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Increasing Retention Without Increasing Study Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that yield long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is most efficiently achieved. Here we examine how retention is affected by two variables: the duration of a study session and the temporal distribution of study time across multiple sessions. Our results suggest

Doug Rohrer; Harold Pashler



Azathioprine treatment increases hepatocyte turnover.  


The effect of azathioprine on the hepatocytes cell turnover was evaluated. This was accomplished by injection of rats with trituim thymidine. The distance of labeled liver cells from the portal space was determined, after 1 hour and 30 days, in control and azathioprine-treated rats. In the control group, the streaming velocities of hepatocytes and littoral cells were 3.2 microns/day and 3.1 microns/day, respectively. In azathioprine-treated animals, the respective velocities were 7.0 microns/day and 5.5 microns/day. In the liver acinus, cell displacement velocity is proportional to cell production. Because hepatocyte velocity in azathioprine-treated animals increased by 218% and littoral cell velocity by 177%, their respective turnovers also increased to 218% and 177%. It can be concluded that the liver is essentially a slowly renewing cell population. Azathioprine increased the hepatocytes' and littoral cells' streaming velocities. This in vivo experimental model may help evaluate the effect of hepatotoxic drugs on the kinetics of liver cells. PMID:1889701

Arber, N; Zajicek, G; Nordenberg, J; Sidi, Y



Persistent Residual Increase in Server Processing Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case study we present our observations of a query processing engine running at a server farm operated by one of our in- dustrial partners. We examine the query engine response time (termed MSBFS) under a variety of conditions. Observations show that there is a persistent residual increase in the server processing time that is only reset with rebooting

Mohamed Mansour; Karsten Schwan


Human cortical excitability increases with time awake.  


Prolonged wakefulness is associated not only with obvious changes in the way we feel and perform but also with well-known clinical effects, such as increased susceptibility to seizures, to hallucinations, and relief of depressive symptoms. These clinical effects suggest that prolonged wakefulness may be associated with significant changes in the state of cortical circuits. While recent animal experiments have reported a progressive increase of cortical excitability with time awake, no conclusive evidence could be gathered in humans. In this study, we combine transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor cortical excitability in healthy individuals as a function of time awake. We observed that the excitability of the human frontal cortex, measured as the immediate (0-20 ms) EEG reaction to TMS, progressively increases with time awake, from morning to evening and after one night of total sleep deprivation, and that it decreases after recovery sleep. By continuously monitoring vigilance, we also found that this modulation in cortical responsiveness is tonic and not attributable to transient fluctuations of the level of arousal. The present results provide noninvasive electrophysiological evidence that wakefulness is associated with a steady increase in the excitability of human cortical circuits that is rebalanced during sleep. PMID:22314045

Huber, Reto; Mäki, Hanna; Rosanova, Mario; Casarotto, Silvia; Canali, Paola; Casali, Adenauer G; Tononi, Giulio; Massimini, Marcello



The increasing efficacy of breast cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women and although identification of this multi-system disease has increased, the survival rates have not dramatically altered over the past four decades. Optimium treatment of patients with breast cancer is a subject of great debate and traditionally may be divided into surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone manipulation.Halsted's radical mastectomy, although initially superseded by

A. Gordon



Are Mental Disorders Increasing over Time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impression that the prevalence of mental disorder has been increasing during the last decades is only partially justified. The considerable increase in the demand for psychiatric and psychotherapeutic help is influenced by quite a number of factors that vary in nature and direction. The most essential contribution was made by changes in the age composition of the population –

H. Häfner



An intervention to increase alcohol treatment engagement: a pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Previous research has documented the difficulty individuals with alcohol use disorders have initiating alcohol treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of a brief, cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase treatment initiation among individuals with alcohol use disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included one hundred and ninety six participants who screened positive for a possible alcohol use disorder on the AUDIT. Randomly assigned intervention participants were administered a brief cognitive-behaviorally-based intervention by phone designed to modify beliefs that may interfere with treatment-seeking behavior. Beliefs about treatment and treatment-seeking behavior were assessed post-intervention. Results Participants receiving the intervention had significantly improved their attitudes toward addiction treatment (p < 0.002) and increased their reported intention to seek treatment (p < 0.000) post-intervention. Further, intervention participants were almost three times more likely to attend treatment within a three-month period (OR = 2.60, p < 0.025) than participants in the control group. Conclusions A brief, cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered by phone and focused on modifying treatment interfering beliefs holds promise for increasing alcohol treatment-seeking among individuals in need.

Stecker, Tracy; McGovern, Mark P.; Herr, Beverly



Consensus on Increasing Learning Time Builds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-five years ago, the still-resonant report "A Nation at Risk" urged schools to add more time--an hour to the usual six hour day and 20-40 days to the typical 180-day ear--to ward off a "rising tide of mediocrity" in American education. Today, city, school, state, and national leaders are engaged in a renewed effort to do just that. Under…

Gewertz, Catherine



Increases in Pediatric Antiretroviral Treatment, South Africa 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa in 2010, about 340,000 children under the age of 15 were infected with HIV. We describe the increase in the treatment of South African pediatric HIV-infected patients assisted by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) from 2004 to 2010. Methods We reviewed routine program data from PEPFAR-funded implementing partners among persons receiving antiretroviral treatment age 15 years old and less. Data quality was assessed during the reporting period by program officials through routine analysis of trends and logic checks. Based on UNAIDS estimated mortality rates of untreated HIV-infected children, we calculated the number of deaths averted and life-years gained in children under five receiving PEPFAR-assisted antiretroviral treatment. Results From October 2004 through September 2010, the number of children newly initiated on antiretroviral treatment in PEPFAR-assisted programs increased from 154 to 2,641 per month resulting in an increase from 2,412 children on antiretroviral treatment in September 2005 to 79,416 children in September 2010. Of those children who initiated antiretroviral treatment before September 2009, 0–4 year olds were 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.5) times as likely to transfer out of the program or die as 5–14 year olds; males were 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0–1.7) times as likely to stop treatment as females. Approximately 27,548 years of life were added to children under-five years old from PEPFAR-assisted antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions Pediatric antiretroviral treatment in South Africa has increased substantially. However, additional case-finding and a further acceleration in the implementation of pediatric care and treatment services is required to meet the current treatment need.

Patel, Sandeep D.; Larson, Elysia; Mbengashe, Thobile; O'Bra, Heidi; Brown, J. W.; Golman, Thurma M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.



Steam treatment of digested biofibers for increasing biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of steam pretreatment on the biomethane potential of biofibers from digested manure. These biofibers were treated for 15min with steam in a pressure vessel. The effect of steam treatment temperature, solids content, catalyst concentration and time of pre-soaking on the methane potential of the biofibers was determined. The highest increase

Emiliano Bruni; Anders Peter Jensen; Irini Angelidaki



Increased caseloads in methadone treatment programs: Implications for the delivery of services and retention in treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in caseload and in the provision of counseling and comprehensive services were examined among 27 outpatient methadone programs across England between 1995 and 1999. The number of patients treated at the programs doubled during this time and average waiting times increased. More patients presented for treatment with alcohol and stimulant problems, dual diagnosis, and involvement in the Criminal Justice

Duncan Stewart; Michael Gossop; John Marsden



Hemodialysis treatment time: a fresh perspective.  


Historical, clinical, economic, and technological developments have driven a shift in clinical practice from predominantly 6-hour-long hemodialysis treatments to much shorter treatment times that are prevalent today. Patients, physicians, and providers had considered shortening dialysis treatments as a means to decrease the overall burden imposed by this necessary life-saving therapy. However, shorter dialysis is not a panacea and may engender trade-offs in terms of patient morbidity and mortality. We examine the literature with the benefit of hindsight and in light of recent studies that have improved understanding of the complex relationship between dialysis dose and outcome. We touch upon the role of dialysis frequency relative to treatment time. We conclude with the suggestion that a new treatment paradigm should consider a minimum adequate dialysis treatment time of 4 hours for the majority of patients, with anything shorter becoming the exception rather than the rule. PMID:21885788

Lacson, Eduardo; Brunelli, Steven M



Effect of alkali treatment time and extraction time on agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alkali treatment time and extraction time of native agar and alkali treated agar obtained from Gracilaria vermiculophylla were studied. The response characteristics were mainly agar yield and gel strength. Alkali-treatment was carried out at 0.5,\\u000a 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 h. Agar yield and gel strength decreased with the increase in the time of the alkali-treatment.\\u000a The

Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; J. Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Mauricio Muñoz-Ochoa; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona


Fingolimod treatment in multiple sclerosis leads to increased macular volume  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether fingolimod, an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), generally leads to increased retinal tissue volume. Methods: In this longitudinal observational study, we compared changes in macular volume on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) between consecutive patients with MS who initiated fingolimod and a matched reference cohort of patients with MS never exposed to the drug. The primary reference cohort was matched based on time interval between OCT examinations. A secondary reference cohort was matched based on age and disease duration. Change in macular volume within each group was analyzed using the paired t test. Change in macular volume between groups was examined using multiple linear regression. Results: Macular volume increased by a mean of 0.025 mm3 (95% confidence interval [CI] +0.017 to +0.033, p < 0.001) in the 30 patients with MS who initiated fingolimod over a mean follow-up time of 5 months (SD 3). Macular volume did not significantly change over a mean follow-up time of 6 months (SD 4) in a comparison group of 30 patients with MS never treated with fingolimod (mean change of ?0.003 mm3, 95% CI ?0.009 to +0.004, p = 0.47). Overall, 74% of eyes in the fingolimod-treated group exhibited an increase in macular volume vs 37% of eyes in the comparison group. Conclusion: Initiation of fingolimod in MS is associated with a modest, relatively rapid increase in macular volume.

Nolan, Rachel; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.



Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

Mullins, Dana [Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Proulx, Denise [Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Saoudi, A. [Department of Medical Physics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Ng, Cheng E. [Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada) and Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]. E-mail:



Effect of alkali treatment time and extraction time on agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alkali treatment time and extraction time of native agar and alkali treated agar obtained from Gracilaria vermiculophylla were studied. The response characteristics were mainly agar yield and gel strength. Alkali treatment was carried out at 0.5,\\u000a 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 h. Agar yield and gel strength decreased with the increase in the time of the alkali

Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; J. Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Mauricio Muñoz-Ochoa; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona



Increased caseloads in methadone treatment programs: implications for the delivery of services and retention in treatment.  


Changes in caseload and in the provision of counseling and comprehensive services were examined among 27 outpatient methadone programs across England between 1995 and 1999. The number of patients treated at the programs doubled during this time and average waiting times increased. More patients presented for treatment with alcohol and stimulant problems, dual diagnosis, and involvement in the Criminal Justice System. Provision of individual counseling and comprehensive services was high at both points, although services for family/relationship problems were reduced at followup. Changes were reported in disciplinary procedures. Drug positive urine tests were more likely to result in loss of patient privileges, and there was a significant increase in discharges for breaking program rules, missing appointments, and consuming alcohol. The study allows only tentative conclusions to be drawn, but these changes may be indicative of increased pressures placed on the programs and their staff. PMID:15610831

Stewart, Duncan; Gossop, Michael; Marsden, John



Long delay times in reaction rates increase intrinsic fluctuations.  


In spatially distributed cellular systems, it is often convenient to represent complicated auxiliary pathways and spatial transport by time-delayed reaction rates. Furthermore, many of the reactants appear in low numbers necessitating a probabilistic description. The coupling of delayed rates with stochastic dynamics leads to a probability conservation equation characterizing a non-Markovian process. A systematic approximation is derived that incorporates the effect of delayed rates on the characterization of molecular noise valid in the limit of long delay time. By way of a simple example, we show that delayed reaction dynamics can only increase intrinsic fluctuations about the steady state. The method is general enough to accommodate nonlinear transition rates allowing characterization of fluctuations around a delay-induced limit cycle. PMID:19905084

Scott, Matthew



Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells and thus to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has been attracting increasing interest in recent years. A great deal of effort has been made to better understand and predict the progression to cancer using mathematical models; these mostly consider the evolution of a well-mixed cell population, even though pre-cancerous cells often evolve in highly structured epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to assess two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other. We find that in the presence of clonal interference, spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer, leads to a patchwork structure of non-uniformly sized clones and decreases the survival probability of virtually neutral (passenger) mutations, and that genetic distance begins to increase over a characteristic length scale Lc. These characteristic features of clonal interference may help us to predict the onset of cancers with pronounced spatial structure and to interpret spatially sampled genetic data obtained from biopsies. Our estimates suggest that clonal interference likely occurs in the progression of colon cancer and possibly other cancers where spatial structure matters.

Martens, Erik A.; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C.; Hallatschek, Oskar



Model Predictive Control of HIFU Treatments in 3D for Treatment Time Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real time model predictive feedback controller has been integrated with a combined Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanner and 256-element ultrasound phased array system to improve High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatments. The objective of this research is to use a model based feedback controller to improve the quality of HIFU treatments by adjusting the power, heating time and cooling time of each applied pulse based on the measured MR temperatures. A prototype controller has been evaluated in simulations and agar phantom experiments. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed real time MR control, including a 65% reduction in treatment time, and increase dose uniformity in the treatment volume with all normal tissue safety constraints satisfied.

Blankespoor, A.; Payne, A.; Todd, N.; Skliar, M.; Roell, S.; Roland, J.; Parker, D.; Roemer, R.



Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods  


Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.



Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods  


Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from to C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); McMasters, O. D. (Ames, IA)



Treatment of nasal polyposis in Byzantine times.  


The goal of this study was to describe the therapeutic methods and surgical techniques used during Byzantine times (AD 324-1453) for a disease that has occupied physicians since antiquity: nasal polyps. The original Greek-language texts of the Byzantine medical writers, most of which were published after the 17th century, were studied in order to identify the early knowledge of the definition, symptoms, conservative treatments, and surgical intervention in cases of this disease. A considerable number of conservative treatments, etiologic and local (with inunctions or blowing of caustic substances), with evident influence from Roman medicine, were identified even in the early Byzantine medical texts (4th century). Further, some surgical techniques were described that seem to constitute evolution of the Hippocratic tradition. From the study of the original texts of Byzantine medical writers, their interest in the rhinological diseases is evident; in the case of nasal polyps, new techniques were mentioned. The first meticulous intranasal surgical removal of polyps was described. These techniques, obviously developed during the Hellenistic period, initially influenced European medicine and later the rest of the world. PMID:11007093

Lascaratos, J G; Segas, J V; Assimakopoulos, D A



Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein  

PubMed Central

Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a cationic antimicrobial protein produced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, that specifically interacts with and kills Gram-negative bacteria. BPl competes with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) secreted by liver cells into blood plasma for binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and thus reduces the proinflammatory effects of LPS. We have developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for BPI and measured the concentration of BPI in human serum and plasma samples. The assay is based on a rabbit antibody against recombinant BPI. This antibody specifically adheres to polymorphonuclear leukocytes in immunostained human tissues. The difference in the serum concentration of BPI between unselected hospitalized patients with and without an infection was statistically significant. The mean concentration of BPI in serum samples was 28.3 ?g/l (range 1.64–132, S.D. 26.8, n = 83). In contrast, there was no difference between the two groups in the BPI levels in plasma samples. For all individuals tested, BPI levels were consistently higher in plasma samples compared to the matched serum samples. The mean concentration of BPI in plasma samples was 52.3 ?g/l (range 0.9–403, S.D. 60.6, n = 90). There was a positive correlation between the concentration of BPI and the white blood cell count as well as between the BPI concentration and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum samples. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that BPI can be quantified reliably by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in human serum samples.

Haggblom, J.-O.; Jokilammi-Siltanen, A. B.; Peuravuori, H.



Increased duration of simulated childbirth injuries results in increased time to recovery  

PubMed Central

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) development is strongly correlated with vaginal childbirth, particularly increased duration of the second stage of labor. However, the mechanisms of pelvic floor injury leading to SUI are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of increased duration of vaginal distension (VD) on voiding cystometry, leak point pressure testing, and histology. Sixty-nine virgin female rats underwent VD with an inflated balloon for either 1 or 4 h, while 33 age-matched rats were sham-VD controls. Conscious cystometry, leak point pressure testing, and histopathology were determined 4 days, 10 days, and 6 wk after VD. The increase in abdominal pressure to leakage (LPP) during leak point pressure testing was significantly decreased in both distension groups 4 days after distension, indicative of short-term decreased urethral resistance. Ten days after VD, LPP was significantly decreased in the 4-h but not the 1-h distension group, indicating that a longer recovery time is needed after longer distension duration. Six weeks after VD, LPP was not significantly different from sham-VD values, indicating a return toward normal urethral resistance. In contrast, 6 wk after VD of either duration, the distended rats had not undergone the same increase in voided volume as the sham-VD group, suggesting that some effects of VD do not resolve within 6 wk. Both VD groups demonstrated histopathological evidence of acute injuries and tissue remodeling. In conclusion, this experiment suggests pressure-induced hypoxia as a possible mechanism of injury in vaginal delivery.

Pan, H. Q.; Kerns, J. M.; Lin, D. L.; Liu, S.; Esparza, N.; Damaser, M. S.



Increased alcohol consumption in rats after subchronic antidepressant treatment.  


The use of antidepressants for alcoholism in humans has been a matter of controversy in recent years. Despite the existence of an important co-morbidity for depression and alcoholism, some studies suggest that the use of antidepressants could worsen the prognosis of alcoholism. However, there is a lack of studies in animal models exploring this phenomenon. In the present study, we show how the 15-d treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or venlafaxine (50 mg/kg) affected alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) and subsequent alcohol consumption. Initially, fluoxetine reduced ADE and venlafaxine did not affect it. However, in the following days, both antidepressants increased alcohol consumption, an effect that was found to last at least 5 wk. Fluoxetine treatment was shown to cause a locomotor sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), indicating the presence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. In summary, antidepressant treatment may increase alcohol consumption in rats after a period of alcohol deprivation and this could be related to alterations in the reward circuitry. This finding confirms in an animal model previous reports in humans that may limit the use of antidepressants for alcoholism. PMID:23551979

Alén, Francisco; Orio, Laura; Gorriti, Miguel Á; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez



Time Structure of Ground Level and Satellite Cosmic Ray Increases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The morphology of solar-related terrestrial cosmic ray increases was studied using neutron-monitor, satellite, and riometer data. Data from numerous events were compared with the power law intensity decay. Results for five ground level increases are mean ...

S. M. Bennett



Transitions out of High School: Time of Increased Cancer Risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.The effectiveness of lifestyle behavior interventions with children to reduce chronic disease risks in adulthood assumes stability in the lifestyle behaviors across time. The transition out of high school is a time when many changes occur in social roles, e.g., changing schools, leaving the parents' home, changing peers, finding employment, getting married, and becoming a parent. Cancer risk behaviors may

Tom Baranowski; Karen Weber Cullen; Karen Basen-Engquist; David W. Wetter; Scott Cummings; Daniel S. Martineau; Alexander V. Prokhorov; Joe Chorley; Bettina Beech; Albert C. Hergenroeder



Increasing biogas production by thermal (70 °C) sludge pre-treatment prior to thermophilic anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of a low temperature pre-treatment (70°C) on the efficiency of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary waste sludge. Firstly, effect of sludge pre-treatment time (9, 24, 48 and 72h) was evaluated by the increase in volatile dissolved solids (VDSs), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas production in thermophilic batch

Ivet Ferrer; Sergio Ponsá; Felícitas Vázquez



Response Time Analysis in Cognitive Tasks with Increasing Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, speeded tasks with differing assumed difficulties of the trials are regarded as a special class of simple cognitive tasks. Exploratory latent growth modeling with data-driven shape of a growth curve and nonlinear structured latent curve modeling with predetermined monotonically increasing functions were used to analyze…

Dodonov, Yury S.; Dodonova, Yulia A.



Energy of Tycho's Supernova Remnant is increasing with time  

PubMed Central

It is shown, using the Zeldovich integral relations, that the energy of Tycho's Supernova Remnant is strongly growing with time, approximately as t1/3. This growth can be attributed to the exothermic reactions going inside the remnant. The use of the assumption of the adiabaticity of the motion inside of the shock front, and no losses or gain of energy at the front, seems therefore unjustified.

Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich



Energy of Tycho's supernova remnant is increasing with time.  


It is shown, using the Zeldovich integral relations, that the energy of Tycho's Supernova Remnant is strongly growing with time, approximately as t(1/3). This growth can be attributed to the exothermic reactions going inside the remnant. The use of the assumption of the adiabaticity of the motion inside of the shock front, and no losses or gain of energy at the front, seems therefore unjustified. PMID:18202174

Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich



Treatment Fidelity: Relation to Treatment Acceptability and Change over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the relation between acceptability and fidelity of an intervention package in natural classroom settings, and (b) to examine how fidelity of implementation varies in relation to high vs. low treatment acceptability over the course of an academic school year. Participants were 44 teachers, from 15…

Tanol, Gizem



Increased Hyaluronan Expression at Distinct Time Points in Acute Lymphedema  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lymphatic dysfunction in lymphedema results in chronic accumulation of interstitial fluid and life-long tissue swelling. In the absence of restored lymphatic drainage via adequate lymphangiogenesis, the interstitial environment can remodel in ways that decrease the elevated interstitial stress. Presently, relatively little is known about the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that become upregulated in the interstitium during lymphedema. We employed a mouse tail model of acute lymphedema that reproduces important features of the chronic human condition to establish a relationship between hyaluronan (HA) and sulfated GAG concentration with tissue swelling. We found that HA was upregulated by tissue injury at day 5 and became upregulated again by skin swelling (HA content increasing by 27% relative to controls at days 15 and 20). Surprisingly, the second phase of HA expression was associated with the declining phase of the tail skin swelling (tail diameter significantly decreasing by 17% from day 10 peak to day 20), demonstrating that HA is upregulated by tissue swelling and may help to counteract the edema in the mouse tail. This finding was confirmed by intradermal injection of an HA degrading enzyme (hyaluronidase) to the swollen tail, which was found to worsen the tail swelling. Sulfated GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate (CS), were not regulated by tissue swelling. The results demonstrate that HA, but not sulfated GAGs, is upregulated in the interstitium by acute tissue swelling. We speculate that HA expression during lymphedema may be part of a natural adaptive mechanism of the interstitial environment to reduce capillary filtration and increase interstitial fluid outflow following lymphatic obstruction and fluid accumulation.

Roberts, Melissa A.; Mendez, Uziel; Gilbert, Ryan J.; Keim, Alexander P.



treatment. Dosage can then be increased by increments of up ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Patients and their families or other caregivers should discuss all treatment choices ... effects of the medicine prescribed for you or your family member. ... More results from


Chemical fixation increases options for hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) govern the manner in which hazardous materials are managed. Disposing RCRA hazardous wastes on or in the land is no longer an accepted remedial option. This land disposal restriction requires that all listed and characteristic hazardous wastes must be treated according to specified standards before they are disposed. These treatment standards define technologies and concentration limits. Hazardous wastes that do not meet the standards are prohibited from being disposed on land, such as in landfills, surface impoundments, land treatment units, injection wells, and mines or caves.

Indelicato, G.J. [CURA Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Tipton, G.A. [Tipton (Gary A.), Houston, TX (United States)



Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.



The impact of pressure, temperature and treatment time on starches: pressure-induced starch gelatinisation as pressure time temperature indicator for high hydrostatic pressure processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of pressure-induced starch gelatinisation as a pressure time temperature indicator (PTTI) was investigated by examining the impact of pressure, temperature and treatment time on starches of A-type, B-type and C-type crystallinity. Pressure-induced starch gelatinisation was highly sensitive to changes of temperature, pressure and treatment time. At constant temperature and treatment time, the degree of gelatinisation increased with increasing

B. A. Bauer; D. Knorr



Surimi wash water treatment for protein recovery: effect of chitosan–alginate complex concentration and treatment time on protein adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosan (Chi), a protein recovery agent for the treatment of aqueous food processing streams, appears to work by mechanical entrapment and electrostatic interaction of chitosan amino groups with anionic groups on proteins. Chitosan effectiveness for recovering soluble proteins from surimi wash water (SWW) is increased by complexation with alginate (Alg) and by adjusting complex concentration and treatment time. Flocculation at

Singgih Wibowo; Gonzalo Velazquez; Vivek Savant; J. Antonio Torres



Increasing patient adherence to gastroenterology treatment and prevention regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gastroenterology treatments would be minimally effective if patients did not adhere to prescribed therapeutic regimens. However, considerable evidence exists that patients often do not adhere. Factors associated with nonadherence include the physician’s or other health care provider’s behavior, the prescribed regimen, and the illness. These factors affect patient adherence such that: 1) patients do not have the skills or

Rona L Levy; Andrew D Feld



Early postnatal dexamethasone treatment and increased incidence of cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo study the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of children who participated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of early postnatal dexamethasone treatment for prevention of chronic lung disease.METHODSThe original study compared a three day course of dexamethasone (n = 132) with a saline placebo (n = 116) administered from before 12 hours of age in preterm infants, who

E S Shinwell; M Karplus; D Reich; Z Weintraub; S Blazer; D Bader; S Yurman; T Dolfin; A Kogan; S Dollberg; E Arbel; M Goldberg; I Gur; N Naor; L Sirota; S Mogilner; A Zaritsky; M Barak; E Gottfried



Subgroups analysis when treatment and moderators are time-varying.  


Prevention scientists are often interested in understanding characteristics of participants that are predictive of treatment effects because these characteristics can be used to inform the types of individuals who benefit more or less from treatment or prevention programs. Often, effect moderation questions are examined using subgroups analysis or, equivalently, using covariate × treatment interactions in the context of regression analysis. This article focuses on conceptualizing and examining causal effect moderation in longitudinal settings in which both treatment and the putative moderators are time-varying. Studying effect moderation in the time-varying setting helps identify which individuals will benefit more or less from additional treatment services on the basis of both individual characteristics and their evolving outcomes, symptoms, severity, and need. Examining effect moderation in these longitudinal settings, however, is difficult because moderators of future treatment may themselves be affected by prior treatment (for example, future moderators may be mediators of prior treatment). This article introduces moderated intermediate causal effects in the time-varying setting, describes how they are part of Robins' Structural Nested Mean Model, discusses two problems with using a traditional regression approach to estimate these effects, and describes a new approach (a two-stage regression estimator) to estimate these effects. The methodology is illustrated using longitudinal data to examine the time-varying effects of receiving community-based substance abuse treatment as a function of time-varying severity (or need). PMID:21424793

Almirall, Daniel; McCaffrey, Daniel F; Ramchand, Rajeev; Murphy, Susan A



Risperidone Treatment Increases CB1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Body weight gain is a common side effect of treatment with antipsychotics, but the mechanisms underlying this weight gain are unknown. Several factors may be involved in antipsychotic-induced body weight gain including the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), the serotonin receptor 2C, the ghrelin receptor, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin and proopiomelanocortin. We investigated whether the expression of these factors was affected

Anna Secher; Henriette Husum; Birgitte Holst; Kristoffer Lihme Egerod; Erling Mellerup



Increasing the ductility of martensitic steels by heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The toughness of nickel, stainless, and complex alloyed martensitic steels at room and cryogenic temperatures can be increased by stabilizing 10\\\\2-25% austenite in a dispersed state.2.A large amount of stable austenite can be obtained in Fe\\\\t-Ni, Fe\\\\t-Cr\\\\t-Ni, and other martensitic steels by heating them 30\\\\2-80\\\\dg above the beginning temperature of the reverse transformation for long periods (2\\\\2-3 h).With increasing nickel

V. I. Kozlovskaya; Ya. M. Potak; Yu. F. Orzhekhovskii



Treatment with iron increases weight gain and psychomotor development.  

PubMed Central

Previous work at this hospital and elsewhere has shown that anaemia in toddlers is common and is associated with psychomotor delay. It seemed unclear, however, whether this association was cause and effect or merely due to the same underprivileged environment. A double blind randomised intervention study was, therefore, performed. After an initial assessment 97 children with anaemia (haemoglobin 8-11 g/dl) aged 17-19 months received either iron and vitamin C or vitamin C only (control group) for two months and were then reassessed. The children who received the iron had an increased rate of weight gain and more of them achieved the expected rate of development. While iron deficiency anaemia is unlikely to be the only factor in the slower development of children living in underprivileged circumstances, it can at least be easily identified and treated. Routine child health surveillance in such areas should include a haemoglobin determination.

Aukett, M A; Parks, Y A; Scott, P H; Wharton, B A



Influence of electrolytic treatment time on the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti orthodontic wire.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the use of electrolytic treatment, which can improve the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti orthodontic wires, to minimize adverse effects. Electrolytic treatment of Ni-Ti wires was performed in a solution composed of glycerol and lactic acid for 5, 15, or 30 min. The anodic polarization test, three-point bending test, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the wire surface were performed to explore an optimal treatment condition. Breakdown potentials of treated wires increased with increasing treatment time and higher corrosion resistance was obtained by performing the electrolytic treatment for more than 5 min. The relative concentration of nickel in the layer was decreased in inverse proportion to the treatment time. The results suggest that the commercial Ni-Ti wire with low corrosion resistance can be improved by the electrolytic treatment for more than 5 min. PMID:23538767

Kaneto, Maki; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takahiko; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Hanawa, Takao; Yoneyama, Takayuki




SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in-depth treatment. Chromium retention due to precipitation was investigated by flowing chromium acetate solutions through carbonate rock. Chromium precipitated faster in the rocks than in beaker experiments at similar conditions. A mathematical model previously developed fit the precipitation data reasonably well. The stability of gels when subjected to stress was investigated by experiments with gels placed in tubes and in laboratory-scale fractures. Rupture pressures for gels placed in small diameter tubes were correlated with the ratio of tube length to tube ID. In fractures, fluid leakoff from the fracture to adjacent matrix rock affected gel formation and gel stability in a positive way. Disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR) was studied in unconsolidated sandpacks and in Berea sandstone cores. A conceptual model was developed to explain the presence of DPR. The effect of a pressure gradient, imposed by injection of oil or brine, on the permeability of gel-treated cores was investigated. DPR increased significantly as the pressure gradient was decreased. The magnitude of the pressure gradient had a much larger effect on water permeability than on oil permeability.

G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool



Increasing rates of low-risk prostate cancer incidence in USAF servicemen and selection of treatments  

PubMed Central

Purpose Periodic Health Assessments have been mandated for United States Air Force (USAF) servicemen since the mid-1990s. Consequently, we determined whether USAF prostate cancer incidence rates have increased thereafter, how these tumors segregate into low- and intermediate/high-risk categories and treatment choices. Methods We queried the Department of Defense Automated Central Tumor Registry for prostate cancers diagnosed in USAF servicemen between 1991–2008 to determine incidence rates, disease risk category and treatments selected. Results Age-adjusted rates in white active duty servicemen diagnosed for the most recent period (2005/2008) increased 3 fold relative to the rate in the earliest period (1991–1994) and a similar trend was evident for African American servicemen. Moreover, relative to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population, prostate cancer rates among active duty USAF men between 1995 and 2008 were significantly increased for both racial groups. Importantly, a significantly greater proportion of active duty servicemen (62 %) than retirees (40 %) presented with low-risk disease (PSA < 10 ng/ml, Gleason Sum <7, T1a-T2a clinical staging). For those individuals with low-risk disease, a significantly greater percentage of active duty servicemen opted for curative surgery compared with retirees (93 and 53 % respectively). Conclusion Prostate cancer incidence rates for USAF servicemen have increased over time exceeding rates for the SEER population. Moreover, while the majority of cases are characterized as low-risk, aggressive management is selected.

del Junco, Deborah J.; Fox, Erin E.; Cooper, Sharon; Goldhagen, Marc; Koda, Erik; Rogers, David; Canby-Hagino, Edith; Kim, Jeri; Pettaway, Curtis; Boyd, Douglas D.



Investigation of the possibility of increasing the one-time coal charge in ovens  

Microsoft Academic Search

One method of increasing the production of metallurgical coke is to increase the one-time oven charge, which may be achieved by increasing the charge bulk density. Methods of increasing the rate of flow of the charge from the hoppers by adding air to the charge, lubrication of the charging car hoppers, and use of separation plates do not require adjustment

G. R. Gainieva; B. K. Poroshin; A. G. Vodopyanov



Time-Multiplexed Beamforming for Noninvasive Microwave Hyperthermia Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noninvasive microwave beamforming strategy is proposed for selective localized heating of biological tissue. The proposed technique is based on time multiplexing of multiple beam- formers. We investigate the effectiveness of the time-multiplexed beamforming in the context of brain hyperthermia treatment by using a high-fidelity numerical head phantom of an adult female from the Virtual Family (IT'IS Foundation) as our

Earl Zastrow; Susan C. Hagness; Barry D. Van Veen; Joshua E. Medow



Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.



Growth and inequality: Dependence on the time path of productivity increases (and other structural changes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the significance of the time path of a given productivity increase on growth and inequality. Whereas the time path impacts only the transitional paths of aggregate quantities, it has both transitional and permanent consequences for wealth and income distribution. Hence, the growth–inequality tradeoff generated by a given discrete increase in productivity contrasts sharply with that obtained when

Manoj Atolia; Santanu Chatterjee; Stephen J. Turnovsky



Olanzapine, but not fluoxetine, treatment increases survival in activity-based anorexia in mice.  


Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by extreme hypophagia, hyperactivity, and fear of weight gain. No approved pharmacological treatments exist for AN despite high mortality rates. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) phenomenon models aspects of AN in rodents, including progressive weight loss, reduced food intake, and hyperactivity. First, we optimized the ABA paradigm for mice. We compared mouse strains (Balb/cJ, A/J) for susceptibility with ABA, and evaluated the effects of different food access durations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10?h) on ABA parameters. Balb/cJ mice exhibited significantly shorter survival time (days until 25% bodyweight loss) in the ABA paradigm compared with A/J mice. Furthermore, 6?h of food access reduced survival in mice housed with wheels without reducing survival in mice housed without wheels. We then evaluated the effects of chronic treatment with fluoxetine (4 weeks) or subchronic treatment with olanzapine (OLZ) (1 week) on ABA in BALB/cJ mice. OLZ (12?mg/kg/day) significantly increased survival and reduced food anticipatory activity (FAA). However, OLZ did not alter food intake or running wheel activity during ad-lib feeding (baseline) or restriction conditions, or in mice housed without wheels. Fluoxetine (18?mg/kg/day) increased food intake and reduced FAA, but did not alter survival. Here, we report for the first time that OLZ, but not fluoxetine, reduces ABA in mice. Our findings indicate further need for clinical investigations into the effects of OLZ, but not selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, on core features of AN. PMID:22395732

Klenotich, Stephanie J; Seiglie, Mariel P; McMurray, Matthew S; Roitman, Jamie D; Le Grange, Daniel; Dugad, Priya; Dulawa, Stephanie C



Kaolinite illitization at 300 C and 1000 bars with increasing time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important reactions producing illite as a consequence of burial diagenesis is the illitization of kaolinite, which has been investigated exstensively in both natural systems and experimental conditions. The rate of transformation of kaolinite into K-mica in alkaline solutions was reported by Velde.[1] Huang [2] studied the conversion of kaolinite into illite in KOH solution at several temperatures and he concluded that the conversion is two to three orders of magnitude faster than that of similar reactions at near-neutral conditions.[3] Most of a existing studies deal with the kinetics of kaolinite illitization using low solid/liquid ratios up to a maximum of 200 mg/mL.[4] They accept a dissolution-precipitation mechanism, which is clearly favoured by low solid/liquid ratios. Higher solid/liquid ratio, closer to the geological conditions expected in many kaolin-rich burial zones, would to favour a solid state-like reaction. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of time on to the progress in the kaolinite illitization in KOH solution using a high solid-liquid ratio. Kaolinite has been converted into illitic clays in a 2.85 M KOH solution using a solid/liquid ratio of 1000 mg/mL, at 300 C,1000 bars and different reaction times. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy have been used to follow the formation of new crystalline phases and the transformation of the Si and Al local environments and the octahedral sheet composition have been analysed by 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the first stage of kaolinite illitization is the crystallization of two different types of zeolites: zeolite F and natrolite (minor phase). The XRD patterns indicate that the kaolinite and zeolites progressively decrease is attained as reaction time increases giving rise to the crystallization of illite/muscovite. The formation of illite-muscovite is observed after only 1 hour of treatment by 27Al MAS NMR. Illite-muscovite and a small amount of kaolinite are the only phases present after 48 hours of treatment. References [1] Velde, B., Am. Mineral. 1965, 50, 436-449 [2] Huang, W.L. Clays and Clay Miner. 1993, 41, 645-654. [3] Chermak, J.A.; Rimstidt, J.D., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1990, 54, 2979-2990. [4] Bauer, A., Velde, B., Berger G. Appl. Geochem. 1998, 13, 619-629.

Mantovani, M.; Becerro, A. N.; Escudero, A.



Increase in Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase Activity of Winter Wheat by Cold Treatment and Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activity of indoleacetic acid oxidase increased 10-fold during 40 days of cold treatment of winter wheat seedlings. Puromycin and 6-methyl purine inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development in the cold. Addition of gibberellic acid stimulated indoleacetic acid oxidase development during germination at room temperature and during cold treatment. Amo-1618 inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development before and during cold treatment. Indoleacetic acid treatment increased indoleacetic acid oxidase activity during germination at room temperature while no significant effect on activity was observed during cold treatment.

Bolduc, Reginald J.; Cherry, Joe H.; Blair, Byron O.



Warming Rather Than Increased Precipitation Increases Soil Recalcitrant Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Grassland after 6 Years of Treatments  

PubMed Central

Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C) in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC) storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0–10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P?=?0.038) and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10–20 cm depth (P?=?0.082). In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0–10 cm depth (both P<0.05), indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10–20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland.

Zhou, Xiaoqi; Chen, Chengrong; Wang, Yanfen; Smaill, Simeon; Clinton, Peter



Warming rather than increased precipitation increases soil recalcitrant organic carbon in a semiarid grassland after 6 years of treatments.  


Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C) in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC) storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0-10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P?=?0.038) and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10-20 cm depth (P?=?0.082). In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0-10 cm depth (both P<0.05), indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10-20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland. PMID:23341995

Zhou, Xiaoqi; Chen, Chengrong; Wang, Yanfen; Smaill, Simeon; Clinton, Peter



Application of time transfer function to McVittie spacetime: gravitational time delay and secular increase in astronomical unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to calculate the gravitational time delay in a time-dependent gravitational field, especially in McVittie spacetime, which can be considered as the spacetime around a gravitating body such as the Sun, embedded in the FLRW (Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker) cosmological background metric. To this end, we adopt the time transfer function method proposed by Le Poncin-Lafitte et al. (Class Quantum Gravity 21:4463, 2004) and Teyssandier and Le Poncin-Lafitte (Class Quantum Gravity 25:145020, 2008), which is originally related to Synge's world function ?( x A , x B ) and enables to circumvent the integration of the null geodesic equation. We re-examine the global cosmological effect on light propagation in the solar system. The round-trip time of a light ray/signal is given by the functions of not only the spacial coordinates but also the emission time or reception time of light ray/signal, which characterize the time-dependency of solutions. We also apply the obtained results to the secular increase in the astronomical unit, reported by Krasinsky and Brumberg (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 90:267, 2004), and we show that the leading order terms of the time-dependent component due to cosmological expansion is 9 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed value of dAU/ dt, i.e., 15 ± 4 (m/century). Therefore, it is not possible to explain the secular increase in the astronomical unit in terms of cosmological expansion.

Arakida, Hideyoshi



An 18-year follow-up of patients admitted to methadone treatment for the first time.  


An 18-year addiction career, 1985-2003, for 157 heroin dependent subjects (73% men; 49% human immunodeficiency virus seropositive) admitted for the first time to Stockholm's Methadone Maintenance Treatment program during 1989 to 1991 was analyzed with data from seven official registers and patient records. Regression analyses and incidence rates for various outcomes were calculated for subjects in first methadone maintenance treatment at the end of the observation period, discharged from first methadone maintenance treatment, in second methadone maintenance treatment, and discharged from second methadone maintenance treatment. Being human immunodeficiency virus positive (HR = 3.8), lodging (HR = 1.9) and prison sentence (HR = 1.7) predicted mortality for the 45% deceased. Approximately 70% of living subjects participated in methadone maintenance treatment at some period each year. Subjects in first or second methadone maintenance treatment had less criminality and had spent more time in methadone maintenance treatment (70% to 100%) than those discharged from first or from second methadone maintenance treatment (50%). Efforts and interventions should be intensified to increase time in treatment also for those with high problem severity. PMID:19197594

Davstad, Ingrid; Stenbacka, Marlene; Leifman, Anders; Romelsjö, Anders



Timing light treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation.  


Jet lag degrades performance and operational readiness of recently deployed military personnel and other travelers. The objective of the studies reported here was to determine, using a narrow bandwidth light tower (500 nm), the optimum timing of light treatment to hasten adaptive circadian phase advance and delay. Three counterbalanced treatment order, repeated measures studies were conducted to compare melatonin suppression and phase shift across multiple light treatment timings. In Experiment 1, 14 normal healthy volunteers (8 men/6 women) aged 34.9+/-8.2 yrs (mean+/-SD) underwent light treatment at the following times: A) 06:00 to 07:00 h, B) 05:30 to 07:30 h, and C) 09:00 to 10:00 h (active control). In Experiment 2, 13 normal healthy subjects (7 men/6 women) aged 35.6+/-6.9 yrs, underwent light treatment at each of the following times: A) 06:00 to 07:00 h, B) 07:00 to 08:00 h, C) 08:00 to 09:00 h, and a no-light control session (D) from 07:00 to 08:00 h. In Experiment 3, 10 normal healthy subjects (6 men/4 women) aged 37.0+/-7.7 yrs underwent light treatment at the following times: A) 02:00 to 03:00 h, B) 02:30 to 03:30 h, and C) 03:00 to 04:00 h, with a no-light control (D) from 02:30 to 03:30 h. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was established by two methods: when salivary melatonin levels exceeded a 1.0 pg/ml threshold, and when salivary melatonin levels exceeded three times the 0.9 pg/ml sensitivity of the radioimmunoasssy. Using the 1.0 pg/ml DLMO, significant phase advances were found in Experiment 1 for conditions A (p < .028) and B (p < 0.004). Experiment 2 showed significant phase advances in conditions A (p < 0.018) and B (p < 0.003) but not C (p < 0.23), relative to condition D. In Experiment 3, only condition B (p < 0.035) provided a significant phase delay relative to condition D. Similar but generally smaller phase shifts were found with the 2.7 pg/ml DLMO method. This threshold was used to analyze phase shifts against circadian time of the start of light treatment for all three experiments. The best fit curve applied to these data (R(2) = 0.94) provided a partial phase-response curve with maximum advance at approximately 9-11 h and maximum delay at approximately 5-6 h following DLMO. These data suggest largest phase advances will result when light treatment is started between 06:00 and 08:00 h, and greatest phase delays will result from light treatment started between 02:00 to 03:00 h in entrained subjects with a regular sleep wake cycle (23:00 to 07:00 h). PMID:19637048

Paul, Michel A; Miller, James C; Love, Ryan J; Lieberman, Harris; Blazeski, Sofi; Arendt, Josephine



Waiting for a hand: saccadic reaction time increases in proportion to hand reaction time when reaching under a visuomotor reversal.  


Although eye movement onset typically precedes hand movement onset when reaching to targets presented in peripheral vision, arm motor commands appear to be issued at around the same time, and possibly in advance, of eye motor commands. A fundamental question, therefore, is whether eye movement initiation is linked or yoked to hand movement. We addressed this issue by having participants reach to targets after adapting to a visuomotor reversal (or 180° rotation) between the position of the unseen hand and the position of a cursor controlled by the hand. We asked whether this reversal, which we expected to increase hand reaction time (HRT), would also increase saccadic reaction time (SRT). As predicted, when moving the cursor to targets under the reversal, HRT increased in all participants. SRT also increased in all but one participant, even though the task for the eyes-shifting gaze to the target-was unaltered by the reversal of hand position feedback. Moreover, the effects of the reversal on SRT and HRT were positively correlated across participants; those who exhibited the greatest increases in HRT also showed the greatest increases in SRT. These results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the initiation of eye and hand movements are linked. In particular, the results suggest that the initiation of an eye movement to a manual target depends, at least in part, on the specification of hand movement. PMID:23847494

Armstrong, Irene T; Judson, Melissa; Munoz, Douglas P; Johansson, Roland S; Flanagan, J Randall



[Treatment of peace-time thoracic and abdominal gunshot wounds].  


The article analyses the results of treatment of gunshot injuries to the chest and abdomen suffered by 59 males in peace time. Their ages ranged from 17 to 51 years. It was found that gunshot injuries to the chest and abdomen suffered in peace time are characterized by a severe clinical course, multiple damages of polyorganic localization, they are often attended by shock and are marked by a great number of pyoseptic complications and a high mortality rate, particularly in concurrent and combined injuries to the organs of both cavities. PMID:1839404

Aliev, S A



A real-time treatment guidance system for pleural PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intrapleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for mesothelioma. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light and the light dose are monitored by 7 detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an infrared (IR) camera system is used to track the motion of the light sources. A treatment planning system uses feedback from the detectors as well as the IR camera to update light fluence distribution in real-time, which is used to guide the light source motion for uniform light dose distribution. We have reported previously the success of using IR camera to passively monitor the light fluence rate distribution. In this study, the real-time feedback has been implemented in the current system prototype, by transferring data from the IR camera to a computer at a rate of 20 Hz, and by calculation/displaying using Matlab. A dual-correction method is used in the feedback system, so that fluence calculation can match detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom showed superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown using the correction method dose model.

Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Sandell, Julia; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph; Hahn, Stephen M.; Glatstein, Eli



Optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for selective retina treatment.  


The selective retina treatment (SRT) targets retinal diseases associated with disorders in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to the ophthalmoscopic invisibility of the laser-induced RPE effects, we investigate a noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry system. In vitro porcine RPE is irradiated with a Nd:YLF laser (527 nm, 1.7-micros pulse duration, 5 to 40 microJ, 30 pulses, 100-Hz repetition rate). Generated acoustic transients are measured with a piezoelectric transducer. During 27 patient treatments, the acoustic transients are measured with a transducer embedded in an ophthalmic contact lens. After treatment, RPE damage is visualized by fluorescein angiographic leakage. Below the RPE damage threshold, the optoacoustic transients show no pulse-to-pulse fluctuations within a laser pulse train. Above threshold, fluctuations of the individual transients among each other are observed. If optoacoustic pulse-to-pulse fluctuations are present, RPE leakage is observed in fluorescein angiography. In 96% of the irradiated areas, RPE leakage correlated with the optoacoustic defined threshold value. A noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for SRT is developed and proved in vitro and during patient treatment. It detects the ophthalmoscopically invisible laser-induced damage of RPE cells and overcomes practical limitations of SRT for use in private practice. PMID:16409087

Schuele, Georg; Elsner, Hanno; Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf


Importance of Baseline Prognostic Factors With Increasing Time Since Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The extent to which the prognosis for AIDS and death of patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) continues to be affected by their characteristics at the time of initiation (baseline) is unclear. Methods We analyzed data on 20,379 treatment-naive HIV-1–infected adults who started HAART in 1 of 12 cohort studies in Europe and North America (61,798 person-years of follow-up, 1844 AIDS events, and 1005 deaths). Results Although baseline CD4 cell count became less prognostic with time, individuals with a baseline CD4 count <25 cells/µL had persistently higher progression rates than individuals with a baseline CD4 count >350 cells/µL (hazard ratio for AIDS = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 2.3; mortality hazard ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5, 4 to 6 years after starting HAART). Rates of AIDS were persistently higher in individuals who had experienced an AIDS event before starting HAART. Individuals with presumed transmission by means of injection drug use experienced substantially higher rates of AIDS and death than other individuals throughout follow-up (AIDS hazard ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.8 to 3.0; mortality hazard ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.2 to 5.5, 4 to 6 years after starting HAART). Conclusions Compared with other patient groups, injection drug users and patients with advanced immunodeficiency at baseline experience substantially increased rates of AIDS and death up to 6 years after starting HAART.



Multidisciplinary treatment of fibromyalgia: Does cognitive behavior therapy increase the response to treatment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMultidisciplinary treatments (MTs) are usually recommended for reducing fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms and include physical exercise, drug management, education, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). However, there is no evidence that CBT adds efficacy to the other therapeutic components. This randomized controlled trial analyzed the response of FM patients to two MTs, with and without CBT, according to the presence of concurrent

Sara Lera; Saúl M. Gelman; María J. López; Montse Abenoza; José Gabriel Zorrilla; Josefina Castro-Fornieles; Manel Salamero



The Time-Compressed Lecture: An Alternative for Increased Teacher-Learner Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation compared time-compressed lectures with lectures taped at a normal word rate and examined the direct application of compressed lectures to the educational process. Participants in this study, 87 college students enrolled in Botany 100, were randomly assigned to four groups--one control group and three treatment groups. The…

Klavon, Albert James


On the relationship between response to treatment and survival time.  


In this paper we review several approaches which have been used to investigate the relationship between survival time and response to treatment. We show that the approaches based on summary data are subjected to various types of biases (publication bias, confounding by prognostic features, ecologic bias) and are therefore of doubtful value. We also discuss several approaches based on individual patient data. Comparisons of survival by response are generally subject to length-biased sampling, and are therefore inadequate. The landmark method is adequate when responses occur soon after starting treatment, but not when responses may appear later in the course of the disease. For responses which can occur over extended periods of time, response must be considered as a time-dependent covariate. Using data from randomized trials in advanced colorectal cancer, we show that response is a potent and independent prognostic factor for survival in this disease. Analyses using the landmark method yield results essentially equivalent to those in which response is considered as a time-dependent covariate. The hazard rate of responders is about half that of non-responders, after taking the patient's performance status into account. The issue of response as a surrogate marker for survival is taken up further in a separate paper. PMID:8981687

Buyse, M; Piedbois, P



Elevated night-time temperatures increase growth in seedlings of two tropical pioneer tree species.  


Increased night-time temperatures, through their influence on dark respiration, have been implicated as a reason behind decreasing growth rates in tropical trees in the face of contemporary climate change. Seedlings of two neo-tropical tree species (Ficus insipida and Ochroma pyramidale) were grown in controlled-environment chambers at a constant daytime temperature (33°C) and a range of increasing night-time temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31°C) for between 39 d and 54 d. Temperature regimes were selected to represent a realistic baseline condition for lowland Panama, and a rise in night-time temperatures far in excess of those predicted for Central America in the coming decades. Experiments were complemented by an outdoor open-top chamber study in which night-time temperatures were elevated by 2.4°C above ambient. Increasing night-time temperatures resulted in > 2-fold increase in biomass accumulation in growth-chamber studies despite an increase in leaf-level dark respiration. Similar trends were seen in open-top chambers, in which elevated night-time temperatures resulted in stimulation of growth. These findings challenge simplistic considerations of photosynthesis-directed growth, highlighting the role of temperature-dependent night-time processes, including respiration and leaf development as drivers of plant performance in the tropics. PMID:23278464

Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus



Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the…

Riley, Jessica L.; McKevitt, Brian C.; Shriver, Mark D.; Allen, Keith D.



Using Group Contingent Free Time to Increase Punctuality and Preparedness of High School Special Education Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a group contingent free-time procedure could increase the frequency of low achieving high school students arriving on time and prepared for class. The effects of the intervention were examined using a multiple baseline design across three groups of students. The procedure was well received by the students and little negative peer

P. Hutchins; Randy Lee Williams; T. F. McLaughlin



Methodical approach to increase productivity and reduce lead time in assembly and production-logistic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduced methodical approach connects Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) and offers new distinct advantages to reduce lead time and increase productivity based on lean principles and standardised processes. The mutually aligned design and improvement of assembly and (production) logistic processes takes either the workplaces, their surroundings and the supply areas as well as the overall value

P. Kuhlang; T. Edtmayr; W. Sihn



Call admission control policy for capacity-varying networks with increasing failure rate holding time distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEO satellite systems and many other connection-oriented networks have capacities which vary over time. Call admission control (CAC) policies which only use current capacity information may lead to intolerable dropping of admitted calls whenever network capacity decreases. We introduce a CAC policy for capacity-varying networks with call holding times that have increasing failure rate distributions. This policy uses knowledge about

J. Siwko; I. Rubin



Increased Nuclear Size in BHK21 Cells after Treatment with Non-Toxic Levels of Calf Thymus Histones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of treatment with either whole calf thymus histones, or individually isolated histones, or polyarginine, or polylysine, on the nuclear size of BHK21 cells has been investigated. Incubation of the cells with mixed histones (12.5–44 ?g\\/ml) for 1 h considerably increased nuclear size. Increasing the histone concentration and\\/or the incubation time resulted in a decrease in the effect and

A. L. Latner; G. A. Turner; C. Cornell



nCPAP treatment of obstructive sleep apnea increases slow wave sleep in prefrontal EEG.  


According to standard sleep stage scoring, sleep EEG is studied from the central area of parietal lobes. However, slow wave sleep (SWS) has been found to be more powerful in frontal areas in healthy subjects. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients often suffer from functional disturbances in prefrontal lobes. We studied the effects of nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP) treatment on sleep EEG, and especially on SWS, in left prefrontal and central locations in 12 mild to moderate OSAS patients. Sleep EEG was recorded by polysomnography before treatment and after a 3 month nCPAP treatment period. Recordings were classified into sleep stages. No difference was found in SWS by central sleep stage scoring after the nCPAP treatment period, but in the prefrontal lobe all night S3 sleep stage increased during treatment. Furthermore, prefrontal SWS increased in the second and decreased in the fourth NREM period. There was more SWS in prefrontal areas both before and after nCPAP treatment, and SWS increased significantly more in prefrontal than central areas during treatment. Regarding only central sleep stage scoring, nCPAP treatment did not increase SWS significantly. Frontopolar recording of sleep EEG is useful in addition to central recordings in order to better evaluate the results of nCPAP treatment. PMID:17844944

Eskelinen, Veera; Uibu, Toomas; Himanen, Sari-Leena




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent data indicate that dietary modification may increase potential phosphorus (P) losses when manure is applied to pastures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of feed and manure treatments on P in soil with time. Manure was collected from studies of swine and poultry fed modified ...


A systematic review of controlled studies: do physicians increase survival with prehospital treatment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The scientific evidence of a beneficial effect of physicians in prehospital treatment is scarce. The objective of this systematic review of controlled studies was to examine whether physicians, as opposed to paramedical personnel, increase patient survival in prehospital treatment and if so, to identify the patient groups that gain benefit. METHODS: A systematic review of studies published in the

Morten T Bøtker; Skule A Bakke; Erika F Christensen



A web-based educational module increases burn prevention knowledge over time.  


Unfortunately, burn prevention knowledge is low among nurses. Establishing efficient ways in which to increase burn prevention knowledge in nurses is warranted. The current multi-center study evaluated whether a web-based educational module was successful at increasing burn prevention immediately and whether the knowledge was retained over time. A valid, reliable burn prevention knowledge exam was administered to nurse at three time points (prior to receiving the educational module, immediately following receiving the educational module, and at least a minimum of two weeks after receiving the educational module). Generalized linear mixed effects modeling methods were used to evaluate whether scores on the burn prevention knowledge exam increased over time, while adjusting for traditional covariates (e.g., specialty area, years as a nurse, and years in current work area). Mean scores on the burn prevention knowledge exam increased over time (p=0.003); establishing that the educational module significantly improves scores over time. Mean score prior to receiving the educational module was 82.3%; the mean score was 83.8% immediately following receiving the educational module, and 86.1% two weeks after receiving the educational module. The educational module developed by the authors ( is an efficient way in which to increase burn prevention knowledge and is available at their convenience. This education module could be used as a training module with nurses involved in burn prevention outreach, and with nurse practitioners, physicians, and emergency responders involved in primary care across the life span. PMID:21726946

Lehna, Carlee; Ramos, Pedro; Myers, John; Coffey, Rebecca; Kirk, Elizabeth



Using the Internet to Understand Smokers' Treatment Preferences: Informing Strategies to Increase Demand  

PubMed Central

Background Most smokers attempt to quit on their own even though cessation aids can substantially increase their chances of success. Millions of smokers seek cessation advice on the Internet, so using it to promote cessation products and services is one strategy for increasing demand for treatments. Little is known, however, about what cessation aids these smokers would find most appealing or what predicts their preferences (eg, age, level of dependence, or timing of quit date). Objective The objective of our study was to gain insight into how Internet seekers of cessation information make judgments about their preferences for treatments, and to identify sociodemographic and other predictors of preferences. Methods An online survey assessing interest in 9 evidence-based cessation products and services was voluntarily completed by 1196 smokers who visited the American Cancer Society’s Great American Smokeout (GASO) webpage. Cluster analysis was conducted on ratings of interest. Results In total, 48% (572/1196) of respondents were “quite a bit” or “very much” interested in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), 45% (534/1196) in a website that provides customized quitting advice, and 37% (447/1196) in prescription medications. Only 11.5% (138/1196) indicated similar interest in quitlines, and 17% (208/1196) in receiving customized text messages. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis revealed that interest in treatments formed 3 clusters: interpersonal – supportive methods (eg, telephone counseling, Web-based peer support, and in-person group programs), nonsocial – informational methods (eg, Internet programs, tailored emails, and informational booklets), and pharmacotherapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline). Only 5% (60/1196) of smokers were “quite a bit” or “very much” interested in interpersonal–supportive methods compared with 25% (298/1196) for nonsocial–informational methods and 33% (399/1196) for pharmacotherapy. Multivariate analyses and follow-up comparisons indicated that level of interest in pharmacotherapy (“quite a bit or “very much” vs. “not at all”) varied as a function of education (n = 575, ?2 3 =16.6, P = .001), age (n = 528, ?2 3 = 8.2, P = .04), smoking level (n = 514, ?2 3 = 9.5, P = .02), and when smokers were planning to quit (n = 607, ?2 4 = 34.0, P < .001). Surprisingly, greater age was associated with stronger interest in nonsocial–informational methods (n = 367, ?2 3 = 10.8, P = .01). Interest in interpersonal–supportive methods was greater if smokers had used a quitline before (n = 259, ?2 1 = 18.3, P < .001), or were planning to quit earlier rather than later (n = 148, ?2 1 = 4.9, P = .03). Conclusions Smokers accessing the Internet for information on quitting appear to differentiate cessation treatments by how much interpersonal interaction or support the treatment entails. Quitting date, smoking level, and sociodemographic variables can identify smokers with varying levels of interest in the 3 classes of cessation methods identified. These results can potentially be used to more effectively target and increase demand for these treatments among smokers searching the Internet for cessation information.

Abroms, Lorien; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Bauer, Joseph E; Bade, Jeanine



[Quantification of treatment time in the high-efficiency dialysis method].  


Precise quantification of treatment time is allowed by using the urea kinetic models for dialytic therapy prescription: the dialytic dose may be expressed by the KT/V ratio, the nutritional status by PCR. Due to dialysis disequilibrium urea extraction was significantly lower in high efficiency dialysis than in traditional schedules, suggesting to increase the KT/V value when treatment time is reduced. The comparison of KT/V and PCR values obtained by the Gotch model (single pool variable volume) with the results derived by the diagram of Keshaviah has shown significant correlation for both, confirming the usefulness of this simplified model in clinical practice. PMID:2389227

Bosticardo, G M; Alloatti, S; Avalle, U; Francisco, M; Garneri, G; Giachino, G


High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient.

Pre, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.



Stability Switches in a Host-Pathogen Model as the Length of a Time Delay Increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destabilising effects of a time delay in mathematical models are well known. However, delays are not necessarily destabilising. In this paper, we explore an example of a biological system where a time delay can be both stabilising and destabilising. This example is a host-pathogen model, incorporating density-dependent prophylaxis (DDP). DDP describes when individual hosts invest more in immunity when population densities are high, due to the increased risk of infection in crowded conditions. In this system, as the delay length increases, there are a finite number of switches between stable and unstable behaviour. These stability switches are demonstrated and characterised using a combination of numerical methods and analysis.

Reynolds, Jennifer J. H.; Sherratt, Jonathan A.; White, Andrew



A method to increase optical timing spectra measurement rates using a multi-hit TDC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for using a modern time to digital converter (TDC) to increase the data collection rate for optical timing measurements such as scintillator decay times. It extends the conventional delayed coincidence method, where a synchronization signal ``starts'' a TDC and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sampling the optical signal ``stops'' the TDC. Data acquisition rates are low with the conventional method because ?, the light collection efficiency of the ``stop'' PMT, is artificially limited to ? ~ 0.01 photons per ``start'' signal to reduce the probability of detecting more than one photon during the sampling period. With conventional TDCs, these multiple photon events bias the time spectrum since only the first ``stop'' pulse is digitized. The new method uses a modern TDC to detect whether additional ``stop'' signals occur during the sampling period, and actively reject these multiple photon events. This allows ? to be increased to almost 1 photon per ``start'' signal, which maximizes the data acquisition rate at a value nearly 20 times higher. Multi-hit TDCs can digitize the arrival times of n ``stop'' signals per ``start'' signal, which allows ? to be increased to ~ 3n/4. While overlap of the ``stop'' signals prevents the full gain in data collection rate to be realized, significant improvements are possible for most applications.

Moses, W. W.



Mechanisms responsible for increase in circulating inhibin levels at the time of ovulation in mares  

Microsoft Academic Search

In female mammals, inhibin is secreted by the granulosa cells and selectively inhibits secretion of FSH. Although circulating immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin levels decrease after ovulation as a result of the disappearance of its main source, they abruptly increase at the time of ovulation in mares. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this increase, 50ml of equine follicular fluid (eFF) was administered

Y. Nambo; K. Nagaoka; Y. Tanaka; N. Nagamine; H. Shinbo; S. Nagata; T. Yoshihara; G. Watanabe; N. P. Groome; K. Taya



Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

N'djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.



In situ and real-time optical investigation of nitrogen plasma treatment of polycarbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycarbonates are very attractive polymeric materials with extensive applications in optical technology as well as for replacing conventional rigid substrates, such as glass. The use of plasma treatments has been successfully employed for improving their surface properties and increasing adhesion of subsequent functional coatings. The objective of this study is to employ in situ and real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry for a detailed investigation of the effect of nitrogen plasma treatment using a pulsed DC voltage, on the optical properties of polycarbonates. Measurements taken before, during and after plasma treatment showed the formation of a surface overlayer in which macromolecular chain scission takes place. The evolution of the overlayer thickness and its bonding has been investigated in detail. Also, the study of the surface nano-topography of polycarbonates by atomic force microscopy showed that plasma treatment increases the surface roughness.

Laskarakis, A.; Kassavetis, S.; Gravalidis, C.; Logothetidis, S.



Increasing the coherence time of Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometers with optical control of dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atom interferometers using Bose-Einstein condensate that is confined in a waveguide and manipulated by optical pulses have been limited by their short coherence times. We present a theoretical model that offers a physically simple explanation for the loss of contrast and propose the method for increasing the fringe contrast by recombining the atoms at a different time. A simple, quantitatively accurate, analytical expression for the optimized recombination time is presented and used to place limits on the physical parameters for which the contrast may be recovered.

Stickney, James A.; Anderson, Dana Z.; Zozulya, Alex A.



Economics of coal and nuclear electricity: a treatment of inflation and differential cost increases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost competitiveness between the coal and nuclear options depends on location, capital requirement, fuel supply, and environmental and safety regulations. The authors present a formulation that permits rational treatment of inflation and differential fuel cost increases. They also examined many likely scenarios that reflect the great uncertainty confronting the utility executive. Unless nuclear fuel will increase at 4 percent

D. L. Phung; A. M. Perry; C. E. Whittle



Increase in hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation mediated by ?-adrenergic system under cold stress and noradrenaline treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid peroxidation measured both by the formation of malondialdehyde and by oxygen uptake in presence of NADPH, Fe2- and ADP in hepatic microsomes increased on cold exposure and decreased on heat exposure of rats. Malondialdehyde content of isolated microsomes also showed similar changes. Treatment of animals with noradrenaline or a a-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine, increased lipid peroxidation which was prevented by

B. Seshadri Sekhar; C. K. Ramakrishna Kurup; T. Ramasarma



Improving the Depth-Time Fit of Holocene Climate Proxy Measures by Increasing Coherence with a Reference Time-Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate assessment of historical local Holocene data is important in making future climate predictions. Holocene climate is often obtained through proxy measures such as diatoms or pollen using radiocarbon dating. Wiggle Match Dating (WMD) uses an iterative least squares approach to tune a core with a large amount of 14C dates to the 14C calibration curve. This poster will present a new method of tuning a time series with when only a modest number of 14C dates are available. The method presented uses the multitaper spectral estimation, and it specifically makes use of a multitaper spectral coherence tuning technique. Holocene climate reconstructions are often based on a simple depth-time fit such as a linear interpolation, splines, or low order polynomials. Many of these models make use of only a small number of 14C dates, each of which is a point estimate with a significant variance. This technique attempts to tune the 14C dates to a reference series, such as tree rings, varves, or the radiocarbon calibration curve. The amount of 14C in the atmosphere is not constant, and a significant source of variance is solar activity. A decrease in solar activity coincides with an increase in cosmogenic isotope production, and an increase in cosmogenic isotope production coincides with a decrease in temperature. The method presented uses multitaper coherence estimates and adjusts the phase of the time series to line up significant line components with that of the reference series in attempt to obtain a better depth-time fit then the original model. Given recent concerns and demonstrations of the variation in estimated dates from radiocarbon labs, methods to confirm and tune the depth-time fit can aid climate reconstructions by improving and serving to confirm the accuracy of the underlying depth-time fit. Climate reconstructions can then be made on the improved depth-time fit. This poster presents a run though of this process using Chauvin Lake in the Canadian prairies and Mt. Barr Cirque Lake located in British Columbia as examples.

Rahim, K. J.; Cumming, B. F.; Hallett, D. J.; Thomson, D. J.



Time from diagnosis to surgical treatment of breast cancer: factors influencing delays in initiating treatment.  


No clear guidelines exist defining the appropriate time frame from diagnosis to definitive surgical treatment of breast cancer. Studies have suggested that treatment delays greater than 90 days may be associated with stage migration. We sought to evaluate demographic factors that influence 30-day and 90-day benchmarks for time from diagnosis to definitive surgical treatment of breast cancer. Between 2004 and 2007, 19,896 women with stage I to III invasive breast cancer were treated with primary surgical therapy and did not receive preoperative systemic therapy in the California Cancer Registry. Overall, 75.7 per cent of patients were treated within 30 days of diagnosis, and 95.5 per cent of patients were treated within 90 days of diagnosis. Multivariate analyses revealed that treatment delays were associated with smaller tumor size, use of total mastectomy, lower socioeconomic status, and Hispanic and nonHispanic black race/ethnicity. Furthermore, disparities in those that did not meet 30-day benchmark timeframes were exaggerated with 90-day treatment delays. These benchmarks can be used to measure disparities in health care delivery. PMID:21105624

Wright, G Paul; Wong, Jan H; Morgan, John W; Roy-Chowdhury, Sharmila; Kazanjian, Kevork; Lum, Sharon S



Treatment Works! Is it time for a new slogan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment Works is the central promotional slogan of the addiction treatment industry. This essay argues that the slogan misrepresents the probable outcomes of addiction treatment and misplaces the responsibility for such outcomes. The slogan Treatment Works should be abandoned and replaced by a cluster of messages that shift the emphasis from the intervention (treatment) to the desired outcome (recovery), extol

William L. White



High energy neutron treatment for pelvic cancers: study stopped because of increased mortality.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare high energy fast neutron treatment with conventional megavoltage x ray treatment in the management of locally advanced pelvic carcinomas (of the cervix, bladder, prostate, and rectum). DESIGN--Randomised study from February 1986; randomisation to neutron treatment or photon treatment was unstratified and in the ratio of 3 to 1 until January 1988, when randomisation was in the ratio 1 to 1 and stratified by site of tumour. SETTING--Mersey regional radiotherapy centre at Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral. PATIENTS--151 patients with locally advanced, non-metastatic pelvic cancer (27 cervical, 69 of the bladder, seven prostatic, and 48 of the rectum). INTERVENTION--Randomisation to neutron treatment was stopped in February 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient survival and causes of death in relation to the development of metastatic disease and treatment related morbidity. RESULTS--In the first phase of the trial 42 patients were randomised to neutron treatment and 14 to photon treatment, and in the second phase 48 to neutron treatment and 47 to photon treatment. The relative risk of mortality for photons compared with neutrons was 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.40 to 1.10) after adjustment for site of tumour and other important prognostic factors. Short term and long term complications were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS--The trial was stopped because of the increased mortality in patients with cancer of the cervix, bladder, or rectum treated with neutrons.

Errington, R D; Ashby, D; Gore, S M; Abrams, K R; Myint, S; Bonnett, D E; Blake, S W; Saxton, T E



Increasing system reliability\\/availability and reducing congestion with real time line ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time line ratings have been widely shown to increase the transfer capability of existing transmission lines by 10% to 30% without violating safety clearances and without exceeding the line's design criteria including the conductor's design temperature. The technology has been deployed to remove system constraints, mitigate congestion, facilitate market deregulation, maximize wheeling revenues, protect physical transmission assets, and to

R. Stelmak



Improving Reading Achievement Through Increased Motivation, Specific Skill Enhancement, and Practice Time for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The action research project report began when the teacher researchers determined that students at Sites A and B struggled with reading achievement. The purpose of the project was to improve students' reading achievement through increased motivation, specific skill instruction, and additional practice time. The project involved 26 students: 17…

Ecklund, Britt K.; Lamon, Kathryn M.



One-year costs of increased screening and treatment for breast cancer in the Air Force Medical Service.  


The Air Force Medical Service is attempting to increase the screening mammography rate among women enrolled to U.S. Air Force military treatment facilities from 72% to 86% (a 20% relative increase). A study was performed to estimate the costs (from testing and first-year treatment) of this targeted increase. We estimated additional 1-year costs using two approaches referred to as the Primary Care Optimization (PCO) approach and the TRICARE Prime benefit (TPB) approach. Under the PCO approach, women ages > or = 50 years are screened every 2 years, whereas under the TPB approach, women are screened every 2 years from ages 40 to 49 years and annually beginning at age 50 years. As of December 31, 2000, 68,360 women ages 40 to 49 years and 70,563 women ages 50 to 69 years were enrolled to U.S. Air Force military treatment facilities. Additional 1-year costs (and additional cases detected by screening) were estimated at dollars 447,096 for the PCO approach (58 additional cases) and dollars 1,340,140 for the TPB approach (72 additional cases). Compared with the PCO approach, under the TPB approach, the 1-year costs of increased screening and treatment for breast cancer at U.S. Air Force military treatment facilities would be three times higher, but the number of additional cases detected by screening would be only 24% higher. PMID:14620639

Robbins, Anthony S; Keas, James R; Fonseca, Vincent P; Phillips, Christopher J; Chao, Susan Y



Anodic Spark Deposition treatments to increase reliability of Ti6Al4V modular prostheses.  


Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an Anodic Spark Deposition treatment, which assures increased resistance of titanium alloys to fretting corrosion, improves the structural reliability of Ti6Al4V modular hip prostheses, thus preventing the recently noticed in vivo mechanical failures of these components due to fatigue events. Methods: Three commercial treatments were tested in this work. Microhardness, roughness and fatigue resistance measurements were carried out to investigate the treatment performances. Results: The experimental tests showed that the implant responded differently based on the treatment. The treatment that assured the best performances induced an increase in fatigue resistance with respect to the initial properties of the non-treated Ti6Al4V alloy. Conclusions: Since in previous research the same surface treatment was shown to prevent fretting corrosion phenomena, the study tests confirmed that the Anodic Spark Deposition treatment can significantly increase the structural reliability of Ti6Al4V multi-component prostheses. PMID:20740424

Del Curto, Barbara; Diamanti, Maria V; Dalla Pria, Paolo; Sbaiz, Fausto; Cigada, Alberto


Chronic estradiol treatment increases ovariectomized rat striatal D-1 dopamine receptors  

SciTech Connect

Striatal D-1 dopamine (DA) receptors were investigated following chronic 17{beta}-estradiol to ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. This treatment initiated the day after ovariectomy has revealed that the maximal density in homogenates of striatal D-1 DA receptors (Bmax) labelled with ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 was increased. Estradiol treatment initiated 2 or 4 weeks after ovariectomy did not induce D-1 DA receptor binding modifications. The affinity (Kd) of the ligand for the receptor remains unchanged by the steroid treatment while NaCl increased both the density and the affinity of ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 binding to striatal D-1 DA receptors. By autoradiography, the increase of striatal ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 binding to D-1 DA receptors after chronic estradiol treatment was found to be homogeneously distributed in this brain region. Thus, chronic treatment with estradiol of ovariectomized rats leads to an increased density of striatal D-1 DA receptors but, this hormonal modulation of D-1 DA receptors is lost when treatment is started 2 weeks after ovariectomy or later.

Levesque, D.; de Paolo, T. (Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada))




PubMed Central

This study investigated effects of San Francisco’s Treatment on Demand Initiative, which was designed to increase substance abuse treatment capacity, on the host treatment system. Secondary data on substance abuse treatment admissions, from 1995 through 2000, were obtained from the Department of Public Health, Community Substance Abuse Services, San Francisco, California. Data on 73,988 admissions were retained and grouped by week of admission. Time series analysis was used to assess the effects of time and treatment on demand (independent variables) on weekly number of admissions, sociodemographic characteristics and types of treatment received (dependent variables). As a function of treatment on demand, the number of weekly new admissions significantly increased. Standard outpatient treatment and comprehensive care admissions constituted greater proportions of admissions after treatment on demand. Persons with a primary heroin, cocaine or alcohol problem constituted greater proportions of admissions, and first-time treatment clients constituted a smaller proportion of admissions. Findings suggest that a capacity expansion initiative can increase system wide admissions and redistribute admissions among modalities towards more comprehensive care treatments.

Sears, Clare; Davis, Thomas; Guydish, Joseph; Gleghorn, Alice



Eccentricity Increase of Planetary Orbits in the Kuiper Belt with Distance and Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond Neptune the eccentricity of orbital objects significantly increases with distance (2009 AGU Fall Meeting). The eccentricity eventually reaches the critical value of 1.0 at about 300AU (4.6E+10 Km), where elliptic orbits will change to hyperbolas. This observation predicts that planets leave the Solar system when they reach the limiting distance. In this presentation, this observation is quantitatively modeled and a physical explanation for the increase of eccentricity with increasing planetary orbits is suggested. The model is based on the interaction of the gravitational fields of the Sun and the Milky Way galaxy. Previously a quantitative model was presented for the rate of the decrease of the solar gravitational field with time. This loss is caused by solar mass and gravity loss by radiation and solar wind. With time the solar gravitational field decreases relative to the gravitational attraction of planets by the Milky Way. It is shown that the increasing power of the galactic gravitation is expanding planetary orbits near the galaxy, which eventually breaks the adhesion of the planets from the solar system. On the opposite side of the Sun, the gravitational forces of the Sun and the galaxy combine to enhance the planetary adhesion. The result is an increase of ellipticity of planetary orbits which increases with distance from the Sun. The experimental and model results preclude the existence of an Oort cloud beyond the limiting escape distance.

Leubner, I. H.



[Oral diabetes treatment. Which substance is indicated at which time?].  


The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to show a clear upward trend in Germany. In earlier days it was considered the "harmless diabetes of old age," but has become increasingly recognized as a disease carrying a high risk of vascular sequelae as well as shortening the diabetic's remaining life expectancy if adequate therapy is not initiated. In addition to correcting hyperglycemia, treatment consists in effective management of concomitant risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and adiposity resulting from faulty nutrition and lack of exercise. In the large majority of overweight type 2 diabetics, metformin is the oral antidiabetic agent of first choice provided the patient does not exhibit renal insufficiency, which represents the most important contraindication. This recommendation for monotherapy of overweight type 2 diabetics is supported by an endpoint study. In contrast, no equivalent evidence is available on any of the possible options for oral combination therapy. PMID:15536516

Hamann, A; Morcos, M; Nawroth, P



Time delay in Robertson McVittie spacetime and its application to increase of astronomical unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the light propagation by means of the Robertson McVittie solution which is considered to be the spacetime around the gravitating body embedded in the FLRW (Friedmann Lemaître Robertson Walker) background metric. We concentrated on the time delay and derived the correction terms with respect to the Shapiro’s formula. To relate with the actual observation and its reduction process, we also took account of the time transformations; coordinate time to proper one, and conversely, proper time to coordinate one. We applied these results to the problem of increase of astronomical unit reported by Krasinsky and Brumberg [Krasinsky, G.A., Brumberg, V.A., 2004. Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astrn. 90, 267]. However, we found the influence of the cosmological expansion on the light propagation does not give an explanation of observed value, dAU/dt=15±4 [m/century] in the framework of Robertson McVittie metric.

Arakida, Hideyoshi



Progesterone supplementation before timed AI increased ovulation synchrony and pregnancy per AI, and supplementation after timed AI reduced pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows.  


One of the causes of poor fertility in high producing dairy cows is inadequate progesterone. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of an intravaginal insert containing 1.55 g of progesterone (PRID) given before and/or after timed AI (TAI) on ovarian response, plasma progesterone concentrations, pregnancy per AI (P/AI) and pregnancy losses. Lactating dairy cows at three locations were assigned (Day 0) to an Ovsynch protocol with (N = 294) or without (N = 314) a PRID. The Ovsynch protocol consisted of two injections of 100 ?g gonadorelin (GnRH) 9 days apart and one injection of 500 ?g cloprostenol (PG) 7 days after the first GnRH treatment. Insertion and removal of PRID occurred concurrent with the first GnRH and PG treatments, respectively. Timed AI was carried out 12 to 16 hours after the second GnRH. Ovarian status of a subset of 217 first service cows had been presynchronized with 2 treatments of PG 14 days apart with the last PG given 12 days before the first GnRH of the Ovsynch protocol. Body condition score (scale of one to five) was recorded at TAI. Ultrasonographic examinations were done in all cows at first GnRH, at PG, at TAI, and 24 hours after TAI for response to treatment and at 32 and 60 days after TAI for confirmation of pregnancy. At 4.5 days after TAI (Day 14), cows that responded to PG and ovulated after the second GnRH treatment were reassigned to receive (N = 223) or not receive (N = 229) a PRID for 7 days. Blood samples were taken for progesterone determination at PG treatment, at TAI, and post TAI on Days 14 and 21. The PRID treatment pre-TAI reduced the percentage of cows ovulating before TAI (5.8% vs. 11.1%), and significantly increased P/AI in nonpresynchronized cows (41.3% vs. 25.1%). Cows ovulating in response to the first GnRH treatment, cyclic cows, and cows with body condition score of 2.75 or more had increased P/AI, but the addition of a PRID pre-TAI to these cows did not increase P/AI. The PRID treatment post TAI did not affect P/AI, but reduced pregnancy losses (6.1% vs. 11.4%) between 32 and 60 days of gestation. The reduction in pregnancy losses tended (P = 0.10) to be significant in acyclic cows receiving a PRID than in those not receiving a PRID (5.6% vs. 33.3%). Plasma progesterone concentrations at PG treatment and on Day 21 (11.5 days after TAI) were linearly associated with P/AI. In conclusion, progesterone supplementation pre-TAI increased P/AI in nonpresynchronized cows. Progesterone supplementation post TAI reduced pregnancy losses, particularly in acyclic cows. PMID:23375780

Colazo, Marcos G; Dourey, Antoine; Rajamahendran, Rajadurai; Ambrose, Divakar J



The accelerated intake: a method for increasing initial attendance to outpatient cocaine treatment.  

PubMed Central

We examined whether offering an accelerated (same-day) versus a standard (1- to 7-day delay) intake appointment increased initial attendance at an outpatient cocaine treatment program. Significantly more of the subjects who were offered an accelerated intake (59%) attended than those who were given a standard intake (33%), chi 2 (2, N = 78) = 4.198, p < .05. The accelerated intake procedure appears to be useful for enhancing enrollment in outpatient addiction treatment.

Festinger, D S; Lamb, R J; Kirby, K C; Marlowe, D B



Increasing reach of quitline services in a US state with comprehensive tobacco treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The population reach of tobacco quitlines is an important measure of treatment seeking and penetration of services. Maine offers an opportunity to examine temporal changes in quitline reach and referral sources in the context of a comprehensive tobacco treatment programme. The impact of a $1.00 cigarette tax increase is also examined.Methods:This is a descriptive analysis of Maine Tobacco Helpline call

Susan Swartz Woods; Amy E Haskins



NIH study finds increases in risk of certain leukemias related to treatment

A new study describes the pattern of risk for chemotherapy-related acute myeloid leukemia among adult cancer survivors over the past three decades who have previously been treated with chemotherapy for other cancers. These patterns coincide with major shifts in treatment practices. In particular, the study found that the risk of treatment-related AML among patients treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma has increased steadily during the last few decades.


Examination of the effect of increasing the number of radiation beams on a radiation treatment plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the confines of least-squares operations, it is possible to quantify the effect of the addition of treatment fields or beamlets to a treatment plan. Using linear algebra and eigenvalue perturbation theory, the effect of the increase in number of treatments is shown to be equivalent to adding a perturbation operator. The effect of adding additional fields will be negligible if the perturbation operator is small. The correspondence of this approach to an earlier work in beam-orientation optimization is also demonstrated. Results are presented for prostate, spinal and head and neck cases, and the connection to beam-orientation optimization is examined.

Crooks, Steven M.; Pugachev, Andrei; King, Christopher; Xing, Lei



Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.



Examination of the effect of increasing the number of radiation beams on a radiation treatment plan.  


Within the confines of least-squares operations, it is possible to quantify the effect of the addition of treatment fields or beamlets to a treatment plan. Using linear algebra and eigenvalue perturbation theory, the effect of the increase in number of treatments is shown to be equivalent to adding a perturbation operator. The effect of adding additional fields will be negligible if the perturbation operator is small. The correspondence of this approach to an earlier work in beam-orientation optimization is also demonstrated. Results are presented for prostate, spinal and head and neck cases, and the connection to beam-orientation optimization is examined. PMID:12408477

Crooks, Steven M; Pugachev, Andrei; King, Christopher; Xing, Lei



Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert) as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3) at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-? by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 ?g of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP), a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO) production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.



Increased Use of Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injections with Community Treatment Orders  

PubMed Central

Background: Community treatment orders (CTOs) are increasingly being used, despite a weak evidence base, and problems continue regarding Second Opinion Appointed Doctor (SOAD) certification of medication. Aims: The aim of the current study was to describe current CTO usage regarding patient characteristics, prescribed medication and CTO conditions. Method: A 1-year prospective cohort study with consecutive sampling was conducted for all patients whose CTO was registered in a large mental health trust. Only the first CTO for each patient was included. Measures included sociodemographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, CTO date of initiation and conditions, psychotropic medication and date of SOAD certification for medication. This study was conducted in the first year of CTO legislation in England and Wales. Results: A total of195 patients were sampled (mean age 40.6 years, 65% male, 52% black ethnic origin). There was significant geographical variability in rates of CTO use (?2 = 11.3, p = 0.012). A total of 53% had their place of residence specified as a condition and 29% were required to allow access into their homes. Of those with schizophrenia, 64% were prescribed an antipsychotic long-acting injection (LAI). Of the total group, 7% received high-dose antipsychotics, 10% were prescribed two antipsychotics and only 15% received SOAD certification in time. Conclusions: There was geographical and ethnic variation in CTO use but higher rates of hospital detention in minority ethnic groups may be contributory. Most patients were prescribed antipsychotic LAIs and CTO conditions may not follow the least restrictive principle.

Patel, Maxine X.; Matonhodze, Jane; Baig, Mirza K.; Gilleen, James; Boydell, Jane; Holloway, Frank; Taylor, David; Szmukler, George; Lambert, Tim; David, Anthony S.



Increasing Latino Adolescents' Adherence to Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine the efficacy of coaching Latino adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection to adhere to isoniazid treatment. Methods. Participants (n = 286) were randomly assigned to adherence coaching, attention control, or usual care groups. Adherence was measured via interviews and validated with urine assays. Results. Coaching resulted in significant increases in adherence compared with attention and usual care groups. Bicultural adolescents were more likely to be adherent than those most or least acculturated. Age and risk behavior were negatively related to adherence. Conclusions. Coaching can increase Latino adolescents’ adherence to treatment for latent tuberculosis infection and should contribute to tuberculosis control for adolescents at high risk of contracting the disease.

Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Slymen, Donald; Friedman, Lawrence; Moser, Kathleen; Kelley, Norma J.; Vera, Alicia Y.



Increasing the electron spin coherence time by coherent optical control of the nuclear spin fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single electron spin plays a central role for spin-based quantum information science and electronic devices. One crucial requirement for the future success is to have a long quantum coherence time. It has been demonstrated that in III-V materials, the electron spin coherence time deteriorates rapidly due to the hyperfine coupling with the nuclear environment. Here, we report the increase of the electron spin coherence time by optical controlled suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations through coherent dark-state spectroscopy. The experiment is performed in a single negatively charged InAs self assembled quantum dot (SAQD). The dynamic nuclear spin polarization manifests itself as a hysteresis in the probe absorption spectrum and in the spectral position of the dark state as a function of the frequency scanning direction of the probe field. We demonstrated that the nuclear field can be locked to the maximum trion excitation by observing a flat-top of the trion absorption lineshape, and the switching of the nuclei from unstable to stable configurations by fixing the laser frequencies and monitoring the coherent optical response as a function of time. The optically controlled locking of the nuclear field leads to an enhancement of the electron spin coherence time, which is measured through dark state spectroscopy. The suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations result from a hole spin assisted dynamic nuclear spin polarization feed-back process. We further demonstrated the electron spin coherence enhancement by a three-beam measurement, where two-pump beams lock the nuclear field and the third probe measures the coherence time through the dark state. The inferred spin coherence time is increased by nearly 3 orders of magnitude compared to its thermal value. Our work lays the groundwork for the reproducible preparation of the nuclear spin environment for repetitive control and measurement of a single spin with minimal statistical broadening.

Xu, Xiaodong



Semi-online bin stretching with non-increasing job processing times  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study an semi-online version of bin stretching problem on m parallel identical machines. Where the jobs arrive sorted by non-increasing processing times. We propose an semi-online algorithm and prove that the competitive ratio of the algorithm is at most 1 + 2m-1\\/4m-2 <; 5\\/4 We also show that the lower bound of the problem is at

Yong Wu; Qifan Yang; Yikun Huang



Value of increasing film processing time to reduce radiation dose during mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We systematically tested the effects on radiation dose and image quality of increasing the mammographic film processing time from the standard 90 sec to 3 min. Hurter and Driffield curves were obtained for a Kodak Min-R-OM1-SO177 screen-film combination processed with Kodak chemistry. Image contrast and radiation dose were measured for two tissue-equivalent breast phantoms. We also compared sequential pairs of

S. E. Skubic; Rauf Yagan; Dubravka Oravec; Zahid Shah



Increasing off-time improves sleep-disordered breathing induced by vagal nerve stimulation.  


Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been reported to adversely impact breathing in sleep. While continuous positive airway pressure is often employed to treat these patients, little data exist on the effects of adjusting various settings on VNS-induced sleep-disordered breathing. We describe a patient in whom increasing off-time caused resolution of VNS-induced arterial oxygen desaturations in sleep, which we believe is a novel observation. PMID:23247901

Bhat, Sushanth; Lysenko, Liudmila; Neiman, Eli S; Rao, Gautami K; Chokroverty, Sudhansu



Faster quantitative real-time PCR protocols may lose sensitivity and show increased variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative real-time PCR has become the method of choice for measuring mRNA transcription. Recently, fast PCR protocols have been developed as a means to increase assay throughput. Yet it is unclear whether more rapid cycling conditions preserve the original assay performance characteris- tics. We compared 16 primer sets directed against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mRNAs using universal and fast PCR cycling

Chelsey Hilscher; Dirk P. Dittmer



Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions.

Kalchenko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Meglinski, I. V.



Reaction times and electromechanical delay in reactions of increasing and decreasing force.  


The purpose of this study was to compare reaction times and electromechanical delay between reactions to increase force from rest and reactions to decrease force from an active state in the quadriceps femoris of healthy young adults. Force, position, and electromyographic data were recorded from 35 subjects reacting to a forced knee-flexion perturbation. Electromechanical delay was assessed through cross-correlation of the filtered EMG and force data. Reaction time to increase force (M= 159.9 msec., 95% CI= 149.9-169.9 msec.) was significantly longer than RT to decrease force (M= 124.4 msec., 95% CI= 118.7-130.1 msec.). This difference was partially caused by a difference in electromechanical delay (RT to increase force electromechanical delay was 63 msec., 95% CI=60-67 msec., greater than the RT to decrease force electromechanical delay of 49 msec., 95% CI=46-52 msec.). This difference in reaction time could be important in identifying and interpreting physiologically meaningful changes in muscle force and in intermuscular coordination during movement. PMID:17326498

Blanpied, Peter; Oksendahl, Heidi



Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process  

SciTech Connect

A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility.

Blanchard, A.



Ambush frequency should increase over time during optimal predator search for prey  

PubMed Central

We advance and apply the mathematical theory of search games to model the problem faced by a predator searching for prey. Two search modes are available: ambush and cruising search. Some species can adopt either mode, with their choice at a given time traditionally explained in terms of varying habitat and physiological conditions. We present an additional explanation of the observed predator alternation between these search modes, which is based on the dynamical nature of the search game they are playing: the possibility of ambush decreases the propensity of the prey to frequently change locations and thereby renders it more susceptible to the systematic cruising search portion of the strategy. This heuristic explanation is supported by showing that in a new idealized search game where the predator is allowed to ambush or search at any time, and the prey can change locations at intermittent times, optimal predator play requires an alternation (or mixture) over time of ambush and cruise search. Thus, our game is an extension of the well-studied ‘Princess and Monster’ search game. Search games are zero sum games, where the pay-off is the capture time and neither the Searcher nor the Hider knows the location of the other. We are able to determine the optimal mixture of the search modes when the predator uses a mixture which is constant over time, and also to determine how the mode mixture changes over time when dynamic strategies are allowed (the ambush probability increases over time). In particular, we establish the ‘square root law of search predation’: the optimal proportion of active search equals the square root of the fraction of the region that has not yet been explored.

Alpern, Steve; Fokkink, Robbert; Timmer, Marco; Casas, Jerome



Massachusetts's experience suggests coverage alone is insufficient to increase addiction disorders treatment.  


The Affordable Care Act is aimed at extending health insurance to more than thirty million Americans, including many with untreated substance use disorders. Will those who need addiction treatment receive it once they have insurance? To answer that question, we examined the experience of Massachusetts, which implemented its own universal insurance law in 2007. As did the Affordable Care Act, the Massachusetts reform incorporated substance abuse services into the essential benefits to be provided all residents. Prior to the law's enactment, the state estimated that a half-million residents needed substance abuse treatment. Our mixed-methods exploratory study thus asked whether expanded coverage in Massachusetts led to increased addiction treatment, as indicated by admissions, services, or revenues. In fact, we observed relatively stable use of treatment services two years before and two years after the state enacted its universal health care law. Among other factors, our study noted that the percentage of uninsured patients with substance abuse issues remains relatively high--and that when patients did become insured, requirements for copayments on their care deterred treatment. Our analysis suggests that expanded coverage alone is insufficient to increase treatment use. Changes in eligibility, services, financing, system design, and policy may also be required. PMID:22566439

Capoccia, Victor A; Grazier, Kyle L; Toal, Christopher; Ford, James H; Gustafson, David H



Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.



Increasing Treatment Integrity through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined the extent to which treatment integrity was increased and maintained for 4 teachers in their regular classroom settings as a result of performance feedback and negative reinforcement. Teachers received daily written feedback about their accuracy in implementing an intervention and were able to avoid meeting with a…

DiGennaro, Florence D.; Martens, Brian K.; McIntyre, Laura Lee



Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)



Antituberculosis Treatment: Increasing Evidence for Drug Effects on Innate Cellular Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years we have gathered increasing evidence suggestive of direct effects of one or more of the currently used antituberculosis (TB) drugs on various immune parameters in patients with pulmonary TB. Throughout the studies, the standard regimen for treatment of tuberculosis consisted of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol given for 2 months during the intensive phase of

C. T. Tiemessen; S. Shalekoff; S. Meddows-Taylor; D. J. Martin



Increasing treatment options for cannabis dependence: A review of potential pharmacotherapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that rates of cannabis dependence have increased substantially over the past several years, there are no medications approved for the treatment of cannabis dependence. This paper reviews data from recent research on cannabinoids that may be relevant for the development of pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Included in the discussion are findings from studies that have assessed the

Carl L. Hart



Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin increases antibody titers after hepatitis B vaccination in dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin increases antibody titers after hepatitis B vaccination in dialysis patients. The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on the immune system of hemodialysis patients has been studied by evaluating their response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccination. Fifty hemodialysis patients were given four doses of 20 ?g recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine (SKF) at an interval

Jacques J Sennesael; Patricia Van der Niepen; Dierik L Verbeelen



Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Treatment of Malaria in Western Kenya: Increasing Resistance and Underdosing†  

PubMed Central

Between 1993 and 1999, we monitored the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 1,175 children aged <24 months receiving 2,789 treatments for falciparum malaria in western Kenya using a widely deployed age-based dose regimen: infants, 125 plus 6.25 mg (sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine); children aged 12 to 23 months; 250 plus 12.5 mg. Cumulative treatment failure by day 7, defined as early clinical failure by day 3 or presence of parasitemia on day 7, increased from 18% in 1993 to 1994 to 22% in 1997 to 1998 (P-trend test = 0.20). Based on body weight, the median dose received was 20 plus 1.00 mg/kg, and 73% of the treatments were given at lower than the recommended target dose of 25 plus 1.25 mg/kg. Underdosing accounted for 26% of cumulative treatment failures. After the dose was increased in 1998 (median, 36 plus 1.8 mg/kg), only 4.2% of patients received less than 25 plus 1.25 mg/kg and there was no association with treatment failure. However, the proportion of cumulative treatment failure continued to increase to 27% by 1999 (P-trend test = 0.03). These results raise concern about the longevity of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in these settings. Underdosing may have contributed to the rate at which sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance developed in this area. Treatment guidelines should ensure that adequate doses are given from the initial deployment of antimalarials onward.

Terlouw, Dianne J.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Courval, Jeanne M.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Rosenberg, Oren S.; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hawley, William A.; Lal, Altaf A.; Kuile, Feiko O. ter



Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background The low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural tropics has been attributed to the protective effects of chronic helminth infections. There is concern that treatment-based control programmes for these parasites may lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Objective We measured the impact of 15–17 years of anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and allergic symptoms in school-age children. Methods The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity, exercise-induced bronchospasm and allergic symptoms was compared between school-age children living in communities that had received community-based treatments with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis control) for a period of 15–17 years with those living in geographically adjacent communities that had received no ivermectin. Results The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity was double in children living in treated communities compared with those in untreated communities (16.7% vs. 8.7%, adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.50–2.94, P<0.0001), and the effect was mediated partly by a reduced prevalence of Trichuris trichiura among treated children. Ivermectin treatments were associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.78, P=0.04) but not symptoms of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. The effect on eczema symptoms was not associated with reductions in geohelminth infections. Conclusion Long-term periodic treatments with ivermectin were associated with an increased prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity. There was some evidence that treatment was associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms but not those of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. Cite this as: P. Endara, M. Vaca, M. E. Chico, S. Erazo, G. Oviedo, I. Quinzo, A. Rodriguez R. Lovato, A.-L. Moncayo, M. L. Barreto, L. C. Rodrigues and P. J. Cooper, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1669–1677.

Endara, P; Vaca, M; Chico, M E; Erazo, S; Oviedo, G; Quinzo, I; Rodriguez, A; Lovato, R; Moncayo, A-L; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J



Increased bcl-2 Protein Levels in Rat Primary Astrocyte Culture Following Chronic Lithium Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 protein, bcl-2, is an important anti-apoptotic factor that has been implicated in lithium’s neuroprotective effect. However, most studies have focused on assessing the effects of lithium in neurons, ignoring examination of bcl-2 in astrocytes, which also influence neuronal survival and are affected in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic lithium treatment also elevates bcl-2 expression in astrocytes compared with neuronal and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures. Methods: Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal, and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures were prepared from the cerebral cortices of 18-day embryos. The cell cultures were treated with lithium (1 mM) or vehicle for 24 h or 7 days. Thereafter, bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Results: Chronic, but not acute, lithium treatment significantly increased bcl-2 protein levels in the astrocyte cultures compared with the vehicle-treated cultures. While lithium treatment increased bcl-2 protein levels in both neuronal and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures, the elevations fell short of statistical significance compared with the respective vehicle-treated cultures. However, neither acute nor chronic lithium treatment affected bcl-2 mRNA levels in any of the three cell types studied. Conclusion: Increased bcl-2 levels in rat primary astrocyte cultures following chronic lithium treatment suggest astrocytes are also a target of lithium’s action. In light of the evidence showing decreased numbers of glial cells in the post-mortem brain of patients bipolar disorder with and increased glial numbers following lithium treatment, the findings of this study indicate that lithium’s action on astrocytes may account, at least in part, for its therapeutic effects in bipolar disorder.

Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; J. Warsh, Jerry; Zare, Hamid Reza



Late treatment with polyene antibiotics can prolong the survival time of scrapie-infected animals.  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AmB) is one of the few drugs able to prolong survival times in experimental scrapie and delays the accumulation of PrPres, a specific marker of this disease in the brain in vivo. Previous reports showed that the AmB effect is observed only if the drug is administered around the time of infection. In the present study, intracerebrally infected mice were treated with AmB or one of its derivatives, MS-8209, between 80 and 140 days postinoculation. We observed an increased incubation time and a delay in PrPres accumulation and glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression. Treatment starting at 80 days postinoculation was as efficient as long-term treatment starting the day of inoculation. Our results indicate that polyene antibiotics may interfere, throughout the course of the experimental disease, with the propagation of the scrapie agent.

Demaimay, R; Adjou, K T; Beringue, V; Demart, S; Lasmezas, C I; Deslys, J P; Seman, M; Dormont, D



An advection-based model to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical implementation of the advection equation is proposed to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series. The method is based on the principle that velocity fluctuations are transported passively, similar to Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence. In the present work, the advection model is extended to unsteady three-dimensional flows. The main objective of the method is that of lowering the requirement on the PIV repetition rate from the Eulerian frequency toward the Lagrangian one. The local trajectory of the fluid parcel is obtained by forward projection of the instantaneous velocity at the preceding time instant and backward projection from the subsequent time step. The trajectories are approximated by the instantaneous streamlines, which yields accurate results when the amplitude of velocity fluctuations is small with respect to the convective motion. The verification is performed with two experiments conducted at temporal resolutions significantly higher than that dictated by Nyquist criterion. The flow past the trailing edge of a NACA0012 airfoil closely approximates frozen turbulence, where the largest ratio between the Lagrangian and Eulerian temporal scales is expected. An order of magnitude reduction of the needed acquisition frequency is demonstrated by the velocity spectra of super-sampled series. The application to three-dimensional data is made with time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements of a transitional jet. Here, the 3D advection equation is implemented to estimate the fluid trajectories. The reduction in the minimum sampling rate by the use of super-sampling in this case is less, due to the fact that vortices occurring in the jet shear layer are not well approximated by sole advection at large time separation. Both cases reveal that the current requirements for time-resolved PIV experiments can be revised when information is poured from space to time. An additional favorable effect is observed by the analysis in the frequency domain whereby the spectrum becomes significantly less prone to aliasing error for the super-sampled data series.

Scarano, Fulvio; Moore, Peter



Erythropoietin treatment elevates haemoglobin concentration by increasing red cell volume and depressing plasma volume  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin (Epo) has been suggested to affect plasma volume, and would thereby possess a mechanism apart from erythropoiesis to increase arterial oxygen content. This, and potential underlying mechanisms, were tested in eight healthy subjects receiving 5000 IU recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) for 15 weeks at a dose frequency aimed to increase and maintain haematocrit at approximately 50%. Red blood cell volume was increased from 2933 ± 402 ml before rHuEpo treatment to 3210 ± 356 (P < 0.01), 3117 ± 554 (P < 0.05), and 3172 ± 561 ml (P < 0.01) after 5, 11 and 13 weeks, respectively. This was accompanied by a decrease in plasma volume from 3645 ± 538 ml before rHuEpo treatment to 3267 ± 333 (P < 0.01), 3119 ± 499 (P < 0.05), and 3323 ± 521 ml (P < 0.01) after 5, 11 and 13 weeks, respectively. Concomitantly, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were reduced. This maintained blood volume relatively unchanged, with a slight transient decrease at week 11, such that blood volume was 6578 ± 839 ml before rHuEpo treatment, and 6477 ± 573 (NS), 6236 ± 908 (P < 0.05), and 6495 ± 935 ml (NS), after 5, 11 and 13 weeks of treatment. We conclude that Epo treatment in healthy humans induces an elevation in haemoglobin concentration by two mechanisms: (i) an increase in red cell volume; and (ii) a decrease in plasma volume, which is probably mediated by a downregulation of the rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis. Since the relative contribution of plasma volume changes to the increments in arterial oxygen content was between 37.9 and 53.9% during the study period, this mechanism seems as important for increasing arterial oxygen content as the well-known erythropoietic effect of Epo.

Lundby, Carsten; Thomsen, Jonas Juhl; Boushel, Robert; Koskolou, Maria; Warberg, J?rgen; Calbet, Jose A L; Robach, Paul



Increasing temperature, not mean temperature, is a cue for avian timing of reproduction.  


Timing of reproduction in temperate-zone birds is strongly correlated with spring temperature, with an earlier onset of breeding in warmer years. Females adjust their timing of egg laying between years to be synchronized with local food sources and thereby optimize reproductive output. However, climate change currently disrupts the link between predictive environmental cues and spring phenology. To investigate direct effects of temperature on the decision to lay and its genetic basis, we used pairs of great tits (Parus major) with known ancestry and exposed them to simulated spring scenarios in climate-controlled aviaries. In each of three years, we exposed birds to different patterns of changing temperature. We varied the timing of a temperature change, the daily temperature amplitude, and the onset and speed of a seasonal temperature rise. We show that females fine-tune their laying in response to a seasonal increase in temperature, whereas mean temperature and daily temperature variation alone do not affect laying dates. Luteinizing hormone concentrations and gonadal growth in early spring were not influenced by temperature or temperature rise, possibly posing a constraint to an advancement of breeding. Similarities between sisters in their laying dates indicate genetic variation in cue sensitivity. These results refine our understanding of how changes in spring climate might affect the mismatch in avian timing and thereby population viability. PMID:22218320

Schaper, Sonja V; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J; Gienapp, Phillip; Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E



Out-of-ecliptic quiet time MeV electron increases: Ulysses COSPIN/KET observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields can be studied in detail by way of in-situ measurements of energetic particles in the three-dimensional heliosphere. Measurements of 3-20 MeV electrons from 1990 to 2003 have been made by the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) onboard the Ulysses spacecraft during varying solar conditions. In order to interpret these measurements, it is necessary to distinguish between solar, galactic and Jovian electrons and to investigate their propagation, by using sophisticated particle propagation models. The solar contribution to the MeV electron intensities can be excluded by analyzing the electron energy spectra and the nuclei time histories. The residual electron intensities can be reasonably described by modulation models taking into account galactic cosmic rays as well as Jovian electrons using different diffusion coefficients for solar minimum and maximum. The way in which the relative contribution of Jovian (point source in the ecliptic) and galactic electrons (isotropic source) varies along the Ulysses orbit is strongly dependent on the choice of these coefficients. Since the 1970's quiet time electron increases have been observed in the ecliptic and interpreted as Jovian electron increases. Therefore, the occurrence of such quiet time electron increases is an indicator for a dominant Jovian contribution to the measured MeV electron intensities. At solar minimum and maximum such events have been observed up to ~30°and ~45°. These observations are crucial for a determination of the diffusion parameters. At solar maximum a more efficient latitude transport is needed to account for the electron intensity variations.

Heber, B.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Fichtner, H.; Potgieter, M. S.; Henize, V. K.; Kissmann, R.; Moeketsi, D. M.



A new enhanced oscillating chemiluminescence system with increased chemiluminescence intensity and oscillation time.  


Oscillating chemical reactions are complex systems, involving a large number of chemical species. In an oscillating chemical reaction, some species, usually a reaction intermediate, exhibit fluctuation in its concentration. In this report, oscillating chemiluminescence produced by the addition of thiosemicarbazide (TSC) to the oscillating system H(2)O(2)-KSCN-CuSO(4)-NaOH was investigated using luminometry method. The effects of complexing agents, triethylenetetramine (TETA) and D-penicillamine, on the behavior of the oscillating system were investigated. Moreover, the influence of non-aqueous solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), nitromethane and acetonitrile, was studied. In the presence of solvents with high protophility, the chemiluminescence (CL) intensity was increased (sevenfold), the light emitting and oscillating time was enhanced by threefold. In addition, the effect of presence of non-ionic, cationic, and anionic surfactants was investigated. Non-ionic surfactant increased the intensity of the oscillating CL reaction by 4.5-fold. PMID:18074204

Sorouraddin, M H; Iranifam, M; Amini, Kaveh



Predicting posttreatment cocaine abstinence for first-time admissions and treatment repeaters.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined client and program characteristics that predict posttreatment cocaine abstinence among cocaine abusers with different treatment histories. METHODS: Cocaine abusers (n = 507) treated in 18 residential programs were interviewed at intake and 1-year follow-up as part of the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Program directors provided the program-level data in a mail survey. We applied the hierarchical linear modeling approach for the analysis. RESULTS: No prior treatment and longer retention in DATOS programs were positive predictors of posttreatment abstinence. The interactive effect of these 2 variables was also significantly positive. Program that offered legal services and included recovering staff increased their clients' likelihood of cocaine abstinence. Crack use at both the client and program level predicted negative impact. None of the program variables assessed differentially affected the outcomes of first-timers and repeaters. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment repeaters were relatively difficult to treat, their likelihood of achieving abstinence was similar to that of first-timers if they were retained in treatment for a sufficient time. First-timers and repeaters responded similarly to the treatment program characteristics examined. The treatment and policy implications of these findings are discussed.

Hser, Y I; Joshi, V; Anglin, M D; Fletcher, B



Changes in Function of HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses with Increasing Time from Infection  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recently HIV-infected individuals have virus-specific responses characterized by IFN-?/IL-2 secretion and proliferation rarely seen in chronic infection. To investigate the timing of loss of HIV-specific T-cell function, we screened cells from 59 treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals with known dates of infection for proteome-wide responses secreting IFN-?/IL-2 and IFN-? alone by ELISPOT. HIV peptide-specific proliferation was assessed by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution. The contribution of IFN-?/IL-2 and IFN-?-only secretion to the total HIV-specific response was compared in subjects infected <6, 6–12, and 12–36 mo earlier. The frequency of IFN-?/IL-2-secreting cells fell, while that of IFN-?-only secretion rose with time from infection. HIV peptide-specific proliferative responses were almost exclusively mediated by CD8+ T cells, and were significantly lower in cells obtained from the 12–36 mo versus

Ndongala, Michel L.; Kamya, Philomena; Boulet, Salix; Peretz, Yoav; Rouleau, Danielle; Tremblay, Cecile; Leblanc, Roger; Cote, Pierre; Baril, Jean-Guy; Thomas, ReJean; Vezina, Sylvie; Boulassel, Mohamed R.; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Sekaly, Rafick P.



MD Anderson study shows new approach connecting smokers to quit lines increases smoking cessation treatment enrollment

Self-identified smokers directly connected to a tobacco cessation quit line are 13 times more likely to enroll in a treatment program as compared to smokers who are handed a quit line referral card and encouraged to call on their own, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and published online in JAMA Internal Medicine.


Increased oil recovery from mature oil fields using gelled polymer treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This research program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. This report describes the progress of the research during the first six months of work. A Dawn EOS multi-angle laser light scattering detector was purchased, installed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted to determine the permeabilities of a bulk gel and of a filter cake which forms when a gel is dehydrated. The pressure at which a gel in a tube is ruptured was measured and was correlated to the length and diameter of the gel.

Willhite, G. Paul; Green, Down W.; McCool, Stan



Can we explain increases in young people's psychological distress over time?  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to explain previously described increases in self-reported psychological distress between 1987 and 2006 among samples identical in respect of age (15 years), school year and geographical location (West of Scotland). Such increases might be explained by changes in exposure (changes in levels of risk or protective factors) and/or by changes in vulnerability (changes in the relationship between risk/protective factors and psychological distress). Key areas of social change over this time period allow identification of potential explanatory factors, categorised as economic, family, educational, values and lifestyle and represented by variables common to each study. Psychological distress was measured via the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, Likert scored. Analyses were conducted on those with complete data on all variables (N = 3276 of 3929), and separately for males and females. Between 1987 and 2006, levels of almost every potential explanatory factor changed in line with general societal trends. Associations between explanatory factors and GHQ tended to be stronger among females, and at the later date. The strongest associations were with worries, arguments with parents, and, at the later date, school disengagement. The factors which best accounted for the increase in mean GHQ between 1987 and 2006 were arguments with parents, school disengagement, worry about school and, for females, worry about family relationships, reflecting both increasing exposure and vulnerability to these risk factors. A number of limitations to our analysis can be identified. However, our results reinforce the conclusions of others in highlighting the role of family and educational factors as plausible explanations for increases in young people’s psychological distress.

Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Der, Geoff



A Lossless Compression Method of Time-Series Data Based on Increasing Average of Neighboring Signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Golomb-Rice coding is a well-known compression algorithm for sensor data. When time-series data changes drastically with the large amplitudes such as a pulse signal, the code length based on Golomb-Rice coding becomes very long. In order to shorten the code length, amplitude of signal is decreased by calculating differential signal between a raw signal with a similar signal. In this paper, we develop a lossless compression method for time-series data such as sensor data. In traditional methods, finding the past-signal from which a differential signal with low amplitude can be generated is the main topic. However, if there are no past-signals to reduce sufficiently the amplitude of differential signal, the data compression procedure takes only low effects. In our approach, a signal which decreases energy of a pulse signal or increases energy of the neighboring signal of a pulse signal is adopted to generate differential signals. In order to select an effective signal, we propose a method for detecting reference signals based on cumulative distribution features of time-series data. As results of experiments, we confirm that our proposed method can generate codes whose length is shortened. The code length was decreased to 97% on average and up to 81% in comparison with the traditional method.

Takezawa, Tetsuya; Asakura, Koichi; Watanabe, Toyohide


Optimality of a time-dependent treatment profile during an epidemic  

PubMed Central

The emergence and spread of drug resistance is one of the most challenging public health issues in the treatment of some infectious diseases. The objective of this work is to investigate whether the effect of resistance can be contained through a time-dependent treatment strategy during the epidemic subject to an isoperimetric constraint. We apply control theory to a population dynamical model of influenza infection with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, and solve the associated control problem to find the optimal treatment profile that minimizes the cumulative number of infections (i.e. the epidemic final size). We consider the problem under the assumption of limited drug stockpile and show that as the size of stockpile increases, a longer delay in start of treatment is required to minimize the total number of infections. Our findings show that the amount of drugs used to minimize the total number of infections depends on the rate of de novo resistance regardless of the initial size of drug stockpile. We demonstrate that both the rate of resistance emergence and the relative transmissibility of the resistant strain play important roles in determining the optimal timing and level of treatment profile. AMS Subject Classification: 34, 49, 92

Jaberi-Douraki, Majid; Moghadas, Seyed M.



Are antiepileptic drugs used in the treatment of migraine associated with an increased risk of suicidality?  


Three antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), valproic acid, gabapentin, and topiramate (TPM), are used frequently in the prophylactic treatment of migraines. In December 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning suggesting that the use of all AEDs is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. This warning has been received by the medical community with great skepticism, and the validity of the findings of the meta-analysis that led to its publication has been questioned because of various methodological problems. Yet, migraine by itself is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior as well as with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders that facilitate the development of suicidal behavior. Furthermore, TPM has been associated with psychiatric adverse events that potentially could result in suicidal ideation and behavior. In this article, we review data to determine whether the AEDs used in the prevention of migraine are associated with an increased risk of suicidality. PMID:21479999

Kanner, Andres M



Increase of bulk optical damage threshold fluences of KDP crystals by laser irradiation and heat treatment  


The bulk optical damage threshold fluence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is increased by irradiating the crystals with laser pulses of duration 1 to 20 nanoseconds of increasing fluence, below the optical damage threshold fluence for untreated crystals, or by baking the crystals for times of the order of 24 hours at temperatures of 110 to 165/sup 0/C, or by a combination of laser irradiation and baking.

Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.; Rainer, F.



Genome-wide association study of increasing suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment in the GENDEP project.  


Suicidal thoughts during antidepressant treatment have been the focus of several candidate gene association studies. The aim of the present genome-wide association study was to identify additional genetic variants involved in increasing suicidal ideation during escitalopram and nortriptyline treatment. A total of 706 adult participants of European ancestry, treated for major depression with escitalopram or nortriptyline over 12 weeks in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study were genotyped with Illumina Human 610-Quad Beadchips (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). A total of 244 subjects experienced an increase in suicidal ideation during follow-up. The genetic marker most significantly associated with increasing suicidality (8.28 × 10(-7)) was a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs11143230) located 30?kb downstream of a gene encoding guanine deaminase (GDA) on chromosome 9q21.13. Two suggestive drug-specific associations within KCNIP4 (Kv channel-interacting protein 4; chromosome 4p15.31) and near ELP3 (elongation protein 3 homolog; chromosome 8p21.1) were found in subjects treated with escitalopram. Suggestive drug by gene interactions for two SNPs near structural variants on chromosome 4q12, one SNP in the apolipoprotein O (APOO) gene on chromosome Xp22.11 and one on chromosome 11q24.3 were found. The most significant association within a set of 33 candidate genes was in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) gene. Finally, we also found trend for an association within genes previously associated with psychiatric phenotypes indirectly linked to suicidal behavior, that is, GRIP1, NXPH1 and ANK3. The results suggest novel pathways involved in increasing suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment and should help to target treatment to reduce the risk of this dramatic adverse event. Limited power precludes definitive conclusions and replication in larger sample is warranted. PMID:20877300

Perroud, N; Uher, R; Ng, M Y M; Guipponi, M; Hauser, J; Henigsberg, N; Maier, W; Mors, O; Gennarelli, M; Rietschel, M; Souery, D; Dernovsek, M Z; Stamp, A S; Lathrop, M; Farmer, A; Breen, G; Aitchison, K J; Lewis, C M; Craig, I W; McGuffin, P



Increased ?-endorphin level in blood plasma as an indicator of positive response to depression treatment.  


Preliminary data indicate that increased blood plasma level of ?-endorphin in patients with nonpsychotic unipolar depression after 2 weeks of treatment correlates with the positive response to therapy. This parameter can be regarded as an objective indicator of potential improvements. Further studies aimed at determining the value of blood ?-endorphin levels in patients with mood disorders for the diagnostics and estimating the therapeutic success in this disease are required. PMID:23113278

Kubryak, O V; Umriukhin, A E; Emeljanova, I N; Antipova, O S; Guseva, A L; Pertsov, S S; Sudakov, S K



Prolonged treatment with the anabolic–androgenic steroid stanozolol increases antioxidant defences in rat skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testosterone and its synthetic derivatives anabolic–androgenic steroids have been shown to increase skeletal muscle work capacity\\u000a and fatigue resistance, but the molecular basis for these effects remains uncertain. Since muscle performance has been related\\u000a to redox status of exercising muscles, this investigation was aimed at testing whether a treatment with suprapharmacological\\u000a doses of the anabolic–androgenic steroid stanozolol, (2 mg\\/kg body weight,

J. Delgado; A. Saborido; A. Megías



Are Antiepileptic Drugs Used in the Treatment of Migraine Associated with an Increased Risk of Suicidality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), valproic acid, gabapentin, and topiramate (TPM), are used frequently in the prophylactic\\u000a treatment of migraines. In December 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning suggesting that the use of\\u000a all AEDs is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. This warning has been received by the medical\\u000a community with great

Andres M. Kanner



Quiet time MEV electron increases at solar maximum: Ulysses cospin/ket observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ulysses trajectory provides a unique opportunity to study the propagation of MeV electrons in a wide range of heliographic latitudes and during varying conditions in the inner heliosphere. In recent papers we reported Ulysses Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) observations from the Ulysses launch up to the end of the second fast latitude scan in late 2001. While the period until the beginning of 1998 has been consistently described by modulation models taking into account galactic cosmic rays as well as Jovian electrons, the observed electron intensity variation after 1998 needs further investigation. From 1998 onwards KET measures short term electron increases, which were not attributed to solar particle events. When space-probes approached Jupiter in the ecliptic plane such electron intensity increases have been reported and interpreted as a changing magnetic connection from the giant planet to the observer. In spring 2002 Ulysses was at ~40° N heliographic latitude when KET observed a quiet time electron increase, which showed the same characteristic as the Jovian electron events measured by KET in 1991, when Ulysses was magnetically well connected to Jupiter. This leads to the conclusion that Jovian electron events can unambiguously be observed at heliographic latitudes beyond 40° N. In a Parker-like heliospheric magnetic field, however, there are no field lines connecting Jupiter and Ulysses at >40° N, and therefore, an efficient latitude transport is needed to account for the ``high'' electron intensities.

Heber, B.; Ferrando, P.; Raviart, A.; Paizis, C.; Sarri, G.; Posner, A.; Wibberenz, G.; Mfiller-Mellin, R.; Kunow, H.; Potgieter, M. S.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Burger, R. A.; Fichtner, H.



Increased CDK1 activity determines the timing of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in meiosis I.  


Chromosome segregation during cell division depends on stable attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules. Mitotic spindle formation and kinetochore-microtubule (K-MT) capture typically occur within minutes of nuclear envelope breakdown. In contrast, during meiosis I in mouse oocytes, formation of the acentrosomal bipolar spindle takes 3-4 h, and stabilization of K-MT attachments is delayed an additional 3-4 h. The mechanism responsible for this delay, which likely prevents stabilization of erroneous attachments during spindle formation, is unknown. Here we show that during meiosis I, attachments are regulated by CDK1 activity, which gradually increases through prometaphase and metaphase I. Partial reduction of CDK1 activity delayed formation of stable attachments, whereas a premature increase in CDK1 activity led to precocious formation of stable attachments and eventually lagging chromosomes at anaphase I. These results indicate that the slow increase in CDK1 activity in meiosis I acts as a timing mechanism to allow stable K-MT attachments only after bipolar spindle formation, thus preventing attachment errors. PMID:23857768

Davydenko, Olga; Schultz, Richard M; Lampson, Michael A



Increased Response-Time Variability Across Different Cognitive Tasks in Children With ADHD.  


Objective: Increased response-time (RT) fluctuations below 0.2 Hz have been reported as characteristic of ADHD in some but not all studies, possibly due to methodological differences. Accordingly, We contrasted two tasks and two analytical approaches in the same sample of children with ADHD. Method: Fifty-two children with ADHD and 49 typically developing children completed an Eriksen Flanker Task and a fixed-sequence version of the sustained attention to response task. RT fluctuations with two different frequency analyses were examined. Results: Robust ADHD-related increases of slow RT fluctuations within all frequencies were found in both tasks. Tasks were significantly correlated in both groups for frequencies above 0.07 Hz. RT fluctuations across all frequencies were greatest in children with ADHD with abnormally elevated omissions. Conclusion: We observed significantly increased fluctuations of RT in children with ADHD across two different tasks and methods supporting the hypothesis that slow frequency RT fluctuations reflect neurophysiological processes underlying ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22508759

Adamo, Nicoletta; Di Martino, Adriana; Esu, Lidia; Petkova, Eva; Johnson, Katherine; Kelly, Simon; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Zuddas, Alessandro



Verapamil Results in Increased Blood Levels of Oncolytic Adenovirus in Treatment of Patients With Advanced Cancer  

PubMed Central

Calcium channel blockers including verapamil have been proposed to enhance release and antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses in preclinical studies but this has not been studied in humans before. Here, we studied if verapamil leads to increased replication of oncolytic adenovirus in cancer patients, as measured by release of virions from tumor cells into the systemic circulation. The study was conducted as a matched case–control study of advanced cancer patients treated with oncolytic adenoviruses with or without verapamil. We observed that verapamil increased mean virus titers present in blood after treatment (P < 0.05). The frequency or severity of adverse events was not increased, nor were cytokine responses or neutralizing antibody levels different between groups. Signs of possible treatment-related clinical benefits were observed in both groups, but there was no significant difference in responses or survival. Thus, our data suggests that the combination of verapamil with oncolytic adenoviruses is safe and well tolerated. Moreover, verapamil treatment seems to result in higher virus titers in blood, indicating enhanced overall replication in tumors. A randomized trial is needed to confirm these findings and to study if enhanced replication results in benefits to patients.

Koski, Anniina; Raki, Mari; Nokisalmi, Petri; Liikanen, Ilkka; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Alemany, Ramon; Hemminki, Akseli



[Treatment procrastination time in breast cancer and personality structure].  


Sixty patients with mammary cancer were studied in order to determine whether a connection between the tendency to delay medical treatment and a neurotic personality structure exists. The results are based on different personality factors that were investigated by means of the 16-PF test by Cattell. It could be shown that for patients who had delayed treatment (D2) the personality traits "limited inner tension" and "slightly inhibited" were present. On the other hand patients who had not delayed treatment (K1) displayed the personality traits "higher inner tension" and "free of inhibitions". PMID:392383

Lütgemeier, I; Rössler, J; Lütgemeier, J; Hörst, M



A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)



Assessing the Variability in Time to Treatment in Surgery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the repor is to determine the relationship of time to worse health outcomes for 3 potentially timesensitive conditions: appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy and intestinal obstruction and assess system, physician & patient factors affecting time...

A. H. Aufses C. Barsky C. Bodian H. Leventhal M. Chassin M. Rojas N. Kase N. A. Bickell R. Anderson



Splenectomy increases the survival time of heart allograft via developing immune tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background The spleen is an active lymphoid organ. The effect of splenectomy on the immune response remains unclear. This study investigated whether splenectomy can induce immune tolerance and has a beneficial role in cardiac allograft. Methods Wistar rats were used for heart donors. The Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats designated as the recipients of heart transplantation (HT) were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, splenectomy, HT, splenectomy?+?HT. The survival of transplanted hearts was assessed by daily checking of abdominal palpation. At various time points after transplantation, the transplanted hearts were collected and histologically examined; the level of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) and rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (annexin-v+ PI+ cells) in the blood were analyzed by using flow cytometric method. Results 1) Splenectomy significantly prolonged the mean survival time of heart allografts (7?±?1.1 days and 27?±?1.5 days for HT and splenectomy?+?HT, respectively; n?=?12-14/group, HT vs. splenectomy?+?HT, p?increased within 7 days (2.4?±?0.5%, 4.9?±?1.3% and 5.3?±?1.0% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy?+?HT, respectively; n?=?15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy?+?HT, p?increased the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (day 7: 0.3?±?0.05%, 3.9?±?0.9% and 4.1?±?0.9% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy?+?HT, respectively; n?=?15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy?+?HT, p?time of cardiac allograft. The responsible mechanism is associated with induction of immune tolerance via elevating CD4+CD25+ Tregs and increasing lymphocyte apoptosis.



Timing of Pathogen Adaptation to a Multicomponent Treatment  

PubMed Central

The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations.

Bourget, Romain; Chaumont, Loic; Sapoukhina, Natalia



Structural Barriers to Timely Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment in Vietnam: Findings from Six Outpatient Clinics  

PubMed Central

In Vietnam, premature mortality due to AIDS-related conditions is commonly associated with late initiation to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study explores reasons for late ART initiation among people living with HIV (PLHIV) from the perspectives of health care providers and PLHIV. The study was undertaken in six clinics from five provinces in Vietnam. Baseline CD4 counts were collected from patient records and grouped into three categories: very late initiators (?100 cells/mm3 CD4), late initiators (100–200 cells/mm3) and timely initiators (200–350 cells/mm3). Thirty in-depth interviews with patients who started ART and 15 focus group discussions with HIV service providers were conducted and thematic analysis of the content performed. Of 934 patients, 62% started ART very late and 11% initiated timely treatment. The proportion of patients for whom a CD4 count was obtained within six months of their HIV diagnosis ranged from 22% to 72%. The proportion of patients referred to ART clinics by voluntary testing and counselling centres ranged from 1% to 35%. Structural barriers to timely ART initiation were poor linkage between HIV testing and HIV care and treatment services, lack of patient confidentiality and a shortage of HIV/AIDS specialists. If Vietnam’s treatment practice is to align with WHO recommendations then the connection between voluntary counselling and testing service and ART clinics must be improved. Expansion and decentralization of HIV/AIDS services to allow implementation at the community level increased task sharing between doctors and nurses to overcome limited human resources, and improved patient confidentiality are likely to increase timely access to HIV treatment services for more patients.

Tran, Dam Anh; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Ngo, Anh Duc; Rule, John; Wilson, David P.; Zhang, Lei; Doran, Christopher



Effects of riparian plant diversity loss on aquatic microbial decomposers become more pronounced with increasing time.  


We examined the potential long-term impacts of riparian plant diversity loss on diversity and activity of aquatic microbial decomposers. Microbial assemblages were obtained in a mixed-forest stream by immersion of mesh bags containing three leaf species (alder, oak and eucalyptus), commonly found in riparian corridors of Iberian streams. Simulation of species loss was done in microcosms by including a set of all leaf species, retrieved from the stream, and non-colonized leaves of three, two or one leaf species. Leaves were renewed every month throughout six months, and microbial inoculum was ensured by a set of colonized leaves from the previous month. Microbial diversity, leaf mass loss and fungal biomass were assessed at the second and sixth months after plant species loss. Molecular diversity of fungi and bacteria, as the total number of operational taxonomic units per leaf diversity treatment, decreased with leaf diversity loss. Fungal biomass tended to decrease linearly with leaf species loss on oak and eucalyptus, suggesting more pronounced effects of leaf diversity on lower quality leaves. Decomposition of alder and eucalyptus leaves was affected by leaf species identity, mainly after longer times following diversity loss. Leaf decomposition of alder decreased when mixed with eucalyptus, while decomposition of eucalyptus decreased in mixtures with oak. Results suggest that the effects of leaf diversity on microbial decomposers depended on leaf species number and also on which species were lost from the system, especially after longer times. This may have implications for the management of riparian forests to maintain stream ecosystem functioning. PMID:23963224

Fernandes, Isabel; Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia



Increasing Physicians' and Nurses' Compliance with Treatment Guidelines in Cancer Care Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of the use of guidelines on the care of patients with breast, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers is reported. Audits of patient records revealed an increase over time in the percentage of recommended cancer care procedures that were complied with. (Author/MLW)

Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others



Increasing Physicians' and Nurses' Compliance with Treatment Guidelines in Cancer Care Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of the use of guidelines on the care of patients with breast, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers is reported. Audits of patient records revealed an increase over time in the percentage of recommended cancer care procedures that were complied with. (Author/MLW)|

Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others



Time course of induction of increased human motor cortex excitability by nerve stimulation.  


Manipulation of afferent input induces changes in the excitability and organisation of human corticomotor representations. These changes are generally short lived, although can be prolonged by repetition. Here, we charted the time-course of the change of motor cortex excitability induced by electrical stimulation of radial and ulnar nerves. Corticomotor excitability was evaluated by measuring the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials in the first dorsal interosseous muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the optimal cortical area. Measurements were carried out before the start of peripheral nerve stimulation, and then during the peripheral nerve stimulation at 15 min intervals over a period of 2 h. The amplitudes of the motor evoked potentials significantly increased during the 2 h period of peripheral nerve stimulation. Cortical excitability peaked after about 45-60 min stimulation. These clear-cut changes in cortical excitability following peripheral nerve stimulation may reveal some of the mechanisms underlying motor learning and cortical plasticity. PMID:12151785

McKay, Darrin; Brooker, Raylene; Giacomin, Paul; Ridding, Michael; Miles, Timothy



Add-on memantine to valproate treatment increased HDL-C in bipolar II disorder.  


Memantine is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. As an augmenting agent, it has an antidepressant-like and mood-stabilizing effect. Memantine also reduces binge eating episodes and weight. We investigated whether memantine added on to valproate (VPA) is more effective than VPA alone for treating BP-II depression and improving the patient's metabolic profile. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to one of two groups: VPA plus either add-on [1] memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 62) or [2] placebo (n = 73) for 12 weeks. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate clinical response. Height, weight, fasting serum glucose, fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were followed regularly. Multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to analyze the effects of memantine on clinical performance. There were no significant differences in pre- and post-treatment YMRS and HDRS scores between the VPA + memantine and VPA + placebo groups. Although there were no significant differences in the pre- and post-treatment values of most metabolic indices between the two groups, there was a significant increase of HDL-C (p = 0.009) in the VPA + memantine group compared with the VPA + placebo group. This increase remained significant even after controlling for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.020). We conclude that add-on memantine plus VPA treatment of BP-II depression increases the blood level of HDL-C even in the absence of change in affective symptoms. Trial registration: NCT01188148 (, Trial date was from 1st August, 2008 to 31st July, 2012 in National Cheng Kung University and Tri-Service General Hospital. PMID:23870798

Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Yu-Shan; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong



Times of increased probability of large earthquakes ( Ms ? 7.5) along the Mexican subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the method of pattern recognition of infrequent events, we explore the possibility of identifying the times of increased probability (TIP) of occurrence of large earthquakes ( Ms ? 7.5) along the Mexican subduction zone. A TIP refers to a 5 year period within which a strong earthquake has a high probability of occurrence. We analyzed the seismicity for the regions of Chiapas-Eastern Oaxaca (91-97°W, Region 1), Western Oaxaca-Guerrero (97-102°W, Region 2), and Michoacan-Colima-Jalisco (102-106°W, Region 3) for the time interval 1970-1991 with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seismic catalog as the source data. The premonitory intermediate-term seismic activation to identify a TIP was measured using the algorithm M8. Three out of the five earthquakes of Ms ? 7.5 that occurred during the studied period are diagnosed by algorithm M8, and for the Region 3 segment a TIP is identified that will end between 1994 and 1996. We consider the area between the Western Colima gap and the Jalisco region (103.7-106.0°W) as the zone where the forecast earthquake has a higher than usual probability of occurrence. Our results by no means constitute a definitive earthquake prediction but suggest the need for detailed seismic analysis and the study of other geophysical precursors along the Colima-Jalisco segment.

Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Alvarez-Moctezuma, Jose



Increasing gain and dynamic range for active-target time-projection chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active-target time-projection chambers (TPCs) use the unique concept of using the tracking medium of the detector simultaneously as the target for studying nuclear reactions. This gives them the advantage of providing a thick target without losing resolution and a large acceptance for reaction products. However target gases for active-target TPCs such as H2 and ^4He have less favorable properties as compared to standard TPC gases, e.g. a lower maximum gain before sparking. Another difficulty is dealing with the broad range of possible recoil energies and particles resulting in a large span of energy losses. To overcome these difficulties, we tested two new methods using the MICROMEGAS electron amplification device. To handle the large energy loss dynamics, some MICROMEGAS' anode pads were polarized with a HV bias, resulting in different gains. This allows some pads to track high-energy loss particles such as high-Z ions while the others can track lower-energy loss particles such as energetic protons. For increasing the maximum gas gain, we doped the target gas with allene, which can increase the MICROMEGAS charge output by producing a larger number of ionized electrons through allene's conversion of UV radiation to free electrons.

Ahn, T.; Mittig, W.; Tahar, M.; Becquet, R.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro, S.; Chajecki, Z.; Fritsch, A.; Kolata, J. J.; Lynch, W.; Shore, A.



Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.  


Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark



Genotypic Diversity Effects on the Performance of Taraxacum officinale Populations Increase with Time and Environmental Favorability  

PubMed Central

Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations.

Drummond, Emily B. M.; Vellend, Mark



Increasing consumer demand among Medicaid enrollees for tobacco dependence treatment: The Wisconsin Medicaid Covers It campaign  

PubMed Central

Purpose Smoking prevalence among Medicaid enrollees is higher than the general population, but use of evidence-based cessation treatment is low. We evaluated whether a communications campaign improved cessation treatment utilization. Design Quasi-experimental. Setting Wisconsin. Subjects Enrollees in the Wisconsin Family Medicaid program. The average monthly enrollment during the study period was approximately 170,000 individuals. Intervention Print materials for clinicians and consumers distributed to 13 health maintenance organizations (HMO) serving Wisconsin Medicaid HMO enrollees. Measures Wisconsin Medicaid pharmacy claims data for smoking cessation medications were analyzed before and after a targeted communications campaign. HMO enrollees were the intervention group. Fee-for-service enrollees were a quasi-experimental comparison group. Quit Line utilization data were also analyzed. Analysis Pharmacotherapy claims and number of registered quitline callers were compared pre-and post-campaign. Results Pre-campaign, cessation pharmacotherapy claims declined for the intervention group and increased slightly for the comparison group (t = 2.29, p = 0.03). Post-campaign, claims increased in both groups. However, the rate of increase in the intervention group was significantly greater than in the comparison group (t = ?2.2, p = 0.04). A statistically significant increase was also seen in the average monthly number of Medicaid enrollees that registered for Quit Line services post-campaign compared to pre-campaign (F (1,22) = 7.19, p = 0.01). Conclusion This natural experiment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in both pharmacotherapy claims and Quit Line registrations among Medicaid enrollees. These findings may help inform other states’ efforts to improve cessation treatment utilization.

Keller, Paula A.; Christiansen, Bruce; Kim, Su-Young; Piper, Megan E.; Redmond, Lezli; Adsit, Robert; Fiore, Michael C.



Throughput increase by adjustment of the BARC drying time with coat track process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughput of a coater module within the coater track is related to the solvent evaporation rate from the material that is being coated. Evaporation rate is controlled by the spin dynamics of the wafer and airflow dynamics over the wafer. Balancing these effects is the key to achieving very uniform coatings across a flat unpatterned wafer. As today"s coat tracks are being pushed to higher throughputs to match the scanner, the coat module throughput must be increased as well. For chemical manufacturers the evaporation rate of the material depends on the solvent used. One measure of relative evaporation rates is to compare flash points of a solvent. The lower the flash point, the quicker the solvent will evaporate. It is possible to formulate products with these volatile solvents although at a price. Shipping and manufacturing a more flammable product increase chances of fire, thereby increasing insurance premiums. Also, the end user of these chemicals will have to take extra precautions in the fab and in storage of these more flammable chemicals. An alternative coat process is possible which would allow higher throughput in a distinct coat module without sacrificing safety. A tradeoff is required for this process, that being a more complicated coat process and a higher viscosity chemical. The coat process uses the fact that evaporation rate depends on the spin dynamics of the wafer by utilizing a series of spin speeds that first would set the thickness of the material followed by a high spin speed to remove the residual solvent. This new process can yield a throughput of over 150 wafers per hour (wph) given two coat modules. The thickness uniformity of less than 2 nm (3 sigma) is still excellent, while drying times are shorter than 10 seconds to achieve the 150 wph throughput targets.

Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Long, Ryan



Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ? 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region.

Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Corn, Paul Stephen



Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire.  


Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ? 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region. PMID:22978248

Hossack, Blake R; Lowe, Winsor H; Corn, Paul Stephen



Brief heat treatment increases cytotoxicity of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin in an LFA-1 independent manner  

PubMed Central

Mannheimia haemolytica is an important respiratory pathogen in cattle. Its predominant virulence factor is a leukotoxin (LKT) that is a member of the RTX family of exotoxins produced by a variety of gram negative bacteria. LKT binds to the CD18 chain of ?2 integrins on bovine leukocytes, resulting in cell death. In this study, we show that brief heat treatment of native LKT (95 °C for 3 min) results in increased cytotoxicity for BL-3 (bovine lymphoblastoid) cells. Similar heat treatment restored the activity of LKT that had been rendered inactive by incubation at 22 °C for 3 days. A hallmark of LKT is that its toxicity is restricted to leukocytes from cattle or other ruminant species. Surprisingly, heat treatment rendered LKT cytotoxic for human, porcine and canine leukocytes. Membrane binding studies suggested that heat-treated LKT binds to membrane proteins other than LFA-1, and is distributed diffusely along the BL3 cell membrane. Circular Dichroism spectroscopy studies indicate that heat treatment induced a small change in the secondary structure of the LKT that was not reversed when the LKT was cooled to room temperature. Thus, we speculate that these structural changes might contribute to the altered biological properties of heat-treated LKT.

Atapattu, Dhammika N.; Aulik, Nicole A.; McCaslin, Darrell R.; Czuprynski, Charles J.



Time to treatment response in first episode schizophrenia: should acute treatment trials last several months?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Response patterns may differ between patients with first episode and multi-episode schizophrenia. This analysis explored trial duration with first episode patients and whether early limited improvement predicts ultimate lack of treatment response with first episode patients as it does with multi-episode patients. Methods 112 subjects (mean age=23.3 years [SD=5.1]) who presented between November 1998 and October 2004 with a first episode of psychosis and had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder, were randomly assigned to treatment with olanzapine or risperidone for 16 weeks. Treatment response, the primary outcome measure, was defined as a rating of mild or better on all of the positive symptom items on the SADS-C + PD. Response rates were calculated for each study week. A logistic regression analysis examined the association between percent reduction in symptom severity scores from baseline values at weeks 2, 4 or 8 and response by week 16. Results The estimated cumulative response rate by week 8 was 39.59% (95% CI: 29.77% – 49.41%) and 65.19% (95% CI: 55.11% – 75.27%) by week 16. The confidence intervals for estimated response at weeks 10, 12, 14 and 16 were not distinct. Response rates increased approximately 5 to 6 percentage points each 2 week interval between week 10 and 16. Percent reduction in symptom severity score at week 4 (but not 2 or 8) was associated (Chi-square = 3.96; df = 1, p<0.05) with responder status at week 16 (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00;1.05). However, receiver operating characteristic curves did not suggest any level of percent symptom reduction that would be clinically useful as a predictor of response by week 16. Conclusions Many first episode patients respond between weeks 8 and 16 of treatment with a single antipsychotic medication. Limited early symptom improvement does not identify with enough accuracy to be clinically useful those first episode patients who will not improve with a full 16 week trial.

Gallego, Juan A.; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sevy, Serge M.; Napolitano, Barbara; McCormack, Joanne; Lesser, Martin L.; Kane, John M.



A quantitative assessment of the hardenability increase resulting from a superhardenability treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superhardenability treatment, which consists of superheating steel melts to which fairly large aluminum additions have been made, has been studied in a wide range of low-alloy steels. By hardenability testing and dilatometry, it is shown that the treatment results in large and repeat-able hardenability increases due to a strong retardation of the ferrite/pearlite and bainite reactions. Superhardenability multiplying factors and equations which relate the ideal critical diameter of a superhardenable steel to its chemical content have been produced by using a combination of three hardenability tests. A mechanism for the superhardenability effect is proposed on the basis of the experimental finding that high austenitizing temperatures result in a loss of superhardenability.

Mostert, R. J.; van Rooyen, G. T.



Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this paper was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and a school nurse to help the girls increase their moderate to vigorous physical activity. The following four areas related to treatment fidelity were addressed: (a) study design, (b) training of interventionists, (c) intervention delivery, and (d) intervention receipt. Findings showed that 34 of 37 (91.9%) girls completed all three sessions. An initial motivational interviewing training workshop followed by evaluation of audio-taped sessions with constructive feedback can result in successful and consistent delivery by a school nurse.

Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm



Electrode configuration and treatment timing effects of electric fields on fruit putrefaction and molding post harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of electric field treatment on fruit physicochemical changes, putrefaction and molding were investigated. Electrode configurations i.e. parallel plate and corona discharge (pin and plate) electrode arrangement, electric field characteristics i.e. continuous and intermittent treatments, treatment timings i.e. pre ripe and post ripe treatments (fruit treatment before and after ripening respectively) were considered. In pre ripe treatment, the brix

G. Atungulu; E. Atungulu; Y. Nishiyama



Pre-sowing magnetic treatments of tomato seeds increase the growth and yield of plants.  


The effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on growth and yield of tomato (cv Campbell-28) were investigated under field conditions. Tomato seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 100 mT (rms) for 10 min and at 170 mT (rms) for 3 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental plots (30.2 m(2)) and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During the vegetative and generative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses, and the resistance of plants to geminivirus and early blight was evaluated. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each plot and the yield and yield parameters were determined. In the vegetative stage, the treatments led to a significant increase in leaf area, leaf dry weight, and specific leaf area (SLA) per plant. Also, the leaf, stem, and root relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically treated seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. In the generative stage, leaf area per plant and relative growth rates of fruits from plants from magnetically exposed seeds were greater than those of the control plant fruits. At fruit maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (P < .05) the mean fruit weight, the fruit yield per plant, the fruit yield per area, and the equatorial diameter of fruits in comparison with the controls. At the end of the experiment, total dry matter was significantly higher for plants from magnetically treated seeds than that of the controls. A significant delay in the appearance of first symptoms of geminivirus and early blight and a reduced infection rate of early blight were observed in the plants from exposed seeds to MFs. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and yield of tomato crop. PMID:16511881

De Souza, A; Garcí, D; Sueiro, L; Gilart, F; Porras, E; Licea, L



Statin treatment depresses the fetal defence to acute hypoxia via increasing nitric oxide bioavailability.  


In addition to lowering cholesterol, statins increase nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, improving endothelial function. In the fetus, enhanced NO during acute hypoxia opposes the fetal peripheral vasoconstrictor response, part of the brain-sparing defence. This study tested the hypothesis that treatment with statins depresses the fetal circulatory response to acute hypoxic stress via increasing NO bioavailability. Under anaesthesia, 12 fetal sheep at 118 ± 1 days of gestation (term?ca?145 days) were instrumented with vascular catheters and a femoral artery Transonic flow probe for chronic recording. Five days later, all animals were subjected to 30 min of acute hypoxia (fetal arterial partial pressure of O(2) ( ) reduced by?ca?50%) before and 24 h after fetal treatment with pravastatin (25 mg i.v.). In half of the fetuses (n?= 6), responses to hypoxia post-pravastatin were evaluated during NO synthesis blockade. Fetal exposure to pravastatin did not affect fetal basal cardiovascular function. Fetal was similarly reduced in all acute hypoxia experiments from?ca?21 to 10 mmHg. Fetal exposure to pravastatin markedly diminished the fetal femoral vasoconstrictor (5.1 ± 0.9?vs.?2.5 ± 0.5 mmHg (ml min(-1))(-1)) and lactic acidaemic (4.4 ± 0.5?vs.?3.0 ± 0.3 mm) responses to acute hypoxia (both?P?< 0.05), without affecting plasma catecholamine responses. Post-pravastatin, the circulatory (5.8 ± 1.5 mmHg (ml min(-1))(-1)) and metabolic (3.9 ± 0.3 mm) responses could be restored to control levels during fetal treatment with NO synthase blockade. Pravastatin depresses the fetal cardiovascular and metabolic defences to acute hypoxia via increasing NO bioavailability. The use of statins during pregnancy should be viewed with extreme caution. PMID:22106179

Kane, Andrew D; Herrera, Emilio A; Hansell, Jeremy A; Giussani, Dino A




PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Culturally competent practice is broadly acknowledged to be an important strategy to increase the quality of services for racial/ethnic minorities in substance abuse treatment. However, few empirically derived measures of organizational cultural competence exist, and relatively little is known about how these measures affect treatment outcomes. METHOD Using a nationally representative sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment (OSAT) programs, this study used item response theory to create two measures of cultural competence-organizational practices and managers' culturally sensitive beliefs—and examined their relationship to client wait time and retention using Poisson regression modeling RESULTS The most common and precisely measured organizational practices reported by OSAT managers included matching providers and clients based on language/dialect; offering cross-cultural training; and fostering connections with community and faith-based organizations connected to racial and ethnic minority groups. The most culturally sensitive belief among OSAT managers was support for language/dialect matching for racial and ethnic minority clients. Results of regression modeling indicate that organizational practices were not related to either outcome. However, managers' culturally sensitive beliefs were negatively associated with average wait time (p < 0.05), and positively associated with average retention (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Managers' culturally sensitive beliefs—considered to be influential for effective implementation of culturally competent practices—may be particularly relevant in influencing wait time and retention in OSAT organizations that treat Latinos and African American clients.

Guerrero, Erick; Andrews, Christina M.




SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

Fernandez, A.



Heat-treatment options and heating times for ash firewood  


New regulations for heat sterilization of ash firewood require holding a core ... than the current international heating standard for treating solid wood packaging. ... factors that control the heating rate and result in differences in heating times.


Treatment of autoimmune disease: time for a paradigm shift?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Current treatment of human autoimmune diseases (AIDs) was developed empirically and relies mostly on non-selective suppression\\u000a of the immune system. Traditional non-selective immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate\\u000a and more novel means such as monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, or CD25 do not discriminate between pathogenic and beneficial\\u000a T cells. Importantly, the severe side effects seen with current therapies

Felix Mor; Petach Tiqva



[Increase of liver enzymes during treatment of myocardial infarct using intravenous nitro-derivatives].  


A transitory serum elevation of hepatocellular enzyme alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma GT is reported during i.v. treatment with nitroderivatives of acute myocardial infarction. authors have reviewed 144 case (105 males and 39 females) admitted to the emergency ward for acute myocardial infarction: of the 144 cases reviewed, 54 males and 16 females (48.6% of the total) presented a significative increase of ALT and gamma GT, up to the maximum value of 220 U/l, during the first week of continuous i.v. therapy with nitroderivatives. This elevation was transient, with return to normal values during the first month. The AA postulate that this increase is dose-dependent, linked to individual susceptibility and possibly due to the production of free oxygen radicals. PMID:2116031

Borghi, E; Rossini, D; Giomi, N; Roventini, L; Vecce, R; Fontanive, P; Schembri, S; Maurini, V; Carnicelli, A



Parasite infection and sand coarseness increase sand crab (Emerita analoga) burrowing time.  


Parasites with indirect life cycles require trophic transmission from intermediate hosts to definitive (vertebrate) hosts. Transmission may be facilitated if parasite infection alters the behavior of intermediate hosts such that they are more vulnerable to predation. Vulnerability to predation may also be influenced by abiotic factors; however, rarely are the effects of parasites and abiotic factors examined simultaneously. The swash zone of sandy beaches is a particularly harsh environment. Sand crabs (Emerita analoga) burrow rapidly in the swash zone to avoid predators and dislodgment. We examined prevalence and abundance of the acanthocephalan parasite Profilicollis altmani in sand crabs, and investigated the synergistic effects of sand grain size (an important abiotic factor), parasite infection, body size and reproductive condition on burrowing speed in females, from three California sites. More heavily parasitized crabs burrowed more slowly, making them potentially more vulnerable to predation by marine bird definitive hosts. Ovigerous females harbored more parasites than non-ovigerous females, but burrowed more quickly. All crabs burrowed slowest in the coarsest sand, and burrowing times increased with repeated testing, suggesting that it is energetically costly. Abiotic and biotic factors influence burrowing, and behavioral variation across sites may reflect the response to natural variation in these factors. PMID:21959036

Kolluru, Gita R; Green, Zachary S; Vredevoe, Larisa K; Kuzma, Matthew R; Ramadan, Sera N; Zosky, Marc R



Model projections of time-dependent response to increasing carbon dioxide. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art of mathematical models of transient climate change from historical and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and related factors is reviewed, including studies done at NYU and elsewhere. Major conclusions are: (1) the transient climate changes over 10 to 100 year timescales are probably driven by several ''external'' factors acting simultaneously, as well as ''internal'' factors such as variations in ocean dynamics; (2) the response of global temperature to this forcing is not instantaneous, but is delayed by times of the order 10 to 100 years by thermal damping by the upper ocean; (3) the development of reliable models is hampered by lack of a clear validation strategy for testing models against observations; (4) when run with standard scenarios, current models predict a global warming of the order of 1/sup 0/C by the year 2000 relative to 1850, with an additional 2 to 5/sup 0/C over the next century; However, the sensitivity of these predictions to uncertainties has not been sufficiently explored. Specific research programs are recommended to improve our ability to predict transient climatic changes from continued fossil fuel burning.

Hoffert, M.I.; Flannery, B.P.



Increased time to pregnancy is associated with suboptimal neurological condition of 2-year-olds  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate whether time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with neurological condition of 2-year-old children born to subfertile parents. Design Data collected in a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study were used for cross-sectional analyses. Patients Participants were the singletons of the Groningen assisted reproductive technique cohort study: all children were born to subfertile couples (n=209). The active waiting TTP of the couples obtained from fertility charts was recorded in years and months, and was converted to decimal years. Main outcome measure The presence of minor neurological dysfunction (MND), assessed with the Hempel examination. Results MND was present in 16 (7.7%) children. TTP of children with MND (median 4.1, range 1.6–13.2) was significantly longer than that of children without MND (median 2.8, range 0.1–13.3; Mann-Whitney U test p=0.014). Logistic regression analysis on the contribution of TTP to MND resulted in a crude OR of 1.27 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54). After correction for gestational age, parental age and parental level of education, the association remained statistically significant: OR=1.30 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.61). Conclusions Increased TTP was associated with suboptimal neurological development in 2-year-old children. This suggests that subfertility and its determinants are involved in the genesis of neurodevelopmental problems.

Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Bos, Arend F; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J; Haadsma, Maaike L; Hadders-Algra, Mijna



Increased alcohol use in a treatment sample of Oklahoma City bombing victims.  


Research examining alcohol use in disaster victims has yielded conflicting results. This study of 43 acknowledged alcohol users, taken from a nonrandom volunteer sample of Oklahoma City bombing victims receiving support services, revealed relationships between increased alcohol use and a number of variables--injury, retrospectively reported initial reaction to the explosion, grief, and posttraumatic stress symptomatology. The findings suggest that if alcohol use was motivated by an attempt to alleviate symptoms, it was not effective, as evidenced by an association between increased alcohol use and functional impairment. Increased alcohol consumption may present a problem in disaster victims months after exposure to trauma. Therefore, the use of alcohol should be routinely assessed in those who remain symptomatic over time. PMID:11822207

Pfefferbaum, B; Doughty, D E



Socio-cultural determinants of timely and delayed treatment of Buruli ulcer: Implications for disease control  

PubMed Central

Introduction Public health programmes recommend timely medical treatment for Buruli ulcer (BU) infection to prevent pre-ulcer conditions from progressing to ulcers, to minimise surgery, disabilities and the socio-economic impact of BU. Clarifying the role of socio-cultural determinants of timely medical treatment may assist in guiding public health programmes to improve treatment outcomes. This study clarified the role of socio-cultural determinants and health system factors affecting timely medical treatment for BU in an endemic area in Ghana. Methods A semi-structured explanatory model interview based on the explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC) was administered to 178 BU-affected persons. Based on research evidence, respondents were classified as timely treatment (use of medical treatment 3 months from awareness of disease) and delayed treatment (medical treatment 3 months after onset of disease and failure to use medical treatment). The outcome variable, timely treatment was analysed with cultural epidemiological variables for categories of distress, perceived causes of BU, outside-help and reasons for medical treatment in logistic regression models. The median time for the onset of symptoms to treatment was computed in days. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents’ narratives clarified the meaning, context and dynamic features of the relationship of explanatory variables with timely medical treatment. Results The median time for initiating treatment was 25 days for pre-ulcers, and 204 days for ulcers. Income loss and use of herbalists showed significantly negative associations with timely treatment. Respondents’ use of herbalists was often motivated by the desire for quick recovery in order to continue with work and because herbalists were relatives and easily accessible. However, drinking unclean water was significantly associated with timely treatment and access to health services encouraged timely treatment (OR 8.5, p?=?0.012). Findings show that health system factors of access are responsible for non-compliance to treatment regimes. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of an integrated approach to BU control and management considering the social and economic features that influence delayed treatment and factors that encourage timely medical treatment. This approach should consider periodic screening for early case-detection, collaboration with private practitioners and traditional healers, use of mobile services to improve access, adherence and treatment outcomes.



Anti-VEGF treatment reduces blood supply and increases tumor cell invasion in glioblastoma.  


Bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a promising, yet controversial, drug in human glioblastoma treatment (GBM). Its effects on tumor burden, recurrence, and vascular physiology are unclear. We therefore determined the tumor response to bevacizumab at the phenotypic, physiological, and molecular level in a clinically relevant intracranial GBM xenograft model derived from patient tumor spheroids. Using anatomical and physiological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we show that bevacizumab causes a strong decrease in contrast enhancement while having only a marginal effect on tumor growth. Interestingly, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed a significant reduction of the vascular supply, as evidenced by a decrease in intratumoral blood flow and volume and, at the morphological level, by a strong reduction of large- and medium-sized blood vessels. Electron microscopy revealed fewer mitochondria in the treated tumor cells. Importantly, this was accompanied by a 68% increase in infiltrating tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. At the molecular level we observed an increase in lactate and alanine metabolites, together with an induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? and an activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase pathway. These data strongly suggest that vascular remodeling induced by anti-VEGF treatment leads to a more hypoxic tumor microenvironment. This favors a metabolic change in the tumor cells toward glycolysis, which leads to enhanced tumor cell invasion into the normal brain. The present work underlines the need to combine anti-angiogenic treatment in GBMs with drugs targeting specific signaling or metabolic pathways linked to the glycolytic phenotype. PMID:21321221

Keunen, Olivier; Johansson, Mikael; Oudin, Anaïs; Sanzey, Morgane; Rahim, Siti A Abdul; Fack, Fred; Thorsen, Frits; Taxt, Torfinn; Bartos, Michal; Jirik, Radovan; Miletic, Hrvoje; Wang, Jian; Stieber, Daniel; Stuhr, Linda; Moen, Ingrid; Rygh, Cecilie Brekke; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P



The role of temperature increase rate in combinational hyperthermia chemotherapy treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy has been widely used in cancer treatment. Our previous study has shown that rapid rate hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy can synergistically kill cancer cells whereas a sub-additive effect was found when a slow rate hyperthermia was applied. In this study, we explored the basis of this difference. For this purpose, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, Caspase 3 activity, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) expression following the two different modes of heating were measured. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. Indocyanine green (ICG), which absorbs near infrared light at 808nm (ideal for tissue penetration), was chosen for achieving rapid rate hyperthermia. Slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. Two sets of thermal doses were delivered by either slow rate or rapid rate hyperthermia. HSP70 expression was highly elevated under low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while maintained at the baseline level under the other three treatments. Caspase3 level slightly increased after low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while necrotic cell death was found in the other three types of heat treatment. In conclusion, when given at the same thermal dose, slow rate hyperthermia is more likely to induce thermotolerance. Meanwhile, hyperthermia showed a dose dependent capability in reversing P-gp mediated MDR; when MDR is reversed, the combinational treatment induced extensive necrotic cell death. During this process, the rate of heating also played a very important role; necrosis was more dramatic in rapid rate hyperthermia than in slow rate hyperthermia even though they were given at the same dose.

Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J.



[Increasing number of teenagers with alcohol intoxication admitted to hospital: result of successful treatment approach rather than an increasing problem].  


Admissions of adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication to Dutch hospitals have been increasing since 2003. This trend has been attributed mainly to changes in drinking practices of adolescents. However, research shows a declining trend in binge drinking among Dutch teenagers. It is argued that the rise in admissions is primarily the result of a successful intervention initiated around 2003 by the Dutch Paediatric Surveillance Centre (NSCK), which has raised awareness of the problems related to underage drinking and has led the public to call for medical attention for a comatose youngster more rapidly. The rhetorical presentation of adolescent drinking as a growing problem runs the risk of inflating this problem, with moral antecedents, not uncommon when professionals deal with behaviour-related health issues. Rather than blaming the problematic drinker, the positive effects of this innovative approach should be emphasized. PMID:22759713

Lemmens, Paul



Treatment of shielding in real-time source tracking software.  

SciTech Connect

Within the homeland security and emergency response communities, there is a need for a low-profile system to detect, locate, and identify radioactive sources in real time. Such a system could be deployed for area monitoring around venues for special events. A system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory, called RADTRAC, which is based on a network of radiation detectors and advanced signal-processing algorithms. The initial implementation of RADTRAC did not account for dynamically changing shielding due to crowd movements. An algorithm was developed that utilizes the gamma-ray energy spectrum from each detector to estimate the amount of attenuation and scattering that is present between the source location (a priori unknown) and the detector location in real time. The attenuation and scattering estimations are then included in the maximum likelihood model to significantly improve the source localization solution. Results are presented for several test cases showing the improvement in the real-time source localization solution. This algorithm has been implemented into the current version of RADTRAC such that it now accounts for the effects of dynamically changing shielding and scattering due to crowd movements in real time in order to accurately determine the source location in crowded venues.

de la Barrera, S. C.; Klann, R. T.; Vilim, R. B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)



CANCER CHRONOMICS II Origins of timing cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

This paper is a memorial to Mikhail Victorovich Berezkin (MVB) (10 April 1940 – 16 January 2005), an enthusiastic advocate of chrono-oncology. It illustrates his early dose- and circadian time-response curves, limited as yet by a 4-timepoint approach, provides a list of his publications, and offers a succinct overview of individualized marker rhythm-guided oncotherapy.

Cornelissen, Germaine; Berezkin, Mikhail Victorovich; Syutkina, Elena V.; Blank, Mikhail A; Blank, Olga A; Chibisov, Sergei M.; Halberg, Franz



Fuel Treatment Timing and Suppression for Wildfire Risk Mitigation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire risk mitigation through ex ante vegetation management is receiving more attention in the United States after a strong emphasis on suppression for a hundred years. This paper presents a dynamic economic model with three sets of input choice variables: the timing of pre-harvest vegetation management interventions, harvest date, and expected suppression effort in a context where pre-harvest vegetation management

Mariam Lankoande; Jonathan Yoder



Effects of storage time and thermal treatment on the nutritive value of squid (Illex argentinus).  


The storage (-28 degrees C) of squids prior to thermal treatment (steaming at 100 degrees C and autoclaving at 115 degrees C) was found to exert no significant influence on the available lysine and tryptophan contents of the flesh stored for no longer than 9-10 months. During a longer period of storage the contents of the studied amino acids decreased by 22.2% on an average. The -SH groups content and weight losses after thermal treatment were increasing with the time of frozen storage. The colour of squid flesh, as measured with a and b indicators (LAB system), changed most in the autoclaved samples, the colour changing towards yellow-red. PMID:3437918

Seidler, T; Bronowski, M



Increase of Survival Benefit in Advanced Resectable Colon Cancer by Extent of Adjuvant Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: The benefit of adjuvant therapy in curatively resected lymph node-positive colon cancer was established using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and levamisole (LEV) for 12 months. 5-FU cytotoxicity can be modulated by folinic acid (FA) or interferon-? (INF-?). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of modulating 5-FU+ LEV by either FA or IFN-? in the adjuvant treatment of high-risk colon cancer. Methods: Patients with curatively resected colon cancer (stages UICC IIb and III) were stratified according to T, N, and participating center and randomized to receive a 12-month treatment using 5-FU + LEV alone or in combination with FA or IFN-?. Results: A total of 855 of 904 entered patients (94.6%) were eligible. The median follow-up of all eligible patients was 4.6 years. Addition of FA to 5-FU + LEV improved recurrence-free and overall survival in comparison with 5-FU + LEV alone (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively, 1-sided). The 5-year overall survival rates were 60.5% (95% confidence interval, 54.3–66.7) and 72.0% (95% confidence interval, 66.5–77.5) for 5-FU + LEV and 5-FU + LEV + FA, respectively. Addition of INF-? showed a tendency to improve recurrence-free survival, however, without altering overall survival. Toxicities (WHO III + IV) were generally tolerable except one toxic death in the control arm and were observed in 9.9% of the patients receiving 5-FU + LEV alone and in 13.3% and in 30.7% of patients receiving additional FA and IFN-?, respectively. Conclusions: Addition of IFN-? was associated with increased toxicity without markedly influencing the outcome and should therefore not be recommended for adjuvant treatment. Addition of FA increased the 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rate by 9.3 and 11.5 percentage points, respectively. 5-FU + LEV + FA for 12 months may be an effective adjuvant treatment option for locally advanced high-risk colon cancer.

Link, Karl-Heinz; Kornmann, Marko; Staib, Ludger; Redenbacher, Martin; Kron, Martina; Beger, Hans Gunter



Cancer prehabilitation: an opportunity to decrease treatment-related morbidity, increase cancer treatment options, and improve physical and psychological health outcomes.  


Cancer prehabilitation, a process on the continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment, includes physical and psychological assessments that establish a baseline functional level, identifies impairments, and provides targeted interventions that improve a patient's health to reduce the incidence and the severity of current and future impairments. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that supports preparing newly diagnosed cancer patients for and optimizing their health before starting acute treatments. This is the first review of cancer prehabilitation, and the purpose was to describe early studies in the noncancer population and then the historical focus in cancer patients on aerobic conditioning and building strength and stamina through an appropriate exercise regimen. More recent research shows that opportunities exist to use other unimodal or multimodal prehabilitation interventions to decrease morbidity, improve physical and psychological health outcomes, increase the number of potential treatment options, decrease hospital readmissions, and reduce both direct and indirect healthcare costs attributed to cancer. Future research may demonstrate increased compliance with acute cancer treatment protocols and, therefore, improved survival outcomes. New studies suggest that a multimodal approach that incorporates both physical and psychological prehabilitation interventions may be more effective than a unimodal approach that addresses just one or the other. In an impairment-driven cancer rehabilitation model, identifying current and anticipating future impairments are the critical first steps in improving healthcare outcomes and decreasing costs. More research is urgently needed to evaluate the most effective prehabilitation interventions, and combinations thereof, for survivors of all types of cancer. PMID:23756434

Silver, Julie K; Baima, Jennifer



Increased sensitivity to chemotherapy induced by CpG-ODN treatment is mediated by microRNA modulation.  


We recently reported that peritumoral CpG-ODN treatment, activating TLR-9 expressing cells in tumor microenvironment, induces modulation of genes involved in DNA repair and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging cisplatin treatment. Here, we investigated whether this treatment induces modulation of miRNAs in tumor cells and their relevance to chemotherapy response. Array analysis identified 20 differentially expressed miRNAs in human IGROV-1 ovarian tumor cells from CpG-ODN-treated mice versus controls (16 down- and 4 up-regulated). Evaluation of the role of the 3 most differentially expressed miRNAs on sensitivity to cisplatin of IGROV-1 cells revealed significantly increased cisplatin cytotoxicity upon ectopic expression of hsa-miR-302b (up-modulated in our array), but no increased effect upon reduced expression of hsa-miR-424 or hsa-miR-340 (down-modulated in our array). Accordingly, hsa-miR-302b expression was significantly associated with time to relapse or overall survival in two data sets of platinum-treated ovarian cancer patients. Use of bio-informatics tools identified 19 mRNAs potentially targeted by hsa-miR-302b, including HDAC4 gene, which has been reported to mediate cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer. Both HDAC4 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in IGROV-1 cells overexpressing hsa-miR-302b. Altogether, these findings indicate that hsa-miR-302b acts as a "chemosensitizer" in human ovarian carcinoma cells and may represent a biomarker able to predict response to cisplatin treatment. Moreover, the identification of miRNAs that improve sensitivity to chemotherapy provides the experimental underpinning for their possible future clinical use. PMID:23484053

De Cecco, Loris; Berardi, Martina; Sommariva, Michele; Cataldo, Alessandra; Canevari, Silvana; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Iorio, Marilena V; Tagliabue, Elda; Balsari, Andrea



Increased Sensitivity to Chemotherapy Induced by CpG-ODN Treatment Is Mediated by microRNA Modulation  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that peritumoral CpG-ODN treatment, activating TLR-9 expressing cells in tumor microenvironment, induces modulation of genes involved in DNA repair and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging cisplatin treatment. Here, we investigated whether this treatment induces modulation of miRNAs in tumor cells and their relevance to chemotherapy response. Array analysis identified 20 differentially expressed miRNAs in human IGROV-1 ovarian tumor cells from CpG-ODN-treated mice versus controls (16 down- and 4 up-regulated). Evaluation of the role of the 3 most differentially expressed miRNAs on sensitivity to cisplatin of IGROV-1 cells revealed significantly increased cisplatin cytotoxicity upon ectopic expression of hsa-miR-302b (up-modulated in our array), but no increased effect upon reduced expression of hsa-miR-424 or hsa-miR-340 (down-modulated in our array). Accordingly, hsa-miR-302b expression was significantly associated with time to relapse or overall survival in two data sets of platinum-treated ovarian cancer patients. Use of bio-informatics tools identified 19 mRNAs potentially targeted by hsa-miR-302b, including HDAC4 gene, which has been reported to mediate cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer. Both HDAC4 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in IGROV-1 cells overexpressing hsa-miR-302b. Altogether, these findings indicate that hsa-miR-302b acts as a “chemosensitizer” in human ovarian carcinoma cells and may represent a biomarker able to predict response to cisplatin treatment. Moreover, the identification of miRNAs that improve sensitivity to chemotherapy provides the experimental underpinning for their possible future clinical use.

Sommariva, Michele; Cataldo, Alessandra; Canevari, Silvana; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Iorio, Marilena V.; Tagliabue, Elda; Balsari, Andrea



Text-message-driven intervention, real time feedback slashes time-to-treatment for stroke patients.  


Providers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center have been able to significantly improve door-to-needle times for stroke patients by using a real-time, text-message intervention to routinely inform all members of the stroke care team about the door-to-needle time for every stroke patient who receives thrombolytic therapy. Administrators say the approach has slashed average door-to-needle times by at least 20 minutes. The Stroke Center medical director follows up with team members for every patient who does not receive tPA within the recommended 60-minute time frame to find out what the impediment was. To be successful, administrators say the intervention needs to include real-time feedback, a mechanism for accountability, and sustained effort. PMID:23776994



Time-dependent treatment of scattering: Integral equation approaches using the time-dependent amplitude density  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent form of the Lippmann--Schwinger integral equation is used as the basis of several new wave packet propagation schemes. These can be formulated in terms of either the time-dependent wave function or a time-dependent amplitude density. The latter is nonzero only in the region of configuration space for which the potential is nonzero, thereby in principle obviating the necessity of large grids or the use of complex absorbing potentials when resonances cause long collision times (leading, consequently, to long propagation times). Transition amplitudes are obtained in terms of Fourier transforms of the amplitude density from the time to the energy domain. The approach is illustrated by an application to a standard potential scattering model problem where, as in previous studies, the action of the kinetic energy operator is evaluated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques.

Hoffman, D.K. (Department of Chemistry Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (USA)); Sharafeddin, O.; Judson, R.S.; Kouri, D.J. (Department of Chemistry Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-5641 (USA))



Aggressive Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Increases Survival: A Scandinavian Single-Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Background. We examined overall and disease-free survivals in a cohort of patients subjected to resection of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRLM) in a 10-year period when new treatment strategies were implemented. Methods. Data from 239 consecutive patients selected for liver resection of CRLM during the period from 2002 to 2011 at a single center were used to estimate overall and disease-free survival. The results were assessed against new treatment strategies and established risk factors. Results. The 5-year cumulative overall and disease-free survivals were 46 and 24%. The overall survival was the same after reresection, independently of the number of prior resections and irrespectively of the location of the recurrent disease. The time intervals between each recurrence were similar (11 ± 1 months). Patients with high tumor load given neoadjuvant chemotherapy had comparable survival to those with less extensive disease without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Positive resection margin or resectable extrahepatic disease did not affect overall survival. Conclusion. Our data support that one still, and perhaps to an even greater extent, should seek an aggressive therapeutic strategy to achieve resectable status for recurrent hepatic and extrahepatic metastases. The data should be viewed in the context of recent advances in the understanding of cancer biology and the metastatic process.

Brudvik, Kristoffer Watten; Bains, Simer Jit; Seeberg, Lars Thomas; Labori, Knut J?rgen; Waage, Anne; Tasken, Kjetil; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bj?rnbeth, Bj?rn Atle



Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure  

PubMed Central

Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP). Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years) referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ? 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1); 14 patients (Group 2) showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P < 0.01). At 100 bpm, an abnormal (< 1) diastolic/systolic time ratio was found in 0/16 (0%) controls, in 12/93 (13%) Group 1 and 7/14 (50%) Group 2 patients (p < 0.05 between groups). Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.



Women-focused treatment agencies and process improvement: Strategies to increase client engagement  

PubMed Central

Behavioral health treatment agencies often struggle to keep clients engaged in treatment. Women clients often have additional factors such as family responsibilities, financial difficulties, or abuse histories that provide extra challenges to remaining in care. As part of a national initiative, four women-focused drug treatment agencies used process improvement to address treatment engagement. Interviews and focus groups with staff assessed the nature and extent of interventions. Women-focused drug treatment agencies selected relational-based interventions to engage clients in treatment and improved four-week treatment retention from 66% to 76%. Process improvement interventions in women-focused treatment may be useful to improve engagement.

Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Hoffman, Kim; Rechberger, Elke; Seim, Kay; Owens, Betta



Evaluation of pre-treatment processes for increasing biodegradability of agro-food wastes.  


Anaerobic digestion (AD) technology can be employed for treating sewage sludge, livestock waste or food waste. Generally, the hydrolysis stage is the rate-limiting step of the AD processes for solid waste degradation. Therefore, physical, chemical and biological pre-treatment methods or their combination are required, in order to reduce the rate of such a limiting step. In this study, four methods (mechanical shredding, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis and sonication) were tested to improve methane production and anaerobic biodegradability of different agro-food wastes and their mixtures. The kinetics of anaerobic degradation and methane production ofpre-treated individual wastes and selected mixtures were investigated with batch tests. Sonication at lower frequencies (37 kHz) proved to give the best results with methane productivity enhancements of over 100% in the case of pig manure and in the range of 10-47% for the other wastes assayed. Furthermore, the ultimate methane production was proportional, in all the cases, to the specific energy input applied (Es). Sonication can, thus, enhance waste digestion and the rate and quantity of biogas generated. The behaviour of the other pre-treatments under the conditions assayed is not significant. Only a slight enhancement of biogas production (around 10%) was detected for whey and waste activated sludge (WAS) after mechanical shredding. The lack of effectiveness of chemical pre-treatments (acid and alkaline hydrolysis) can be justified by the inhibition of the methanogenic process due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium (up to 8 g l(-1) in some tests). Only in the case of WAS did the acid hydrolysis considerably increase the biodegradability of the sample (79%), because in this case no inhibition by sodium took place. Some hints of a synergistic effect have been observed when co-digestion of the mixtures was performed. PMID:22988607

Hidalgo, D; Sastre, E; Gómez, M; Nieto, P


Pre-Admission Patient Treatment Times in The Emergency Room Silas Beach Hays Army Community Hospital.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author conducted a retrospective study to identify variables that influence the length of the total time needed to admit patients via the Emergency Room (ER) at an army medical treatment facility. Total time was an aggregate measurement that included ...

H. E. Schloss



Volume-targeted therapy of increased intracranial pressure: the Lund concept unifies surgical and non-surgical treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinions differ widely on the various treatment protocols for sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). This review fo- cuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. Based on these mechanisms we describe a proto- col called 'volume-targeted' ('Lund concept') for treatment of increased ICP. The driving force for transcapillary fluid exchange is deter- mined by the balance between




Chronic ouabain treatment increases the contribution of nitric oxide to endothelium-dependent relaxation.  


The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of nitric oxide, prostacyclin and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor to endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by acetylcholine in rat aorta from control and ouabain-induced hypertensive rats. Preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME) inhibited the vasodilator response to acetylcholine in segments from both groups but to a greater extent in segments from ouabain-treated rats. Basal and acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide release were higher in segments from ouabain-treated rats. Preincubation with the prostacyclin synthesis inhibitor tranylcypromine or with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin inhibited the vasodilator response to acetylcholine in aortic segments from both groups. The Ca2+-dependent potassium channel blocker charybdotoxin inhibited the vasodilator response to acetylcholine only in segments from control rats. These results indicate that hypertension induced by chronic ouabain treatment is accompanied by increased endothelial nitric oxide participation and impaired endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor contribution in acetylcholine-induced relaxation. These effects might explain the lack of effect of ouabain treatment on acetylcholine responses in rat aorta. PMID:19043981

Aras-López, R; Blanco-Rivero, J; Hernanz, R; Briones, A M; Rossoni, L V; Ferrer, M; Salaices, M; Balfagón, G



Local Bisphosphonate Treatment Increases Fixation of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Implants Inserted with Bone Compaction  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that fixation of primary cementless joint replacement can independently be enhanced by either: (1) use of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implants, (2) compaction of the peri-implant bone, or (3) local application of bisphosphonate. We investigated whether the combined effect ofHAcoating and bone compaction can be further enhanced with the use of local bisphosphonate treatment .HA-coated implants were bilaterally inserted into the proximal tibiae of 10 dogs. On one side local bisphosphonate was applied prior to bone compaction. Saline was used as control on the contralateral side. Implants were evaluated with histomorphometry and biomechanical pushout test. We found that bisphosphonate increased the peri-implant bone volume fraction (1.3-fold), maximum shear strength (2.1-fold), and maximum shear stiffness (2.7-fold). No significant difference was found in bone-to-implant contact or total energy absorption. This study indicates that local alendronate treatment can further improve the fixation of porous-coated implants that have also undergone HA-surface coating and peri-implant bone compaction.

Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, J?rgen; Kold, S?ren; Bechtold, Joan E.; Elmengaard, Brian; S?balle, Kjeld



Effect of increasing amounts of supplemental progesterone in a timed artificial insemination protocol on fertility of lactating dairy cows.  


The objectives were to evaluate the effect of supplemental progesterone during a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol on pregnancy per insemination and pregnancy loss. Lactating dairy cows from 2 dairy herds were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2alpha) 14 d apart, and cows observed in estrus following the second PGF(2alpha) injection were inseminated (n = 1,301). Cows not inseminated by 11 d after the end of the presynchronization were submitted to the TAI protocol (d 0 GnRH, d 7 PGF(2alpha), d 8 estradiol cypionate, and d 10 TAI). On the day of the GnRH of the TAI protocol (study d 0), cows were assigned randomly to receive no exogenous progesterone (control = 432), one controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert (CIDR1 = 440), or 2 CIDR inserts (CIDR2 = 440) containing 1.38 g of progesterone each from study d 0 to 7. Blood was sampled on study d 0 before insertion of CIDR for determination of progesterone concentration in plasma, and cows with concentration <1.0 ng/mL were classified as low progesterone (LP) and those with concentration > or =1.0 ng/mL were classified as high progesterone (HP). From a subgroup of 240 cows, blood was sampled on study d 3, 7, 17 and 24 and ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d 0 and 7. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 38 +/- 3 and 66 +/- 3 d after AI. Data were analyzed including only cows randomly assigned to treatments and excluding cows that were inseminated after the second PGF(2alpha) injection. The proportion of cows classified as HP at the beginning of the TAI protocol was similar among treatments, but differed between herds. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma during the TAI protocol increased linearly with number of CIDR used, and the increment was 0.9 ng/mL per CIDR. The proportion of cows with plasma progesterone > or =1.0 ng/mL on study d 17 was not affected by treatment, but a greater proportion of control than CIDR-treated cows had asynchronous estrous cycles following the TAI protocol. Treatment with CIDR inserts, however, did not affect pregnancy at 38 +/- 3 and 66 +/- 3 d after AI or pregnancy loss. PMID:19841206

Lima, J R; Rivera, F A; Narciso, C D; Oliveira, R; Chebel, R C; Santos, J E P



Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.  


We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol) was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max) of 5 min) and a C(max) of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max) for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results are being utilized to design prototype dosage forms for initial human pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23613954

Holmes, Eric H; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Li, Libin; Perdue, Michael L; Ostrander, Gary K



Species richness effects on ecosystem functioning increase with time in an ephemeral resource system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrapolating the results from experiments on effects of species loss to natural systems is difficult since most studies, with the exception of microbial microcosm studies, have been performed on relatively short time-scales. One problem with short-term, experimental studies is that complex interactions between species in natural systems may alter the importance of underlying mechanisms over time thus making the effects

Micael Jonsson



RF performance increase allowing IC timing adjustments by use of backside FIB processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dealing with timing related soft fails has become predominant with recent technologies and is expected more so future. A backside FIB edit procedure allowed trimming of internal timing conditions, with demonstrated FIB-induced speed enhancement > 20%. This proposed technique seems applicable to any on chip circuitry, expanding rapid prototyping options.

R. Schlangen; R. Leihkauf; T. Lundquist; P. Egger; C. Boit



Increasing platelets without transfusion: is it time to introduce novel thrombopoietic agents in neonatal care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food and Drug Administration recently approved two novel thrombopoiesis-stimulating agents, Romiplostim (AMG-531, Nplate) and Eltrombopag (Promacta), for the treatment of adults with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. For physicians taking care of critically ill neonates, this offers the opportunity of decreasing platelet transfusions and potentially improving the outcomes of neonates with severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. However, several developmental factors need to

H Sallmon; R K Gutti; F Ferrer-Marin; Z-J Liu; M C Sola-Visner



Small doses of arginine vasopressin in combination with norepinephrine "buy" time for definitive treatment for uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats.  


Implementation of fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion are greatly limited in prehospital or evacuation settings after severe trauma or war wounds. With uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock rats, we investigated if arginine vasopressin (AVP) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) is independent (or slightly dependent) of fluid resuscitation and can "buy" time for the subsequently definitive treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock in the present study. The results showed that AVP (0.4 U/kg) alone or with NE (3 ?g/kg) with one-eighth and one-fourth volumes of total blood volume of lactated Ringer's infusion significantly increased and maintained the mean arterial pressure. Among all groups, 0.4 U/kg of AVP + NE (3 ?g/kg) with one-eighth volume of lactated Ringer's infusion had the best effect: it significantly increased and maintained hemodynamics and prolonged the survival time. This early treatment strategy significantly improved the effects of subsequently definitive treatments (after bleeding controlled): it increased the subsequent survival, improved the hemodynamic parameters, improved the cardiac function, and increased the tissue blood flow and oxygen delivery. These results suggested that early application of small doses of AVP (0.4 U/kg) + NE before bleeding control can "buy" time for the definitive treatment of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, which may be an effective measure for the early treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock. PMID:24089002

Liu, Liangming; Tian, Kunlun; Xue, Mingying; Zhu, Yu; Lan, Dan; Peng, Xiaoyong; Wu, Yue; Li, Tao



Increased Risk of Diabetes and Likelihood of Receiving Diabetes Treatment in Patients with Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Objective Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder that has been mechanistically linked to type II diabetes mellitus. We sought to assess the risk of incident diabetes in patients with psoriasis and to evaluate diabetes treatment patterns among patients with psoriasis and incident diabetes. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting UK-based electronic medical records. Patients We matched 108,132 psoriasis patients aged 18–90 years to 430,716 unexposed patients based on practice and time of visit. For our nested study, only patients who developed incident diabetes during our study time were included. Main Outcome Measure(s) Incident diabetes and adjusted risk of pharmacotherapy among those with incident diabetes. Results The fully adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident diabetes were 1.14 (1.10–1.18), 1.11 (1.07, 1.15), and 1.46 (1.30, 1.65) in the overall, mild and severe psoriasis groups, respectively. Among those with incident diabetes and severe psoriasis, the adjusted risk for receiving diabetes pharmacotherapy was 1.55 (1.15–2.10). Conclusions Our results suggest that psoriasis is an independent risk factor for the development of type II diabetes mellitus in a dose dependent manner, and that patients with severe psoriasis who develop diabetes are more likely to receive systemic diabetic therapies in comparison to diabetics without psoriasis.

Azfar, Rahat S.; Seminara, Nicole M.; Shin, Daniel B.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Margolis, David J.; Gelfand, Joel M.



The toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos increases through sewage treatment processes.  


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely believed to be retained in the sewage sludge during sewage treatment. The AgNPs and their derivatives, however, re-enter the environment with the sludge and via the effluent. AgNP were shown to occur in surface water, while evidence of a potential toxicity of AgNPs in aquatic organisms is growing. This study aims to examine the toxicity of AgNPs to the embryos of the aquatic vertebrate model zebrafish (Danio rerio) before and after sewage treatment plants (STPs) processes. Embryos were treated with AgNP (particle size: >90 % <20 nm) and AgNO3 in ISO water for 48 h and consequently displayed effects such as delayed development, tail malformations and edema. For AgNP, the embryos were smaller than the controls with conspicuously smaller yolk sacs. The corresponding EC50 values of 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) were determined as 73 ?g/l for AgNO3 and 1.1 mg/l for AgNP. Whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons also revealed secondary neurotoxic effects. A TEM analysis confirmed uptake of the AgNPs, and the distribution within the embryo suggested absorption across the skin. Embryos were also exposed (for 48 h) to effluents of AgNP-spiked model STP with AgNP influent concentrations of 4 and 16 mg/l. These embryos exhibited the same malformations than for AgNO3 and AgNPs, but the embryo toxicity of the sewage treatment effluent was higher (EC50 = 142 ?g/l; 48 hpf). On the other hand, control STP effluent spiked with AgNPs afterwards was less toxic (EC50 = 2.9 mg/l; 48 hpf) than AgNPs in ISO water. This observation of an increased fish embryo toxicity of STP effluents with increasing AgNP influent concentrations identifies the accumulation of AgNP in the STP as a potential source of effluent toxicity. PMID:23975539

Muth-Köhne, Elke; Sonnack, Laura; Schlich, Karsten; Hischen, Florian; Baumgartner, Werner; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina



Does Global Warming Increase Establishment Rates of Invasive Alien Species? A Centurial Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the relationship between global warming and establishment rate of

Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi Zhang; Howard Browman



The solids retention time—a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropollutants as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) or pharmaceuticals are of increased interest in water pollution control. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are relevant point sources for residues of these compounds in the aquatic environment. The solids retention time (SRT) is one important parameter for the design of WWTPs, relating to growth rate of microorganisms and to effluent concentrations. If a

M. Clara; N. Kreuzinger; B. Strenn; O. Gans; H. Kroiss



Increasing Whole Grain Intake as Part of Prevention and Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

In conjunction with the rise in rates of obesity, there has been an increase in the rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While NAFLD at least partially originates from poor diet, there is a lack of nutritional recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed diagnosis of NAFLD, beyond eating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and emphasising weight loss. The limited current literature suggests that there may be opportunities to provide more tailored dietary advice for people diagnosed with or at risk of NAFLD. Epidemiological studies consistently find associations between whole grain intake and a reduced risk of obesity and related diseases, yet no work has been done on the potential of whole grains to prevent and/or be a part of the treatment for fatty liver diseases. In this review, we examine the potential and the current evidence for whole grains having an impact on NAFLD. Due to their nutrient and phytochemical composition, switching from consuming mainly refined grains to whole grains should be considered as part of the nutritional guidelines for patients diagnosed with or at risk for fatty liver disease.

Ross, Alastair B.; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Minehira, Kaori; Kirwan, John P.



Increasing whole grain intake as part of prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.  


In conjunction with the rise in rates of obesity, there has been an increase in the rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While NAFLD at least partially originates from poor diet, there is a lack of nutritional recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed diagnosis of NAFLD, beyond eating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and emphasising weight loss. The limited current literature suggests that there may be opportunities to provide more tailored dietary advice for people diagnosed with or at risk of NAFLD. Epidemiological studies consistently find associations between whole grain intake and a reduced risk of obesity and related diseases, yet no work has been done on the potential of whole grains to prevent and/or be a part of the treatment for fatty liver diseases. In this review, we examine the potential and the current evidence for whole grains having an impact on NAFLD. Due to their nutrient and phytochemical composition, switching from consuming mainly refined grains to whole grains should be considered as part of the nutritional guidelines for patients diagnosed with or at risk for fatty liver disease. PMID:23762052

Ross, Alastair B; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Minehira, Kaori; Kirwan, John P



Doctorate Awards Increase in S&E Overall, but Computer Science Declines for First Time  

NSF Publications Database

... Time (November 7, 1997) This report highlights data on persons who earned research doctorates in S/E ... Earned Doctorates collected this data from all persons in U.S. research universities as they ...


Waiting Time as a Barrier to Treatment Entry: Perceptions of Substance Users  

PubMed Central

Many substance users report that they experience multiple barriers that produce significant challenges to linking with treatment services. Being on a waiting list is frequently mentioned as a barrier, leading some people to give up on treatment and to continue using, while prompting others to view sobriety during the waiting period as proof they do not need treatment. This ethnographic study examines the views that 52 substance users have of the waiting time before treatment and the strategies they created to overcome it. Understanding how substance users react to waiting time itself and in relation to other barriers can lead to services that are effective in encouraging treatment linkage.

Redko, Cristina; Rapp, Richard C.; Carlson, Robert G.



Timing of prostaglandin F2? treatment in an estrogen-based protocol for timed artificial insemination or timed embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows.  


Objectives were to investigate progesterone concentrations and fertility comparing 2 different intervals from PGF(2?) treatment and induced ovulation in an estrogen-based ovulation synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET) in lactating dairy cows. A total of 1,058 lactating Holstein cows [primiparous (n=371) and multiparous (n=687)], yielding 34.1 ± 0.33 kg of milk/d at various days in milk were randomly assigned to receive treatment with PGF(2?) on either d 7 or 8 of the following protocol: d 0: 2mg of estradiol benzoate + controlled internal drug release device; d 8: controlled internal drug release device removal + 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate; d 10: TAI or d 17: TET. Only cows with a corpus luteum at d 17 received an embryo and all cows received GnRH at TET. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by detection (transrectal ultrasonography) of an embryo on d 28 or a fetus on d 60. Fertility [pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) or pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET)] was affected by breeding technique (AI vs. ET) and time of PGF(2?) treatment (d 7 vs. 8) at the 28-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [32.9% (238) vs. 20.6% (168)] and TET cows [47% (243) vs. 40.7% (244)] and at the 60-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [30% (238) vs. 19.2% (168)] and TET cows [37.9% (243) vs. 33.5% (244)]. The progesterone (P4) concentration at d 10 altered fertility in TAI cows, with higher P/AI in cows with P4 concentration <0.1 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ? 0.1 ng/mL, and in ET cows, with higher P/ET in cows with P4 concentration <0.22 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ? 0.22 ng/mL. Prostaglandin F(2?) treatment at d 7 increased the percentage of cows with P4 <0.1 ng/mL on d 10 [39.4 (85) vs. 23.2 (54)]. Reducing the period between PGF(2?) and TAI from 72 to 48 h in dairy cows resulted in a clear reduction in fertility in cows bred by TAI and a subtle negative effect in cows that received TET. The earlier PGF(2?) treatment benefits are most likely mediated through gamete transport, fertilization, or early embryo development and a more subtle effect of earlier PGF(2?) treatment that may be mediated through changes in the uterine or hormonal environment that manifests itself after ET on d 7. PMID:23498008

Pereira, M H C; Sanches, C P; Guida, T G; Rodrigues, A D P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Borges, P T; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M



Double dissociation: circadian off-peak times increase emotional reactivity; aging impairs emotion regulation via reappraisal.  


This study explored how the effectiveness of specific emotion regulation strategies might be influenced by aging and by time of day, given that in older age the circadian peak in cognitive performance is earlier in the day. We compared the benefit gained by 40 older (60-78 years; 20 women) and 40 younger (18-30 years; 20 women) adults during either on-peak or off-peak circadian times on 2 specific types of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: distraction and reappraisal. Participants rated their negative emotional responses to negative and neutral images under 3 conditions: a baseline nonregulation condition, a distraction condition involving a working memory task, and a reappraisal condition that involved reinterpreting the situation displayed using specific preselected strategies. First, as hypothesized, there was a crossover interaction such that participants in each age group reported more negative reactivity at their off-peak time of day. Second, a double dissociation was observed as circadian rhythms affected only negative reactivity-with reactivity highest at off-peak times-and aging diminished reappraisal but not distraction ability or reactivity. These findings add to growing evidence that understanding the effects of aging on emotion and emotion regulation depends on taking both time of day and type of regulatory strategy into account. PMID:22642354

Tucker, Adrienne M; Feuerstein, Rebecca; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Ochsner, Kevin N; Stern, Yaakov



Double Dissociation: Circadian Off-Peak Times Increase Emotional Reactivity; Aging Impairs Emotion Regulation Via Reappraisal  

PubMed Central

This study explored how the effectiveness of specific emotion regulation strategies might be influenced by aging and by time of day, given that in older age the circadian peak in cognitive performance is earlier in the day. We compared the benefit gained by 40 older (60–78 years; 20 women) and 40 younger (18–30 years; 20 women) adults during either on-peak or off-peak circadian times on 2 specific types of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: distraction and reappraisal. Participants rated their negative emotional responses to negative and neutral images under 3 conditions: a baseline nonregulation condition, a distraction condition involving a working memory task, and a reappraisal condition that involved reinterpreting the situation displayed using specific preselected strategies. First, as hypothesized, there was a crossover interaction such that participants in each age group reported more negative reactivity at their off-peak time of day. Second, a double dissociation was observed as circadian rhythms affected only negative reactivity—with reactivity highest at off-peak times—and aging diminished reappraisal but not distraction ability or reactivity. These findings add to growing evidence that understanding the effects of aging on emotion and emotion regulation depends on taking both time of day and type of regulatory strategy into account.

Tucker, Adrienne M.; Feuerstein, Rebecca; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Stern, Yaakov



Method and computer product to increase accuracy of time-based software verification for sensor networks  


A recursive verification protocol to reduce the time variance due to delays in the network by putting the subject node at most one hop from the verifier node provides for an efficient manner to test wireless sensor nodes. Since the software signatures are time based, recursive testing will give a much cleaner signal for positive verification of the software running on any one node in the sensor network. In this protocol, the main verifier checks its neighbor, who in turn checks its neighbor, and continuing this process until all nodes have been verified. This ensures minimum time delays for the software verification. Should a node fail the test, the software verification downstream is halted until an alternative path (one not including the failed node) is found. Utilizing techniques well known in the art, having a node tested twice, or not at all, can be avoided.

Foo Kune, Denis (Saint Paul, MN); Mahadevan, Karthikeyan (Mountain View, CA)



Adderall ® produces increased striatal dopamine release and a prolonged time course compared to amphetamine isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Adderall® is currently used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and is composed of a novel mixture\\u000a of approximately 24% l-amphetamine and 76% d-amphetamine salts. There are, however, no investigations of the pharmacological effects of this combination in vivo.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The technique of high-speed chronoamperometry using Nafion®-coated single carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to study amphetamine-evoked dopamine (DA) release produced

B. Matthew Joyce; Paul E. A. Glaser; Greg A. Gerhardt



Increased Survival with Methylprednisolone Post-Treatment in Lethal Endotoxin Shock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of corticosteroids has long been intensively studied for the treatment of septic shock; however, there still remains much controversy over their use. This study was designed to determine the therapeutic value of post-treatment with methylprednisol...

G. L. White L. T. Archer B. K. Beller L. B. Hinshaw



Evaluation of Reaction Time in Virtual Reality environment for road safety increasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road safety is actually an overall objective of all industrialized countries. Design and development standards for roads and infrastructures' management are considered the main strategy to assure an adequate safety level. Since reaction time impacts on many design standards, they are based on kinetic and dynamic assumptions. Technical regulations for road design and institutional laws often disagree, both about conceptual

A. Benedetto; C. Benedetto


Single Machine Scheduling with Deadlines and Increasing Rates of Processing Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper considers the single-machine scheduling problem in which thejob release dates can be compressed while incurring additional costs. The twocriteria are maximum lateness and compression cost. For the case of equal jobprocessing times, an O(n) algorithm is developed to construct the breakpointsof a piecewise linear ecient frontier. The complexity status of the problem withother scheduling criteria is also

T. C. Edwin Cheng; Qing Ding



The Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools: Cultural Recognition in a Time of Increasing Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools" examines cultural recognition and the struggle for identity in America's schools. In particular, the contributing authors focus on the recognition and misrecognition as antagonistic cultural forces that work to shape, and at times distort identity. What surfaces throughout the chapters are two…

Jenlink, Patrick M., Ed; Townes, Faye Hicks, Ed



A Quantity Discount Pricing Model to Increase Vendor Profits in a Just - in - Time (JIT) Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just-in-Time is one of the many improvement techniques that is in vogue such as World Class Manufacturing, Total Quality Management (TQM). The principle feature of JIT approach concerns the management of inventories. It aims to create a zero or low inventory operating system. The primary objective quality and productivity through the elimination of waste. Waste is defined as anything other

A. Aparna



A fuel treatment reduces fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a mixed conifer forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel treatments are being implemented on public and private lands across the western United States. Although scientists and managers have an understanding of how fuel treatments can modify potential fire behaviour under modelled conditions, there is limited information on how treatments perform under real wildfire conditions in Sierran mixed conifer forests. The Bell Fire started on 22 September 2005 on

Jason J. MoghaddasA; Larry CraggsA


Are case management services associated with increased utilization of adolescent mental health treatment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention in treatment is one of the strongest predictors of positive mental health outcomes. Adolescents, however, are particularly challenging to retain in mental health treatment. Concurrent case management services may offer one strategy for retaining youth in mental health treatment as it aims to reduce barriers to services, coordinate multiple services, and establish a consistent relationship between each client and

Kimberly Bender; Stephen Kapp; Sur Ah Hahn



Exercise as a Time-conditioning Effector in Chronic Disease: a Complementary Treatment Strategy  

PubMed Central

Exercise has been widely believed to be a preventive and therapeutic aid in the treatment of various pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A common problem associated with such pathologies is cachexia, characterized by progressive weight loss and depletion of lean and fat body mass, and is linked to poor prognosis. As this syndrome comprises changes in many physiological systems, it is tempting to assume that the modulation of the psychoneuroimmunoendocrine axis could attenuate or even prevent cachexia progression in cancer patients. Cancer cachexia is characterized by a disruption in the rhythmic secretion of melatonin, an important time-conditioning effector. This hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, transmits circadian and seasonal information to all organs and cells of the body, synchronizing the organism with the photoperiod. Considering that exercise modulates the immune response through at least two different mechanisms—metabolic and neuroendocrine—we propose that the adoption of a regular exercise program as a complementary strategy in the treatment of cancer patients, with the exercise bouts regularly performed at the same time of the day, will ameliorate cachexia symptoms and increase survival and quality of life.



Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increases in Milk When Cows Fed Fish Meal and Extruded Soybeans for an Extended Period of Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this studywas to determine the effect of feeding a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) stimulating diet for an extended period of time on milk cis-9, trans- 11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) concentrations. Twenty cows (16 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss) were divided into 2 groups (n = 10 per treatment) for a 10-wk study. Cows in group

A. A. AbuGhazaleh; D. J. Schingoethe; A. R. Hippen; K. F. Kalscheur



Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Increased Risk of Severe Malaria in Their Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background In areas of widespread sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, intermittent treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) fails to prevent placental malaria (PM) and may exacerbate drug resistant infections. Because PM predicts increased susceptibility to parasitemia during infancy, we hypothesized that IPTp would also increase susceptibility to malaria infection and disease in the offspring. Methods In a birth cohort from NE Tanzania, we evaluated the association between maternal IPTp use and risk of parasitemia and severe malaria in the offspring. Using Cox Proportional Hazards Models as well as Generalized Estimating Equations, we evaluated the effects of IPTp on the entire cohort and on subgroups stratified by PM status at delivery. Results and Conclusions Offspring of PM+ women who received IPTp had a dose-dependent decrease in time to first parasitemia (AHR?=?2.13, p?=?0.04 [95%CI: 1.04, 4.38]). Among all offspring, IPTp was associated with earlier first severe malaria episode (AHR?=?2.32, p?=?0.02 [95%CI: 1.12, 4.78]) as well as increased overall odds of severe malaria (AOR?=?2.31, p?=?0.03 [95%CI: 1.09, 4.88]). Cost-benefit analyses of IPTp regimens should consider the long term effects on offspring in addition to pregnancy outcomes.

Harrington, Whitney E.; Morrison, Robert; Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E.



Winery and distillery wastewater treatment by constructed wetland with shorter retention time.  


The rationale for using constructed wetlands for treating wastewater is that wetlands are naturally among the most biological active ecosystem on earth. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of shorter retention time on the performance of constructed wetland in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and other elements removal. The application of wastewater with retention time of seven days as well as the evaluation of water quality after treatment at Goudini experimental wetland was carried out throughout the year. The results had shown an overall average COD removal of 60% throughout the year. Results also showed reasonable removal of other elements namely; potassium, pH, nitrogen, electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, magnesium and boron from the wastewater by constructed wetlands. The results showed low COD removal during July until September after which it improved tremendously. The reason for low COD removal during first three months could be attributed to the fact that there was no gradual increase of wastewater application to the wetlands i.e. from 4,050 litres per day to 8,100 litres per day. The results had showed that constructed wetland as a secondary treatment system is effective in terms of COD and other elements removal from winery and distillery wastewater. COD removal throughout the year was 60% with seven days retention time. When compared with previous studies that showed 80% COD removal within 14 days retention time, therefore the 60% removal is very critical to wine industries as more wastewater will be applied to the system. PMID:20453335

Mulidzi, A R



Fluoxetine treatment and single psychotropic comedication: is there an increase in adverse event rates?  


After the market launch of fluoxetine (Flx) in Germany in 1990 several series of drug utilization observation studies were carried out under naturalistic conditions (approximately 19,000 patients). This paper focuses on 3158 patients from neuropsychiatric practices comparing adverse event rates plus additional variables in patient groups treated with Flx monotherapy (n=1571) versus those receiving comedication with a single psychotropic (n=737), or those subgroups receiving a single antidepressant (n=222) or antipsychotic drug (n=128). Compared to the monotherapy group, both the comedicated group as a whole and the antidepressant subgroup did not show significant changes in adverse event rates. The subgroup with antipsychotic comedication revealed somewhat higher adverse event rates; the pattern of adverse events, however, was largely comparable, and extrapyramidal symptoms were reported for only a few isolated cases. Thus, these findings suggest that--under naturalistic conditions--comedication of Flx with psychotropic drugs (a commonly used treatment strategy for various reasons) is feasible and does not generally increase patient risk. PMID:15073998

Dittmann, R W; Linden, M; Osterheider, M



TiO2 nanoparticles modified polydimethylsiloxane with fast response time and increased dielectric constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer nanocomposite has shown great potential and impact on a broad range of techniques since its properties can be tailored by nano-fillers. This paper reports a polymer nanocomposite with enhanced electro-mechanical performance by mixing TiO2 nanoparticles into polydimethylsiloxane. Nanocomposites with particle concentration up to 30 wt% were prepared. High energy ball milling and polyether-modified silicone dispersant were used to suppress the agglomeration and ensure a stable dispersion. Properties of the nanocomposites, i.e. elastic modulus, response time, dielectric constant and optical transmittance, were tuned by modifying the particle concentration. Optimized electro-mechanical properties were observed at 5 wt% TiO2 particles. This nanocomposite was applied to a MEMS spatial light modulator, which was fabricated using micro-machining technology. The device was driven by a 200 V dc voltage and had a response time of 6 µs.

Ouyang, G.; Wang, K.; Chen, X. Y.



On the Extension of Processing Time with Increase in Temperature during Transient-Liquid Phase Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient-liquid phase (TLP) bonding of a nickel-based superalloy, IN 738, was performed. Contrary to conventional TLP bonding\\u000a analytical models, which assume a parabolic relationship between liquid\\/solid interface migration and holding time, deviation\\u000a from this law was observed experimentally and by numerical simulation. The deviation, which is caused by reduction in solute\\u000a concentration gradient below a critical value, is suggested as

M. M. Abdelfatah; O. A. Ojo



Improved T2* Imaging without Increase in Scan Time: SWI Processing of 2D Gradient Echo.  


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:2D gradient-echo imaging is sensitive to T2* lesions (hemorrhages, mineralization, and vascular lesions), and susceptibility-weighted imaging is even more sensitive, but at the cost of additional scan time (SWI: 5-10 minutes; 2D gradient-echo: 2 minutes). The long acquisition time of SWI may pose challenges in motion-prone patients. We hypothesized that 2D SWI/phase unwrapped images processed from 2D gradient-echo imaging could improve T2* lesion detection.MATERIALS AND METHODS:2D gradient-echo brain images of 50 consecutive pediatric patients (mean age, 8 years) acquired at 3T were retrospectively processed to generate 2D SWI/phase unwrapped images. The 2D gradient-echo and 2D SWI/phase unwrapped images were compared for various imaging parameters and were scored in a blinded fashion.RESULTS:Of 50 patients, 2D gradient-echo imaging detected T2* lesions in 29 patients and had normal findings in 21 patients. 2D SWI was more sensitive than standard 2D gradient-echo imaging in detecting T2* lesions (P < .0001). 2D SWI/phase unwrapped imaging also improved delineation of normal venous structures and nonpathologic calcifications and helped distinguish calcifications from hemorrhage. A few pitfalls of 2D SWI/phase unwrapped imaging were noted, including worsened motion and dental artifacts and challenges in detecting T2* lesions adjacent to calvaria or robust deoxygenated veins.CONCLUSIONS:2D SWI and associated phase unwrapped images processed from standard 2D gradient-echo images were more sensitive in detecting T2* lesions and delineating normal venous structures and nonpathologic mineralization, and they also helped distinguish calcification at no additional scan time. SWI processing of 2D gradient-echo images may be a useful adjunct in cases in which longer scan times of 3D SWI are difficult to implement. PMID:23744690

Soman, S; Holdsworth, S J; Barnes, P D; Rosenberg, J; Andre, J B; Bammer, R; Yeom, K W



Increased efficacy for in-house validation of real-time PCR GMO detection methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the efficacy of the in-house validation of GMO detection methods (DNA isolation and real-time PCR, polymerase chain\\u000a reaction), a study was performed to gain insight in the contribution of the different steps of the GMO detection method to\\u000a the repeatability and in-house reproducibility. In the present study, 19 methods for (GM) soy, maize canola and potato were\\u000a validated

I. M. J. Scholtens-Toma; E. J. Kok; L. Hougs; B. Molenaar; J. T. N. M. Thissen; H. van der Voet



Triage effect on wait time of receiving treatment services and patients satisfaction in the emergency department: Example from Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Long wait time interval in emergency department (ED) of hospitals, from the patients’ point of view in ED is a major problem causing patients’ dissatisfaction and may result increasing in patient morbidity and indirectly nurses dissatisfaction. Evaluation of wait time intervals in ED and giving nursing feedback may improve the quality of services, as well as patient satisfaction. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of nursing triage on receiving treatment of wait time interval and satisfaction of the patients referring to ED in Shahid Rajaee hospital. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on patients those referring to Shahid Rajaee hospital in Karaj, Iran employing quasi experimental design d ividing in two experiment and control groups during 2009. This is a quasi-experimental study of which the data were collected by standard questionnaire covering patient satisfaction and measuring wait time. T-test, Mann-Whitney and frequency analysis were used to evaluate the effect of triage on wait time from receiving treatment services and patients’ satisfaction. Results: The findings showed that there was a significant difference between experiment and control groups regarding wait time from receiving treatment services and patients’ satisfaction. Conclusions: Triage could significantly reduce the wait time interval between patients’ entrance to ED to receive treatment services and enhance patients’ satisfaction. It may help nursing in emergency ward to have better performance and indirectly their satisfaction.

Khankeh, Hamid-Reza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Azizi-Naghdloo, Farah; Hoseini, Mohammad-Ali; Rahgozar, Mahdi



Factors responsible for increased susceptibility of mice to intestinal colonization after treatment with streptomycin.  

PubMed Central

Streptomycin sulfate (5 mg/ml) was added to the drinking water of Swiss white mice. After treatment for 1 week, the mice were challenged orogastrically with 10(8) Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells. The organism failed to multiply in the intestinal tract of either treated or untreated animals, but could be recovered from contents and tissues after 48 h. In a previous study, Salmonella typhimurium was shown to multiply in the intestines of streptomycin-treated but not untreated mice when 10(3) organisms were used as inoculum. Streptomycin administration had little effect on Eh, protein or carbohydrate concentrations of cecal contents, or intestinal motility. However, it caused a statistically significant increase in water content and pH of contents and a decrease in the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. S. typhimurium multiplied in pooled cecal contents obtained from both streptomycin-treated and untreated animals, but its multiplication rate and total populations were significantly greater in contents from treated animals. P. aeruginosa did not multiply in contents from either treated or untreated mice. Similar results were obtained when the organisms were inoculated into nutrient broth adjusted to simulate the pH levels and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in cecal contents of treated and untreated mice. The addition of brain heart infusion broth to cecal contents from untreated animals, in concentrations that support multiplication of S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa, did not reverse inhibition. The addition of VFA to cecal contents from treated animals to equal the concentration in cecal contents from untreated animals caused inhibition of a magnitude observed in cecal contents from untreated animals. The results indicate that VFA operating at the pH level of cecal contents of conventional mice inhibit the multiplication of both S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa and restrict colonization of the intestine by these organisms. The decrease in VFA concentrations that occurs as a result of streptomycin administration adequately explains the increased susceptibility of treated mice to colonization with S. typhimurium. It does not explain the increased susceptibility of treated mice to P. aeruginosa colonization, however.

Que, J U; Casey, S W; Hentges, D J



Preparation of Intravenous Stealthy Acyclovir Nanoparticles with Increased Mean Residence Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major cause of thromboplebitis, during acyclovir (ACV) parenteral administration is the high pH of its reconstituted solution\\u000a (pH 11). Its plasma half life is 2.5 h, requiring repeated administration which may result in excess of drug solubility leading\\u000a to possible renal damage and acute renal failure. The present study reports the efficiency of stealthy ACV nanoparticles (NPs)\\u000a to increase the mean

Amany O. Kamel; Gehanne A. S. Awad; Ahmed S. Geneidi; Nahed D. Mortada



Lithium treatment increases endothelial cell survival and autophagy in a mouse model of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Lithium previously has been shown to reduce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress in other in vitro and in vivo model systems. We investigated lithium’s effects on cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs) exposed to these types of stress and in a mouse model of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods Viability of cultured bovine CECs was determined by CellTiter-Glo. 2-month-old Col8a2Q455K/Q455K mutant (Q455K) and C57/Bl6 wild type animals were divided into two groups of 15 mice. Group I received 0.2% lithium carbonate-containing chow and Group II received control chow for 7 months. Confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot were performed. Results Pretreatment with lithium increased viability of cultured CECs after H2O2 and thapsigargin exposure compared with untreated controls (p<0.05). In vivo analysis of mouse corneal endothelium showed the following: endothelial cell density of lithium treated Q455K was higher than for untreated Q455K (p<0.01). transmission electron microscopy of lithium treated Q455K showed normal endothelium with enlarged autophagosomes, but untreated Q455K showed dilated ER and guttae. Compared with untreated Q455K endothelium, lithium treated Q455K showed significant upregulation of P62, Tmem74, Tm9sf1 and Tmem 166 by RT-PCR and of Atg5-12 conjugate by western blotting indicating that lithium treatment increased autophagy. Although RT-PCR unexpectedly showed increased levels of lithium response genes, caspase 12, Gsk3?, Arr?2 and Impa1, western blotting showed the expected downregulation of Arr?2 and Impa1 proteins in response to lithium treatment. Conclusions Lithium increases cultured CEC survival against ER and oxidative stress. Increased autophagy in lithium treated endothelium in a mouse model of FECD suggests autophagy may contribute to increased endothelial cell survival.

Kim, Eun Chul; Meng, Huan; Jun, Albert S



Using a Time Timer[TM] to Increase Appropriate Waiting Behavior in a Child with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to examine the use of a predictive stimulus (Time Timer[TM]) and delayed reinforcement to increase appropriate waiting behavior in a child with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items and activities. The study employed a changing criterion design across settings to gradually increase

Grey, Ian; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hayes, Deirdre



MARD: a new method to detect differential gene expression in treatment-control time courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Characterizing the dynamic regulation of gene expression by time course experiments is becoming more and more widely used. This makes it a frequently met problem to identify differentially expressed genes between the treatment and control time course. It is often difficult to compare expression patterns of a gene between two time courses for the following reasons: (1)the number of

Chao Cheng; Xiaotu Ma; Xiting Yan; Fengzhu Sun; Lei M. Li



Increased Physical Activity Not Decreased Energy Intake Is Associated with Inpatient Medical Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescent Females  

PubMed Central

There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11–19 years (14.3±1.8 years), with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall) and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire). Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability.

Higgins, Janine; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul



Increased physical activity not decreased energy intake is associated with inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females.  


There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11-19 years (14.3±1.8 years), with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall) and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire). Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability. PMID:23637854

Higgins, Janine; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul



Study of breakdown in yttrium aluminum garnet at subnanosecond times of increasing voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallographically oriented channels with bottlenecks in the regions of reflection of the pulses have been obtained in aluminum yttrium garnet during multipulsed nanosecond breakdown from the anode under voltages of 100-140 kV, and the propagation rate of the fronts of the phase transition in this voltage range has been determined. It has been shown that the character of the observed pattern of the sequential formation of separate chains of the complete breakdown structure indicates that the channel is formed only locally and immediately at the point of time of passing the breakdown front since the maximal field strength, the magnitude of which determines the diameter of the breakdown channel, is observed in the vicinity of the breakdown front.

Punanov, I. F.; Emlin, R. V.; Gilev, A. S.; Cholakh, S. O.



Tumor Growth Rate Determines the Timing of Optimal Chronomodulated Treatment Schedules  

PubMed Central

In host and cancer tissues, drug metabolism and susceptibility to drugs vary in a circadian (24 h) manner. In particular, the efficacy of a cell cycle specific (CCS) cytotoxic agent is affected by the daily modulation of cell cycle activity in the target tissues. Anti-cancer chronotherapy, in which treatments are administered at a particular time each day, aims at exploiting these biological rhythms to reduce toxicity and improve efficacy of the treatment. The circadian status, which is the timing of physiological and behavioral activity relative to daily environmental cues, largely determines the best timing of treatments. However, the influence of variations in tumor kinetics has not been considered in determining appropriate treatment schedules. We used a simple model for cell populations under chronomodulated treatment to identify which biological parameters are important for the successful design of a chronotherapy strategy. We show that the duration of the phase of the cell cycle targeted by the treatment and the cell proliferation rate are crucial in determining the best times to administer CCS drugs. Thus, optimal treatment times depend not only on the circadian status of the patient but also on the cell cycle kinetics of the tumor. Then, we developed a theoretical analysis of treatment outcome (TATO) to relate the circadian status and cell cycle kinetic parameters to the treatment outcomes. We show that the best and the worst CCS drug administration schedules are those with 24 h intervals, implying that 24 h chronomodulated treatments can be ineffective or even harmful if administered at wrong circadian times. We show that for certain tumors, administration times at intervals different from 24 h may reduce these risks without compromising overall efficacy.

Bernard, Samuel; Cajavec Bernard, Branka; Levi, Francis; Herzel, Hanspeter



Observation of increases in emission from modern vehicles over time in Hong Kong using remote sensing.  


In this study on-road gaseous emissions of vehicles are investigated using remote sensing measurements collected over three different periods. The results show that a high percentage of gaseous pollutants were emitted from a small percentage of vehicles. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) vehicles generally have higher gaseous emissions compared to other vehicles, particularly among higher-emitting vehicles. Vehicles with high vehicle specific power (VSP) tend to have lower CO and HC emissions while petrol and LPG vehicles tend to have higher NO emissions when engine load is high. It can be observed that gaseous emission factors of petrol and LPG vehicles increase greatly within 2 years of being introduced to the vehicle fleet, suggesting that engine and catalyst performance deteriorate rapidly. It can be observed that LPG vehicles have higher levels of gaseous emissions than petrol vehicles, suggesting that proper maintenance of LPG vehicles is essential in reducing gaseous emissions from vehicles. PMID:22325426

Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S



Time-Varying Smoking Abstinence Predicts Lower Depressive Symptoms Following Smoking Cessation Treatment  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The question of whether abstinence during the months following a planned quit attempt exacerbates or improves depressive symptoms is an important clinical issue. Extant research has primarily modeled between-person covariation between postquit abstinence and depressive symptom trajectories. However, this approach cannot account for potential third variables between participants that may affect both smoking and depression. Accordingly, the current study examined within-person covariation between time-varying abstinence and depressive symptom in a multilevel model (MLM), which allowed for transitions between smoking statuses within a participant. Methods: Participants were 236 heavy drinking smokers in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of incorporating brief alcohol intervention into smoking cessation treatment. Depressive symptoms and biochemically verified abstinence were assessed 1 week prior to and 2, 8, 16, and 26 weeks after quit date. Results: MLMs indicated a slight increase in depressive symptoms over time in the sample as a whole. However, there was an inverse relation between time-varying abstinence (vs. smoking) and concurrent level of depressive symptoms, indicating that transitions from smoking to abstinence within individuals were associated with reductions in depressive symptoms. Conclusions: During the first 6 months following a planned quit attempt, being abstinent in a particular week appears to be associated with lower levels of concurrent depressive symptoms. These results are not concordant with the view that intentional smoking abstinence exacerbates depressive symptoms. Efforts to promote smoking cessation should highlight that individuals are likely to feel more rather than less psychologically healthy when they successfully quit smoking.

Spillane, Nichea S.; Busch, Andrew M.; Leventhal, Adam M.



Increasing the Social Networks of Isolated Elderly: Treatment and Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Community Aging Program is a demonstration outpatient, mental health program designed to study and treat elderly individuals. The individual's skills relevant to living independently are assessed and those individuals with deficits enter an appropriate treatment program. Two of the treatment programs or modules help the individual adjust to…

Schonfeld, Lawrence; Dupree, Larry W.


Ultrasonic impact treatment as a way of increasing welded connections strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of surface hardening of welded joints for various types of steel have been elongated with the help of ultrasonic impact treatment, replacing thermal one in removing the residual tensile stress. Thermal one cannot be used always because it is expensive and impossible in important large-sized welded productions (bridges, heavy haulers, etc.) working under variable loading. Ultrasonic impact treatment coupled

O. N. Nekhoroshkov; V. A. Klimenov; P. P. Kaminskiy; B. S. Semukhin



Irritability Rather Than Depression During Interferon Treatment Is Linked to Increased Tryptophan Catabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Treatment with recombinant interferon is associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. We investigated the relation between catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan, being rate-limiting of peripheral and cerebral serotonin formation, and psychiatric symptoms in patients undergoing combination treatment with interferon- and ribavirin. Patients and Methods: Eighteen patients with viral hepatitis C who received interferon were included. A




Increased kidney size and glomerular filtration rate in untreated juvenile diabetes: Normalization by insulin-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and roentgenographic kidney size were measured in six newly diagnosed male diabetics with a mean age of 25 years. Glomerular filtration rate was elevated before treatment to the same extent as found previously. A significant fall in both kidney size and glomerular filtration rate was found after treatment with insulin for 3

C. E. Mogensen; M. J. F. Andersen



Increased detection of mastitis pathogens by real-time PCR compared to bacterial culture.  


Rapid and accurate identification of mastitis pathogens is important for disease control. Bacterial culture and isolate identification is considered the gold standard in mastitis diagnosis but is time consuming and results in many culture-negative samples. Identification of mastitis pathogens by PCR has been proposed as a fast and sensitive alternative to bacterial culture. The results of bacterial culture and PCR for the identification of the aetiological agent of clinical mastitis were compared. The pathogen identified by traditional culture methods was also detected by PCR in 98 per cent of cases indicating good agreement between the positive results of bacterial culture and PCR. A mastitis pathogen could not be recovered from approximately 30 per cent of samples by bacterial culture, however, an aetiological agent was identified by PCR in 79 per cent of these samples. Therefore, a mastitis pathogen was detected in significantly more milk samples by PCR than by bacterial culture (92 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively) although the clinical relevance of PCR-positive culture-negative results remains controversial. A mixed infection of two or more mastitis pathogens was also detected more commonly by PCR. Culture-negative samples due to undetected Staphylococcus aureus infections were rare. The use of PCR technology may assist in rapid mastitis diagnosis, however, accurate interpretation of PCR results in the absence of bacterial culture remains problematic. PMID:23976784

Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F



Behavioural treatment increases activity in the cognitive neuronal networks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  


Response cost and token approach (RCT) within the scope of a summer camp training is an effective treatment program for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is likely that intensive RCT training influences networks responsible for ADHD symptoms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was carried out in 12 children with ADHD before and after the RCT program and in 12 healthy control children twice. For fMRI, a Go/No-go paradigm was used to investigate the influence of RCT training on attention and impulsivity. The No-go condition revealed only weak activation in the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) before the training in children with ADHD compared to healthy children. However, this activation in these brain regions was significantly more pronounced after the training. This increase in hemodynamic response cannot be attributed merely to repetition of the measurement since the effect was not observed in healthy children. The increase in hemodynamic response in the ACC and right DLPFC was significantly associated with a reduction in response time variability and clinical symptoms in ADHD patients. After the RCT training, the children with ADHD demonstrated more pronounced activation of cortical structures which are typically related to response monitoring and self-control. It seems likely that children with ADHD learned more cognitive control in a continuous performance task as was revealed by both neuropsychological outcome and fMRI. PMID:22392009

Siniatchkin, Michael; Glatthaar, Nora; von Müller, Gabriele Gerber; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Wolff, Stephan; Knöchel, Silja; Steinmann, Elisabeth; Sotnikova, Anna; Stephani, Ulrich; Petermann, Franz; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter



Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the…

Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross



An 18Year Follow-Up of Patients Admitted to Methadone Treatment for the First Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18-year addiction career, 1985-2003, for 157 heroin dependent subjects (73% men; 49% human immunodeficiency virus seropositive) admitted for the first time to Stockholm's Methadone Maintenance Treatment program during 1989 to 1991 was analyzed with data from seven official registers and patient records. Regression analyses and incidence rates for various outcomes were calculated for subjects in first methadone maintenance treatment

Ingrid Davstad; Marlene Stenbacka; Anders Leifman; Anders Romelsjö




Microsoft Academic Search

In designing a regional treatment plant, the common procedure is to set its hydraulic capacity equal to the sum of the installed pump capacities of the contributing sewer systems. A reduction of the hydraulic capacity of the regional treatment plant at Wervershoof is possible, making optimal use of space-time variations of rainfall and the available storage in the combined sewer

A. J. M. Nelen; F. H. M. van de Ven; R. W. G. M. Melis


Prefrontal GABA levels in cocaine-dependent subjects increase with pramipexole and venlafaxine treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  There is evidence that prefrontal lobe GABA levels are low in cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals, and treatment with GABA\\u000a agonists decreases cocaine self-administration.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of the study is to measure changes in GABA levels in CD subjects at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with pramipexole,\\u000a venlafaxine, or placebo.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  CD subjects enrolled in a treatment trial for cocaine dependence

Chris C. Streeter; John Hennen; Yong Ke; J. Eric Jensen; Ofra Sarid-Segal; Leanne E. Nassar; Clifford Knapp; Angela A. Meyer; Tae Kwak; Perry F. Renshaw; Domenic A. Ciraulo



How to increase treatment effectiveness and efficiency in psychiatry: creative psychopharmacotherapy - part 2: creating favorable treatment context and fostering patients' creativity.  


Any medical or psychosocial treatment has two components, one associated with the specific effects of the treatment itself, and the other related to the treatment context, individual perception, imagination, subjective meaning and psychobiological response. Psychopharmacotherapy is a context dependent practice because different contexts affect the meaning of biological variables in different ways. Creation of favorable treatment context as well as creative collaboration with patients and their families may significantly improve treatment outcome. Positive therapeutic context is fundamental for treatment success in psychiatry because it may significantly increase placebo and decrease nocebo responses. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a creative synergism between clinical pharmacology and positive psychology of creativity in the frame of transdisciplinary holistic, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. PMID:24048397

Jakovljevi?, Miro



Human recombinant Cripto-1 increases doubling time and reduces proliferation of HeLa cells independent of pro-proliferation pathways.  


Human oncofetal protein Cripto-1 (CR-1) is overexpressed in many types of cancers. CR-1 binds to cell surface Glypican-1 to activate Erk1/2 MAPK and Akt pathways leading to cell proliferation. However, we show that treatment with recombinant CR-1 reduces proliferation of HeLa cells by increasing the doubling time without triggering cell death or cell cycle arrest. Using a comparative study with U-87 MG cells, we show that the pro-proliferative pathway of CR-1 is not effective in HeLa cells due to lower expression of Glypican-1. Further we show that treatment with recombinant CR-1 increases PTEN in HeLa cells leading to downregulation of PI3K/Akt pathway. The anti-proliferative effect gets potentiated when the pro-proliferative pathway is blocked. PMID:22182448

Das, Asim Bikas; Loying, Pojul; Bose, Biplab



Reducing Adolescents' Perceived Barriers to Treatment and Increasing Help-Seeking Intentions: Effects of Classroom Presentations by General Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Building Bridges to General Practice" (BBGP) program is an outreach initiative. It aims to reduce young peoples' perceived knowledge- and belief-based barriers to engaging in treatment and to increase their behavioral intentions to consult a general medical practitioner (GP) for physical and psychological problems. By increasing intentions,…

Wilson, Coralie Joy; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew



Hand Hygiene and Treatment Table Sanitizing in Chiropractic Teaching Institutions: Results of an Education Intervention to Increase Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to test an educational intervention designed to increase hand and treatment table sanitizing on 3 chiropractic college campuses using a theory-based intervention. The second purpose is to see if an increase in observed hand hygiene would be noted as a result of the intervention.

Marion W. Evans Jr.; Michael Ramcharan; Harrison Ndetan; Rod Floyd; Gary Globe; Mark Pfefer; James Brantingham



Management of patients with stroke: is it time to expand treatment options?  


Approximately 700,000 people in the United States have an ischemic stroke annually. Substantial research has tested therapies for the very early treatment of ischemic stroke but, to date, only intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial measures to restore perfusion have shown success. Despite a 15-year effort to increase the use of these therapies, only approximately 5% of patients with stroke are currently being treated. Although most patients with stroke have some neurological recovery, more than half of stroke survivors have residual impairments that lead to disability or long-term institutionalized care. Laboratory research has demonstrated several mechanisms that help the brain to recover after a stroke. New pharmacological and cell-based approaches that are known to promote brain plasticity are emerging from laboratory studies and may soon expand the window for stroke treatment to restore function. It is time to build on this knowledge and to translate the understanding of recovery after stroke into the clinical setting. Measures that might augment recovery should become a major focus of clinical research in stroke in the 21st century. PMID:23720339

Adams, Harold P; Nudo, Randolph J



Use of Exercise to Increase CD4 (+) T Lymphocytes Following Chemotherapy Treatment for Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is estimated to affect one in eight women in her lifetime. Treatment usually includes chemotherapy which can lead to several serious physical, emotional, and functional side effects. Along with the tumor cells, the normal, continually renewi...

A. M. Mastro



Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4

D. T. Woodley; R. A. Briggaman; A. S. Zelickson; T. A. Hamilton; J. S. Weiss; C. N. Ellis; J. J. Voorhees



Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress of the first year of a three-year research program. This program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.



Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants.  


Automatic fault detection is becoming increasingly important in wastewater treatment plant operation, given the stringent treatment standards and the need to protect the investment costs from the potential damage of an unchecked fault propagating through the plant. This paper describes the development of a real-time Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system based on an adaptive Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, used to compare the current plant operation with a correct performance model based on a reference data set and the output of three ion-specific sensors (Hach-Lange gmbh, Düsseldorf, Germany): two Nitratax NOx UV sensors, in the denitrification tank and downstream of the oxidation tanks, where an Amtax ammonium-N sensor was also installed. The algorithm was initially developed in the Matlab environment and then ported into the LabView 8.20 (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA) platform for real-time operation using a compact Field Point, a Programmable Automation Controller by National Instruments. The FDI was tested with a large set of operational data with 1 min sampling time from August 2007 through May 2008 from a full-scale plant. After describing the real-time version of the PCA algorithm, this was tested with nine months of operational data which were sequentially processes by the algorithm in order to simulate an on-line operation. The FDI performance was assessed by organizing the sequential data in two differing moving windows: a short-horizon window to test the response to single malfunctions and a longer time-horizon to simulate multiple unrepaired failures. In both cases the algorithm performance was very satisfactory, with a 100% failure detection in the short window case, which decreased to 84% in the long window setting. The short-window performance was very effective in isolating sensor failures and short duration disturbances such as spikes, whereas the long term horizon provided accurate detection of long-term drifts and proved robust enough to allow for some delay in failure recovery. The system robustness is based on the use of multiple statistics which proved instrumental in discriminating among the various causes of malfunctioning. PMID:19934517

Baggiani, F; Marsili-Libelli, S



[Does Iodine 131 treatment of goiter result in an acute increase of the volume and function of the thyroid gland?].  


Many textbooks claim that radioiodine (131I) treatment should be avoided in treatment of a goitre with substernal extension, due to fear of acute swelling of the gland with resulting respiratory problems. We examined patients with multinodular goitre, either nontoxic (n = 20) or toxic (n = 10) after treatment with 131I. An ultrasonically determined thyroid volume and thyroid function variables were investigated before and two, seven, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment. In nontoxic goitres the thyroid volume did not increase significantly, the maximum increase in the median volume being 4% on day 7. Serum levels of free T3 and free T4 indices increased by 20% (day 7) and 13% (day 14) (p = 0.002), respectively. Likewise thyroid volume in toxic nodular goitre did not change significantly after 131I treatment. None of the patients presented symptoms of tracheal compression. We conclude that 131I treatment of nontoxic as well as toxic multinodular goitre does not seem to increase thyroid volume. PMID:8545918

Nygaard, B; Faber, J O; Hegedüs, L



Short-term glucocorticoid treatment increases insulin secretion in islets derived from lean mice through multiple pathways and mechanisms.  


Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids leads to metabolic dysfunctions with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids induces severe impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We analyzed the effects of short-, and medium-term (2-120h) treatment with 50-200nM glucocorticoids on primary pancreatic islet cultures derived from lean C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to animal models of insulin resistance, beta-cells from lean mice respond with an increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, with a peak effect around 18-24h of treatment. Analyses of the insulin secretion response reveal that early and late phase responses are dissociated upon glucocorticoid treatment. Whereas late phase responses return to basal levels after long treatment, early phase responses remain increased over several days. Increased insulin secretion is also obtained by incubation with the inactive glucocorticoid dehydrocorticosterone, pointing to an important role of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in mediating glucocorticoid effects in beta-cells. Transcript profiling revealed differential regulation of genes involved in mediation of signal transduction, insulin secretion, stress and inflammatory responses. The results show that short- to medium-term glucocorticoid treatment of pancreatic islets derived from lean mice leads to an increased insulin release and may constitute an important parameter in changing towards a pro-diabetic phenotype. PMID:18984029

Hult, Malin; Ortsäter, Henrik; Schuster, Gertrud; Graedler, Florian; Beckers, Johannes; Adamski, Jerzy; Ploner, Alexander; Jörnvall, Hans; Bergsten, Peter; Oppermann, Udo



Effect of simvastatin versus placebo on treadmill exercise time until the onset of intermittent claudication in older patients with peripheral arterial disease at six months and at one year after treatment.  


Simvastatin significantly increased treadmill exercise time until onset of intermittent claudication from baseline by 54 seconds (a 24% increase, p <0.0001) at 6 months after treatment and by 95 seconds (a 42% increase, p <0.0001) at 1 year after treatment. At 6 months and 1 year after treatment with placebo, treadmill exercise time until onset of intermittent claudication was not significantly different from baseline exercise time. PMID:12972114

Aronow, Wilbert S; Nayak, Devraj; Woodworth, Steven; Ahn, Chul



Dose- and time-dependent increase of lysosomal enzymes in embryonic cartilage in vitro after ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Radiation doses of 20, 50 or 100 Gy caused the same time related decrease for RNA and proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in embryonic cartilage in vitro (4 days culture). In this paper, participation of lysosomes in this radiation response is investigated. Therefore, we employ a cytochemical method using beta-glycerophosphate as substrate for acid phosphatase (AP) detection. Increase of AP was found 2 days after irradiation and increased during the whole culture period. The increase was more pronounced with a higher radiation dose. Stimulation of AP activity explains the observed radiation response of RNA and PG synthesis.

Cornelissen, M.; de Ridder, L. (State Univ. of Gent (Belgium))



DNA replication timing, genome stability and cancer: late and/or delayed DNA replication timing is associated with increased genomic instability.  


Normal cellular division requires that the genome be faithfully replicated to ensure that unaltered genomic information is passed from one generation to the next. DNA replication initiates from thousands of origins scattered throughout the genome every cell cycle; however, not all origins initiate replication at the same time. A vast amount of work over the years indicates that different origins along each eukaryotic chromosome are activated in early, middle or late S phase. This temporal control of DNA replication is referred to as the replication-timing program. The replication-timing program represents a very stable epigenetic feature of chromosomes. Recent evidence has indicated that the replication-timing program can influence the spatial distribution of mutagenic events such that certain regions of the genome experience increased spontaneous mutagenesis compared to surrounding regions. This influence has helped shape the genomes of humans and other multicellular organisms and can affect the distribution of mutations in somatic cells. It is also becoming clear that the replication-timing program is deregulated in many disease states, including cancer. Aberrant DNA replication timing is associated with changes in gene expression, changes in epigenetic modifications and an increased frequency of structural rearrangements. Furthermore, certain replication timing changes can directly lead to overt genomic instability and may explain unique mutational signatures that are present in cells that have undergone the recently described processes of "chromothripsis" and "kataegis". In this review, we will discuss how the normal replication timing program, as well as how alterations to this program, can contribute to the evolution of the genomic landscape in normal and cancerous cells. PMID:23327985

Donley, Nathan; Thayer, Mathew J



Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

Wooley, John F.


Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

Wooley, John F.


Restriction of Working Time as a Method in the Treatment of Procrastination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Procrastination (pathologically postponing work on important tasks) is a clinically relevant disorder of self control. Patients with this disorder do not complete personally relevant tasks in time or not at all, or only under extreme pressure. Common treatment approaches combine various elements from psycho-educative and cognitive-behavioral interventions. In contrast, we present an approach focusing mainly on restricting working time

Margarita Engberding; Anna Höcker; Sarah Nieroba; Fred Rist


Time To Move from Presumptive Malaria Treatment to Laboratory-Confirmed Diagnosis and Treatment in African Children with Fever  

PubMed Central

Background to the debate: Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change. This debate examines whether enough evidence exists to support abandoning presumptive treatment and whether African health systems have the capacity to support a shift toward laboratory-confirmed rather than presumptive diagnosis and treatment of malaria in children under five.

D'Acremont, Valerie; Lengeler, Christian; Mshinda, Hassan; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Genton, Blaise



Sinterability of powder metallurgy tool steels produced with the application of heat-time treatment of the melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder metallurgy tool steels prepared from the powders of gas-atomized melts subjected to heat-time treatment were studied.\\u000a Material containing above 1.2% carbon, in addition to tungsten and molybdenum, exhibited a porosity decrease of 6–12% after\\u000a vacuum sintering at a temperature 70?C lower than that of solid-phase sintering. The increased sinterability of the alloys\\u000a was related to the presence of a

L. A. Poznyak; Y. V. Sorokin; N. P. Korzhova; O. V. Datskevich



Times of increased probability of large earthquakes ( M s ? 7.5) along the Mexican subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the method of pattern recognition of infrequent events, we explore the possibility of identifying the times of increased probability (TIP) of occurrence of large earthquakes (Ms ? 7.5) along the Mexican subduction zone. A TIP refers to a 5 year period within which a strong earthquake has a high probability of occurrence. We analyzed the seismicity for the regions

David A. Novelo-Casanova; Jose Alvarez-Moctezuma



New method for increasing matching accuracy and reducing process time of fingerprint data by the fractional Fourier transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of a limited number of related studies, a new data processing method for increasing matching accuracy and reducing process time in fingerprint authentication using the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) was proposed being also taken into account protection of personal information. The new method was based on the minimization of error rate (MER) obtained from the false acceptance

Reiko Iwai; Hiroyuki Yoshimura



2-D discrete element modeling of the fault zone considering the time-dependent increase of contact area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle based simulations such as the lattice solid modeling (Mora and Place, 1994; Abe et al., 2002) and the modeling using the discrete element method (Morgan and Boettcher, 1999) are very useful for investigating frictional behavior of the fault zone. We investigate the fault behavior using the discrete element method considering the effect of the time-dependent increase of contact area

M. Igami; B. Shibazaki; Y. Nakama



Age Differences in Timed Accurate Stepping With Increasing Cognitive and Visual Demand: A Walking Trail Making Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Impaired vision, cognition, and divided attention performance predict falls. Requiring both visual and cognitive input, the ability to step accurately is necessary to safely traverse challenging terrain conditions such as uneven or slippery surfaces. We compared healthy young and older adults in the time taken to step accurately under conditions of increasing cognitive and visual demand. Methods. Healthy Young

Neil B. Alexander; James A. Ashton-Miller; Bruno Giordani; Ken Guire; Albert B. Schultz



Caffeine treatment prevents age-related changes in ovine oocytes and increases cell numbers in blastocysts produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  


Maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are key regulators of both meiotic and mitotic cycles. Oocytes arrested at metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII) contain high levels of both kinases; however, these activities decline with age. Caffeine (an inhibitor of Myt1/Wee1 activity) can increase MPF and MAPK activities in ovine oocytes; however, the effects of caffeine treatment on the activation, nuclear configuration and developmental potential of ovine SC nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos were unknown. We examined the effects of aging and caffeine treatment on MPF and MAPK activities, activation, development, and nuclear remodeling of SCNT embryos. Both kinases reached maximum activities at 24-h postonset of maturation (hpm) and then decreased with time. The decline in MPF activity occurred rapidly, whereas MAPK activity declined more slowly. Caffeine treatment (10.0 mM) of aging oocytes prevented the decline in activities associated with both kinases and prevented the acquisition of activation competence by a single activation stimulus. However, treatment of aged oocytes with caffeine could not increase kinase activities or reverse the acquisition of activation competence. Enucleation did not affect kinase activities, but caffeine treatment significantly increased both. Caffeine treatment did not affect the decline in MPF or MAPK activities following activation or significantly affect development of parthenogenetically activated oocytes. When SCNT reconstructed embryos were treated with caffeine following fusion, no increase in the frequency of development to blastocyst was observed; however, a significant increase in the occurrence of nuclear envelope break-down (NEBD) and an increase in total cell numbers occurred. PMID:18673075

Lee, Joon-Hee; Campbell, Keith H S



Increasing the specific heat of cement paste by admixture surface treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific heat of cement paste was increased by 12% and the thermal conductivity was decreased by 40% by using as admixtures silane-treated silica fume and silane-treated carbon fibers. The specific heat was increased by the carbon fiber addition, due to fiber-matrix interface slippage. The increase was in the order: as-received fibers, ozone-treated fibers, dichromate-treated fibers, and silane-treated fibers, due

Yunsheng Xu; D. D. L. Chung



Increase of intestinal schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment in a Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni mixed focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent emergence of a mixed focus of Schistosoma haematobium–Schistosoma mansoni, in the lower delta of the Senegal river, requires adapted control programmes. A mass treatment with praziquantel was organised in April 1994 by local authorities in three villages where populations had been examined. A total of 2042 subjects participated. In Savoigne S. haematobium prevailed (53% for prevalence), in Diagambaly

J.-C. Ernould; K. Ba; B. Sellin



Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm



The social marketing approach: a way to increase reporting and treatment of sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for motivating communities to report

Amnon Boehm; Haya Itzhaky



Schnitzler's syndrome: increased levels of bone formation and angiogenesis factors are reduced after successful pefloxacin treatment.  


Schnitzler's syndrome is characterized by chronic urticaria and monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) M gammopathy, with other features including intermittent fever, joint and/or bone pain with radiologic evidence of osteosclerosis, lymphadenopathy, enlarged liver and/or spleen, leukocytosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The etiology of the syndrome remains obscure, although involvement of various cytokines has been proposed. Bone metabolism and angiogenesis markers are deregulated in Waldenström macroglobulinemia and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, but these markers have not been assessed in Schnitzler's syndrome. Herein, we report a patient with Schnitzler's syndrome who was treated with oral pefloxacin. Serum levels of osteoclast regulators, markers of bone remodeling and angiogenesis cytokines, were measured before treatment and serially after the initiation of treatment. High bone turnover and strikingly elevated levels of angiogenic cytokines were observed at diagnosis. Treatment with pefloxacin resulted in a normalization of the bone remodeling process and a significant reduction of angiogenic cytokines, with rapid and sustained improvement of symptoms, suggesting that these factors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Furthermore, pefloxacin was proven to be an effective treatment for patients with Schnitzler's syndrome. PMID:19064402

Kastritis, Efstathios; Katoulis, Alexandros; Terpos, Evangelos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Gavriatopoulopu, Maria; Dimopopoulos, Meletios A



The Social Marketing Approach: A Way to Increase Reporting and Treatment of Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…

Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya



The Social Marketing Approach: A Way to Increase Reporting and Treatment of Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…

Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya



Increased memory load-related frontal activation after estradiol treatment in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research shows that menopause is associated with changes in cognition in some older women. However, how estrogen loss and subsequent estrogen treatment affects cognition and particularly the underlying brain processes responsible for any cognitive changes is less well understood. We examined the ability of estradiol to modulate the manipulation of information in working memory and related brain activation in

Julie A. Dumas; Amanda M. Kutz; Magdalena R. Naylor; Julia V. Johnson; Paul A. Newhouse



Risedronate treatment does not increase microdamage in the canine femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical and trabecular bone from the femoral neck of 24 adult female beagle dogs was examined for microdamage following 2 years of treatment with risedronate (NE-58095). Specimens of the femoral neck, sectioned between the femoral head and the intertrochanteric groove, were bulk stained in 1 % basic fuchsin in graded alcohols and embedded in methylmethacrylate. Five transverse sections of 100

M. R. Forwood; D. B. Burr; Y. Takano; D. F. Eastman; P. N. Smith; J. D. Schwardt



Levels of Interferon-Gamma Increase after Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in a High-Transmission Setting  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated IFN-? levels before and after a six month course of isoniazid among individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a high-transmission setting. Design. A total of 26 household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were positive for LTBI by tuberculin skin test completed six months of treatment and submitted a blood sample for a follow-up examination. The IFN-? response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens was measured, and the results before and after the completion of LTBI treatment were compared. Results. Of the 26 study participants, 25 (96%) showed an IFN-? level higher than their baseline level before treatment (P ? 0.001). Only one individual had a decreased IFN-? level after treatment but remained positive for LTBI. Conclusion. In a high-transmission setting, the IFN-? level has increased after LTBI treatment. Further studies must be undertaken to understand if this elevation is transient.

Finkmoore, Brook; Machado, Almerio; Emodi, Krisztina; Riley, Lee W.; Arruda, Sergio



Investigation of Pitch and Jaw Width to Decrease Delivery Time of Helical Tomotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Helical tomotherapy plans using a combination of pitch and jaw width settings were developed for 3 patients previously treated for head and neck cancer. Three jaw widths (5, 2.5, and 1 cm) and 4 pitches (0.86, 0.43, 0.287, and 0.215) were used with a (maximum) modulation factor setting of 4. Twelve plans were generated for each patient using an identical optimization procedure (e.g., number of iterations, objective weights, and penalties, etc.), based on recommendations from TomoTherapy (Madison, WI). The plans were compared using isodose plots, dose volume histograms, dose homogeneity indexes, conformity indexes, radiobiological models, and treatment times. Smaller pitches and jaw widths showed better target dose homogeneity and sparing of normal tissue, as expected. However, the treatment time increased inversely proportional to the jaw width, resulting in delivery times of 24 {+-} 1.9 min for the 1-cm jaw width. Although treatment plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw were dosimetrically superior to plans produced with the 5-cm jaw, subsequent calculations of tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities suggest that these differences may not be radiobiologically meaningful. Because treatment plans produced with the 5-cm jaw can be delivered in approximately half the time of plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw (5.1 {+-} 0.6 min vs. 9.5 {+-} 1.1 min), use of the 5-cm jaw in routine treatment planning may be a viable approach to decreasing treatment delivery times from helical tomotherapy units.

Moldovan, Monica [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D., E-mail: [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Gibbons, John P. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lee, Tae Kyu [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Rosen, Isaac I. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Fields, Robert S. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Hogstrom, Kenneth R. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)



Variable-time reinforcement schedules in the treatment of socially maintained problem behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) consists of delivering a reinforcer on a time-based schedule, independent of responding. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of NCR as treatment for problem behavior have used fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement. In this study, the efficacy of NCR with variable-time (VT) schedules was evaluated by comparing the effects of VT and FT reinforcement schedules with 2 individuals who

CAROLE M. VAN CAMP; D C Lerman; M ICHAEL E. KELLEY; S A Contrucci; C M Vorndran



The eto1, eto2, and eto3 Mutations and Cytokinin Treatment Increase Ethylene Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by Increasing the Stability of ACS Protein  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis ethylene-overproducing mutants eto1, eto2, and eto3 have been suggested to affect the post-transcriptional regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS). Here, we present the positional cloning of the gene corresponding to the dominant eto3 mutation and show that the eto3 phenotype is the result of a missense mutation within the C-terminal domain of ACS9, which encodes one isoform of the Arabidopsis ACS gene family. This mutation is analogous to the dominant eto2 mutation that affects the C-terminal domain of the highly similar ACS5. Analysis of purified recombinant ACS5 and epitope-tagged ACS5 in transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that eto2 does not increase the specific activity of the enzyme either in vitro or in vivo; rather, it increases the half-life of the protein. In a similar manner, cytokinin treatment increased the stability of ACS5 by a mechanism that is at least partially independent of the eto2 mutation. The eto1 mutation was found to act by increasing the function of ACS5 by stabilizing this protein. These results suggest that an important mechanism by which ethylene biosynthesis is controlled is the regulation of the stability of ACS, mediated at least in part through the C-terminal domain.

Chae, Hyun Sook; Faure, Francois; Kieber, Joseph J.



Increased retention of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils induced by soil treatment with humic substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical recovery of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined from a soil before and after oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, and subsequently treated with increasing amounts of an exogenous humic acid and subjected to different incubation periods. The release of PAHs from soil depended on the specific structure and physico-chemical properties of each PAH, and increased with

P. Conte; A. Zena; G. Pilidis; A. Piccolo



Time-resolved investigation of the surface chemical modification of poly(ethylene naphthalate) by nitrogen plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low rf nitrogen plasma source was used to treat poly(ethylene-2, 6-naphthalate) web material. Nitrogen uptake, the N 1s centroid, the N 1s peak width, rearrangement of the ester (from the O 1s spectrum), and oxygen level were measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as a function of treatment time at several treatment conditions. The observed changes in surface chemistry with treatment time are roughly consistent with a dose response having a linear regime at low doses and a saturation regime at high doses (where dose is power/width/web speed). Hence, to a first approximation, the flux densities (to the web) of relevant species scale with power. As the dose increases, the distribution of nitrogen groups formed broadens and shifts toward higher N 1s binding energy, suggesting that a larger fraction of the nitrogen-containing species are amines at low doses and amides at higher doses. The breadth of the distribution of nitrogen-containing species appears to be strongly correlated with the amount of nitrogen incorporated in the PEN surface. A surface sites model was applied to the measured nitrogen uptake as a function of treatment time. Phenomenological nitrogen incorporation and loss terms were determined in the context of this model. Both terms increase with treatment power and treatment pressure. The ratio, however, varies to a much smaller degree as a function of process conditions, with high powers and pressures giving the highest ratio. Further elucidation of the incorporation and loss processes should be possible with plasma diagnostic data related to species concentrations.

Grace, J. M.; Zhuang, H. K.; Gerenser, L. J.; Freeman, D. R.



Neonatal Iron Treatment Increases Apoptotic Markers in Hippocampal and Cortical Areas of Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress, cellular damage, and neuronal apoptosis are believed to underlie the progressive cognitive decline that\\u000a accompanies natural aging and to be exacerbated in neurodegenerative diseases. Over the years, we have consistently demonstrated\\u000a that iron neonatal treatment induces oxidative stress and memory deficits in adult rats, but the mechanisms underlying these\\u000a effects remained undefined. The purpose of this study was

Clivia Pazin Miwa; Maria Noêmia Martins de Lima; Felipe Scalco; Gustavo Vedana; Raquel Mattos; Liana Lisboa Fernandez; Arlete Hilbig; Nadja Schröder; Monica R. M. Vianna



Chronic antidepressant treatments increase cytochrome b mRNA levels in mouse cerebral cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antidepressant therapies include drugs with a remarkable structural diversity and non-pharmacological interventions, such\\u000a as electroconvulsive shock. Although the primary neurochemical effects of these treatments may differ, the ?2- to 3-wk lag\\u000a in therapeutic onset has led to the hypothesis that adaptive changes in a final common pathway are required for an antidepressant\\u000a action. Based on this hypothesis, we sought to

Nuo-Yu Huang; Marina Strakhova; Richard T. Layer; Phil Skolnick



Chronic antidepressant treatment increases the membrane expression of AMPA receptors in rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that potentiation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function may be useful in the treatment of depression. Here we studied the acute and chronic effect of the antidepressants desipramine and paroxetine, which differentially affect monoamine reuptake, on the expression of the AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2\\/3, analyzed by Western blot, both in total and in membrane-enriched extracts from

Rebeca Martinez-Turrillas; Diana Frechilla; Joaquín Del Río



Methylphenidate treatment increases Na + , K + ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.\\u000a Na+, K+-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on\\u000a central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na+, K+-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this

Emilene B. S. Scherer; Cristiane Matté; Andréa G. K. Ferreira; Karin M. Gomes; Clarissa M. Comim; Cristiane Mattos; João Quevedo; Emilio L. Streck; Angela T. S. Wyse



Pharmacokinetics of caspofungin increased dosage in a patient on rifampin-containing anti-tubercular treatment.  


Abstract We describe a patient treated with caspofungin and rifampin; after increasing the dosage of the former (70 mg/day) we observed an unexpectedly lower plasma exposure (AUC0-24 79.5 ?g/ml*h vs. 108.8 ?g/ml*h). Although rifampin-mediated complete enzyme induction may take longer than 2 weeks, the clinical advantage of an increased caspofungin dose deserves clinical investigation. PMID:23796067

Calcagno, Andrea; Baietto, Lorena; Pagani, Nicole; Bertucci, Roberto; Rostagno, Roberto; D'Avolio, Antonio; Di Perri, Giovanni; De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe




PubMed Central

Antagonists selectively inhibiting activation of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor reduce motor symptoms in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease, and genetic deletion of the ppN/OFQ gene offers partial protection of mid-brain dopamine neurons against the neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP increased ppN/OFQ mRNA expression in the substantia nigra. We have evaluated the temporal relationship of dopamine cell loss to increased ppN/OFQ mRNA expression in the substantia nigra after MPTP treatment, and characterized the cellular locations in which increased ppN/OFQ mRNA expression was observed after MPTP treatment. MPTP increased by about 5-fold the number of neurons expressing ppN/OFQ mRNA in the pars reticulata of SN (SNr) by 24 hours after treatment and the elevation remained significant for at least 7 days. This period coincided with the timing of the loss of dopamine neurons from the pars compacta of substantia nigra (SNc) after MPTP. The increased expression of ppN/OFQ mRNA co-localized with a neuronal marker in the SNr. MPTP treatment resulted in a small increase in the numbers of neurons expressing ppN/OFQ in the SNc in mice from one mouse colony but the increase did not reach statistical significance in mice from another colony. No changes in ppN/OFQ-mRNA expression were observed in the VTA, the caudate-putamen, the subthalamic nucleus, or in two other brains areas. These results demonstrate that increased N/OFQ expression in the SNr is closely associated with the MPTP-induced loss of dopamine neurons in the SNc in a widely used animal model of Parkinson’s disease.

Gouty, Shawn; Brown, Jeffrey M.; Rosenberger, John; Cox, Brian M.



Weight Variation over Time and Its Association with Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome: A Longitudinal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWeight variation during therapy has been described as a useful marker to predict TB treatment outcome. No previous study has used longitudinal analysis to corroborate this finding. The goal of this study was to evaluate change and trends of patients' bodyweight over time depending on TB treatment outcome.Methods and FindingsA retrospective cohort study with all TB cases diagnosed from 2000

Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz; Cesar P. Carcamo; Juan F. Sanchez; Julia Rios; Adithya Cattamanchi



Astroglial gap junction communication is increased by treatment with either glutamate or high K+ concentration.  


Astroglia are extensively coupled by gap junctions and form a functional syncytium. Astroglial gap junctions are thought to be involved in the spatial buffering of K+ in vivo and in the Ca2+ waves seen on glutamate receptor activation. The conductivity of gap junctions is regulated by several second messengers, with up-regulation by cyclic AMP and down-regulation through activation of protein kinase C, decreases in intracellular pH, or increases in the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The results presented here indicate that dye coupling of astroglia is significantly up-regulated by membrane depolarization, both by increases in the extracellular K+ concentration and directly by ionophores. Furthermore, glutamate, kainate, and quisqualate, which depolarize astroglial cells through activation of ionotropic receptors, also increase dye coupling in astroglia. The effect of kainate and quisqualate was reversed by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, an inhibitor of the ionotropic glutamate receptor. A dose-dependent decrease in dye coupling was seen when the cells were injected with increasing concentrations of Ca2+. However, if the cells were simultaneously depolarized, the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ on gap junctional conductance was reversed. Significant increases over basal coupling was attained when the cells were injected with Ca2+ if they were treated with kainate or K+. These data suggest that ligands that depolarize astroglia enhance gap junction communication between astroglia and that this enhancement may be important in maintaining communication between astroglia in the face of elevated Ca2+ levels. PMID:7905024

Enkvist, M O; McCarthy, K D



Chronic Treatment with the GLP1 Analogue Liraglutide Increases Cell Proliferation and Differentiation into Neurons in an AD Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Neurogenesis is a life long process, but the rate of cell proliferation and differentiation decreases with age. In Alzheimer's patients, along with age, the presence of A? in the brain inhibits this process by reducing stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation. GLP-1 is a growth factor that has neuroprotective properties. GLP1 receptors are present on neuronal progenitor cells, and the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide has been shown to increase cell proliferation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. Here we investigated acute and chronic effects of liraglutide on progenitor cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and their subsequent differentiation into neurons in wild type and APP/PS-1 mice at different ages. APP/PS1 and their littermate controls, aged 3, 6, 12, 15 months were injected acutely or chronically with 25 nmol/kg liraglutide. Acute treatment with liraglutide showed an increase in cell proliferation in APP/PS1 mice, but not in controls whereas chronic treatment increased cell proliferation at all ages (BrdU and Ki67 markers). Moreover, numbers of immature neurons (DCX) were increased in both acute and chronic treated animals at all ages. Most newly generated cells differentiated into mature neurons (NeuN marker). A significant increase was observed with chronically treated 6, 12, 15 month APP/PS1 and WT groups. These results demonstrate that liraglutide, which is currently on the market as a treatment for type 2 diabetes (VictozaTM), increases neurogenesis, which may have beneficial effects in neurodegenerative disorders like AD.

Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Holscher, Christian



Increased expression of neuronal Src and tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptors in rat brain after systemic treatment with MK-801.  


We have observed that systemic treatment with the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 increases Src expression and NMDA receptor phosphorylation in rat brain. A partial cDNA encoding rat neuronal Src was isolated and its sequence was used to design specific oligonucleotide probes. Systemically administered MK-801 (5 mg/kg for 4 h) increased by 28+/-4% mRNA expression of neuronal Src in the superficial layers of the parietal cortex. This effect was observed at doses as low as 0.2 mg/kg. A similar, although more modest, induction was observed 6 h after phencyclidine (15 mg/kg) administration, but not after high doses of memantine and ketamine. The MK-801-induced effect was not blocked by pretreatment with clozapine. Consistent with the increase in mRNA levels, cortical Src protein was increased to 186 +/- 24% of control 24 h after MK-801 treatment. Total cellular Src activity was also increased in parietal cortex homogenates 4 h after MK-801 (5 mg/kg). Moreover, MK-801 treatment (0.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg for 4 h) increased tyrosine phosphorylation, but not protein levels, of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2A. These results provide evidence for a contribution of Src and tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptors in the pharmacological actions of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:11249956

Lindén, A; Storvik, M; Lakso, M; Haapasalo, A; Lee, D; Witkin, J M; Sei, Y; Castrén, E; Wong, G



Increased platelet membrane [3H]-LSD binding in patients on chronic neuroleptic treatment.  

PubMed Central

Using a [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide [( 3H]-LSD) binding technique, platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor number and affinity were compared in schizophrenics treated with depot thioxanthenes and phenothiazines and controls. There was an approximately 30% increase in platelet receptor number (Bmax) in the patient group. There was a decrease in affinity (increase in Kd) of about 30% in the patient group. This was probably due to the persistence of the neuroleptic in the platelet membrane preparation. There was a weak positive correlation between receptor number and total neuroleptic dosage. The increased number of 5-HT receptors is consistent with the previously reported enhancement of 5-HT-induced platelet aggregation in patients treated with long-term phenothiazines and thioxanthenes. Our findings are compatible with 5-HT up-regulation in human platelets produced by depot neuroleptic therapy. It is not known whether parallel changes may be occurring in brain 5-HT receptors.

Schachter, M; Geaney, D P; Grahame-Smith, D G; Cowen, P J; Elliott, J M



Diethylstilbestrol treatment increases the amount of choline kinase in rooster liver.  


Studies have been performed on the mechanism by which diethylstilbestrol stimulates the activity of choline kinase in livers from cockerels. The enzyme was purified 700-900-fold by affinity chromatography. The increased enzyme activity could not be accounted for by diethylstilbestrol alteration of the kinetic constants of the enzyme. Rabbit antibody was raised to the purified enzyme. Titration studies with antiserum demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the amount of choline kinase in diethylstilbestrol-treated cytosol, which correlated with a 2-fold elevation of the activity of the enzyme. We conclude that diethylstilbestrol stimulates the activities of choline kinase in cockerel liver by corresponding increase in the amount of enzyme. PMID:6275901

Paddon, H B; Vigo, C; Vance, D E



Quantitative analysis of beam delivery parameters and treatment process time for proton beam therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate patient census, equipment clinical availability, maximum daily treatment capacity, use factor for major beam delivery parameters, and treatment process time for actual treatments delivered by proton therapy systems. Methods: The authors have been recording all beam delivery parameters, including delivered dose, energy, range, spread-out Bragg peak widths, gantry angles, and couch angles for every treatment field in an electronic medical record system. We analyzed delivery system downtimes that had been recorded for every equipment failure and associated incidents. These data were used to evaluate the use factor of beam delivery parameters, the size of the patient census, and the equipment clinical availability of the facility. The duration of each treatment session from patient walk-in and to patient walk-out of the treatment room was measured for 82 patients with cancers at various sites. Results: The yearly average equipment clinical availability in the last 3 yrs (June 2007-August 2010) was 97%, which exceeded the target of 95%. Approximately 2200 patients had been treated as of August 2010. The major disease sites were genitourinary (49%), thoracic (25%), central nervous system (22%), and gastrointestinal (2%). Beams have been delivered in approximately 8300 treatment fields. The use factor for six beam delivery parameters was also evaluated. Analysis of the treatment process times indicated that approximately 80% of this time was spent for patient and equipment setup. The other 20% was spent waiting for beam delivery and beam on. The total treatment process time can be expressed by a quadratic polynomial of the number of fields per session. The maximum daily treatment capacity of our facility using the current treatment processes was estimated to be 133 {+-} 35 patients. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the facility has operated at a high performance level and has treated a large number of patients with a variety of diseases. The use factor of beam delivery parameters varies by disease site. Further improvements in efficiency may be realized in the equipment- and patient-related processes of treatment.

Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.; Lippy, Denise [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); The Proton Therapy Center Houston, Ltd., L.L.P., 1840 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, Texas 77054 (United States)



Phenelzine treatment increases transcription factor AP2 levels in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The elevations of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in response to acute serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) exposure are not consistent with the time course for the therapeutic action of these antidepressants. Thus, neuronal adaptations are needed for the therapeutic effect to arise. Transcription factor Activating Protein –2 (AP-2) is critical for mammalian neural gene

Mattias Damberg; Cecilia Berggård; Lars Oreland



Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.



Interstitial photodynamic therapy for primary prostate cancer incorporating real-time treatment dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of prostate cancer has been demonstrated to be a safe treatment option capable of inducing tissue necrosis and decrease in prostate specific antigen (PSA). Research groups report on large variations in treatment response, possibly due to biological variations in tissue composition and short-term response to the therapeutic irradiation. Within our group, an instrument for interstitial PDT on prostate tissue that incorporates realtime treatment feedback is being developed. The treatment protocol consists of two parts. The first part incorporates the pre-treatment plan with ultrasound investigations, providing the geometry for the prostate gland and surrounding risk organs, an iterative random-search algorithm to determine near-optimal fiber positions within the reconstructed geometry and a Block-Cimmino optimization algorithm for predicting individual fiber irradiation times. During the second part, the therapeutic light delivery is combined with measurements of the light transmission signals between the optical fibers, thus monitoring the tissue effective attenuation coefficient by means of spatially resolved spectroscopy. These data are then used as input for repeated runs of the Block-Cimmino optimization algorithm. Thus, the irradiation times for individual fibers are updated throughout the treatment in order to compensate for the influence of changes in tissue composition on the light distribution at the therapeutic wavelength.

Johansson, Ann; Axelsson, Johan; Swartling, Johannes; Johansson, Thomas; Pålsson, Sara; Stensson, Johan; Einarsdóttír, Margret; Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Kälkner, Karl Mikael; Nilsson, Sten; Svanberg, Sune; Andersson-Engels, Stefan



Chronic risperidone treatment preferentially increases rat erythrocyte and prefrontal cortex omega-3 fatty acid composition: Evidence for augmented biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior clinical studies suggest that chronic treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications increase erythrocyte and postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) omega-3 fatty acid composition in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). However, because human tissue phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid composition is potentially influenced by multiple extraneous variables, definitive evaluation of this putative mechanism of action requires an animal model. In the present study, we

Robert K. McNamara; Jessica A. Able; Ronald Jandacek; Therese Rider; Patrick Tso



Conditional TGF-?1 treatment increases stem cell-like cell population in myoblasts  

PubMed Central

The limitation in successfully acquiring large populations of stem cell has impeded their application. A new method based on the dedifferentiation of adult somatic cells to generate induced multipotent stem cells would allow us to obtain a large amount of autologous stem cells for regenerative medicine. The current work was proposed to induce a sub-population of cells with characteristics of muscle stem cells from myoblasts through conditional treatment of Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-?1. Our results show that a lower concentration of TGF-?1 is able to promote C2C12 myoblasts to express stem cell markers as well as to repress myogenic proteins, which involves a mechanism of dedifferentiation. Moreover, TGF-?1 treatment promoted the proliferation-arrested C2C12 myoblasts to re-enter the S-phase. We also investigated the multi-differentiation potentials of the dedifferentiated cells. TGF-?1 pretreated C2C12 myoblasts were implanted into mice to repair dystrophic skeletal muscle or injured bone. In addition to the C2C12 myoblasts, similar effects of TGF-?1 were also observed in the primary myoblasts of mice. Our results suggest that TGF-?1 is effective as a molecular trigger for the dedifferentiation of skeletal muscle myoblasts and could be used to generate a large pool of progenitor cells that collectively behave as multipotent stem cell-like cells for regenerative medicine applications.

Mu, Xiaodong; Li, Yong



Discharge practices in a time-unlimited intervention: the perspectives of practitioners in assertive community treatment.  


The Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model for people with severe mental illness has typically been viewed as a time-unlimited intervention. Without a proscribed service duration, discharge from ACT largely depends on individual clients' situations and practitioners' discretion. We conducted semi-structured focus groups and interviews with practitioners to explore their discharge practices and considerations. Results highlight the heterogeneity of the clientele served in ACT, and therefore the importance of individualized treatment and discharge planning, guidance on assessing the timing of discharge for individual cases, practice strategies that balance independence and social connectedness to promote recovery, and the need for substantial system reform to facilitate transition after discharge. PMID:21472483

Chen, Fang-Pei; Herman, Daniel B



Increased intratumoral fluorothymidine uptake levels following multikinase inhibitor sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma xenograft model  

PubMed Central

An early identification of the tumor response to sorafenib treatment is indispensable for selecting optimal personalized treatment strategies. However, at present, no reliable predictors are clinically available. 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to assess tumor proliferation, since the FLT uptake level reflects thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) activity. Thus, the present study determined whether FLT was able to evaluate the early tumor response to sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma (RCC; A498) xenograft in comparison with the tumor proliferation marker, Ki-67. Mice bearing A498 tumors were assigned to the control and sorafenib-treated groups and the tumor volume was measured every day. [Methyl-3H(N)]-3?-fluoro-3?-deoxythymidine (3H-FLT) was injected 2 h prior to the sacrifice of the mice on days three and seven following the treatment. 3H-FLT autoradiography (ARG) and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed using adjacent tumor sections. In the visual assessment, the intratumoral 3H-FLT uptake level diffusely increased following the treatment, while no significant changes were observed in Ki-67 IHC. The intratumoral 3H-FLT uptake levels significantly increased by 2.7- and 2.6-fold on days three and seven following the treatment, while the tumor volume and Ki-67 index did not significantly change. Thus, an increased FLT uptake level was demonstrated following the treatment, which may indicate the suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and the compensatory upregulation of TK-1 activity by sorafenib.




Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.



Leucine treatment enhances oxidative capacity through complete carbohydrate oxidation and increased mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle cells.  


Leucine has been largely implicated for increasing muscle protein synthesis in addition to stimulating mitochondrial biosynthesis. Limited evidence is currently available on the effects and potential benefits of leucine treatment on skeletal muscle cell glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. This work identified the effects of leucine treatment on oxidative and glycolytic metabolism as well as metabolic rate of human and murine skeletal muscle cells. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) and mouse myoblast cells (C2C12) were treated with leucine at either 100 or 500 ?M for 24 or 48 h. Glycolytic metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), an important stimulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis, was quantified using flow cytometry and verified by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Mitochondrial content was quantified using mitochondrial and cytochrome C staining measured by flow cytometry and confirmed with confocal microscopy. Treatment with leucine significantly increased both basal and peak oxidative metabolism in both cell models. Leucine treated cells also exhibited significantly greater mitochondrial proton leak, which is associated with heightened energy expenditure. Basal ECAR was significantly reduced in both cell models following leucine treatment, evidence of reduced lactate export and more complete carbohydrate oxidation. In addition, both PGC-1? and cytochrome C expression were significantly elevated in addition to mitochondrial content following 48 h of leucine treatment. Our observations demonstrated few dose-dependent responses induced by leucine; however, leucine treatment did induce a significant dose-dependent expression of PGC-1? in both cell models. Interestingly, C2C12 cells treated with leucine exhibited dose-dependently reduced ATP content, while RD ATP content remain unchanged. Leucine presents a potent dietary constituent with low lethality with numerous beneficial effects for increasing oxidative preference and capacity in skeletal muscle. Our observations demonstrate that leucine can enhance oxidative capacity and carbohydrate oxidation efficiency, as well as verify previous observations of increased mitochondrial content. PMID:23812674

Vaughan, Roger A; Garcia-Smith, Randi; Gannon, Nicholas P; Bisoffi, Marco; Trujillo, Kristina A; Conn, Carole A



Chronic risperidone treatment preferentially increases rat erythrocyte and prefrontal cortex omega-3 fatty acid composition: evidence for augmented biosynthesis.  


Prior clinical studies suggest that chronic treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications increase erythrocyte and postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) omega-3 fatty acid composition in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). However, because human tissue phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid composition is potentially influenced by multiple extraneous variables, definitive evaluation of this putative mechanism of action requires an animal model. In the present study, we determined the effects of chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (RISP, 3.0 mg/kg/d) on erythrocyte and PFC omega-3 fatty acid composition in rats maintained on a diet with or without the dietary omega-3 fatty acid precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). Chronic RISP treatment resulted in therapeutically-relevant plasma RISP and 9-OH-RISP concentrations (18+/-2.6 ng/ml), and significantly increased erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3, +22%, p=0.0003) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, +18%, p=0.01) composition, and increased PFC DHA composition (+7%, p=0.03) in rats maintained on the ALA+ diet. In contrast, chronic RISP did not alter erythrocyte or PFC omega-3 fatty acid composition in rats maintained on the ALA- diet. Chronic RISP treatment did not alter erythrocyte or PFC arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) composition. These data suggest that chronic RISP treatment significantly augments ALA-DHA biosynthesis, and preferentially increases peripheral and central membrane omega-3 fatty acid composition. Augmented omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis and membrane composition represents a novel mechanism of action that may contribute in part to the efficacy of RISP in the treatment of SZ. PMID:18993032

McNamara, Robert K; Able, Jessica A; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick



Randomized, Controlled Trial to Evaluate Increased Intensity of Physiotherapy Treatment of Arm Function After Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Many patients have impaired arm function after stroke, for which they receive physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to determine whether increasing the amount of physiotherapy early after stroke improved the recovery of arm function and to compare the effects of this therapy when administered by a qualified therapist or a trained, supervised assistant. The physiotherapy followed

Nadina B. Lincoln; Ruth H. Parry; Catherine D. Vass


Increasing maximum tumor dose to manage range uncertainties in IMPT treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to range uncertainties. Geometric margins, as dosimetric surrogates, are ineffective and robust optimization strategies are needed. These, however, lead to increased normal tissue dose. We explore here how this dose increase can be reduced by increasing the maximum tumor dose instead. We focus on range uncertainties, modeled by scaling the stopping powers 5% up (undershoot) or down (overshoot) compared to the nominal scenario. Robust optimization optimizes for target dose conformity in the most likely scenario, not the worst, while constraining target coverage for the worst-case scenario. Non-robust plans are also generated. Different maximum target doses are applied (105% versus 120% versus 140%) to investigate the effect on normal tissue dose reduction. The method is tested on a homogeneous and a lung phantom and on a liver patient. Target D99 of the robust plans equals the prescription dose of 60 GyEWe use the symbol GyE for the correct notation of Gy(RBE). for all scenarios, but decreases to 36 GyE for the non-robust plans. The mean normal tissue dose in a 2 cm ring around the target is 11% to 31% higher for the robust plans. This increase can be reduced to -8% and 3% (compared to the non-robust plan) by allowing a maximum tumor dose of 120% instead of 105%. Thus robustness leads to more normal tissue dose, but it can be compensated by allowing a higher maximum tumor dose.

Petit, Steven; Seco, Joao; Kooy, Hanne



Heat Shock Treatment Increases Engraftment of Transplanted Human Myoblasts Into Immunodeficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myoblast transfer therapy (MTT) is a strategy that has been proposed to treat some striated muscle pathologies. However, the first therapeutic trials using this technique were unsuccessful due to the limited migration and early cell death of the injected myoblasts. Various strategies have been considered to increase myoblast survival in the host muscle after MTT. Overexpression of heat shock proteins

I. Riederer; E. Negroni; A. Bigot; M. Bencze; J. Di Santo; A. Aamiri; G. Butler-Browne; V. Mouly



UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.


Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that

Yu. V. Barkin



Increased plasma malondialdehyde and fructosamine in iron deficiency anemia: Effect of treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycation and lipid peroxidation are spontaneous reactions that are believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of many clinical disorders. Glycation of proteins is enhanced by elevated glucose concentrations. However, increased glycated hemoglobin levels have been documented in iron deficiency anemic patients without any history of diabetes. Collective evidences reveal that lipid peroxidation can modulate protein glycation. This

R. C. Sundaram; N. Selvaraj; G. Vijayan; Z. Bobby; A. Hamide; N. Rattina Dasse



The hyperactive syndrome: Metanalysis of genetic alterations, pharmacological treatments and brain lesions which increase locomotor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal

Davide Viggiano



Sub-volume Heating Strategy To Shorten Treatment Time In Ultrasound Surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treating tumors or other potentially large targets for thermal ablation can be a very time-consuming task in ultrasound surgery. Tumors are conventionally treated by pointwise scanning over the tumor region using predetermined focal points. During scanning, cooling times are needed between two consecutive focal points to diffuse thermal buildup in the near field, which can prevent undesired temperature rises in healthy tissue. It is possible to accelerate the treatment while ensuring the safety of healthy tissue by reallocation of the heating and cooling times for individual focus points. In this study, we proposed a sub-volume heating strategy by reducing the number of cooling periods, to shorten the treatment time. The target volume is divided into several equally sized sub-volumes, each of which is covered by the same number of focal points. The sub-volume is sonicated, followed by a constant cooling period (the number of cooling periods = the number of sub-volumes). The proposed strategy was evaluated with numerical simulations in 3D and ex vivo experiments using three different: (1) a `conservative' approach, wherein each focal point is a sub-volume (2) an `aggressive' approach, wherein all focal points make up a sub-volume and (3) an `intermediate' approach, wherein several focus points make up a sub-volume. The results demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy; it was able to effectively reduce the treatment times by decreasing total cooling times. This study indicated that by appropriate selection of the sub-volume size and heating sequence, it may be useful to overcome the current obstacle of treatment time during large tumor treatments.

Xiang, Ji; Guofeng, Shen; Jingfeng, Bai; Yazhu, Chen



Abrupt cessation of short-term continuous treatment with isosorbide dinitrate may cause a rebound increase in silent myocardial ischaemia in patients with stable angina pectoris.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine by Holter electrocardiographic monitoring the effect of abruptly stopping nitrate treatment in patients with stable angina pectoris. PATIENTS: 12 men with confirmed ischaemic heart disease and stable exertional class 3 angina (Canadian). All had episodes of horizontal or down sloping ST segment depression during 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring. All were nitrate responders. DESIGN: Each patient was given isosorbide dinitrate (10-30 mg four times a day) and placebo (four times a day) for three days in a randomised crossover trial. There was a washout period of 3-5 days between the two treatment periods. Holter monitoring was performed on the third day of isosorbide dinitrate and placebo administration and on the first day of their withdrawal. RESULTS: When treatment with isosorbide dinitrate was stopped there was a significant increase in the total number and duration of painless episodes of myocardial ischaemia. During placebo and isosorbide dinitrate administration 8 patients had episodes of painless myocardial ischaemia whereas after isosorbide dinitrate cessation they were recorded in all 12 patients. Episodes of silent myocardial ischaemia at rest appeared in 4 patients after isosorbide dinitrate withdrawal. CONCLUSION: Abrupt cessation of short-term continuous nitrate treatment in patients with severe angina may cause a rebound increase in myocardial ischaemia which is predominantly silent.

Martsevich, S. Y.; Koutishenko, N.; Metelitsa, V. I.



Increasing the Time Step with Mass Scaling in Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

PubMed Central

Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation with umbrella sampling is a state-of-the-art approach to calculate free energy profiles of chemical reactions in complex systems. To further improve its computational efficiency, a mass-scaling method with the increased time step in MD simulations has been explored and tested. It is found that by increasing the hydrogen mass to 10 amu, a time step of 3 fs can be employed in ab initio QM/MM MD simulations. In all our three test cases, including two solution reactions and one enzyme reaction, the resulted reaction free energy profiles with 3 fs time step and mass scaling are found to be in excellent agreement with the corresponding simulation results using 1 fs time step and the normal mass. These results indicate that for Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling, the mass-scaling method can significantly reduce its computational cost while has little effect on the calculated free energy profiles.

Zheng, Han; Wang, Shenglong; Zhang, Yingkai



Efficiency of CCR5 Coreceptor Utilization by the HIV Quasispecies Increases over Time, But Is Not Associated with Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

Abstract CCR5 is the primary coreceptor for HIV entry. Early after infection, the HIV viral population diversifies rapidly into a quasispecies. It is not known whether the initial efficiency of the viral quasispecies to utilize CCR5 is associated with HIV disease progression or if it changes in an infected individual over time. The CCR5 and CXCR4 utilization efficiencies (R5-UE and X4-UE) of the HIV quasispecies were examined using a pseudovirus, single-round infection assay for samples obtained from known seroconverters from Rakai district, Uganda (n=88). Initial and longitudinal R5-UE values were examined to assess the association of R5-UE with HIV disease progression using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Longitudinal samples were analyzed for 35 seroconverters who had samples available from multiple time points. There was no association between initial or longitudinal changes in R5-UE and the hazard of HIV disease progression (p=0.225 and p=0.942, respectively). In addition, R5-UE increased significantly over time after HIV seroconversion (p<0.001), regardless of HIV subtype or the emergence of CXCR4-tropic virus. These data demonstrate that the R5-UE of the viral quasispecies early in HIV infection is not associated with disease progression, and that R5-UE levels increase in HIV-infected individuals over time.

Redd, Andrew D.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Kong, Xiangrong; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lutalo, Tom; Huang, Wei; Gray, Ronald H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David; Eshleman, Susan H.



Influence of hydraulic retention time on UASB post-treatment with UF membranes.  


A pilot UASB reactor coupled with an external ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was operated under three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) for domestic wastewater treatment. The aim was to assess the HRT influence on system performance and fouling. The highest concentrations of COD, total solids, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in UASB effluent and permeate were found when the UASB reactor was operated under the lowest HRT studied (4 hours); although the fulfillment of Mexican Standard for wastewater reclamation was not compromised. This fact could be attributed to the higher shear stress forces inside the UASB reactor when it was operated at low HRT, which promoted the release of biopolymeric substances in its effluent. Besides, the fouling propensity in the UASB effluent was worsened with HRT reduction, by increasing the fouling rate and the specific cake resistance. Based on these results, it is recommended to avoid operating the UASB reactor at low HRTs (less than 4 hours) in order to control SMP and EPS fouling potential. The results presented also suggest that HRT reduction has a detrimental effect on performance and fouling. PMID:22156136

Salazar-Peláez, M L; Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A



Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure  

PubMed Central

It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen.

Ezra, N.; Dang, K.



Repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments adversely affect neural transmission time and auditory thresholds in laboratory rats.  


Antenatal corticosteroid (AC) treatment is given to pregnant women at risk for preterm birth to reduce infant morbidity and mortality by enhancing lung and brain maturation. However, there is no accepted regimen on how frequently AC treatments should be given and some studies found that repeated AC treatments can cause growth retardation and brain damage. Our goal was to assess the dose-dependent effects of repeated AC treatment and estimate the critical number of AC courses to cause harmful effects on the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a sensitive measure of brain development, neural transmission and hearing loss. We hypothesized that repeated AC treatment would have harmful effects on the offspring's ABRs and growth only if more than 3 AC treatment courses were given. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were given either a high regimen of AC (HAC), a moderate regimen (MAC), a low regimen (LAC), or saline (SAL). An untreated control (CON) group was also used. Simulating the clinical condition, the HAC dams received 0.2mg/kg Betamethasone (IM) twice daily for 6 days during gestation days (GD) 17-22. The MAC dams received 3 days of AC treatment followed by 3 days of saline treatment on GD 17-19 and GD 20-22, respectively. The LAC dams received 1 day of AC treatment followed by 5 days of saline treatment on GD 17 and GD 18-22, respectively. The SAL dams received 6 days of saline treatment from GD 17 to 22 (twice daily, isovolumetric to the HAC injections, IM). The offspring were ABR-tested on postnatal day 24. Results indicated that the ABR's P4 latencies (neural transmission time) were significantly prolonged (worse) in the HAC pups and that ABR's thresholds were significantly elevated (worse) in the HAC and MAC pups when compared to the CON pups. The HAC and MAC pups were also growth retarded and had higher postnatal mortality than the CON pups. The SAL and LAC pups showed little or no adverse effects. In conclusion, repeated AC treatment had harmful effects on the rat offspring's ABRs, postnatal growth and survival. The prolonged ABR latencies reflect slowed neural transmission times along the auditory nerve and brainstem auditory pathway. The elevated ABR thresholds reflect hearing deficits. We concluded that repeated AC treatment can have harmful neurological, sensory and developmental effects on the rat offspring. These effects should be considered when weighing the benefits and risks of repeated AC treatment and when monitoring and managing the prenatally exposed child for possible adverse effects. PMID:21963399

Church, M W; Adams, B R; Anumba, J I; Jackson, D A; Kruger, M L; Jen, K-L C



Sentinel lymph node biopsy at the time of mastectomy does not increase the risk of lymphedema: implications for prophylactic surgery  

PubMed Central

Women diagnosed with or at high risk for breast cancer increasingly choose prophylactic mastectomy. It is unknown if adding sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) to prophylactic mastectomy increases the risk of lymphedema. We sought to determine the risk of lymphedema after mastectomy with and without nodal evaluation. 117 patients who underwent bilateral mastectomy were prospectively screened for lymphedema. Perometer arm measurements were used to calculate weight-adjusted arm volume change at each follow-up. Of 234 mastectomies performed, 15.8 % (37/234) had no axillary surgery, 63.7 % (149/234) had SLNB, and 20.5 % (48/234) had axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). 88.0 % (103/117) of patients completed the LEFT-BC questionnaire evaluating symptoms associated with lymphedema. Multivariate analysis was used to assess clinical characteristics associated with increased weight-adjusted arm volume and patient-reported lymphedema symptoms. SLNB at the time of mastectomy did not result in an increased mean weight-adjusted arm volume compared to mastectomy without axillary surgery (p = 0.76). Mastectomy with ALND was associated with a significantly greater mean weight-adjusted arm volume change compared to mastectomy with SLNB (p < 0.0001) and without axillary surgery (p = 0.0028). Patients who underwent mastectomy with ALND more commonly reported symptoms associated with lymphedema compared to those with SLNB or no axillary surgery (p < 0.0001). Patients who underwent mastectomy with SLNB or no axillary surgery reported similar lymphedema symptoms. Addition of SLNB to mastectomy is not associated with a significant increase in measured or self-reported lymphedema rates. Therefore, SLNB may be performed at the time of prophylactic mastectomy without an increased risk of lymphedema.

Miller, Cynthia L.; Skolny, Melissa N.; Jammallo, Lauren S.; Horick, Nora; O'Toole, Jean; Coopey, Suzanne B.; Hughes, Kevin; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L.; Taghian, Alphonse G.



Sentinel lymph node biopsy at the time of mastectomy does not increase the risk of lymphedema: implications for prophylactic surgery.  


Women diagnosed with or at high risk for breast cancer increasingly choose prophylactic mastectomy. It is unknown if adding sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) to prophylactic mastectomy increases the risk of lymphedema. We sought to determine the risk of lymphedema after mastectomy with and without nodal evaluation. 117 patients who underwent bilateral mastectomy were prospectively screened for lymphedema. Perometer arm measurements were used to calculate weight-adjusted arm volume change at each follow-up. Of 234 mastectomies performed, 15.8 % (37/234) had no axillary surgery, 63.7 % (149/234) had SLNB, and 20.5 % (48/234) had axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). 88.0 % (103/117) of patients completed the LEFT-BC questionnaire evaluating symptoms associated with lymphedema. Multivariate analysis was used to assess clinical characteristics associated with increased weight-adjusted arm volume and patient-reported lymphedema symptoms. SLNB at the time of mastectomy did not result in an increased mean weight-adjusted arm volume compared to mastectomy without axillary surgery (p = 0.76). Mastectomy with ALND was associated with a significantly greater mean weight-adjusted arm volume change compared to mastectomy with SLNB (p < 0.0001) and without axillary surgery (p = 0.0028). Patients who underwent mastectomy with ALND more commonly reported symptoms associated with lymphedema compared to those with SLNB or no axillary surgery (p < 0.0001). Patients who underwent mastectomy with SLNB or no axillary surgery reported similar lymphedema symptoms. Addition of SLNB to mastectomy is not associated with a significant increase in measured or self-reported lymphedema rates. Therefore, SLNB may be performed at the time of prophylactic mastectomy without an increased risk of lymphedema. PMID:22941538

Miller, Cynthia L; Specht, Michelle C; Skolny, Melissa N; Jammallo, Lauren S; Horick, Nora; O'Toole, Jean; Coopey, Suzanne B; Hughes, Kevin; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L; Taghian, Alphonse G



Increasing peptide identifications and decreasing search times for ETD spectra by pre-processing and calculation of parent precursor charge  

PubMed Central

Background Electron Transfer Dissociation [ETD] can dissociate multiply charged precursor polypeptides, providing extensive peptide backbone cleavage. ETD spectra contain charge reduced precursor peaks, usually of high intensity, and whose pattern is dependent on its parent precursor charge. These charge reduced precursor peaks and associated neutral loss peaks should be removed before these spectra are searched for peptide identifications. ETD spectra can also contain ion-types other than c and z?. Modifying search strategies to accommodate these ion-types may aid in increased peptide identifications. Additionally, if the precursor mass is measured using a lower resolution instrument such as a linear ion trap, the charge of the precursor is often not known, reducing sensitivity and increasing search times. We implemented algorithms to remove these precursor peaks, accommodate new ion-types in noise filtering routine in OMSSA and to estimate any unknown precursor charge, using Linear Discriminant Analysis [LDA]. Results Spectral pre-processing to remove precursor peaks and their associated neutral losses prior to protein sequence library searches resulted in a 9.8% increase in peptide identifications at a 1% False Discovery Rate [FDR] compared to previous OMSSA filter. Modifications to the OMSSA noise filter to accommodate various ion-types resulted in a further 4.2% increase in peptide identifications at 1% FDR. Moreover, ETD spectra when searched with charge states obtained from the precursor charge determination algorithm is shown to be up to 3.5 times faster than the general range search method, with a minor 3.8% increase in sensitivity. Conclusion Overall, there is an 18.8% increase in peptide identifications at 1% FDR by incorporating the new precursor filter, noise filter and by using the charge determination algorithm, when compared to previous versions of OMSSA.



In vivo treatment by diallyl disulfide increases histone acetylation in rat colonocytes  

SciTech Connect

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is an organosulfur compound from garlic which exhibits various anticarcinogenic properties including inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. DADS antiproliferative effects were previously associated with an increase in histone acetylation in two human tumor colon cell lines, suggesting that DADS-induced histone hyperacetylation could be one of the mechanisms involved in its protective properties on colon carcinogenesis. The effects of DADS on histone H4 and H3 acetylation levels were investigated in vivo in colonocytes isolated from non-tumoral rat. Administrated by intracaecal perfusion or gavage, DADS increases histone H4 and H3 acetylation in colonocytes. Moreover, data generated using cDNA expression arrays suggest that DADS could modulate the expression of a subset of genes. These results suggest the involvement of histone acetylation in modulation of gene expression by DADS in normal rat colonocytes, which might play a role in its biological effects as well as in its anticarcinogenic properties in vivo.

Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Chaumontet, Catherine [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Pagniez, Anthony [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Vaugelade, Pierre [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Bruneau, Aurelia [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Thomas, Muriel [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Cherbuy, Claire [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Duee, Pierre-Henri [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Martel, Paule [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France)



Increased serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and treatment response in major depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleOver the last 15 years, an increasing body of evidence has suggested a causal relationship between depression and the immunological activation and hypersecretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). However, little is known about the probable relationship of serum TNF-a with major depressive disorder (MDD).ObjectiveTo assess whether serum TNF-a levels could be associated with

Cengiz Tuglu; S. Hakan Kara; Okan Caliyurt; Erdal Vardar; Ercan Abay



Treatment of acute asthmatic exacerbations with an increased dose of inhaled steroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the efficacy of an increased dose of inhaled steroid used within the context of an asthma self management plan for treating exacerbations of asthma.DESIGNRandomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial.METHODSTwenty eight children aged 6–14 years with asthma of mild to moderate severity were studied for six months. Eighteen pairs of exacerbations were available for analysis, during which subjects

J Garrett; S Williams; C Wong; D Holdaway



Increased allergen production in turnip ( Brassica rapa) by treatments activating defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Practical applications to enhance the productivity of agriculture by using plants with improved resistance to pathogens are expected to increase in the near future. Defense proteins play an important role in pathogen resistance, and some defense-related proteins are significant cross-reacting allergens. For example, cross-allergies are common among patients allergic to natural rubber latex (NRL), which contains many defense-related proteins.

Anna-Riitta Hänninen; Jari H. Mikkola; Nisse Kalkkinen; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Leea Ylitalo; Timo Reunala; Timo Palosuo



Topotecan Can Compensate for Protracted Radiation Treatment Time Effects in High Grade Glioma Xenografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Purpose:\\u000a Several studies reported that prolongation of overall treatment time of fractionated radiotherapy reduces the chance of tumor\\u000a control. In the present study, we hypothesize that combining topotecan with irradiation could compensate for this detrimental\\u000a time effect on the radioresponse. Therefore, we investigated the efficiency of different schedules of topotecan (TPT), radiotherapy\\u000a (RT) or concomitant combination TPT + RT.\\u000a \\u000a Methods

Sophie Pinel; Pascal Chastagner; Jean-Louis Merlin; Christian Marchal; Alphonse Taghian; Muriel Barberi-Heyob



Medical orders for life-sustaining Treatment: Is it time yet?  


Objective: As the aging population faces complex end-of-life issues, we studied the intervals between long-term care admission and advance directive completion, and between completion and death. We also sought to determine the interdisciplinary team's compliance with documented wishes. Method: A cross-sectional study of 182 long-term care residents in two facilities with and without completed medical orders for life-sustaining treatment (MOLST) in the New York Metropolitan area was conducted. Demographic variables included: gender, age, ethnicity, and diagnosis. Measures included: admission date, MOLST execution date, and date of death. Resident advance directive documentation was compared with clinical intervention at time of death, including intubation and mechanical ventilation. Results: Of the residents studied, 68.7% were female, 91% were Caucasian and 91.8% were ? 65 years of age (mean age: 83). The median time from admission to MOLST signing was 48 days. Median time from admission to MOLST signing for Caucasians was 21 days; for non-Caucasians was 229 days. Fifty-two percent of MOLST were signed by children, and 24% by residents. Of those with signed forms, 25% signed on day of admission, 37% signed within 7 days, and 47% signed within 21 days. Only 3% of residents died the day their MOLST was signed, whereas 12% died within a week, and 22% died within 30 days. Finally, among the 68 subjects who signed a MOLST and died, 87% had their wishes met. Significance of results: In this era of growing time constraints and increased regulations, medical directors of long-term care facilities and those team members caring for residents urgently need a clear and simple approach to the goals of care for their residents. The MOLST is an ideal tool in caring for older adults at the end of life, providing concrete guidance, not only with regard to do not resuscitate (DNR) and do not intubate (DNI) orders, but also for practical approaches to daily care for the interdisciplinary team. PMID:23663533

Araw, Anna Clarissa; Araw, Anna Marissa; Pekmezaris, Renee; Nouryan, Christian N; Sison, Cristina; Tommasulo, Barbara; Wolf-Klein, Gisele P



Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that a complex question on the reasons of increase of sea level. Appeared, that classical determinations of average velocity of increase of sea level on coastal observations (1.4-1.7 mm / yr) approximately for 0.8-1.0 mm / yr it is less, rather than by modern satellite determinations of satellites TOPEX - Poseidon etc. (2.5 - 2.8 mm / yr). On the basis of the data of altimetry observations of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason for the period 1993-2003 for geocentric velocity of increase of sea level (of global ocean) the value 2.8+/-0.4 mm / yr [1] has been obtained. In the given report the full answer is actually is given to a question put by leading experts on research of the sea level: "The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter missions provided a 12 year record of sea level change, which show increase of global mean sea level of 2.8+/-0.4 mm/yr, with considerable geographic variation. An important question for climate studies is to determine the cause of this change - specifically how much of the change is due to steric (heating) versus eustatic (runoff, melting ice, etc.) contribution?" [1]. There is, a big value of average velocity of increase of the sea level on the satellite data, it is possible to explain only by kinematical effect in data of observations. The motion of the satellite "is concerned" to the centre of mass of our planet, and its position is determined by a geocentric radius - vector. Therefore northern drift of the centre of mass in the Earth body [2] as though results in reduction of distances from the satellite up to the sea surface in the southern hemisphere and to their reduction in the northern hemisphere. At averaging of measurements over all ocean surface (mainly located in a southern hemisphere where it occupies about 80 % of the areas) there will be an effect of apparent additional increase of the sea level. Therefore this ("apparent") velocity of increase of the sea level accepts the greater value (about 2.4 mm / year) in comparison with coastal determinations of this velocity that is rather close to the data of satellite observations. The additional effect in increase of the sea level is brought by deformation of the ocean bottom. The both mentioned phenomena: the secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth and the secular expansion of southern hemisphere of the Earth have been predicted by author [2], [3] and have obtained confirmations by space geodesy methods. The offered explanation has the extremely - important value for studying a possible role of thermal and climatic factors which can not apply any more for a big component attributed to it in change of the sea level. The account of fictitious component of this velocity results practically in real value of variation of the average sea level about 1.3-1.6 mm / yr, that completely coordinate positions of researchers of ocean by coastal and altimetry (satellite) methods. Moreover, the given work opens a direct opportunity for an explanation of increase of the sea level as result of deformation of the ocean bottom. This deformation is a major factor of change of the average sea level. Water superseded in a southern hemisphere gives the significant contribution to observably value of velocity of sea level rise up to 0.8-1.2 mm / yr [3, 4]. The work fulfilled at financial support of Russian projects of RFBR: N 07-05-00939 and N 06-02-16665. This abstract (without what or changes) has been accepted to EGU GA 2008 Session IS48 "75th Anniversary of the PSML"(Convener: Woodworth P.) but was not included in its program. References. [1] Nerem R.S., Leuliette E.W., Chambers D.P. (2005) An Integrated Study of Sea Level Change Using Altimetry,

Barkin, Yu. V.



Computational modeling and real-time control of patient-specific laser treatment of cancer.  


An adaptive feedback control system is presented which employs a computational model of bioheat transfer in living tissue to guide, in real-time, laser treatments of prostate cancer monitored by magnetic resonance thermal imaging. The system is built on what can be referred to as cyberinfrastructure-a complex structure of high-speed network, large-scale parallel computing devices, laser optics, imaging, visualizations, inverse-analysis algorithms, mesh generation, and control systems that guide laser therapy to optimally control the ablation of cancerous tissue. The computational system has been successfully tested on in vivo, canine prostate. Over the course of an 18 min laser-induced thermal therapy performed at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in Houston, Texas, the computational models were calibrated to intra-operative real-time thermal imaging treatment data and the calibrated models controlled the bioheat transfer to within 5 degrees C of the predetermined treatment plan. The computational arena is in Austin, Texas and managed at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES). The system is designed to control the bioheat transfer remotely while simultaneously providing real-time remote visualization of the on-going treatment. Post-operative histology of the canine prostate reveal that the damage region was within the targeted 1.2 cm diameter treatment objective. PMID:19148754

Fuentes, D; Oden, J T; Diller, K R; Hazle, J D; Elliott, A; Shetty, A; Stafford, R J



Time variation of adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment: in vitro study using OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time variation of the adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment was studied using OCT. Fat tissue slices 200-500 ?m thick were used in in vitro experiments. To stain the fat tissue we used water-ethanol solutions of indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant green (BG) with the concentration 1 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml, respectively. The CW laser diode (VD-VII DPSS, 808 nm) and the dental diode irradiator Ultra Lume Led 5 (442 and 597 nm) were used for irradiation of tissue slices. The irradiation time was 5 min for the laser and 15 min for the diode lamp. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. It was discovered the immersion optical clearing of fat tissue slices due to fat cell lipolysis under photodynamic treatment. Released cell content works as an immersion agent, thus the relative refractive index of tissue scatterers decreasing with the time elapsed after the treatment. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic treatment induces fat cell lipolysis for some period after treatment.

Yanina, Irina Yu.; Trunina, Natalia A.; Tuchin, Valery V.



Statin treatment prevents increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin in patients with stable coronary heart disease.  


In the CLARICOR trial, significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in stable patients with coronary heart disease were observed after a short course of clarithromycin. We report on the impact of statin treatment at entry on the CV and all-cause mortality. The multicenter CLARICOR trial randomized patients to oral clarithromycin (500 mg daily; n = 2172) versus matching placebo (daily; n = 2201) for 2 weeks. Patients were followed through public databases. In the 41% patients on statin treatment at entry, no significant effect of clarithromycin was observed on CV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-1.22; P = 0.20) or all-cause mortality (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.71-1.65; P = 0.72) at 2.6-year follow up. In the patients not on statin treatment at entry, clarithromycin was associated with a significant increase in CV (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.34-2.67; P = 0.0003; statin-clarithromycin interaction P = 0.0029) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.67; P = 0.016; statin-clarithromycin interaction P = 0.41). Multivariate analysis and 6-year follow up confirmed these results. Concomitant statin treatment in stable patients with coronary heart disease abrogated the observed increased CV mortality associated with 2 weeks of clarithromycin. PMID:19920766

Jensen, Gorm B; Hilden, Jørgen; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Damgaard, Morten; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer; Hansen, Stig; Helø, Olav H; Hildebrandt, Per; Kastrup, Jens; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Kjøller, Erik; Lind, Inga; Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Lars; Jespersen, Christian M; Gluud, Christian



Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.  


The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P < 0.05) level in SCNT oocytes that were treated post-fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos. PMID:19813265

You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong



Predictors of time to requiring dopaminergic treatment in 2 Parkinson's disease cohorts.  


The rate of progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable. Knowledge of factors associated with disease milestones and commonly used research outcome measures helps with patient counseling and guides the design and interpretation of clinical studies. The objective of the study was to identify prognostic factors for time to acquiring disability requiring dopaminergic therapy that are reproducible within 2 large prospectively followed cohorts. Potential prognostic factors were identified using data from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) trial, and their reproducibility was examined using data from the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 trial (PRECEPT). In multivariable analyses of the DATATOP cohort, higher baseline Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, full-time employment, a lesser smoking history, and onset on the left side were associated with a shorter time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy. PRECEPT data confirmed the associations of higher baseline UPDRS scores and full-time employment with shorter time to requiring treatment. Any clinical trial using the end point of time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy should ensure that groups are well balanced with respect to baseline UPDRS scores and the proportion of subjects employed full time and should consider including these variables as covariates in the statistical model for primary analysis of treatment effects. We suspect that individuals employed full time may have a lower threshold for requiring dopaminergic therapy because of occupational demands. PMID:21287602

Marras, Connie; McDermott, Michael P; Marek, Ken; Rochon, Paula; Naglie, Gary; Tanner, Caroline M; Rudolph, Alice; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E



Ex vivo bupivacaine treatment results in increased adipogenesis of skeletal muscle cells in the rat.  


Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is observed in some skeletal muscle pathologies. IMAT is implicated not only in the disorders of muscle contraction, but also of metabolism and insulin sensitivity due to its nature as a secretary organ. Several studies indicate the presence of cells with adipogenic potential in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanism of fate specification that triggers these cells to enter an adipogenic program in vivo remains to be solved. In the present study, we examined whether activation of the adipogenic program of muscle-resident cells precedes their proliferation upon muscle injury. For this purpose, muscle injury was induced by injecting bupivacaine (BPVC) to excised skeletal muscle ex vivo. Cells isolated from ex vivo?BPVC-treated muscle exhibited higher adipogenic potential than those from saline-treated muscle. Pre-plating exposure of skeletal muscle cells to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mimicked the effect of ex vivo?BPVC-treatment, suggesting that bFGF released from extracellular matrix in response to muscle injury activates their adipogenic program. Interestingly, the number of myotubes were significantly reduced in the culture from BPVC-treated muscle, suggesting that adipocytes negatively regulate myogenesis. PMID:24118604

Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Takegahara, Yuki; Nakano, Shin-Ichi; Nishihara, Masugi



In vivo morphine treatment synergistically increases LPS-induced caspase activity in immune organs  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is an important mechanism for the elimination of infected cells, which would normally serve as hosts for further pathogen replication. Apoptosis is initiated through complex pathways involving a family of cysteine proteases known as caspases. The detection of apoptosis is essential for understanding the long-term health effects inflicted by the therapeutic use of opiate drugs such as morphine for pain treatment following major trauma or disease and abusive use of such drugs in addiction. Common practices of apoptosis detection involve the removal of tissues, which subsequently induce spontaneous apoptosis unrelated to the actual effects of the opioid drug exposure. The objective of this study was to develop an in vivo detection method for assessing morphine’s ability to directly induce apoptosis, and in the combination of morphine following an inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were administered saline, morphine, LPS, or a combination of morphine and LPS. Prior to sacrifice, mice were injected with a poly-caspase-specific apoptosis detection probe, to detect internal caspase activity in vivo. Administration of morphine alone did not directly induce apoptosis. However, morphine significantly enhanced the LPS induced apoptosis in splenocyte and bone marrow cells as well as in spleen, liver, and thymus tissues. The use of a poly-caspase detection probe methodology, to label apoptotic cells in vivo, provides a powerful quantitative tool for the in vivo analysis of caspase activity.

Olin, Michael; Lee, Brian; Roy, Sabita; Molitor, Thomas



A Comparison of Constant Time Delay Instruction with High and Low Treatment Integrity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Time delay (TD) procedure is an effective procedure in teaching various skills to children with developmental disabilities. Moreover, research has shown that it is used with high treatment integrity (HTI). However, there are several barriers which may prevent delivery instruction with HTI. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the…

Tekin Iftar, Elif; Kurt, Onur; Cetin, Ozlem



Fixed-Time Schedules Attenuate Extinction-Induced Phenomena in the Treatment of Severe Aberrant Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules…

Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.



Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn



A Multi-Agent System to Support Ambulance Coordination in Time-Critical Patient Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke is the third highest cause of mortality and the first cause of disabled people in western countries. A significant number of the people who survive live with serious physical and psychological disabil- ities and require permanent assistance in their dairy activities. When detected, there is a limited time in which to take effective treatment measures. In this paper we

Beatriz Lopez; Bianca Innocenti; Silvana Aciar; Isabel Cuevas



Real-Time Detection Of Multiple Lesions During High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the development of a non-invasive real-time technique to detect changes in tissue caused by the production of multiple lesions during a HIFU treatment sequence. It is based on estimation of relative changes in tissue properties derived from backscattered RF data, such as speed of sound, density, absorption coefficient, backscattering power, etc., as a function of HIFU exposure.

Ralf Seip; Jahangir Tavakkoli; Adam Wunderlich; Narendra T. Sanghvi; Kris A. Dines; Lawrence A. Crum



Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John



Modeling the Variability of Single-Cell Lag Times for Listeria innocua Populations after Sublethal and Lethal Heat Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical density measurements were used to estimate the effect of heat treatments on the single-cell lag times of Listeria innocua fitted to a shifted gamma distribution. The single-cell lag time was subdivided into repair time (the shift of the distribution assumed to be uniform for all cells) and adjustment time (varying randomly from cell to cell). After heat treatments in

A. Metris; S. M. George; B. M. Mackey; J. Baranyi



Analysis of Injury Rates and Treatment Patterns for Time-Loss and Non-Time-Loss Injuries Among Collegiate Student-Athletes.  


OBJECTIVE: To compare the injury rates for time-loss and non-time-loss injuries among selected intercollegiate athletic programs and to describe the number of treatments associated with these injuries. DESIGN AND SETTING: A volunteer, cross-sectional cohort study of 50 collegiate athletic programs representing the 3 National Collegiate Athletic Association divisions, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, and the National Junior College Athletic Association during the 2000-2002 academic years. SUBJECTS: Individuals listed on the team rosters for the participating institutions and representing the sports associated with the institution's athletic programs. MEASUREMENTS: The athletic training staff and students recorded the injury and treatment data for the participating institutions. The data included information for time-loss and non- time-loss injuries, daily treatments, and daily athlete-exposures. RESULTS: Non-time-loss injury rates were 3.5 (confidence interval = 3.4, 3.6) times the time-loss rate for men and 5.1 (confidence interval = 4.9, 5.2) times the time-loss rate for women. Non-time-loss injuries required more treatments over the course of the year than did time-loss injuries. For men's sports, 22% of the injuries resulted in loss of participation time, with 47% of the treatments associated with these injuries. For women's sports, 16% of the injuries and 34% of the treatments were associated with time-loss injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Throughout the sports medicine year, athletic training staff and students spent more time delivering treatments to athletes who were not missing participation time than to athletes who were missing time. A noteworthy difference in the workforce available to provide health care among the various levels of intercollegiate athletics may contribute to the frequency of injury and treatments reported. PMID:15085213

Powell, John W.; Dompier, Thomas P.



Antioxidant treatment during preservation of bovine ovaries increased the development potential of embryos.  


The overnight preservation of bovine ovaries would be highly useful in the subsequent harvest of viable oocytes for reproductive study. The present study aimed to optimize conditions for overnight preservation of bovine ovaries by examining the effects of temperature, solution and supplementation. In Experiment 1, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes derived from ovaries preserved at 15°C was higher than that at either 5 or 25°C (p < 0.05). In Experiment 2, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes derived from ovaries preserved in University of Wisconsin solution was higher than when PBS or saline was used (p < 0.05). In Experiment 3, oocytes preserved in saline supplemented with 0.3 mM glutathione (GSH) exhibited an increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with oocytes supplemented with 0 or 3 mM GSH (p < 0.05). In Experiment 4, supplementation with 10 ?M epigallocatechin gallate during ovary preservation increased the rate of blastocyst formation (p < 0.05). The blastocysts derived from ovaries stored in saline supplemented with GSH at 15°C for 24 h were shown to develop into normal offsprings following transfer to recipient heifers. Our studies indicate that bovine IVM/IVF embryos derived from ovaries preserved in saline supplemented with an antioxidant at 15°C for 24 h can successfully develop to the blastocyst stage and result in offspring. PMID:20444311

Nagao, Yoshikazu; Harada, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Mari; Igarashi, Akane; Ooshima, Yuki; Kato, Yoku



Evaluation of conservative treatment and timing of surgical intervention for mild forms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

The optimal management approach for patients with mild forms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) has not been well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of conservative treatment, identify prognostic factors and provide evidence for the timing of surgical intervention. A total of 90 patients with MCSM attending hospital between February 2007 and January 2009 were prospectively enrolled. Initially, all patients received conservative treatment and were followed up periodically. When a deterioration in myelopathy was clearly identified, surgical treatment was conducted. Clinical and radiological factors correlating with the deterioration were examined, and final clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. At the end of January 2012, follow-ups of >3 years were completed. Seventy-eight patients were available for data analysis. Only 21 patients (26.9%) deteriorated and underwent surgery thereafter (group A), while the remaining 57 patients (73.1%) were treated conservatively throughout (group B). Statistical analysis revealed that segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis were adverse factors for the prognosis of conservative treatment. Although the JOA scores of the patients in group A declined initially, following surgical intervention, no significant differences were identified in JOA scores between the two groups at the time of the final follow-up (P=0.46). In summary, conservative treatment is effective in MCSM patients. Patients with segmental instability and cervical spinal stenosis have a tendency to deteriorate, but conservative treatment remains the recommendation for the first action. If the myelopathy deteriorates during conservative treatment, timely surgical intervention is effective.




Accelerated increase in mercury contamination in north Atlantic mesopelagic food chains as indicated by time series of seabird feathers  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of mercury in the environment have increased manyfold since preindustrial times as a result of anthropogenic emissions of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere. However, most records of historical change are affected by regional inputs and evidence of global impact of human activities at pristine oceanic sites is scanty. Seabird feathers contain a valuable record showing historical trends in methylmercury contamination. Some seabirds are top predators in epipelagic and others in mesopelagic food chains and thus reflect methylmercury contamination of these ecosystems. Here, the authors report the first measurements of mercury concentrations in a time series of animals from the subtropical northeast Atlantic over the last 100 years. These data show increases in mercury levels by 1.1 to 1.9%/year in epipelagic foodchains and by 3.5 to 4.8%/year in mesopelagic food chains. While the rate of increase in the epipelagic ecosystem is in close agreement with model predictions, the higher rate in the mesopelagic ecosystem has not previously been detected. However, the latter concurs with methylmercury production below the thermocline and conveys new insights into the understanding of the anthropogenic impact in the marine cycle of mercury.

Monteiro, L.R. [Univ. of Azores, Horta (Portugal). Dept. of Oceanography and Fisheries; Furness, R.W. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)



Corticosteroid treatment buys time in case of a newly diagnosed hypophysitis with visual deterioration.  


Hypophysitis is an important differential diagnosis for a pituitary mass, especially in young women at the end of or shortly after pregnancy. It commonly results in hypopituitarism and can be differentiated from adenoma on MRI. Typical MRI characteristics of hypophysitis are symmetry, loss of posterior bright spot, intense and homogeneous gadolinium enhancement, a thickened pituitary stalk and intact sellar floor. Treatment of choice in the acute phase of a hypophysitis is corticosteroids. Adequate corticosteroid treatment may effectively buy time and avoid unnecessary surgical treatment and is related to further decrease of pituitary function, even in progressive cases of deterioration due to compression of the chiasm. Strict monitoring of the vision and a control MRI is obligatory to evaluate the treatment after 48-36 h. Tissue diagnosis is mandatory when there are multiple relapses. We present a case of progressive visual deterioration in hypophysitis, successfully treated with high-pulse dose prednisolone. PMID:24038289

Broekman, Marike; Goedee, Stephan Hendrik; Nieuwlaat, Willy-Anne; Depauw, Paul



The Debate Over Time-Limited Treatment in College Counseling Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of time limits in psychotherapy with college students has become a commonly used strategy in counseling centers that are faced with increased demand for services and decreasing resources. However, this has been a controversial issue and there is no consensus at present as to whether or not the use of time limits with college students is clinically justified.

Dora Ghetie



Treatment of ovine oocytes with caffeine increases the accessibility of DNase I to the donor chromatin and reduces apoptosis in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.  


Caffeine treatment of ovine oocytes increases the activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and, in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, increases the frequency of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC). At the blastocyst stage, caffeine-treated SCNT embryos have increased cell numbers. One explanation for this is that NEBD and PCC release chromatin-bound somatic factors, allowing greater access of oocyte factors involved in DNA synthesis and nuclear reprogramming to donor chromatin. This could advance DNA replication and cleavage in the first cell cycle, resulting in increased cell numbers. Alternatively, increased MAPK activity may affect localisation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and reduce apoptosis. To investigate these possibilities, we investigated chromatin accessibility, the timing of DNA synthesis and first cleavage, the localisation of HSP27 during early development and the frequency of apoptotic nuclei at the blastocyst stage. Compared with control SCNT (non-caffeine treatment), caffeine treatment (10 mM caffeine for 6 h prior to activation) increased the accessibility of DNase I to donor chromatin (P < 0.05 at 1.5 h post activation (h.p.a.)), advanced DNA synthesis (43.5% v. 67.6%, respectively; P < 0.01 at 6 h.p.a.) and first cleavage (27.3% v. 40.5% at 20 h.p.a., respectively) and increased nuclear localisation of HSP27. Although development to the blastocyst stage was not affected, caffeine increased total cell numbers (98.5 v. 76.6; P < 0.05) and reduced the frequency of apoptotic nuclei (11.27% v. 20.3%; P < 0.05) compared with control SCNT group. PMID:20591334

Choi, Inchul; Campbell, Keith H S



Real-time non-destructive microwave sensor for nutrient monitoring in wastewater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time non intrusive microwave sensor system able to monitor the nutrients found in wastewater has been designed, simulated and implemented. These liquids are continuously flowing through a PTFE pipe and the properties of these liquids gradually degraded in time. Microwaves have the ability to give real-time changes in any material permittivity by means of changing the velocity of the signal, attenuating or reflecting it. The primarily measurements show promising results for future sensor developments which lead to a novel system that can be used in wastewater treatment plants.

Al-Dasoqi, N.; Mason, A.; Alkhaddar, R.; Shaw, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A.



Pharmacokinetics of intravenous ibuprofen: implications of time of infusion in the treatment of pain and fever.  


Intravenous NSAIDs are playing an increasingly large role in analgesia, anti-inflammation and antipyresis in the hospitalized setting. For many years, ketorolac was the only intravenous NSAID available in the US, but in 2009 intravenous ibuprofen was approved by the US FDA for the treatment of pain and fever in adults. In developing intravenous ibuprofen, a range of times of infusion and dosing levels have been utilized and compared with the oral route of administration. The earliest studies utilized a 60-minute infusion, and later a 30-minute infusion was used for the pivotal/registration studies demonstrating efficacy and safety. Another recent trial in healthy volunteers demonstrated a safe and tolerable rapid infusion (5-7 minute) of intravenous ibuprofen. The pharmacokinetic data from all of the clinical trials on 400 and 800?mg doses of intravenous ibuprofen were compiled, and pharmacokinetic modelling was utilized to simulate any data not acquired in the clinical studies. The pharmacokinetic profile of the following doses was modelled: 30-minute infusion of 800?mg intravenous ibuprofen, 5- to 7-minute infusion of 400?mg intravenous ibuprofen and 400?mg ibuprofen oral tablet. These pharmacokinetic analyses revealed that, in general, maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) decreases considerably as the length of the infusion increases and that an oral dose is not able to achieve the C(max) level of any intravenous dose. For the rapid infusion, C(max) was twice that of the oral dose and, as expected, time to C(max) (t(max)) was much more rapid than with the oral dose. However, the oral dose still maintained virtually 100% oral bioavailability. The efficacy of intravenous ibuprofen in terms of pain and fever has also been studied and this review found the drug to be efficacious for both indications. Future areas of study should include assessment of the analgesic and antipyretic efficacy of a rapid (5- to 10-minute) infusion and further assessment of pre-emptive administration of intravenous ibuprofen as part of a multimodal analgesic approach in the surgical setting. PMID:22316349

Smith, Howard S; Voss, Bryan



Increasing functional modularity with residence time in the co-distribution of native and introduced vascular plants  

PubMed Central

Species gain membership of regional assemblages by passing through multiple ecological and environmental filters. To capture the potential trajectory of structural changes in regional meta-communities driven by biological invasions, one can categorize species pools into assemblages of different residence times. Older assemblages, having passed through more environmental filters, should become more functionally ordered and structured. Here we calculate the level of compartmentalization (modularity) for three different-aged assemblages (neophytes, introduced after 1500 AD; archaeophytes, introduced before 1500 AD, and natives), including 2,054 species of vascular plants in 302 reserves in central Europe. Older assemblages are more compartmentalized than younger ones, with species composition, phylogenetic structure and habitat characteristics of the modules becoming increasingly distinctive. This sheds light on two mechanisms of how alien species are functionally incorporated into regional species pools: the settling-down hypothesis of diminishing stochasticity with residence time, and the niche-mosaic hypothesis of inlaid neutral modules in regional meta-communities.

Hui, Cang; Richardson, David M.; Pysek, Petr; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Kucera, Tomas; Jarosik, Vojtech



Multi-Active Catheters For Real Time Dose Distribution Measurements In Prostate Brachytherapy Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed real time 3D dose distribution measurements of high dose rate brachytherapy sources. These data demonstrate the possibility of in-vivo dosimetry monitoring of the dose rate while treating patients with particle radiation therapy. The prototype used for these experiments is made out of 16 scintillating fibers, 30 cm long and with a 1 mm^2 transverse cross section. Each fiber was coupled to a 16 channel Hamamatsu photo-multiplier tube for photon to current conversion. Millimeter accuracy in position was attained with sub-seconds timing scale. No correction was done from Cherenkov radiation background. The (over)estimated systematic uncertainty is 10% and includes electronic and computer dead times, channel-to-channel efficiency, and signal attenuation. We will discuss the impact of such device to clinical prostate cancer treatments and treatment planning softwares.

Velasco, Carlos



Influence of the length of progestagen treatment and the time of oestradiol benzoate application on the ovulatory follicle size and ovulation time in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows.  


Previous research from our laboratory in beef cattle suggests that the pre-ovulatory follicle size, maturity and subsequent susceptibility to gonadotropin are influenced by the length of progestagen treatment in artificial insemination programme in beef cows. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 35 anoestrous beef cows received an intravaginal sponge containing 200 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate. The treatment lasted for 7 (n = 12), 8 (n = 11) or 9 (n = 12) days. Half of the animals in each group were injected with 0.7 mg of oestradiol benzoate (EB) at device removal (0 h) and the other half 24 h later. In experiment 2, 38 cycling beef cows were treated with the same protocols as in experiment 1. Ultrasound examinations were performed to determine the follicular diameter at device removal (dominant follicle), interval to ovulation and ovulatory follicle diameter. The dominant follicle of anoestrous cows with progestagen for 7 days (8.4 ± 1.6 mm) resulted smaller (p < 0.05) than the cows treated for 8 (10.5 ± 1.6 mm) and 9 days (10.6 ± 1.2 mm). However, regardless of the length of the treatments, ovulation time after device removal was longer (p < 0.05) when EB was injected 24 h after withdrawal than at 0 h in anoestrous cows (EB0 = 52.7 ± 4.0 h; EB24 = 70.8 ± 6.2 h) and in cyclic cows (EB0 = 50.0 ± 21.0 h; EB24 = 73.0 ± 20.0 h). In anoestrous cows, the treatment with progestagen for 9 days and EB at 24 h increased the diameter of the ovarian follicle (p = 0.033) but did not affect the diameter of the ovulatory follicle in cyclic cows. In conclusion, increasing the length of progestagen treatment for 8 or 9 days compared to 7 days increased the diameter of the dominant follicle, in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows. Oestradiol benzoate administered at device removal resulted in a shorter interval from device removal to ovulation compared with EB injection 24 h after the end of a progestagen treatment. PMID:21883518

Manes, J; Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R H



Changes in Dry State Hemoglobin over Time Do Not Increase the Potential for Oxidative DNA Damage in Dried Blood  

PubMed Central

Background Hemoglobin (Hb) is the iron-containing oxygen transport protein present in the red blood cells of vertebrates. Ancient DNA and forensic scientists are particularly interested in Hb reactions in the dry state because both regularly encounter aged, dried bloodstains. The DNA in such stains may be oxidatively damaged and, in theory, may be deteriorated by the presence of Hb. To understand the nature of the oxidative systems potentially available to degrade DNA in the presence of dried Hb, we need to determine what molecular species Hb forms over time. These species will determine what type of iron (i.e. Fe2+/Fe3+/Fe4+) is available to participate in further chemical reactions. The availability of “free” iron will affect the ability of the system to undergo Fenton-type reactions which generate the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH•). The OH• can directly damage DNA. Methodology/Principal Findings Oxygenated Hb (oxyHb) converts over time to oxidized Hb (metHb), but this happens more quickly in the dry state than in the hydrated state, as shown by monitoring stabilized oxyHb. In addition, dry state oxyHb converts into at least one other unknown species other than metHb. Although “free” iron was detectable as both Fe2+ and Fe3+ in dry and hydrated oxyHb and metHb, the amount of ions detected did not increase over time. There was no evidence that Hb becomes more prone to generating OH• as it ages in either the hydrated or dry states. Conclusions The Hb molecule in the dried state undergoes oxidative changes and releases reactive Fe(II) cations. These changes, however, do not appear to increase the ability of Hb to act as a more aggressive Fenton reagent over time. Nevertheless, the presence of Hb in the vicinity of DNA in dried bloodstains creates the opportunity for OH•-induced oxidative damage to the deoxyribose sugar and the DNA nucleobases.

Marrone, April; Ballantyne, Jack



Rates of evolution in seed plants: Net increase in diversity of chromosome numbers and species numbers through time  

PubMed Central

An approach was made to the problem of estimating rates of chromosomal evolution in plants. This was done by considering variability in chromosome number within genera whose ages are known approximately from fossil and biogeographic evidence. The relative increases in chromosome number diversity per lineage per unit time were as follows: herbaceous angiosperms, 100; woody angiosperms, 14; conifers, 2; and cycads, 0. Rates of increase in species diversity were estimated in an analogous way. These rates were strongly correlated with the karyotypic rates. These evolutionary rate differences between major groups of seed plants are largely explicable in terms of the breeding structures of populations. Herbs usually have small to moderate effective population sizes, and relatively high dispersability. By contrast, woody angiosperms and gymnosperms are usually obligate outbreeders with large effective population sizes and low dispersability. Thus the probability of fixing and dispersing new karyotypes or novel character ensembles is higher in herbs than in other seed plants.

Levin, D. A.; Wilson, A. C.



Antepartum Depression Severity is Increased During Seasonally Longer Nights: Relationship to Melatonin and Cortisol Timing and Quantity.  


Current research suggests that mood varies from season to season in some individuals, in conjunction with light-modulated alterations in chronobiologic indices such as melatonin and cortisol. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations in darkness on mood in depressed antepartum women, and to determine the relationship of seasonal mood variations to contemporaneous blood melatonin and cortisol measures; a secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors on measures of melancholic versus atypical depressive symptoms. We obtained measures of mood and overnight concentrations of plasma melatonin and serum cortisol in 19 depressed patients (DP) and 12 healthy control (HC) antepartum women, during on-going seasonal variations in daylight/darkness, in a cross-sectional design. Analyses of variance showed that in DP, but not HC, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD) scores were significantly higher in women tested during seasonally longer versus shorter nights. This exacerbation of depressive symptoms occurred when the dim light melatonin onset, the melatonin synthesis offset, and the time of maximum cortisol secretion (acrophase) were phase-advanced (temporally shifted earlier), and melatonin quantity was reduced, in DP but not HC. Serum cortisol increased across gestational weeks in both the HC and DP groups, which did not differ significantly in cortisol concentration. Nevertheless, serum cortisol concentration correlated positively with HRSD score in DP but not HC; notably, HC showed neither significant mood changes nor altered melatonin and cortisol timing or quantity in association with seasonal variations. These findings suggest that depression severity during pregnancy may become elevated in association with seasonally related phase advances in melatonin and cortisol timing and reduced melatonin quantity that occur in DP, but not HC. Thus, women who experience antepartum depression may be more susceptible than their nondepressed counterparts to phase alterations in melatonin and cortisol timing during seasonally longer nights. Interventions that phase delay melatonin and/or cortisol timing-for example, increased exposure to bright evening light-might serve as an effective intervention for antepartum depressions whose severity is increased during seasonally longer nights. PMID:23998286

Meliska, Charles J; Martínez, Luis F; López, Ana M; Sorenson, Diane L; Nowakowski, Sara; Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey; Parry, Barbara L



Timing of symptomatic vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: the effect of treatment modality and clinical implications.  


A better prediction of the time course of symptomatic vasospasm (SVSP) might have a significant impact on the management and prevention of delayed neurologic ischemic deficit (DIND). We studied the influence of the treatment for ruptured aneurysm on SVSP timing. We retrospectively analyzed data of consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) admitted in our center between 1999 and 2005, treated within 72 hours of the rupture by surgical clipping or endovascular coiling and in accordance with our neuroscience unit protocol. We analyzed the presence of SVSP and recorded the timing of occurrence after the aneurysmal repair intervention. Data on demographics, premorbid conditions, time elapsed from the subarachnoid hemorrhage onset and intervention, and clinical and radiologic characteristics at admission were collected. The first occurrence of postintervention SVSP was recorded and compared between the 2 treatment groups using a proportional hazards regression model, including significant covariates. Of the 67 patients analyzed, 21 (31%) underwent endovascular coiling and 46 (69%) underwent surgical clipping. The baseline variables were similar in the 2 groups. The median time from the procedure to clinical vasospasm was 4 days in the coiled patients and 7 days in the clipped patients. In a proportional hazards model regression analysis including age, sex, Fisher and Hunt-Hess grades, time between onset to procedure, and intervention type, only intervention type emerged as a significant predictor of time to SVSP after intervention (likelihood ratio chi2 = 16.8; P < .00). Treatment modality of ruptured intracranial aneurysm may influence the timing of SVSP occurrence. PMID:20189086

Ionita, Catalina C; Baker, John; Graffagnino, Carmelo; Alexander, Michael J; Friedman, Allan H; Zaidat, Osama O



Subetta Treatment Increases Adiponectin Secretion by Mature Human Adipocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the mechanism of action in peripheral tissues of novel complex drug containing release-active dilutions of antibodies to the beta subunit of the insulin receptor and antibodies to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Subetta), which has shown efficacy in animal models of diabetes. Methods. Human mature adipocytes were incubated either with Subetta, with one of negative controls (placebo or vehicle), with one of nonspecific controls (release-active dilutions of antibodies to cannabinoid receptor type I or release-active dilutions of rabbit nonimmune serum), or with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 37°C in a humidified incubator at 5% CO2 for three days. Rosiglitazone was used as reference drug. Secretion of adiponectin was measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Only Subetta significantly stimulates adiponectin production by mature human adipocytes. Nonspecific controls did not significantly affect adiponectin secretion, resulting in adiponectin levels comparable to background values of the negative controls and DMSO. Conclusion. Increasing adiponectin production in absence of insulin by Subetta probably via modulating effect on the beta subunit of the insulin receptor might serve as one of the mechanisms of the antidiabetic effect of this drug. These in vitro results give first insight on possible mechanism of action of Subetta and serve as a background for further studies.

Nicoll, Jim; Gorbunov, Evgeniy A.; Tarasov, Sergey A.; Epstein, Oleg I.



Protein denaturation and water-protein interactions as affected by low temperature long time treatment of porcine longissimus dorsi.  


The relationship between water-protein interactions and heat-induced protein denaturation in low temperature long time (LTLT) treated pork Longissimus dorsi was investigated by combining low-field NMR T? relaxometry with DSC measurements and measures of shrinkage of porcine Longissimus dorsi heated to 53 °C, 55 °C, 57 °C and 59 °C for either 3 or 20 h. Water within the myofibrils, measured by NMR T?? relaxation times, was affected by both temperature and holding time during LTLT treatment between 53 °C and 59 °C. The changes in NMR T?? relaxation times were associated with decreased fiber diameter and increased cooking loss, revealing a relationship between transverse shrinkage, water-protein interactions and cooking loss. DSC measurements revealed a concomitant decrease in ?H(68 °C), which suggests impact of collagen denaturation on the retention of water within the meat during LTLT treatment. Furthermore, a decrease in ?H(75 °C) suggested that prolonged cooking (20 h) resulted in actin denaturation leading to decreased T?? relaxation times and higher cooking loss. PMID:21450413

Christensen, Line; Bertram, Hanne C; Aaslyng, Margit D; Christensen, Mette



Screening for Acute Childhood Malnutrition during the National Nutrition Week in Mali Increases Treatment Referrals  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate a pilot intervention designed to integrate mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) screening for acute malnutrition into the semi-annual Child Nutrition Week (Semaine d'Intensification des Activités de Nutrition, or “SIAN”) activities carried out in June 2008. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kolokani and Nara, two health districts in the Koulikoro region of Mali, 4–5 months after the SIAN, using a population-proportionate, multi-stage random sample of: 1) health centers, and 2) households in communities linked to each of the selected health centers. Caregivers of 1543 children who were 6–59 months of age at the time of the SIAN, 17 community-based volunteers and 45 health center staff members were interviewed. Results A total of 1278 children 6–59 months (83% of those studied) reportedly participated in SIAN. Of the participating children, 1258 received vitamin A (98% of SIAN participants; 82% of all eligible children), 945 received anti-helminth tablets (84% of participants; 71% of eligibles), and 669 were screened for acute malnutrition (52% of participants; 43% of eligibles). 186 of the children screened (27%) were reportedly identified as acutely malnourished. SIAN screening covered a significantly greater proportion of children than were examined in both community-based (22% of children) and health center-based screening activities (5% of children) combined during the 4-5 months after the SIAN (P<0.0001). In general, community volunteers and health personnel positively evaluated their experience adding MUAC screening to SIAN. Conclusion Integrating MUAC screening for acute malnutrition in SIAN permits the assessment of a large number of children for acute malnutrition, and should be continued.

Nyirandutiye, Daniele H.; Ag Iknane, Akory; Fofana, Amadou; Brown, Kenneth H.




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chicken feathers were treated with various concentrations of NaOH or H3PO4 and then steam processed in a laboratory autoclave. In vitro pepsin digestibility (IVPD) of laboratory hydrolyzed feather meal (FM) increased (P<.05) as processing time and as NaOH (P<.O05) or H3PO4 (P<.05) concentration increased. There was an interaction (P<.05) between chemical treatment and processing time. Crude protein (CP) levels

R. J. Steiner; R. O. Kellems; D. C. Church


Effects of temperature treatment on corn cob composting and reducing of composting time: a comparative study.  


This study focuses on the effect of temperature on the compost quality and the processing time. Two temperature, namely 46°C (high temperature) and 30°C (low temperature) were considered for the composting trials. A mixture of 60% ground corn cob, 30% dried sports grass and 10% bio-activator was used as composting material. The composting process lasted for 120 days. The maturity indices at the end of composting indicate that, for the high-temperature treatment, the compost show an improved quality as compared to the low-temperature treatment. The maturity indices, namely carbon to nitrogen ratio, water extractable organic carbon, ratio of cation exchange capacity to total organic carbon and germination index, determined for the high temperature treatment are: 13.9, 1.48 mg mL?¹, 2.21, and 86%, respectively. On the basis of the compost characteristics, the processing time for the high- and low-temperature treatments was 75 days and 105 days, respectively. It can be concluded that treatment at the high-temperature level considered in this study presents a more suitable option for improvement of composting. PMID:19710112

Kianirad, Mehran; Muazardalan, Mohammad; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Farahbakhsh, Mohsen; Mirdamadi, Saeed



Risedronate increases bone mass in an early postmenopausal population: two years of treatment plus one year of follow-up.  


This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to determine 1) the efficacy of oral risedronate for prevention of bone loss in healthy, early postmenopausal patients with normal bone mass, 2) the effect on bone mass when treatment was stopped, and 3) the safety and tolerance of risedronate in this population. A group of 111 patients were randomized to oral placebo, risedronate 5 mg daily, or risedronate 5 mg cyclically, for 2 yr followed by 1 yr off treatment. Measurements included percentage change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) at 24 months; percentage change from baseline in BMD of the femoral neck, trochanteric region, and Ward's triangle region of the proximal femur; and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. After 2 yr, there was a mean increase in BMD of the lumbar spine of 1.4% from baseline and of 5.7% vs. placebo in the risedronate 5 mg daily group. There were decreases from baseline in BMD of 1.6% and 4.3% in the risedronate 5 mg cyclic and placebo groups, respectively. By the end of 24 months, trochanteric bone mass at the hip increased by 5.4% in the risedronate 5 mg daily group and by 3.3% in the risedronate 5 mg cyclic group vs. placebo. Bone mass was maintained at the femoral neck in the 2 active-treatment groups vs. a 2.4% mean loss with placebo. During the treatment-free follow-up, bone turnover increased toward baseline in both risedronate groups. By the end of that year, lumbar spine bone mass in all 3 groups was lower than at baseline. Oral risedronate was well tolerated. We conclude that risedronate (5 mg daily) increases bone mass and risedronate (5 mg cyclic) appears to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women with normal BMD. PMID:9467547

Mortensen, L; Charles, P; Bekker, P J; Digennaro, J; Johnston, C C



Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment: Effectiveness of a Free Nicotine Patch Program Among Chinese Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacotherapy substantially increases smoking cessation rates. However, programs to reduce barriers to this evidence-based\\u000a treatment may not improve access among high risk immigrant non English speaking populations. This study estimates the effectiveness\\u000a of a tailored free nicotine patch (NRT) program among Chinese American smokers living in New York City (NYC). Between July\\u000a 2004 and May 2005 NRT was distributed to

Donna Shelley; Nam Nguyen; Cha-Hui Peng; Margaret Chin; Ming-der Chang; Marianne Fahs



Semiparametric Estimation of Treatment Effect with Time-Lagged Response in the Presence of Informative Censoring  

PubMed Central

In many randomized clinical trials, the primary response variable, for example, the survival time, is not observed directly after the patients enroll in the study but rather observed after some period of time (lag time). It is often the case that such a response variable is missing for some patients due to censoring that occurs when the study ends before the patient’s response is observed or when the patients drop out of the study. It is often assumed that censoring occurs at random which is referred to as noninformative censoring; however, in many cases such an assumption may not be reasonable. If the missing data are not analyzed properly, the estimator or test for the treatment effect may be biased. In this paper, we use semiparametric theory to derive a class of consistent and asymptotically normal estimators for the treatment effect parameter which are applicable when the response variable is right censored. The baseline auxiliary covariates and post-treatment auxiliary covariates, which may be time-dependent, are also considered in our semiparametric model. These auxiliary covariates are used to derive estimators that both account for informative censoring and are more efficient then the estimators which do not consider the auxiliary covariates.

Lu, Xiaomin; Tsiatis, Anastasios A.



A simple method of independent treatment time verification in gamma knife radiosurgery using integral dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop a simple independent dose calculation method to verify treatment plans for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Our approach uses the total integral dose within the skull as an end point for comparison. The total integral dose is computed using a spreadsheet and is compared to that obtained from Leksell GammaPlan registered . It is calculated as the sum of the integral doses of 201 beams, each passing through a cylindrical volume. The average length of the cylinders is estimated from the Skull-Scaler measurement data taken before treatment. Correction factors are applied to the length of the cylinder depending on the location of a shot in the skull. The radius of the cylinder corresponds to the collimator aperture of the helmet, with a correction factor for the beam penumbra and scattering. We have tested our simple spreadsheet program using treatment plans of 40 patients treated with Gamma Knife registered in our center. These patients differ in geometry, size, lesion locations, collimator helmet, and treatment complexities. Results show that differences between our calculations and treatment planning results are typically within {+-}3%, with a maximum difference of {+-}3.8%. We demonstrate that our spreadsheet program is a convenient and effective independent method to verify treatment planning irradiation times prior to implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

Jin Jianyue; Drzymala, Robert; Li Zuofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)



Fast-start strategy increases the time spent above 95 %VO2max during severe-intensity intermittent running exercise.  


This study aimed to use the intermittent critical velocity (ICV) model to individualize intermittent exercise and analyze whether a fast-start strategy could increase the time spent at or above 95 %VO(2max) (t95VO(2max)) during intermittent exercise. After an incremental test, seven active male subjects performed three intermittent exercise tests until exhaustion at 100, 110, and 120 % of the maximal aerobic velocity to determine ICV. On three occasions, the subjects performed an intermittent exercise test until exhaustion at 105 % (IE105) and 125 % (IE125) of ICV, and at a speed that was initially set at 125 %ICV but which then decreased to 105 %ICV (IE125-105). The intermittent exercise consisted of repeated 30-s runs alternated with 15-s passive rest intervals. There was no difference between the predicted and actual Tlim for IE125 (300 ± 72 s and 284 ± 76 s) and IE105 (1,438 ± 423 s and 1,439 ± 518 s), but for IE125-105 the predicted Tlim underestimated the actual Tlim (888 ± 211 s and 1,051 ± 153 s, respectively). The t95VO(2max) during IE125-105 (289 ± 150 s) was significantly higher than IE125 (113 ± 40 s) and IE105 (106 ± 71 s), but no significant differences were found between IE125 and IE105. It can be concluded that predicting Tlim from the ICV model was affected by the fast-start protocol during intermittent exercise. Furthermore, fast-start protocol was able to increase the time spent at or above 95 %VO2max during intermittent exercise above ICV despite a longer total exercise time at IE105. PMID:23053127

de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Turnes, Tiago; de Oliveira Cruz, Rogério Santos; Caputo, Fabrizio



Para-chlorophenol containing synthetic wastewater treatment in an activated sludge unit: effects of hydraulic residence time.  


Due to the toxic nature of chlorophenol compounds present in some chemical industry effluents, biological treatment of such wastewaters is usually realized with low treatment efficiencies. Para-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol, 4-CP) containing synthetic wastewater was treated in an activated sludge unit at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) varying between 5 and 30 h while the feed COD (2500 mg l(-1)), 4-CP (500 mg l(-1)) and sludge age (SRT, 10 days) were constant. Effects of HRT variations on COD, 4-CP, toxicity removals and on settling characteristics of the sludge were investigated. Percent COD removals increased and the effluent COD concentrations decreased when HRT increased from 5 to 15 h and remained almost constant for larger HRT levels. Nearly, 91% COD and 99% 4-CP removals were obtained at HRT levels above 15 h. Because of the highly concentrated microbial population at HRT levels of above 15 h, low effluent (reactor) 4-CP concentrations and almost complete toxicity removals were obtained. High biomass concentrations obtained at HRT levels above 15 h were due to low 4-CP contents in the aeration tank yielding negligible inhibition effects and low maintenance requirements. The sludge volume index (SVI) decreased with increasing HRT up to 15 h due to high biomass concentrations at high HRT levels resulting in well settling sludge with low SVI values. Hydraulic residence times above 15 h resulted in more than 90% COD and complete 4-CP and toxicity removals along with well settling sludge. PMID:16814923

Kargi, Fikret; Konya, Isil



Long-term valproate treatment increases brain neuropeptide y expression and decreases seizure expression in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy.  


The mechanisms by which valproate, one of the most widely prescribed anti-epileptic drugs, suppresses seizures have not been fully elucidated but may involve up-regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We investigated the effects of valproate treatment in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) on brain NPY mRNA expression and seizure control. GAERS were administered either valproate (42 hr(-1)) or saline continuously for 5 days. Electroencephalograms were recorded for 24 hrs on treatment days 1, 3 and 5 and the percentage of time spent in seizure activity was analysed. NPY mRNA expression was measured in different brain regions using qPCR. Valproate treatment suppressed seizures by 80% in GAERS (p<0.05) and increased NPY mRNA expression in the thalamus (p<0.05) compared to saline treatment. These results demonstrate that long-term valproate treatment results in an upregulation of thalamic expression of NPY implicating this as a potential contributor to the mechanism by which valproate suppresses absence seizures. PMID:24039965

Elms, Johanna; Powell, Kim L; van Raay, Leena; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; O'Brien, Terence J; Morris, Margaret J



Increased feelings of the sensed presence and increased geomagnetic activity at the time of the experience during exposures to transcerebral weak complex magnetic fields.  


In 2 separate experiments involving 39 subjects the incidence of sensing a presence or Sentient Being while being exposed to weak complex magnetic fields over the right hemisphere was moderately correlated with increased global geomagnetic activity during the 3-h periods of the experiences. Analyses of magnetometer values near the laboratory indicated the intensity of the east-west component of the geomagnetic field had been increasing consistently at about 1 pT/s for at least 10 min for a cumulative change of about 15 to 20 nT. The ratios of the durations of alpha rhythms over the temporal lobes compared to the occipital lobes were correlated significantly with both increased geomagnetic activity and the reports of a presence. Removal of the shared variance between the sensed presence and various psychometric inferences of temporal lobe sensitivity and the history of dissociation increased and decreased, respectively, the strength of the partial correlations between geomagnetic activity and the reports of a sensed presence. The results suggest the culturally and historically ubiquitous phenomena of sensed presences are generated by right hemispheric processes that once enhanced by a variety of stimuli, including weak complex magnetic fields, can be encouraged by increased global geomagnetic activity. PMID:16051550

Booth, J N; Koren, S A; Persinger, M A



Persistence of left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with lower achieved systolic pressure during antihypertensive treatment.  


Aim. To determine if persistence of electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) during aggressive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering would identify patients at increased risk. Methods and results. Adjudicated outcomes were examined in relation to the presence of LVH by mean in-treatment Cornell product (CP) in 463 hypertensive patients with mean in-treatment SBP ? 130 mmHg randomly assigned to losartan- or atenolol-based treatment. During mean follow-up of 4.4 ± 1.3 years, persistence of mean CP > 2440 mm ms in 211 patients (45.6%) was associated with significantly higher 4-year rates of cardiovascular death (8.9% vs 3.4%, p = 0.003), myocardial infarction (7.0% vs 3.3%, p = 0.010), stroke (8.5% vs 2.1%, p = 0.002), the composite endpoint of these events (20.0% vs 7.0%, p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (14.9% vs 10.0%, p = 0.015). In multivariate Cox analyses, adjusting for a propensity score for CP LVH, randomized treatment and Framingham risk score entered as standard covariates and in-treatment diastolic BP and Sokolow-Lyon voltage LVH entered as time-varying covariates, persistence of CP LVH remained associated with statistically significant increased risks of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, HR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.10-5.70), stroke (HR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.03-6.97) and the composite endpoint (HR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.36-4.45). Conclusions. These findings suggest that persistence of LVH in a subset of these patients may in part explain the lack of benefit found in hypertensive patients despite treatment to lower SBP. PMID:23721506

Okin, Peter M; Hille, Darcy A; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Dahlöf, Björn; Devereux, Richard B



Chronic antidepressant treatments increase basic fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-binding protein in neurons  

PubMed Central

Summary One of the mechanisms proposed for antidepressant drugs is the enhancement of synaptic connections and plasticity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), is a growth factor essential for the proper formation of synaptic connections in the cerebral cortex, maturation and survival of catecholamine neurons, and neurogenesis. In this report, we attempted to establish a correlation between antidepressant treatments and FGF2 expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, two brain areas relevant for depression. Desipramine (DMI, 10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (FLU, 5 mg/kg) were injected acutely (single injection) or chronically (daily injection for two weeks) in adult rats. Chronic, but not acute, antidepressant treatments increase FGF2 immunoreactivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex and in both astrocytes and neurons of the hippocampus. FGF2 immunoreactivity in the cortex was increased mainly in the cytoplasm of neurons of layer V. Western blot analyses of nuclear and cytosolic extracts from the cortex revealed that both antidepressants increase FGF2 isoforms in the cytosolic extracts and decrease accumulation of FGF2 immunoreactivity in the nucleus. To characterize the anatomical and cellular specificity of antidepressants, we examined FGF-binding protein (FBP), a secreted protein that acts as an extracellular chaperone for FGF2 and enhances its activity. DMI and FLU increased FBP immunoreactivity in both cortical and hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that FGF2 and FBP may participate in the plastic responses underlying the clinical efficacy of antidepressants.

Bachis, Alessia; Mallei, Alessandra; Cruz, Maria Idalia; Wellstein, Anton; Mocchetti, Italo



Treatment with the nitric oxide donor SNP increases triiodothyronine levels in hyper- and hypothyroid sprague-dawley rats.  


Nitric oxide pathway might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of nitric oxide (NO) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague-Dawley rats under controlled diet. Furthermore, the effects of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on thyroid dysfunctions were also assessed. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=107) were subdivided into normal diet and high-fat diet (HFD) groups and grouped into controls, hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, and SNP treated groups. Hypothyroidism was induced through propylthiouracil, whereas hyperthyroidism by triiodothyronine (T3). After 12 weeks of T3 treatment, serum nitric oxides (NOX), endogenous asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), body weight and food intake were analyzed. Hypothyroid rats showed decreased serum T3 levels, hyperthyroid rats increased T3 compared to controls. Diet had no impact on T3. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. Serum NOX was significantly reduced in normal diet hypothyroid rats. SNP administration compensated the decrease and markedly increased T3. NO synthase inhibitor ADMA levels were significantly higher in the HFD control group than in the normal diet controls. ADMA was declined in both hypothyroid groups and increased in normal diet hyperthyroid rats. An association of thyroid dysfunctions with reduced bioavailability of NO and alterations of ADMA levels could be established. Treatment with the NO donor SNP resulted in an increase of serum T3 levels. These results demonstrate that the NO pathway is implicated in thyroid dysfunctions, which may be of clinical relevance. PMID:23918691

Ragginer, C; Bernecker, C; Ainoedhofer, H; Pailer, S; Kieslinger, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Gruber, H-J