD). The dynamic nuclear spin polarization manifests itself as a hysteresis in the probe absorption spectrum and in the spectral position of the dark state as a function of the frequency scanning direction of the probe field. We demonstrated that the nuclear field can be locked to the maximum trion excitation by observing a flat-top of the trion absorption lineshape, and the switching of the nuclei from unstable to stable configurations by fixing the laser frequencies and monitoring the coherent optical response as a function of time. The optically controlled locking of the nuclear field leads to an enhancement of the electron spin coherence time, which is measured through dark state spectroscopy. The suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations result from a hole spin assisted dynamic nuclear spin polarization feed-back process. We further demonstrated the electron spin coherence enhancement by a three-beam measurement, where two-pump beams lock the nuclear field and the third probe measures the coherence time through the dark state. The inferred spin coherence time is increased by nearly 3 orders of magnitude compared to its thermal value. Our work lays the groundwork for the reproducible preparation of the nuclear spin environment for repetitive control and measurement of a single spin with minimal statistical broadening.

Xu, Xiaodong



Work function increase of indium-tin-oxide surfaces by atmospheric air plasma treatment with steady-state airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric air-plasma treatment of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surfaces has been investigated as an alternative to a conventional oxygen (O2) vacuum plasma process. For this study, we devised an atmospheric air barrier plasma system having a dimension of 1000×600 mm2 and successfully verified a possibility to ignite and maintain an atmospheric pressure discharge only in the ambient air. In particular, we used the steady-state airflow to generate more atomic oxygen radicals as oxygen gas during the vacuum plasma process and to prevent redeposition of the removed or transformed impurities onto the indium-tin-oxide substrate. The x-ray photoemission spectroscopy examination indicated that the adoption of the atmospheric-air plasma treatment reduced the surface content of carbon from 22.1% down to 8.5% and increased that of oxygen from 43% up to 57%. According to the photoelectron spectrometer (AC-1, RIKKEN) result, we obtained a work function of 5.11 eV for the treated ITO surfaces after 1 min treatment time, which is higher than that of 4.87 eV for the untreated ITO surface. Consequently, we can effectively remove the carbon contamination and increase the work function of the ITO surface by means of the atmospheric air plasma treatment with steady-state airflow.

Choi, Jai Hyuk; Lee, Eung Suok; Choi, Sang Hun; Baik, Hong Koo; Song, Kie Moon; Lim, Yong Sik; Lee, Seong-Min



Teriparatide (PTH 1-34) Treatment Increases Peripheral Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Postmenopausal Women.  


Cells of the osteoblast lineage play an important role in regulating the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche and early B-cell development in animal models, perhaps via parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent mechanisms. There are few human clinical studies investigating this phenomenon. We studied the impact of long-term daily teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment on cells of the hematopoietic lineage in postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture received teriparatide 20 mcg sc daily for 24 months as part of a prospective longitudinal trial. Whole blood measurements were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Flow cytometry was performed to identify hematopoietic subpopulations, including HSCs (CD34+/CD45(moderate); ISHAGE protocol) and early transitional B cells (CD19+, CD27-, IgD+, CD24[hi], CD38[hi]). Serial measurements of spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) as well as serum P1NP, osteocalcin, and CTX were also performed. The average age of study subjects was 64?±?5 years. We found that teriparatide treatment led to an early increase in circulating HSC number of 40%?±?14% (p?=?0.004) by month 3, which persisted to month 18 before returning to near baseline by 24 months. There were no significant changes in transitional B cells or total B cells over the course of the study period. In addition, there were no differences in complete blood count profiles as quantified by standard automated flow cytometry. Interestingly, the peak increase in HSC number was inversely associated with increases in bone markers and spine BMD. Daily teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis increases circulating HSCs by 3 to 6 months in postmenopausal women. This may represent a proliferation of marrow HSCs or increased peripheral HSC mobilization. This clinical study establishes the importance of PTH in the regulation of the HSC niche within humans. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24420643

Yu, Elaine W; Kumbhani, Ruchit; Siwila-Sackman, Erica; DeLelys, Michelle; Preffer, Frederic I; Leder, Benjamin Z; Wu, Joy Y



Modeling the variability of single-cell lag times for Listeria innocua populations after sublethal and lethal heat treatments.  


Optical density measurements were used to estimate the effect of heat treatments on the single-cell lag times of Listeria innocua fitted to a shifted gamma distribution. The single-cell lag time was subdivided into repair time (the shift of the distribution assumed to be uniform for all cells) and adjustment time (varying randomly from cell to cell). After heat treatments in which all of the cells recovered (sublethal), the repair time and the mean and the variance of the single-cell adjustment time increased with the severity of the treatment. When the heat treatments resulted in a loss of viability (lethal), the repair time of the survivors increased with the decimal reduction of the cell numbers independently of the temperature, while the mean and variance of the single-cell adjustment times remained the same irrespective of the heat treatment. Based on these observations and modeling of the effect of time and temperature of the heat treatment, we propose that the severity of a heat treatment can be characterized by the repair time of the cells whether the heat treatment is lethal or not, an extension of the F value concept for sublethal heat treatments. In addition, the repair time could be interpreted as the extent or degree of injury with a multiple-hit lethality model. Another implication of these results is that the distribution of the time for cells to reach unacceptable numbers in food is not affected by the time-temperature combination resulting in a given decimal reduction. PMID:18820061

Métris, A; George, S M; Mackey, B M; Baranyi, J



Protracted treatment with diazepam increases the turnover of putative endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine/beta-carboline recognition site.  

PubMed Central

DBI (diazepam-binding inhibitor) is a putative neuromodulatory peptide isolated from rat brain that acts on gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine-Cl- ionophore receptor complex inducing beta-carboline-like effects. We used a cDNA probe complementary to DBI mRNA and a specific antibody for rat DBI to study in rat brain how the dynamic state of DBI can be affected after protracted (three times a day for 10 days) treatment with diazepam and chlordiazepoxide by oral gavage. Both the content of DBI and DBI mRNA increased in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex but failed to change in the hippocampus and striatum of rats receiving this protracted benzodiazepine treatment. Acute treatment with diazepam did not affect the dynamic state of brain DBI. An antibody was raised against a biologically active octadecaneuropeptide (Gln-Ala-Thr-Val-Gly-Asp-Val-Asn-Thr-Asp-Arg-Pro-Gly-Leu-Leu-Asp-Leu-Lys ) derived from the tryptic digestion of DBI. The combined HPLC/RIA analysis of rat cerebellar extracts carried out with this antibody showed that multiple molecular forms of the octadecaneuropeptide-like reactivity are present and all of them are increased in rats receiving repeated daily injections of diazepam. It is inferred that tolerance to benzodiazepines is associated with an increase in the turnover rate of DBI, which may be responsible for the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor desensitization that occurs after protracted benzodiazepine administration. Images

Miyata, M; Mocchetti, I; Ferrarese, C; Guidotti, A; Costa, E



Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.  


The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans. PMID:20937863

Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J



Ambush frequency should increase over time during optimal predator search for prey  

PubMed Central

We advance and apply the mathematical theory of search games to model the problem faced by a predator searching for prey. Two search modes are available: ambush and cruising search. Some species can adopt either mode, with their choice at a given time traditionally explained in terms of varying habitat and physiological conditions. We present an additional explanation of the observed predator alternation between these search modes, which is based on the dynamical nature of the search game they are playing: the possibility of ambush decreases the propensity of the prey to frequently change locations and thereby renders it more susceptible to the systematic cruising search portion of the strategy. This heuristic explanation is supported by showing that in a new idealized search game where the predator is allowed to ambush or search at any time, and the prey can change locations at intermittent times, optimal predator play requires an alternation (or mixture) over time of ambush and cruise search. Thus, our game is an extension of the well-studied ‘Princess and Monster’ search game. Search games are zero sum games, where the pay-off is the capture time and neither the Searcher nor the Hider knows the location of the other. We are able to determine the optimal mixture of the search modes when the predator uses a mixture which is constant over time, and also to determine how the mode mixture changes over time when dynamic strategies are allowed (the ambush probability increases over time). In particular, we establish the ‘square root law of search predation’: the optimal proportion of active search equals the square root of the fraction of the region that has not yet been explored.

Alpern, Steve; Fokkink, Robbert; Timmer, Marco; Casas, Jerome



Increasing model complexity in simulating phosphorus dynamics in a large treatment wetland: does it matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the structure of ecological models grows more complex, it becomes increasingly important to identify the appropriate level of complexity for reliable process description and prediction. Here, a suite of mechanistic biogeochemical models with increasing level of complexity for representing phosphorus cycling processes was developed and tested against observations from a large treatment wetland. The study site was the 147-ha Cell 4 of Stormwater Treatment Area 1 West, which was designed to help protect the greater Everglades, FL, USA from nutrient over-enrichment. The biogeochemical models were coupled with a pre-calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Cell 4. We provide guidance for evaluating a set of models with varying level of process complexity using key model attributes that influence the suitability of a model or a set of models. Considerations of model accuracy, complexity, and explanatory depth are combined into a single indicator of model effectiveness. Results revealed that the most complex model structure may not necessarily the most effective in simulating the dynamics of total phosphorus concentrations in the wetland. The rate of improvement in the model performance decreased as model complexity increased. Although the most complex model reproduced the field observations best, the marginal improvement in model performance compared to simpler models was outweighed by the higher costs of increased complexity. Highly detailed representations of system structures may not be useful to simulate total phosphorus dynamics in treatment wetlands if comprehensive data sets are not available to constrain each pathway in the model. It is crucial for model developers and users to evaluate model structures of differing complexity to identify the optimal level of model complexity for given data and questions of interest.

Paudel, R.; Jawitz, J. W.



Increased immunosuppressive treatment combined with unrelated umbilical cord blood infusion in children with severe aplastic anemia.  


A combination treatment of unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) and increased immunosuppressive treatment (IST) were investigated to reveal the potentially curative therapy for the severe aplastic anemia (SAA). A total of 36 children (2-17 ages) with SAA who received UCB infusion after an IST were analyzed. The treatment consisted of 100mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 12.5-15mg/kg antithymocyte globulin and 3mg/kg cyclosporine. After 3months, the hematologic complete response (CR) rate was 22.2% and partial response (PR) rate was 38.9%. After 6months, the CR rate and PR rate was 50.4% and 26.3%, respectively. The probability of 3-year survival was 83.3%. There was no difference in the survival rate either between the horse-ATG and rabbit-ATG or between the SAA and VSAA. The results indicated that the increased IST combined with unrelated UCB infusion has an effective therapeutic potential for children with SAA who lack of compatible donor for transplantation. PMID:24838091

Xie, Lin-Na; Fang, Yuan; Yu, Zhe; Song, Ning-Xia; Kong, Fan-Sheng; Liu, Xi-Min; Zhou, Fang



Serum brain-type creatine kinase increases in children with osteogenesis imperfecta during neridronate treatment.  


Background:Creatine kinase (Ck) catalyzes the reversible transfer of high-energy phosphate groups between adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine. The brain isoform (Ckbb) is greatly induced in mature osteoclasts, playing an important role in bone-resorbing function during osteoclastogenesis. High Ckbb serum level has been found in patients with osteopetrosis and in patients with bisphosphonate (BP)-induced osteopetrosis. BPs are considered the treatment of choice for children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), acting as potent inhibitors of bone resorption by suppressing the activity of osteoclasts.Methods:We determined total serum Ck and isoform activity in 18 prepubertal children with type I OI, before and during treatment with the BP neridronate infusions.Results:Basal serum Ckbb levels were slightly elevated with respect to controls (mean ± SD = 3.0?±?2.7 vs. 2.0?±?2.2) and progressively increased after neridronate treatment (t0 vs. t4: mean ± SD = 3.0?±?2.7 to 10.8?±?8.1), with significant increment after first, second, and fourth infusions (P < 0.01). An inverse correlation was found between serum Ckbb and serum CTx at basal level.Conclusion:Our results support previous observations that increased serum Ckbb reflects failure of osteoclasts or, at least, suppression of osteoclasts. Upon considering that BPs are long acting, this information could be useful to prevent the risk of overtreatment after long-term BP exposure in pediatric patients with OI. PMID:24518563

D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Finocchiaro, Roberto; Villani, Ciro; Zambrano, Anna; Lodato, Valentina; Palombaro, Marta; Properzi, Enrico; Celli, Mauro



Increasing complexity: which drug class to choose for treatment of hypertension in the elderly?  

PubMed Central

Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is expected to become more complex in the coming decades. Based on the current landscape of clinical trials, guideline recommendations remain inconclusive. The present review discusses the latest evidence derived from studies available in 2013 and investigates optimal blood pressure (BP) and preferred treatment substances. Three common archetypes are discussed that hamper the treatment of hypertension in the very elderly. In addition, this paper presents the current recommendations of the NICE 2011, JNC7 2013-update, ESH/ESC 2013, CHEP 2013, JNC8 and ASH/ISH guidelines for elderly patients. Advantages of the six main substance classes, namely diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) are discussed. Medical and economic implications of drug administration in the very elderly are presented. Avoidance of treatment-related adverse effects has become increasingly relevant. Current substance classes are equally effective, with similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes. Selection of substances should therefore also be based on collateral advantages of drugs that extend beyond BP reduction. The combination of ACEIs and diuretics appears to be favorable in managing systolic/diastolic hypertension. Diuretics are a preferred and cheap combination drug, and the combination with CCBs is recommended for patients with isolated systolic hypertension. ACEIs and CCBs are favorable for patients with dementia, while CCBs and ARBs imply substantial cost savings due to high adherence.

Kaiser, Edelgard Anna; Lotze, Ulrich; Schafer, Hans Hendrik



Brief heat treatment increases cytotoxicity of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin in an LFA-1 independent manner  

PubMed Central

Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen in cattle. Its predominant virulence factor is a leukotoxin (LKT) that is a member of the RTX family of exotoxins produced by a variety of gram negative bacteria. LKT binds to the CD18 chain of ?2 integrins on bovine leukocytes, resulting in cell death. In this study, we show that brief heat treatment of native LKT (95 °C for 3 min) results in increased cytotoxicity for BL-3 (bovine lymphoblastoid) cells. Similar heat treatment restored the activity of LKT that had been rendered inactive by incubation at 22 °C for 3 days. A hallmark of LKT is that its toxicity is restricted to leukocytes from cattle or other ruminant species. Surprisingly, heat treatment rendered LKT cytotoxic for human, porcine and canine leukocytes. Membrane binding studies suggested that heat-treated LKT binds to membrane proteins other than LFA-1, and is distributed diffusely along the BL3 cell membrane. Circular Dichroism spectroscopy studies indicate that heat treatment induced a small change in the secondary structure of the LKT that was not reversed when the LKT was cooled to room temperature. Thus, we speculate that these structural changes might contribute to the altered biological properties of heat-treated LKT.

Atapattu, Dhammika N.; Aulik, Nicole A.; McCaslin, Darrell R.; Czuprynski, Charles J.



Increasing Physicians' and Nurses' Compliance with Treatment Guidelines in Cancer Care Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of the use of guidelines on the care of patients with breast, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers is reported. Audits of patient records revealed an increase over time in the percentage of recommended cancer care procedures that were complied with. (Author/MLW)

Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others



Increased reaction times and reduced response preparation already starts at middle age  

PubMed Central

Generalized slowing characterizes aging and there is some evidence to suggest that this slowing already starts at midlife. This study aims to assess reaction time changes while performing a concurrent low-force and high-force motor task in young and middle-aged subjects. The high-force motor task is designed to induce muscle fatigue and thereby progressively increase the attentional demands. Twenty-five young (20–30 years, 12 males) and 16 middle-aged (35–55 years, 9 males) adults performed an auditory two-choice reaction time task (CRT) with and without a concurrent low- or high-force motor task. The CRT required subjects to respond to two different stimuli that occurred with a probability of 70 or 30%. The motor task consisted of index finger abduction, at either 10% (10%-dual-task) or 30% (30%-dual-task) of maximal voluntary force. Cognitive task performance was measured as percentage of correct responses and reaction times. Middle-aged subjects responded slower on the frequent but more accurately on the infrequent stimuli of CRT than young subjects. Both young and middle-aged subjects showed increased errors and reaction times while performing under dual-task conditions and both outcome measures increased further under fatiguing conditions. Only under 30%-dual-task demands, an age-effect on dual-task performance was present. Both single- and dual-task conditions showed that already at mid-life response preparation is seriously declined and that subjects implement different strategies to perform a CRT task.

Wolkorte, Ria; Kamphuis, Janine; Zijdewind, Inge



Does psychostimulant treatment in children with ADHD increase later risk of substance use disorder?  


Psychostimulants are the first choice medication in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the proven high efficacy of psychostimulants, at least in the short term, for ADHD core symptoms, concerns continue to be raised on their adverse effects, including putative increased risk of substance use disorders (SUDs). A recent multicentre, case-control, longitudinal, prospective, European study by Groenman and colleagues found that treatment with psychostimulants in children with ADHD lowered the risk of SUDs in adolescence. However, this finding is at odds with other recent evidence concluding that ADHD children with and without medication treatment history did not significantly differ on any subsequent SUDs rates. In the present paper, we discuss the study by Groenman and colleagues in view of its methodological strengths and limitations, and we suggest possible implications for day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:24642169

Purgato, M; Cortese, S



Optimization of germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of minerals from leguminous sprouts.  


Germinated legumes are highly nutritious food especially for their enhanced iron bioavailability primarily because of reduction of phytates and increase in ascorbic acid with an advancement of germination period. Length of germination time followed by different heat treatments affect the nutritive value of leguminous sprouts. To optimize germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of iron from leguminous sprouts, three legumes namely, mungbean, chickpea and cowpea were germinated for three time periods followed by cooking of sprouts by two cooking methods ie. pressure cooking and microwaving. Optimized germination time for mungbean was 12, 16 and 20 h; 36, 48 and 60 h for chickpea and 16, 20 and 24 h for cowpea. Germination process increased ascorbic acid significantly in all the three legumes, the values being 8.24 to 8.87 mg/100 g in mungbean, 9.34 to 9.85 mg/100 g in chickpea and 9.12 to 9.68 mg/100 g in cowpea. Soaking and germination significantly reduced the phytin phosphorus in all the three legumes, the percent reduction being 5.3 to 16.1% during soaking and 25.7 to 46.4% during germination. The reduction in phytin phosphorus after pressure cooking was 9.6% in mungbean, 18.4% in chickpea and 6.1% in cowpea. The corresponding values during microwaving were 8.4, 19.7 and 4.5%. Mineral bioavailability as predicted by phytate:iron enhanced significantly with an increase in germination time. Further reduction i.e. 0.9 to 16.3% was observed in three legumes after the two heat treatments. The study concluded that the longer germination periods ie. 20 h for mungbean, 60 h for chickpea and 24 h for cowpea followed by pressure cooking for optimized time were suitable in terms of better iron availability. PMID:24803714

Bains, Kiran; Uppal, Veny; Kaur, Harpreet



Shear stress increases the residence time of adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  


Although ubiquitous, the processes by which bacteria colonize surfaces remain poorly understood. Here we report results for the influence of the wall shear stress on the early-stage adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 on glass and polydimethylsiloxane surfaces. We use image analysis to measure the residence time of each adhering bacterium under flow. Our main finding is that, on either surface, the characteristic residence time of bacteria increases approximately linearly as the shear stress increases (?0-3.5 Pa). To investigate this phenomenon, we used mutant strains defective in surface organelles (type I pili, type IV pili, or the flagellum) or extracellular matrix production. Our results show that, although these bacterial surface features influence the frequency of adhesion events and the early-stage detachment probability, none of them is responsible for the trend in the shear-enhanced adhesion time. These observations bring what we believe are new insights into the mechanism of bacterial attachment in shear flows, and suggest a role for other intrinsic features of the cell surface, or a dynamic cell response to shear stress. PMID:21244830

Lecuyer, Sigolene; Rusconi, Roberto; Shen, Yi; Forsyth, Alison; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto; Stone, Howard A



Increased plasma malondialdehyde and fructosamine in anemic H pylori infected patients: Effect of treatment  

PubMed Central

AIM: To unravel the possible association of malon-dialdehyde (MDA) and fructosamine in anemic H pylori infected patients and to observe the alteration in MDA and fructosamine levels in these patients after treatment for one month. METHODS: Fructosamine, MDA and glucose were estimated in 22 anemic H pylori infected patients and 16 healthy controls. Hematological parameters were also evaluated in both the groups using Sysmex-K-100 automated cell counter. The H pylori infected patients were randomly divided into two groups. H pylori infected patients in GroupIreceived both iron supplementation and anti-H pylori therapy, while patients in Group II received only iron supplementation. All the biochemical and hematological parameters were estimated after one month of treatment. RESULTS: In anemic H pylori infected patients, while MDA (5.41 ± 2.16 vs 2.26 ± 0.50; P < 0.05) and fructosamine (2.64 ± 0.93 vs 1.60 ± 0.35; P < 0.05) were significantly increased, iron (32.72 ± 14.93 vs 110.25 ± 26.58; P < 0.05), hemoglobin (6.9 ± 2.6 vs 12.66 ± 0.74; P < 0.05) and ferritin (28.82 ± 16.27 vs 140.43 ± 30.72; P < 0.05) levels were significantly decreased compared with the controls. With partial correlation analysis, fructosamine was found to have a significant positive correlation with MDA. In GroupI, while MDA level decreased significantly (3.11 ± 1.73 vs 5.50 ± 2.46; P < 0.05), there was a significant increase in iron (84.09 ± 29.51 vs 36.09 ± 17.81; P < 0.05), hemoglobin (10.40 ± 1.11 vs 7.42 ± 1.90; P < 0.05) and ferritin (116.91 ± 63.34 vs 30.46 ± 17.81; P < 0.05) levels after one month. There was no significant change in the levels of fructosamine in groupIafter treatment. Similarly, no significant alterations were noted in the levels of MDA, fructosamine, hemoglobin or ferritin in Group II patients after one month of treatment. CONCLUSION: An increased level of fructosamine and MDA was found in anemic H pylori infected patients. Present data supports the premise that lipid peroxides per se do play a role in the glycation of plasma proteins. Furthermore, the findings from this study indicate that treatment for both anemia and H pylori infections is required for lowering the levels of lipid peroxides in these patients.

Vijayan, G; Sundaram, RC; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul; Selvaraj, N; Rattina Dasse, N



Increasing the creation yield of shallow single defects in diamond by surface plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond close to the crystal surface are very promising magnetic field sensors with very high sensitivity. Here, we report the enhanced creation of very shallow (less than 3 nm below the diamond surface) NV centers by using fluorine and oxygen plasma treatment. We observe a four fold increase—from 0.11% to about 0.45% in the production yield when the sample surface is terminated with fluorine or oxygen atoms. This effect is explained by the stabilization of the NV's negative charge state which is influenced by the various defects present on the diamond surface.

Osterkamp, Christian; Scharpf, Jochen; Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan; Diemant, Thomas; Jürgen Behm, Rolf; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor



Increasing the creation yield of shallow single defects in diamond by surface plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect

Single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond close to the crystal surface are very promising magnetic field sensors with very high sensitivity. Here, we report the enhanced creation of very shallow (less than 3 nm below the diamond surface) NV centers by using fluorine and oxygen plasma treatment. We observe a four fold increase—from 0.11% to about 0.45% in the production yield when the sample surface is terminated with fluorine or oxygen atoms. This effect is explained by the stabilization of the NV's negative charge state which is influenced by the various defects present on the diamond surface.

Osterkamp, Christian; Scharpf, Jochen; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); Diemant, Thomas; Jürgen Behm, Rolf [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)



Techniques for increasing the update rate of real-time dynamic computer graphic displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes several techniques which may be used to increase the animation update rate of real-time computer raster graphic displays. The techniques were developed on the ADAGE RDS 3000 graphic system in support of the Advanced Concepts Simulator at the NASA Langley Research Center. The first technique involves pre-processing of the next animation frame while the previous one is being erased from the screen memory. The second technique involves the use of a parallel processor, the AGG4, for high speed character generation. The description of the AGG4 includes the Barrel Shifter which is a part of the hardware and is the key to the high speed character rendition. The final result of this total effort was a four fold increase in the update rate of an existing primary flight display from 4 to 16 frames per second.

Kahlbaum, W. M., Jr.



Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced considerably by node reduction with minimal changes in dosimetrical plan quality. Additional constraints are required to guarantee low-dose conformality and to avoid unacceptable skin dose.

Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)



Anti-VEGF Antibody Treatment of Glioblastoma Prolongs Survival But Results in Increased Vascular Cooption1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of the intense angiogenesis which is characteristic of glioblastoma. While genetic manipulation of VEGF/VEGF receptor expression has previously been shown to inhibit glioblastoma growth, to date, no study has examined the efficacy of pharmacologic blockade of VEGF activity as a means to inhibit intracranial growth of human glioblastoma. Using intraperitoneal administration of a neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody, we demonstrate that inhibition of VEGF significantly prolongs survival in athymic rats inoculated in the basal ganglia with G55 human glioblastoma cells. Systemic anti-VEGF inhibition causes decreased tumor vascularity as well as a marked increase in tumor cell apoptosis in intracranial tumors. Although intracranial glioblastoma tumors grow more slowly as a consequence of anti-VEGF treatment, the histologic pattern of growth suggests that these tumors adapt to inhibition of angiogenesis by increased infiltration and cooption of the host vasculature.

Rubenstein, James L; Kim, Jin; Ozawa, Tomoko; Zhang, Michael; Westphal, Manfred; Deen, Dennis F; Shuman, Marc A



Effects of air dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment time on surface properties of PBO fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the effects of air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment time on surface properties of poly( p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fiber were investigated. The surface characteristics of PBO fiber before and after the plasma treatments were analyzed by dynamic contact angle (DCA) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). DCA measurements indicated that the surface wettability of PBO fiber was improved significantly by increasing the fiber surface free energy via air DBD plasma treatments. The results were confirmed by the improvement of adhesion of a kind of thermoplastic resin to PBO fiber which was observed by SEM, showing that more resin was adhering evenly to the fiber surface. AFM measurement revealed that the surface topography of PBO fiber became more complicated and the surface roughness was greatly enhanced after the plasma treatments, and XPS analysis showed that some new polar groups (e.g. sbnd O sbnd C dbnd O) were introduced on plasma treated PBO fiber surface. The results of this study also showed that the surface properties of PBO fiber changed with the elongation of plasma treatment time.

Wang, Qian; Chen, Ping; Jia, Caixia; Chen, Mingxin; Li, Bin



Optimality of a time-dependent treatment profile during an epidemic  

PubMed Central

The emergence and spread of drug resistance is one of the most challenging public health issues in the treatment of some infectious diseases. The objective of this work is to investigate whether the effect of resistance can be contained through a time-dependent treatment strategy during the epidemic subject to an isoperimetric constraint. We apply control theory to a population dynamical model of influenza infection with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, and solve the associated control problem to find the optimal treatment profile that minimizes the cumulative number of infections (i.e. the epidemic final size). We consider the problem under the assumption of limited drug stockpile and show that as the size of stockpile increases, a longer delay in start of treatment is required to minimize the total number of infections. Our findings show that the amount of drugs used to minimize the total number of infections depends on the rate of de novo resistance regardless of the initial size of drug stockpile. We demonstrate that both the rate of resistance emergence and the relative transmissibility of the resistant strain play important roles in determining the optimal timing and level of treatment profile. AMS Subject Classification: 34, 49, 92

Jaberi-Douraki, Majid; Moghadas, Seyed M.



Olanzapine plus fluoxetine treatment increases Nt-3 protein levels in the rat prefrontal cortex.  


Evidence is emerging for a role for neurotrophins in the treatment of mood disorders. In this study, we evaluated the effects of chronic administration of fluoxetine, olanzapine and the combination of fluoxetine/olanzapine on the brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the rat brain. Wistar rats received daily injections of olanzapine (3 or 6 mg/kg) and/or fluoxetine (12.5 or 25mg/kg) for 28 days, and we evaluated for BDNF, NGF and NT-3 protein levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Our results showed that treatment with fluoxetine and olanzapine alone or in combination did not alter BDNF in the prefrontal cortex (p=0.37), hippocampus (p=0.98) and amygdala (p=0.57) or NGF protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (p=0.72), hippocampus (p=0.23) and amygdala (p=0.64), but NT-3 protein levels were increased by olanzapine 6 mg/kg/fluoxetine 25mg/kg combination in the prefrontal cortex (p=0.03), in the hippocampus (p=0.83) and amygdala (p=0.88) NT-3 protein levels did not alter. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that NT-3 could be involved in the effect of treatment with antipsychotic and antidepressant combination in mood disorders. PMID:21545827

Agostinho, Fabiano R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Ribeiro, Karine F; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Stertz, Laura; Panizzutti, Bruna S; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João



Time-related increases in cardiac concentrations of doxorubicinol could interact with doxorubicin to depress myocardial contractile function.  

PubMed Central

1. The present study evaluated the time-dependency of acute anthracycline cardiotoxicity by varying the duration of exposure of rabbit isolated atria to doxorubicin and determining changes (1) in contraction and relaxation and (2) in atrial concentrations of doxorubicin and its C-13 hydroxy metabolite, doxorubicinol. 2. Following addition of doxorubicin (175 microM) to atria, contractility (dF/dt), muscle stiffness (resting force, RF) and relaxation (90% relaxation time, 90% RT) were monitored for a 3.5 h period. 3. Doxorubicin (175 microM) progressively diminished mechanical function (decreased dF/dt, increased RF and prolonged 90% RT) over 3 h. Doxorubicinol (1.8 microM), however, failed to produce time-related cardiac dysfunction; it depressed contractile function and increased muscle stiffness during the first 30 min without causing additional cardiac dysfunction during the remaining 3 h of observation. Doxorubicinol had no effect on 90% RT. 4. During treatment with doxorubicin, atria contained considerably more doxorubicin than doxorubicinol (ratio of doxorubicin to doxorubicinol ranged from 778 to 74 at 0.5 and 3 h, respectively). Elevations of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in atria paralleled the degree of dysfunction of both contraction and relaxation; increases in muscle stiffness, however, were more closely associated with increases of doxorubicinol than doxorubicin. 5. To probe the relation between cardiac doxorubicinol and myocardial dysfunction further, without confounding effects of cardiac doxorubicin, concentration-response experiments with doxorubicinol (0.9-7.2 microM) were conducted. 6. Plots of doxorubicinol concentrations in atria vs contractility indicated that the cardiac concentration of doxorubicinol, at which contractility is reduced by 50%, is five fold lower in doxorubicin-treated than in doxorubicinol-treated preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Mushlin, P. S.; Cusack, B. J.; Boucek, R. J.; Andrejuk, T.; Li, X.; Olson, R. D.



High-dose steroid treatment increases free water transport in peritoneal dialysis patients.  


The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the molecular counterpart of the ultrasmall pore that mediates free water transport during peritoneal dialysis (PD). Proof-of-principle studies performed in rats have shown that treatment with corticosteroids upregulates the expression of AQP1 in the peritoneal capillaries, causing a significant increase in free water transport. Whether such a beneficial effect could be observed in end-stage renal disease patients treated by PD remains unknown. Peritoneal transport parameters were evaluated in three patients on PD, shortly before and after living-donor renal transplantation and treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone (1.0-1.2 g/m(2)). As compared with pre-transplantation values, the post-transplantation test revealed an ?2-fold increase in the sodium sieving and ultrasmall pore ultrafiltration volume, suggesting an effect on AQP1 water channels. In contrast, there was no change in the parameters of small solute transport. The direct involvement of AQP1 in these changes is suggested by the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the human peritoneum and the presence of conserved glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter of the human AQP1 gene. PMID:21940485

de Arteaga, Javier; Ledesma, Fabian; Garay, Gabriela; Chiurchiu, Carlos; de la Fuente, Jorge; Douthat, Walter; Massari, Pablo; Terryn, Sara; Devuyst, Olivier



Production of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in postmortem liver increases with time after death.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyric (GHB) acid, which is becoming popular as a drug of abuse, was shown by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to increase in mouse liver with time after death. The amount detected was 0.8 +/- 1.0 microg/g at 3 h after death, 4.7 +/- 1.5 microg/g at 24 h, and 8.8 +/- 0.8 microg/g at 72 h. Furthermore, GHB was detected in samples from deceased persons, at concentrations of 2.6-12.0 microg/g in liver, 0.4-7.3 microg/ml in blood, and 0-2.6 microg/ml in urine, but was not detected in the blood and urine of living persons. Although 1,4-butanediol has been suggested to be a precursor of GHB produced after death, 1,4-butanediol was not detected in any of our samples. Additionally, succinate semialdehyde arising from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transamination to GHB was also barely detectable in any of our samples. This study supports previous reports that GHB is a product of postmortem decomposition. Production of GHB increases with time after death in postmortem liver; since we were unable to identify endogenous 1,4-butanediol and succinate semialdehyde in our samples, the pathway of GHB production after death remains unclear. PMID:11888704

Sakurada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Iwase, Hirotaro; Yoshino, Mineo; Mukoyama, Harutaka; Takatori, Takehiko; Yoshida, Ken-ichi



Bronchioalveolar stem cells increase after mesenchymal stromal cell treatment in a mouse model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major complication of prematurity resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The pathology of BPD is multifactorial and leads to alveolar simplification and distal lung injury. Previous studies have shown a beneficial effect of systemic treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) leading to amelioration of the lung parenchymal and vascular injury in vivo in the hyperoxia murine model of BPD. It is possible that the beneficial response from the MSCs is at least in part due to activation of endogenous lung epithelial stem cells. Bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) are an adult lung stem cell population capable of self-renewal and differentiation in culture, and BASCs proliferate in response to bronchiolar and alveolar lung injury in vivo. Systemic treatment of neonatal hyperoxia-exposed mice with MSCs or MSC-CM led to a significant increase in BASCs compared with untreated controls. Treatment of BASCs with MSC-CM in culture showed an increase in growth efficiency, indicating a direct effect of MSCs on BASCs. Lineage tracing data in bleomycin-treated adult mice showed that Clara cell secretory protein-expressing cells including BASCs are capable of contributing to alveolar repair after lung injury. MSCs and MSC-derived factors may stimulate BASCs to play a role in the repair of alveolar lung injury found in BPD and in the restoration of distal lung cell epithelia. This work highlights the potential important role of endogenous lung stem cells in the repair of chronic lung diseases.

Tropea, Kristen A.; Leder, Eva; Aslam, Muhammad; Lau, Allison N.; Raiser, David M.; Lee, Joo-Hyeon; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Alex Mitsialis, S.; Kourembanas, Stella



Increased pond depth improves algal productivity and nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.  


Depth has been widely recognised as a crucial operational feature of a high rate algal pond (HRAP) as it modifies the amount of light and frequency at which microalgal cells are exposed to optimal light. To date, there has been little focus on the optimisation of microalgal performance in wastewater treatment HRAPs with respect to depth, with advice ranging from as shallow as possible to 100 cm deep. This paper investigates the seasonal performance of microalgae in wastewater treatment HRAPs operated at three different depths (200, 300 and 400 mm). Microalgal performance was measured in terms of biomass production and areal productivity, nutrient removal efficiency and photosynthetic performance. The overall areal productivity significantly increased with increasing depth. Areal productivity ranged from 134 to 200% higher in the 400 mm deep HRAP compared to the 200 mm deep HRAP. Microalgae in the 400 mm deep HRAP were more efficient at NH4-N uptake and were photosynthetically more efficient compared to microalgae in the 200 mm deep HRAP. A higher chlorophyll-a concentration in the 200 mm deep HRAP resulted in a decrease in photosynthetic performance, due to insufficient carbon supply, over the course of the day in summer (as indicated by lower ?, Pmax and oxygen production) compared to the 300 and 400 mm deep HRAPs. Based on these results, improved areal productivity and more wastewater can be treated per land area in the 400 mm deep HRAPs compared to 200 mm deep HRAPs without compromising wastewater treatment quality, while lowering capital and operational costs. PMID:24530547

Sutherland, Donna L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Craggs, Rupert J



The role of temperature increase rate in combinational hyperthermia chemotherapy treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy has been widely used in cancer treatment. Our previous study has shown that rapid rate hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy can synergistically kill cancer cells whereas a sub-additive effect was found when a slow rate hyperthermia was applied. In this study, we explored the basis of this difference. For this purpose, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, Caspase 3 activity, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) expression following the two different modes of heating were measured. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. Indocyanine green (ICG), which absorbs near infrared light at 808nm (ideal for tissue penetration), was chosen for achieving rapid rate hyperthermia. Slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. Two sets of thermal doses were delivered by either slow rate or rapid rate hyperthermia. HSP70 expression was highly elevated under low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while maintained at the baseline level under the other three treatments. Caspase3 level slightly increased after low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while necrotic cell death was found in the other three types of heat treatment. In conclusion, when given at the same thermal dose, slow rate hyperthermia is more likely to induce thermotolerance. Meanwhile, hyperthermia showed a dose dependent capability in reversing P-gp mediated MDR; when MDR is reversed, the combinational treatment induced extensive necrotic cell death. During this process, the rate of heating also played a very important role; necrosis was more dramatic in rapid rate hyperthermia than in slow rate hyperthermia even though they were given at the same dose.

Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J.



Increasing Hepatitis C treatment uptake among HIV-infected patients using an HIV primary care model  

PubMed Central

Background Access to Hepatitis C (HCV) care is low among HIV-infected individuals, highlighting the need for new models to deliver care for this population. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis that compared the number of HIV patients who initiated HCV therapy: hepatology (2005–2008) vs. HIV primary care model (2008–2011). Logistic-regression modeling was used to ascertain factors associated with HCV therapy initiation and achievement of sustained viral response (SVR). Results Of 196 and 163 patients that were enrolled in the HIV primary care and hepatology models, 48 and 26 were treated for HCV, respectively (p?=?0.043). The HIV/HCV-patient referral rate did not differ during the two study periods (0.10 vs. 0.12/patient-yr, p?=?0.18). In unadjusted analysis, predictors (p?treatment initiation included referral to the HIV primary care model (OR: 1.7), a CD4+ count ?400/mm3 (OR: 1.8) and alanine aminotranferase level ?63U/L (OR: 1.9). Prior psychiatric medication use correlated negatively with HCV treatment initiation (OR: 0.6, p?=?0.045). In adjusted analysis the strongest predictor of HCV treatment initiation was CD4+ count (?400/mm3, OR: 2.1, p?=?0.01). There was no significant difference in either clinic model (primary care vs. hepatology) in the rates of treatment discontinuation due to adverse events (29% vs. 16%), loss to follow-up (8 vs. 8%), or HCV SVR (44 vs. 35%). Conclusions Using a HIV primary care model increased the number of HIV patients who initiate HCV therapy with comparable outcomes to a hepatology model.



Dexamethasone Treatment Reverses Cognitive Impairment but Increases Brain Oxidative Stress in Rats Submitted to Pneumococcal Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae. The animals received either 10??L of saline or a S. pneumoniae suspension and were randomized into different groups: sham: placebo with dexamethasone 0.7?mg/kg/1?day; placebo with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days; meningitis groups: dexamethasone 0.7?mg/kg/1?day and dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. Ten days after induction we evaluated memory and oxidative stress parameters in hippocampus and cortex. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, we observed memory impairment in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. The lipid peroxidation was increased in hippocampus in the meningitis groups with dexamethasone and in cortex only in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. The protein carbonyl was increased in hippocampus in the meningitis groups with dexamethasone and in cortex in the meningitis groups with and without dexamethasone. There was a decrease in the proteins integrity in hippocampus in all groups receiving treatment with dexamethasone and in cortex in all groups with dexamethasone (0.7?mg/kg/1?day). The mitochondrial superoxide was increased in the hippocampus and cortex in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. Our findings demonstrate that dexamethasone reverted cognitive impairment but increased brain oxidative stress in hippocampus and cortex in Wistar rats ten days after pneumococcal meningitis induction.

Barichello, Tatiana; Santos, Ana Lucia B.; Silvestre, Cintia; Generoso, Jaqueline S.; Cipriano, Andreza L.; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Comim, Clarissa M.; Quevedo, Joao



[Effectiveness of instrument disinfectants under increased protein exposure and for standing times up to two weeks].  


To examine the possibility of prolongation of the standing times of instrument disinfectants, in vitro tests under high albumin exposure and tests in clinical practice were done. Concerning in vitro tests: The bactericidal effectiveness of 7 commercial preparations for instrument disinfection with different basic substances was determined in quantitative suspension tests and of 8 preparations in practice-oriented tests according to the guidelines for testing and approval of instrument disinfectants by the DGHM (German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology). Tests were carried out under increased albumin exposure and at prolonged standing times up to 12 days. The instrument disinfectants showed microbicidal efficacy up to 12 days at working concentrations slightly increased in relation to the concentrations listed by the DGHM. Concerning tests in clinical practice: In 4 clinical wards (intensive care unit, cystoscopy unit, urological operation unit, gastroenterological endoscopy unit with ERPC) the preparations for instrument disinfection were tested up to 12 days in respect to the protein exposure and the disinfecting activity of the working solution. The working solution was not renewed during the 12 days. The inserted instruments were recorded. Concentration of the disinfectants and the protein concentration were daily determined. Disinfecting activity was examined by practice-oriented microbiological tests. The highest protein exposure was 0.098% after a standing time of 12 days. A loss in concentration of disinfectants could not be found. Nevertheless independent from the protein exposure there was a loss in disinfecting activity of the tap water diluted specimens from the clinical practice. Loss in activity could not be seen in the specimen from laboratory parallel tests, which were diluted by water of standard hardness. The loss in disinfecting activity of the tap water diluted preparation from the gastroenterological endoscopy unit versus a dilution by water of standard hardness could be confirmed in control experiments (practice-oriented tests with S. aureus over a period of 5 days). PMID:1388617

Rehork, B; Azzaui, S; Naumann, C; Rüden, H



A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)



A new angle into time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy: A layered prism cell increases experimental flexibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new pulsed photoacoustic calorimetry cell that uses transmission of light through a pair of dovetail prisms is discussed. The layered prism cell (LPC) combines the enhanced time-resolution capabilities of the ``layered'' front-face irradiation geometry with the zero-background and broadband flexibility of the classical cuvette geometry. This work provides a phenomenological description of photoinduced pressure changes to yield an analytical expression to calculate the magnitude of the photoinduced acoustic pressure wave in a series of solvents. The mechanical to electrical conversion efficiency for an ultrasonic transducer coupled to the LPC is presented to provide a comparison of the experimentally observed photoinduced acoustic signal amplitudes to the empirically calculated acoustic signal amplitudes. An analysis of the background signals due to absorption and electrostriction of the media provides insight into the issues of sensitivity and limitations of pulsed photoacoustic experiments. The LPC provides several benefits to increase the flexibility of the photoacoustic spectroscopy: (1) greater sensitivity, (2) enhanced time resolution, and (3) the ability to obtain kinetic data in complex solvent mixtures. Under optically dilute conditions in the layered cell geometry, the acoustic transient time, ?a, approaches zero because the photoinduced acoustic wave homogeneously expands against the walls of the photoacoustic cell. To demonstrate the unique capabilities of the LPC, rates of hydrogen abstraction by tert-butoxyl radical from solvent mixtures containing ethyl and methyl alcohol are presented.

Autrey, Tom; Foster, Nancy S.; Klepzig, Kim; Amonette, James E.; Daschbach, John L.



Increased CDK1 activity determines the timing of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in meiosis I  

PubMed Central

Chromosome segregation during cell division depends on stable attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules. Mitotic spindle formation and kinetochore–microtubule (K-MT) capture typically occur within minutes of nuclear envelope breakdown. In contrast, during meiosis I in mouse oocytes, formation of the acentrosomal bipolar spindle takes 3–4 h, and stabilization of K-MT attachments is delayed an additional 3–4 h. The mechanism responsible for this delay, which likely prevents stabilization of erroneous attachments during spindle formation, is unknown. Here we show that during meiosis I, attachments are regulated by CDK1 activity, which gradually increases through prometaphase and metaphase I. Partial reduction of CDK1 activity delayed formation of stable attachments, whereas a premature increase in CDK1 activity led to precocious formation of stable attachments and eventually lagging chromosomes at anaphase I. These results indicate that the slow increase in CDK1 activity in meiosis I acts as a timing mechanism to allow stable K-MT attachments only after bipolar spindle formation, thus preventing attachment errors.

Davydenko, Olga



Structural barriers to timely initiation of antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam: findings from six outpatient clinics.  


In Vietnam, premature mortality due to AIDS-related conditions is commonly associated with late initiation to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study explores reasons for late ART initiation among people living with HIV (PLHIV) from the perspectives of health care providers and PLHIV. The study was undertaken in six clinics from five provinces in Vietnam. Baseline CD4 counts were collected from patient records and grouped into three categories: very late initiators (?100 cells/mm(3) CD4), late initiators (100-200 cells/mm(3)) and timely initiators (200-350 cells/mm(3)). Thirty in-depth interviews with patients who started ART and 15 focus group discussions with HIV service providers were conducted and thematic analysis of the content performed. Of 934 patients, 62% started ART very late and 11% initiated timely treatment. The proportion of patients for whom a CD4 count was obtained within six months of their HIV diagnosis ranged from 22% to 72%. The proportion of patients referred to ART clinics by voluntary testing and counselling centres ranged from 1% to 35%. Structural barriers to timely ART initiation were poor linkage between HIV testing and HIV care and treatment services, lack of patient confidentiality and a shortage of HIV/AIDS specialists. If Vietnam's treatment practice is to align with WHO recommendations then the connection between voluntary counselling and testing service and ART clinics must be improved. Expansion and decentralization of HIV/AIDS services to allow implementation at the community level increased task sharing between doctors and nurses to overcome limited human resources, and improved patient confidentiality are likely to increase timely access to HIV treatment services for more patients. PMID:23240013

Tran, Dam Anh; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Ngo, Anh Duc; Rule, John; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Doran, Christopher



Timing of Pathogen Adaptation to a Multicomponent Treatment  

PubMed Central

The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations.

Bourget, Romain; Chaumont, Loic; Sapoukhina, Natalia



Cancer prehabilitation: an opportunity to decrease treatment-related morbidity, increase cancer treatment options, and improve physical and psychological health outcomes.  


Cancer prehabilitation, a process on the continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment, includes physical and psychological assessments that establish a baseline functional level, identifies impairments, and provides targeted interventions that improve a patient's health to reduce the incidence and the severity of current and future impairments. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that supports preparing newly diagnosed cancer patients for and optimizing their health before starting acute treatments. This is the first review of cancer prehabilitation, and the purpose was to describe early studies in the noncancer population and then the historical focus in cancer patients on aerobic conditioning and building strength and stamina through an appropriate exercise regimen. More recent research shows that opportunities exist to use other unimodal or multimodal prehabilitation interventions to decrease morbidity, improve physical and psychological health outcomes, increase the number of potential treatment options, decrease hospital readmissions, and reduce both direct and indirect healthcare costs attributed to cancer. Future research may demonstrate increased compliance with acute cancer treatment protocols and, therefore, improved survival outcomes. New studies suggest that a multimodal approach that incorporates both physical and psychological prehabilitation interventions may be more effective than a unimodal approach that addresses just one or the other. In an impairment-driven cancer rehabilitation model, identifying current and anticipating future impairments are the critical first steps in improving healthcare outcomes and decreasing costs. More research is urgently needed to evaluate the most effective prehabilitation interventions, and combinations thereof, for survivors of all types of cancer. PMID:23756434

Silver, Julie K; Baima, Jennifer



Subchronic treatment with fluoxetine and ketanserin increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ?-catenin and antidepressant-like effects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve antidepressant responses when added to 5-HT-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants. Here, we have studied the involvement of neuroplasticity pathways and/or the 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of this combined treatment, given subchronically. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor (TrkB), 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and ?-catenin protein expression in different cellular fractions, as well as 5-HT1A receptor function were measured in the hippocampus of rats treated with fluoxetine, ketanserin and fluoxetine + ketanserin for 7 days, followed by a forced swimming test (FST) to analyse antidepressant efficacy. KEY RESULTS mRNA for BDNF was increased in the CA3 field and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus by combined treatment with fluoxetine + ketanserin. Expression of ?-catenin was increased in total hippocampal homogenate and in the membrane fraction, but unchanged in the nuclear fraction after combined treatment with fluoxetine + ketanserin. These effects were paralleled by a decreased immobility time in the FST. There were no changes in BrdU incorporation, TrkB expression and 5-HT1A receptor function in any of the groups studied. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The antidepressant-like effect induced by subchronic co-treatment with a SSRI and a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist may mainly be because of modifications in hippocampal neuroplasticity (BDNF and membrane-associated ?-catenin), without a significant role for other mechanisms involved in chronic antidepressant response, such as hippocampal neuroproliferation or 5-HT1A receptor desensitization in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

Pilar-Cuellar, F; Vidal, R; Pazos, A



Thermal relaxation times: an outdated concept in photothermal treatments.  


Thermal relaxation times were introduced into modern skin-laser science with the inception of selective photothermolysis. As a result, laser pulsewidths were determined according to the thermal relaxation times of the tissue targets. The Arrhenius Damage Integral shows that this approach is incorrect. The important parameter is the time required to induce irreversible protein denaturation within the target. This time is determined by the tissue's intrinsic structure, not its physical dimensions. This report explains why thermal relaxation times should not be considered when treating many skin conditions with lasers or IPL systems. PMID:24085595

Murphy, M J; Torstensson, P A



Faster quantitative real-time PCR protocols may lose sensitivity and show increased variability  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time PCR has become the method of choice for measuring mRNA transcription. Recently, fast PCR protocols have been developed as a means to increase assay throughput. Yet it is unclear whether more rapid cycling conditions preserve the original assay performance characteristics. We compared 16 primer sets directed against Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) mRNAs using universal and fast PCR cycling conditions. These primers are of clinical relevance, since they can be used to monitor viral oncogene and drug-resistance gene expression in transplant patients and EBV-associated cancers. While none of the primers failed under fast PCR conditions, the fast PCR protocols performed worse than universal cycling conditions. Fast PCR was associated with a loss of sensitivity as well as higher variability, but not with a loss of specificity or with a higher false positive rate.

Hilscher, Chelsey; Vahrson, Wolfgang; Dittmer, Dirk P.



Time course of behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes after estradiol treatment of ovariectomized rats.  


Previous studies showed that treatment with 17-?-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) reduces isoproterenol (ISOP) stimulated water intake by ovariectomized rats. This effect was observed 48h after the second of two EB injections, suggesting that the attenuation is attributable to classic EB actions to alter gene expression. However, in addition to classic, slowly-occurring, genomic effects, estrogens have more rapidly-occurring effects that may be nongenomic or 'nonclassical' genomic effects. Thus, it is possible that the EB attenuation of water intake stimulated by ISOP is genomic, nongenomic, or both. Accordingly, we measured ISOP-induced water intake by OVX rats at different times after EB injections, using time points likely to indicate classic genomic effects (48h or 24h) or nonclassical genomic or nongenomic effects (90min). We also examined EB effects on body weight, uterine weight, and plasma volume and Na(+) concentration in the same animals using the same time points and EB dose. EB treatment decreased water intake stimulated by ISOP in both the 24-h and 48-h groups; however, water intake in the 90-min group was not affected by EB. Uterine weight was unchanged 90min after EB, but was increased 24h after the first injection of EB. In contrast, body weight decreased after EB, but not until 48h after the second EB injection. Finally, EB did not alter plasma Na(+) concentration or hematocrit, though plasma protein concentration increased transiently 24h after EB treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that the behavioral, morphological, and physiological effects of EB likely are attributable to slowly-occurring, classic genomic actions of estrogens. Moreover, the time course of the observed effects varied, suggesting tissue-specific differences in estrogen receptor density or subtype, or in co-activators or co-repressors that, ultimately, determine the timing and direction of EB effects. PMID:21324332

Graves, Nora S; Hayes, Heather; Fan, Liming; Curtis, Kathleen S



Surimi wash water treatment for protein recovery: effect of chitosan-alginate complex concentration and treatment time on protein adsorption.  


Chitosan (Chi), a protein recovery agent for the treatment of aqueous food processing streams, appears to work by mechanical entrapment and electrostatic interaction of chitosan amino groups with anionic groups on proteins. Chitosan effectiveness for recovering soluble proteins from surimi wash water (SWW) is increased by complexation with alginate (Alg) and by adjusting complex concentration and treatment time. Flocculation at 20 degrees C with Chi-Alg at a 0.2 mixing ratio added as 20, 40, 100 and 150 mg/L SWW was aided by 5 min agitation at 130 rpm and then held at the same temperature for 30 min, 1 and 24 h. Turbidity measurements, protein determinations and qualitative FTIR analysis confirmed SWW protein adsorption which depended on Chi-Alg concentration and reaction time while turbidity reduction was affected by concentration only. No differences (p < 0.05) in protein adsorption were found between 1 and 24 h. Using 100 mg Chi-Alg complex/L SWW for 1 h achieved 83% protein adsorption and 97% turbidity reduction. PMID:15588769

Wibowo, Singgih; Velazquez, Gonzalo; Savant, Vivek; Torres, J Antonio



Mung Bean Nuclease Treatment Increases Capture Specificity of Microdroplet-PCR Based Targeted DNA Enrichment.  


Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial. PMID:25058678

Yu, Zhenming; Cao, Kajia; Tischler, Tanya; Stolle, Catherine A; Santani, Avni B



Mung Bean Nuclease Treatment Increases Capture Specificity of Microdroplet-PCR Based Targeted DNA Enrichment  

PubMed Central

Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial.

Yu, Zhenming; Cao, Kajia; Tischler, Tanya; Stolle, Catherine A.; Santani, Avni B.



Increase in plasma phylloquinone concentrations following acupoint injection for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.  


The therapeutic benefits of acupoint injection of vitamin K in spleen-6 (SP6) for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea have been observed in limited clinical settings. However, menadione, the form of vitamin K most studied for treating dysmenorrhea, is not routinely used in clinical practice in North America. As part of a larger clinical trial among women aged 18-25 years with primary dysmenorrhea, we conducted a substudy to test the plasma concentration of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We collected blood samples from four women before and 24-48 hours after an acupoint injection of phylloquinone in SP6. Despite the rapid turnover of phylloquinone observed in previous studies, we found that the plasma phylloquinone concentrations increased significantly from preinjection to 1-2 days after the injection. Interestingly, higher phylloquinone concentrations were correlated with less pain intensity among women with dysmenorrhea. Additional research is needed to understand the association between vitamin K and menstrual pain, including the role of vitamin K deficiency in inflammation and pain, and on the possible mechanisms of acupoint injection of vitamin K for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24929459

Chao, Maria T; Wade, Christine M; Booth, Sarah L



An acute psychosocial stressor increases drinking in non-treatment-seeking alcoholics  

PubMed Central

Rationale Although studies suggest that stress is an important reason for relapse in alcoholics, few controlled studies have been conducted to examine this assumption. Evidence of stress-potentiated drinking would substantiate this clinical observation and would contribute to the development of a model that would be valuable to alcohol treatment research. Objectives The hypothesis was tested that an acute psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), increases alcohol consumption in non-treatment-seeking alcoholics. Methods Seventy-nine alcohol-dependent participants (40 women) were randomly assigned to receive the TSST or a no-stress condition. Immediately afterward, all participants received an initial dose of their preferred alcoholic beverage to achieve a target blood alcohol concentration of 0.03 g/dl (to prime subsequent drinking in the laboratory). Participants then participated in a mock taste test of two glasses of beer. Primary dependent measures were whether s/he drank all of the beer available (yes/no) and total amount of beer consumed (milliliters). Results Stressed participants were twice as likely as non-stressed participants to drink all of the beer available, a significant effect. Although the stressed group drank more milliliters than the non-stressed group, this effect failed to reach significance, likely due to ceiling effects. There were no significant stress group × gender effects on either outcome. Conclusions This study supports that stress-potentiated drinking is valid and can be modeled in a clinical laboratory setting.

Bacon, Amy K.; Randall, Patrick K.; Brady, Kathleen T.; See, Ronald E.



Melatonin treatment prior to the normal breeding season increases fetal number in United Kingdom sheep flocks.  


Litter size determined ultrasonographically at 45-90 days after mating in eight groups of commercial sheep (n=2609) treated with slow release melatonin implants immediately prior to the natural breeding season showed a 19% treatment effect averaged over the eight groups, from 148% to 167% (P<0.01) compared with controls (n=2499). Control groups had a litter size ranging from 124% to 194% thereby representing most commercial production systems in the UK sheep industry. This is the first large scale study of slow release melatonin implants in commercial UK flocks to demonstrate a significant positive effect on litter size when used before the natural breeding season. The data indicate that increased productivity and profitability could be achieved while maintaining desirable purebred characteristics. PMID:18783969

Scott, P R; Sargison, N D; Macrae, A I; Gough, M R



Time to Treatment in Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether time to treatment (TTT) has an effect on overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether patient or treatment factors are associated with TTT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 237 consecutive patients with Stage III NSCLC treated at University of Michigan Hospital (UM) or the Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VA). Patients were treated with either palliative or definitive radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone (n = 106) or either sequential (n = 69) or concurrent chemoradiation (n = 62). The primary endpoint was OS. Results: Median follow-up was 69 months, and median TTT was 57 days. On univariate analysis, the risk of death did not increase significantly with longer TTT (p = 0.093). However, subset analysis showed that there was a higher risk of death with longer TTT in patients who survived {>=} 5 years (p = 0.029). Younger age (p = 0.027), male sex (p = 0.013), lower Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) (p = 0.002), and treatment at the VA (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with longer TTT. However, on multivariate analysis, only lower KPS remained significantly associated with longer TTT (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Time to treatment is significantly associated with OS in patients with Stage III NSCLC who lived longer than 5 years, although it is not a significant factor in Stage III patients as a whole. Lower KPS is associated with longer TTT.

Wang Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Correa, Candace R.; Hayman, James A.; Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp; Brenner, Dean; Arenberg, Doug; Curtis, Jeffery; Kalemkerian, Gregory P. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail:



Increasing chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with longer survival time.  


Donor chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is commonly used to predict overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Because chimerism is observed at 1 or more times after allo-SCT and not at baseline, if chimerism is in fact associated with OS or DFS, then the occurrence of either disease progression or death informatively censors (terminates) the observed chimerism process. This violates the assumptions underlying standard statistical regression methods for survival analysis, which may lead to biased conclusions. To assess the association between the longitudinal post-allo-SCT donor chimerism process and OS or DFS, we analyzed data from 195 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 157) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 38) who achieved complete remission after allo-SCT following a reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen of fludarabine/intravenous busulfan. Median follow-up was 31 months (range, 1.1 to 105 months). Fitted joint longitudinal-survival time models showed that a binary indicator of complete (100%) donor chimerism and increasing percent of donor T cells were significantly associated with longer OS, whereas decreasing percent of donor T cells was highly significantly associated with shorter OS. Our analyses illustrate the usefulness of modeling repeated post-allo-SCT chimerism measurements as individual longitudinal processes jointly with OS and DFS to estimate their relationships. PMID:24727332

Tang, Xiaowen; Alatrash, Gheath; Ning, Jing; Jakher, Haroon; Stafford, Patricia; Zope, Madhushree; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Jones, Roy B; Champlin, Richard E; Thall, Peter F; Andersson, Borje S



Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.  


We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol) was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max) of 5 min) and a C(max) of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max) for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results are being utilized to design prototype dosage forms for initial human pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23613954

Holmes, Eric H; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Li, Libin; Perdue, Michael L; Ostrander, Gary K



Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire.  


Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ? 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region. PMID:22978248

Hossack, Blake R; Lowe, Winsor H; Corn, Paul Stephen



Throughput increase by adjustment of the BARC drying time with coat track process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughput of a coater module within the coater track is related to the solvent evaporation rate from the material that is being coated. Evaporation rate is controlled by the spin dynamics of the wafer and airflow dynamics over the wafer. Balancing these effects is the key to achieving very uniform coatings across a flat unpatterned wafer. As today"s coat tracks are being pushed to higher throughputs to match the scanner, the coat module throughput must be increased as well. For chemical manufacturers the evaporation rate of the material depends on the solvent used. One measure of relative evaporation rates is to compare flash points of a solvent. The lower the flash point, the quicker the solvent will evaporate. It is possible to formulate products with these volatile solvents although at a price. Shipping and manufacturing a more flammable product increase chances of fire, thereby increasing insurance premiums. Also, the end user of these chemicals will have to take extra precautions in the fab and in storage of these more flammable chemicals. An alternative coat process is possible which would allow higher throughput in a distinct coat module without sacrificing safety. A tradeoff is required for this process, that being a more complicated coat process and a higher viscosity chemical. The coat process uses the fact that evaporation rate depends on the spin dynamics of the wafer by utilizing a series of spin speeds that first would set the thickness of the material followed by a high spin speed to remove the residual solvent. This new process can yield a throughput of over 150 wafers per hour (wph) given two coat modules. The thickness uniformity of less than 2 nm (3 sigma) is still excellent, while drying times are shorter than 10 seconds to achieve the 150 wph throughput targets.

Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Long, Ryan



Effects of personal costs of methadone maintenance, especially time price, on treatment attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study provides conclusive evidence on existence of economic barriers, namely money price and time price, to regular treatment attendance for methadone maintenance clients. The study is designed to develop improved time price measures and investigate their effect on treatment attendance. Regular attendance is essential for methadone maintenance because, form client's perspective, it may affect treatment outcomes and, from methadone

Natalia N Borisova



The toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos increases through sewage treatment processes.  


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely believed to be retained in the sewage sludge during sewage treatment. The AgNPs and their derivatives, however, re-enter the environment with the sludge and via the effluent. AgNP were shown to occur in surface water, while evidence of a potential toxicity of AgNPs in aquatic organisms is growing. This study aims to examine the toxicity of AgNPs to the embryos of the aquatic vertebrate model zebrafish (Danio rerio) before and after sewage treatment plants (STPs) processes. Embryos were treated with AgNP (particle size: >90 % <20 nm) and AgNO3 in ISO water for 48 h and consequently displayed effects such as delayed development, tail malformations and edema. For AgNP, the embryos were smaller than the controls with conspicuously smaller yolk sacs. The corresponding EC50 values of 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) were determined as 73 ?g/l for AgNO3 and 1.1 mg/l for AgNP. Whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons also revealed secondary neurotoxic effects. A TEM analysis confirmed uptake of the AgNPs, and the distribution within the embryo suggested absorption across the skin. Embryos were also exposed (for 48 h) to effluents of AgNP-spiked model STP with AgNP influent concentrations of 4 and 16 mg/l. These embryos exhibited the same malformations than for AgNO3 and AgNPs, but the embryo toxicity of the sewage treatment effluent was higher (EC50 = 142 ?g/l; 48 hpf). On the other hand, control STP effluent spiked with AgNPs afterwards was less toxic (EC50 = 2.9 mg/l; 48 hpf) than AgNPs in ISO water. This observation of an increased fish embryo toxicity of STP effluents with increasing AgNP influent concentrations identifies the accumulation of AgNP in the STP as a potential source of effluent toxicity. PMID:23975539

Muth-Köhne, Elke; Sonnack, Laura; Schlich, Karsten; Hischen, Florian; Baumgartner, Werner; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina



Extended Time on Academic Assignments: Does Increased Time Lead to Improved Performance for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers examined the impact of an extended time accommodation on appropriate classroom behavior and rate of work completion for 33 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants received standard (30 min) or extended (45 min) time to complete seatwork in a within-subject, crossover design study. Appropriate…

Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Massetti, Greta M.; Hart, Katie C.; Pelham, William E., Jr.




PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Culturally competent practice is broadly acknowledged to be an important strategy to increase the quality of services for racial/ethnic minorities in substance abuse treatment. However, few empirically derived measures of organizational cultural competence exist, and relatively little is known about how these measures affect treatment outcomes. METHOD Using a nationally representative sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment (OSAT) programs, this study used item response theory to create two measures of cultural competence-organizational practices and managers' culturally sensitive beliefs—and examined their relationship to client wait time and retention using Poisson regression modeling RESULTS The most common and precisely measured organizational practices reported by OSAT managers included matching providers and clients based on language/dialect; offering cross-cultural training; and fostering connections with community and faith-based organizations connected to racial and ethnic minority groups. The most culturally sensitive belief among OSAT managers was support for language/dialect matching for racial and ethnic minority clients. Results of regression modeling indicate that organizational practices were not related to either outcome. However, managers' culturally sensitive beliefs were negatively associated with average wait time (p < 0.05), and positively associated with average retention (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Managers' culturally sensitive beliefs—considered to be influential for effective implementation of culturally competent practices—may be particularly relevant in influencing wait time and retention in OSAT organizations that treat Latinos and African American clients.

Guerrero, Erick; Andrews, Christina M.



Increased gene expression of glucose transporters in the mouse brain after treatment with fluoxetine and pergolide.  


Glucose transporters play key roles in the homeostatic control of brain functions. In the present study, we examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and pergolide, a dopamine D receptor agonist, on the gene expression levels of glucose transporters in the mouse brain. mRNAs for 8 sodium-independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), other than GLUT4 and GLUT9, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) were confirmed to be expressed in brain tissue. Fluoxetine and pergolide significantly increased the expression levels of mRNAs for GLUT1 and GLUT10 in the brain. Furthermore, the expression of GLUT6 in tissue was increased by administering pergolide to mice. On the other hand, fluoxetine and pergolide had no effect on the expression levels of mRNAs for the other GLUTs and SGLT1. Therefore, we concluded that the gene expression of several GLUT isoforms in the mouse brain was affected by the treatment with fluoxetine and pergolide. PMID:24227476

Nagai, K; Inoue, T; Konishi, H



UV/H(2)O(2) treatment of drinking water increases post-chlorination DBP formation.  


Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has become popular as a primary disinfectant because it is very effective against Cryptosporidium and does not directly form regulated disinfection by-products. Higher UV doses and UV advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) processes are under consideration for the treatment of trace organic pollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products). Despite the disinfection effectiveness of UV light, a secondary disinfectant capable of maintaining a distribution system residual is required to meet current U.S. regulation. This study investigated changes in disinfection by-product (DBP) formation attributed to UV or UV/H2O2 followed by application of free chlorine to quench hydrogen peroxide and provide residual disinfectant. At a UV dose of 1000 mJ/cm(2), trihalomethane (THM) yield increased by up to 4 microg/mg-C and 13 microg/mg-C when treated with low and medium pressure UV, respectively. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide, THM yield increased by up to 25 microg/mg-C (5mg-H2O2/L) and 37 microg/mg-C (10 mg-H2O2/L). Although no changes in DBPs are expected during UV disinfection, application of UV advanced oxidation followed by chlorine addition was assessed with regard to impacts on DBP formation. PMID:20471054

Dotson, Aaron D; Keen, Volha Olya S; Metz, Debbie; Linden, Karl G



Optimizing treatments for nicotine dependence by increasing cognitive performance during withdrawal.  


Introduction: Current FDA-approved smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy and are associated with high rates of relapse. Therefore, there is a clear need to develop novel antismoking medications. Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive impairments that predict smoking relapse. It has been proposed that these cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine withdrawal that could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal may represent potential smoking cessation agents. Areas covered: The authors review the clinical literature demonstrating that nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in working memory, attention and response inhibition. They then briefly summarize different classes of compounds and strategies to increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational research in order to highlight areas for which there is strong rationale for pilot clinical trials of potential smoking cessation medications. Expert opinion: There is emerging evidence that supports deficits in cognitive function as a plausible nicotine withdrawal phenotype. The authors furthermore believe that the translational paradigms presented here may represent efficient and valid means for the evaluation of cognitive-enhancing medications as possible treatments for nicotine dependence. PMID:24707983

Ashare, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Heath D



Differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells increases after treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.  


Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have become an important resource in developing strategies for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, owing to their ability to renew and their potential for differentiation into cells of various types of tissues. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation has been used for several years in the treatment of fracture healing, with clinical beneficial effects, and several studies have demonstrated its capacity to increase bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, stromal cells of human bone marrow (BMSC), obtained from healthy donors, were appropriately expanded and underwent PEMF stimulation eight hours a day for fourteen days. Parameters such as proliferation and differentiation ability were evaluated on stimulated cultures. The evaluation of the marker expression was performed by RT-PCR for osteocalcin, by alkaline phosphatase quantitation and by histochemical stains. The results we obtained showed that BMSC treated with PEMF begin differentiation earlier than untreated BMSC, as shown by the markers used. The data show that PEMF is able to increase the osteogenic differentiation potential in adult mesenchymal cells isolated from young patients. PMID:22351673

Esposito, Marco; Lucariello, Angela; Riccio, Ilaria; Riccio, Vincenzo; Esposito, Vincenzo; Riccardi, Giovanni



Preferred patterns of diastolic timed vibrations for pre-hospitalization treatment of acute coronary ischemia.  


This paper presents and evaluates preferred patterns of vibrations and active breaking techniques for the Diastolic Timed Vibrator (DTV). DTV uses low frequency mechanical vibrations applied to the chest to help in clot dissolution in pre-hospitalization treatment of acute coronary ischemia. In this work, we argue that random and ramp type vibration patterns increase the performance of the DTV method. Furthermore, we present results for various methods of vibration stopping aiming at reduction of vibration overspill into the systole of heart cycle of the patient. PMID:22254844

Kajbafzadeh, B; Marzencki, M; Alavi, N; Khosrow-Khavar, F; Tavakolian, K; Menon, C; Kaminska, B




SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

Fernandez, A.



PEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.  


Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4h post-delivery, whereas the clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' contents in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14% of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40% for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways. PMID:24845126

Koussoroplis, Salome Juliette; Paulissen, Geneviève; Tyteca, Donatienne; Goldansaz, Hadi; Todoroff, Julie; Barilly, Céline; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Van Snick, Jacques; Cataldo, Didier; Vanbever, Rita



Simvastatin treatment attenuates increased respiratory variability and apnea/hypopnea index in rats with chronic heart failure.  


Cheyne-Stokes respiration and cardiac arrhythmias are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Enhanced carotid body chemoreflex (CBC) sensitivity is associated with these abnormalities in CHF. Reduced carotid body (CB) nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels play an important role in the enhanced CBC. In other disease models, Simvastatin (statin) treatment increases endothelial NOS, in part, by increasing Krüppel-like Factor 2 expression. We hypothesized that statin treatment would ameliorate enhanced CBC sensitivity as well as increased respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index, in a rodent model of CHF. Resting breathing pattern, cardiac rhythm, and the ventilatory and CB chemoreceptor afferent responses to hypoxia were assessed in rats with CHF induced by coronary ligation. CHF was associated with enhanced ventilatory and CB afferent responses to hypoxia as well as increased respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index. Statin treatment prevented the increases in CBC sensitivity and the concomitant increases in respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index. Krüppel-like Factor 2 and endothelial NOS protein were decreased in the CB and nucleus tractus solitarii of CHF animals, and statin treatment increased the expression of these proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the increased CBC sensitivity, respiratory instability, and cardiac arrhythmias observed in CHF are ameliorated by statin treatment and suggest that statins may be an effective treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration and arrhythmias in patient populations with high chemoreflex sensitivity. PMID:24516105

Haack, Karla K V; Marcus, Noah J; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Zucker, Irving H; Schultz, Harold D



Pre-treatment of cells with pluronic L64 increases DNA transfection mediated by electrotransfer.  


Gene transfer into muscle cells is a key issue in biomedical research. Indeed, it is important for the development of new therapy for many genetic disorders affecting this tissue and for the use of muscle tissue as a secretion platform of therapeutic proteins. Electrotransfer is a promising method to achieve gene expression in muscles. However, this method can lead to some tissue damage especially on pathologic muscles. Therefore there is a need for the development of new and less deleterious methods. Triblock copolymers as pluronic L64 are starting to be used to improve gene transfer mediated by several agents into muscle tissue. Their mechanism of action is still under investigation. The combination of electrotransfer and triblock copolymers, in allowing softening electric field conditions leading to efficient DNA transfection, could potentially represent a milder and more secure transfection method. In the present study, we addressed the possible synergy that could be obtained by combining the copolymer triblock L64 and electroporation. We have found that a pre-treatment of cells with L64 could improve the transfection efficiency. This pre-treatment was shown to increase cell viability and this is partly responsible for the improvement of transfection efficiency. We have then labelled the plasmid DNA and the pluronic L64 in order to gain some insights into the mechanism of transfection of the combined physical and chemical methods. These experiences allowed us to exclude an action of L64 either on membrane permeabilization or on DNA/membrane interaction. Using plasmids containing or not binding sequences for NF-?B and an inhibitor of NF-?B pathway activation we have shown that this beneficial effect was rather related to the NF-?B signalling pathway, as it is described for other pluronics. Finally we address here some mechanistic issues on electrically mediated transfection, L64 mediated membrane permeabilization and the combination of both for gene transfer. PMID:20888380

Wasungu, L; Marty, A L; Bureau, M F; Kichler, A; Bessodes, M; Teissie, J; Scherman, D; Rols, M P; Mignet, N



Ovarian steroid treatment blocks a postmenopausal increase in blood monocyte interleukin 1 release.  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, we showed that blood monocyte elaboration of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a known stimulator of bone resorption, was higher in osteoporotic patients with rapid bone turnover than in those with slow turnover and in nonosteoporotic subjects. Since an acceleration of bone loss following menopause contributes to the risk of osteoporosis in women, we have studied the effects of menopause and ovarian steroid treatment on IL-1 release by monocytes obtained from nonosteoporotic and osteoporotic women. IL-1 activity in the monocyte culture medium derived from untreated postmenopausal women (nonosteoporotic and osteoporotic) was higher than in the medium derived from either untreated premenopausal or estrogen/progesterone-treated postmenopausal women. A significant negative correlation was found between IL-1 and years since menopause in both the healthy (r = -0.75; P less than 0.005) and the osteoporotic (r = -0.61; P less than 0.01) untreated postmenopausal women. The difference between the two slopes was significant at P less than 0.05. Premenopausal IL-1 levels were achieved within 8 years of menopause in the nonosteoporotic, but not in the osteoporotic, subjects in whom increases were evident as long as 15 years after menopause. IL-1 also correlated inversely with vertebral mineral density (r = -0.37; P less than 0.05), as measured by quantitative computed tomography. In prospective studies, treatment with estrogen/progesterone for 1 month caused a substantial highly significant decrease in IL-1 activity in each of three nonosteoporotic and five osteoporotic women, confirming the apparent effect of hormone therapy observed in the cross-sectional analysis. Although a cause-effect relationship has not been established, it is our hypothesis, based on these data, that alterations in IL-1 production may underlie the postmenopausal acceleration in bone loss and its inhibition by ovarian steroids. Persistent elevation of IL-1 secretion appears to be a feature of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Pacifici, R; Rifas, L; McCracken, R; Vered, I; McMurtry, C; Avioli, L V; Peck, W A



Reaction-time binning: a simple method for increasing the resolving power of ERP averages.  


Stimulus-locked, response-locked, and ERP-locked averaging are effective methods for reducing artifacts in ERP analysis. However, they suffer from a magnifying-glass effect: they increase the resolution of specific ERPs at the cost of blurring other ERPs. Here we propose an extremely simple technique-binning trials based on response times and then averaging-which can significantly alleviate the problems of other averaging methods. We have empirically evaluated the technique in an experiment where the task requires detecting a target in the presence of distractors. We have also studied the signal-to-noise ratio and the resolving power of averages with and without binning. Results indicate that the method produces clearer representations of ERPs than either stimulus-locked and response-locked averaging, revealing finer details of ERPs and helping in the evaluation of the amplitude and latency of ERP waves. The method is applicable to within-subject and between-subject averages. PMID:20070576

Poli, Riccardo; Cinel, Caterina; Citi, Luca; Sepulveda, Francisco



Thalidomide maintenance treatment increases progression-free but not overall survival in elderly patients with myeloma  

PubMed Central

Background Thalidomide maintenance therapy after stem cell transplantation resulted in increased progression-free survival and overall survival in a few trials, but its role in non-transplant eligible patients with multiple myeloma remains unclear. This study assessed the impact of thalidomide-interferon in comparison to interferon maintenance therapy in elderly patients with multiple myeloma. Design and Methods Of 289 elderly patients with multiple myeloma who were randomized to thalidomide-dexamethasone or melphalan-prednisolone induction therapy, 137 finally completed 9 cycles of induction therapy with stable disease or better and thereby qualified for maintenance treatment. Of these, 128 have been randomized to either thalidomide-interferon or interferon alone. Primary study endpoints were progression-free survival and response rates; secondary endpoints were overall survival, toxicity and quality of life. Results Thalidomide-interferon maintenance therapy led to a significantly longer progression-free survival compared to interferon (27.7 vs. 13.2 months, P=0.0068), but overall survival was similar in both groups (52.6 vs. 51.4 months, P=0.81) and did not differ between patients aged 75 years or older, or younger patients (P=0.39). Survival after disease progression tended to be shorter in patients on thalidomide-interferon maintenance therapy (P=0.056). Progression-free survival and overall survival tended to be shorter in patients with adverse cytogenetic (FISH) findings compared to the standard risk group but differences were not significant (P=0.084 and P=0.082, respectively). Patients on thalidomide-interferon presented with more neuropathy (P=0.0015), constipation (P=0.0004), skin toxicity (P=0.0041) and elevated creatinine (P=0.026). Conclusions Thalidomide plus interferon maintenance therapy increased progression-free survival but not overall survival and was associated with slightly more toxicity than maintenance with interferon alone. ( Identifier: NCT00205751).

Ludwig, Heinz; Adam, Zdenek; Tothova, Elena; Hajek, Roman; Labar, Boris; Egyed, Miklos; Spicka, Ivan; Gisslinger, Heinz; Drach, Johannes; Kuhn, Ingrid; Hinke, Axel; Zojer, Niklas



Treatment of shielding in real-time source tracking software.  

SciTech Connect

Within the homeland security and emergency response communities, there is a need for a low-profile system to detect, locate, and identify radioactive sources in real time. Such a system could be deployed for area monitoring around venues for special events. A system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory, called RADTRAC, which is based on a network of radiation detectors and advanced signal-processing algorithms. The initial implementation of RADTRAC did not account for dynamically changing shielding due to crowd movements. An algorithm was developed that utilizes the gamma-ray energy spectrum from each detector to estimate the amount of attenuation and scattering that is present between the source location (a priori unknown) and the detector location in real time. The attenuation and scattering estimations are then included in the maximum likelihood model to significantly improve the source localization solution. Results are presented for several test cases showing the improvement in the real-time source localization solution. This algorithm has been implemented into the current version of RADTRAC such that it now accounts for the effects of dynamically changing shielding and scattering due to crowd movements in real time in order to accurately determine the source location in crowded venues.

de la Barrera, S. C.; Klann, R. T.; Vilim, R. B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)



Intrinsic time temperature integrators for heat treatment of milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the available research information on intrinsic time temperature integrators (TTIs) for thermally processed milk. These are specific indicators present or formed in milk that allow direct and quantitative measurement of the impact of the process without knowledge of the actual thermal history. General principles concerning the characterization of intrinsic TTIs as well as the applicability and limitations

Wendie L Claeys; Ann M Van Loey; Marc E Hendrickx



DPP-4 inhibitor des-F-sitagliptin treatment increased insulin exocytosis from db/db mice {beta} cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Anti-diabetic new drug, DPP-4 inhibitor, can affect the insulin exocytosis. {yields} DPP-4 inhibitor treatment altered syntaxin 1 expression. {yields} Treatment of db/db mice with DPP-4 inhibitor increased insulin release. -- Abstract: Incretin promotes insulin secretion acutely. Recently, orally-administered DPP-4 inhibitors represent a new class of anti-hyperglycemic agents. Indeed, inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4), sitagliptin, has just begun to be widely used as therapeutics for type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of sitagliptin-treatment on insulin exocytosis from single {beta}-cells are yet unknown. We therefore investigated how sitagliptin-treatment in db/db mice affects insulin exocytosis by treating db/db mice with des-F-sitagliptin for 2 weeks. Perfusion studies showed that 2 weeks-sitagliptin treatment potentiated insulin secretion. We then analyzed insulin granule motion and SNARE protein, syntaxin 1, by TIRF imaging system. TIRF imaging of insulin exocytosis showed the increased number of docked insulin granules and increased fusion events from them during first-phase release. In accord with insulin exocytosis data, des-F-sitagliptin-treatment increased the number of syntaxin 1 clusters on the plasma membrane. Thus, our data demonstrated that 2-weeks des-F-sitagliptin-treatment increased the fusion events of insulin granules, probably via increased number of docked insulin granules and that of syntaxin 1 clusters.

Nagamatsu, Shinya, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Nakamichi, Yoko; Aoyagi, Kyota; Nishiwaki, Chiyono [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)



Increasing Personal and Organizational Effectiveness. Treatise No. 4: "Time Management Techniques."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ways in which time is utilized can be enhanced through careful management. The time to be allocated to various activities and objectives should be planned on a weekly basis in light of consciously set priorities. Commonly used but rarely useful strategies for time management include working faster and working longer, both of which lead to…

New Mexico Research and Study Council, Albuquerque.


Factors responsible for increased susceptibility of mice to intestinal colonization after treatment with streptomycin.  

PubMed Central

Streptomycin sulfate (5 mg/ml) was added to the drinking water of Swiss white mice. After treatment for 1 week, the mice were challenged orogastrically with 10(8) Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells. The organism failed to multiply in the intestinal tract of either treated or untreated animals, but could be recovered from contents and tissues after 48 h. In a previous study, Salmonella typhimurium was shown to multiply in the intestines of streptomycin-treated but not untreated mice when 10(3) organisms were used as inoculum. Streptomycin administration had little effect on Eh, protein or carbohydrate concentrations of cecal contents, or intestinal motility. However, it caused a statistically significant increase in water content and pH of contents and a decrease in the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. S. typhimurium multiplied in pooled cecal contents obtained from both streptomycin-treated and untreated animals, but its multiplication rate and total populations were significantly greater in contents from treated animals. P. aeruginosa did not multiply in contents from either treated or untreated mice. Similar results were obtained when the organisms were inoculated into nutrient broth adjusted to simulate the pH levels and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in cecal contents of treated and untreated mice. The addition of brain heart infusion broth to cecal contents from untreated animals, in concentrations that support multiplication of S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa, did not reverse inhibition. The addition of VFA to cecal contents from treated animals to equal the concentration in cecal contents from untreated animals caused inhibition of a magnitude observed in cecal contents from untreated animals. The results indicate that VFA operating at the pH level of cecal contents of conventional mice inhibit the multiplication of both S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa and restrict colonization of the intestine by these organisms. The decrease in VFA concentrations that occurs as a result of streptomycin administration adequately explains the increased susceptibility of treated mice to colonization with S. typhimurium. It does not explain the increased susceptibility of treated mice to P. aeruginosa colonization, however.

Que, J U; Casey, S W; Hentges, D J



Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor increases iron uptake.  

PubMed Central

Phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiate into a neuronal phenotype. Here we compare the uptake of transferrin-bound and non-transferrin-bound iron in NGF-treated (neuronal phenotype) and control (proliferating) PC12 cells. The non-transferrin-bound iron uptake was greater in the NGF-treated cells than in the control, independently of the uptake time, the iron-chelating agents used, the oxidation state of iron (Fe(2+) or Fe(3+)) and the iron concentration tested. The NGF-treated cells expressed L-type and N-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. Nitrendipine (an L-type inhibitor) and possibly omega-conotoxin (an N-type inhibitor) inhibited the iron uptake by 20%. Thapsigargin inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and allowed Mn(2+) entry into cells. Preincubating PC12 cells with thapsigargin increased the iron uptake. The rate of transferrin-bound iron uptake was less than 1% of the non-transferrin-bound iron uptake and the maximum transferrin-bound iron uptake was also very low. We conclude that an increase in the iron uptake by multiple pathways accompanies the transition of PC12 cells from the proliferating to the neuronal phenotype.

Mwanjewe, J; Hui, B K; Coughlin, M D; Grover, A K



Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure  

PubMed Central

Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP). Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years) referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ? 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1); 14 patients (Group 2) showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P < 0.01). At 100 bpm, an abnormal (< 1) diastolic/systolic time ratio was found in 0/16 (0%) controls, in 12/93 (13%) Group 1 and 7/14 (50%) Group 2 patients (p < 0.05 between groups). Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.



Prompt Assessment of WST11-VTP Outcome Using Luciferase Transfected Tumors Enables Second Treatment and Increase in Overall Therapeutic Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study hypothesized that success rate assessment of vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) of solid tumors 24 h post- treatment may allow prompt administration of a second treat- ment in case of failure, increasing the overall success rate. Here, we show that treatment of luciferase transfected CT26-luc mouse colon carcinoma tumors in BALB ? c mice by VTP with WST11

Shimrit Fleshker; Dina Preise; Vyacheslav Kalchenko; Avigdor Scherz; Yoram Salomon



Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to (approximately)2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first releas...

J. B. Pickett



Effects of dietary amino acid balance on the response of dairy cows to an increase of milking frequency from twice to three times daily.  


An experiment was conducted to examine how the response of dairy cows to a change from twice to three times-daily milking is affected by deficiencies in the dietary supplies of three amino acids, His, Met, and Lys. Six cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 14-d periods. The three dietary treatments were: grass silage and a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal as the sole protein supplement; the same silage-cereal diet supplying similar amounts of metabolizable and rumen-undegradable protein but with additional amounts of His, Met, and Lys in the form of fish meal; and the fish meal diet with additional metabolizable energy in the form of an additional 2 kg/d of sugar beet pulp. Within each of these dietary treatments, the cows were milked twice and three times daily, making a total of six treatments. When cows were given the feather meal diet, even though dietary metabolizable energy was in considerable excess, a deficiency of specific amino acids prevented any increase in milk yield in response to increasing the frequency of milking from twice to three times daily. In contrast, when cows consumed a similar level of excess metabolizable energy and a similar level of rumen-undegradable protein for which the protein was of better amino acid balance (fish meal), the increased frequency of milking led to increased yield of milk and milk protein. PMID:14594249

Yeo, J M; Knight, C H; Chamberlain, D G



Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Treatment Increases Coronary t-PA Release in a Porcine Ischemia Model  

PubMed Central

Background The expression of the tissue plasminogen activator gene can be affected by histone deacetylation inhibition and thus appears to be under epigenetic control. Objectives The study aimed to test if in vivo pharmacological intervention by valproic acid treatment would lead to increase in tissue plasminogen activator release capacity. Methods In an anaesthetized pig model, a controlled transient coronary occlusion was used to stimulate coronary tissue plasminogen activator release in a valproic acid treated (one week) and a non-treated group. Coronary venous blood samples from the ischemic region were collected, great cardiac vein thermodilution flow measurements were performed, and trans-coronary tissue plasminogen activator fluxes were calculated. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was also measured. Results Adequate sampling from the affected area after the 10 minute ischemic period was confirmed by lactate measurements. Fluxes for tissue plasminogen activator at minutes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 were measured and then used to present cumulative net tissue plasminogen activator release for the whole measurement period for both groups. Area under the curve was higher for the valproic acid treated group at 10 minutes; 932±173 nanograms (n?=?12) compared to the non-treated group, 451±78 nanograms (n?=?10, p?=?0.023). There was no difference in levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 between groups. Conclusions These findings support a proof of concept for histone deacetylation inhibition positive effect on tissue plasminogen activator expression in an in vivo setting. Further studies are needed to find an optimal way to implement histone deacetylation inhibition to achieve desired clinical changes in tissue plasminogen activator expression.

Svennerholm, Kristina; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Jern, Sverker; Johansson, Goran; Biber, Bjorn; Haney, Michael



Prostate and Patient Intrafraction Motion: Impact on Treatment Time-Dependent Planning Margins for Patients With Endorectal Balloon  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate intrafraction prostate and patient motion during different radiation therapy treatments as a function of treatment time; included were prostate patients with an endorectal balloon (ERB). Margins accounting for setup uncertainties and intrafraction motion were determined. Methods and Materials: The study included 17 patients undergoing prostate cancer radiation therapy. All patients received 3 fiducial gold markers implanted in the prostate and were then immobilized in the supine position with a knee support and treated with an ERB. Twelve patients with intermediate risk for pelvic lymph node metastases received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 5 patients at low risk received a 4-field box treatment. After setup based on skin marks, patients were imaged with a stereoscopic imaging system. If the marker displacement exceeded a 3-mm tolerance relative to planning computed tomography, patients were shifted and verification images were taken. All patients underwent additional imaging after treatment; IMRT patients also received additional imaging at halftime of treatment. Prostate and bone drifts were evaluated as a function of treatment time for more than 600 fractions, and margins were extracted. Results: Patient motion evaluated by bone match was strongly patient dependent but in general was smallest in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Prostate drifts were less patient dependent, showing an increase with treatment time in the SI and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In the lateral (LAT) direction, the prostate stayed rather stable. Mean treatment times were 5.5 minutes for 4-field box, 10 minutes for 5-field boost IMRT, and 15 minutes or more for 9-field boost and 9-field pelvic IMRT treatments. Margins resulted in 2.2 mm, 3.9 mm, and 4.3 mm for 4-field box; 3.7 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.6 mm for 5-field boost IMRT; 2.3 mm, 3.9 mm, and 6.2 mm for 9-field boost IMRT; and 4.2 mm, 5.1 mm, and 6.6 mm for 9-field pelvic IMRT in the LAT, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Conclusion: Intrafraction prostate and patient displacement increased with treatment time, showing different behaviors for the single directions of movement. Repositioning of the patients during long treatments or shorter treatment times will be necessary to further reduce the treatment margin.

Steiner, Elisabeth, E-mail: [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Goldner, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Stock, Markus [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)



Evaluation of management treatments intended to increase lamb recruitment in a bighorn sheep herd.  


We administered a suite of treatments to a herd of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) that was experiencing poor lamb recruitment and showing signs of respiratory disease. Despite 3 yr of treatment with various combinations of anthelmentics, antibiotics, vaccines, and hyperimmune serum products, recruitment was not improved. PMID:22740546

Sirochman, Michael A; Woodruff, Kimberly J; Grigg, Jamin L; Walsh, Daniel P; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L



Increasing Processor Utilization in Hard-Real-Time Systems with Checkpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often hard real-time systems require results that are produced on time despite the occurrence of processor failures. This paper considers a distributed system where tasks are periodic and each task occurs in multiple copies which are periodically synchronized in order to handle failures. The problem of preemptively scheduling a set of such tasks is discussed where every occurrence of a

Alan A. Bertossi; Massimo Bonometto; Luigi V. Mancini



Increased Learning Time and Targeted Instruction Improve Academic Skills for At-Risk ESL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with English as a Second Language (ESL) face two critical challenges: they need to develop English literacy while, at the same time, acquire content knowledge across subject areas. These students need a targeted ESL curriculum from elementary to high school that will allow an extended learning time and opportunities to practice as they…

Nelson, April, Comp.



Collagen maturity, glycation induced-pentosidine, and mineralization are increased following 3-year treatment with incadronate in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Collagen cross-linking is a determinant of bone quality. A three-year treatment of bisphosphonate—incadronate disodium—in\\u000a beagles increased degree of mineralization, collagen maturity, and pentosidine, a compound with advanced glycation end products.\\u000a The treatment had no effect on the total amount of enzymatic cross-link formation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Collagen cross-linking is a determinant of bone quality. Recently, we reported that long-term treatment with bisphosphonate\\u000a increased

M. Saito; S. Mori; T. Mashiba; S. Komatsubara; K. Marumo



Skilled Nursing Facilities: Available Data Show Average Nursing Staff Time Changed Little after Medicare Payment Increase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The change to the nursing component of the Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Prospective Payment System (PPS) payment rate was one of several increases to the rates since the PPS was implemented in 1998. This temporary increase, enacted in the context of pay...



Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?  


Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

Dispenzieri, Angela; Stewart, A Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K



Does Global Warming Increase Establishment Rates of Invasive Alien Species? A Centurial Time Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the relationship between global warming and establishment rate of invasive alien species, especially for poikilothermic invaders such as insects. Methodology/Principal Findings We present data that demonstrate a significant positive relationship between the change in average annual surface air temperature and the establishment rate of invasive alien insects in mainland China during 1900–2005. This relationship was modeled by regression analysis, and indicated that a 1°C increase in average annual surface temperature in mainland China was associated with an increase in the establishment rate of invasive alien insects of about 0.5 species year?1. The relationship between rising surface air temperature and increasing establishment rate remained significant even after accounting for increases in international trade during the period 1950–2005. Moreover, similar relationships were detected using additional data from the United Kingdom and the contiguous United States. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the perceived increase in establishments of invasive alien insects can be explained only in part by an increase in introduction rate or propagule pressure. Besides increasing propagule pressure, global warming is another driver that could favor worldwide bioinvasions. Our study highlights the need to consider global warming when designing strategies and policies to deal with bioinvasions.

Huang, Dingcheng; Haack, Robert A.; Zhang, Runzhi



Analysis of a high-probability instructional sequence and time-out in the treatment of child noncompliance.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effectiveness of high-probability requests and time-out as treatments for noncompliance that appeared to be maintained by contingent attention in 2 developmentally normal children. The introduction of high-probability requests increased compliance for 1 child but not the other. Time-out was effective with both children, and improvements in compliance were maintained at an 8-week follow-up.

Rortvedt, A K; Miltenberger, R G



Prefrontal GABA levels in cocaine-dependent subjects increase with pramipexole and venlafaxine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  There is evidence that prefrontal lobe GABA levels are low in cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals, and treatment with GABA\\u000a agonists decreases cocaine self-administration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of the study is to measure changes in GABA levels in CD subjects at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with pramipexole,\\u000a venlafaxine, or placebo.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  CD subjects enrolled in a treatment trial for cocaine dependence

Chris C. Streeter; John Hennen; Yong Ke; J. Eric Jensen; Ofra Sarid-Segal; Leanne E. Nassar; Clifford Knapp; Angela A. Meyer; Tae Kwak; Perry F. Renshaw; Domenic A. Ciraulo



Doctorate Awards Increase in S&E Overall, but Computer Science Declines for First Time  

NSF Publications Database

... Time (November 7, 1997) This report highlights data on persons who earned research doctorates in S/E ... Earned Doctorates collected this data from all persons in U.S. research universities as they ...


Doctorate Awards Increase in S&E Overall, but Computer Science Declines for First Time  

NSF Publications Database

... Computer Science Declines for First Time (November 7, 1997) This report highlights data on persons ... The Survey of Earned Doctorates collected this data from all persons in U.S. research universities ...


Drug treatment of Parkinson's disease. Time for phase II.  


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative syndrome for which at present no cure is available; therapy consists mainly of amelioration of the symptoms with L-Dopa and/or dopamine (DA) agonists. Development of an effective causal therapy should be focussed on preventing or at least retarding the neurodegenerative process underlying the disease. At the cellular level, PD is characterized by degeneration of neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Neuromelanin formation is the outcome of a process generally known as DA autooxidation, a chain of oxidation reactions in which highly neurotoxic DA-quinones are produced. The level of these DA-quinones, as estimated by the occurrence of their cysteinyl conjugates, is reported to be increased in the Parkinsonian substantia nigra. Hence, stimulation of pathways implicated in the detoxication of DA-quinones in the brain may provide neuroprotection in PD. Besides their inactivation through non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and glutathione, DA-quinones are efficiently inactivated enzymatically by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) and glutathione transferase(s), both of which are expressed in the human substantia nigra. The activity of these enzymes, which belong to the group of phase II biotransformation enzymes, can be up-regulated by a large variety of compounds. These compounds, including dithiolethiones, phenolic anti-oxidants, and isothiocyanates, have been shown to be active both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, considering the role of phase II biotransformation enzymes, in particular NQO and glutathione transferase(s), in the detoxication of DA-quinones, we propose that phase II enzyme inducers warrant evaluation on their neuroprotective potential in PD. PMID:10704931

Drukarch, B; van Muiswinkel, F L



Ibuprofen blocks time-dependent increases in hypoxic ventilation in rats  

PubMed Central

Recently, inflammatory processes have been shown to increase O2-sensitivity of the carotid body during chronic sustained hypoxia (Liu et al. 2009. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 296, L158–L166). We hypothesized that blocking inflammation with ibuprofen would reduce ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia by blocking such increases in carotid body O2 sensitivity. We tested this in conscious rats treated with ibuprofen (4mg/kg IP daily) or saline during acclimatization to hypoxia (PIO2 = 70 Torr for 7 days). Ibuprofen blocked the increase in hypoxic ventilation observed in chronically hypoxic rats treated with saline; ibuprofen had no effects on ventilation in normoxic control rats. Ibuprofen blocked increases in inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6) in the brainstem with chronic hypoxia. The data supports our hypothesis and further analysis indicates that ibuprofen also blocks inflammatory processes in the central nervous system contributing to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. Possible mechanisms linking inflammatory and hypoxic signaling are reviewed.

Popa, Dan; Fu, Zhenxing; Go, Ariel; Powell, Frank L.



Model Projections of Time-Dependent Response to Increasing Carbon Dioxide. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state-of-the-art of mathematical models of transient climate change from historical and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and related factors is reviewed, including studies done at NYU and elsewhere. Major conclusions are: (1) the tran...

M. I. Hoffert B. P. Flannery



Climate response to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times: A comparison between ozone and equivalent CO 2 forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

distributions. We find that the instantaneous radiative forcing of 0.49 W m? 2 due to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times results in an increase in global mean surface temperature of 0.28? C. The increase is nearly 0.4? C in the Northern Hemisphere and about 0.2? C in the Southern Hemisphere. The largest increases (>0.8? C) are downwind

L. J. Mickley; D. J. Jacob; B. D. Field



Reducing Adolescents' Perceived Barriers to Treatment and Increasing Help-Seeking Intentions: Effects of Classroom Presentations by General Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Building Bridges to General Practice" (BBGP) program is an outreach initiative. It aims to reduce young peoples' perceived knowledge- and belief-based barriers to engaging in treatment and to increase their behavioral intentions to consult a general medical practitioner (GP) for physical and psychological problems. By increasing intentions,…

Wilson, Coralie Joy; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew



Increasing Positive Outlook Partially Mediates the Effect of Empirically Supported Treatments on Depression Symptoms Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Among adolescents there is evidence that cognitive change partially mediates the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on depression outcome. However, prior studies have been limited by small samples, narrow measures of cognition, and failure to compare cognitive change following CBT to cognitive change following antidepressant medication. This study examined whether change in four cognitive constructs (cognitive distortions, cognitive avoidance, positive outlook, and solution-focused thinking) mediated change in depression severity in a sample of 291 adolescents who participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). TADS assessed the effects of CBT, fluoxetine, and their combination on depression severity. All three treatments were associated with change in the cognitive constructs and combination treatment produced the greatest change. Furthermore, change in the cognitive constructs partially mediated change in depression severity within all three treatments. Results implicated positive outlook as the construct most associated with change in depression severity over 36 weeks.

Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.; Silva, Susan G.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Henry, David B.; Reinecke, Mark A.



The Timing of Antidepressant Effects: A Comparison of Diverse Pharmacological and Somatic Treatments  

PubMed Central

Currently available antidepressants used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) unfortunately often take weeks to months to achieve their full effects, commonly resulting in considerable morbidity and increased risk for suicidal behavior. Our lack of understanding of the precise cellular underpinnings of this illness and of the mechanism of action of existing effective pharmacological treatments is a large part of the reason that therapies with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action (ROAA) have not been developed. Other issues that need to be addressed include heterogeneous clinical concepts and statistical models to measure rapid antidepressant effects. This review describes the timing of onset of antidepressant effects for various therapies used to treat MDD. While several agents produce earlier improvement of depressive symptoms (defined as occurring within one week), the response rate associated with such agents can be quite variable. These agents include both currently available antidepressants as well as other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Considerably fewer treatments are associated with ROAA, defined as occurring within several hours or one day. Treatment strategies for MDD whose sustained antidepressant effects manifest within hours or even a few days would have an enormous impact on public health.

Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Baumann, Jacqueline; Wheeler-Castillo, Cristina; Latov, David; Henter, Ioline D.; Salvadore, Giacomo; Zarate, Carlos A.



Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress of the first year of a three-year research program. This program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.



Increase of peripheral CXCR3 positive T lymphocytes upon treatment of RA patients with TNF  inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the regulation of factors involved in lymphocyte trafficking in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) undergoing treatment with tumour necrosis factora (TNF-a) inhibitors. Methods. We examined 14 consecutive patients with RA according to ACR criteria prior to and during treatment with TNF-a inhibitors (seven etanercept, seven infliximab) and determined disease activity using the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Peripheral

D. Aeberli; M. Seitz; P. Juni; P. M. Villiger



Chemotherapeutic treatment efficacy and sensitivity are increased by adjuvant alternating electric fields (TTFields)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present study explores the efficacy and toxicity of combining a new, non-toxic, cancer treatment modality, termed Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields), with chemotherapeutic treatment in-vitro, in-vivo and in a pilot clinical trial. METHODS: Cell proliferation in culture was studied in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and human glioma (U-118) cell lines, exposed to TTFields, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and dacarbazine (DTIC)

Eilon D Kirson; Rosa S Schneiderman; Vladimír Dbalý; František Tovaryš; Josef Vymazal; Aviran Itzhaki; Daniel Mordechovich; Zoya Gurvich; Esther Shmueli; Dorit Goldsher; Yoram Wasserman; Yoram Palti



Adderall ® produces increased striatal dopamine release and a prolonged time course compared to amphetamine isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Adderall® is currently used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and is composed of a novel mixture\\u000a of approximately 24% l-amphetamine and 76% d-amphetamine salts. There are, however, no investigations of the pharmacological effects of this combination in vivo.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The technique of high-speed chronoamperometry using Nafion®-coated single carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to study amphetamine-evoked dopamine (DA) release produced

B. Matthew Joyce; Paul E. A. Glaser; Greg A. Gerhardt



Method and computer product to increase accuracy of time-based software verification for sensor networks  


A recursive verification protocol to reduce the time variance due to delays in the network by putting the subject node at most one hop from the verifier node provides for an efficient manner to test wireless sensor nodes. Since the software signatures are time based, recursive testing will give a much cleaner signal for positive verification of the software running on any one node in the sensor network. In this protocol, the main verifier checks its neighbor, who in turn checks its neighbor, and continuing this process until all nodes have been verified. This ensures minimum time delays for the software verification. Should a node fail the test, the software verification downstream is halted until an alternative path (one not including the failed node) is found. Utilizing techniques well known in the art, having a node tested twice, or not at all, can be avoided.

Foo Kune, Denis (Saint Paul, MN); Mahadevan, Karthikeyan (Mountain View, CA)




Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a travel time estimation process by integrating a missing data treatment and data-fusion-based approaches. In missing data treatment, this study develops a grey time-series model and a grey-theory-based pseudo-nearest-neighbor method to recover, respectively, temporal and spatial missing values in traffic detector data sets. Both spatial and temporal patterns of traffic data are also considered in travel time

Yuh-Horng WEN; Tsu-Tian LEE; Hsun-Jung CHO



Factors affecting timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation based on monitoring CD4 counts  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate factors affecting antiretroviral therapy (ART) start time when triggered by a CD4 count < 350 cells/?l while monitoring counts over time. Measurement frequency, requirement for confirmatory counts, and precision and accuracy of CD4 enumeration technology were considered. Methods Using a model of CD4 count trajectories among seroconverters in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, sequences of counts were simulated for a large hypothetical population monitored for 5 years from seroconversion. Time of first count < 350 cells/?l was defined as ART start time. The simulation was adapted to evaluate the effect of the above factors on these times. ART initiation was considered “very late” among patients whose underlying trajectory declined below 200 cells/?l during the period simulated if no previous observed count was < 350 cells/?l. Results For 12-, 6-, 4- and 3-monthly measurements, median start time was 48, 36, 32 and 30 months after seroconversion and proportion of patients starting ART very late was 11.5%, 1.6%, 0.2% and 0.1%. For 6-monthly measurements, requiring confirmation increased the median to 49 months and proportion to 8.9%. Changes in standard deviation of short-term variability in counts of 25% and measurement bias for a novel technology of ± 10% changed median time by ± 6 months with modest change in the proportion very late (range 0.5% to 3.2%). Conclusion 6-monthly measurements appear adequate in achieving low rates of very late ART whereas confirmation affects rates adversely. Studies comparing new versus standard measurement technologies should focus on ruling out modest bias, particularly proximal to important thresholds for treatment management.

NOUBARY, Farzad; HUGHES, Michael D.



The power of FDG-PET to detect treatment effects is increased by glucose correction using a Michaelis constant  

PubMed Central

Background We recently showed improved between-subject variability in our [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) experiments using a Michaelis-Menten transport model to calculate the metabolic tumor glucose uptake rate extrapolated to the hypothetical condition of glucose saturation: MRglucmax=Ki*(KM+[glc]), where Ki is the image-derived FDG uptake rate constant, KM is the half-saturation Michaelis constant, and [glc] is the blood glucose concentration. Compared to measurements of Ki alone, or calculations of the scan-time metabolic glucose uptake rate (MRgluc?=?Ki * [glc]) or the glucose-normalized uptake rate (MRgluc?=?Ki*[glc]/(100?mg/dL), we suggested that MRglucmax could offer increased statistical power in treatment studies; here, we confirm this in theory and practice. Methods We compared Ki, MRgluc (both with and without glucose normalization), and MRglucmax as FDG-PET measures of treatment-induced changes in tumor glucose uptake independent of any systemic changes in blood glucose caused either by natural variation or by side effects of drug action. Data from three xenograft models with independent evidence of altered tumor cell glucose uptake were studied and generalized with statistical simulations and mathematical derivations. To obtain representative simulation parameters, we studied the distributions of Ki from FDG-PET scans and blood [glucose] values in 66 cohorts of mice (665 individual mice). Treatment effects were simulated by varying MRglucmax and back-calculating the mean Ki under the Michaelis-Menten model with KM?=?130?mg/dL. This was repeated to represent cases of low, average, and high variability in Ki (at a given glucose level) observed among the 66 PET cohorts. Results There was excellent agreement between derivations, simulations, and experiments. Even modestly different (20%) blood glucose levels caused Ki and especially MRgluc to become unreliable through false positive results while MRglucmax remained unbiased. The greatest benefit occurred when Ki measurements (at a given glucose level) had low variability. Even when the power benefit was negligible, the use of MRglucmax carried no statistical penalty. Congruent with theory and simulations, MRglucmax showed in our experiments an average 21% statistical power improvement with respect to MRgluc and 10% with respect to Ki (approximately 20% savings in sample size). The results were robust in the face of imprecise blood glucose measurements and KM values. Conclusions When evaluating the direct effects of treatment on tumor tissue with FDG-PET, employing a Michaelis-Menten glucose correction factor gives the most statistically powerful results. The well-known alternative ‘correction’, multiplying Ki by blood glucose (or normalized blood glucose), appears to be counter-productive in this setting and should be avoided.



Niaspan treatment increases tumor necrosis factor-?-converting enzyme and promotes arteriogenesis after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that Niaspan (a prolonged release formulation of niacin) increases tumor necrosis factor-?-converting enzyme (TACE) expression and Notch signaling activity and promotes arteriogenesis after stroke. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and were treated with or without Niaspan. Niaspan significantly elevated local cerebral blood flow, and increased arteriogenesis as indicated by increased arterial diameter and

Jieli Chen; Xu Cui; Alex Zacharek; Guang Liang Ding; Amjad Shehadah; Quan Jiang; Mei Lu; Michael Chopp; J Chen



Experimental and computer simulation investigation of the time-integrating planar acousto-optical correlator in regime of a delay time increase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of time-integrating acousto optical correlator with delay time increasing have been designed developed and investigated. They based upon: 1) registration photoreceiver array is placed in lens focal plane; 2) diffracted optical bemas are separated by optical elements placed in a focal region; 3) photoreceiver array is placed in a plane situated between focal and image planes. The main

Arne S. Jensen; Karl-Ludwig Paap; Bernhard Klaassen; Evgueni N. Epikhin; Michael Y. Kvasha; Nikolai V. Masalsky; Alexander G. Sobolev; Vladimir A. Volkov



Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by constructed wetland with shorter retention time.  


The rationale for using constructed wetlands for treating wastewater is that wetlands are naturally among the most biological active ecosystem on earth. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of shorter retention time on the performance of constructed wetland in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and other elements removal. The application of wastewater with retention time of seven days as well as the evaluation of water quality after treatment at Goudini experimental wetland was carried out throughout the year. The results had shown an overall average COD removal of 60% throughout the year. Results also showed reasonable removal of other elements namely; potassium, pH, nitrogen, electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, magnesium and boron from the wastewater by constructed wetlands. The results showed low COD removal during July until September after which it improved tremendously. The reason for low COD removal during first three months could be attributed to the fact that there was no gradual increase of wastewater application to the wetlands i.e. from 4,050 litres per day to 8,100 litres per day. The results had showed that constructed wetland as a secondary treatment system is effective in terms of COD and other elements removal from winery and distillery wastewater. COD removal throughout the year was 60% with seven days retention time. When compared with previous studies that showed 80% COD removal within 14 days retention time, therefore the 60% removal is very critical to wine industries as more wastewater will be applied to the system. PMID:20453335

Mulidzi, A R



The Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools: Cultural Recognition in a Time of Increasing Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools" examines cultural recognition and the struggle for identity in America's schools. In particular, the contributing authors focus on the recognition and misrecognition as antagonistic cultural forces that work to shape, and at times distort identity. What surfaces throughout the chapters are two lessons…

Jenlink, Patrick M., Ed; Townes, Faye Hicks, Ed



Timing and method of increased carbohydrate intake to cope with heavy training, competition and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon the fact that fatigue during intense prolonged exercise is commonly due to depletion of muscle and liver glycogen which limits both training and competitive performance, this paper has proposed extraordinary dietary practices which generally advocate high carbohydrate intake at all times before, during and after exercise. The simple goal is to have as much carbohydrate in the body

Edward F. Coyle



Evaluation of Reaction Time in Virtual Reality environment for road safety increasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road safety is actually an overall objective of all industrialized countries. Design and development standards for roads and infrastructures' management are considered the main strategy to assure an adequate safety level. Since reaction time impacts on many design standards, they are based on kinetic and dynamic assumptions. Technical regulations for road design and institutional laws often disagree, both about conceptual

A. Benedetto; C. Benedetto


Global Fairness of Additive-Increase and Multiplicative-Decrease with Heterogeneous Round-Trip Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a network with an arbitrary topology and arbitrary communication delays, in which congestion control is based on additive- increase and multiplicative-decrease. We show that the source rates tend to be distributed in order to maximize an objective function called (\\

Milan Vojnovic; Jean-Yves Le Boudec; Catherine Boutremans



System, apparatuses and methods to increase supply of specialty care surgical-medical treatments  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

System, apparatuses and methods for treating specialty care surgical-medical patients (10) who are medically-stable. A specialty care surgical-medical hospital-clinic (40) is sited on a quasi-sovereign geographic area, including federally-recognized American Indian/Alaskan Native tribal nations. Surgical-medical treatments by provider group (42) who are citizens of countries worldwide. Transportation (30) of patients to hospital-clinic (40) by non-emergency vehicles. Treatment of patients (10) maximized via surgical-medical expertise from other hospital-clinics (60) provided via information technology systems (50) connected by global wide-area network linkages (62).



Pulmonary stretch receptor spike time precision increases with lung inflation amplitude and airway smooth muscle tension.  


Slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs) respond to different lung inflation volumes with distinct spike counts and patterns, conveying information regarding the rate and depth of breathing to the cardiovascular and respiratory control systems. Previous studies demonstrated that SARs respond to repetitions of the same lung inflation faithfully, suggesting the possibility of modeling an SAR's discrete response pattern to a stimulus using a statistically based method. Urethane-anesthetized rabbit SAR spike trains were recorded in response to repeated 9-, 12-, and 15-ml lung inflations, and used to construct model spike trains using K-means clustering. Analysis of the statistics of the responses to different lung inflation volumes revealed that SARs fire with more temporal precision in response to larger lung inflations, because the standard deviations of real spikes clustered around the modeled spike times of responses to 15-ml stimuli were smaller than those produced by 12 or 9 ml, even at the same absolute firing frequencies. This implied that the mechanical coupling of SAR endings with pulmonary tissue is critical in determining spike time reliability. To test this, we collected SAR responses during bronchial constriction, compared them with those produced by the same SARs under normal airway resistance, and found that their firing reliability improved during bronchial constriction. These results suggest that airway distension and mechanical coupling of the receptor endings with the airway wall (partially determined by smooth muscle tone) are important determinants of SAR spike time reliability. PMID:21411567

Chen, Yan; Marchenko, Vitaly; Rogers, Robert F



Pulmonary stretch receptor spike time precision increases with lung inflation amplitude and airway smooth muscle tension  

PubMed Central

Slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs) respond to different lung inflation volumes with distinct spike counts and patterns, conveying information regarding the rate and depth of breathing to the cardiovascular and respiratory control systems. Previous studies demonstrated that SARs respond to repetitions of the same lung inflation faithfully, suggesting the possibility of modeling an SAR's discrete response pattern to a stimulus using a statistically based method. Urethane-anesthetized rabbit SAR spike trains were recorded in response to repeated 9-, 12-, and 15-ml lung inflations, and used to construct model spike trains using K-means clustering. Analysis of the statistics of the responses to different lung inflation volumes revealed that SARs fire with more temporal precision in response to larger lung inflations, because the standard deviations of real spikes clustered around the modeled spike times of responses to 15-ml stimuli were smaller than those produced by 12 or 9 ml, even at the same absolute firing frequencies. This implied that the mechanical coupling of SAR endings with pulmonary tissue is critical in determining spike time reliability. To test this, we collected SAR responses during bronchial constriction, compared them with those produced by the same SARs under normal airway resistance, and found that their firing reliability improved during bronchial constriction. These results suggest that airway distension and mechanical coupling of the receptor endings with the airway wall (partially determined by smooth muscle tone) are important determinants of SAR spike time reliability.

Chen, Yan; Marchenko, Vitaly



A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change with Increased Investment in Instructional Time  

PubMed Central

There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant investment of course time is required to enable students to show gains commensurate to a summer research experience. An alumni survey revealed that time spent on a research project is also a significant factor in the value former students assign to the experience one or more years later. We conclude: 1) implementation of a bioinformatics project within the biology curriculum provides a mechanism for successfully engaging large numbers of students in undergraduate research; 2) benefits to students are achievable at a wide variety of academic institutions; and 3) successful implementation of course-based research experiences requires significant investment of instructional time for students to gain full benefit.

Shaffer, Christopher D.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Bednarski, April E.; Dunbar, David; Goodman, Anya L.; Reinke, Catherine; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bazinet, Christopher; Beach, Dale L.; Bedard, James E. J.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John; Burg, Martin; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Clase, Kari; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Eisler, Heather; Emerson, Julia A.; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hauser, Charles; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Howell, Carina E.; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J.; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Silver Key, S. Catherine; Kleinschmit, Adam; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga; Kuleck, Gary; Leatherman, Judith; Lopilato, Jane; MacKinnon, Christy; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Mistry, Hemlata; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul; Paetkau, Don W.; Parrish, Susan; Peterson, Celeste N.; Preuss, Mary; Reed, Laura K.; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary A.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Stamm, Joyce; Szauter, Paul; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Mardis, Elaine R.; Buhler, Jeremy; Leung, Wilson; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C. R.



Increase of OKT4+ cells during treatment with thymostimulin in parenteral drug addicts with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy.  


Thymostimulin (TP-1), a parenterally administered calf thymus extract, has induced a significant increase of OKT4+ peripheral cells in 9 drug addicts with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy; OKT4+ lymphocytes decreased gradually after withdrawal of treatment. In a control group, a spontaneous decrease occurred in the same period of observation. A more prolonged treatment should be undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the drug on the evolution of the disease. PMID:2942692

Lazzarin, A; Galli, M; Moriondo, P; Parravicini, C; Poli, G; Moroni, M



Octacosanol supplementation increases running endurance time and improves biochemical parameters after exhaustion in trained rats.  


This study evaluated the effects of octacosanol on running performance and related biochemical parameters in exercise-trained rats run to exhaustion on a treadmill. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups - sedentary control group (SC), exercise-trained control group (EC), and exercise-trained, octacosanol-supplemented group (EO) - and raised on either control or octacosanol (0.75%)-supplemented diet with (or without for SC rats) exercise-training for 4 weeks. EC rats ran 184% longer until exhaustion than SC rats (P <.01), while octacosanol-supplemented trained rats ran 46% longer than EC rats (P <.05). Under the exhausted state immediately following the running performance test, EO rats exhibited significantly higher plasma ammonia and lactate concentrations compared with the values for EC rats (P <.05). Although EO rats ran significantly longer until exhausted, their plasma glucose level and gastronecmius muscle glycogen concentration were not significantly different from those of EC rats. Dietary supplementation of octacosanol resulted in significantly higher creatine phosphokinase activity in plasma (44% increase, P <.01) and citrate synthase activity in muscle (16% increase, P<.01) of exercise-trained rats. These results suggest that the ergogenic properties of octacosanol include the sparing of muscle glycogen stores and increases in the oxidative capacity in the muscle of exercise-trained rats. PMID:14977443

Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Sunghee; Han, Dae Suk; Park, Taesun



High-temperature strength of prealloyed-powder products increased by heat/pressure treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat treatment process involves heating products to a temperature above the solidus, and subsequently applying pressure at a temperature below the solidus. Technique can be modified to one step process involving simultaneous application if both high pressure and heat. Process is not limited to cobalt-base alloys.

Ashbrook, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.



Making a Case for Training in Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Increasing Treatment Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for the inclusion of ethnic and cultural diversity in professional psychology training, particularly the impact of this training on treatment outcome. Reviews the empirical literature examining both the direct and indirect linkages between ethnic and cross-cultural training and outcome. Identifies limitations of this research. Contains over…

Yutrzenka, Barbara A.



Evaluation of pre-treatment processes for increasing biodegradability of agro-food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion (AD) technology can be employed for treating sewage sludge, livestock waste or food waste. Generally, the hydrolysis stage is the rate-limiting step of the AD processes for solid waste degradation. Therefore, physical, chemical and biological pre-treatment methods or their combination are required, in order to reduce the rate of such a limiting step. In this study, four methods

D. Hidalgo; E. Sastre; M. Gómez; P. Nieto



The Social Marketing Approach: A Way to Increase Reporting and Treatment of Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…

Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya



Increasing the Modulation Depth of the WWVB Time Code to Improve the Performance of Radio Controlled Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute of Standards and Technology radio station WWVB has officially changed its broadcast format. As of January 1, 2006 the WWVB broadcast signal has increased the depth of the time code modulation from 10 dB to 17 dB. The increase in modulation depth has been implemented to improve the performance of commercial radio controlled clocks in areas of

John P. Lowe; Ken C. Allen



Plumbagin treatment leads to apoptosis in human K562 leukemia cells through increased ROS and elevated TRAIL receptor expression  

PubMed Central

This study examined the ability of plumbagin to induce apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Plumbagin exposure led to a significant reduction in cell viability and the induction of apoptosis. Mechanistically, plumbagin treatment led to elevated levels of ROS. Plumbagin-induced apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) and PEG-catalase. Furthermore, plumbagin exposure led to elevated expression of DR4 and DR5 and increased killing through soluble TRAIL. The plumbagin-induced increase in DR4 and DR5 was inhibited by treatment with NAC. Together, this study suggests that plumbagin may be an effective treatment of CML through increased sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated killing.

Sun, Jingping; McKallip, Robert J.



Increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment: A phenomenology study  

PubMed Central

Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Results: Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind".

Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh



Plumbagin treatment leads to apoptosis in human K562 leukemia cells through increased ROS and elevated TRAIL receptor expression.  


This study examined the ability of plumbagin to induce apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Plumbagin exposure led to a significant reduction in cell viability and the induction of apoptosis. Mechanistically, plumbagin treatment led to elevated levels of ROS. Plumbagin-induced apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) and PEG-catalase. Furthermore, plumbagin exposure led to elevated expression of DR4 and DR5 and increased killing through soluble TRAIL. The plumbagin-induced increase in DR4 and DR5 was inhibited by treatment with NAC. Together, this study suggests that plumbagin may be an effective treatment of CML through increased sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated killing. PMID:21741707

Sun, Jingping; McKallip, Robert J



Time to 12-month remission and treatment failure for generalised and unclassified epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop prognostic models for time to 12-month remission and time to treatment failure after initiating antiepileptic drug monotherapy for generalised and unclassified epilepsy. Methods We analysed data from the Standard and New Antiepileptic Drug (arm B) study, a randomised trial that compared initiating treatment with lamotrigine, topiramate and valproate in patients diagnosed with generalised or unclassified epilepsy. Multivariable regression modelling was used to investigate how clinical factors affect the probability of achieving 12-month remission and treatment failure. Results Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to 12-month remission were having a relative with epilepsy, neurological insult, total number of tonic-clonic seizures before randomisation, seizure type and treatment. Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to treatment failure were treatment history (antiepileptic drug treatment prior to randomisation), EEG result, seizure type and treatment. Conclusions The models described within this paper can be used to identify patients most likely to achieve 12-month remission and most likely to have treatment failure, aiding individual patient risk stratification and the design and analysis of future epilepsy trials.

Bonnett, Laura J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Smith, David; Williamson, Paula R; Chadwick, David; Marson, Anthony G



Taking personal responsibility for well-being increases birth satisfaction of first time mothers.  


Birth satisfaction has been found to enhance a mother's capacity to develop a sense of maternal identity. This study used a phenomenological form of thematic analysis to gain in-depth insights into the birth experiences of first-time New Zealand mothers. Taking personal responsibility (the choices participants made in relation to being in control of and accountable for their own birth processes) was a core theme. Those participants who described the neoliberalist ideal of taking personal responsibility to be well informed and well prepared for any birth experience felt more confident that they would be able to work with whatever labour and birth event eventuated. PMID:21593137

Howarth, Anne M; Swain, Nicola; Treharne, Gareth J



Reducing Time and Increasing Sensitivity in Sample Preparation for Adherent Mammalian Cell Metabolomics  

PubMed Central

A simple, fast, and reproducible sample preparation procedure was developed for relative quantification of metabolites in adherent mammalian cells using the clonal ?-cell line INS-1 as a model sample. The method was developed by evaluating the effect of different sample preparation procedures on high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry quantification of 27 metabolites involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle on a directed basis as well as for all detectable chromatographic features on an undirected basis. We demonstrate that a rapid water rinse step prior to quenching of metabolism reduces components that suppress electrospray ionization thereby increasing signal for 26 of 27 targeted metabolites and increasing total number of detected features from 237 to 452 with no detectable change of metabolite content. A novel quenching technique is employed which involves addition of liquid nitrogen directly to the culture dish and allows for samples to be stored at ?80 °C for at least 7 d before extraction. Separation of quenching and extraction steps provides the benefit of increased experimental convenience and sample stability while maintaining metabolite content similar to techniques that employ simultaneous quenching and extraction with cold organic solvent. The extraction solvent 9:1 methanol: chloroform was found to provide superior performance over acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol with respect to metabolite recovery and extract stability. Maximal recovery was achieved using a single rapid (~1 min) extraction step. The utility of this rapid preparation method (~5 min) was demonstrated through precise metabolite measurements (11% average relative standard deviation without internal standards) associated with step changes in glucose concentration that evoke insulin secretion in the clonal ?-cell line INS-1.

Lorenz, Matthew A.; Burant, Charles F.; Kennedy, Robert T.



Systemic and Cerebral Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels Increase in Murine Cerebral Malaria along with Increased Calpain and Caspase Activity and Can be Reduced by Erythropoietin Treatment  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) includes compromised microvascular perfusion, increased inflammation, cytoadhesion, and endothelial activation. These events cause blood–brain barrier disruption and neuropathology and associations with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway have been shown. We studied this pathway in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA causing murine CM with or without the use of erythropoietin (EPO) as adjunct therapy. ELISA and western blotting was used for quantification of VEGF and relevant proteins in brain and plasma. CM increased levels of VEGF in brain and plasma and decreased plasma levels of soluble VEGF receptor 2. EPO treatment normalized VEGF receptor 2 levels and reduced brain VEGF levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? was significantly upregulated whereas cerebral HIF-2? and EPO levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of ?-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1?, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also caspase and calpain activity was reduced markedly in EPO-treated mice.

Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna; Jendresen, Charlotte Bille; Kurtzhals, J?rgen Anders Lindholm



Monocomponent endoglucanase treatment increases the reactivity of softwood sulphite dissolving pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Softwood dissolving pulp was treated with a commercial monocomponent fungal endocellulase. The reactivity of the pulp for the production of rayon and cellulose derivatives as determined with the Fock method increased drastically with relatively low amounts of enzyme, and the yield loss and decrease of viscosity were moderate. The mechanism behind the increased reactivity is discussed.

Gunnar Henriksson; Maria Christiernin; Roland Agnemo



Too sick, not sick enough? Effects of treatment type and timing on depression stigma.  


A case vignette survey design was used to explore effects of treatment timing (early, delayed, or untreated) and depression treatment type (pharmacological or psychological) on components of depression stigma. The survey was distributed to two samples, 116 undergraduates (UGs) and 301 participants from the online service Amazon Mechanical Turk. As expected, extended untreated depression was associated with greater social distance and negative character evaluation than treated depression, and early treatment was associated with higher illness invalidity stigma (both samples) and illness responsibility stigma (UG sample only). Interaction effects suggested that pharmacotherapy, in comparison with psychotherapy, was more sensitive to the effects of treatment timing on stigma. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that separate facets of stigma are associated with early depression treatment and prolonged untreated depression. Evidence for separate stigmatization of early treatment and extended illness holds important implications for antistigma campaigns. PMID:24647215

Henshaw, Erin J



Cocaine treatment increases expression of a 40 kDa catecholamine-regulated protein in discrete brain regions.  


Previous reports from our laboratory have described brain-specific catecholamine-regulated proteins, which bind dopamine and related catecholamines. Evidence from the molecular cloning of a 40 kDa catecholamine-regulated protein (CRP40) revealed that CRP40 is dopamine-inducible and has properties similar to those of the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family. The present study investigates the effects of acute and chronic cocaine treatment on CRP40 expression in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and medulla. Acute treatment with cocaine increased CRP40 expression in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, whereas chronic treatment with cocaine increased CRP40 expression in the nucleus accumbens only. Neither of these treatments affected CRP40 levels in the prefrontal cortex or medulla. In addition, pretreatment with the spin-trapping agent alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone did not attenuate cocaine-induced expression of CRP40, suggesting that the observed increases in CRP40 levels were not caused by free radicals. On the other hand, pretreatment with anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, blocked the cocaine-induced expression of CRP40. Thus, protein synthesis may be involved in the observed CRP40 level increases. Furthermore, neither acute nor chronic cocaine treatment affected levels of inducible or constitutively expressed HSP70, which indicates a specificity of cocaine's effects on CRP40. Since cocaine has been shown to increase extracellular dopamine levels, these findings suggest that increased expression of CRP40 is associated with high extracellular levels of dopamine (or its metabolites). Elevated levels of CRP40 could play a protective role for dopamine neurons in response to increased oxidative stress that has been shown to be induced by cocaine and that can lead to apoptosis and neurodegeneration. PMID:12422371

Sharan, Niki; Chong, Victor Z; Nair, Venugopalan D; Mishra, Ram K; Hayes, Robert J; Gardner, Eliot L



Timing is everything: Pre-engagement cohabitation and increased risk for poor marital outcomes.  


Data from a longitudinal study were used to examine differences among couples that cohabited before engagement, after engagement, or not until marriage. Survey data and objectively coded couple interaction data were collected for 136 couples (272 individuals) after engagement (but before marriage) and 10 months into marriage. At both time points, the before-engagement cohabiters (59 couples) had more negative interactions, lower interpersonal commitment, lower relationship quality, and lower relationship confidence than those who did not cohabit until after engagement (28 couples) or marriage (49 couples), even after controlling for selection factors and duration of cohabitation. Our findings suggest that those who cohabit before engagement are at greater risk for poor marital outcomes than those who cohabit only after engagement or at marriage, which may have important implications for future research on cohabitation, clinical work, and social policy decisions. PMID:15222838

Kline, Galena H; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Olmos-Gallo, P Antonio; St Peters, Michelle; Whitton, Sarah W; Prado, Lydia M



HIV treatment produces economic returns through increased work and education, and warrants continued US support.  


Federal expenditures are under scrutiny in the United States, and the merits of continuing and expanding the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to support access to antiretroviral therapy have become a topic of debate. A growing body of research on the economic benefits of treatment with antiretroviral therapy has important implications for these discussions. For example, research conducted since the inception of PEPFAR shows that HIV-infected adults who receive antiretroviral therapy often begin or resume productive work, and that children living in households with infected adults who are on treatment are more likely to attend school than those in households with untreated adults. These benefits should be considered when weighing the overall benefits of providing antiretroviral therapy against its costs, particularly in the context of discussions about the future of PEPFAR. A modest case can also be made in favor of having private companies in HIV-affected countries provide antiretroviral therapy to their employees and dependents, thus sharing some of the burden of funding HIV treatment. PMID:22778336

Thirumurthy, Harsha; Galárraga, Omar; Larson, Bruce; Rosen, Sydney



Observation of increases in emission from modern vehicles over time in Hong Kong using remote sensing.  


In this study on-road gaseous emissions of vehicles are investigated using remote sensing measurements collected over three different periods. The results show that a high percentage of gaseous pollutants were emitted from a small percentage of vehicles. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) vehicles generally have higher gaseous emissions compared to other vehicles, particularly among higher-emitting vehicles. Vehicles with high vehicle specific power (VSP) tend to have lower CO and HC emissions while petrol and LPG vehicles tend to have higher NO emissions when engine load is high. It can be observed that gaseous emission factors of petrol and LPG vehicles increase greatly within 2 years of being introduced to the vehicle fleet, suggesting that engine and catalyst performance deteriorate rapidly. It can be observed that LPG vehicles have higher levels of gaseous emissions than petrol vehicles, suggesting that proper maintenance of LPG vehicles is essential in reducing gaseous emissions from vehicles. PMID:22325426

Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S



Neuroprotection or Increased Brain Damage Mediated by Temperature in Stroke Is Time Dependent  

PubMed Central

The control of temperature during the acute phase of stroke may be a new therapeutic target that can be applied in all stroke patients, however therapeutic window or timecourse of the temperature effect is not well established. Our aim is to study the association between changes in body temperature in the first 72 hours and outcome in patients with ischemic (IS) and hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke. We prospectively studied 2931 consecutive patients (2468 with IS and 463 with ICH). Temperature was obtained at admission, and at 24, 48 and 72 hours after admission. Temperature was categorized as low (<36°C), normal (36–37°C) and high (>37°C). As the main variable, we studied functional outcome at 3 months determined by modified Rankin Scale. Temperature in stroke patients is higher than in controls, and increases gradually in the first 72 hours after stroke. A positive correlation between temperature and stroke severity determined by NIHSS was found at 24 and 48 hours, but not at admission or 72 hours. In a logistic regression model, high temperature was associated with poor outcome at 24 hours (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.59–2.64, p<0.0001) and 48 hours (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.08–2.34, p?=?0.007), but not at admission or 72 hours. Temperature increases in patients with stroke in the first 72 hours, with the harmful effect of high temperature occurring in the first 48 hours. The neuroprotective effect of low temperature occurs within the first 24 hours from stroke onset.

Rodriguez-Yanez, Manuel; Arias, Susana; Fernandez-Ferro, Jose; Gomez-Sanchez, Jose Carlos; Castillo, Jose



A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system is proposed for tracking sensitive areas in the retina for computer-assisted laser treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The system consists of a fundus camera using red-free illumination mode interfaced to a computer that allows real-time capturing of video input. The first image acquired is used as the reference image and utilized by the treatment physician for treatment

Nahed H. Solouma; Abou-Bakr M. Youssef; Yehia A. Badr; Yasser M. Kadah



Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.  


The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher increases for those AA showing a high resistance to degradation in the untreated meal were also observed. The total supply of metabolisable AA was increased by 3.87 times for sulphur-containing AA, whereas that of lysine was increased by 2.5 times, mainly because of lysine losses with heat treatments. These treatments and especially that with malic acid would be useful to increase the protein value of these meals but their combined use with lysine-rich protein concentrates would improve the metabolisable protein profile. PMID:23032153

Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F



Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross



The influence of the hemodialysis treatment time under oxidative stress biomarkers in chronic renal failure patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryOxidative stress possibly helps to promote the progression and complication of chronic renal failure (CRF). Hemodialysis (HD) may aggravate oxidative stress. In addition long time of treatment may intensify the oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged HD treatment under parameters of the oxidative stress.

Juliana Valentini; Denise Grotto; Clóvis Paniz; Miguel Roehrs; Geni Burg; Solange C. Garcia



First-Time and Repeat Admissions Aged 18 to 25 to Substance Abuse Treatment: 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) on substance abuse treatment admissions in 2006, repeat admissions aged 18 to 25 were more likely than first-time admissions of the same age group to report heroin and other opiates as the primary substa...



Treatment of underfed pigs with GH throughout the second quarter of pregnancy increases fetal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in- crease in pregnancy and administration of GH during early-mid pregnancy increases fetal growth in well-fed pigs. To determine whether increased maternal GH could promote fetal growth when feed availability is restricted, fifteen cross-bred primiparous sows (gilts) were fed at approximately 30% of ad libitum intake, from mating onwards and were injected daily i.m. with

K L Gatford; J A Owens; R G Campbell; J M Boyce; P A Grant; P C Owens



Pharmacokinetics of caspofungin increased dosage in a patient on rifampin-containing anti-tubercular treatment.  


We describe a patient treated with caspofungin and rifampin; after increasing the dosage of the former (70 mg/day) we observed an unexpectedly lower plasma exposure (AUC0-24 79.5 ?g/ml*h vs. 108.8 ?g/ml*h). Although rifampin-mediated complete enzyme induction may take longer than 2 weeks, the clinical advantage of an increased caspofungin dose deserves clinical investigation. PMID:23796067

Calcagno, Andrea; Baietto, Lorena; Pagani, Nicole; Bertucci, Roberto; Rostagno, Roberto; D'Avolio, Antonio; Di Perri, Giovanni; De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe



Increased efficacy for in-house validation of real-time PCR GMO detection methods.  


To improve the efficacy of the in-house validation of GMO detection methods (DNA isolation and real-time PCR, polymerase chain reaction), a study was performed to gain insight in the contribution of the different steps of the GMO detection method to the repeatability and in-house reproducibility. In the present study, 19 methods for (GM) soy, maize canola and potato were validated in-house of which 14 on the basis of an 8-day validation scheme using eight different samples and five on the basis of a more concise validation protocol. In this way, data was obtained with respect to the detection limit, accuracy and precision. Also, decision limits were calculated for declaring non-conformance (>0.9%) with 95% reliability. In order to estimate the contribution of the different steps in the GMO analysis to the total variation variance components were estimated using REML (residual maximum likelihood method). From these components, relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility (RSD(r) and RSD(R)) were calculated. The results showed that not only the PCR reaction but also the factors 'DNA isolation' and 'PCR day' are important factors for the total variance and should therefore be included in the in-house validation. It is proposed to use a statistical model to estimate these factors from a large dataset of initial validations so that for similar GMO methods in the future, only the PCR step needs to be validated. The resulting data are discussed in the light of agreed European criteria for qualified GMO detection methods. PMID:20012027

Scholtens, I M J; Kok, E J; Hougs, L; Molenaar, B; Thissen, J T N M; van der Voet, H



Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.



Normalisation of real-time RT-PCR gene expression measurements in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to increased metal concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate quantification by real-time RT-PCR relies on normalisation of the measured gene expression data. Normalisation with\\u000a multiple reference genes is becoming the standard, but the best reference genes for gene expression studies within one organism\\u000a may depend on the applied treatments or the organs and tissues studied. Ideally, reference genes should be evaluated in all\\u000a experimental systems. A number of

Tony Remans; Karen Smeets; Kelly Opdenakker; Dennis Mathijsen; Jaco Vangronsveld; Ann Cuypers



Increased intratumoral fluorothymidine uptake levels following multikinase inhibitor sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma xenograft model  

PubMed Central

An early identification of the tumor response to sorafenib treatment is indispensable for selecting optimal personalized treatment strategies. However, at present, no reliable predictors are clinically available. 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to assess tumor proliferation, since the FLT uptake level reflects thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) activity. Thus, the present study determined whether FLT was able to evaluate the early tumor response to sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma (RCC; A498) xenograft in comparison with the tumor proliferation marker, Ki-67. Mice bearing A498 tumors were assigned to the control and sorafenib-treated groups and the tumor volume was measured every day. [Methyl-3H(N)]-3?-fluoro-3?-deoxythymidine (3H-FLT) was injected 2 h prior to the sacrifice of the mice on days three and seven following the treatment. 3H-FLT autoradiography (ARG) and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed using adjacent tumor sections. In the visual assessment, the intratumoral 3H-FLT uptake level diffusely increased following the treatment, while no significant changes were observed in Ki-67 IHC. The intratumoral 3H-FLT uptake levels significantly increased by 2.7- and 2.6-fold on days three and seven following the treatment, while the tumor volume and Ki-67 index did not significantly change. Thus, an increased FLT uptake level was demonstrated following the treatment, which may indicate the suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and the compensatory upregulation of TK-1 activity by sorafenib.




Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice.  


Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

Melin, Vanessa E; Johnstone, David W; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Hrubec, Terry C



Increased cleavage rate of human nuclear transfer embryos after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment.  


As an abundant source that involves fewer ethical considerations, human abnormally fertilized zygotes are superior to oocytes as therapeutic cloning recipients of nuclear transfer. However, more effective manipulation conditions should be developed for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) studies using human abnormally fertilized zygotes as recipients. The present study found that the use of cytochalasin B was not necessary for, and even harmful to, the enucleation of human zygotes. This study also decreased the DNA methylation levels in reconstructed embryos using a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), in an attempt to correct the abnormalities in DNA methylation that might play an important role in the failure of embryo development. After 5-aza-dC treatment and nuclear transfer (NT-Aza group), 32.7% of reconstructed embryos developed to the 8-cell stage, which is a much higher percentage than that of the nuclear transfer only (NT) group (11.1%). The DNA methylation level in the NT-Aza group was significantly lower than that of the NT group, as determined by 5-methylcytosine immunodetection. Based on the present results, this study recommends performing the enucleation procedure without cytochalasin B treatment and using 5-aza-dC in the culture of reconstructed embryos in human SCNT studies. PMID:22874064

Sun, Lei; Wu, Ke-Liang; Zhang, Di; Wang, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yue; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Xiu-Ying; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Liu, Hou-Qi



Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism  

SciTech Connect

To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))



Chronic Risperidone Treatment Preferentially Increases Rat Erythrocyte and Prefrontal Cortex Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition: Evidence for Augmented Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Prior clinical studies suggest that chronic treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications increase erythrocyte and postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) omega-3 fatty acid composition in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). However, because human tissue phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid composition is potentially influenced by multiple extraneous variables, definitive evaluation of this putative mechanism of action requires an animal model. In the present study, we determined the effects of chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (RISP, 3.0 mg/kg/d) on erythrocyte and PFC omega-3 fatty acid composition in rats maintained on a diet with or without the dietary omega-3 fatty acid precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). Chronic RISP treatment resulted in therapeutically-relevant plasma RISP and 9-OH-RISP concentrations (18±2.6 ng/ml), and significantly increased erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3, +22%, p=0.0003) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, +18%, p=0.01) composition, and increased PFC DHA composition (+7%, p=0.03) in rats maintained on the ALA+ diet. In contrast, chronic RISP did not alter erythrocyte or PFC omega-3 fatty acid composition in rats maintained on the ALA? diet. Chronic RISP treatment did not alter erythrocyte or PFC arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) composition. These data demonstrate that chronic RISP treatment significantly augments ALA-DHA biosynthesis, and preferentially increases peripheral and central membrane omega-3 fatty acid composition. Augmented omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis and membrane composition represents a novel mechanism of action that may contribute in part to the efficacy of RISP in the treatment of SZ.

McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica A.; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick



An Examination of Group-Based Treatment Packages for Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading fluency has been described as one of the essential ingredients for ensuring that students become successful readers. Unfortunately, a large number of elementary-aged students in this country do not fluently read age-appropriate material. Because of this, small-group interventions are practical and more time efficient than individualized…

Begeny, John C.; Silber, Jennifer M.



Phenelzine treatment increases transcription factor AP2 levels in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The elevations of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in response to acute serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) exposure are not consistent with the time course for the therapeutic action of these antidepressants. Thus, neuronal adaptations are needed for the therapeutic effect to arise. Transcription factor Activating Protein –2 (AP-2) is critical for mammalian neural gene

Mattias Damberg; Cecilia Berggård; Lars Oreland



A Proton Beam Therapy System Dedicated to Spot-Scanning Increases Accuracy with Moving Tumors by Real-Time Imaging and Gating and Reduces Equipment Size  

PubMed Central

Purpose A proton beam therapy (PBT) system has been designed which dedicates to spot-scanning and has a gating function employing the fluoroscopy-based real-time-imaging of internal fiducial markers near tumors. The dose distribution and treatment time of the newly designed real-time-image gated, spot-scanning proton beam therapy (RGPT) were compared with free-breathing spot-scanning proton beam therapy (FBPT) in a simulation. Materials and Methods In-house simulation tools and treatment planning system VQA (Hitachi, Ltd., Japan) were used for estimating the dose distribution and treatment time. Simulations were performed for 48 motion parameters (including 8 respiratory patterns and 6 initial breathing timings) on CT data from two patients, A and B, with hepatocellular carcinoma and with clinical target volumes 14.6 cc and 63.1 cc. The respiratory patterns were derived from the actual trajectory of internal fiducial markers taken in X-ray real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT). Results With FBPT, 9/48 motion parameters achieved the criteria of successful delivery for patient A and 0/48 for B. With RGPT 48/48 and 42/48 achieved the criteria. Compared with FBPT, the mean liver dose was smaller with RGPT with statistical significance (p<0.001); it decreased from 27% to 13% and 28% to 23% of the prescribed doses for patients A and B, respectively. The relative lengthening of treatment time to administer 3 Gy (RBE) was estimated to be 1.22 (RGPT/FBPT: 138 s/113 s) and 1.72 (207 s/120 s) for patients A and B, respectively. Conclusions This simulation study demonstrated that the RGPT was able to improve the dose distribution markedly for moving tumors without very large treatment time extension. The proton beam therapy system dedicated to spot-scanning with a gating function for real-time imaging increases accuracy with moving tumors and reduces the physical size, and subsequently the cost of the equipment as well as of the building housing the equipment.

Shimizu, Shinichi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Matsuura, Taeko; Fujii, Yusuke; Umezawa, Masumi; Umegaki, Kikuo; Hiramoto, Kazuo; Shirato, Hiroki



Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants.  


Automatic fault detection is becoming increasingly important in wastewater treatment plant operation, given the stringent treatment standards and the need to protect the investment costs from the potential damage of an unchecked fault propagating through the plant. This paper describes the development of a real-time Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system based on an adaptive Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, used to compare the current plant operation with a correct performance model based on a reference data set and the output of three ion-specific sensors (Hach-Lange gmbh, Düsseldorf, Germany): two Nitratax NOx UV sensors, in the denitrification tank and downstream of the oxidation tanks, where an Amtax ammonium-N sensor was also installed. The algorithm was initially developed in the Matlab environment and then ported into the LabView 8.20 (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA) platform for real-time operation using a compact Field Point, a Programmable Automation Controller by National Instruments. The FDI was tested with a large set of operational data with 1 min sampling time from August 2007 through May 2008 from a full-scale plant. After describing the real-time version of the PCA algorithm, this was tested with nine months of operational data which were sequentially processes by the algorithm in order to simulate an on-line operation. The FDI performance was assessed by organizing the sequential data in two differing moving windows: a short-horizon window to test the response to single malfunctions and a longer time-horizon to simulate multiple unrepaired failures. In both cases the algorithm performance was very satisfactory, with a 100% failure detection in the short window case, which decreased to 84% in the long window setting. The short-window performance was very effective in isolating sensor failures and short duration disturbances such as spikes, whereas the long term horizon provided accurate detection of long-term drifts and proved robust enough to allow for some delay in failure recovery. The system robustness is based on the use of multiple statistics which proved instrumental in discriminating among the various causes of malfunctioning. PMID:19934517

Baggiani, F; Marsili-Libelli, S



Pramipexole increases vesicular dopamine uptake: implications for treatment of Parkinson's neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pramipexole is a dopamine D2\\/D3 receptor agonist used to treat Parkinson's disease. Both human and animal studies suggest that pramipexole may exhibit neuroprotective properties involving dopamine neurons. However, mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective effects remain uncertain. The present results reveal a novel cellular action of this agent. Specifically, pramipexole rapidly increases vesicular dopamine uptake in synaptic vesicles prepared from striata of

Jannine G Truong; Kristi S Rau; Glen R Hanson; Annette E Fleckenstein



The hyperactive syndrome: Metanalysis of genetic alterations, pharmacological treatments and brain lesions which increase locomotor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal

Davide Viggiano



Treatment of Pica Using a Pica Exchange Procedure with Increasing Response Effort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a pica exchange procedure were evaluated on the pica of a female with severe mental retardation. A BAB design revealed that the pica exchange procedure was effective at reducing the occurrence of pica. In addition, the pica exchange procedure was effective throughout six increasingly more difficult response effort conditions.…

Carter, Stacy L.



Increased Reflux Symptoms After Calcium Carbonate Supplementation and Successful Anti-Helicobacter pylori Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to examine the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and reflux symptoms in nonulcer dyspepsia patients randomly assigned anti-Helicobacter pylori triple therapy alone, calcium carbonate alone, or in combination with triple therapy, tetracycline, or placebo. We compared risk differences for posttreatment Helicobacter pylori status and increased reflux symptoms from crude, multivariable and stratified

Lori A. Fischbach; Pelayo Correa; Mark Feldman; Elizabeth Fontham; Elisa Priest; Karen J. Goodman; Rajeev Jain



Increases in Parent Attendance to Behavioral Parent Training Due to Concurrent Child Treatment Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though behavioral parent training has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for child behavior problems, it continues to suffer from high attrition rates. Few variables have been found to predict or decrease high attrition rates from parent training classes. The present study found 43-52% increases in attendance rates for parents whose…

Jensen, Scott A.; Grimes, Lisa K.



Increasing maximum tumor dose to manage range uncertainties in IMPT treatment planning.  


The accuracy of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to range uncertainties. Geometric margins, as dosimetric surrogates, are ineffective and robust optimization strategies are needed. These, however, lead to increased normal tissue dose. We explore here how this dose increase can be reduced by increasing the maximum tumor dose instead. We focus on range uncertainties, modeled by scaling the stopping powers 5% up (undershoot) or down (overshoot) compared to the nominal scenario. Robust optimization optimizes for target dose conformity in the most likely scenario, not the worst, while constraining target coverage for the worst-case scenario. Non-robust plans are also generated. Different maximum target doses are applied (105% versus 120% versus 140%) to investigate the effect on normal tissue dose reduction. The method is tested on a homogeneous and a lung phantom and on a liver patient. Target D99 of the robust plans equals the prescription dose of 60 GyE for all scenarios, but decreases to 36 GyE for the non-robust plans. The mean normal tissue dose in a 2 cm ring around the target is 11% to 31% higher for the robust plans. This increase can be reduced to -8% and 3% (compared to the non-robust plan) by allowing a maximum tumor dose of 120% instead of 105%. Thus robustness leads to more normal tissue dose, but it can be compensated by allowing a higher maximum tumor dose. PMID:24077105

Petit, Steven; Seco, Joao; Kooy, Hanne



UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.


How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how to plan and analyze studies to optimize this timing. Methods General considerations about studying the optimal timing are given and four fundamental steps are illustrated using data from a published study. Results The optimal timing should be examined by optimizing the schedule with respect to predicting the overall individual time course we can observe in the case of dense measurements. The optimal timing needs not to and should not be studied by optimizing the association with the prognosis of the patient. Conclusions The optimal timing should be examined in specific ‘schedule optimizing studies’. These should be clearly distinguished from studies evaluating the prognostic value of a reduction in viable tumor tissue.

Vach, Werner; H?ilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Fischer, Barbara Malene; Gerke, Oke; Weber, Wolfgang



Increased allergen production in turnip ( Brassica rapa) by treatments activating defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Practical applications to enhance the productivity of agriculture by using plants with improved resistance to pathogens are expected to increase in the near future. Defense proteins play an important role in pathogen resistance, and some defense-related proteins are significant cross-reacting allergens. For example, cross-allergies are common among patients allergic to natural rubber latex (NRL), which contains many defense-related proteins.

Anna-Riitta Hänninen; Jari H. Mikkola; Nisse Kalkkinen; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Leea Ylitalo; Timo Reunala; Timo Palosuo



Development of a Multilevel Framework to Increase Use of Targeted Evidence-Based Practices in Addiction Treatment Clinics  

PubMed Central

Implementing specific evidence-based practices (EBPs) across a set of addiction treatment providers have been a persistent challenge. In the Advancing Recovery(AR) demonstration project, single state agencies, the entities that distribute federal funds for substance use disorder prevention and treatment services, worked in partnership with providers to increase the use of EBPs in the treatment of addiction. The project supported two cohorts of six 2-year awards. Field observations from the first year of implementation guided development of a multilevel framework (the Advancing Recovery Framework). Government entities and other payers can use the framework as a guide for implementing evidence-based clinical practices within treatment networks. The Advancing Recover Framework calls for a combination of policy and organizational changes at both the payer (government agency) and provider levels. Using the Advancing Recovery Framework, 11 of the 12 AR payer/provider partnerships increased use of clinical EPBs. This article identifies key payer policy changes applied during different phases of EBP program implementation. The public health benefit of the demonstration project was broader use of medication–assisted therapy and continuing care in addiction treatment services.

Molfenter, Todd; McCarty, Dennis; Capoccia, Victor; Gustafson, David



Heat treatment of colostrum increases immunoglobulin G absorption efficiency in high-, medium-, and low-quality colostrum.  


Previous studies with heat-treated colostrum fed to neonatal calves have consistently used average-quality colostrum. Studies have not compared colostrum across a range of immunoglobulin levels. This study was conducted to investigate IgG absorption in neonatal dairy calves using colostrum of various qualities. Colostrum from the Pennsylvania State University dairy was collected over 2 yr and sorted into high, medium, and low quality based on colostrometer measurement. Colostrum within each category was pooled to create 3 unique, uniform batches. Half of each batch was frozen to be fed without heat treatment. The second half of each batch was heat treated at 60°C for 30min. This process was conducted in September 2011, and repeated in June 2012. Colostrum treatments were analyzed for standard plate count, coliforms, noncoliform gram-negative bacteria, and total IgG concentration. Plasma samples were collected from 145 calves 48h after birth and analyzed for IgG1, IgG2, total protein, and hematocrit. Colostrum quality (high, medium, or low), treatment (unheated or heat treated), and their interactions were analyzed as fixed effects, with year included as a random effect. Heat treatment significantly reduced all types of bacteria and IgG concentration. Plasma IgG concentration at 48h increased linearly with the concentration of IgG in the colostrum that was consumed. Heat treatment of colostrum increased plasma IgG concentration by 18.4% and apparent efficiency of absorption by 21.0%. Results of this study suggest that heat treatment of colostrum containing approximately 50 to 100mg IgG/mL increases absorption of IgG from colostrum. PMID:24508433

Gelsinger, S L; Gray, S M; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J



Experimental study to show that growth hormone treatment before trauma increases glutamine uptake in the intestinal tract.  


This study examined whether growth hormone treatment deprived the intestinal tract of glutamine after trauma. Piglets were treated with growth hormone 24 units daily 3 days before and at the start of the trauma (GH-3, n = 8) or at the start of the trauma only (GH-1, n = 8). Eight piglets acted as non-treated controls. The trauma consisted of a standardized abdominal surgical procedure. Primed constant infusions of U-14C-glutamine were given. Intestinal, hepatic, renal and hindleg glutamine fluxes were measured. Growth hormone treatment increased mean(s.e.m.) net intestinal glutamine uptake: GH-3, 39.7(9.4) and 48.7(12.7) mumol/min; GH-1, 33.2(5.5) and 25.7(12.3) mumol/min; controls, 19.5(10.3) and 2.0(15.3) mumol/min at 1 h and 5 h after trauma, respectively, (P = 0.02). The treatment increased glutamine oxidation (P = 0.025), and decreased hindleg glutamine net (P = 0.0052) and absolute release (P = 0.0063), glutamine rate of appearance (P = 0.01), and percentage of glucose coming from glutamine (P = 0.05). Growth hormone treatment before trauma increased intestinal glutamine uptake. PMID:7648157

Mjaaland, M; Unneberg, K; Jenssen, T G; Revhaug, A



Factor VIII and fibrinogen recovery in plasma after Theraflex methylene blue-treatment: effect of plasma source and treatment time  

PubMed Central

Background The quality of fresh-frozen plasma is affected by different factors. Factor VIII is sensitive to blood component storage processes and storage as well as pathogen-reduction technologies. The level of fibrinogen in plasma is not affected by the collection processes but it is affected by preparation and pathogen-reduction technologies. Materials and methods The quality of plasma from whole blood and apheresis donations harvested at different times and treated with a pathogen-reduction technique, methylene blue/light, was investigated, considering, in particular, fibrinogen and factor VIII levels and recovery. Results The mean factor VIII level after methylene blue treatment exceeded 0.5 IU/mL in all series. Factor VIII recovery varied between 78% and 89% in different series. The recovery of factor VIII was dependent on plasma source as opposed to treatment time. The interaction between the two factors was statistically significant. Mean levels of fibrinogen after methylene blue/light treatment exceeded 200 mg/dL in all arms. The level of fibrinogen after treatment correlated strongly with the level before treatment. There was a negative correlation between fibrinogen level before treatment and recovery. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between factor VIII recovery and fibrinogen recovery was 0.58. Discussion These results show a difference in recovery of factor VIII and fibrinogen correlated with plasma source. The recovery of both factor VIII and fibrinogen was higher in whole blood plasma than in apheresis plasma. Factor VIII and fibrinogen recovery did not appear to be correlated.

Rapaille, Andre; Reichenberg, Stefan; Najdovski, Tome; Cellier, Nicolas; de Valensart, Nicolas; Deneys, Veronique



Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that a complex question on the reasons of increase of sea level. Appeared, that classical determinations of average velocity of increase of sea level on coastal observations (1.4-1.7 mm / yr) approximately for 0.8-1.0 mm / yr it is less, rather than by modern satellite determinations of satellites TOPEX - Poseidon etc. (2.5 - 2.8 mm / yr). On the basis of the data of altimetry observations of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason for the period 1993-2003 for geocentric velocity of increase of sea level (of global ocean) the value 2.8+/-0.4 mm / yr [1] has been obtained. In the given report the full answer is actually is given to a question put by leading experts on research of the sea level: "The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter missions provided a 12 year record of sea level change, which show increase of global mean sea level of 2.8+/-0.4 mm/yr, with considerable geographic variation. An important question for climate studies is to determine the cause of this change - specifically how much of the change is due to steric (heating) versus eustatic (runoff, melting ice, etc.) contribution?" [1]. There is, a big value of average velocity of increase of the sea level on the satellite data, it is possible to explain only by kinematical effect in data of observations. The motion of the satellite "is concerned" to the centre of mass of our planet, and its position is determined by a geocentric radius - vector. Therefore northern drift of the centre of mass in the Earth body [2] as though results in reduction of distances from the satellite up to the sea surface in the southern hemisphere and to their reduction in the northern hemisphere. At averaging of measurements over all ocean surface (mainly located in a southern hemisphere where it occupies about 80 % of the areas) there will be an effect of apparent additional increase of the sea level. Therefore this ("apparent") velocity of increase of the sea level accepts the greater value (about 2.4 mm / year) in comparison with coastal determinations of this velocity that is rather close to the data of satellite observations. The additional effect in increase of the sea level is brought by deformation of the ocean bottom. The both mentioned phenomena: the secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth and the secular expansion of southern hemisphere of the Earth have been predicted by author [2], [3] and have obtained confirmations by space geodesy methods. The offered explanation has the extremely - important value for studying a possible role of thermal and climatic factors which can not apply any more for a big component attributed to it in change of the sea level. The account of fictitious component of this velocity results practically in real value of variation of the average sea level about 1.3-1.6 mm / yr, that completely coordinate positions of researchers of ocean by coastal and altimetry (satellite) methods. Moreover, the given work opens a direct opportunity for an explanation of increase of the sea level as result of deformation of the ocean bottom. This deformation is a major factor of change of the average sea level. Water superseded in a southern hemisphere gives the significant contribution to observably value of velocity of sea level rise up to 0.8-1.2 mm / yr [3, 4]. The work fulfilled at financial support of Russian projects of RFBR: N 07-05-00939 and N 06-02-16665. This abstract (without what or changes) has been accepted to EGU GA 2008 Session IS48 "75th Anniversary of the PSML"(Convener: Woodworth P.) but was not included in its program. References. [1] Nerem R.S., Leuliette E.W., Chambers D.P. (2005) An Integrated Study of Sea Level Change Using Altimetry,

Barkin, Yu. V.



Root resorption, treatment time and extraction rate during orthodontic treatment with self-ligating and conventional brackets  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study determined the amount and severity of EARR (external apical root resorption) after orthodontic treatment with self-ligating (SL) and conventional (Non-SL) brackets. Differences regarding rate of extraction cases, appointments and treatment time were evaluated. Material and methods 213 patients with a mean age of 12.4?±?2.2 years were evaluated retrospectively. The treatments were performed with SL brackets (n?=?139, Smartclip, 3 M Unitek, USA) or Non-SL brackets (n?=?74, Victory Series, 3 M Unitek, USA). Measurements of the crown and root length of the incisors were taken using panoramic radiographs. Three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for an appliance effect. Results There was no difference between patients treated with Non-SL or SL brackets regarding the amount (in percentage) of EARR (Non-SL: 4.5?±?6.6 vs. SL: 3.0?±?5.6). Occurrence of severe EARR (sEARR) did also not differ between the two groups (Non-SL 0.5 vs. SL: 0.3). The percentage of patients with need of tooth extraction for treatment (Non SL: 8.1 vs. SL: 6.9) and the number of appointments (Non-SL: 12.4?±?3.4 vs. SL: 13.9?±?3.3) did not show any differences. The treatment time was shorter with Non-SL brackets (Non-SL: 18.1?±?5.3 vs. SL: 20.7?±?4.9 months). Conclusions This is the largest study showing that there is no difference in the amount of EARR, number of appointments and extraction rate between conventional and self-ligating brackets. For the first time we could demonstrate that occurrence of sEARR does not differ between the two types of brackets.



Dependence of magnetic properties on isothermal heat treatment time for 1Cr-1Mo-0.25 V steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of microstructural change during isothermal heat treatment on structure-sensitive magnetic properties has been investigated for 1Cr-1Mo-0.25 V steel. Magnetic permeability increased, but coercive force and Vickers hardness decreased as ageing time increased. During the isothermal heat treatment, Mn 23C 6 and (Cr 2.5Fe 4.3Mo 0.1)C 3 carbides were found at grain boundaries. These carbides were formed by C, Cr, Mo, Mn, etc., which moved from matrix to grain boundary. The decrease of carbon in matrix resulted in the decrease of Vickers hardness and coercive force and the increase of permeability. The correlation between mechanical and magnetic properties indicates that the mechanical hardness and microstructural change could well be evaluated nondestructively by measuring permeability or coercive force.

Ryu, K. S.; Nahm, S. H.; Kim, Y. B.; Yu, K. M.; Son, D.



Body mass index and annual increase of body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors; relationship to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) at final height (FH) and annual BMI increase in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS)\\u000a after treatment with anthracyclines, platinum, and\\/or radiotherapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  BMI (weight\\/height²) was calculated retrospectively from diagnosis until FH. The prevalence of underweight (BMI?2) and overweight (BMI???25 kg\\/m2)\\/obesity (BMI???30 kg\\/m2) at FH was compared with age-matched controls. The association between underweight\\/overweight at FH and treatment

Cornelia A. J. Brouwer; Jourik A. Gietema; Judith M. Vonk; W. J. E. Tissing; Hendrika M. Boezen; Nynke Zwart; Aleida Postma


Characteristics of First-Time Alcohol Treatment Seekers: The COMBINE Study*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The current study compared alcoholics who entered treatment for the first time with those who had reported one or more prior treatment experiences using a large sample (N = 1,362) of alcoholics who entered the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-sponsored COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions) Study of pharmacological and behavioral treatment efficacy. Method: Participants were categorized into three prior-treatment groups: (1) treatment naive (n = 691, 50.73%), (2) one to two prior treatments (n = 380, 27.90%), or (3) three or more prior treatments (n = 291, 21.37%). Groups were compared at baseline on multiple drinking and psychosocial variables. Results: The treatment-naive group was more likely to be female, educated, married, and employed. They reported the lowest levels of drinks per drinking day, average drinks per day, alcohol dependence, craving, and alcohol-related consequences; but, they had the oldest age at onset of alcohol problems. Both the treatment-naive group and the one-to-two prior-treatment group had lower percentage days abstinent within the prior 30 days, compared with the three-or-more group (22% and 25% vs 32%, respectively). The treatment-naive group reported the least commitment to an abstinence goal (43% vs 70% and 80%, respectively) and the lowest mean number of Alcoholics Anonymous meetings attended (0.86 vs 3.10 vs 6.91, respectively). They also reported fewer psychological symptoms, less distress, and higher levels of quality of life on physical, emotional, and environmental domains, as well as social relationships. Conclusions: Results suggest that a greater understanding of treatment-naive versus treatment-experienced clients may provide a better profile of help-seeking behavior and may suggest different approaches to treatment.

LoCastro, Joseph S.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Donovan, Dennis M.; Couper, David; Pope, Kimberly W.



Treatment of cancer cells with methioninase produces DNA hypomethylation and increases DNA synthesis.  


Methionine depletion in the human cell line CCRF-CEM through the action of recombinant methioninase (rMETase), a methionine-cleaving enzyme, was previously demonstrated to produce a strong cytotoxic synergistic effect with fluorouracil (FUra) throughout a broad range of concentrations of FUra and rMETase, including subcytotoxic levels of rMETase. Potentiation was associated with a decrease in free thymidylate synthase from preexisting levels. To further investigate the action of rMETase on CCRF-CEM cells, in the present study we explored the effects of rMETase as a single agent on DNA methylation levels and DNA synthesis, which may be changed as a result of deprivation of methionine. Cells treated with rMETase under subcytotoxic conditions contained significantly lower levels of genomic methylated DNA than did control cells, as demonstrated by incorporation of the methyl radical of [methyl-(3)H]S-adenosylmethionine in DNA and by use of methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR. DNA hypomethylation produced by rMETase was of similar magnitude as that produced with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine. Cells exposed to rMETase synthesized significantly more DNA than did untreated cells. Incorporation of [6-3H]thymidine and [6-3H]2'-deoxyuridine in these cells was augmented over that in control by mean factors of 1.78 and 2.36, respectively. Increased 3H nucleoside incorporation resulted in greater numbers of nuclear grains as demonstrated by autoradiography. The increase in DNA synthesis induced by rMETase is likely to result from enhancement of DNA repair because it was not accompanied by differences in cell cycle phase distribution or in total DNA content as determined by flow cytometry. We hypothesize that potentiation of FUra cytotoxicity by rMETase may result from increased inhibition of thymidylate synthase, together with DNA hypomethylation and enhanced DNA repair that could be involved in cell responses to drug-induced damage. PMID:12183426

Machover, David; Zittoun, Jacqueline; Saffroy, Raphaël; Broët, Philippe; Giraudier, Stéphane; Magnaldo, Thierry; Goldschmidt, Emma; Debuire, Brigitte; Orrico, Mireille; Tan, Yuying; Mishal, Zohar; Chevallier, Odile; Tonetti, Carole; Jouault, Hélène; Ulusakarya, Ayhan; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Metzger, Gérard; Hoffman, Robert M



Increased CXCR4 Use of HIV-1 Subtype C Identified by Population Sequencing in Patients Failing Antiretroviral Treatment Compared with Treatment-Naive Patients in Botswana.  


Abstract HIV-1 uses the coreceptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 for cell entry. Monotropic CCR5-using variants are found early in the infection while CXCR4-using variants may appear after progression to AIDS. CXCR4 use may consist of both monotropic and dualtropic viruses. The viral phenotype is important in evaluating the response to CCR5 inhibitors, a new class of antiviral drugs. The coreceptor use of HIV-1 was investigated using population sequencing in 24 patients from Botswana, carrying HIV-1 subtype C and failing antiretroviral treatment, while 26 treatment-naive patients acted as controls. Single genome sequencing was used to discern minor HIV-1 populations in the treatment-experienced group. The Geno2Pheno method was employed to predict the coreceptor use phenotype from HIV-1 env gp120 V3 DNA sequences. The glycan-charge model adjusted for subtype C was also used for phenotype prediction. The viral phenotype of population sequences was predicted using Geno2Pheno in 24/24 treatment-experienced patients, of whom eight (33%) were predicted to harbor CXCR4-using strains as compared to 2/26 in the treatment-naive group (p=0.03). Single genome sequencing generated 4-23 clones/patient in the treatment-experienced group. Altogether, 90/295 (31%) putative CXCR4-using clones were identified. In 10/24 (42%) treated patients at least one clone was predicted to be CXCR4-using, further increasing the amount of identified treatment-experienced patients with CXCR4 use. Although subtype C is usually associated with comparatively little CXCR4 use, the frequency of CXCR4 use in treatment-experienced patients with subtype C can be higher, which may have implications for the administration of CCR5 inhibitors in this patient group. PMID:24205895

Sollerkvist, Lotta Pramanik; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Mine, Madisa; Sebetso, Gaseene; Mphoyakgosi, Thongbotho; Diphoko, Thabo; Essex, Max; Ehrnst, Anneka



Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.  


With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn



Increase of BDNF serum concentration during donepezil treatment of patients with early Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can be treated with inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Recent pre-clinical and\\u000a clinical studies gave evidence that AChE-inhibitors have neuroprotective effects and thereby a disease-modifying potential.\\u000a The mechanism of this action is still discussed. In an animal model oral administration of an AChE-inhibitor lead to an increase\\u000a of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus and

T. Leyhe; Elke Stransky; G. W. Eschweiler; G. Buchkremer; C. Laske



Wait times for publicly funded addiction and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes the definitions of wait times and intake processes used by drug and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada, as well as the various strategies employed to ameliorate client backlog. Methods An online survey was developed and distributed to 203 publicly-funded, provincial substance use and problem gambling treatment agencies from June to August, 2011. All aspects of the intake process were covered in the survey. Results Based on 139 responses, six different wait time periods were identified. Additional analyses were completed by type of service offered. Suggestions for effective interventions to shorten wait times and recommendations for future research are provided. Conclusion The results of this study highlight a need for standardized definitions of wait times across substance use and problem gambling treatment services.



Social crowding in the night-time reduces an anxiety-like behavior and increases social interaction in adolescent mice.  


Rearing in crowded conditions is a psychosocial stressor that affects biological functions. The effects of continuous crowding for many days have been studied, but those of crowding over a limited time have not. In this study, we examined the effects of night-time or daytime crowding over 2 weeks on behavior in adolescent and adult mice. Crowding (20 mice/cage) in either the night-time or daytime did not affect locomotor activity in the open field test or cognitive function in the fear conditioning test. In contrast, night-time crowding, but not daytime crowding, had an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test and increased social interaction in adolescent mice, but not in adult mice. The first night-time, but not daytime, crowding increased plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent mice, although night-time crowding over 2 weeks did not affect the corticosterone levels. Furthermore, no significant effects of the first crowding were observed in adult mice. In a second crowding condition (six mice/small cage), the anxiolytic-like effects of night-time crowding and the change in plasma corticosterone levels were not observed, suggesting that the density of mice is not important for the behavioral consequences of crowding. Night-time crowding did not affect neurotrophic/growth factor levels and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent mice. These findings suggest that night-time crowding leads to anxiolytic-like behaviors in adolescent mice, and imply that night-time crowding stress in adolescence may be beneficial to brain functions. PMID:24803212

Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ota, Yuki; Kitamoto, Mari; Imoto, Emina; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio



A reverse shoulder arthroplasty with increased offset for the treatment of cuff-deficient shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis.  


Inherent disadvantages of reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs based on the Grammont concept have raised a renewed interest in less-medialised designs and techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) with the fully-constrained, less-medialised, Bayley-Walker prosthesis performed for the treatment of rotator-cuff-deficient shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis. A total of 97 arthroplasties in 92 patients (53 women and 44 men, mean age 67 years (standard deviation (sd) 10, (49 to 85)) were retrospectively reviewed at a mean follow-up of 50 months ((sd 25) (24 to 96)). The mean Oxford shoulder score and subjective shoulder value improved from 47 (sd 9) and 24 points (sd 18) respectively before surgery to 28 (sd 11) and 61 (sd 24) points after surgery (p < 0.001). The mean pain at rest decreased from 5.3 (sd 2.8) to 1.5 (sd 2.3) (p < 0.001). The mean active forward elevation and external rotation increased from 42(°)(sd 30) and 9(°) (sd 15) respectively pre-operatively to 78(°) (sd 39) and 24(°) (sd 17) post-operatively (p < 0.001). A total of 20 patients required further surgery for complications; 13 required revision of components. No patient developed scapular notching. The Bayley-Walker prosthesis provides reliable pain relief and reasonable functional improvement for patients with symptomatic cuff-deficient shoulders. Compared with other designs of RSA, it offers a modest improvement in forward elevation, but restores external rotation to some extent and prevents scapular notching. A longer follow-up is required to assess the survival of the prosthesis and the clinical performance over time. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:936-42. PMID:24986948

Middleton, C; Uri, O; Phillips, S; Barmpagiannis, K; Higgs, D; Falworth, M; Bayley, I; Lambert, S



Modeling time variant distributions of cellular lifespans: increases in circulating reticulocyte lifespans following double phlebotomies in sheep  

PubMed Central

Many pharmacodynamic (PD) models of cellular response assume a single and time invariant lifespan of all cells, despite the existence of a true underlying distribution of cellular lifespans and known changes in the lifespan distributions with time. To account for these features of cellular populations, a time variant cellular lifespan distribution PD model was formulated and theoretical aspects of modeling cellular populations presented. The model extends prior work assuming time variant “point distributions” of cellular lifespans (Freise et al. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 34:519–547, 2007) and models assuming a time invariant lifespan distribution (Krzyzanski et al. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 33:125–166, 2006). The formulated time variant lifespan distribution model was fitted to endogenous plasma erythropoietin (EPO), reticulocyte, and red blood cell (RBC) concentrations in sheep phlebotomized on two occasions, 8 days apart. The time variant circulating reticulocyte lifespan was modeled as a truncated and scaled Weibull distribution, with the location parameter of the distribution non-parametrically represented by an end constrained quadratic spline function. The formulated time variant lifespan distribution model was compared to the identical time invariant distribution, time variant “point distribution”, and time invariant “point distribution” cellular lifespan models. Parameters of the time variant lifespan distribution model were well estimated with low standard errors. The mean circulating reticulocyte lifespan was estimated at 0.304 days, which rapidly increased over 3-fold following the first phlebotomy to a maximum of 1.03 days (P = 0.009). On average, the percentage of erythrocytes being released as reticulocytes maximally increased an estimated two-fold following the phlebotomies. The primary features of immature RBC physiology were captured by the model and gave results consistent with other estimates in sheep and humans. The comparison of the four lifespan models gave similar parameter estimates of the stimulation function and fits to the RBC data. However, the time invariant models fit the reticulocyte data poorly, while the time variant “point distribution” cellular lifespan model gave physiologically unrealistic estimates of the changes in the circulating reticulocyte lifespan under stress erythropoiesis. Thus the underlying physiology must be considered when selecting the most appropriate cellular lifespan model and not just the goodness-of-fit criteria. The proposed PD model and the numerical implementation allows for a flexible framework to incorporate time variant lifespan distributions when modeling populations of cells whose production or stimulation depends on endogenous growth factors and/or exogenous drugs.

Freise, Kevin J.; Widness, John A.; Schmidt, Robert L.



Long-term aldosterone treatment induces decreased apical but increased basolateral expression of AQP2 in CCD of rat kidney.  


The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effects of high-dose aldosterone and dDAVP treatment on renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) regulation and urinary concentration. Rats were treated for 6 days with either vehicle (CON; n = 8), dDAVP (0.5 ng/h, dDAVP, n = 10), aldosterone (Aldo, 150 microg/day, n = 10) or combined dDAVP and aldosterone treatment (dDAVP+Aldo, n = 10) and had free access to water with a fixed food intake. Aldosterone treatment induced hypokalemia, decreased urine osmolality, and increased the urine volume and water intake in ALDO compared with CON and dDAVP+Aldo compared with dDAVP. Immunohistochemistry and semiquantitative laser confocal microscopy revealed a distinct increase in basolateral domain AQP2 labeling in cortical collecting duct (CCD) principal cells and a reduction in apical domain labeling in Aldo compared with CON rats. Given the presence of hypokalemia in aldosterone-treated rats, we studied dietary-induced hypokalemia in rats, which also reduced apical AQP2 expression in the CCD but did not induce any increase in basolateral AQP2 expression in the CCD as observed with aldosterone treatment. The aldosterone-induced basolateral AQP2 expression in the CCD was thus independent of hypokalemia but was dependent on the presence of sodium and aldosterone. This redistribution was clearly blocked by mineralocorticoid receptor blockade. The increased basolateral expression of AQP2 induced by aldosterone may play a significant role in water metabolism in conditions with increased sodium reabsorption in the CCD. PMID:17376764

de Seigneux, Sophie; Nielsen, Jakob; Olesen, Emma T B; Dimke, Henrik; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren



Nanoencapsulation of olanzapine increases its efficacy in antipsychotic treatment and reduces adverse effects.  


Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, whose chronic use has been associated with the development of potential adverse effects such as weight gain and cardio-metabolic disorders like hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. To circumvent these side effects, the controlled release of olanzapine is a promising approach to improve adhesion of schizophrenic patients to the treatment. An innovative strategy to prolong drug release consists of loading the drug into biodegradable polymeric lipid-core nanocapsules. In this study, particle size, polydispersity, pH, zeta potential and drug loading of olanzapine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules were analyzed. Weight gain, biochemical parameters and antipsychotic activity were evaluated in male Wistar rats. The lipid-core nanocapsules had a mean diameter of 156 +/- 13 nm, a polydispersity index lower than 0.1, a pH value of 6.12 +/- 0.14, zeta potential of -17 +/- 2.40 mV and encapsulation efficiency close to 100%. The animals treated with olanzapine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed significantly lower weight gain (63.4 +/- 19.6 g) and total cholesterol levels (66.2 +/- 3.5 g x dl(-1)), compared to those administered with free olanzapine (112.6 +/- 10.3 g and 90.4 +/- 2.4 g x dl(-1)), respectively. Additionally, a more prolonged antipsychotic action was observed in the stereotyped behavior animal model induced by D,L-amphetamine, which affords to conclude that nanoencapsulation is a promising alternative to treat schizophrenic patients. PMID:24749408

Dimer, Frantiescoli A; Ortiz, Manoel; Pase, Camila S; Roversi, Katiane; Friedrich, Rossana B; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Burger, Marilise E; Guterres, Silvia S



Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko


[Dantrium in the treatment of increased muscle tonus in patients with multiple sclerosis].  


In 19 patients with multiple sclerosis and 1 with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis the mean increase in muscle tonus was found to be 3.1 (range 1--4 according to Burke-Ashwort). In 10 controls with multiple sclerosis the mean spasticity was 2.4. Dantrium was given in doses up to 800 mg for 14--16 days and it caused a greater reduction of spasticity than placebo (p less than 0.05). In 12 patients (60%) varying degrees of muscle tonus reduction was observed. In 11 patients the efect of Dantrium was compared with that of other drugs (Clonazepam, Tetradiazepam, Carisoprodol and Lyoresal). In 6 cases Dantrium was a more effective drug than other muscle relaxants and in 5 cases no difference was observed or other drugs were superior to Dantrium. PMID:320494

Cendrowski, W



Accounting for individual differences and timing of events: estimating the effect of treatment on criminal convictions in heroin users  

PubMed Central

Background The reduction of crime is an important outcome of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Criminal intensity and treatment regimes vary among OMT patients, but this is rarely adjusted for in statistical analyses, which tend to focus on cohort incidence rates and rate ratios. The purpose of this work was to estimate the relationship between treatment and criminal convictions among OMT patients, adjusting for individual covariate information and timing of events, fitting time-to-event regression models of increasing complexity. Methods National criminal records were cross linked with treatment data on 3221 patients starting OMT in Norway 1997–2003. In addition to calculating cohort incidence rates, criminal convictions was modelled as a recurrent event dependent variable, and treatment a time-dependent covariate, in Cox proportional hazards, Aalen’s additive hazards, and semi-parametric additive hazards regression models. Both fixed and dynamic covariates were included. Results During OMT, the number of days with criminal convictions for the cohort as a whole was 61% lower than when not in treatment. OMT was associated with reduced number of days with criminal convictions in all time-to-event regression models, but the hazard ratio (95% CI) was strongly attenuated when adjusting for covariates; from 0.40 (0.35, 0.45) in a univariate model to 0.79 (0.72, 0.87) in a fully adjusted model. The hazard was lower for females and decreasing with older age, while increasing with high numbers of criminal convictions prior to application to OMT (all p?time-varying with their effects diminishing over time. Conclusions Analyzing complex observational data regarding to fixed factors only overlooks important temporal information, and naïve cohort level incidence rates might result in biased estimates of the effect of interventions. Applying time-to-event regression models, properly adjusting for individual covariate information and timing of various events, allows for more precise and reliable effect estimates, as well as painting a more nuanced picture that can aid health care professionals and policy makers.



Acute risperidone treatment did not increase daily cigarette consumption or plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine: a pilot study.  


Excessive cigarette smoking and caffeine intake are often seen in schizophrenic patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs, particularly typical antipsychotic drugs. Using nicotine and caffeine sometimes influences psychotic symptoms in these patients. Clozapine is the only antipsychotic drug reported to reduce the amount of cigarette smoking, however, still remains controversial of its efficacy. In the present study, we examined the effect of acute risperidone treatment on the amount of cigarette smoking and plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine in schizophrenic patients. Treatment with risperidone for 4 weeks did not increase daily cigarette consumption or plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine. The results suggest that acute risperidone treatment does not promote the intake of nicotine and caffeine at least by 4 weeks in schizophrenic patients. PMID:18273830

Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakihara, Shingo; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Nakamura, Jun



Short-Term Treatment with Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Increases the Activity of the Inositol Phospholipid Kinases and the Vanadate-Sensitive ATPase of Carrot Cells 1  

PubMed Central

Treating carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension culture cells with a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes, Driselase, resulted in an increase in the percentage of [3H]phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. Analysis of the lipid kinase activities in the isolated plasma membranes after whole cell treatment indicated that treatment with Driselase (2% weight/volume; the equivalent of 340 units per milliliter of hemicellulase and 400 units per milliliter of cellulase activity) or treatment with hemicellulase (31.7% weight/volume, 20.7 units per milliliter) resulted in an increase in the inositol phospholipid kinase activity. However, treatment with cellulase alone had no effect at 0.5% (weight/volume, 17.2 units per milliliter) or inhibited the kinase activity at 1% (weight/volume, 34.4 units per milliliter). The active stimulus in Driselase was heat sensitive. The plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity also increased when the cells were treated with Driselase. A time course study indicated that both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase responded to as little as 5 seconds of treatment with 2% Driselase. However, at the lowest concentration of Driselase (0.04%, weight/volume) that resulted in an increase in inositol phospholipid kinase activity, the ATPase activity was not affected. Because inositol phospholipids have been shown to activate the vanadate-sensitive ATPase from plants (AR Memon, Q Chen, WF Boss [1989] Biochem Biophys Res Commun 162: 1295-1301), a stimulus-response pathway involving both the inositol phospholipid kinases and the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity is discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 6

Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, Wendy F.



Environmental Enrichment Preceding Early Adulthood Methylphenidate Treatment Leads to Long Term Increase of Corticosterone and Testosterone in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADD\\/ADHD) has been emerging as a world-wide psychiatric disorder. There appears to be an increasing rate of stimulant drug abuse, specifically methylphenidate (MPH) which is the most common treatment for ADHD, among individuals who do not meet the criteria for ADHD and particularly for cognitive enhancement among university students. However, the long term effects of exposure to MPH

Avi Avital; Talya Dolev; Shlomit Aga-Mizrachi; Salman Zubedat



Paraquat pre-treatment increases activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduces lipid peroxidation in salt-stressed cucumber leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether paraquat (PQ) is involved in regulation of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation under short-term\\u000a salt stress, and to elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by PQ, a cucumber cultivar (cv. Chunguang\\u000a no. 2) was exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 48 h after pre-treatment with 10 ?M PQ for 1 h. When compared to the control, salt stress\\u000a increased

Shao-Hang Lin; Zhong-Jing Liu; Pei-Lei Xu; Ye-Ying Fang; Ji-Gang Bai



Screening for Acute Childhood Malnutrition during the National Nutrition Week in Mali Increases Treatment Referrals  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate a pilot intervention designed to integrate mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) screening for acute malnutrition into the semi-annual Child Nutrition Week (Semaine d'Intensification des Activités de Nutrition, or “SIAN”) activities carried out in June 2008. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kolokani and Nara, two health districts in the Koulikoro region of Mali, 4–5 months after the SIAN, using a population-proportionate, multi-stage random sample of: 1) health centers, and 2) households in communities linked to each of the selected health centers. Caregivers of 1543 children who were 6–59 months of age at the time of the SIAN, 17 community-based volunteers and 45 health center staff members were interviewed. Results A total of 1278 children 6–59 months (83% of those studied) reportedly participated in SIAN. Of the participating children, 1258 received vitamin A (98% of SIAN participants; 82% of all eligible children), 945 received anti-helminth tablets (84% of participants; 71% of eligibles), and 669 were screened for acute malnutrition (52% of participants; 43% of eligibles). 186 of the children screened (27%) were reportedly identified as acutely malnourished. SIAN screening covered a significantly greater proportion of children than were examined in both community-based (22% of children) and health center-based screening activities (5% of children) combined during the 4-5 months after the SIAN (P<0.0001). In general, community volunteers and health personnel positively evaluated their experience adding MUAC screening to SIAN. Conclusion Integrating MUAC screening for acute malnutrition in SIAN permits the assessment of a large number of children for acute malnutrition, and should be continued.

Nyirandutiye, Daniele H.; Ag Iknane, Akory; Fofana, Amadou; Brown, Kenneth H.



Dependence of Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown Lifetime on NH3-Plasma Treatment in Cu Interconnects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) between adjacent Cu wires was investigated. TDDB lifetime strongly depends on the conditions of the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) surface and of NH3-plasma treatment prior to cap nitride deposition. The condition of NH3-plasma treatment was evaluated in detail. The TDDB lifetime is strongly dependent on the substrate temperature and the duration of NH3-plasma treatment but is independent of the pressure and power. Excessive NH3-plasma treatment degrades the TDDB lifetime. Hillocks on the Cu surface appear abruptly as the substrate temperature rises. The optimum treatment conditions are 10-30 s for a substrate temperature of 360°C, and 10 s for a substrate temperature of 400°C.

Noguchi, Junji; Ohashi, Naofumi; Yamaguchi, Hizuru; Takeda, Ken-ichi



Increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment: A phenomenology study.  


Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Results: Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind". PMID:24799869

Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh



Videotape assessment of changes in aberrant meal-time behaviors in anorexia nervosa after treatment.  


This study compared meal-time behaviors in patients with anorexia nervosa to normal-weight controls and the effects of hospital treatment on these behaviors. Ten restricting-anorexics and six normal-weight controls were given a standard lunch and asked to eat the entire meal. Their behaviors were recorded via hidden camera. All participants were tested twice--anorexics before and after in-patient treatment, and controls at similar intervals. Videotapes of these sessions were analysed for occurrence and duration of eight categories of non-ingestive behaviors: food manipulation, food preparation, food moving, non-food manipulation, concealment, vigilance, passivity and physical activity. Food-ingestion patterns, including number of bites of food and switches between different kinds of food, were also recorded. Results indicated that anorexics spent significantly more time than controls in behaviors that were directly food-related, and exhibited more vigilance behavior. Pre-treatment anorexics spent significantly more time in these behaviors than did post-treatment anorexics. Few group differences or treatment effects were found in food-ingestion patterns, although there was an indication that both pre- and post-treatment anorexics avoided high-fat foods more than controls did. These results suggest that videotaping provides a useful technique for characterizing the behavior associated with eating disorders. Further studies should explore whether normalization of these behaviors is associated with a positive clinical outcome. PMID:9573451

Tappe, K A; Gerberg, S E; Shide, D J; Andersen, A E; Rolls, B J



Inappropriate initial treatment of secondary intra-abdominal infections leads to increased risk of clinical failure and costs  

PubMed Central

Aims The objective of this population-based, retrospective cohort study was to investigate the incidence and initial antibiotic treatment of secondary intra-abdominal infections (sIAI) and to assess whether inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy affects patient outcomes. Methods All patients hospitalized for sIAI (1995–1998) were identified in the PHARMO Record Linkage System, a patient-centric database including pharmacy dispensing records from community pharmacies linked to hospitalization records in the Netherlands. Complementary in-hospital antibiotic drug use was obtained from the computerized inpatient pharmacy files. The patient outcomes considered were switch to second-line antibiotic treatment, re-operation, and death. In addition, a composite variable clinical failure was constructed based on the above-mentioned outcomes. Furthermore, the effect of clinical failure on length of hospital stay and costs of hospitalization was assessed. Associations between appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment and outcomes were estimated using multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Results In the source population of 228 000 persons, 175 cases were classified as sIAI (mean age 49.3 ± 24.5, 50.9% male) resulting in an incidence of 2.3/10 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0, 2.7]. Initial antibiotic treatment was appropriate for 84% of the cases. The risk of clinical failure was 17.1%. Inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment increased the risk of clinical failure 3.4-fold (95% CI 1.3, 9.1). Length of hospital stay and costs of hospitalization were significantly increased for patients with clinical failure. Conclusions Inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic therapy in sIAI patients leads to more clinical failure resulting in a longer hospital stay and higher costs of hospitalization compared with appropriate initial antibiotic therapy.

Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Goettsch, Wim G; Picelli, Gino; in 't Veld, Bas; Yin, Don D; de Jong, Romy B; Go, Peter M N Y H; Herings, Ron M C



Should Expectations about the Rate of New Antiretroviral Drug Development Impact the Timing of HIV Treatment Initiation and Expectations about Treatment Benefits?  

PubMed Central

Background Many analyses of HIV treatment decisions assume a fixed formulary of HIV drugs. However, new drugs are approved nearly twice a year, and the rate of availability of new drugs may affect treatment decisions, particularly when to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objectives To determine the impact of considering the availability of new drugs on the optimal initiation criteria for ART and outcomes in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods We enhanced a previously described simulation model of the optimal time to initiate ART to incorporate the rate of availability of new antiviral drugs. We assumed that the future rate of availability of new drugs would be similar to the past rate of availability of new drugs, and we estimated the past rate by fitting a statistical model to actual HIV drug approval data from 1982–2010. We then tested whether or not the future availability of new drugs affected the model-predicted optimal time to initiate ART based on clinical outcomes, considering treatment initiation thresholds of 200, 350, and 500 cells/mm3. We also quantified the impact of the future availability of new drugs on life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE). Results In base case analysis, considering the availability of new drugs raised the optimal starting CD4 threshold for most patients to 500 cells/mm3. The predicted gains in outcomes due to availability of pipeline drugs were generally small (less than 1%), but for young patients with a high viral load could add as much as a 4.9% (1.73 years) increase in LE and a 8% (2.43 QALY) increase in QALE, because these patients were particularly likely to exhaust currently available ART regimens before they died. In sensitivity analysis, increasing the rate of availability of new drugs did not substantially alter the results. Lowering the toxicity of future ART drugs had greater potential to increase benefit for many patient groups, increasing QALE by as much as 10%. Conclusions The future availability of new ART drugs without lower toxicity raises optimal treatment initiation for most patients, and improves clinical outcomes, especially for younger patients with higher viral loads. Reductions in toxicity of future ART drugs could impact optimal treatment initiation and improve clinical outcomes for all HIV patients.

Khademi, Amin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Saure, Denis; Schaefer, Andrew J.; Nucifora, Kimberly; Roberts, Mark S.



Long-Term Valproate Treatment Increases Brain Neuropeptide Y Expression and Decreases Seizure Expression in a Genetic Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which valproate, one of the most widely prescribed anti-epileptic drugs, suppresses seizures have not been fully elucidated but may involve up-regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We investigated the effects of valproate treatment in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) on brain NPY mRNA expression and seizure control. GAERS were administered either valproate (42 hr?1) or saline continuously for 5 days. Electroencephalograms were recorded for 24 hrs on treatment days 1, 3 and 5 and the percentage of time spent in seizure activity was analysed. NPY mRNA expression was measured in different brain regions using qPCR. Valproate treatment suppressed seizures by 80% in GAERS (p<0.05) and increased NPY mRNA expression in the thalamus (p<0.05) compared to saline treatment. These results demonstrate that long-term valproate treatment results in an upregulation of thalamic expression of NPY implicating this as a potential contributor to the mechanism by which valproate suppresses absence seizures.

van Raay, Leena; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; O'Brien, Terence J.; Morris, Margaret J.



Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.



Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

Singh, Anurag K., E-mail: Anurag.singh@roswellpark.or [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States)



Second phase HCV RNA decline during telaprevir based therapy increases with drug effectiveness: implications for treatment duration  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA decay during antiviral therapy is characterized by a rapid first phase followed by a slower second phase. The current understanding of viral kinetics attributes the magnitude of the first phase decay to the treatment effectiveness, whereas the second phase decay is attributed to the progressive loss of infected cells. Here we analyzed data from 44 patients treated with telaprevir, a potent HCV protease inhibitor. Using a viral kinetic model that accounts for the pharmacokinetics of telaprevir, we found that the second phase slope of viral decline to be strongly correlated with the treatment effectiveness and to be roughly four-fold more rapid than has been reported with interferon-based therapies. Since telaprevir is not known to increase the death rate of infected cells, our results suggest the second phase slope of viral decline is driven not only by the death of infected cells but may also involve other mechanisms, such as a treatment effectiveness-dependent degradation of intracellular viral RNA. As a consequence of the enhanced viral decay caused by the high antiviral effectiveness of telaprevir, we predict that if drug resistance could be avoided by using an appropriate combination of antiviral agents, treatment duration needed to clear HCV might be dramatically shortened. Indeed, we predict that in 95% of fully compliant patients, the last virus particle should be eliminated by week 7 of therapy. If the remaining infected hepatocytes act as a potential reservoir for the renewal of infection, no more than 10 weeks of treatment should be sufficient to clear the infection in 95% of fully compliant patients. However, if patients miss doses, treatment duration would need to be extended.

Guedj, Jeremie; Perelson, Alan S.



Behavioral flexibility is increased by optogenetic inhibition of neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell during specific time segments  

PubMed Central

Behavioral flexibility is vital for survival in an environment of changing contingencies. The nucleus accumbens may play an important role in behavioral flexibility, representing learned stimulus–reward associations in neural activity during response selection and learning from results. To investigate the role of nucleus accumbens neural activity in behavioral flexibility, we used light-activated halorhodopsin to inhibit nucleus accumbens shell neurons during specific time segments of a bar-pressing task requiring a win–stay/lose–shift strategy. We found that optogenetic inhibition during action selection in the time segment preceding a lever press had no effect on performance. However, inhibition occurring in the time segment during feedback of results—whether rewards or nonrewards—reduced the errors that occurred after a change in contingency. Our results demonstrate critical time segments during which nucleus accumbens shell neurons integrate feedback into subsequent responses. Inhibiting nucleus accumbens shell neurons in these time segments, during reinforced performance or after a change in contingencies, increases lose–shift behavior. We propose that the activity of nucleus shell accumbens shell neurons in these time segments plays a key role in integrating knowledge of results into subsequent behavior, as well as in modulating lose–shift behavior when contingencies change.

Aquili, Luca; Liu, Andrew W.; Shindou, Mayumi; Shindou, Tomomi; Wickens, Jeffery R.



Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure.  


It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:20978814

Ezra, N; Dang, K; Heuser, G



Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure  

PubMed Central

It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen.

Ezra, N.; Dang, K.



Catheter ablation of canine ventricular myocardium. The use of repetitive short time constant capacitive shocks to increase lesion volume.  


Arching and barotrauma, seen with high energy DC catheter ablation, are responsible for diffuse cardiac damage and coronary sinus rupture. In six anesthetized dogs, we investigated the effects of an increasing number of short time-constant capacitive shocks on the volume of myocardial damage. Each dog received capacitive shocks of 2 J/kg at 3 sites in the left ventricle. One shock was delivered in 2 dogs, 2 shocks were delivered in 2 dogs and 3 shocks were delivered in 2 dogs. Shock delivery was not accompanied by hemodynamic collapse, sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. The dogs were sacrificed at 60 minutes. Mean (SEM) lesion volumes were 195 (39) mm3, 480 (41) mm3, and 595 (110) mm3, respectively. Despite variability in individual volume of damage, there was a significant increase in lesion volume with an increasing number of shocks. There was no evidence of perforation or tamponade. Increasing myocardial damage can be produced using repetitive capacitive shocks. Delivery of 2 shocks produces clinically useful lesions without the adverse effects associated with single high energy shocks. Repetitive capacitive shocks offer a method of increasing lesion volume without increasing energy and thereby without compromising safety. PMID:9186286

Watanabe, I; Nakai, T; Yanagawa, S; Watanabe, H; Kojima, T; Kondo, K; Takahashi, Y; Saito, S; Ozawa, Y; Kanmatsuse, K



Increase in cone biomass and terpenophenolics in hops ( Humulus lupulus L.) by treatment with prohexadione-calcium.  


Humulus lupulus L. (hop), a specialty crop bred for flavor characteristics of the inflorescence, is an essential ingredient in beer. Hop inflorescences, commonly known as hop cones, contain terpenophenolic compounds, which are important for beer flavoring and of interest in biomedical research. Hop breeders focus their efforts on increasing cone biomass and terpenophenolic content. As an alternative to traditional breeding, hops were treated with prohexadione-calcium (Pro-Ca), a growth inhibitor previously shown to have positive agronomic effects in several crops. Application of Pro-Ca to hop plants during cone maturation induced increases in cone biomass production by 1.5-19.6% and increased terpenophenolic content by 9.1-87.3%; however, some treatments also induced significant decreases in terpenophenolic content. Induced changes in cone biomass production and terpenophenolic accumulation were most dependent on cultivar and the developmental stage at which plants were treated. PMID:21598976

Kavalier, Adam R; Pitra, Nicholi J; Koelling, Jared M; Coles, Mark C; Kennelly, Edward J; Matthews, Paul D



Pulsed Electric Field inactivation of microbial cells: the use of ceramic layers to increase the efficiency of treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on bacteria and plant or animal cells has been investigated since the early 1960s. High electric fields pulses (20-70 kV/cm, 1-10 ?s) are reported to cause rupture of the cellular lipid membrane, through the mechanism of irreversible electroporation. Quantitative description of cell inactivation kinetics is based on the analysis of stability of lipid bilayers under electric fields and the thermal fluctuations associated with the production of pores. PEF has been successfully applied to inactivation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in many sorts of liquids, such as milk, fruit juices and liquid eggs. In all these media, the level of inactivation could reach the 5 Logs for an approximate range of pulses of 100-200, and an energy consumption of ˜ 10-100 kJ/kg. The advantages of PEF are the superior maintenance of functional and nutritional levels (if compared to traditional thermal treatment), continuous treatment and short processing times, while the current high costs of this technique make it more suitable for treatment of expensive media. We present a solution to the problem of volumes in PEF treatment through the use of high permittivity ceramics, while retaining the same inactivation efficiency and improving the duration of the electrodes.

Pizzichemi, M.



Increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in first episode psychotic patients after treatment with atypical antipsychotics.  


Some preclinical and postmortem studies suggest that the effects of atypical antipsychotics could be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic with shown efficacy in psychosis treatment. The aim of this study was to compare plasma BDNF levels at baseline and after 1 year of olanzapine treatment in 18 drug-naive patients who experienced a first psychotic episode with those of 18 healthy control participants matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic level. Plasma BDNF levels were measured in patients at the index episode and at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Symptoms and functioning of patients and controls were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and Global Assessment of Function Scale. BDNF levels of patients at onset were significantly lower than controls but increased toward control values during olanzapine treatment. There was a significant positive correlation between BDNF levels and functioning (Global Assessment of Function Scale). BDNF levels were also negatively correlated with positive symptoms, but not with negative symptoms or general psychopathology. Results suggest that olanzapine can offset the low BDNF levels at the onset of first psychotic episodes, and improving psychotic symptoms. The increase in BDNF levels may be its mechanism of action in improving positive symptoms. PMID:20568658

González-Pinto, Ana; Mosquera, Fernando; Palomino, Aitor; Alberich, Susana; Gutiérrez, Arantza; Haidar, Karim; Vega, Patricia; Barbeito, Sara; Ortiz, Agurtzane; Matute, Carlos



Stem cell and extracellular matrix-related molecules increase following melatonin treatment in the skin of postmenopausal rats.  


The menopause has a negative effect in the skin. Melatonin affects skin functions and structures through actions mediated by cell-surface and putative-nuclear receptors expressed in skin cell. We have therefore determined the effects of melatonin treatment on stem cell in the epidermis and extracellular matrix related molecules in the dermis the skin of postmenopausal rats. A total of 45 female rats were divided into 5 groups: control group, group A [ovariectomy (OVX)], group B (OVX +10?mg/kg/day melatonin), group C (OVX +30?mg/kg/day melatonin), group S (sham operated?+?10?mg/kg/day melatonin). Ventral skin samples were excised at 12th week after ovariectomy. Hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid- methylamine silver, elastic van Gieson staining techniques were used to measure histomorphometrically the thickness of elastic fibers and basement membrane, depths of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat layer. Immunohistochemical staining methods were used for fibroblast growth factor ? (FGF ?), collagen type I, fibronectin, ?-catenin, c-kit, c-Myc evaluation. Epidermal thickness, subcutaneous fat layer, and elastic fibers were significantly decreased in group C, and there was a significant increase after melatonin treatment. Although there was no difference in dermal thickness of group C, melatonin also significantly increased the dermal thickness. High FGF ?, type I collagen, fibronectin, ?-catenin, c-Myc immunoreactivity developed following melatonin in all groups. Thus melatonin treatment of postmenopausal rats was mostly due to the decrease of stem cell and extracellular matrix-related molecules in the skin. PMID:24740758

Uslu, Serap; Oktem, Gulperi; Uysal, Aysegul; Soner, Burak Cem; Arbak, Serap; Ince, Umit



Ginkgo biloba treatment increases copulation but not nNOS activity in the medial preoptic area in male rats.  


Nitric oxide (NO) is an important messenger in the central nervous system to mediate male copulatory behavior. EGb 761, a standardized extract of Gingko biloba, has been reported to facilitate male copulation in rats. The present study is to determine the effects of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) on copulation in male rats following EGb 761 treatment. Adult male rats were treated with 50mg/kg of EGb 761 or distilled water by oral gavage for 14 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed approximately 14h after the last behavioral test and MPOA brain tissues were collected for nNOS immunohistochemistry. EGb 761 treatment for 14 days significantly increased the intromission frequency compared to the vehicle-treated controls on day 14. An increase in ejaculation frequency was also seen in the EGb 761-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated controls on day 14 and to the same group on day 0. However, EGb 761 treatment did not influence the number of nNOS-immunoreactive cells in the MPOA. These results suggest that enhanced male copulatory performance in sexually experienced rats administered EGb 761 may not be related to central nNOS activity in the MPOA. PMID:21723370

Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Wu, Ching-Hsiang; Tsai, Yuan-Feen



Texture evolution of nickel and cobalt activated-charcoal-supported catalysts during thermal treatments at increasing temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere up to 723 K on the textural properties of Ni and Co activated-charcoal-supported catalysts has been studied by means of nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. Various approaches have been followed in order to analyse the adsorption data (Langmuir, t-method, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Horvath-Kawazoe and density functional theory). The combination of these methods has allowed us to perform a full characterization of the samples in the micropore and mesopore ranges. The density functional approach has been especially useful, since it provides information for both the micropore and mesopore ranges simultaneously. Impregnation of the activated-charcoal-support with Ni or Co nitrates produces the expected loss of specific surface area and specific pore volume. Thermal treatment in nitrogen at 573 K gives a relatively surprising high recovery of textural properties, particularly in the micropore range, which has been related to the poor dispersion of the supported NiO and CoO particles. Treatment of the samples at 723 K gives an additional low increase in external surface area and micropore volume with respect to the 573 K treated samples. This behaviour has been discussed in terms of both a volume reduction of the supported particles and the creation of new microporosity, which may be produced during the carbon-promoted reduction of NiO and CoO to the metallic state that takes place under treatment in nitrogen at 723 K.

Gil, A.; Gandia, L. M.; Montes, M.



Evidence for sequential and increasing activation of replication origins along replication timing gradients in the human genome.  


Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins are spaced at 40 kb intervals and fire as small clusters whose synchrony increases during S phase and that replication fork velocity (mean 0.7 kb/min, maximum 2.0 kb/min) remains constant and narrowly distributed through S phase. However, multi-scale analysis of a genome-wide replication timing profile shows a broad distribution of replication timing gradients with practically no regions larger than 100 kb replicating at less than 2 kb/min. Therefore, HeLa cells lack large regions of unidirectional fork progression. Temporal transition regions are replicated by sequential activation of origins at a rate that increases during S phase and replication timing gradients are set by the delay and the spacing between successive origin firings rather than by the velocity of single forks. Activation of internal origins in a specific temporal transition region is directly demonstrated by DNA combing of the IGH locus in HeLa cells. Analysis of published origin maps in HeLa cells and published replication timing and DNA combing data in several other cell types corroborate these findings, with the interesting exception of embryonic stem cells where regions of unidirectional fork progression seem more abundant. These results can be explained if origins fire independently of each other but under the control of long-range chromatin structure, or if replication forks progressing from early origins stimulate initiation in nearby unreplicated DNA. These findings shed a new light on the replication timing program of mammalian genomes and provide a general model for their replication kinetics. PMID:22219720

Guilbaud, Guillaume; Rappailles, Aurélien; Baker, Antoine; Chen, Chun-Long; Arneodo, Alain; Goldar, Arach; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Audit, Benjamin; Hyrien, Olivier



Time variation of adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment: in vitro study using OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time variation of the adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment was studied using OCT. Fat tissue slices 200-500 ?m thick were used in in vitro experiments. To stain the fat tissue we used water-ethanol solutions of indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant green (BG) with the concentration 1 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml, respectively. The CW laser diode (VD-VII DPSS, 808 nm) and the dental diode irradiator Ultra Lume Led 5 (442 and 597 nm) were used for irradiation of tissue slices. The irradiation time was 5 min for the laser and 15 min for the diode lamp. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. It was discovered the immersion optical clearing of fat tissue slices due to fat cell lipolysis under photodynamic treatment. Released cell content works as an immersion agent, thus the relative refractive index of tissue scatterers decreasing with the time elapsed after the treatment. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic treatment induces fat cell lipolysis for some period after treatment.

Yanina, Irina Yu.; Trunina, Natalia A.; Tuchin, Valery V.



Increased Ras GTPase activity is regulated by miRNAs that can be attenuated by CDF treatment in pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Ras gene is frequently mutated, and also associated with increased Ras expression and its GTPase activity (activity) in pancreatic cancer (PC), which could in part be due to deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributing to tumor aggressiveness. Here we report, for the first time, that Ras expression and its activity were significantly higher in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cell lines, which was correlated with loss of let-7 family and miR-143 expression in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cells. Whereas the expression of miR-21, a frequently up-regulated miRNA in solid tumors was up-regulated in MIAPaCa-2 cells and it was correlated with increased Ras expression and its activity. The miRNAs, let-7i and miR-143 was found to target Ras, and forced re-expression of let-7i and miR-143 inhibited Ras activity, cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. We also found that the treatment of cells in vitro or treatment of MIAPaCa-2 induced tumors in vivo with CDF, a novel synthetic analog of curcumin, led to the re-expression of let-7 and miR-143, and down-regulated miR-21 expression, which was consistent with attenuation of Ras expression and its activity. Moreover, re-expression of let-7iin vivo resulted in decreased tumor growth and Ras activity. These results suggest that the loss of expression of let-7 and miR-143, and increased expression of miR-21 leads to increased expression of Ras and its GTPase activity, which could be attenuated by CDF treatment and, thus CDF could become a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of PC.

Ali, Shadan; Ahmad, Aamir; Aboukameel, Amro; Bao, Bin; Padhye, Subhash; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.



Increased Ras GTPase activity is regulated by miRNAs that can be attenuated by CDF treatment in pancreatic cancer cells.  


Ras gene is frequently mutated, and also associated with increased Ras expression and its GTPase activity (activity) in pancreatic cancer (PC), which could in part be due to deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributing to tumor aggressiveness. Here we report, for the first time, that Ras expression and its activity were significantly higher in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cell lines, which was correlated with loss of let-7 family and miR-143 expression in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cells. Whereas the expression of miR-21, a frequently up-regulated miRNA in solid tumors was up-regulated in MIAPaCa-2 cells and it was correlated with increased Ras expression and its activity. The miRNAs, let-7i and miR-143 was found to target Ras, and forced re-expression of let-7i and miR-143 inhibited Ras activity, cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. We also found that the treatment of cells in vitro or treatment of MIAPaCa-2 induced tumors in vivo with CDF, a novel synthetic analog of curcumin, led to the re-expression of let-7 and miR-143, and down-regulated miR-21 expression, which was consistent with attenuation of Ras expression and its activity. Moreover, re-expression of let-7iin vivo resulted in decreased tumor growth and Ras activity. These results suggest that the loss of expression of let-7 and miR-143, and increased expression of miR-21 leads to increased expression of Ras and its GTPase activity, which could be attenuated by CDF treatment and, thus CDF could become a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of PC. PMID:22261338

Ali, Shadan; Ahmad, Aamir; Aboukameel, Amro; Bao, Bin; Padhye, Subhash; Philip, Philip A; Sarkar, Fazlul H



The use of CD34+-selected PBPC after high-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is associated with prolonged recovery time and increased infectious complications.  


High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue can result in autotransplantation of tumor cells. A possible approach to reduce tumor cell contamination is the positive selection of CD34+ PBPC, but this might be associated with a prolonged recovery time as well as an increased risk of infectious complications because of the loss of committed progenitor cells. To investigate this aspect, we compared two sequentially treated cohorts of high-risk breast cancer patients. Both groups received the same high-dose chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Group I received CD34+-selected blood progenitor cells, and group II received nonselected blood progenitor cells. We compared these two identically treated groups with regard to recovery time, need for blood products, infectious complications, need for antibiotic treatment, and length of the transplantation-related hospital stay. We found a prolonged recovery time for neutrophils up to 0.5 x 10(9)/L (14 days in the selected group/10 days in the nonselected group) and platelets up to 30 x 10(9)/L (29/12 days), associated with an increased requirement for RBC transfusions (5/3 U) and platelet transfusions (10/2 U). The rate of severe infectious complications (2/0), the need for nonprophylactic antibiotic treatment (15/10), and the length of the hospital stay (25/21 days) in group I were also increased. We conclude that positive selection of PBPC should not be used routinely until randomized studies show a clear long-term benefit of using CD34+-selected stem cell products in breast cancer patients. PMID:10634176

Goerner, M; Wandt, H; Schäfer-Eckart, K; Birkmann, J; Denzel, T; Gallmeier, W M



Increase in pyrolytic carbon optical anisotropy and density during processing of coated particle fuel due to heat treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of pyrolytic carbon optical anisotropy and density have been made on a series of tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles prepared for the United States Department of Energy's Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. These measurements show the effect of varying the deposition conditions, especially the deposition temperature, on the density and optical anisotropy of the carbon layers. Additional heat treatment studies of the coated particles at various stages illustrate the strong effect of post-deposition thermal processing on these two pyrolytic carbon properties. Such post-deposition heat treatment occurs during SiC deposition and fuel compact firing, resulting in increased anisotropy and density of the pyrolytic carbon layers.

Hunn, J. D.; Jellison, G. E., Jr.; Lowden, R. A.



How to increase treatment effectiveness and efficiency in psychiatry: creative psychopharmacotherapy - part 1: definition, fundamental principles and higher effectiveness polypharmacy.  


Psychopharmacotherapy is a fascinating field that can be understood in many different ways. It is both a science and an art of communication with a heavily subjective dimension. The advent of a significant number of the effective and well tolerated mental health medicines during and after 1990s decade of the brain has increased our possibilities to treat major mental disorders in more successful ways with much better treatment outcome including full recovery. However, there is a huge gap between our possibilities for achieving high treatment effectiveness and not satisfying results in day-to-day clinical practice. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy could advance everyday clinical practice and bridge the gap. Creative psychopharmacotherapy is a concept that incorporates creativity as its fundamental tool. Creativity involves the intention and ability to transcend limiting traditional ideas, rules, patterns and relationships and to create meaningful new ideas, interpretations, contexts and methods in clinical psychopharmacology. PMID:24048396

Jakovljevi?, Miro



Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn



Time-Limited Assertive Community Treatment for Homeless Persons With Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The assertive community treatment (ACT) model for people with severe mental illness was origi- nally designed to be provided continuously without ter- mination. This study evaluated postdischarge changes in health status and service use associated with the time- limited provision of ACT to homeless people with se- vere mental illness. Methods: Clients in the fourth annual cohort of the

Robert A. Rosenheck; Deborah Dennis



Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John



Fixed-Time Schedules Attenuate Extinction-Induced Phenomena in the Treatment of Severe Aberrant Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules…

Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.



Chronic Treatment with Haloperidol Induces Deficits in Working Memory and Feedback Effects of Interval Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normal participants (n=5) having no experience with antipsychotic drugs and medicated participants (n=5) with clinical experience with chronic low doses of haloperidol (3-10mg/day for 2-4 months) in the treatment of neuroses were evaluated for the effects of inter-trial interval (ITI) feedback on a discrete-trials peak-interval timing procedure.…

Lustig, C.; Meck, W.H.



Evaluation of conservative treatment and timing of surgical intervention for mild forms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

The optimal management approach for patients with mild forms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) has not been well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of conservative treatment, identify prognostic factors and provide evidence for the timing of surgical intervention. A total of 90 patients with MCSM attending hospital between February 2007 and January 2009 were prospectively enrolled. Initially, all patients received conservative treatment and were followed up periodically. When a deterioration in myelopathy was clearly identified, surgical treatment was conducted. Clinical and radiological factors correlating with the deterioration were examined, and final clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. At the end of January 2012, follow-ups of >3 years were completed. Seventy-eight patients were available for data analysis. Only 21 patients (26.9%) deteriorated and underwent surgery thereafter (group A), while the remaining 57 patients (73.1%) were treated conservatively throughout (group B). Statistical analysis revealed that segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis were adverse factors for the prognosis of conservative treatment. Although the JOA scores of the patients in group A declined initially, following surgical intervention, no significant differences were identified in JOA scores between the two groups at the time of the final follow-up (P=0.46). In summary, conservative treatment is effective in MCSM patients. Patients with segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis have a tendency to deteriorate, but conservative treatment remains the recommendation for the first action. If the myelopathy deteriorates during conservative treatment, timely surgical intervention is effective.




Exercise-mimicking treatment fails to increase Fndc5 mRNA & irisin secretion in primary human myotubes.  


Irisin, myokine secreted by skeletal muscle, was suggested to mediate some of exercise health benefits via "browning" of white adipose tissue. However, mounting evidence contradicts the regulatory role of exercise for muscle irisin production/secretion in humans. Thus, we explored the direct effect of exercise-mimicking treatment on irisin in human primary muscle cells in vitro. Human primary muscle cell cultures were established from lean, obese prediabetic and type-2-diabetic individuals. Complex metabolic phenotyping included assessment of insulin sensitivity (euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp) and adiposity content&distribution (MRI&MRS). In vitro exercise-mimicking treatment (forskolin+ionomycin) was delivered in 1-h pulse/day during differentiation. Fndc5 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and secreted irisin (ELISA) were determined in cells and media. Exercise-mimicking treatment more than doubled Pgc1? mRNA in differentiated muscle cells. Nevertheless, Fndc5 mRNA was reduced by 18% and irisin in media by 20%. Moreover, Fncd5 mRNA was increased in myotubes derived from individuals with type-2-diabetes, independent on exercise-mimicking treatment. Fndc5 mRNA in cells was positively related to fasting glycemia (p=0.0001) and negatively to whole-body insulin sensitivity (p<0.05). Collectively, our data do not support the role of exercise-related signaling pathways in irisin regulation in human skeletal muscle and confirm our previous observations on increased Fndc5 expression in muscle cells from individuals with type-2-diabetes. PMID:24642356

Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Mayer, Alexander; Maderova, Denisa; Belan, Vitazoslav; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara



Partial branching enzyme treatment increases the low glycaemic property and ?-1,6 branching ratio of maize starch.  


Partial branching enzyme treatment was used to modulate the starch fine chain structure responsible for a high content of slowly digestible starch fraction. Normal maize starch modified using branching enzyme for 4h showed a maximum slowly digestible starch content of 23.90%. The branching enzyme hydrolysis decreased the amylose content from 32.8% to 12.8%. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches showed a larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in the enzyme treated starch sample compare to native starch. The number of shorter chains (DP<13) increased from 18.71% to 28.23.1%, accompanied by a reduction of longer chains (DP>30) from 20.11% to 11.95%. (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of ?-1,6 branching ratio from 4.7% to 9.4% during enzyme treatment. The increase in the amount of shorter chains and more ?-1,6 linkages likely contribute to their slow digestion property. These results suggest that starches treated with partial branching enzyme synthesis a novel branched structure with slowly digestible character. PMID:24996363

Li, Xingfeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Xue, Jiangchao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yaqi; Jia, Yingmin



Heat treatment increases the incidence of alopecia areata in the C3H/HeJ mouse model  

PubMed Central

Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring hair loss. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between AA and physiological/psychological stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat treatment, a physiological stress, on AA development in C3H/HeJ mice. Whereas this strain of mice are predisposed to AA at low incidence by 18 months of age, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of hair loss in heat-treated 8-month-old C3H/HeJ mice compared with sham-treated mice. Histological analysis detected mononuclear cell infiltration in anagen hair follicles, a characteristic of AA, in heat-treated mouse skin. As expected, increased expression of induced HSPA1A/B (formerly called HSP70i) was detected in skin samples from heat-treated mice. Importantly, increased HSPA1A/B expression was also detected in skin samples from C3H/HeJ mice that developed AA spontaneously. Our results suggest that induction of HSPA1A/B may precipitate the development of AA in C3H/HeJ mice. For future studies, the C3H/HeJ mice with heat treatment may prove a useful model to investigate stress response in AA.

Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Alvarez-Connelly, Elizabeth; Simon, Jessica; Mauro, Lucia M.; Guzman, Javier; Elgart, George; Schachner, Lawrence A.; Chen, Juan; Plano, Lisa R.



Predictors of time to requiring dopaminergic treatment in 2 Parkinson's disease cohorts.  


The rate of progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable. Knowledge of factors associated with disease milestones and commonly used research outcome measures helps with patient counseling and guides the design and interpretation of clinical studies. The objective of the study was to identify prognostic factors for time to acquiring disability requiring dopaminergic therapy that are reproducible within 2 large prospectively followed cohorts. Potential prognostic factors were identified using data from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) trial, and their reproducibility was examined using data from the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 trial (PRECEPT). In multivariable analyses of the DATATOP cohort, higher baseline Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, full-time employment, a lesser smoking history, and onset on the left side were associated with a shorter time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy. PRECEPT data confirmed the associations of higher baseline UPDRS scores and full-time employment with shorter time to requiring treatment. Any clinical trial using the end point of time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy should ensure that groups are well balanced with respect to baseline UPDRS scores and the proportion of subjects employed full time and should consider including these variables as covariates in the statistical model for primary analysis of treatment effects. We suspect that individuals employed full time may have a lower threshold for requiring dopaminergic therapy because of occupational demands. PMID:21287602

Marras, Connie; McDermott, Michael P; Marek, Ken; Rochon, Paula; Naglie, Gary; Tanner, Caroline M; Rudolph, Alice; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E



Manuka honey treatment of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in the emergence of isolates with increased honey resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Medical grade manuka honeys are well known to be efficacious against Pseudomonas aeruginosa being bactericidal and inhibiting the development of biofilms; moreover manuka honey effectively kills P. aeruginosa embedded within an established biofilm. Sustained honey resistance has not been previously documented for planktonic or biofilm P. aeruginosa. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations for manuka honey and antibiotics were determined using broth micro-dilution methods. Minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) and biofilm biomass were determined using the crystal violet method. Sub-culture used non-selective media and the grid-plate method. Results When honey treated biofilm biomass of two strains of P. aeruginosa (reference strain ATCC 9027 and the clinical isolate 867) were sub-cultured onto non-selective media isolates emerged that exhibited reduced susceptibility to manuka honey. Significantly, this characteristic was sustained with repeated sub-culture onto non-selective media resulting in increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of between 5-7% (w/v) and increased minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) of up to 15% (w/v). Interestingly the resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to antibiotic treatment with rifampicin and imipenem as well as being more prolific biofilm-formers than the progenitor strains. Conclusions P. aeruginosa biofilms treated with manuka honey equivalent to the MBEC harbour slow growing, viable persistor organisms that exhibit sustained, increased resistance to manuka honey and antibiotic treatment, suggesting a shared mechanism of resistance. This sheds new light on the propensity for biofilm embedded organisms to resist honey treatment and become persistor organisms that are tolerant to other antimicrobial therapies.



Meta-Analysis of Increased Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Associated with CNS Stimulant Treatment of ADHD in Adults  

PubMed Central

Compared to children, adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular related outcomes and, if treated, may be likely to carry a greater burden of exposure to stimulant medications. The goal of this report is to critically review the available literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD (aADHD). Twenty potential clinical trials of a CNS stimulant for aADHD have been published between 1979 and 2012. Of these, ten presented sufficient data to estimate the relative change in various cardiovascular parameters associated with ADHD treatment modalities. These trials were predominantly focused on long-acting stimulant preparations for acute symptom reduction (median duration = 6 weeks, range: 4 – 24 weeks) and enrolled relatively young subjects (median age =36 years, range: 22 – 40). Using random effects meta-analysis, we found that subjects randomized to CNS stimulant treatment demonstrated a statistically significant increased resting heart rate [+5.7 bpm (3.6, 7.8), p<0.001] and systolic blood pressure findings [+2.0 mmHg (0.8, 3.2), p=0.005] compared with subjects randomized to placebo. There was a statistically significant increased risk for a resting heart rate >90 bpm [4.2% (n=50) vs. 1.7% (n=8), OR = 2.75 (1.3, 6.7), p=0.006] associated with CNS stimulant treatment. In light of prognostic value of resting heart rate with regard to cardiovascular morbidity in epidemiological studies, future research of adults with ADHD should focus on the potential clinical impact of the increase in heart rate observed in this meta-analysis.

Mick, Eric; McManus, David D.; Goldberg, Robert J.



Zip nucleic acid: a new reliable method to increase the melting temperature of real-time PCR probes  

PubMed Central

TaqMan genotyping with real-time PCR is a reliable method for single nucleotide polymorphism detection, which is done by probes. These oligonucleotides should be short enough to avoid mismatch hybridization, as well as having 5–10°C higher melting temperature than the primers of real-time PCR reaction. One approach for these qualities is to conjugate the probe with minor groove binder (MGB). Having no access to MGB probes, we searched for an alternative. In the current study, we used Zip Nucleic Acids (ZNA) as probes to increase its stability and melting temperature. Our aim was to genotype the -265 T/C changes of Apolipoprotein A-2 gene. We set up the real-time PCR reaction with ZNA probes, and by repeating the reactions, we confirmed the reliability of this new approach. It is now recommended to use ZNA probes, as an alternative to MGB probes, to increase the probe Tm value and its binding to target DNA.



Controlling factors for water residence time and flow patterns in Ekeby treatment wetland, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment wetlands play an important role in reducing nutrient content and heavy metals in wastewater and run-off water. The treatment efficiency strongly depends on flow pattern and residence times of the water. Here, we study the impact of different factors on water flow patterns based on a tracer experiment with tritiated water in a 2.6 ha constructed wetland pond. A 2D flow and inert transport model was used to evaluate the relative importance of bottom topography, vegetation distribution, water exchange with stagnant zones and dispersion. Results from computer simulations and independent measurements of friction losses as well as wetland geometry showed that variations in bottom topography, formed by several deep zones, decreased the variance in water residence times to a minor extent. Heterogeneity in vegetation, on the other hand, significantly contributed to the spread in water residence times and explained the multiple peaks observed in the breakthrough curves. Analyses showed that in the Ekeby treatment wetland, basin shape explained about 10% of the variance in the observed residence times, whereas vegetation explained about 60-80%. To explain all variance secondary factors were needed, such as dispersion and water exchange with stagnant zones. These were shown to contribute to the spread of residence times and primarily to the long tail of the observed breakthrough curves.

Kjellin, Johan; Wörman, Anders; Johansson, Håkan; Lindahl, Anna



Climate Response to the Increase in Tropospheric Ozone since Preindustrial Times: A Comparison between Ozone and Equivalent CO2 Forcings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the characteristics of the climate response to anthropogenic changes in tropospheric ozone. Using a general circulation model, we have carried out a pair of equilibrium climate simulations with realistic present-day and preindustrial ozone distributions. We find that the instantaneous radiative forcing of 0.49 W m(sup -2) due to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times results in an increase in global mean surface temperature of 0.28 C. The increase is nearly 0.4 C in the Northern Hemisphere and about 0.2 C in the Southern Hemisphere. The largest increases (greater than 0.8 C) are downwind of Europe and Asia and over the North American interior in summer. In the lower stratosphere, global mean temperatures decrease by about 0.2 C due to the diminished upward flux of radiation at 9.6 micrometers. The largest stratospheric cooling, up to 1.0 C, occurs over high northern latitudes in winter, with possibly important implications for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. To identify the characteristics of climate forcing unique to tropospheric ozone, we have conducted two additional climate equilibrium simulations: one in which preindustrial tropospheric ozone concentrations were increased everywhere by 18 ppb, producing the same global radiative forcing as present-day ozone but without the heterogeneity; and one in which CO2 was decreased by 25 ppm relative to present day, with ozone at present-day values, to again produce the same global radiative forcing but with the spectral signature of CO2 rather than ozone. In the first simulation (uniform increase of ozone), the global mean surface temperature increases by 0.25 C, with an interhemispheric difference of only 0.03 C, as compared with nearly 0.2 C for the heterogeneous ozone increase. In the second simulation (equivalent CO2), the global mean surface temperature increases by 0.36 C, 30% higher than the increase from tropospheric ozone. The stronger surface warming from CO2 is in part because CO2 forcing (obscured by water vapor) is shifted relatively poleward where the positive ice-albedo feedback amplifies the climate response and in part because the magnitude of the CO2 forcing in the mid-troposphere is double that of ozone. However, we find that CO2 is far less effective than tropospheric ozone in driving lower stratospheric cooling at high northern latitudes in winter.

Mickley L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Field, B. D.; Rind, D.