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1

Increased association over time between regional frontal lobe BOLD change magnitude and cardiac vagal control with sertraline treatment for major depression.  

PubMed

Regions of the medial visceromotor network (MVN) participate in concurrently regulating shifts in both affective state and cardiac vagal control in the attentional background, and this regulatory ability may be impaired in depression. We examined whether the relationship between changes in BOLD within MVN regions and changes in cardiac vagal control (VC) during affective state shifting changed with depression treatment. Ten depressed and ten control subjects performed an emotional counting Stroop task designed to trigger affective change in the attentional background while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent electrocardiography (ECG) on four occasions: week 0 (pre-treatment) and weeks 2, 6 and 12 of treatment on sertraline. We measured the absolute value of change between adjacent emotional and neutral conditions in both VC and the BOLD signal in specific regions of the MVN. Over time consistent increases were observed in BOLD-VC magnitude correlations in depressed subjects in subgenual ACC and left DLPFC, which strongly correlated with depressive symptom improvement. Symptom improvement over time was also associated with decreases in the magnitude of both BOLD shifts and VC shifts within-subjects. This suggests that as depressive symptoms improve on sertraline, subgenual ACC and DLPFC may more efficiently regulate visceral states during affective state shifting. PMID:25282511

Smith, Ryan; Allen, John J B; Thayer, Julian F; Fort, Carolyn; Lane, Richard D

2014-12-30

2

Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain.  

PubMed

Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. PMID:24602440

Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami

2014-03-01

3

Evaluation of the Implementation of a Rapid Response Treatment Protocol for Patients with Acute Onset Stroke: Can We Increase the Number of Patients Treated and Shorten the Time Needed?  

PubMed Central

Aims This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a rapid response treatment protocol for patients presenting with acute onset ischemic stroke. Improvements of routines surrounding the admission and treatment of patients with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), such as door-to-needle (DTN) times, and increasing the numbers of patients treated are discussed. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 320) treated with IVT for acute onset ischemic stroke at the Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, between 2003 and 2012. In 2009, a succession of changes to pre- and intra-hospital routines were made as well as an improvement in the education of primary health care physicians, nurses and paramedics involved in the treatment of acute onset stroke patients (rapid response treatment protocol). Analyses of DTN times, onset-to-needle times and the number of patients treated per year were carried out to ascertain the effect of the changes made. The primary aim was to analyze DTN times to look for any changes, and the secondary aim was to analyze changes in the number of patients treated per year. Results In the years after the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol, we saw an improvement in the median DTN time with a decrease from 73 to 50 min in the first year (p = 0.03), a decrease of 45 min in the second year (p = 0.01) and a decrease of 31 min in the third year (p < 0.001). Similarly, an improvement in the number of patients treated per year was seen after enhancements in the treatment chain were made. A significant, 27-fold increase was shown when the number of patients treated in 2012 was compared with all patients treated in all years prior to the implementation of the rapid treatment protocol. Conclusions The implementation of the rapid treatment protocol for acute onset ischemic stroke patients led to a significant decrease in the DTN time at our center. These improvements also produced an increase in the number of patients treated per year. The extension of the therapeutic window from 3 to 4.5 h for the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator also played a role in the increased treatment numbers. PMID:25076956

Advani, Rajiv; Naess, Halvor; Kurz, Martin W.

2014-01-01

4

An intervention to increase alcohol treatment engagement: a pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Previous research has documented the difficulty individuals with alcohol use disorders have initiating alcohol treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of a brief, cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase treatment initiation among individuals with alcohol use disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included one hundred and ninety six participants who screened positive for a possible alcohol use disorder on the AUDIT. Randomly assigned intervention participants were administered a brief cognitive-behaviorally-based intervention by phone designed to modify beliefs that may interfere with treatment-seeking behavior. Beliefs about treatment and treatment-seeking behavior were assessed post-intervention. Results Participants receiving the intervention had significantly improved their attitudes toward addiction treatment (p < 0.002) and increased their reported intention to seek treatment (p < 0.000) post-intervention. Further, intervention participants were almost three times more likely to attend treatment within a three-month period (OR = 2.60, p < 0.025) than participants in the control group. Conclusions A brief, cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered by phone and focused on modifying treatment interfering beliefs holds promise for increasing alcohol treatment-seeking among individuals in need. PMID:22138200

Stecker, Tracy; McGovern, Mark P.; Herr, Beverly

2011-01-01

5

COPE for Depressed and Anxious Teens: A Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Skills Building Intervention to Increase Access to Timely, Evidence-Based Treatment  

PubMed Central

TOPIC Evidence–based CBT skills building intervention – COPE -for depressed and anxious teens in brief 30 minute outpatient visits. PURPOSE Based on COPE training workshops, this paper provides an overview of the COPE program, it’s development, theoretical foundation, content of the sessions and lessons learned for best delivery of COPE to individuals and groups in psychiatric settings, primary care settings and schools. SOURCES Published literature and clinical examples CONCLUSION With the COPE program, the advanced practice nurse in busy outpatient practice can provide timely, evidence-based therapy for adolescents and use the full extent of his/her advanced practice nursing knowledge and skills. PMID:23351105

Lusk, Pamela; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

2012-01-01

6

Burns treatment in ancient times.  

PubMed

Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

2013-01-01

7

Determining Dictation Practice Time for Increased Speeds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study were reported which indicated that progressively more dictation practice time is needed by students to achieve each speed level from 60 wpm to 90 wpm and less time is needed by students to achieve 100 wpm than to achieve 70, 80, or 90 wpm. (Author/SC)

Grasser, Nancy

1974-01-01

8

Increased time resolution with multiphoton interference beating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I investigate a variation of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference where two interference filters with different central frequencies are placed in the two output-ports of a beam splitter. Taking photons as wavepackets in the time domain, we get a general analytic formula for the probability that N photons emerge in each output-port after interference. The probability is shown to oscillate as a cosine function modulated by a dip and the oscillation period is inversely proportional to N which indicates a better time resolution with multiphoton beating.

Chen, Lei

2014-11-01

9

Consensus on Increasing Learning Time Builds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five years ago, the still-resonant report "A Nation at Risk" urged schools to add more time--an hour to the usual six hour day and 20-40 days to the typical 180-day ear--to ward off a "rising tide of mediocrity" in American education. Today, city, school, state, and national leaders are engaged in a renewed effort to do just that. Under…

Gewertz, Catherine

2009-01-01

10

Elimination of African Onchocerciasis: Modeling the Impact of Increasing the Frequency of Ivermectin Mass Treatment  

PubMed Central

The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is currently shifting its focus from morbidity control to elimination of infection. To enhance the likelihood of elimination and speed up its achievement, programs may consider to increase the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment from annual to 6-monthly or even higher. In a computer simulation study, we examined the potential impact of increasing the mass treatment frequency for different settings. With the ONCHOSIM model, we simulated 92,610 scenarios pertaining to different assumptions about transmission conditions, history of mass treatment, the future mass treatment strategy, and ivermectin efficacy. Simulation results were used to determine the minimum remaining program duration and number of treatment rounds required to achieve 99% probability of elimination. Doubling the frequency of treatment from yearly to 6-monthly or 3-monthly was predicted to reduce remaining program duration by about 40% or 60%, respectively. These reductions come at a cost of additional treatment rounds, especially in case of 3-monthly mass treatment. Also, aforementioned reductions are highly dependent on maintained coverage, and could be completely nullified if coverage of mass treatment were to fall in the future. In low coverage settings, increasing treatment coverage is almost just as effective as increasing treatment frequency. We conclude that 6-monthly mass treatment may only be worth the effort in situations where annual treatment is expected to take a long time to achieve elimination in spite of good treatment coverage, e.g. because of unfavorable transmission conditions or because mass treatment started recently. PMID:25545677

Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Hoerauf, Achim; Habbema, Dik; Bakker, Roel; Hopkins, Adrian D.; de Vlas, Sake J.

2014-01-01

11

Increases in Body Mass Index Following Initiation of Methadone Treatment.  

PubMed

Despite the clear efficacy of methadone for opioid dependence, one less desirable phenomenon associated with methadone may be weight gain. We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) among patients entering methadone treatment. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 96 patients enrolled in an outpatient methadone clinic for ?6months. The primary outcome of BMI was assessed at intake and a subsequent physical examination approximately 1.8±0.95years later. Demographic, drug use and treatment characteristics were also examined. There was a significant increase in BMI following intake (p<0.001). Mean BMIs increased from 27.2±6.8 to 30.1±7.7kg/m(2), translating to a 17.8-pound increase (10% increase in body weight) in the overall patient sample. Gender was the strongest predictor of BMI changes (p<0.001), with significantly greater BMI increases in females than males (5.2 vs. 1.7kg/m(2), respectively). This translates to a 28-pound (17.5%) increase in females vs. a 12-pound (6.4%) increase in males. In summary, methadone treatment enrollment was associated with clinically significant weight gain, particularly among female patients. This study highlights the importance of efforts to help patients mitigate weight gain during treatment, particularly considering the significant health and economic consequences of obesity for individuals and society more generally. PMID:25441923

Fenn, Jennifer M; Laurent, Jennifer S; Sigmon, Stacey C

2014-11-01

12

Adverse events associated with aggressive treatment of increased blood pressure.  

PubMed

Patients with severely increased blood pressure often present to the emergency department. Rapid lowering of blood pressure can precipitate or worsen end organ damage. We report two cases that developed cerebrovascular and cardiovascular adverse events associated with aggressive treatment of increased blood pressure by the use of sublingual nifedipine capsule. The first patient had developed ischaemic stroke; the second patient actually had acute left ventricular failure causing deteriorated, and required positive inotropic treatment for persistent hypotension. These cases emphasise that the pseudoemergency may rapidly progress into a real emergency when blood pressure is rapidly and aggressively reduced. PMID:15206510

Yanturali, S; Akay, S; Ayrik, C; Cevik, A A

2004-05-01

13

Pretreatment Intervention Increases Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study evaluated the utility of a pretreatment intervention aimed at increasing treatment attendance. We extended\\u000a past work by evaluating whether this intervention was associated with less impairment at termination. Given that patients\\u000a with anxiety disorders demonstrate high rates of premature termination, we assessed whether these patients would be particularly\\u000a likely to benefit. The sample included 172 patients at

Julia D. Buckner; Kiara R. Cromer; Katherine A. Merrill; Michael A. Mallott; Norman B. Schmidt; Cristina Lopez; Jill M. Holm-Denoma; Thomas E. Joiner Jr

2009-01-01

14

An investigation of productivity increases from hydraulic fracturing treatments  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES FROM HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS A Thesis b7 Robert Joe Boriskie Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Head of Department) August, 1963 1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION. TABLE OF CONTENTS PRgB 3. THEORY AND PROCEDURE. 4. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. . 5. CONCLUSIONS. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 7. APPENDIX. 8. REFERENCES. 18 19 20 32 LIST OF FIGURES...

Boriskie, Robert Joe

2012-06-07

15

Mindfulness meditation and relaxation training increases time sensitivity.  

PubMed

Two experiments examined the effect of mindfulness meditation and relaxation on time perception using a temporal bisection task. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a temporal task before and after exercises of mindfulness meditation or relaxation. In Experiment 2, the procedure was similar than that used in Experiment 1, except that the participants were trained to mediate or relax every day over a period of several weeks. The results showed that mindfulness meditation exercises increased sensitivity to time and lengthened perceived time. However, this temporal improvement with meditation exercises was primarily observed in the experienced meditators. Our results also showed the experienced meditators were less anxious than the novice participants, and that the sensitivity to time increased when the level of anxiety decreased. Our results were explained by the practice of mindfulness technique that had developed individuals' abilities in devoting more attention resources to temporal information processing. PMID:25460243

Droit-Volet, S; Fanget, M; Dambrun, M

2015-01-01

16

Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge. PMID:25560267

Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

2015-01-28

17

Non-linear increase of vitamin D content in eggs from chicks treated with increasing exposure times of ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

Vitamin D fortified food can help to reduce the prevalence for vitamin D deficiency. Previous data provided evidence that eggs from hens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light contain large quantities of vitamin D. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of vitamin D enrichment in eggs upon increasing daily UVB exposure times. We further addressed the question whether extended UVB irradiation affects the skin content of 7-dehydrocholesterol. To this end, 35 hens were assigned to 7 groups of 5 animals each and were exposed to UVB light (76?W/cm(2)) for 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300min per day, respectively. Eggs from the treatment groups were collected at baseline and after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, respectively. Skin samples were gained at the end of 4 weeks. Vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The contents of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in egg yolk raised non-linear in response to increasing daily UVB exposure times. The vitamin D3 content did not reach a clear-cut plateau within the chosen UVB treatment times. A daily UVB exposure time of 300min resulted in vitamin D3 contents of 28.6?g/100g egg yolk dry matter. In contrast to vitamin D3, the 25(OH)D3 content in the egg yolk achieved a maximum upon an UVB irradiation time of 60min/d. The cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol contents were not altered in response to the chosen UVB irradiation times. In conclusion, the data show a distinct non-linear dose-response relationship of UVB exposure times on the total vitamin D content in eggs. This article is part of a special issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:25445915

Kühn, Julia; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Hirche, Frank; Baur, Anja C; Mielenz, Norbert; Stangl, Gabriele I

2014-10-27

18

Evaluation of increased milking frequency as an additional treatment for cows with clinical mastitis.  

PubMed

This field study focused on the possible effects of increased milking frequency (milking four times a day in comparison with milking twice a day) on clinical and bacteriological cure rates of clinical, antibiotically treated mastitis cases. Parameters tested were clinical, microbiological and full (cytomicrobiological) cure as well as the development of milk yield after the clinical mastitis episode. Cows from a large dairy herd meeting the study criteria (n=93) were assigned to two treatment groups by a systematic randomization scheme (blocked by body temperature <=or >39.5 degrees C). Both groups were randomly divided by experimental treatments: a) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 2-times a day; b) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 4-times a day. Treatments were initiated before the culture results were known. Cows were surveyed and evaluated on days 1-6, 24 and 31. No significant differences between treatment and control groups regarding clinical cure, microbiological cure, full cure and milk production could be established. Applying a 4-times a day milking regime did not lead to any significant effect, either positive or negative. Therefore, the results suggest that milking 4-times a day as a supporting therapy for mild, moderate and severe antimicrobially treated mastitis cases cannot be recommended. PMID:19919726

Krömker, Volker; Zinke, Claudia; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Klocke, Doris; Reimann, Anette; Eller, Georg

2010-02-01

19

Method for Predicting Which Customers' Time Deposit Balances Will Increase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method of predicting which customers' account balances will increase by using data mining to effectively and efficiently promote sales. Prediction by mining all the data in a business is difficult because of much time required to collect, process, and calculate it. The selection of which features are used for prediction is a critical issue. We propose a method of selecting features to improve the accuracy of prediction within practical time limits. It consists of three parts: (1) converting collected features into financial behavior features that reflect customer actions, (2) extracting features affecting increases in account balances from these collected and financial behavior features, and (3) predicting customers whose account balances will increase based on the extracted features. We found the accuracy of prediction in an experiment with our method to be higher than with other conventional methods.

Ono, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Morita, Masahiro; Komoda, Norihisa

20

Cigarette Smoking Increases the Risk of Root Canal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated smoking as a risk factor for root canal treatment. We studied the effect of smoking on the incidence of root canal treatment, controlling for recognized risk factors, in 811 dentate male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. Participants were not VA patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 28 years. Root canal treatment was verified on

E. A. Krall; C. Abreu Sosa; C. Garcia; M. E. Nunn; D. J. Caplan; R. I. Garcia

2006-01-01

21

Cigarette Smoking Increases the Risk of Root Canal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated smoking as a risk factor for root canal treatment. We studied the effect of smoking on the incidence of root canal treatment, controlling for recognized risk factors, in 811 dentate male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. Participants were not VA patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 28 years. Root canal treatment was verified on

E. A. Krall; C. Abreu Sosa; C. Garcia; M. E. Nunn; D. J. Caplan; R. I. Garcia

2010-01-01

22

Time Pressure Increases Cooperation in Competitively Framed Social Dilemmas  

PubMed Central

What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect. PMID:25551386

Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G.

2014-01-01

23

Time-multiplexed beamforming for noninvasive microwave hyperthermia treatment.  

PubMed

A noninvasive microwave beamforming strategy is proposed for selective localized heating of biological tissue. The proposed technique is based on time multiplexing of multiple beamformers. We investigate the effectiveness of the time-multiplexed beamforming in the context of brain hyperthermia treatment by using a high-fidelity numerical head phantom of an adult female from the Virtual Family (IT'IS Foundation) as our testbed. An operating frequency of 1 GHz is considered to balance the improved treatment resolution afforded by higher frequencies against the increased penetration through the brain afforded by lower frequencies. The exact head geometry and dielectric properties of biological tissues in the head are assumed to be available for the creation of patient-specific propagation models used in beamformer design. Electromagnetic and thermal simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain method are used to evaluate the hyperthermia performance of time-multiplexed beamforming and conventional beamforming strategies. The proposed time-multiplexing technique is shown to reduce the unintended heating of healthy tissue without affecting the treatment temperature or volume. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated for target locations in three different regions of the brain. This approach has the potential to improve microwave-induced localized heating for cancer treatment via hyperthermia or heat-activated chemotherapeutic drug release. PMID:21216700

Zastrow, Earl; Hagness, Susan C; Van Veen, Barry D; Medow, Joshua E

2011-06-01

24

Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.  

PubMed

The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth. PMID:25590775

Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

2015-01-15

25

Real Time Search User Behavior Real time search is an increasingly important area of  

E-print Network

. The most frequently used terms accounted for only 0.03% of the total terms. Concerning search topics Web search. Searchers of real time content often repeat queries overtime, perhaps indicating long term content increasingly enters the main stream. Keywords Real time search, real time content, Collecta

Jansen, James

26

Increasing treatment options in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

There is currently no standard first-line treatment for indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) because there is no curative treatment. In asymptomatic patients, treatment with chemotherapy does not improve survival compared with a "watch and wait" approach. Improved treatment strategies, with curative intent, are thus required for indolent NHL. Rituximab is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of indolent NHL and can be considered for asymptomatic patients, where the side effects of chemotherapy may outweigh the benefits. In addition, rituximab does not compromise the use of subsequent chemotherapy in patients who relapse. A study of rituximab monotherapy in patients with low-tumor-burden follicular lymphoma has shown high rates of both clinical remission and molecular remission (clearance of bcl-2-positive cells from blood and/or bone marrow). After 2 years, half the patients relapsed, indicating that improved strategies are still required. Efforts to improve the efficacy of rituximab have included repeated administrations of the antibody and combined administration with chemotherapy or interferon-alpha2a. The optimal role of rituximab in first-line therapy for indolent NHL will be determined through randomized clinical trials. PMID:12040527

Solal-Céligny, Philippe

2002-04-01

27

Treatment increases stress-corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overaging during heat treatment of the aluminum alloys immediately followed by moderate plastic deformation, preferably by shock loading achieves near optimum values of both yield strength and resistance to stress corrosion. Similar results may be obtained by substituting a conventional deformation process for the shock loading step.

Jacobs, A. J.

1966-01-01

28

Early postnatal dexamethasone treatment and increased incidence of cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo study the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of children who participated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of early postnatal dexamethasone treatment for prevention of chronic lung disease.METHODSThe original study compared a three day course of dexamethasone (n = 132) with a saline placebo (n = 116) administered from before 12 hours of age in preterm infants, who

E S Shinwell; M Karplus; D Reich; Z Weintraub; S Blazer; D Bader; S Yurman; T Dolfin; A Kogan; S Dollberg; E Arbel; M Goldberg; I Gur; N Naor; L Sirota; S Mogilner; A Zaritsky; M Barak; E Gottfried

2000-01-01

29

This is an exciting time in the treatment of lymphoma.  

MedlinePLUS

... Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma "This is an exciting time in the treatment of lymphoma." Past Issues / Summer ... best medication for each patient, indicates the best time for treatments, and sheds light on the patient's ...

30

Smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Recent tobacco smoking has been identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis, and two studies which have investigated its association with relapse of tuberculosis after completion of treatment had conflicting results (and did not control for confounding). The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for tuberculosis relapse, with emphasis on smoking. Methods A cohort of newly diagnosed TB cases was followed up from their discharge after completion of treatment (in 2001–2003) until October 2006 and relapses of tuberculosis ascertained during that period. A case of relapse was defined as a patient who started a second treatment during the follow up. Results Smoking (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.23–5.21) and living in an area where the family health program was not implemented (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.46–8.93) were found to be independently associated with relapse of tuberculosis. Conclusions Our results establish that smoking is associated with relapse of tuberculosis even after adjustment for the socioeconomic variables. Smoking cessation support should be incorporated in the strategies to improve effectiveness of Tuberculosis Control Programs. PMID:18556729

d’Arc Lyra Batista, Joanna; de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Maria; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha

2008-01-01

31

Reducing time limits: a means to increase behavior of retardates.  

PubMed Central

A common assumption in special education is that temporal limits for a task should be expanded so that ample time is provided for completing the work. This study describes the opposite strategy of restricting temporal limits to augment academic performance. Three educable retarded children received token reinforcement contingent on the number of correct math problems answered during daily sessions. A reversal design was used to assess the effects of an abrupt reduction in time limits (20-5-20 min) and a graduated sequence of reductions (20-15-10-5-20 min). The graduated sequence resulted in rate increases of correct responding ranging from 125% to 266% and these gains endured when temporal limits were again expanded. In contrast, the abrupt shift produced interfering emotional behaviors and rate decreases in academic performance of 25% to 80%. The findings indicate that systematically restricting temporal limits for an academic task can further enhance the performance of slow learners already maintained by a token system. PMID:977515

Ayllon, T; Garber, S; Pisor, K

1976-01-01

32

A Role for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Increasing the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurocognitive impairments are prevalent in persons seeking treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These impairments and their physical, social, psychological and occupational consequences vary in severity across persons, much like those resulting from traumatic brain injury; however, due to their slower course of onset, alcohol-related cognitive impairments are often overlooked both within and outside of the treatment setting. Evidence suggests that cognitive impairments can impede treatment goals through their effects on treatment processes. Although some recovery of alcohol-related cognitive impairments often occurs after cessation of drinking (time-dependent recovery), the rate and extent of recovery is variable across cognitive domains and individuals. Following a long hiatus in scientific interest, a new generation of research aims to facilitate treatment process and improve AUD treatment outcomes by directly promoting cognitive recovery (experience-dependent recovery). This review updates knowledge about the nature and course of cognitive and brain impairments associated with AUD, including cognitive effects of adolescent AUD. We summarize current evidence for indirect and moderating relationships of cognitive impairment to treatment outcome, and discuss how advances in conceptual frameworks of brain-behavior relationships are fueling the development of novel AUD interventions that include techniques for cognitive remediation. Emerging evidence suggests that such interventions can be effective in promoting cognitive recovery in persons with AUD and other substance use disorders, and potentially increasing the efficacy of AUD treatments. Finally, translational approaches based on cognitive science, neurophysiology, and neuroscience research are considered as promising future directions for effective treatment development that includes cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:23412885

Bates, Marsha E.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Nguyen, Tam T.

2013-01-01

33

Providing Performance Feedback for Teachers to Increase Treatment Fidelity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviewed a method for increasing teachers' use of behavior-specific praise, which is especially important for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. The use of performance feedback has been researched fairly extensively and has yielded positive outcomes when compared with other forms of consultation. This article…

Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.

2014-01-01

34

Treatments to Increase Social Awareness and Social Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is an extensive literature on methods for increasing the social awareness and social skills of people with autism spectrum\\u000a disorders (ASDs) of every diagnostic category and every age. This work varies in research quality from the mediocre to the\\u000a exemplary, although the exemplary are outnumbered by the less rigorous. One reason for the focus on treating social behaviors\\u000a is

Suzannah J. Ferraioli; Sandra L. Harris

35

Increase of Long-chain Branching by Thermo-oxidative Treatment of LDPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was exposed to thermal and thermo-oxidative treatment at 170 °C, and subsequently characterized by linear-viscoelastic measurements and in uniaxial extension. The Molecular Stress Function (MSF) model was used to quantify the elongational viscosities measured. For the thermally treated samples, exposure times between 2 and 6 hours were applied. Formation of long-chain branching (LCB) was found to occur only during the first two hours of thermal treatment. At longer exposure times, no difference in the level of strain hardening was observed. This was quantified by use of the MSF model: the nonlinear parameter fmax2 increased from fmax2 = 14 for the virgin sample to fmax2 = 22 for the samples thermally treated between 2 and 6 hours. For the thermo-oxidatively treated samples, which were exposed to air during thermal treatment between 30 and 90 minutes, the level of strain hardening increases drastically up to fmax2 = 55 with increasing exposure times from 30 up to 75 min due to LCB formation, and then decreases for an exposure time of 90 minutes due to chain scission dominating LCB formation. The nonlinear parameter ? of the MSF model was found to be ? = 2 for all samples, indicating that the general type of the random branching structure remains the same under all thermal conditions. Consequently only the parameter fmax2 of the MSF model and the linear-viscoelastic spectra were required to describe quantitatively the experimental observations. The strain hardening index, which is sometimes used to quantify strain hardening, follows accurately the trend of the MSF model parameter fmax2.

Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Luo, Jinji; Wagner, Manfred H.

2011-07-01

36

Changes over Time and Disparities in Schizophrenia Treatment Quality  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia medication and psychosocial treatment options have expanded since the Schizophrenia PORT was conducted. However, there also have been considerable changes in the delivery of mental health care in the public sector, as well as increasing state concerns about Medicaid cost containment. Objectives To examine trends and patient characteristics associated with differences in schizophrenia medication and visit treatment quality in a Medicaid population. Research Design Observational study of claims data from July 1, 1996 to June 30, 2001. Subjects Florida Medicaid enrollees diagnosed with schizophrenia (N=23,619). Measures We examined the likelihood of meeting any one and all four of the following quality standards: 1) receiving antipsychotic medication, 2) antipsychotic continuity and 3) dosing consistent with PORT recommendations and, 4) mental health visit continuity. Separate models were fit for acute and maintenance phases of treatment. Results Approximately 18% of acute and 7% of maintenance phases met all four quality standards. Antipsychotic quality improved (largely driven by an increasingly likelihood of receiving any antipsychotic), while visit continuity declined. The greatest disparities were seen for persons with co-occurring substance use disorders and of Black race. Quality differences were often phase specific and at times in opposite directions across treatment phases. Conclusions The improvement in antipsychotic treatment quality is encouraging. However, visit continuity declined. This study highlights the importance of quality measurement that includes focus on different treatment modalities and phases of care, as well as for potentially vulnerable populations (such as persons with co-occurring substance use disorders and minority race/ethnicity). PMID:19169121

Lehman, Anthony F.; Goldman, Howard; Frank, Richard G.

2008-01-01

37

Time is up: increasing shadow price of time in primary-care office visits.  

PubMed

A physician's own time is a scarce resource in primary care, and the physician must constantly evaluate the gain from spending more time with the current patient against moving to address the health-care needs of the next. We formulate and test two alternative hypotheses. The first hypothesis is based on the premise that with time so scarce, physicians equalize the marginal value of time across patients. The second, alternative hypothesis states that physicians allocate the same time to each patient, regardless of how much the patient benefits from the time at the margin. For our empirical work, we examine the presence of a sharply increasing subjective shadow price of time around the 'target' time using video recordings of 385 visits by elderly patients to their primary care physician. We structure the data at the 'topic' level and find evidence consistent with the alternative hypothesis. Specifically, time elapsed within a visit is a very strong determinant of the current topic being the 'last topic'. This finding implies the physician's shadow price of time is rising during the course of a visit. We consider whether dislodging a target-time mentality from physicians (and patients) might contribute to more productive primary care practice. PMID:21442688

Tai-Seale, Ming; McGuire, Thomas

2012-04-01

38

INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in-depth treatment. Chromium retention due to precipitation was investigated by flowing chromium acetate solutions through carbonate rock. Chromium precipitated faster in the rocks than in beaker experiments at similar conditions. A mathematical model previously developed fit the precipitation data reasonably well. The stability of gels when subjected to stress was investigated by experiments with gels placed in tubes and in laboratory-scale fractures. Rupture pressures for gels placed in small diameter tubes were correlated with the ratio of tube length to tube ID. In fractures, fluid leakoff from the fracture to adjacent matrix rock affected gel formation and gel stability in a positive way. Disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR) was studied in unconsolidated sandpacks and in Berea sandstone cores. A conceptual model was developed to explain the presence of DPR. The effect of a pressure gradient, imposed by injection of oil or brine, on the permeability of gel-treated cores was investigated. DPR increased significantly as the pressure gradient was decreased. The magnitude of the pressure gradient had a much larger effect on water permeability than on oil permeability.

G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

2003-05-01

39

Does Integrated Trauma-Informed Substance Abuse Treatment Increase Treatment Retention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized group design study that explored whether trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment results in longer residential treatment stays and improved outcomes compared with treatment-as-usual. We used a subsample (N = 461) of participants in the Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and…

Amaro, Hortensia; Chernoff, Miriam; Brown, Vivian; Arevalo, Sandra; Gatz, Margaret

2007-01-01

40

Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants  

E-print Network

Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants F. Baggiani and S@dsi.unifi.it Automatic fault detection is becoming increasingly important in wastewater treatment plant operation, given of an unchecked fault propagating through the plant. This paper describes the development of a real-time Fault

41

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life time of the battery depends of many different parameters. One parameter set is the internal battery parameters which are influenced by the battery manufacturers, and the second set is the external battery parameters which are influenced by the battery users. The external parameter can have an enormous influence on the life time. By use of a battery management

A. Jossen; V. Spath; H. Doring; J. Garche

1999-01-01

42

Evaluation of medical treatments to increase survival of ebullism in guinea pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight carriers run a constant risk of exposure to vacuum. Above 63,000 ft (47 mmHg), the ambient pressure falls below the vapor pressure of water at 37 C, and tissue vaporization (ebullism) begins. Little is know about appropriate resuscitative protocols after such an ebullism exposure. This study identified injury patterns and mortality rates associated with ebullism while verifying effectiveness of traditional pulmonary resuscitative techniques. Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to 87,000 ft for periods of 40 to 115 sec. After descent, those animals that did not breathe spontaneously were given artificial ventilation by bag and mask for up to 15 minutes. Those animals surviving were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups--hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), ground-level oxygen (GLO2), and ground-level air (GLAIR). The HBO group was treated on a standard treatment table 6A while the GLO2 animals received O2 for an equivalent length of time. Those animals in the GLAIR group were observed only. All surviving animals were humanely sacrified at 48 hours. Inflation of the animal's lungs after the exposure was found to be difficult and, at times, impossible. This may be due to surfactant disruption at the alveolar lining. Electron microscopy identified a disruption of the surfactant layer in animals that did not survive initial exposure. Mortality was found to increase with exposure time: 40 sec--0 percent; 60 sec--6 percent; 70 sec--40 percent; 80 sec--13 percent; 100 sec--38 percent; 110 sec--40 percent; and 115 sec--100 percent. There was no difference in the delayed mortality among the treatment groups (HBO--15 percent, GLO2--11 percent, GLAIR--11 percent). However, since resuscitation was ineffective, the effectiveness of any post-exposure treatment was severely limited. Preliminary results indicate that reuscitation of guinea pigs following ebullism exposure is difficult, and that current techniques (such as traditional CPR) may not be appropriate.

Stegmann, Barbara J.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Wolf, E. G.; Derion, Toniann; Fanton, J. W.; Davis, H.; Kemper, G. B.; Scoggins, Terrell E.

1993-01-01

43

Response Time Analysis in Cognitive Tasks with Increasing Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, speeded tasks with differing assumed difficulties of the trials are regarded as a special class of simple cognitive tasks. Exploratory latent growth modeling with data-driven shape of a growth curve and nonlinear structured latent curve modeling with predetermined monotonically increasing functions were used to analyze…

Dodonov, Yury S.; Dodonova, Yulia A.

2012-01-01

44

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and costs of an energy storage system are two very important parameters for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other battery applications. The increasing of battery life and the prediction of battery failure are therefore two important features of a battery management system (BMS). A couple of other helpful features can be implemented in a BMS. In the case of

J. Garche; A. Jossen

2000-01-01

45

School Tax Increase During Hard Times: The Birmingham Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Birmingham (Alabama) school district regressed from a model system in 1926 to a poorly equipped, underfunded one in 1975. In that year, however, in spite of recession and joblessness, the citizens voted a $3 million tax increase for schools. The success of the election may be traced to several factors. Citizens were concerned about the…

Cody, Wilmer S.

46

Increase ampacity ratings through real-time monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of the application of tension monitors on power transmission lines. Several utilities are starting to apply this technology in order to obtain real-time ratings for the lines. This action is being brought about not only for economic reasons but also for system operators to prepare for the new competitive era of open access.

Beaty

1996-01-01

47

Subgroups Analysis when Treatment and Moderators are Time-varying  

PubMed Central

Prevention scientists are often interested in understanding characteristics of participants that are predictive of treatment effects because these characteristics can be used to inform the types of individuals who benefit more or less from treatment or prevention programs. Often, effect moderation questions are examined using subgroups analysis or, equivalently, using covariate × treatment interactions in the context of regression analysis. This article focuses on conceptualizing and examining causal effect moderation in longitudinal settings in which both treatment and the putative moderators are time-varying. Studying effect moderation in the time-varying setting helps identify which individuals will benefit more or less from additional treatment services on the basis of both individual characteristics and their evolving outcomes, symptoms, severity, and need. Examining effect moderation in these longitudinal settings, however, is difficult because moderators of future treatment may themselves be affected by prior treatment (for example, future moderators may be mediators of prior treatment). This article introduces moderated intermediate causal effects in the time-varying setting, describes how they are part of Robins’ Structural Nested Mean Model, discusses two problems with using a traditional regression approach to estimate these effects, and describes a new approach (a 2-stage regression estimator) to estimate these effects. The methodology is illustrated using longitudinal data to examine the time-varying effects of receiving community-based substance abuse treatment as a function of time-varying severity (or need). PMID:21424793

Almirall, Daniel; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Murphy, Susan A.

2011-01-01

48

Warming Rather Than Increased Precipitation Increases Soil Recalcitrant Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Grassland after 6 Years of Treatments  

PubMed Central

Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C) in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC) storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0–10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P?=?0.038) and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10–20 cm depth (P?=?0.082). In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0–10 cm depth (both P<0.05), indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10–20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland. PMID:23341995

Zhou, Xiaoqi; Chen, Chengrong; Wang, Yanfen; Smaill, Simeon; Clinton, Peter

2013-01-01

49

Effectiveness of the Treatment Readiness and Induction Program for increasing adolescent motivation for change.  

PubMed

Success in substance abuse treatment is improved by problem recognition, desire to seek help, and readiness to engage in treatment, all of which are important aspects of motivation. Interventions that facilitate these at treatment induction for adolescents are especially needed. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of TRIP (Treatment Readiness and Induction Program) in promoting treatment motivation. Data represent 519 adolescents from 6 residential programs who completed assessments at treatment intake (time 1) and 35days after admission (time 2). The design consisted of a comparison sample (n=281) that had enrolled in treatment prior to implementation of TRIP (standard operating practice) and a sample of clients that had entered treatment after TRIP began and received standard operating practice enhanced by TRIP (n=238). Repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted using each time 2 motivation scale as a dependent measure. Motivation scales were conceptualized as representing sequential stages of change. LISREL was used to test a structural model involving TRIP participation, gender, drug use severity, juvenile justice involvement, age, race-ethnicity, prior treatment, and urgency as predictors of the stages of treatment motivation. Compared to standard practice, adolescents receiving TRIP demonstrated greater gains in problem recognition, even after controlling for the other variables in the model. The model fit was adequate, with TRIP directly affecting problem recognition and indirectly affecting later stages of change (desire for help and treatment readiness). Future studies should examine which specific components of TRIP affect change in motivation. PMID:25456094

Becan, Jennifer E; Knight, Danica K; Crawley, Rachel D; Joe, George W; Flynn, Patrick M

2015-03-01

50

Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

2007-09-01

51

Pancreatic cancer Increased organ sparing using shape-based treatment plan optimization for  

E-print Network

Pancreatic cancer Increased organ sparing using shape-based treatment plan optimization Available online 15 June 2011 Keywords: Pancreatic cancer Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) Treatment with pancreatic cancer was queried to find patients with less favorable PTV-OAR configuration than a new case

Kazhdan, Michael

52

Optimal treatment of an SIR epidemic model with time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the optimal control strategies of an SIR (susceptible–infected–recovered) epidemic model with time delay are introduced. In order to do this, we consider an optimally controlled SIR epidemic model with time delay where a control means treatment for infectious hosts. We use optimal control approach to minimize the probability that the infected individuals spread and to maximize the

Gul Zaman; Yong Han Kang; Il Hyo Jung

2009-01-01

53

High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient. PMID:23585968

Prè, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.

2013-01-01

54

High energy neutron treatment for pelvic cancers: study stopped because of increased mortality.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare high energy fast neutron treatment with conventional megavoltage x ray treatment in the management of locally advanced pelvic carcinomas (of the cervix, bladder, prostate, and rectum). DESIGN--Randomised study from February 1986; randomisation to neutron treatment or photon treatment was unstratified and in the ratio of 3 to 1 until January 1988, when randomisation was in the ratio 1 to 1 and stratified by site of tumour. SETTING--Mersey regional radiotherapy centre at Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral. PATIENTS--151 patients with locally advanced, non-metastatic pelvic cancer (27 cervical, 69 of the bladder, seven prostatic, and 48 of the rectum). INTERVENTION--Randomisation to neutron treatment was stopped in February 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient survival and causes of death in relation to the development of metastatic disease and treatment related morbidity. RESULTS--In the first phase of the trial 42 patients were randomised to neutron treatment and 14 to photon treatment, and in the second phase 48 to neutron treatment and 47 to photon treatment. The relative risk of mortality for photons compared with neutrons was 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.40 to 1.10) after adjustment for site of tumour and other important prognostic factors. Short term and long term complications were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS--The trial was stopped because of the increased mortality in patients with cancer of the cervix, bladder, or rectum treated with neutrons. PMID:1903663

Errington, R D; Ashby, D; Gore, S M; Abrams, K R; Myint, S; Bonnett, D E; Blake, S W; Saxton, T E

1991-01-01

55

Nonresponse to Interferon-? Based Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection Is Associated with Increased Hazard of Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background The long-term consequences of unsuccessful interferon-? based hepatitis C treatment on liver disease progression and survival have not been fully explored. Methods and Findings We performed retrospective analyses to assess long-term clinical outcomes among treated and untreated patients with hepatitis C virus in two independent cohorts from a United States Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a University Teaching Hospital. Eligible patients underwent liver biopsy during consideration for interferon-? based treatment between 1992 and 2007. They were assessed for the probability of developing cirrhosis and of dying during follow-up using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by pretreatment liver fibrosis stage and adjusted for known risk factors for cirrhosis and characteristics affecting treatment selection. The major predictor was a time-dependent covariate for treatment outcome among four patient groups: 1) patients with sustained virological response to treatment; 2) treatment relapsers; 3) treatment nonresponders; and 4) never treated patients. Treatment nonresponders in both cohorts had a statistically significantly increased hazard of cirrhosis compared to never treated patients, as stratified by pretreatment liver fibrosis stage and adjusted for clinical and psychosocial risk factors that disproportionately affect patients who were ineligible for treatment (Veterans Affairs HR?=?2.35, CI 1.18–4.69, mean follow-up 10 years, and University Hospital HR?=?5.90, CI 1.50–23.24, mean follow-up 7.7 years). Despite their increased risk for liver disease progression, the overall survival of nonresponders in both cohorts was not significantly different from that of never treated patients. Conclusion These unexpected findings suggest that patients who receive interferon-? based therapies but fail to clear the hepatitis C virus may have an increased hazard of cirrhosis compared to untreated patients. PMID:23637856

Shen, Hui; Lerrigo, Robert; Yee, Russell M.; Sheen, Edward; Wu, Richard; Monto, Alexander

2013-01-01

56

Increased Failure Rate of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation After Previous Treatment With Marrow Stimulation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Marrow stimulation techniques such as drilling or microfracture are first-line treatment options for symptomatic cartilage defects. Common knowledge holds that these treatments do not compromise subsequent cartilage repair procedures with autologous chondrocyte implantation.Hypothesis: Cartilage defects pretreated with marrow stimulation techniques will have an increased failure rate.Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.Methods: The first 321 consecutive patients treated

Tom Minas; Andreas H. Gomoll; Ralf Rosenberger; Ronald O. Royce; Tim Bryant

2009-01-01

57

CSF levels of YKL-40 are increased in MS and replaces with immunosuppressive treatment.  

PubMed

The role of glial cells during different phases of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. To monitor glial activation we analyzed the biomarkers YKL-40 and sCD14 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from MS patients during different disease phases and in response to immunosuppressive treatment. CSF levels of YKL-40 were increased in MS during relapse, remission and secondary progression compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, YKL-40 levels in CSF decreased by mitoxantrone and natalizumab treatment. No differences were observed in CSF levels of sCD14. Thus, we can infer that glial activation is present in all MS phases and decreases by immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:24582001

Malmeström, Clas; Axelsson, Markus; Lycke, Jan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Olsson, Bob

2014-04-15

58

Increased progression to kidney fibrosis after erythropoietin is used as a treatment for acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Treatment of renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) reduces acute kidney injury and improves function. We aimed to investigate whether progression to chronic kidney disease associated with acute injury was also reduced by rhEPO treatment, using in vivo and in vitro models. Rats were subjected to bilateral 40-min renal ischemia, and kidneys were studied at 4, 7, and 28 days postreperfusion for renal function, tubular injury and repair, inflammation, and fibrosis. Acute injury was modulated using rhEPO (1,000 or 5,000 IU/kg, intraperitoneally) at the time of reperfusion. Renal tubular epithelial cells or fibroblasts in culture were subjected to hypoxia or oxidative stress, with or without rhEPO (200 IU/ml), and fibrogenesis was studied. The results of the in vivo model confirmed functional and structural improvement with rhEPO at 4 days post-IR (P < 0.05). At 7 days post-IR, fibrosis and myofibroblast stimulation were increased with IR with and without rhEPO (P < 0.01). However, at 28 days post-IR, renal fibrosis and myofibroblast numbers were significantly greater with IR plus rhEPO (P < 0.01) compared with IR only. Mechanistically, rhEPO stimulated profibrotic transforming growth factor-?, oxidative stress (marker 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine), and phosphorylation of the signal transduction protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In vitro, rhEPO protected tubular epithelium from apoptosis but stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and also protected and activated fibroblasts, particularly with oxidative stress. In summary, although rhEPO was protective of renal function and structure in acute kidney injury, the supraphysiological dose needed for renoprotection contributed to fibrogenesis and stimulated chronic kidney disease in the long term. PMID:24402097

Gobe, Glenda C; Bennett, Nigel C; West, Malcolm; Colditz, Paul; Brown, Lindsay; Vesey, David A; Johnson, David W

2014-03-15

59

How can we increase the involvement of primary health care in the treatment of tobacco dependence? A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: A systematic review of studies testing the effectiveness of educational and practice base strategies to increase the involvement of primary health-care practitioners in the treatment of tobacco dependence. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (1966-2001). Selection criteria included studies that used randomized or controlled clinical designs, controlled before and after trials and interrupted time-series designs and

Peter Anderson; E. Jané Llopis

2004-01-01

60

Increased oxidative stress in patients with depression and its relationship to treatment.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of depression. We tested the hypothesis that urinary F2 isoprostanes, a robust marker of oxidative stress, was increased in patients with depression and associated with symptoms and response to treatment. Urinary F2 isoprostanes was compared in 18 patients with depression and 36 age and sex matched control subjects. In patients, we tested the association between oxidative stress, depression questionnaires and antidepressant treatment. Urinary F2 isoprostane excretion was significantly higher in patients with depression than in control subjects. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. Depression symptom severity scores were not correlated with F2 isoprostane excretion. Nine patients were treated with sertraline or bupropion for 8 weeks. Depression severity rating scale scores decreased significantly and F2 isoprostane excretion increased. The increase in F2 isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with the improvement in Hamilton Depression Rating 17 items. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased in patients with depression. However, although treatment with either bupropion or sertraline reduces the symptoms of depression, it may increase F2 isoprostane excretion. These results suggest that alternative mechanisms, beyond oxidative stress, may be involved in the development of depression and subsequent responses to treatment. PMID:23245537

Chung, Cecilia P; Schmidt, Dennis; Stein, Charles Michael; Morrow, Jason D; Salomon, Ronald M

2013-04-30

61

It's time to change the default for tobacco treatment.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that 1 billion people will die from tobacco-related illnesses this century. Most health-care providers, however, fail to treat tobacco dependence. This may be due in part to the treatment 'default'. Guidelines in many countries recommend that health-care providers: (i) ask patients if they are 'ready' to quit using tobacco; and (ii) provide treatment only to those who state they are ready to quit. For other health conditions-diabetes, hypertension, asthma and even substance abuse-treatment guidelines direct health-care providers to identify the health condition and initiate evidence-based treatment. As with any medical care, patients are free to decline-they can 'opt out' from care. If patients do nothing, they will receive care. For tobacco users, however, the treatment default is often that they have to 'opt in' to treatment. This drastically limits the reach of tobacco treatment because, at any given encounter, a minority of tobacco users will say they are ready to quit. As a result, few are offered treatment. It is time to change the treatment default for tobacco dependence. All tobacco users should be offered evidence-based care, without being screened for readiness as a precondition for receiving treatment. Opt-out care for tobacco dependence is warranted because changing defaults has been shown to change choices and outcomes for numerous health behaviors, and most tobacco users want to quit; there is little to no evidence supporting the utility of assessing readiness to quit, and an opt-out default is more ethical. PMID:25323093

Richter, Kimber P; Ellerbeck, Edward F

2015-03-01

62

Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.

1983-07-18

63

Wait Time for Treatment in Hospital Emergency Departments: 2009  

MedlinePLUS

... EDs that did not board was not statistically significant. Figure 3. Mean wait time for treatment, by emergency ... 58.7 minutes), and nonurgent (53.5 minutes). Figure 5. Mean emergency ... care is statistically significant ( p < 0.05). 2 Difference with no triage ...

64

Correcting radiation survey data to account for increased leakage during intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments require more beam-on time and produce more linac head leakage to deliver similar doses to conventional, unmodulated, radiotherapy treatments. It is necessary to take this increased leakage into account when evaluating the results of radiation surveys around bunkers that are, or will be, used for IMRT. The recommended procedure of applying a monitor-unit based workload correction factor to secondary barrier survey measurements, to account for this increased leakage when evaluating radiation survey measurements around IMRT bunkers, can lead to potentially costly overestimation of the required barrier thickness. This study aims to provide initial guidance on the validity of reducing the value of the correction factor when applied to different radiation barriers (primary barriers, doors, maze walls, and other walls) by evaluating three different bunker designs.Methods: Radiation survey measurements of primary, scattered, and leakage radiation were obtained at each of five survey points around each of three different radiotherapy bunkers and the contribution of leakage to the total measured radiation dose at each point was evaluated. Measurements at each survey point were made with the linac gantry set to 12 equidistant positions from 0° to 330°, to assess the effects of radiation beam direction on the results.Results: For all three bunker designs, less than 0.5% of dose measured at and alongside the primary barriers, less than 25% of the dose measured outside the bunker doors and up to 100% of the dose measured outside other secondary barriers was found to be caused by linac head leakage.Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IMRT workload corrections are unnecessary, for survey measurements made at and alongside primary barriers. Use of reduced IMRT workload correction factors is recommended when evaluating survey measurements around a bunker door, provided that a subset of the measurements used in this study are repeated for the bunker in question. Reduction of the correction factor for other secondary barrier survey measurements is not recommended unless the contribution from leakage is separately evaluated.

Kairn, T. [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V. [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)

2013-11-15

65

The Accelerated Intake: A Method for Increasing Initial Attendance to Outpatient Cocaine Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of offering same day appointments at an outpatient cocaine treatment program to increase intake attendance was examined. Seventy-eight clients were given standard or accelerated intake appointments. Significantly more clients who were given accelerated appointments attended the program. An accelerated intake procedure appears to…

Festinger, David S.; And Others

1996-01-01

66

Self-Modeling as a Treatment for Increasing On-Task Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effectiveness of self-modeling as a treatment to increase on-task behavior. Results indicate immediate, substantial, and durable changes in students' on-task behavior that generalizes across academic settings. At 6- and 8-week follow-up, the students' percentages of on-task behavior were essentially indistinguishable from their…

Clare, Susan K.; Jenson, William R.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.

2000-01-01

67

Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background The low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural tropics has been attributed to the protective effects of chronic helminth infections. There is concern that treatment-based control programmes for these parasites may lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Objective We measured the impact of 15–17 years of anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and allergic symptoms in school-age children. Methods The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity, exercise-induced bronchospasm and allergic symptoms was compared between school-age children living in communities that had received community-based treatments with ivermectin (for onchocerciasis control) for a period of 15–17 years with those living in geographically adjacent communities that had received no ivermectin. Results The prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity was double in children living in treated communities compared with those in untreated communities (16.7% vs. 8.7%, adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.50–2.94, P<0.0001), and the effect was mediated partly by a reduced prevalence of Trichuris trichiura among treated children. Ivermectin treatments were associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.78, P=0.04) but not symptoms of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. The effect on eczema symptoms was not associated with reductions in geohelminth infections. Conclusion Long-term periodic treatments with ivermectin were associated with an increased prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity. There was some evidence that treatment was associated with an increased prevalence of recent eczema symptoms but not those of asthma or rhino-conjunctivitis. Cite this as: P. Endara, M. Vaca, M. E. Chico, S. Erazo, G. Oviedo, I. Quinzo, A. Rodriguez R. Lovato, A.-L. Moncayo, M. L. Barreto, L. C. Rodrigues and P. J. Cooper, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1669–1677. PMID:21039971

Endara, P; Vaca, M; Chico, M E; Erazo, S; Oviedo, G; Quinzo, I; Rodriguez, A; Lovato, R; Moncayo, A-L; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J

2010-01-01

68

Increased bcl-2 Protein Levels in Rat Primary Astrocyte Culture Following Chronic Lithium Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 protein, bcl-2, is an important anti-apoptotic factor that has been implicated in lithium’s neuroprotective effect. However, most studies have focused on assessing the effects of lithium in neurons, ignoring examination of bcl-2 in astrocytes, which also influence neuronal survival and are affected in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic lithium treatment also elevates bcl-2 expression in astrocytes compared with neuronal and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures. Methods: Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal, and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures were prepared from the cerebral cortices of 18-day embryos. The cell cultures were treated with lithium (1 mM) or vehicle for 24 h or 7 days. Thereafter, bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Results: Chronic, but not acute, lithium treatment significantly increased bcl-2 protein levels in the astrocyte cultures compared with the vehicle-treated cultures. While lithium treatment increased bcl-2 protein levels in both neuronal and mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures, the elevations fell short of statistical significance compared with the respective vehicle-treated cultures. However, neither acute nor chronic lithium treatment affected bcl-2 mRNA levels in any of the three cell types studied. Conclusion: Increased bcl-2 levels in rat primary astrocyte cultures following chronic lithium treatment suggest astrocytes are also a target of lithium’s action. In light of the evidence showing decreased numbers of glial cells in the post-mortem brain of patients bipolar disorder with and increased glial numbers following lithium treatment, the findings of this study indicate that lithium’s action on astrocytes may account, at least in part, for its therapeutic effects in bipolar disorder. PMID:24174697

Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; J. Warsh, Jerry; Zare, Hamid Reza

2013-01-01

69

Rhein lysinate increases the median survival time of SAMP10 mice: protective role in the kidney  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the protective effects of rhein lysinate (RHL), a major bioactive constituent of the rhizome of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum Linn or Rheum tanguticum Maxim), against kidney impairment in senescence-prone inbred strain 10 (SAMP10) mice. Methods: SAMP10 mice were orally administered RHL (25 or 50 mg/kg) daily until 50% of the mice died. Senescence-resistant inbred strain 1 (SAMR1) mice administered no drug were taken as control. The kidneys were harvested after animal death, and examined morphologically and with immunochemical assays. The levels of MAD, SOD and GSH-px in the kidneys were measured with a photometric method. The expression of inflammatory factors and related proteins in the kidneys was analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL had no effect on the body weight or phenotype. However, RHL significantly prolonged the median survival time of SAMP10 mice by approximately 25%, as compared to untreated SAMP10 mice. Compared SAMR1 mice, SAMP10 mice had a significantly lower level of SOD in the kidneys, but had no significant difference in the MDA or GSH-px levels. Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL significantly reduced the MAD level, and increased the SOD and GSH-px levels in the kidneys. Glomerulonephritis was observed in SAMP10 mice but not in SAMR1 mice. RHL decreased the incidence of glomerulonephritis, and significantly decreased the levels of TNF-?, IL-6, NF-?B, collagen types I and III in the kidneys. Conclusion: Accelerated senescence is associated with glomerulonephritis in SAMP10 mice, and RHL prolongs their median survival time by reducing the severity of glomerulonephritis. PMID:23474705

Hu, Gang; Liu, Jiang; Zhen, Yong-zhan; Xu, Rong; Qiao, Yu; Wei, Jie; Tu, Ping; Lin, Ya-jun

2013-01-01

70

Preoperative waiting time increased the risk of periprosthetic infection in patients with femoral neck fracture  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a devastating complication of arthroplasty. Today, most displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly are treated with arthroplasty. We estimated the incidence of and risk factors for PJI in primary arthroplasty after femoral neck fracture. Patients and methods Patients admitted for a femoral neck fracture in 2008 and 2009 were registered prospectively. We studied clinical, operative, and infection data in 184 consecutive patients. Results 9% of the patients developed a PJI. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated organisms. We found that preoperative waiting time was associated with PJI and also with urinary tract infection. The median preoperative waiting time was 37 (11–136) h in the infection group as opposed to 26 (4–133) h in the group with no infection (p = 0.04). The difference remained statistically significant after adjusted analysis. The success of treatment with debridement and retention of the prosthesis was limited, and 5 of the 17 patients with PJI ended up with a resection arthroplasty. The 1-year mortality rate was 21% in the patients with no infection, and it was 47% in the infection group (p = 0.03). Interpretation We found a high incidence of PJI in this elderly population treated with arthroplasty after hip fracture, with possibly devastating outcome. The length of stay preoperatively increased the risk of developing PJI. PMID:23418949

2013-01-01

71

Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O?9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}?38TiO{sub 2}?39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

Sonigra, Dhiren, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R., E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)

2014-04-24

72

Glioblastoma Treatment: Bypassing the Toxicity of Platinum Compounds by Using Liposomal Formulation and Increasing Treatment Efficiency With Concomitant Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Treatments of glioblastoma (GBM) with cisplatin or oxaliplatin only marginally improve the overall survival of patients and cause important side effects. To prevent adverse effects, improve delivery and optimize the tumor response to treatment in combination with radiotherapy, a potential approach consists in incorporating the platinum agent in a liposome. METHODS AND MATERIALS In this study, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, Lipoplatin™ and Lipoxal™, the liposomal formulations of cisplatin and oxaliplatin respectively, were tested on F98 glioma orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. The platinum compounds were administered by intracarotid infusion and were assessed for the ability to reduce toxicity, improve cancer cell uptake and increase survival of animals when combined or not with radiotherapy. RESULTS The tumor uptake was 2.4-fold more important for Lipoxal™ than the liposome-free oxaliplatin. Lipoxal™ also improved the specificity of oxaliplatin as shown by a higher ratio of tumor/right hemisphere uptake. Surprisingly, Lipoplatin™ led to lower tumor uptake compare to cisplatin. However, Lipoplatin™ had the advantage of largely reducing the toxicity of cisplatin and allowed to capitalize on the anti-cancer activity of this agent. CONCLUSION Among the five platinum compounds tested, carboplatin showed the best increase in survival when combined with radiation for treatment of glioma implanted in Fischer rats. PMID:22284691

Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Léon; Fortin, David; Mathieu, David; Paquette, Benoit

2013-01-01

73

Glioblastoma Treatment: Bypassing the Toxicity of Platinum Compounds by Using Liposomal Formulation and Increasing Treatment Efficiency With Concomitant Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatments of glioblastoma with cisplatin or oxaliplatin only marginally improve the overall survival of patients and cause important side effects. To prevent adverse effects, improve delivery, and optimize the tumor response to treatment in combination with radiotherapy, a potential approach consists of incorporating the platinum agent in a liposome. Methods and Materials: In this study, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, Lipoplatin (the liposomal formulation of cisplatin), and Lipoxal (the liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin) were tested on F98 glioma orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. The platinum compounds were administered by intracarotid infusion and were assessed for the ability to reduce toxicity, improve cancer cell uptake, and increase survival of animals when combined or not combined with radiotherapy. Results: The tumor uptake was 2.4-fold more important for Lipoxal than the liposome-free oxaliplatin. Lipoxal also improved the specificity of oxaliplatin as shown by a higher ratio of tumor to right hemisphere uptake. Surprisingly, Lipoplatin led to lower tumor uptake compared with cisplatin. However, Lipoplatin had the advantage of largely reducing the toxicity of cisplatin and allowed us to capitalize on the anticancer activity of this agent. Conclusion: Among the five platinum compounds tested, carboplatin showed the best increase in survival when combined with radiation for treatment of glioma implanted in Fischer rats.

Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Leon [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, David; Mathieu, David [Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Paquette, Benoit, E-mail: Benoit.Paquette@USherbrooke.ca [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

2012-09-01

74

Alkaline subcritical-water treatment and alkaline heat treatment for the increase in biodegradability of newsprint waste.  

PubMed

This work describes two alkaline semicontinuous processes for the conversion of refractory organic materials into biodegradable substances. Newsprint was used as a lignocellulosic waste. Methane conversion efficiencies and cellulose removals were investigated for the two following processes: alkaline subcritical-water treatment (ASWT) coupled with methane fermentation and alkaline heat treatment (newsprint heated with steam in an autoclave; AHT) coupled with methane fermentation with a neutral subcritical-water treatment (NSWT) recycle. Results showed that for ASWT coupled with methane fermentation higher methane conversion efficiencies and higher cellulose removals were achieved as HRT increased. At HRT = 20 days, average CH4 conversion efficiency and average cellulose removal reached 26% and 44%, respectively. After a final HRT of 40 days, average CH4 conversion efficiency and average cellulose removal reached 50% and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, for AHT coupled with methane fermentation, methane conversion efficiencies did not show a greater improvement using this pretreatment process. Average conversion reached 9% with an average cellulose removal of 20%. In order to improve the yield of the reactor, approximately one-third of the effluent was recycled using NSWT (150 degrees C; neutral pH). Methane conversion efficiency of this process increased as more recycles were performed. For the fifth operation, the total average methane conversion efficiency was 44% with a total average cellulose removal of 55%. PMID:14531425

Fox, M H; Noike, T; Ohki, T

2003-01-01

75

Increasing dependency of older people in nursing homes is associated with need for dental treatments.  

PubMed

To determine relationships between the need for dental treatments of institutionalized elderly people and cognitive impairment and the general level of care needed. Two hundred and sixty-eight residents of long-term care facilities in Germany were included in this study. Age, sex, diseases, number of frequently taken drugs, and location of the long-term care facility of the participants were recorded. For each participant, the need for care was assessed by use of the Barthel index (BI). Cognitive impairment was evaluated by use of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). To assess dental treatment needs, the revised oral assessment guide (ROAG) was applied for different oral health conditions, which were rated "healthy" or "treatment needed". Spearman correlations were performed to evaluate associations between BI and MMSE and dental treatment needs. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations of BI (P<0.001) and MMSE (P=0.015) with the ROAG score. Increasing dependency and decreasing cognitive ability worsen oral health and increase the need for dental treatment. PMID:25506220

Zenthöfer, Andreas; Rammelsberg, Peter; Cabrera, Tomas; Hassel, Alexander Jochen

2014-01-01

76

Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats  

PubMed Central

The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12 h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the Dopamine D3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long-term stimulation of the Dopamine D3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating. PMID:25610366

Dardou, David; Chassain, Carine; Durif, Franck

2015-01-01

77

Increasing dependency of older people in nursing homes is associated with need for dental treatments  

PubMed Central

To determine relationships between the need for dental treatments of institutionalized elderly people and cognitive impairment and the general level of care needed. Two hundred and sixty-eight residents of long-term care facilities in Germany were included in this study. Age, sex, diseases, number of frequently taken drugs, and location of the long-term care facility of the participants were recorded. For each participant, the need for care was assessed by use of the Barthel index (BI). Cognitive impairment was evaluated by use of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). To assess dental treatment needs, the revised oral assessment guide (ROAG) was applied for different oral health conditions, which were rated “healthy” or “treatment needed”. Spearman correlations were performed to evaluate associations between BI and MMSE and dental treatment needs. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations of BI (P<0.001) and MMSE (P=0.015) with the ROAG score. Increasing dependency and decreasing cognitive ability worsen oral health and increase the need for dental treatment. PMID:25506220

Zenthöfer, Andreas; Rammelsberg, Peter; Cabrera, Tomas; Hassel, Alexander Jochen

2014-01-01

78

SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.  

PubMed

Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from serotonergic suppression. PMID:11422727

Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

2001-06-01

79

Kudzu Extract Treatment Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol in Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Isoflavone administration in the form of a purified extract from the herbal medication kudzu root has been shown to reduce, but not eliminate, alcohol consumption in alcohol-abusing and alcohol-dependent men. The precise mechanism of this action is unknown, but one possible explanation for these results is that the isoflavones in kudzu might actually increase the intensity or duration of alcohol’s effects and thus delay the desire for subsequent drinks. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods Twelve (12) healthy adult men and women (27.5±1.89 yrs old) who consumed moderate amounts of alcohol (7.8±0.63 drinks/week) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which they were treated with either kudzu extract (total isoflavone dose of 750 mg/day) or matched placebo for nine days. On days 8 and 9, participants received an acute challenge of ethyl alcohol (either 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg alcohol). During the challenges the following measures were collected: subjective effects, psychomotor (body sway), cognitive performance (vigilance/reaction time), physiological measures (heart rate and skin temperature), and plasma ethanol concentration. Results Alcohol resulted in a dose-related alteration in subjective measures of intoxication, impairment of stance stability, and vigilance/reaction time. Kudzu extract did not alter participants’ subjective responses to the alcohol challenge or to alcohol’s effects on stance stability or vigilance/reaction time. However, individuals treated with kudzu extract experienced a slightly more rapid rise in plasma ethanol levels, but only after the 0.7 g/kg dose. This transient effect during the first 30 minutes of the ascending plasma alcohol curve lasted only 10-15 minutes; there were no differences in peak plasma alcohol levels or alcohol elimination kinetics. Additionally, kudzu pretreatment enhanced the effects of the 0.7 g/kg dose of alcohol on heart rate and skin temperature. Conclusions These data suggest that individuals who drink alcohol while being treated with kudzu extract experience no adverse consequences and further, the reported reductions in alcohol intake after kudzu extract treatment are not related to an alteration in alcohol’s subjective or psychomotor effects. PMID:21244439

Penetar, David M.; MacLean, Robert R.; McNeil, Jane F.; Lukas, Scott E.

2010-01-01

80

Treatment options for symptomatic carotid stenosis: Timing and approach.  

PubMed

Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and up to 15-20% of ischemic strokes can be attributed to atherosclerotic internal carotid artery disease. The treatment of carotid artery disease has been the subject of a wealth of literature in the past twenty years since the publication of the landmark randomized controlled trials, the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial and the European Carotid Surgery Trial, in the early 1990s. Although these landmark trials have helped establish the current guidelines for treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease, there have since been major advancements in the medical treatment of cardiovascular disease and there still remains a great deal of controversy regarding the timing and technical approach to carotid revascularization. In particular, there has been a wealth of literature to determine whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting should be used for revascularization and when this revascularization should occur following onset of symptoms. This update offers an overview of the standards for diagnosis and medical treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease, the indications for surgical revascularization and a review of the most pertinent literature as it pertains to the more controversial issues of technical approach and timing of surgical revascularization following onset of symptoms in patients with carotid artery disease. PMID:25439169

Vavra, Ashley K; Eskandari, Mark K

2014-11-17

81

Kaolinite illitization at 300 C and 1000 bars with increasing time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important reactions producing illite as a consequence of burial diagenesis is the illitization of kaolinite, which has been investigated exstensively in both natural systems and experimental conditions. The rate of transformation of kaolinite into K-mica in alkaline solutions was reported by Velde.[1] Huang [2] studied the conversion of kaolinite into illite in KOH solution at several temperatures and he concluded that the conversion is two to three orders of magnitude faster than that of similar reactions at near-neutral conditions.[3] Most of a existing studies deal with the kinetics of kaolinite illitization using low solid/liquid ratios up to a maximum of 200 mg/mL.[4] They accept a dissolution-precipitation mechanism, which is clearly favoured by low solid/liquid ratios. Higher solid/liquid ratio, closer to the geological conditions expected in many kaolin-rich burial zones, would to favour a solid state-like reaction. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of time on to the progress in the kaolinite illitization in KOH solution using a high solid-liquid ratio. Kaolinite has been converted into illitic clays in a 2.85 M KOH solution using a solid/liquid ratio of 1000 mg/mL, at 300 C,1000 bars and different reaction times. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy have been used to follow the formation of new crystalline phases and the transformation of the Si and Al local environments and the octahedral sheet composition have been analysed by 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the first stage of kaolinite illitization is the crystallization of two different types of zeolites: zeolite F and natrolite (minor phase). The XRD patterns indicate that the kaolinite and zeolites progressively decrease is attained as reaction time increases giving rise to the crystallization of illite/muscovite. The formation of illite-muscovite is observed after only 1 hour of treatment by 27Al MAS NMR. Illite-muscovite and a small amount of kaolinite are the only phases present after 48 hours of treatment. References [1] Velde, B., Am. Mineral. 1965, 50, 436-449 [2] Huang, W.L. Clays and Clay Miner. 1993, 41, 645-654. [3] Chermak, J.A.; Rimstidt, J.D., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1990, 54, 2979-2990. [4] Bauer, A., Velde, B., Berger G. Appl. Geochem. 1998, 13, 619-629.

Mantovani, M.; Becerro, A. N.; Escudero, A.

2009-12-01

82

Binding of curcumin to milk proteins increases after static high pressure treatment of skim milk.  

PubMed

Curcumin is a bioactive polyphenolic compound extracted from turmeric with known anti-inflammatory properties, and its hydrophobic nature restricts its solubility and its bioaccessibility. Solubility may be improved upon binding of curcumin to native or treatment-modified casein micelles. The present work demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure treatment of skim milk increases the binding of curcumin to caseins. The association of curcumin to casein micelles was assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy, either directly or by tryptophan quenching. The amount of curcumin associated with the milk proteins increased in pressure-treated milk, and a further improvement in the amount of bound curcumin was observed upon pressure treatment of a milk/curcumin mixture. However, in this case, some of the curcumin dissociated during storage, contrarily to what was observed for untreated milk. From a molecular standpoint, the data presented here indicate that structural modifications induced by high-pressure treatment and known to affect the structure of milk proteins result in a rearrangement of the amino acid residues in close proximity to the protein-associated curcumin. PMID:23552051

Rahimi Yazdi, Saeed; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Miriani, Matteo; Brutti, Andrea; Corredig, Milena

2013-05-01

83

Short report: Increasing access to treatment for Chagas disease: the case of Morelos, Mexico.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a neglected vector-borne disease with an estimated prevalence of 1.1 million cases in Mexico. Recent research showed that access to treatment of Chagas disease is limited in Mexico, with < 0.5% of infected cases treated. This brief report used quantitative data from the Morelos Program on Chagas disease and qualitative analysis of key informant interviews to examine strategies to increase treatment access for infected patients in Morelos, Mexico. From 2007 to 2011, 263 (9.2%) of the registered cases of Chagas disease in Mexico occurred in Morelos. Among these, 152 (57.8%) were treated and 97.3% of those treated received benznidazole. The assessment finds that state officials decided to directly purchase benznidazole from the distributor to increase access and improve clinical quality of treatment of patients in their state. They also faced significant barriers, especially in regulation and health system organization, which limited efforts to make high quality treatment available. PMID:25266353

Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Ramsey, Janine M; Salgado, Marco Ocampo; Wirtz, Veronika J; Reich, Michael R

2014-12-01

84

Combination of cytosine deaminase suicide gene expression with DR5 antibody treatment increases cancer cell cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Combined treatment using adenoviral-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and immunotherapy has the potential to become a powerful alternative method of cancer therapy. We have developed adenoviral vectors encoding the cytosine deaminase gene (Ad-CD) and cytosine deaminase:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion gene (Ad-CD:UPRT). A monoclonal antibody, TRA-8, specifically binds to death receptor 5, one of two death receptors bound by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity in vitro and therapeutic efficacy in vivo of the combination of Ad-CD:UPRT and TRA-8 against human pancreatic cancer and glioma cell lines. The present study demonstrates that Ad-CD:UPRT infection resulted in increased 5-FC-mediated cell killing, compared with Ad-CD. Furthermore, a significant increase of cytotoxicity following Ad-CD:UPRT/5-FC and TRA-8 treatment of cancer cells in vitro was demonstrated. Animal studies showed significant inhibition of tumor growth of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic and D54MG glioma xenografts by the combination of Ad-CD:UPRT/5-FC plus TRA-8 as compared with either agent alone or no treatment. The results suggest that the combination of Ad-CD:UPRT/5-FC with TRA-8 produces an additive cytotoxic effect in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that combined treatment with enzyme/prodrug therapy and TRAIL immunotherapy provides a promising approach for cancer therapy. PMID:16082379

Kaliberov, S A; Chiz, S; Kaliberova, L N; Krendelchtchikova, V; Della Manna, D; Zhou, T; Buchsbaum, D J

2006-02-01

85

Genome-wide association study of increasing suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment in the GENDEP project.  

PubMed

Suicidal thoughts during antidepressant treatment have been the focus of several candidate gene association studies. The aim of the present genome-wide association study was to identify additional genetic variants involved in increasing suicidal ideation during escitalopram and nortriptyline treatment. A total of 706 adult participants of European ancestry, treated for major depression with escitalopram or nortriptyline over 12 weeks in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study were genotyped with Illumina Human 610-Quad Beadchips (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). A total of 244 subjects experienced an increase in suicidal ideation during follow-up. The genetic marker most significantly associated with increasing suicidality (8.28 × 10(-7)) was a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs11143230) located 30?kb downstream of a gene encoding guanine deaminase (GDA) on chromosome 9q21.13. Two suggestive drug-specific associations within KCNIP4 (Kv channel-interacting protein 4; chromosome 4p15.31) and near ELP3 (elongation protein 3 homolog; chromosome 8p21.1) were found in subjects treated with escitalopram. Suggestive drug by gene interactions for two SNPs near structural variants on chromosome 4q12, one SNP in the apolipoprotein O (APOO) gene on chromosome Xp22.11 and one on chromosome 11q24.3 were found. The most significant association within a set of 33 candidate genes was in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) gene. Finally, we also found trend for an association within genes previously associated with psychiatric phenotypes indirectly linked to suicidal behavior, that is, GRIP1, NXPH1 and ANK3. The results suggest novel pathways involved in increasing suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment and should help to target treatment to reduce the risk of this dramatic adverse event. Limited power precludes definitive conclusions and replication in larger sample is warranted. PMID:20877300

Perroud, N; Uher, R; Ng, M Y M; Guipponi, M; Hauser, J; Henigsberg, N; Maier, W; Mors, O; Gennarelli, M; Rietschel, M; Souery, D; Dernovsek, M Z; Stamp, A S; Lathrop, M; Farmer, A; Breen, G; Aitchison, K J; Lewis, C M; Craig, I W; McGuffin, P

2012-02-01

86

Treatment with Insulin Analog X10 and IGF-1 Increases Growth of Colon Cancer Allografts  

PubMed Central

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk for development of certain forms of cancer, including colon cancer. The publication of highly controversial epidemiological studies in 2009 raised the possibility that use of the insulin analog glargine increases this risk further. However, it is not clear how mitogenic effects of insulin and insulin analogs measured in vitro correlate with tumor growth-promoting effects in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine possible growth-promoting effects of native human insulin, insulin X10 and IGF-1, which are considered positive controls in vitro, in a short-term animal model of an obesity- and diabetes-relevant cancer. We characterized insulin and IGF-1 receptor expression and the response to treatment with insulin, X10 and IGF-1 in the murine colon cancer cell line (MC38 cells) in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and monitored growth of MC38 cell allografts in mice with diet-induced obesity treated with human insulin, X10 and IGF-1. Treatment with X10 and IGF-1 significantly increased growth of MC38 cell allografts in mice with diet-induced obesity and we can therefore conclude that supra-pharmacological doses of the insulin analog X10, which is super-mitogenic in vitro and increased the incidence of mammary tumors in female rats in a 12-month toxicity study, also increase growth of tumor allografts in a short-term animal model. PMID:24260289

Hvid, Henning; Blouin, Marie-José; Birman, Elena; Damgaard, Jesper; Poulsen, Fritz; Fels, Johannes Josef; Fledelius, Christian; Hansen, Bo Falck; Pollak, Michael

2013-01-01

87

Treatment with insulin analog X10 and IGF-1 increases growth of colon cancer allografts.  

PubMed

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk for development of certain forms of cancer, including colon cancer. The publication of highly controversial epidemiological studies in 2009 raised the possibility that use of the insulin analog glargine increases this risk further. However, it is not clear how mitogenic effects of insulin and insulin analogs measured in vitro correlate with tumor growth-promoting effects in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine possible growth-promoting effects of native human insulin, insulin X10 and IGF-1, which are considered positive controls in vitro, in a short-term animal model of an obesity- and diabetes-relevant cancer. We characterized insulin and IGF-1 receptor expression and the response to treatment with insulin, X10 and IGF-1 in the murine colon cancer cell line (MC38 cells) in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and monitored growth of MC38 cell allografts in mice with diet-induced obesity treated with human insulin, X10 and IGF-1. Treatment with X10 and IGF-1 significantly increased growth of MC38 cell allografts in mice with diet-induced obesity and we can therefore conclude that supra-pharmacological doses of the insulin analog X10, which is super-mitogenic in vitro and increased the incidence of mammary tumors in female rats in a 12-month toxicity study, also increase growth of tumor allografts in a short-term animal model. PMID:24260289

Hvid, Henning; Blouin, Marie-José; Birman, Elena; Damgaard, Jesper; Poulsen, Fritz; Fels, Johannes Josef; Fledelius, Christian; Hansen, Bo Falck; Pollak, Michael

2013-01-01

88

A method to increase optical timing spectra measurement rates using a multi-hit TDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for using a modern time to digital converter (TDC) to increase the data collection rate for optical timing measurements such as scintillator decay times. It extends the conventional delayed coincidence method, where a synchronization signal ``starts'' a TDC and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sampling the optical signal ``stops'' the TDC. Data acquisition rates are low with

W. W. Moses

1993-01-01

89

Mood stabilizer treatment increases serotonin type 1A receptor binding in bipolar depression  

PubMed Central

Abnormal serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor function and binding have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Preclinical studies have consistently shown that stress decreases the gene expression of 5-HT1A receptors in experimental animals, and that the associated increase in hormone secretion plays a crucial role in mediating this effect. Chronic administration of the mood stabilizers lithium and divalproex (valproate semisodium) reduces glucocorticoid signaling and function in the hippocampus. Lithium has further been shown to enhance 5-HT1A receptor function. To assess whether these effects translate to human subject with bipolar disorder (BD), positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]trans-4-fluoro-N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazino]-ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide ([18F]FCWAY) were used to acquire PET images of 5-HT1A receptor binding in 10 subjects with BD, before and after treatment with lithium or divalproex. Mean 5-HT1A binding potential (BPP) significantly increased following mood stabilizer treatment, most prominently in the mesiotemporal cortex (hippocampus plus amygdala). When mood state was also controlled for, treatment was associated with increases in BPP in widespread cortical areas. These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that these mood stabilizers enhance 5-HT1A receptor expression in BD, which may underscore an important component of these agents' mechanism of action. PMID:23926239

Nugent, Allison C; Carlson, Paul J; Bain, Earle E; Eckelman, William; Herscovitch, Peter; Manji, Husseini; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C

2013-01-01

90

Appendix Tables and Data Appendices, Effects of Increased Access to Infertility Treatment on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from  

E-print Network

Appendix Tables and Data Appendices, Effects of Increased Access to Infertility Treatment on Infant cover/offer to cover infertility treatment and its interaction with the mother being 30, those in column 2 for indicators for infertility treatment mandates for insurers that exclude IVF treatment

Silver, Whendee

91

Teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment increases peripheral hematopoietic stem cells in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Cells of the osteoblast lineage play an important role in regulating the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche and early B-cell development in animal models, perhaps via parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent mechanisms. There are few human clinical studies investigating this phenomenon. We studied the impact of long-term daily teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment on cells of the hematopoietic lineage in postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture received teriparatide 20 mcg sc daily for 24 months as part of a prospective longitudinal trial. Whole blood measurements were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Flow cytometry was performed to identify hematopoietic subpopulations, including HSCs (CD34+/CD45(moderate); ISHAGE protocol) and early transitional B cells (CD19+, CD27-, IgD+, CD24[hi], CD38[hi]). Serial measurements of spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) as well as serum P1NP, osteocalcin, and CTX were also performed. The average age of study subjects was 64?±?5 years. We found that teriparatide treatment led to an early increase in circulating HSC number of 40%?±?14% (p?=?0.004) by month 3, which persisted to month 18 before returning to near baseline by 24 months. There were no significant changes in transitional B cells or total B cells over the course of the study period. In addition, there were no differences in complete blood count profiles as quantified by standard automated flow cytometry. Interestingly, the peak increase in HSC number was inversely associated with increases in bone markers and spine BMD. Daily teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis increases circulating HSCs by 3 to 6 months in postmenopausal women. This may represent a proliferation of marrow HSCs or increased peripheral HSC mobilization. This clinical study establishes the importance of PTH in the regulation of the HSC niche within humans. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24420643

Yu, Elaine W; Kumbhani, Ruchit; Siwila-Sackman, Erica; DeLelys, Michelle; Preffer, Frederic I; Leder, Benjamin Z; Wu, Joy Y

2014-06-01

92

Potential increase in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) interceptions using ionizing irradiation phytosanitary treatments.  

PubMed

Irradiation postharvest phytosanitary treatments are used increasingly and show further promise because of advantages compared with other treatments. Its chief disadvantage is that, unlike all other commercially used treatments, it does not provide acute mortality, although it prevents insects from completing development or reproducing. The objective of this research was to determine to what extent irradiated egg and early instars of tephritids would develop to later instars that could be found by phytosanitary inspectors or consumers. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), eggs and first instars in grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, were irradiated with 70-250 Gy and held at approximately equal to 27 degrees C until third instars completed development. The accepted minimum absorbed phytosanitary dose for this pest is 70 Gy, although higher doses may be applied under commercial conditions. The more developed a fruit fly before it was irradiated, the greater the proportion that survived to the third instar. Also, dose was inversely related to developmental success, e.g., a mean of approximately 65 and 35%, respectively, of late first instars reached the third instar when irradiated with 70 and 250 Gy. Of those, 65.1 and 23.4%, respectively, pupariated, although no adults emerged. Irradiation may result in a greater frequency of live (albeit incapable of resulting in an infestation) larvae being found than would be expected compared with other treatments that provide acute mortality. The regulatory community should be aware of this and the fact that it does not increase the risk of irradiation phytosanitary treatments resulting in an infestation of quarantine pests. PMID:18613570

Hallman, Guy J

2008-06-01

93

Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

2010-03-01

94

FOXO1 Content Is Reduced in Cystic Fibrosis and Increases with IGF-I Treatment  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is to date the most frequent complication in cystic fibrosis (CF). The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood, and a possible role of insulin resistance is debated. We investigated insulin signal transduction in CF. Total insulin receptor, IRS1, p85 PI3K, and AKT contents were substantially normal in CF cells (CFBE41o-), whereas winged helix forkhead (FOX)O1 contents were reduced both in baseline conditions and after insulin stimulation. In addition, CF cells showed increased ERK1/2, and reduced ?2 arrestin contents. No significant change in SOCS2 was observed. By using a CFTR inhibitor and siRNA, changes in FOXO1 were related to CFTR loss of function. In a CF-affected mouse model, FOXO1 content was reduced in the muscle while no significant difference was observed in liver and adipose tissue compared with wild-type. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) increased FOXO1 content in vitro and in vivo in muscle and adipose tissue. In conclusion; we present the first description of reduced FOXO1 content in CF, which is compatible with reduced gluconeogenesis and increased adipogenesis, both features of insulin insensitivity. IGF-I treatment was effective in increasing FOXO1, thereby suggesting that it could be considered as a potential treatment in CF patients possibly to prevent and treat cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. PMID:25299696

Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Maiuri, Luigi; Bernasconi, Sergio; Street, Maria E.

2014-01-01

95

Subchronic treatment of rats with oxytocin results in improved adipocyte differentiation and increased gene expression of factors involved in adipogenesis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Treatment with thiazolidinediones, insulin-sensitizing drugs, enhances adipogenesis, which may result in unwanted increase in adiposity. Based on the suggested metabolic effects of oxytocin, the aims of the present study were to: (i) determine whether chronic treatment with oxytocin exerts positive effects on white adipose tissue growth without increasing adiposity; (ii) investigate possible mechanisms of action of oxytocin by measuring the level of gene expression of adipogenic factors; and (iii) test the hypothesis that oxytocin's effect on adipose tissue involves specific activation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Adult rats were subcutaneously treated with oxytocin (3.6 µg·100 g?1 body weight day?1) via osmotic minipumps for 2 weeks. Adipocytes from epididymal adipose tissue were isolated and their size evaluated by light microscopy. Gene expression of adipogenic and angiogenic factors was determined by real-time PCR and dephosphorylation of eEF2 by immunoblotting. KEY RESULTS Oxytocin treatment decreased the diameter of adipocytes and increased the epididymal adipose tissue protein content without changing the adipose tissue mass. Increases in fatty acid binding protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4, leptin and CD31 mRNA levels were noted in the epididymal and/or retroperitoneal fat tissue of oxytocin-treated rats. Oxytocin enhanced the dephosphorylation of eEF2 in the epididymal adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The present results demonstrate that subchronic treatment with oxytocin induces adipogenic and angiogenic effects and that the eEF2 signalling pathway is involved in these effects of oxytocin on adipose tissue in vivo. These findings are likely to motivate further research and indicate new approaches for modulating adipose tissue morphology and metabolism. PMID:20846187

Eckertova, Miroslava; Ondrejcakova, Maria; Krskova, Katarina; Zorad, Stefan; Jezova, Daniela

2011-01-01

96

Quiet-time electron increases, a measure of conditions in the outer solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible explanation for quiet-time electron increases, increases in the intensity of 3-12 MeV interplanetary electrons that have been reported by McDonald, Cline and Simnett, is discussed. It is argued that the electrons in quiet-time increases are galactic in origin, but that the observed increases are not the result of any variation in the modulation of these particles in the inner solar system. It is suggested instead that quiet-time increases may occur when more electrons than normal penetrate a modulating region that lies far beyond the orbit of earth. The number of electrons penetrating this region may increase when field lines that have experienced an unusually large random walk in the photosphere are carried by the solar wind out to the region. As evidence for this increased random walk, it is shown that five solar rotations before most of the quiet-time increases there is an extended period when the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy, as is measured by the Deep River neutron monitor, is relatively low. Five rotations delay time implies that the proposed modulating region lies at approximately 30 AU from the Sun, assuming that the average solar wind speed is constant over this distance at approximately 400 km/sec.

Fisk, L. A.; Vanhollebeke, M.

1972-01-01

97

Increased prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in canine samples after heat treatment.  

PubMed

Canine serum samples may contain factors that prevent detection of antigen of Dirofilaria immitis on commercial assays, precluding accurate diagnosis. To determine the degree to which the presence of blocking antibodies or other inhibitors of antigen detection may interfere with our ability to detect circulating antigen in canine samples, archived plasma and serum samples (n=165) collected from dogs in animal shelters were tested for D. immitis antigen before and after heat treatment. Negative samples were also evaluated for their ability to block detection of D. immitis antigen in a sample from a positive dog. All 165 samples were negative prior to heating, but 11/154 (7.1%) became positive after heat treatment, a conversion that was documented and quantified on spectrophotometric plate assays, and 7/165 (4.2%) samples decreased detection of antigen when mixed with a known positive sample, suggesting some blocking ability was present. An additional 103 plasma and serum samples that tested positive prior to heating also were evaluated; the optical density of 14/101 (13.9%) increased by ?50%, and one sample by as much as 15-fold, after heat treatment. Our results suggest that canine serum and plasma samples from dogs in the southeastern United States can contain inhibitors of D. immitis antigen detection, and that prevalence estimates of heartworm infection based on these assays would benefit from heat treatment of samples prior to testing. PMID:24785291

Velasquez, Luisa; Blagburn, Byron L; Duncan-Decoq, Rebecca; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Meinkoth, James; Gruntmeir, Jeff; Little, Susan E

2014-11-15

98

Increasing complexity: which drug class to choose for treatment of hypertension in the elderly?  

PubMed Central

Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is expected to become more complex in the coming decades. Based on the current landscape of clinical trials, guideline recommendations remain inconclusive. The present review discusses the latest evidence derived from studies available in 2013 and investigates optimal blood pressure (BP) and preferred treatment substances. Three common archetypes are discussed that hamper the treatment of hypertension in the very elderly. In addition, this paper presents the current recommendations of the NICE 2011, JNC7 2013-update, ESH/ESC 2013, CHEP 2013, JNC8 and ASH/ISH guidelines for elderly patients. Advantages of the six main substance classes, namely diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) are discussed. Medical and economic implications of drug administration in the very elderly are presented. Avoidance of treatment-related adverse effects has become increasingly relevant. Current substance classes are equally effective, with similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes. Selection of substances should therefore also be based on collateral advantages of drugs that extend beyond BP reduction. The combination of ACEIs and diuretics appears to be favorable in managing systolic/diastolic hypertension. Diuretics are a preferred and cheap combination drug, and the combination with CCBs is recommended for patients with isolated systolic hypertension. ACEIs and CCBs are favorable for patients with dementia, while CCBs and ARBs imply substantial cost savings due to high adherence. PMID:24711696

Kaiser, Edelgard Anna; Lotze, Ulrich; Schäfer, Hans Hendrik

2014-01-01

99

PTH(1-34) Treatment Increases Bisphosphonate Turnover in Fracture Repair in Rats.  

PubMed

Bisphosphonates (BP) are a class of anti-resorptive drugs with a high affinity for bone. Despite the therapeutic success in treating osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases, chronic BP usage has been associated with reduced repair of micro-damage and atypical femoral fracture (AFF). The latter has a poor prognosis and while anabolic interventions such as Teriparatide (PTH (1-34) ) have been suggested as treatment options there is a limited evidence base in support of their efficacy. As PTH (1-34) acts to increase bone turnover, we hypothesized that it may be able to increase BP in turnover in the skeleton, which in turn may improve bone healing. To test this we employed a mixture of fluorescent Alexa647 labelled Pamidronate (Pam) and radiolabelled (14) C-ZA (zoledronic acid). These traceable BPs were dosed to Wistar rats in models of normal growth and closed fracture repair. Rats were co-treated with saline or 25?g/kg/d PTH(1-34) and the effects on BP liberation and bone healing, bones were examined by X-ray, microCT, autoradiography, and fluorescent confocal microscopy. Consistent with increased BP remobilization with PTH(1-34) there was a significant decrease in fluorescence in both the long bones and in the fracture callus in treated animals compared to controls. This was further confirmed by autoradiography for (14) C-ZA. In this model of acute BP treatment, callus bone volume (BV) was significantly increased in fractured limbs, and although we noted significant decreases in callus-bound BP with PTH(1-34) , these were not sufficient to alter this BV. However, increased intracellular BP was noted in resorbing osteoclasts confirming that, in principle, PTH(1-34) increases bone turnover as well as BP turnover. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25484198

Murphy, Ciara M; Schindeler, Aaron; Cantrill, Laurence C; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; Little, David G

2014-12-01

100

Fluoxetine Increases Suicide Ideation Less than Placebo During Treatment of Adults with Minor Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Some reports suggest an increase in suicide ideations and behaviors in patients treated with antidepressants. This is an analysis of the impact of fluoxetine on suicide ideations in outpatients with Minor Depressive Disorder. Methods Research subjects were adult outpatients with Minor Depressive Disorder (N=162), who received fluoxetine or placebo in a prospective, 12-week, double blind randomized trial. The research participants were evaluated weekly with standard rating scales that included 4 suicide-related items; item 3 of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), item 18 of Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C), and items 15 and 59 of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). Clinically significant intensification of suicide ideation was defined as an increase of ?2 on any of these items. Results Overall 60/162 subjects (37%) had an increase of ?1 point during treatment and 17/162 (10.5%) of ?2 points on at least one suicide item, with 12/81 (14.8%) placebo and 5/81 (6.2%) fluoxetine treated subjects having a ?2 point gain. Of the study participants with baseline suicide ideation, 9/22 (40.9%) placebo and 3/24 (12.5%) fluoxetine treated had ?2 point increase (p=0.04). Survival analysis revealed that subjects on placebo were significantly more likely (p=0.050) to experience a ?2 point increase on one or more item, a difference that emerged early and continued throughout the 12-week trial. Conclusions Compared to placebo, fluoxetine was not associated with a clinically significant increase in suicide ideation among adults with Minor Depressive Disorder during 12 weeks of treatment. PMID:23786912

Garlow, Steven J.; Kinkead, Becky; Thase, Michael E.; Judd, Lewis L.; Rush, A. John; Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Kupfer, David J.; Frank, Ellen; Schettler, Pamela J.; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

2013-01-01

101

Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Increases for the First Time Since 1993  

NSF Publications Database

... in Science and Engineering Increases for the First Time Since 1993 (January 11, 2001) This Data ... is available in multiple formats. See Help for more information about viewing publications in ...

102

Treatment fidelity of motivational interviewing delivered by a school nurse to increase girls' physical activity.  

PubMed

Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and a school nurse to help the girls increase their moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The following four areas related to treatment fidelity were addressed: (a) study design, (b) training of interventionists, (c) intervention delivery, and (d) intervention receipt. Findings showed that 34 of 37 (91.9%) girls completed all three sessions. An initial motivational interviewing training workshop followed by evaluation of audiotaped sessions with constructive feedback can result in successful and consistent delivery by a school nurse. PMID:21970862

Robbins, Lorraine B; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Maier, Kimberly S; Ladrig, Stacey M; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

2012-02-01

103

Two possibilities how to increase the efficacy of antidotal treatment of nerve agent poisonings.  

PubMed

Highly toxic organophosphorus inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase referred as nerve agents are considered to be among the most dangerous chemical warfare agents. The oximes represent very important part of medical countermeasures of nerve agent poisonings. They are used to reactivate the nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Despite long-term research activities, there is no single, broad-spectrum oxime suitable for the antidotal treatment of poisoning with all organophosphorus agents. There are two approaches how to increase and broaden the effectiveness of antidotal treatment of poisoning with nerve agents - to develop new structural analogues of currently available oximes and/or to combine currently available or newly developed oximes. The review describes the evaluation of the potency of newly developed oximes (especially the oxime K203) or combinations of oximes to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and to counteract the acute toxicity of nerve agents in comparison with single commonly used oxime (obidoxime, trimedoxime or HI-6). PMID:22360668

Kassa, J; Musilek, K; Karasova, J Zdarova; Kuca, K; Bajgar, J

2012-01-01

104

Increasing Physicians' and Nurses' Compliance with Treatment Guidelines in Cancer Care Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of the use of guidelines on the care of patients with breast, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers is reported. Audits of patient records revealed an increase over time in the percentage of recommended cancer care procedures that were complied with. (Author/MLW)

Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others

1985-01-01

105

Pre-sowing magnetic treatments of tomato seeds increase the growth and yield of plants.  

PubMed

The effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on growth and yield of tomato (cv Campbell-28) were investigated under field conditions. Tomato seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 100 mT (rms) for 10 min and at 170 mT (rms) for 3 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental plots (30.2 m(2)) and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During the vegetative and generative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses, and the resistance of plants to geminivirus and early blight was evaluated. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each plot and the yield and yield parameters were determined. In the vegetative stage, the treatments led to a significant increase in leaf area, leaf dry weight, and specific leaf area (SLA) per plant. Also, the leaf, stem, and root relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically treated seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. In the generative stage, leaf area per plant and relative growth rates of fruits from plants from magnetically exposed seeds were greater than those of the control plant fruits. At fruit maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (P < .05) the mean fruit weight, the fruit yield per plant, the fruit yield per area, and the equatorial diameter of fruits in comparison with the controls. At the end of the experiment, total dry matter was significantly higher for plants from magnetically treated seeds than that of the controls. A significant delay in the appearance of first symptoms of geminivirus and early blight and a reduced infection rate of early blight were observed in the plants from exposed seeds to MFs. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and yield of tomato crop. PMID:16511881

De Souza, A; Garcí, D; Sueiro, L; Gilart, F; Porras, E; Licea, L

2006-05-01

106

Elevated night-time temperatures increase growth in seedlings of two tropical pioneer tree species.  

PubMed

Increased night-time temperatures, through their influence on dark respiration, have been implicated as a reason behind decreasing growth rates in tropical trees in the face of contemporary climate change. Seedlings of two neo-tropical tree species (Ficus insipida and Ochroma pyramidale) were grown in controlled-environment chambers at a constant daytime temperature (33°C) and a range of increasing night-time temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31°C) for between 39 d and 54 d. Temperature regimes were selected to represent a realistic baseline condition for lowland Panama, and a rise in night-time temperatures far in excess of those predicted for Central America in the coming decades. Experiments were complemented by an outdoor open-top chamber study in which night-time temperatures were elevated by 2.4°C above ambient. Increasing night-time temperatures resulted in > 2-fold increase in biomass accumulation in growth-chamber studies despite an increase in leaf-level dark respiration. Similar trends were seen in open-top chambers, in which elevated night-time temperatures resulted in stimulation of growth. These findings challenge simplistic considerations of photosynthesis-directed growth, highlighting the role of temperature-dependent night-time processes, including respiration and leaf development as drivers of plant performance in the tropics. PMID:23278464

Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus

2013-03-01

107

Covariate Adjustment Strategy Increases Power in the Randomized Controlled Trial With Discrete-Time Survival Endpoints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a randomized controlled trial, a decision needs to be made about the total number of subjects for adequate statistical power. One way to increase the power of a trial is by including a predictive covariate in the model. In this article, the effects of various covariate adjustment strategies on increasing the power is studied for discrete-time

Safarkhani, Maryam; Moerbeek, Mirjam

2013-01-01

108

Additional highway capacity gained by increasing travel speed affects the share of time an individual  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Additional highway capacity gained by increasing travel speed affects the share of time Transportation Surveys and Federal Highway Administration data, this paper extends previous research activities for workers and nonworkers. It also sug- gests increased highway capacity provides real gains

Levinson, David M.

109

Time Delay Embedding Increases Estimation Precision of Models of Intraindividual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the precision of parameters estimated from local samples of time dependent functions. We find that "time delay embedding," i.e., structuring data prior to analysis by constructing a data matrix of overlapping samples, increases the precision of parameter estimates and in turn statistical power compared to standard…

von Oertzen, Timo; Boker, Steven M.

2010-01-01

110

Increasing the creation yield of shallow single defects in diamond by surface plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect

Single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond close to the crystal surface are very promising magnetic field sensors with very high sensitivity. Here, we report the enhanced creation of very shallow (less than 3 nm below the diamond surface) NV centers by using fluorine and oxygen plasma treatment. We observe a four fold increase—from 0.11% to about 0.45% in the production yield when the sample surface is terminated with fluorine or oxygen atoms. This effect is explained by the stabilization of the NV's negative charge state which is influenced by the various defects present on the diamond surface.

Osterkamp, Christian; Scharpf, Jochen; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); Diemant, Thomas; Jürgen Behm, Rolf [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

2013-11-04

111

Waiting for a hand: saccadic reaction time increases in proportion to hand reaction time when reaching under a visuomotor reversal.  

PubMed

Although eye movement onset typically precedes hand movement onset when reaching to targets presented in peripheral vision, arm motor commands appear to be issued at around the same time, and possibly in advance, of eye motor commands. A fundamental question, therefore, is whether eye movement initiation is linked or yoked to hand movement. We addressed this issue by having participants reach to targets after adapting to a visuomotor reversal (or 180° rotation) between the position of the unseen hand and the position of a cursor controlled by the hand. We asked whether this reversal, which we expected to increase hand reaction time (HRT), would also increase saccadic reaction time (SRT). As predicted, when moving the cursor to targets under the reversal, HRT increased in all participants. SRT also increased in all but one participant, even though the task for the eyes-shifting gaze to the target-was unaltered by the reversal of hand position feedback. Moreover, the effects of the reversal on SRT and HRT were positively correlated across participants; those who exhibited the greatest increases in HRT also showed the greatest increases in SRT. These results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the initiation of eye and hand movements are linked. In particular, the results suggest that the initiation of an eye movement to a manual target depends, at least in part, on the specification of hand movement. PMID:23847494

Armstrong, Irene T; Judson, Melissa; Munoz, Douglas P; Johansson, Roland S; Flanagan, J Randall

2013-01-01

112

Quiet-time electron increases - A measure of conditions in the outer solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of a possible explanation for the increases in the intensity range of 3- to 12-MeV interplanetary electrons that McDonald et al. (1972) have labeled as 'quiet-time electron increases.' It is argued that the electrons in quiet-time increases are galactic in origin but that the observed increases are not the result of any variation in the modulation of these particles in the inner solar system. It is suggested instead that quiet-time increases may occur when more electrons than normal penetrate a modulating region that lies far beyond the orbit of the earth. The number of electrons penetrating this region may increase when field lines that have experienced an unusually large random walk in the photosphere are carried by the solar wind out to the region. As evidence of this increased random walk, it is shown that five solar rotations before most of the quiet-time increases occur there is an extended period when the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy (measured by the Deep River neutron monitor) is relatively low. A delay time of five rotations implies that the proposed modulating region lies at about 30 AU from the sun if the average solar-wind speed is assumed to be constant at about 400 km/sec over this distance. The implications for the correlation between periods of low-amplitude diurnal anisotropy and quiet-time increases on interplanetary conditions out to about 30 AU and some possible models for the proposed modulating region are also considered.

Fisk, L. A.; Vanhollebeke, M.

1972-01-01

113

Short communication: Methamphetamine treatment increases in vitro and in vivo HIV replication.  

PubMed

To delineate the mechanistic basis for the epidemiological association between methamphetamine use and accelerated progression to AIDS, we evaluated the direct in vitro and in vivo effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication. Methamphetamine administration significantly increased HIV-1 production by both HIV-infected monocytes and CD4 T lymphocytes in vitro. In addition, in vivo methamphetamine treatment increased HIV production and viremia in mice transgenic for a replication-competent HIV provirus and human cyclin T1. Methamphetamine activated transcription of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) regulatory region, was associated with nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Our results provide further insights into the mechanisms by which methamphetamine accelerates disease course in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:19895343

Toussi, Sima Shelly; Joseph, Aviva; Zheng, Jian Hua; Dutta, Monica; Santambrogio, Laura; Goldstein, Harris

2009-11-01

114

Diphenylpyrazole-Derived Compounds Increase Survival Time of Mice after Prion Infection?  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) represent a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that can be transmitted by natural infection or inoculation. TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The emergence of a variant form of CJD (vCJD), which has been associated with BSE, produced strong pressure to search for effective treatments with new drugs. Up to now, however, TSEs have proved incurable, although many efforts have been made both in vitro and in vivo to search for potent therapeutic and prophylactic compounds. For this purpose, we analyzed a compound library consisting of 10,000 compounds with a cell-based high-throughput screening assay dealing with scrapie-infected scrapie mouse brain and ScN2A cells and identified a new class of inhibitors consisting of 3,5-diphenylpyrazole (DPP) derivatives. The most effective DPP derivative showed half-maximal inhibition of PrPSc formation at concentrations (IC50) of 0.6 and 1.2 ?M, respectively. This compound was subsequently subjected to a number of animal experiments using scrapie-infected wild-type C57BL/6 and transgenic Tga20 mice. The DPP derivative induced a significant increase of incubation time both in therapeutic and prophylactic experiments. The onset of the prion disease was delayed by 37 days after intraperitoneal and 42 days after oral application, respectively. In summary, we demonstrate a high in vitro efficiency of DPP derivatives against prion infections that was substantiated in vivo for one of these compounds. These results indicate that the novel class of DPP compounds should comprise excellent candidates for future therapeutic studies. PMID:21746938

Leidel, Fabienne; Eiden, Martin; Geissen, Markus; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Giese, Armin; Hirschberger, Thomas; Tavan, Paul; Schätzl, Hermann M.; Groschup, Martin H.

2011-01-01

115

Macrolide use in the treatment of critically ill patients with pneumonia: Incidence, correlates, timing and outcomes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Macrolide antibiotics are commonly used to treat pneumonia despite increasing antimicrobial resistance. Evidence suggests that macrolides may also decrease mortality in severe sepsis via immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence, correlates, timing and mortality associated with macrolide-based treatment. METHODS: A population-based cohort of critically ill adults with pneumonia at five intensive care units in Edmonton, Alberta, was prospectively followed over two years. Data collected included disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score), pneumonia severity (Pneumonia Severity Index score), comorbidities, antibiotic treatments at presentation and time to effective antibiotic. The independent association between macrolide-based treatment and 30-day all-cause mortality was examined using multivariable Cox regression. A secondary exploratory analysis examined time to effective antimicrobial therapy. RESULTS: The cohort included 328 patients with a mean Pneumonia Severity Index score of 116 and a mean APACHE II score of 17; 84% required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ninety-one (28%) patients received macrolide-based treatments, with no significant correlates of treatment except nursing home residence (15% versus 30% for nonresidents [P=0.02]). Overall mortality was 54 of 328 (16%) at 30 days: 14 of 91 (15%) among patients treated with macrolides versus 40 of 237 (17%) for nonmacrolides (adjusted HR 0.93 [95% CI 0.50 to 1.74]; P=0.8). Patients who received effective antibiotics within 4 h of presentation were less likely to die than those whose treatment was delayed (14% versus 17%; adjusted HR 0.50 [95% CI 0.27 to 0.94]; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Macrolide-based treatment was not associated with lower 30-day mortality among critically ill patients with pneumonia, although receipt of effective antibiotic within 4 h was strongly predictive of survival. Based on these results, timely effective treatment may be more important than choice of antibiotics. PMID:24489569

Sligl, Wendy I; Hoang, Holly; Eurich, Dean T; Malhotra, Atul; Marrie, Thomas J; Majumdar, Sumit R

2013-01-01

116

Treatment with oxytocin antagonists before embryo transfer may increase implantation rates after IVF.  

PubMed

This report aimed to examine the effects of atosiban on pregnancy outcome after IVF-embryo transfer. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed. A total of 180 women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection who had top-quality embryos were randomly allocated into treatment and control groups. All the patients had infertility due to tubal factor, hormonal-anovulatory disorders, male factor or unexplained reasons. The treatment group received intravenous administration of atosiban before embryo transfer with a total administered dose of 37.5 mg. In the control group, the same number of cycles was performed with placebo medication. The clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per cycle and implantation rate (IR) per transfer were 46.7% and 20.4% in the atosiban-treated group, which were significantly higher than in the control group (28.9% and 12.6%, respectively, P=0.01). The miscarriage rates of groups 1 and 2 were 16.7% and 24.4%, respectively (P=0.01). These results have indicated that atosiban increases the IR and PR after IVF-embryo transfer. These results suggest that atosiban treatment before embryo transfer is effective in priming of the uterus for implantation. This is the first study to investigate the possible contributions of atosiban for improving the PR after IVF-embryo transfer. PMID:20638340

Moraloglu, Ozlem; Tonguc, Esra; Var, Turgut; Zeyrek, Tugba; Batioglu, Sertac

2010-09-01

117

Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.  

PubMed

Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate. PMID:24803713

Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

2014-05-01

118

Steroid treatment increases the recurrence of radiation-induced organizing pneumonia after breast-conserving therapy  

PubMed Central

Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an important complication of postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer. Unfortunately, conventional corticosteroid therapy is frequently associated with relapses. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of steroid treatment in patients with RIOP. In total, 26 patients diagnosed with RIOP from among 2404 women who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer were included and classified into steroid (n = 7) and nonsteroid (n = 19) groups. Serum, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage composition; subjective symptoms (cough, fever, and dyspnea); migratory progression; and RIOP relapse were compared between the groups. Treatment type did not affect the duration of the subjective symptoms, which was 1.6 and 1.7 months for the steroid and nonsteroid groups, respectively. In contrast, RIOP relapse and new pulmonary lesions developed in five patients in the steroid group and only three patients in the nonsteroid group (P = 0.014). By assessing RIOP duration as the time to resolution of symptoms and discontinuation of therapy, the median duration of RIOP was significantly longer in the steroid (17.1 months) than that in the nonsteroid group (2.3 months, P = 0.005), primarily because of frequent relapses. After remission, persistent pulmonary dysfunction did not occur in the nonsteroid group. This single-center retrospective study demonstrates that steroid therapy results in frequent relapses and significantly prolongs RIOP duration. Corticosteroid treatment is considered a critical factor in RIOP recurrence. PMID:24799363

Otani, Keisuke; Nishiyama, Kinji; Ito, Yuri; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Inaji, Hideo

2014-01-01

119

Signs of sexual behaviour are not increased after subchronic treatment with LHRH in young men.  

PubMed

Apart from its action as gonadotropin releasing factor, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a potent regulator of sexual behaviour in animals. The present study aimed to assess a similar role of LHRH for sexuality in humans. In a double-blind placebo-controlled and randomized study, effects of human LHRH after acute (400 microg) and subchronic (800 microg/day over 2 weeks) intranasal administration were evaluated in 20 young and healthy men. Sexual desire and activity was assessed by a diary, ratings of women's attractiveness, a modified version of the Stroop colour naming task and a short term memory task. Effects on sexuality were contrasted with those on eating motivation and general neurocognitive functioning, the latter being assessed in addition by tasks of divergent thinking and a motor perseveration test. None of the measures of sexual desire and activity indicated any effect of LHRH, neither after acute nor after subchronic treatment. Unexpectedly, the diary indicated a significant increase in 'food intake' towards the end of the 14-day LHRH treatment. Enhanced colour naming performance on the Stroop task (independently of whether sex, food or neutral stimuli were used) in conjunction with an increased motor perseveration after LHRH points to a general effect on cognitive function towards stronger focussing of cortical processing. While overall the data show discrete central nervous changes after LHRH, a particular influence on sexuality after acute or subchronic intranasal administration in healthy men was not detected. PMID:11070330

Perras, B; Smolnik, R; Fehm, H L; Born, J

2001-01-01

120

The increasing roles of epigenetics in breast cancer: Implications for pathogenicity, biomarkers, prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the mechanisms governing the occurrence of cancer are thought to be the consequence not only of genetic defects but also of epigenetic modifications. Therefore, epigenetic has become a very attractive and increasingly investigated field of research in order to find new ways of prevention and treatment of neoplasia, and this is particularly the case for breast cancer (BC). Thus, this review will first develop the main known epigenetic modifications that can occur in cancer and then expose the future role that control of epigenetic modifications might play in prevention, prognostication, follow-up and treatment of BC. Indeed, epigenetic biomarkers found in peripheral blood might become new tools to detect BC, to define its prognostic and to predict its outcome, whereas epi-drugs might have an increasing potential of development in the next future. However, if DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone desacetylase inhibitors have shown encouraging results in BC, their action remains nonspecific. Thus, additional clinical studies are needed to evaluate more precisely the effects of these molecules, even if they have provided encouraging results in cotreatment and combined therapies. This review will also deal with the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) as epi-drugs. Finally, we will focus on the potential prevention of BC through epigenetic based on diet and we will particularly develop the possible place of isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables or of Genistein from soybean in a dietary program that might potentially reduce the risk of BC in large populations. PMID:25410431

Basse, Clémence; Arock, Michel

2014-11-19

121

Intraepithelial ?? T Cells Remain Increased in the Duodenum of AIDS Patients Despite Antiretroviral Treatment  

PubMed Central

Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) bearing the ?? T-cell receptor are a unique intestinal subset whose function remains elusive. Here, we examine how they behave in AIDS and during various regimens of antiretroviral treatment in order to obtain mechanistic insight into their adaptive or innate functional in vivo properties. IELs were studied by multimarker two-colour immunofluorescence in situ staining. Consecutive duodenal biopsies were obtained from advanced infection-prone HIV+ patients (n?=?30). The systemic adaptive immune status was monitored by determining T-cell subsets and immunoglobulins in peripheral blood. The ?? IEL ratio (median 14.5%, range 1.5–56.3%) was significantly increased (p<0.02) compared with that in clinically healthy HIV? control subjects (n?=?11, median 2.8%; range 0.3–38%), although the number of ?? IELs per mucosal length unit (U) only tended to be increased (4.0/U in HIV+ versus 3.2/U in HIV?subjects). Notably, the total number of CD3+ IELs was significantly reduced in AIDS (p<0.0001, 39.6/U in HIV+ versus 86.4/U in HIV? subjects). Almost 100% of the ?? IELs were CD8? and they often expressed the V?1/J?1-encoded epitope (median 65.2%). HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy only tended to have a lower ratio of ?? IELs (median 12.8%) than those receiving no treatment (median 14.3%) or 1 nucleoside analogue (NA) (median 23.5%) or 2 NAs (median 13.0%). This minimal variation among therapy groups, contrasting the treatment response of systemic and local adaptive immunity, harmonizes with the novel idea derived from animal experiments that ?? T cells are largely innate cells in first-line microbial defence. PMID:22238587

Nilssen, Dag E.; Brandtzaeg, Per

2012-01-01

122

The role of temperature increase rate in combinational hyperthermia chemotherapy treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy has been widely used in cancer treatment. Our previous study has shown that rapid rate hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy can synergistically kill cancer cells whereas a sub-additive effect was found when a slow rate hyperthermia was applied. In this study, we explored the basis of this difference. For this purpose, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, Caspase 3 activity, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) expression following the two different modes of heating were measured. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. Indocyanine green (ICG), which absorbs near infrared light at 808nm (ideal for tissue penetration), was chosen for achieving rapid rate hyperthermia. Slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. Two sets of thermal doses were delivered by either slow rate or rapid rate hyperthermia. HSP70 expression was highly elevated under low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while maintained at the baseline level under the other three treatments. Caspase3 level slightly increased after low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while necrotic cell death was found in the other three types of heat treatment. In conclusion, when given at the same thermal dose, slow rate hyperthermia is more likely to induce thermotolerance. Meanwhile, hyperthermia showed a dose dependent capability in reversing P-gp mediated MDR; when MDR is reversed, the combinational treatment induced extensive necrotic cell death. During this process, the rate of heating also played a very important role; necrosis was more dramatic in rapid rate hyperthermia than in slow rate hyperthermia even though they were given at the same dose.

Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J.

2010-02-01

123

Increased Workload for Systematic Review Literature Searches of Diagnostic Tests Compared With Treatments: Challenges and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Background Comprehensive literature searches are conducted over multiple medical databases in order to meet stringent quality standards for systematic reviews. These searches are often very laborious, with authors often manually screening thousands of articles. Information retrieval (IR) techniques have proven increasingly effective in improving the efficiency of this process. IR challenges for systematic reviews involve building classifiers using training data with very high class-imbalance, and meeting the requirement for near perfect recall on relevant studies. Traditionally, most systematic reviews have focused on questions relating to treatment. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA). Objective We aim to demonstrate that DTA reviews comprise an especially challenging subclass of systematic reviews with respect to the workload required for literature screening. We identify specific challenges for the application of IR to literature screening for DTA reviews, and identify potential directions for future research. Methods We hypothesize that IR for DTA reviews face three additional challenges, compared to systematic reviews of treatments. These include an increased class-imbalance, a broader definition of the target class, and relative inadequacy of available metadata (ie, medical subject headings (MeSH) terms for medical literature analysis and retrieval system online). Assuming these hypotheses to be true, we identify five manifestations when we compare literature searches of DTA versus treatment. These manifestations include: an increase in the average number of articles screened, and increase in the average number of full-text articles obtained, a decrease in the number of included studies as a percentage of full-text articles screened, a decrease in the number of included studies as a percentage of all articles screened, and a decrease in the number of full-text articles obtained as a percentage of all articles screened. As of July 12 2013, 13 published Cochrane DTA reviews were available and all were included. For each DTA review, we randomly selected 15 treatment reviews published by the corresponding Cochrane Review Group (N=195). We then statistically tested differences in these five hypotheses, for the DTA versus treatment reviews. Results Despite low statistical power caused by the small sample size for DTA reviews, strong (P<.01) or very strong (P<.001) evidence was obtained to support three of the five expected manifestations, with evidence for at least one manifestation of each hypothesis. The observed difference in effect sizes are substantial, demonstrating the practical difference in reviewer workload. Conclusions Reviewer workload (volume of citations screened) when screening literature for systematic reviews of DTA is especially high. This corresponds to greater rates of class-imbalance when training classifiers for automating literature screening for DTA reviews. Addressing concerns such as lower quality metadata and effectively modelling the broader target class could help to alleviate such challenges, providing possible directions for future research.

2014-01-01

124

Obesity increases operating room times in patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Obesity impacts utilization of healthcare resources. The goal of this study was to measure the relationship between increasing body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) with different components of operating room (OR) time. Methods. The Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) was utilized to identify all ASA PS 2 or 3 patients who underwent primary THA at Stanford Medical Center from February 1, 2008 through January 1, 2013. Patients were divided into five groups based on the BMI weight classification. Regression analysis was used to quantify relationships between BMI and the different components of total OR time. Results. 1,332 patients were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, height, and ASA PS classification between the BMI groups. Normal-weight patients had a total OR time of 138.9 min compared 167.9 min (P < 0.001) for morbidly obese patients. At a BMI > 35 kg/m2 each incremental BMI unit increase was associated with greater incremental total OR time increases. Conclusion. Morbidly obese patients required significantly more total OR time than normal-weight patients undergoing a THA procedure. This increase in time is relevant when scheduling obese patients for surgery and has an important impact on health resource utilization. PMID:25210656

Kadry, Bassam; Press, Christopher D.; Alosh, Hassan; Opper, Isaac M.; Orsini, Joe; Popov, Igor A.; Macario, Alex

2014-01-01

125

Evaluating sedimentation problems in activated sludge treatment plants operating at complete sludge retention time.  

PubMed

Zero net sludge growth can be achieved by complete retention of solids in activated sludge wastewater treatment, especially in high strength and biodegradable wastewaters. When increasing the solids retention time, MLSS and MLVSS concentrations reach a plateau phase and observed growth yields values tend to zero (Yobs ? 0). In this work, in order to evaluate sedimentation problems arised due to high MLSS concentrations and complete sludge retention operational conditions, two identical innovative slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants were studied. Measurements of wastewaters' quality characteristics, treatment plant's operational conditions, sludge microscopic analysis and state point analysis were conducted. Results have shown that low COD/Nitrogen ratios increase sludge bulking and flotation phenomena due to accidental denitrification in clarifiers. High return activated sludge rate is essential in complete retention systems as it reduces sludge condensation and hydraulic retention time in the clarifiers. Under certain operational conditions sludge loading rates can greatly exceed literature limit values. The presented methodology is a useful tool for estimation of sedimentation problems encountered in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with complete retention time. PMID:25463928

Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Pekridis, George; Taousanidis, Nikolaos

2015-02-01

126

Increase of Survival Benefit in Advanced Resectable Colon Cancer by Extent of Adjuvant Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: The benefit of adjuvant therapy in curatively resected lymph node-positive colon cancer was established using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and levamisole (LEV) for 12 months. 5-FU cytotoxicity can be modulated by folinic acid (FA) or interferon-? (INF-?). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of modulating 5-FU+ LEV by either FA or IFN-? in the adjuvant treatment of high-risk colon cancer. Methods: Patients with curatively resected colon cancer (stages UICC IIb and III) were stratified according to T, N, and participating center and randomized to receive a 12-month treatment using 5-FU + LEV alone or in combination with FA or IFN-?. Results: A total of 855 of 904 entered patients (94.6%) were eligible. The median follow-up of all eligible patients was 4.6 years. Addition of FA to 5-FU + LEV improved recurrence-free and overall survival in comparison with 5-FU + LEV alone (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively, 1-sided). The 5-year overall survival rates were 60.5% (95% confidence interval, 54.3–66.7) and 72.0% (95% confidence interval, 66.5–77.5) for 5-FU + LEV and 5-FU + LEV + FA, respectively. Addition of INF-? showed a tendency to improve recurrence-free survival, however, without altering overall survival. Toxicities (WHO III + IV) were generally tolerable except one toxic death in the control arm and were observed in 9.9% of the patients receiving 5-FU + LEV alone and in 13.3% and in 30.7% of patients receiving additional FA and IFN-?, respectively. Conclusions: Addition of IFN-? was associated with increased toxicity without markedly influencing the outcome and should therefore not be recommended for adjuvant treatment. Addition of FA increased the 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rate by 9.3 and 11.5 percentage points, respectively. 5-FU + LEV + FA for 12 months may be an effective adjuvant treatment option for locally advanced high-risk colon cancer. PMID:16041207

Link, Karl-Heinz; Kornmann, Marko; Staib, Ludger; Redenbacher, Martin; Kron, Martina; Beger, Hans Günter

2005-01-01

127

The effect of solidification time and heat treatment on the fatigue properties of a cast 319 aluminum alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solidification time and heat treatment are known to have a large effect on the microstructure of cast aluminum alloys. This study was conducted to quantify how the fatigue properties of a 319-type aluminum alloy are affected by solidification time and heat treatment. Both porosity-containing (non-hot isostatically pressed (HIP)) and porosity-free (HIP) samples in the T6 (“peak aged”) or T7 (“overaged”) heattreated conditions were tested. As the solidification time increased, the average initiating pore diameter increased and stress-controlled fatigue life decreased. Heat treatment was observed to have a large effect on fatigue properties of the HIP samples. However, in the non-HIP fatigue samples, heat treatment did not significantly change the fatigue life or fatigue strength of the cast 319-type alloy. The absence of an influence of heat treatment on fatigue response is attributed to the predominance of the microporosity in fatigue crack initiation in cast aluminum.

Boileau, James M.; Allison, John E.

2003-09-01

128

Quiet-time increases of low-energy electrons - The Jovian origin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a detector on board the OGO-5 satellite, the flux and energy spectrum of electrons in the 10-200-MeV range has been continuously measured from 1968 to 1971. Sudden increases in intensity by factors of up to 300% have been observed during solar quiet times. It is shown that these increases are nearly independent of energy up to about 25 MeV and disappear rapidly above that energy. The frequency of the increases peaks every 13 months at a time following the crossing by earth of the interplanetary magnetic-field line which passes the vicinity of the planet Jupiter. Most of the increases occur in a period of 3 to 5 months following this crossing and often appear to be 27 days apart. A Jovian origin for these electrons and their mode of transport to the inner solar system are discussed.

Lheureux, J.; Meyer, P.

1976-01-01

129

A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ?1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

Fuangrod, Todsaporn [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada) [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kuncic, Zdenka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)

2013-09-15

130

Does IMRT increase the peripheral radiation dose? A comparison of treatment plans 2000 and 2010.  

PubMed

It has been reported in several papers and textbooks that IMRT treatments increase the peripheral dose in comparison with non-IMRT fields. But in clinical practice not only open fields have been used in the pre-IMRT era, but also fields with physical wedges or composed fields. The aim of this work is to test the hypothesis of increased peripheral dose when IMRT is used compared to standard conformal radiotherapy. Furthermore, the importance of the measured dose differences in clinical practice is discussed and compared with other new technologies for the cases where an increase of the peripheral dose was observed. For cancers of the head and neck, the cervix, the rectum and for the brain irradiation due to acute leukaemia, one to four plans have been calculated with IMRT or conformal standard technique (non-IMRT). In an anthropomorphic phantom the dose at a distance of 30cm in cranio-caudal direction from the target edge was measured with TLDs using a linear accelerator Oncor (®) (Siemens) for both techniques. IMRT was performed using step-and-shoot technique (7 to 11 beams), non-IMRT plans with different techniques. The results depended on the site of irradiation. For head and neck cancers IMRT resulted in an increase of 0.05 - 0.09% of the prescribed total dose (Dptv) or 40 - 70 mGy (Dptv=65Gy), compared to non-IMRT technique without wedges or a decrease of 0.16% (approx. 100 mGy) of the prescribed total dose compared to non-IMRT techniques with wedges. For the cervical cancer IMRT resulted in an increased dose in the periphery (+ 0.07% - 0.15% of Dptv or 30 - 70 mGy at Dptv=45Gy), for the rectal cancer in a dose reduction (0.21 - 0.26% of Dptv or 100 - 130 mGy at Dptv=50Gy) and for the brain irradiation in an increase dose (+ 0.05% of Dptv=18Gy or 9 mSv). In summary IMRT does not uniformly cause increased radiation dose in the periphery in the model used. It can be stated that these dose values are smaller than reported in earlier papers. Slightly increased additional radiation dose in the periphery is likely to be counterbalanced by the much higher conformity and the often better homogeneity. PMID:21530197

Salz, Henning; Eichner, Regina; Wiezorek, Tilo

2012-02-01

131

Quiet-time increases of low-energy electrons - The Jovian origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a detector on board the OGO-5 satellite, the flux and energy spectrum of electrons in the 10-200-MeV range has been continuously measured from 1968 to 1971. Sudden increases in intensity by factors of up to 300% have been observed during solar quiet times. It is shown that these increases are nearly independent of energy up to about 25 MeV

J. Lheureux; P. Meyer

1976-01-01

132

Increasing access to early malaria diagnosis and prompted treatment in remote cambodian villages.  

PubMed

Malaria poses a significant public health burden in the remote areas of western Cambodia, where access to health services and information is limited. Recognizing the potential of village malaria workers to reach these communities, the US Agency for International Development-funded Malaria Control in Cambodia project used a multipronged approach to strengthen the village malaria workers network. As a result, the proportion of confirmed malaria cases treated by village malaria workers has doubled during the past 2 years, significantly increasing the numbers being properly diagnosed and treated. Key to the program's success has been the integration of village malaria workers with public health facilities, improved patient access to prompt diagnosis and treatment, and resolution of systemic barriers such as logistics for rapid diagnostic tests. PMID:22021279

Kheang, Soy Ty; Duong, Socheat; Olkkonen, Aida

2011-12-01

133

Mung Bean Nuclease Treatment Increases Capture Specificity of Microdroplet-PCR Based Targeted DNA Enrichment  

PubMed Central

Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial. PMID:25058678

Yu, Zhenming; Cao, Kajia; Tischler, Tanya; Stolle, Catherine A.; Santani, Avni B.

2014-01-01

134

On the quiet-time increases of low energy cosmic ray electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a detector on board the OGO-5 satellite, the flux and energy spectrum of electrons in the 10-30 MeV range has been continuously monitored from 1968 to 1972. Sudden increases by factors of up to 300 percent have been observed during solar quiet periods. These 'Quiet-Time Increases' abruptly die out above 30 MeV and correlate well with identical increases reported at lower energies leading to a flat relative energy spectrum. A large fraction of these electrons is most likely of Jovian origin.

Lheureux, J.; Meyer, P.

1975-01-01

135

Staffing time required to increase cancer screening rates through telephone support  

PubMed Central

We describe the staff time required by the Prevention Care Manager tailored telephone support intervention, which significantly increased breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening rates among female patients of Community Health Centers in New York City. For a sample of 38 women whose intervention was timed, Prevention Care Managers spent an average of 99 minutes per woman on the phone and on related follow-up tasks over 18 months, or 248 minutes for each additional cancer screening test. Potential modifications to decrease the time required include automation of common tasks and the use of administrative data to further tailor outreach calls. PMID:20228638

Robinson, Christina M.; Beach, Michael L.; Greene, Mary Ann; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Dietrich, Allen

2010-01-01

136

The toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos increases through sewage treatment processes.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely believed to be retained in the sewage sludge during sewage treatment. The AgNPs and their derivatives, however, re-enter the environment with the sludge and via the effluent. AgNP were shown to occur in surface water, while evidence of a potential toxicity of AgNPs in aquatic organisms is growing. This study aims to examine the toxicity of AgNPs to the embryos of the aquatic vertebrate model zebrafish (Danio rerio) before and after sewage treatment plants (STPs) processes. Embryos were treated with AgNP (particle size: >90 % <20 nm) and AgNO3 in ISO water for 48 h and consequently displayed effects such as delayed development, tail malformations and edema. For AgNP, the embryos were smaller than the controls with conspicuously smaller yolk sacs. The corresponding EC50 values of 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) were determined as 73 ?g/l for AgNO3 and 1.1 mg/l for AgNP. Whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons also revealed secondary neurotoxic effects. A TEM analysis confirmed uptake of the AgNPs, and the distribution within the embryo suggested absorption across the skin. Embryos were also exposed (for 48 h) to effluents of AgNP-spiked model STP with AgNP influent concentrations of 4 and 16 mg/l. These embryos exhibited the same malformations than for AgNO3 and AgNPs, but the embryo toxicity of the sewage treatment effluent was higher (EC50 = 142 ?g/l; 48 hpf). On the other hand, control STP effluent spiked with AgNPs afterwards was less toxic (EC50 = 2.9 mg/l; 48 hpf) than AgNPs in ISO water. This observation of an increased fish embryo toxicity of STP effluents with increasing AgNP influent concentrations identifies the accumulation of AgNP in the STP as a potential source of effluent toxicity. PMID:23975539

Muth-Köhne, Elke; Sonnack, Laura; Schlich, Karsten; Hischen, Florian; Baumgartner, Werner; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina

2013-10-01

137

Women–Focused Treatment Agencies and Process Improvement: Strategies to Increase Client Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral health treatment agencies often struggle to keep clients engaged in treatment. Women clients often have additional factors such as family responsibilities, financial difficulties, or abuse histories that provide extra challenges to remaining in care. As part of a national initiative, four women-focused drug treatment agencies used process improvement to address treatment engagement. Interviews and focus groups with staff assessed

Jennifer P. Wisdom; Kim Hoffman; Elke Rechberger; Kay Seim; Betta Owens

2008-01-01

138

Static Fatigue, Time Effects, and Delayed Increase in Penetration Resistance after  

E-print Network

Static Fatigue, Time Effects, and Delayed Increase in Penetration Resistance after Dynamic for the latter is found in the micromechanics process of static fatigue (or stress corrosion cracking stress under one-dimensional strain conditions. This process is a consequence of static fatigue

Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

139

Caribou encounters with wolves increase near roads and trails: a time-to-event approach  

E-print Network

. Caribou and reindeer Rangifer tarandus are declining across North America and Scandinavia in part from, linear features, predation risk, Rangifer tarandus, recovery, resource selection, spatial separationCaribou encounters with wolves increase near roads and trails: a time-to-event approach Jesse

Hebblewhite, Mark

140

Federal Rule Yields Hope for Science: Testing Mandate Is Expected to Increase Time for Subject  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some proponents of science education say they have faced no greater foe over the past few years than federally mandated tests in reading and mathematics, which have forced teachers to devote increasingly bigger chunks of class time to building students' skills in those two subjects. But if testing has squeezed science out, can testing also bring…

Cavanagh, Sean

2007-01-01

141

An evolutionary central pattern generator for stable bipedal walking by the increased double support time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central pattern generator (CPG) consisting of neural oscillators, generates rhythmic signals using simple input signal. It can modify motor patterns to handle environmental perturbations by sensory feedback. In this paper, an evolutionary CPG for stable bipedal walking by the increased double support time is proposed. The proposed CPG generates swing motion of arms as well as ankle and the center

Chang-Soo Park; Young-Dae Hong; Jong-Hwan Kim

2011-01-01

142

Simvastatin treatment attenuates increased respiratory variability and apnea/hypopnea index in rats with chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

Cheyne-Stokes respiration and cardiac arrhythmias are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Enhanced carotid body chemoreflex (CBC) sensitivity is associated with these abnormalities in CHF. Reduced carotid body (CB) nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels play an important role in the enhanced CBC. In other disease models, Simvastatin (statin) treatment increases endothelial NOS, in part, by increasing Krüppel-like Factor 2 expression. We hypothesized that statin treatment would ameliorate enhanced CBC sensitivity as well as increased respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index, in a rodent model of CHF. Resting breathing pattern, cardiac rhythm, and the ventilatory and CB chemoreceptor afferent responses to hypoxia were assessed in rats with CHF induced by coronary ligation. CHF was associated with enhanced ventilatory and CB afferent responses to hypoxia as well as increased respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index. Statin treatment prevented the increases in CBC sensitivity and the concomitant increases in respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index. Krüppel-like Factor 2 and endothelial NOS protein were decreased in the CB and nucleus tractus solitarii of CHF animals, and statin treatment increased the expression of these proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the increased CBC sensitivity, respiratory instability, and cardiac arrhythmias observed in CHF are ameliorated by statin treatment and suggest that statins may be an effective treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration and arrhythmias in patient populations with high chemoreflex sensitivity. PMID:24516105

Haack, Karla K V; Marcus, Noah J; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Zucker, Irving H; Schultz, Harold D

2014-05-01

143

Increased incidence of another cancer in myeloproliferative neoplasms patients at the time of diagnosis.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported an increased incidence of coexistent cancer in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and myelosuppressive treatment has been speculated to be one of the causes. In this study, we have concentrated on malignancies diagnosed before the MPN diagnosis to eliminate the possible influence of MPN treatment. The patients were recruited from the Swedish and Norwegian cancer registries. One thousand seven hundred and 45 patients from the Swedish MPN Quality Registry and 468 patients from the Norwegian National Cancer Registry were included in this study covering a 3-yr period. The results show that primary concurrent cancer is higher among patients with MPN compared to the general population. When pooled together, the Swedish and the Norwegian cohort showed increased prevalence of all types of cancer in general compared with the general population, standard prevalence ratio (SPR) of 1.20 (95% CI 1.07-1.34). Significantly high SPRs were reached for skin malignant melanoma [1.89 (95% CI 1.33-2.62)], prostate cancer [1.39 (95% CI 1.11-1.71)], and hematologic cancer [1.49 (95% CI 1.00-2.12)]. In the polycythemia vera group, the risk of having prior malignant melanoma of the skin was significant, with an SPR of 2.20 (95% CI 1.17-3.77). For patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, no significant risks were found. Coexisting cancers have a high impact on the treatment strategies of MPN, as it narrows down the treatment options. Chronic inflammation, as a common denominator of MPN with other cancers, can catalyze each other's existence and progression. PMID:25039361

Pettersson, Helna; Knutsen, Håvar; Holmberg, Erik; Andréasson, Björn

2015-02-01

144

Increasing temperature forcing reduces the Greenland Ice Sheet's response time scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damages from sea level rise, as well as strategies to manage the associated risk, hinge critically on the time scale and eventual magnitude of sea level rise. Satellite observations and paleo-data suggest that the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) loses mass in response to increased temperatures, and may thus contribute substantially to sea level rise as anthropogenic climate change progresses. The time scale of GIS mass loss and sea level rise are deeply uncertain, and are often assumed to be constant. However, previous ice sheet modeling studies have shown that the time scale of GIS response likely decreases strongly with increasing temperature anomaly. Here, we map the relationship between temperature anomaly and the time scale of GIS response, by perturbing a calibrated, three-dimensional model of GIS behavior. Additional simulations with a profile, higher-order, ice sheet model yield time scales that are broadly consistent with those obtained using the three-dimensional model, and shed light on the feedbacks in the ice sheet system that cause the time scale shortening. Semi-empirical modeling studies that assume a constant time scale of sea level adjustment, and are calibrated to small preanthropogenic temperature and sea level changes, may underestimate future sea level rise. Our analysis suggests that the benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in terms of avoided sea level rise from the GIS, may be greatest if emissions reductions begin before large temperature increases have been realized. Reducing anthropogenic climate change may also allow more time for design and deployment of risk management strategies by slowing sea level contributions from the GIS.

Applegate, Patrick J.; Parizek, Byron R.; Nicholas, Robert E.; Alley, Richard B.; Keller, Klaus

2014-12-01

145

Differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells increases after treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.  

PubMed

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have become an important resource in developing strategies for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, owing to their ability to renew and their potential for differentiation into cells of various types of tissues. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation has been used for several years in the treatment of fracture healing, with clinical beneficial effects, and several studies have demonstrated its capacity to increase bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, stromal cells of human bone marrow (BMSC), obtained from healthy donors, were appropriately expanded and underwent PEMF stimulation eight hours a day for fourteen days. Parameters such as proliferation and differentiation ability were evaluated on stimulated cultures. The evaluation of the marker expression was performed by RT-PCR for osteocalcin, by alkaline phosphatase quantitation and by histochemical stains. The results we obtained showed that BMSC treated with PEMF begin differentiation earlier than untreated BMSC, as shown by the markers used. The data show that PEMF is able to increase the osteogenic differentiation potential in adult mesenchymal cells isolated from young patients. PMID:22351673

Esposito, Marco; Lucariello, Angela; Riccio, Ilaria; Riccio, Vincenzo; Esposito, Vincenzo; Riccardi, Giovanni

2012-01-01

146

Optimizing treatments for nicotine dependence by increasing cognitive performance during withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Introduction Current FDA-approved smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy and are associated with high rates of relapse. Therefore, there is a clear need to develop novel antismoking medications. Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive impairments that predict smoking relapse. It has been proposed that these cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine withdrawal that could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal may represent potential smoking cessation agents. Areas covered The authors review the clinical literature demonstrating that nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in working memory, attention and response inhibition. They then briefly summarize different classes of compounds and strategies to increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational research in order to highlight areas for which there is strong rationale for pilot clinical trials of potential smoking cessation medications. Expert opinion There is emerging evidence that supports deficits in cognitive function as a plausible nicotine withdrawal phenotype. The authors furthermore believe that the translational paradigms presented here may represent efficient and valid means for the evaluation of cognitive-enhancing medications as possible treatments for nicotine dependence. PMID:24707983

Ashare, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Heath D

2014-01-01

147

Optimality of a time-dependent treatment profile during an epidemic  

PubMed Central

The emergence and spread of drug resistance is one of the most challenging public health issues in the treatment of some infectious diseases. The objective of this work is to investigate whether the effect of resistance can be contained through a time-dependent treatment strategy during the epidemic subject to an isoperimetric constraint. We apply control theory to a population dynamical model of influenza infection with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, and solve the associated control problem to find the optimal treatment profile that minimizes the cumulative number of infections (i.e. the epidemic final size). We consider the problem under the assumption of limited drug stockpile and show that as the size of stockpile increases, a longer delay in start of treatment is required to minimize the total number of infections. Our findings show that the amount of drugs used to minimize the total number of infections depends on the rate of de novo resistance regardless of the initial size of drug stockpile. We demonstrate that both the rate of resistance emergence and the relative transmissibility of the resistant strain play important roles in determining the optimal timing and level of treatment profile. AMS Subject Classification: 34, 49, 92 PMID:23859002

Jaberi-Douraki, Majid; Moghadas, Seyed M.

2013-01-01

148

Pluronic modified leptin with increased systemic circulation, brain uptake and efficacy for treatment of obesity.  

PubMed

Modification of hydrophilic proteins with amphiphilic block copolymers capable of crossing cell membranes is a new strategy to improve protein delivery to the brain. Leptin, a candidate for the treatment of epidemic obesity, has failed in part because of impairment in its transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that develops with obesity. We posit that modification of leptin with poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide), Pluronic P85 (P85) might permit this protein to penetrate the BBB independently of its transporter, thereby overcoming peripheral leptin resistance. Here we report that peripherally administered leptin-P85 conjugates exhibit biological activity by reducing food intake in mouse models of obesity (ob/ob, and diet-induced obese mouse). We further generated two new leptin-P85 conjugates: one, Lep(ss)-P85(L), containing one P85 chain and another, Lep(ss)-P85(H), containing multiple P85 chains. We report data on their purification, analytical characterization, peripheral and brain pharmacokinetics (PK). Lep(ss)-P85(L) crosses the BBB using the leptin transporter, and exhibits improved peripheral PK along with increased accumulation in the brain compared to unmodified leptin. Lep(ss)-P85(H) also has improved peripheral PK but in a striking difference to the first conjugate penetrates the BBB independently of the leptin transporter via a non-saturable mechanism. The results demonstrate that leptin analogs can be developed through chemical modification of the native leptin with P85 to overcome leptin resistance at the level of the BBB, thus improving the potential for the treatment of obesity. PMID:24881856

Yi, Xiang; Yuan, Dongfen; Farr, Susan A; Banks, William A; Poon, Chi-Duen; Kabanov, Alexander V

2014-10-10

149

DPP-4 inhibitor des-F-sitagliptin treatment increased insulin exocytosis from db/db mice {beta} cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Anti-diabetic new drug, DPP-4 inhibitor, can affect the insulin exocytosis. {yields} DPP-4 inhibitor treatment altered syntaxin 1 expression. {yields} Treatment of db/db mice with DPP-4 inhibitor increased insulin release. -- Abstract: Incretin promotes insulin secretion acutely. Recently, orally-administered DPP-4 inhibitors represent a new class of anti-hyperglycemic agents. Indeed, inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4), sitagliptin, has just begun to be widely used as therapeutics for type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of sitagliptin-treatment on insulin exocytosis from single {beta}-cells are yet unknown. We therefore investigated how sitagliptin-treatment in db/db mice affects insulin exocytosis by treating db/db mice with des-F-sitagliptin for 2 weeks. Perfusion studies showed that 2 weeks-sitagliptin treatment potentiated insulin secretion. We then analyzed insulin granule motion and SNARE protein, syntaxin 1, by TIRF imaging system. TIRF imaging of insulin exocytosis showed the increased number of docked insulin granules and increased fusion events from them during first-phase release. In accord with insulin exocytosis data, des-F-sitagliptin-treatment increased the number of syntaxin 1 clusters on the plasma membrane. Thus, our data demonstrated that 2-weeks des-F-sitagliptin-treatment increased the fusion events of insulin granules, probably via increased number of docked insulin granules and that of syntaxin 1 clusters.

Nagamatsu, Shinya, E-mail: shinya@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Nakamichi, Yoko; Aoyagi, Kyota; Nishiwaki, Chiyono [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)

2011-09-09

150

Time-Dependent Response of the Climate to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis describes the development of an intermediate level, primitive equation climate model and the application of the model to the transient CO(,2)-climate problem. The model solves the equations of large scale motion in two atmospheric layers. Longitudinal dependence is expressed as a highly truncated Fourier series. Meridional derivatives are finite differenced with a 3 degree latitude interval. The time step of integration is 2 hours. The surface has stylized geography, and an immobile, isothermal ocean with latitudinally -dependent heat capacity. Radiative processes are highly parameterized in this version of the model. Sensitivity experiments are performed to test the effects of two different assumptions about the amount of ocean that is thermally involved with the atmosphere over the time scale of the atmospheric CO(,2) increase. To simulate the time-dependent nature of the climate response to increasing CO(,2), the model is integrated in time for 100 years. The initial CO(,2) concentration of 300 ppmv is increased with a 2% growth rate in emissions. Doubling (600 ppmv) is reached after 97 years. The rates at which climate variables change during the forcing period are examined, and the values at doubling are compared with the results from an equilibrium doubling experiment with the same model. When the atmospheric CO(,2) concentration is doubled in the model, the globally average surface air temperature increases by 0.8K, with 9K and 5K increases in the Arctic and Antarctic, respectively. Precipitation increases by 8%, with maximum increases near 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. The effects of the two different ocean depth distributions are more pronounced in the transient experiments than in the equilibrium experiments. At equatorial latitudes, the equilibrium and transient results at 600 ppmv CO(,2) are very similar. At high latitudes, the transient values have changed less than the equilibrium values. At mid-latitudes in both hemispheres, there are indications that the character, and not just the timing, of the transient response differs from the equilibrium response.

Cook, Kerry Harrison

151

Analysis of an Anomaly: The Increase in Time Float following Consumption  

PubMed Central

One fundamental axiom for project plan and schedule relates to the notion that time float will be reduced following its consumption. However, an anomalous scenario can emerge in which an activity's time float increases following its consumption. By exploring the associations between time float and paths in activity networks, we (a) reveal the conditions under which the anomaly occurs and (b) summarize laws related to total float. An activity's total float increases in parallel with its duration prolongation within a given boundary but remains constant or decreases in parallel with a prolongation outside the boundary. Furthermore, whereas a prolongation of an activity's duration in excess of classic total float does not delay project completion time, a lag of its start time to a degree slightly greater than the total float does. This analysis reveals different types of total float that correspond to different ways of usage. From this, we offer definitions for translation total float and prolongation total float that deviate from traditional conventions regarding the uniqueness of total float. PMID:25250376

Qi, Jianxun; Su, Zhixiong

2014-01-01

152

Increased connective tissue attachment to silicone implants by a water vapor plasma treatment.  

PubMed

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most common type of silicone polymer for the fabrication of implantable medical devices. Because of its inherent hydrophobic nature, the PDMS surface does not readily promote cellular adhesion, which leads to diverse clinical issues. Previously, we reported a simple water vapor plasma treatment of PDMS surfaces that resulted in stable long-term wettability and excellent in vitro cell compatibility. In this work, we report investigation of the in vivo local responses to PDMS implants treated by water vapor plasma using a subcutaneous rat model. The local tissue responses were assessed after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation by means of macroscopic and histomorphometric analysis. After 2 weeks of implantation, the plasma-treated implants elicited the formation of fibrous tissue capsules that were significantly thinner, more adherent, and vascularized than the control counterparts. The improved cell adhesion was correlated with an increased amount of cells attached to the implant surface after retrieval. There was no difference in the inflammatory response between untreated and treated samples. This study provides a rational approach to optimize the long-term performance of silicone implants, which is likely to have a significant impact in clinical applications demanding enhanced tissue integration of the implants. PMID:22767530

Jensen, C; Gurevich, L; Patriciu, A; Struijk, J J; Zachar, V; Pennisi, C P

2012-12-01

153

Lithium treatment increases endothelial cell survival and autophagy in a mouse model of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Lithium previously has been shown to reduce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress in other in vitro and in vivo model systems. We investigated lithium’s effects on cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs) exposed to these types of stress and in a mouse model of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods Viability of cultured bovine CECs was determined by CellTiter-Glo. 2-month-old Col8a2Q455K/Q455K mutant (Q455K) and C57/Bl6 wild type animals were divided into two groups of 15 mice. Group I received 0.2% lithium carbonate-containing chow and Group II received control chow for 7 months. Confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot were performed. Results Pretreatment with lithium increased viability of cultured CECs after H2O2 and thapsigargin exposure compared with untreated controls (p<0.05). In vivo analysis of mouse corneal endothelium showed the following: endothelial cell density of lithium treated Q455K was higher than for untreated Q455K (p<0.01). transmission electron microscopy of lithium treated Q455K showed normal endothelium with enlarged autophagosomes, but untreated Q455K showed dilated ER and guttae. Compared with untreated Q455K endothelium, lithium treated Q455K showed significant upregulation of P62, Tmem74, Tm9sf1 and Tmem 166 by RT-PCR and of Atg5-12 conjugate by western blotting indicating that lithium treatment increased autophagy. Although RT-PCR unexpectedly showed increased levels of lithium response genes, caspase 12, Gsk3?, Arr?2 and Impa1, western blotting showed the expected downregulation of Arr?2 and Impa1 proteins in response to lithium treatment. Conclusions Lithium increases cultured CEC survival against ER and oxidative stress. Increased autophagy in lithium treated endothelium in a mouse model of FECD suggests autophagy may contribute to increased endothelial cell survival. PMID:23759441

Kim, Eun Chul; Meng, Huan; Jun, Albert S

2013-01-01

154

Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions.

Kalchenko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Meglinski, I. V.

2013-07-01

155

An advection-based model to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical implementation of the advection equation is proposed to increase the temporal resolution of PIV time series. The\\u000a method is based on the principle that velocity fluctuations are transported passively, similar to Taylor’s hypothesis of frozen turbulence. In the present work, the advection model is extended to unsteady three-dimensional flows. The main objective of the method\\u000a is that of

Fulvio Scarano; Peter Moore

2011-01-01

156

Investigation of Whether Value of Travel Time Increases as Travel Time Increases: Case Study of Modal Choice of Interurban Travelers in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the variation in the value of travel time savings (VTTS) over travel time by applying the method of empirical discrete choice analysis with nonlinear utility functions. First, it formulates the time allocation model and derives VTTS from the model. The theoretical consideration shows that it is impossible to identify the conditions determining the monotonic change in VTTS

Hironori Kato; Keiichi Onoda

2009-01-01

157

Factors responsible for increased susceptibility of mice to intestinal colonization after treatment with streptomycin.  

PubMed Central

Streptomycin sulfate (5 mg/ml) was added to the drinking water of Swiss white mice. After treatment for 1 week, the mice were challenged orogastrically with 10(8) Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells. The organism failed to multiply in the intestinal tract of either treated or untreated animals, but could be recovered from contents and tissues after 48 h. In a previous study, Salmonella typhimurium was shown to multiply in the intestines of streptomycin-treated but not untreated mice when 10(3) organisms were used as inoculum. Streptomycin administration had little effect on Eh, protein or carbohydrate concentrations of cecal contents, or intestinal motility. However, it caused a statistically significant increase in water content and pH of contents and a decrease in the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. S. typhimurium multiplied in pooled cecal contents obtained from both streptomycin-treated and untreated animals, but its multiplication rate and total populations were significantly greater in contents from treated animals. P. aeruginosa did not multiply in contents from either treated or untreated mice. Similar results were obtained when the organisms were inoculated into nutrient broth adjusted to simulate the pH levels and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in cecal contents of treated and untreated mice. The addition of brain heart infusion broth to cecal contents from untreated animals, in concentrations that support multiplication of S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa, did not reverse inhibition. The addition of VFA to cecal contents from treated animals to equal the concentration in cecal contents from untreated animals caused inhibition of a magnitude observed in cecal contents from untreated animals. The results indicate that VFA operating at the pH level of cecal contents of conventional mice inhibit the multiplication of both S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa and restrict colonization of the intestine by these organisms. The decrease in VFA concentrations that occurs as a result of streptomycin administration adequately explains the increased susceptibility of treated mice to colonization with S. typhimurium. It does not explain the increased susceptibility of treated mice to P. aeruginosa colonization, however. PMID:3087876

Que, J U; Casey, S W; Hentges, D J

1986-01-01

158

Time to Treatment in Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether time to treatment (TTT) has an effect on overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether patient or treatment factors are associated with TTT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 237 consecutive patients with Stage III NSCLC treated at University of Michigan Hospital (UM) or the Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VA). Patients were treated with either palliative or definitive radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone (n = 106) or either sequential (n = 69) or concurrent chemoradiation (n = 62). The primary endpoint was OS. Results: Median follow-up was 69 months, and median TTT was 57 days. On univariate analysis, the risk of death did not increase significantly with longer TTT (p = 0.093). However, subset analysis showed that there was a higher risk of death with longer TTT in patients who survived {>=} 5 years (p = 0.029). Younger age (p = 0.027), male sex (p = 0.013), lower Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) (p = 0.002), and treatment at the VA (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with longer TTT. However, on multivariate analysis, only lower KPS remained significantly associated with longer TTT (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Time to treatment is significantly associated with OS in patients with Stage III NSCLC who lived longer than 5 years, although it is not a significant factor in Stage III patients as a whole. Lower KPS is associated with longer TTT.

Wang Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Correa, Candace R.; Hayman, James A.; Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp; Brenner, Dean; Arenberg, Doug; Curtis, Jeffery; Kalemkerian, Gregory P. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

2009-07-01

159

Chicory inulin does not increase stool weight or speed up intestinal transit time in healthy male subjects.  

PubMed

Inulin is a non-digestible oligosaccharide classified as a prebiotic, a substrate that promotes the growth of certain beneficial microorganisms in the gut. We examined the effect of a 20 g day(-1) supplement of chicory inulin on stool weight, intestinal transit time, stool frequency and consistency, selected intestinal microorganisms and enzymes, fecal pH, short chain fatty acids and ammonia produced as by-products of bacterial fermentation. Twelve healthy male volunteers consumed a well-defined, controlled diet with and without a 20 g day(-1) supplement of chicory inulin (degree of polymerization (DP) ranging for 2-60), with each treatment lasting for 3 weeks in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. Inulin was consumed in a low fat ice cream. No differences were found in flavor or appeal between the control and inulin-containing ice creams. Inulin consumption resulted in a significant increase in total anaerobes and Lactobacillus species and a significant decrease in ammonia levels and ?-glucuronidase activity. Flatulence increased significantly with the inulin treatment. No other significant differences were found in bowel function with the addition of inulin to the diet. Thus, inulin is easily incorporated into a food product and has no negative effects on food acceptability. Twenty grams of inulin was well tolerated, but had minimal effects on measures of laxation in healthy, human subjects. PMID:21773588

Slavin, Joanne; Feirtag, Joellen

2011-01-01

160

Diagnosis of time of increased probability of volcanic earthquakes at Mt. Vesuvius zone  

E-print Network

The possibility of intermediate-term earthquake prediction at Mt. Vesuvius by means of the algorithm CN is explored. CN was originally designed to identify the Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) for the occurrence of strong tectonic earthquakes, with magnitude M >= M sub 0 , within a region a priori delimited. Here the algorithm CN is applied, for the first time, to the analysis of volcanic seismicity. The earthquakes recorded at Mt. Vesuvius, during the period from February 1972 to October 2002, are considered and the magnitude threshold M sub 0 , selecting the events to be predicted, is varied within the range: 3.0 - 3.3. Satisfactory prediction results are obtained, by retrospective analysis, when a time scaling is introduced. In particular, when the length of the time windows is reduced by a factor 2.5 - 3, with respect to the standard version of CN algorithm, more than 90% of the events with M >= M sub 0 occur within the TIP intervals, with TIPs occupying about 30% of the total time considered. The co...

Rotwain, I; Kuznetsov, I V; Panza, G F; Peresan, A

2003-01-01

161

The Right Treatment for the Right Patient (at the Right Time)  

E-print Network

The Right Treatment for the Right Patient (at the Right Time): Personalized Medicine and Statistics, evidence-based personalized treatment strategies 3/41 Personalized Medicine and Statistics #12;There should be a treatment for that! Modern expectation: A treatment for everything · Drugs, biologic products, medical

Davidian, Marie

162

Evaluation of management treatments intended to increase lamb recruitment in a bighorn sheep herd.  

PubMed

We administered a suite of treatments to a herd of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) that was experiencing poor lamb recruitment and showing signs of respiratory disease. Despite 3 yr of treatment with various combinations of anthelmentics, antibiotics, vaccines, and hyperimmune serum products, recruitment was not improved. PMID:22740546

Sirochman, Michael A; Woodruff, Kimberly J; Grigg, Jamin L; Walsh, Daniel P; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L

2012-07-01

163

Power Assigning Method for Increasing the Number of Users in Time-spreading Optical CDMA Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a method for increasing the number of supportable users in a time-spreading Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed. In the presented technique, a unique codeword is assigned to a couple of users instead of just one. Different optical powers are employed for such users in order to distinguish them from each other. Other methods use the frequency or the polarization of the optical signals as an additional coding dimension to increase the number of codewords and hence the number of users in the network. It is proposed to employ nonlinear optical regenerators for separating optical pulses with different powers. A comprehensive design algorithm for such regenerators is presented. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed regenerators a TS-OCDMA system is simulated using OptiSystem software. Results indicate an error free transmission in the system employing the proposed technique.

Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Abiri, Ebrahim; Kazemi, Keyvan; Dezfouli, Mehran

2011-04-01

164

Weight Variation over Time and Its Association with Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome: A Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Weight variation during therapy has been described as a useful marker to predict TB treatment outcome. No previous study has used longitudinal analysis to corroborate this finding. The goal of this study was to evaluate change and trends of patients' bodyweight over time depending on TB treatment outcome. Methods and Findings A retrospective cohort study with all TB cases diagnosed from 2000 to 2006 was carried out. Information from 5 public tuberculosis treatment facilities at Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru was analyzed. Poor outcome was defined as failure or death during TB therapy, and compared to good outcome defined as cured. Longitudinal analysis with a pre-specified marginal model was fitted using Generalized Estimating Equations to compare weight trends for patients with good and poor outcome adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 460 patients (55.4% males, mean age: 31.6 years) were included in the analysis: 42 (9.1%) had a poor outcome (17 failed and 25 died). Weight at baseline was not different comparing outcome groups (p?=?0.17). After adjusting for age, gender, type of TB, scheme of treatment, HIV status and sputum variation during follow-up, after the first month of treatment, patients with good outcome gained, on average, almost 1 kg compared to their baseline weight (p<0.001), whereas those with poor outcome lost 1 kg (p?=?0.003). Similarly, after 4 months, a patient with good outcome increased 3 kg on average (p<0.001), while those with poor outcome only gained 0.2 kg (p?=?0.02). Conclusions Weight variation during tuberculosis therapy follow-up can predict treatment outcome. Patients losing weight during TB treatment, especially in the first month, should be more closely followed as they are at risk of failure or death. PMID:21494617

Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rios, Julia

2011-01-01

165

On the Extension of Processing Time with Increase in Temperature during Transient-Liquid Phase Bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient-liquid phase (TLP) bonding of a nickel-based superalloy, IN 738, was performed. Contrary to conventional TLP bonding analytical models, which assume a parabolic relationship between liquid/solid interface migration and holding time, deviation from this law was observed experimentally and by numerical simulation. The deviation, which is caused by reduction in solute concentration gradient below a critical value, is suggested as an alternate phenomenon responsible for anomalous extension of processing time required to produce an eutectic-free joint with increase in bonding temperature. A decrease in the filler gap size and the use of a melting-point depressant (MPD) solute with higher solubility in the base material could reduce the occurrence of the anomalous behavior during a high-temperature TLP joining process.

Abdelfatah, M. M.; Ojo, O. A.

2009-02-01

166

Addition of prothrombin to plasma can result in a paradoxical increase in activated partial thromboplastin time.  

PubMed

In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a variety of nonphysiological reagents is used to induce contact activation. The sensitivity of the APTT response for different thrombin inhibitors has previously been found to be dependent on the used reagent. Recently, infusion of prothrombin (FII) has been used in in-vivo coagulopathy models and its effect has been analyzed in different assays. Therefore, we investigated whether the FII plasma concentration might affect APTT using different commercial reagents, applying both turbidimetry and viscometry. We compared both plasma-derived human FII (pd-hFII) and recombinant human FII (r-hFII). Similar results were found for pd-hFII and r-hFII with different APTT reagents. As expected, no effect on APTT was found by increasing the plasma concentration of FII using APTT reagents consisting of ellagic acid (Actin FS or Actin). Although with Pathromtin SL, consisting of SiO2, only a slight increase was found, with most other commercial APTT reagents, consisting of SiO2 or kaolin, APTT dose-dependently increased by increasing concentration of FII. Therefore, both Pathromtin SL and Actin FS were used to compare r-hFII and pd-hFII by determining the KM at 37C using FII-depleted plasma, providing values of 6 ± 0.3 nmol/l FII for both. Thus, at normal plasma concentrations of FII, the maximal initial thrombin generation rate should be reached and no effect on the coagulation time is expected at higher FII concentrations. To completely avoid the paradoxical effect in the APTT assay at FII concentrations higher than normal, Actin or Actin FS is the preferable reagent. PMID:25004021

Hansson, Kenny M; Björkqvist, Jenny; Deinum, Johanna

2014-12-01

167

Increasing recreational and leisure time physical activity in Poland–how to overcome barriers of inactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title  Increasing recreational and leisure time physical activity in Poland–how to overcome barriers of inactivity\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  International experts have alerted us about the burden of a sedentary lifestyle. In recent WHO reports, lack of physical activity\\u000a was placed as one of the leading risk factors of chronic diseases affecting both developed and developing countries. Despite\\u000a some beneficial changes in lifestyle during the

Wojciech Drygas; Magdalena Kwa?niewska; Dorota Kaleta; Joanna Ruszkowska-Majzel

2008-01-01

168

Increasing patient safety and surgical team communication by using a count/time out board.  

PubMed

Communication and collaboration in patient care settings is vital for promoting the best possible patient outcomes. The counting of sponges, sharps, and instruments, and the surgical time out before the start of any surgical procedure are opportunities for the surgical team to address patient safety risks. Personnel in the surgical services department at St Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas, implemented the use of a hanging, magnetic, dry-erase board that includes the elements of a time out (eg, patient name and identifiers, procedure, site, allergies) and provides a means to document countable items. The board promotes team awareness of this time out and count information at all times during a procedure. Specific magnets on the count board identify items intentionally packed inside the patient to remind the team of the location of these items when the count is reconciled at the end of the procedure. In addition, a process of obtaining an radiograph of items similar to any missing items assists radiologists in identifying the location of retained surgical items. As a result of implementing both changes, our ability to locate missing items has significantly increased. PMID:20888944

Edel, Elizabeth Morell

2010-10-01

169

Time resolution deterioration with increasing crystal length in a TOF-PET system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highest time resolution in scintillator based detectors is becoming more and more important. In medical detector physics L(Y)SO scintillators are commonly used for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). Coincidence time resolutions (CTRs) smaller than 100 ps FWHM are desirable in order to improve the image signal to noise ratio and thus give benefit to the patient by shorter scanning times. Also in high energy physics there is the demand to improve the timing capabilities of calorimeters down to 10 ps. To achieve these goals it is important to study the whole chain, i.e. the high energy particle interaction in the crystal, the scintillation process itself, the scintillation light transfer in the crystal, the photodetector and the electronics. Time resolution measurements for a PET like system are performed with the time-over-threshold method in a coincidence setup utilizing the ultra-fast amplifier-discriminator NINO. With 2×2×3 mm3 LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals coupled to commercially available SiPMs (Hamamatsu S10931-050P MPPC) we achieve a CTR of 108±5 ps FWHM at an energy of 511 keV. Under the same experimental conditions an increase in crystal length to 5 mm deteriorates the CTR to 123±7 ps FWHM, 10 mm to 143±7 ps FWHM and 20 mm to 176±7 ps FWHM. This degradation in CTR is caused by the light transfer efficiency (LTE) and light transfer time spread (LTTS) in the crystal. To quantitatively understand the measured values, we developed a Monte Carlo simulation tool in MATLAB incorporating the timing properties of the photodetector and electronics, the scintillation properties of the crystal and the light transfer within the crystal simulated by SLITRANI. In this work, we show that the predictions of the simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data. We conclude that for longer crystals the deterioration in CTR is mainly caused by the LTE, i.e. the ratio of photons reaching the photodetector to the total amount of photons generated by the scintillation whereas the LTTS influence is partly offset by the gamma absorption in the crystal.

Gundacker, S.; Knapitsch, A.; Auffray, E.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Lecoq, P.

2014-02-01

170

Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.  

PubMed

Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4 ?·?7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p?times greater than Flisted . Thus, the reduced coded model: Y (U mg-1) = 50.29 + 4.30A - 3.35(A)2 - 4.80(B)2 + 5.62C - 4.26(C)2 was considered predictive and statistically significant (p?increased the phytase yield in 250%. A. japonicus phytase released high levels of Pi from broiler chicken and laying hen food. A. japonicus is an excellent phytase producer in a culture medium using inexpensive components and agricultural wastes. Therefore, these results provide sound arguments for the formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production. PMID:24026803

Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

2014-07-01

171

12 CFR 1024.34 - Timely escrow payments and treatment of escrow account balances.  

...payments and treatment of escrow account balances. 1024.34 Section 1024.34 Banks...payments and treatment of escrow account balances. (a) Timely escrow disbursements...17(k). (b) Refund of escrow balance. (1) In general....

2014-01-01

172

Increasing Positive Outlook Partially Mediates the Effect of Empirically Supported Treatments on Depression Symptoms Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Among adolescents there is evidence that cognitive change partially mediates the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on depression outcome. However, prior studies have been limited by small samples, narrow measures of cognition, and failure to compare cognitive change following CBT to cognitive change following antidepressant medication. This study examined whether change in four cognitive constructs (cognitive distortions, cognitive avoidance, positive outlook, and solution-focused thinking) mediated change in depression severity in a sample of 291 adolescents who participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). TADS assessed the effects of CBT, fluoxetine, and their combination on depression severity. All three treatments were associated with change in the cognitive constructs and combination treatment produced the greatest change. Furthermore, change in the cognitive constructs partially mediated change in depression severity within all three treatments. Results implicated positive outlook as the construct most associated with change in depression severity over 36 weeks. PMID:24944436

Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.; Silva, Susan G.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Henry, David B.; Reinecke, Mark A.

2014-01-01

173

Decentralization of HIV care in Cameroon: Increased access to antiretroviral treatment and associated persistent barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextThe national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in Cameroon has reached one of the highest rate of coverage in Western and Central Africa (58% of the estimated eligible HIV-infected population in June 2008).

Sandrine Loubiere; Sylvie Boyer; Camélia Protopopescu; Cécile Renée Bonono; Séverin-Cécile Abega; Bruno Spire; Jean-Paul Moatti

2009-01-01

174

Can we explain increases in young people’s psychological distress over time?  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to explain previously described increases in self-reported psychological distress between 1987 and 2006 among samples identical in respect of age (15 years), school year and geographical location (West of Scotland). Such increases might be explained by changes in exposure (changes in levels of risk or protective factors) and/or by changes in vulnerability (changes in the relationship between risk/protective factors and psychological distress). Key areas of social change over this time period allow identification of potential explanatory factors, categorised as economic, family, educational, values and lifestyle and represented by variables common to each study. Psychological distress was measured via the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, Likert scored. Analyses were conducted on those with complete data on all variables (N = 3276 of 3929), and separately for males and females. Between 1987 and 2006, levels of almost every potential explanatory factor changed in line with general societal trends. Associations between explanatory factors and GHQ tended to be stronger among females, and at the later date. The strongest associations were with worries, arguments with parents, and, at the later date, school disengagement. The factors which best accounted for the increase in mean GHQ between 1987 and 2006 were arguments with parents, school disengagement, worry about school and, for females, worry about family relationships, reflecting both increasing exposure and vulnerability to these risk factors. A number of limitations to our analysis can be identified. However, our results reinforce the conclusions of others in highlighting the role of family and educational factors as plausible explanations for increases in young people’s psychological distress. PMID:20870334

Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Der, Geoff

2010-01-01

175

Chemotherapeutic treatment efficacy and sensitivity are increased by adjuvant alternating electric fields (TTFields)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present study explores the efficacy and toxicity of combining a new, non-toxic, cancer treatment modality, termed Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields), with chemotherapeutic treatment in-vitro, in-vivo and in a pilot clinical trial. METHODS: Cell proliferation in culture was studied in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and human glioma (U-118) cell lines, exposed to TTFields, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and dacarbazine (DTIC)

Eilon D Kirson; Rosa S Schneiderman; Vladimír Dbalý; František Tovaryš; Josef Vymazal; Aviran Itzhaki; Daniel Mordechovich; Zoya Gurvich; Esther Shmueli; Dorit Goldsher; Yoram Wasserman; Yoram Palti

2009-01-01

176

Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist treatment to increase final stature in children with precocious puberty: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

In the setting of central precocious puberty (CPP), the motivation for hormonal intervention is to help the child to reach a taller adult stature than she would achieve otherwise. While gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) constitute an established treatment for improving adult stature in girls presenting with CPP up to age 6 (true precocious puberty), it is not yet clear whether or not the same is true in the setting of CPP presented in girls beyond age 6 (advance puberty). GnRHa may slow growth velocity, offsetting the anticipated improvement in final height that should have resulted from the increased time before growth plate fusion. Consequently, it's been suggested that growth hormone (GH) should be combined with GnRHa to improve the results.Few controlled prospective studies have been performed with GnRHa in children and many conclusions rely in part on collective expert opinion. Therefore, the literature was searched and relevant studies were selected using the search terms "gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist," "precocious puberty/early puberty," and "GnRH analogue." After selected articles were screened for relevance, the process yielded 8 studies, the results of which were then pooled in a meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the effects of GnRHa therapy both with and without added GH in the setting of early puberty.A significant difference was elucidated in final height and predicted adult height comparing GnRHa and combined GnRHa/GH groups. However, no significant difference was elucidated in final height standard deviation scores (SDS) and initial height SDS when comparing GnRHa and control groups. At the same time, the final analysis revealed no significant difference in final height SDS and initial height SDS when GnRHa and combined GnRHa/GH groups were compared.The results suggest GnRHa therapy may have a positive effect on final adult height in girls with early puberty, while adding GH to the treatment may suggest more advantage. Interpretation of the results requires extreme caution, given the complexity of the outcome analysis. Final height gain may prove to be a more appropriate measure of treatment efficacy in any case. PMID:25501098

Li, Pin; Li, Yan; Yang, Chung-Lin

2014-12-01

177

Childhood Adversity Accelerates Intended Reproductive Timing in Adolescent Girls without Increasing Interest in Infants  

PubMed Central

Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1) childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2) childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3) intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies. PMID:24454778

Clutterbuck, Stephanie; Adams, Jean; Nettle, Daniel

2014-01-01

178

Assessing time to pulmonary function benefit following antibiotic treatment of acute cystic fibrosis exacerbations  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease in which ~80% of deaths result from loss of lung function linked to inflammation due to chronic bacterial infection (principally Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Pulmonary exacerbations (intermittent episodes during which symptoms of lung infection increase and lung function decreases) can cause substantial resource utilization, morbidity, and irreversible loss of lung function. Intravenous antibiotic treatment to reduce exacerbation symptoms is standard management practice. However, no prospective studies have identified an optimal antibiotic treatment duration and this lack of objective data has been identified as an area of concern and interest. Methods We have retrospectively analyzed pulmonary function response data (as forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1) from a previous blinded controlled CF exacerbation management study of intravenous ceftazidime/tobramycin and meropenem/tobramycin in which spirometry was conducted daily to assess the time course of pulmonary function response. Results Ninety-five patients in the study received antibiotics for at least 4 days and were included in our analyses. Patients received antibiotics for an average of 12.6 days (median = 13, SD = 3.2 days), with a range of 4 to 27 days. No significant differences were observed in mean or median treatment durations as functions of either treatment group or baseline lung disease stage. Average time from initiation of antibiotic treatment to highest observed FEV1 was 8.7 days (median = 10, SD = 4.0 days), with a range of zero to 19 days. Patients were treated an average of 3.9 days beyond the day of peak FEV1 (median = 3, SD = 3.8 days), with 89 patients (93.7%) experiencing their peak FEV1 improvement within 13 days. There were no differences in mean or median times to peak FEV1 as a function of treatment group, although the magnitude of FEV1 improvement differed between groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that antibiotic response to exacerbation as assessed by pulmonary function is essentially complete within 2 weeks of treatment initiation and relatively independent of the magnitude of pulmonary function response observed. PMID:20925941

2010-01-01

179

Simvastatin treatment improves endothelial function and increases fibrinolysis in patients with hypercholestrolemia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Statins reduce cardiovascular events by cholesterol-lowering as well as nonlipid-related actions. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a recently identified independent risk factor of thrombosis. Endothelial dysfunction is also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of simvastatin treatment on circulating TAFI concentrations and endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Thirty-five patients (19 female, mean age 48 +/- 7 years) with hyperlipidemia were recruited into the study. Simvastatin was administered, 40 mg daily, for eight weeks to all subjects. Study subjects did not receive any medication except for lipid-lowering therapy during the follow-up period. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from the brachial artery of the patients. Plasma lipid parameters, TAFI levels and endothelial function were measured before and after simvastatin treatment. RESULTS: Treatment with simvastatin showed a significant decrement in plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05). Plasma TAFI levels were also significantly decreased after simvastatin treatment [median 17.0 (range 0.4-93.7) mcg/mL versus median 6.9 (range 0.8-63.0) mcg/mL, p<0.001]. Mean FMD was measured 7.7 +/- 2.5% at baseline and significantly improved after treatment (13.0 +/- 1.4%) (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings of decreased TAFI levels may reflect the beneficial effect of simvastatin treatment on fibrinolysis, and improved endothelial function may suggest the improved future cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:16623076

Guven, Gulay S.; Atalar, Enver; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Kilicarslan, Alparslan; Sahiner, Levent; Oz, Gul; Ozer, Necla; Aksoyek, Serdar; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C.; Sozen, Tumay

2006-01-01

180

Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.  

PubMed

Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

2012-01-01

181

The solids retention time—a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropollutants as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) or pharmaceuticals are of increased interest in water pollution control. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are relevant point sources for residues of these compounds in the aquatic environment. The solids retention time (SRT) is one important parameter for the design of WWTPs, relating to growth rate of microorganisms and to effluent concentrations. If a

M. Clara; N. Kreuzinger; B. Strenn; O. Gans; H. Kroiss

2005-01-01

182

Prostate and Patient Intrafraction Motion: Impact on Treatment Time-Dependent Planning Margins for Patients With Endorectal Balloon  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate intrafraction prostate and patient motion during different radiation therapy treatments as a function of treatment time; included were prostate patients with an endorectal balloon (ERB). Margins accounting for setup uncertainties and intrafraction motion were determined. Methods and Materials: The study included 17 patients undergoing prostate cancer radiation therapy. All patients received 3 fiducial gold markers implanted in the prostate and were then immobilized in the supine position with a knee support and treated with an ERB. Twelve patients with intermediate risk for pelvic lymph node metastases received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 5 patients at low risk received a 4-field box treatment. After setup based on skin marks, patients were imaged with a stereoscopic imaging system. If the marker displacement exceeded a 3-mm tolerance relative to planning computed tomography, patients were shifted and verification images were taken. All patients underwent additional imaging after treatment; IMRT patients also received additional imaging at halftime of treatment. Prostate and bone drifts were evaluated as a function of treatment time for more than 600 fractions, and margins were extracted. Results: Patient motion evaluated by bone match was strongly patient dependent but in general was smallest in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Prostate drifts were less patient dependent, showing an increase with treatment time in the SI and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In the lateral (LAT) direction, the prostate stayed rather stable. Mean treatment times were 5.5 minutes for 4-field box, 10 minutes for 5-field boost IMRT, and 15 minutes or more for 9-field boost and 9-field pelvic IMRT treatments. Margins resulted in 2.2 mm, 3.9 mm, and 4.3 mm for 4-field box; 3.7 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.6 mm for 5-field boost IMRT; 2.3 mm, 3.9 mm, and 6.2 mm for 9-field boost IMRT; and 4.2 mm, 5.1 mm, and 6.6 mm for 9-field pelvic IMRT in the LAT, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Conclusion: Intrafraction prostate and patient displacement increased with treatment time, showing different behaviors for the single directions of movement. Repositioning of the patients during long treatments or shorter treatment times will be necessary to further reduce the treatment margin.

Steiner, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.steiner@akhwien.at [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Goldner, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Stock, Markus [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2013-07-15

183

Producer benefits using Terra Blue treatment technology: Increased pig productivity, expansion, and carbon credits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The State of North Carolina and USDA NRCS’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program started a statewide Lagoon Conversion Program (LCP) that provides financial support to livestock farmers installing Environmentally Superior Technology (EST) for manure management. A second generation treatment syst...

184

Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

2012-01-01

185

Evaluation of pre-treatment processes for increasing biodegradability of agro-food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion (AD) technology can be employed for treating sewage sludge, livestock waste or food waste. Generally, the hydrolysis stage is the rate-limiting step of the AD processes for solid waste degradation. Therefore, physical, chemical and biological pre-treatment methods or their combination are required, in order to reduce the rate of such a limiting step. In this study, four methods

D. Hidalgo; E. Sastre; M. Gómez; P. Nieto

2012-01-01

186

Beyond on/off: Increasing the benefits of patch spraying with multiple treatments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Site-specific weed management can encompass both limiting treatment to areas of the field where weed pressure is above the economic threshold (patch spraying) and varying the choice of herbicide for most cost-effective weed control of local populations. The potential benefits of patch spraying with ...

187

Systemic and Cerebral Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels Increase in Murine Cerebral Malaria along with Increased Calpain and Caspase Activity and Can be Reduced by Erythropoietin Treatment.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) includes compromised microvascular perfusion, increased inflammation, cytoadhesion, and endothelial activation. These events cause blood-brain barrier disruption and neuropathology and associations with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway have been shown. We studied this pathway in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA causing murine CM with or without the use of erythropoietin (EPO) as adjunct therapy. ELISA and western blotting was used for quantification of VEGF and relevant proteins in brain and plasma. CM increased levels of VEGF in brain and plasma and decreased plasma levels of soluble VEGF receptor 2. EPO treatment normalized VEGF receptor 2 levels and reduced brain VEGF levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? was significantly upregulated whereas cerebral HIF-2? and EPO levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of ?-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1?, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also caspase and calpain activity was reduced markedly in EPO-treated mice. PMID:24995009

Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna; Jendresen, Charlotte Bille; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders Lindholm

2014-01-01

188

Systemic and Cerebral Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels Increase in Murine Cerebral Malaria along with Increased Calpain and Caspase Activity and Can be Reduced by Erythropoietin Treatment  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) includes compromised microvascular perfusion, increased inflammation, cytoadhesion, and endothelial activation. These events cause blood–brain barrier disruption and neuropathology and associations with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway have been shown. We studied this pathway in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA causing murine CM with or without the use of erythropoietin (EPO) as adjunct therapy. ELISA and western blotting was used for quantification of VEGF and relevant proteins in brain and plasma. CM increased levels of VEGF in brain and plasma and decreased plasma levels of soluble VEGF receptor 2. EPO treatment normalized VEGF receptor 2 levels and reduced brain VEGF levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? was significantly upregulated whereas cerebral HIF-2? and EPO levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of ?-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1?, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also caspase and calpain activity was reduced markedly in EPO-treated mice. PMID:24995009

Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna; Jendresen, Charlotte Bille; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders Lindholm

2014-01-01

189

Increasing gain and dynamic range for active-target time-projection chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active-target time-projection chambers (TPCs) use the unique concept of using the tracking medium of the detector simultaneously as the target for studying nuclear reactions. This gives them the advantage of providing a thick target without losing resolution and a large acceptance for reaction products. However target gases for active-target TPCs such as H2 and ^4He have less favorable properties as compared to standard TPC gases, e.g. a lower maximum gain before sparking. Another difficulty is dealing with the broad range of possible recoil energies and particles resulting in a large span of energy losses. To overcome these difficulties, we tested two new methods using the MICROMEGAS electron amplification device. To handle the large energy loss dynamics, some MICROMEGAS' anode pads were polarized with a HV bias, resulting in different gains. This allows some pads to track high-energy loss particles such as high-Z ions while the others can track lower-energy loss particles such as energetic protons. For increasing the maximum gas gain, we doped the target gas with allene, which can increase the MICROMEGAS charge output by producing a larger number of ionized electrons through allene's conversion of UV radiation to free electrons.

Ahn, T.; Mittig, W.; Tahar, M.; Becquet, R.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro, S.; Chajecki, Z.; Fritsch, A.; Kolata, J. J.; Lynch, W.; Shore, A.

2012-10-01

190

Development of equations to determine the increase in pavement condition due to treatment and the rate of decrease in condition after treatment for a local agency pavement network.  

E-print Network

.................................................. 25#1; 2.4 Determination of Equations for PCI Increase with Treatment ............ 30#1; 2.4.1 Slurry Seal .............................................................................. 31#1; 2.4.2 Cape Seal... .............................................................................. 80#1; 2.5.2 Cape Seal ...............................................................................101#1; 2.5.3 Crack Seal ............................................................................ 112 vii CHAPTER...

Deshmukh, Maithilee Mukund.

2010-07-14

191

Rapid increases and time-lagged declines in amphibian occupancy after wildfire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of drought and wildfire. Aquatic and moisture-sensitive species, such as amphibians, may be particularly vulnerable to these modified disturbance regimes because large wildfires often occur during extended droughts and thus may compound environmental threats. However, understanding of the effects of wildfires on amphibians in forests with long fire-return intervals is limited. Numerous stand-replacing wildfires have occurred since 1988 in Glacier National Park (Montana, U.S.A.), where we have conducted long-term monitoring of amphibians. We measured responses of 3 amphibian species to fires of different sizes, severity, and age in a small geographic area with uniform management. We used data from wetlands associated with 6 wildfires that burned between 1988 and 2003 to evaluate whether burn extent and severity and interactions between wildfire and wetland isolation affected the distribution of breeding populations. We measured responses with models that accounted for imperfect detection to estimate occupancy during prefire (0-4 years) and different postfire recovery periods. For the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), occupancy was not affected for 6 years after wildfire. But 7-21 years after wildfire, occupancy for both species decreased ? 25% in areas where >50% of the forest within 500 m of wetlands burned. In contrast, occupancy of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tripled in the 3 years after low-elevation forests burned. This increase in occupancy was followed by a gradual decline. Our results show that accounting for magnitude of change and time lags is critical to understanding population dynamics of amphibians after large disturbances. Our results also inform understanding of the potential threat of increases in wildfire frequency or severity to amphibians in the region.

Hossack, Blake R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Corn, Paul Stephen

2013-01-01

192

Ultraviolet-B light treatment increases antioxidant capacity of carrot products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abiotic stresses such as cutting and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure of plant cells triggers an increased activity response by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase resulting in increased synthesis of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins and flavonoids. This study investigated ...

193

Robustness and increased time resolution of JET Advanced Predictor of Disruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of disruptions in JET is well-known not only with the carbon fiber composite (CFC) wall, but also with the metallic ITER-like wall (ILW). A disruption predictor, called APODIS, was developed and implemented for the JET real-time data network. This predictor uses seven plasma quantities (plasma current, mode lock amplitude, plasma internal inductance, plasma density, stored diamagnetic energy time derivative, radiated power and total input power) and it has been working during the ILW campaigns in JET. It has reached good results in terms of success rate, false alarm rate and prediction anticipation time. However, it is important to note that any signal could fail during any discharge. If an incorrect signal is used by APODIS, this can be an issue for the predictions. Therefore, the first purpose of this article is to determine the robustness of APODIS. Robustness is the predictor reliability when a signal fails. To determine the robustness, anomalous signals have been simulated and the quality of the APODIS predictions has been estimated. The results show that some signals, such as the mode lock and the plasma inductance, are essential for APODIS to provide a reasonable success rate. Under the failure of other signals, APODIS performance slightly decreases but remains acceptable. On the other hand, during the ILW campaigns, APODIS has missed some disruptions due to a lack of temporal resolution in the prediction. Owing to this reason, a second analysis has been carried out in this paper. The effect of increasing the prediction temporal resolution has been analyzed. The plasma signals are digitized at the same sampling frequency (1 ksample s?1) but a sliding window mechanism has been implemented to modify the prediction period from 32 to 1 ms.

Moreno, R.; Vega, J.; Murari, A.; Dormido-Canto, S.; López, J. M.; Ramírez, J. M.; EFDA Contributors, JET

2014-11-01

194

TPO, but not soluble-IL-6 receptor, levels increase after anagrelide treatment of thrombocythemia in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.  

PubMed

Anagrelide is often used in the treatment of thrombocythemia in myeloproliferative disease (MPD), but information concerning effects of treatment on cytokines involved in regulation of blood platelet levels is limited. Here, we investigated serum levels of thrombopoietin (TPO) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in relation to response to treatment with and plasma concentrations of anagrelide. Samples from 45 patients with thrombocythemia due to MPD (ET=31, PV=14), being treated with anagrelide for 6 months, were analyzed for TPO, sIL-6R and anagrelide levels. The mean baseline platelet count was 983x10(9)/L. A reduction of platelets to <600 in asymptomatic or <400 x 10(9)/L in symptomatic patients was defined as a complete remission (CR), a reduction with >50% of baseline as partial remission, and <50% reduction as failure. At 6 months, 35 patients were in CR, 1 had a partial remission and 9 were treatment failures. For all patients, there was an increase in TPO of 44% from baseline; this change was more pronounced for patients with partial remission and failure. sIL-6R levels did not change significantly. There was no correlation between levels of anagrelide and cytokine levels at 6 months, and changes of cytokine levels did not relate to changes of platelet counts. Thus, a pronounced increase of TPO levels after 6 months of anagrelide treatment indicated that this treatment affected a major regulatory mechanism for megakaryocyte and platelet formation in MPD. PMID:18414650

Palmblad, Jan; Björkholm, Magnus; Kutti, Jack; Lärfars, Gerd; Löfvenberg, Eva; Markevärn, Berit; Merup, Mats; Mauritzson, Nils; Westin, Jan; Samuelsson, Jan; Birgegård, Gunnar

2008-01-01

195

Dialysis access venous stenosis: Treatment with balloon angioplasty 30-second vs. 1-minute inflation times.  

PubMed

Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is the standard of care in the endovascular treatment of dialysis access venous stenosis. The significance of balloon inflation times in the treatment of these stenoses is not well defined. Our objective was to examine the outcomes of 30-second vs. 1-minute balloon inflation times on primary-assisted patency of arteriovenous fistulae and grafts. Using a prospectively collected vascular access database, we identified a total of 75 patients referred for access dysfunction during a 5-year period. These patients received 223 interventions (178 with 30-second inflations and 45 with 1-minute inflations). We compared primary-assisted patency during the subsequent 9 months across groups defined by inflation times. Demographics and baseline characteristics were similar across groups. Immediate technical success and patency in the first 3 months were similar across groups (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-2.20). After 3 months, however, a 1-minute inflation time was associated with greater incidence of access failure (adjusted HR [aHR]?=?1.74; 95% CI: 1.09-2.79). Other predictors of access failure included age over 60 (aHR?=?1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), central location of the lesion (aHR?=?2.49; CI: 1.27-4.89), and three or more prior procedures (aHR 2.48; CI: 1.19-5.16). Our data suggest that shorter balloon inflation times may be associated with improved longer term access patency, although the benefit was not observed until after 3 months. Given the increasing demands of maintaining access patency in the era of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative and Fistula First, the role of angioplasty times requires further study. PMID:24888749

Elramah, Mohsen; Boujelbane, Lamya; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Wakeen, Maureen; Astor, Brad C; Chan, Micah R

2015-01-01

196

Aortic arch calcification, procedural times, and outcomes of endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the frequency of aortic arch calcification and it’s relationship with procedural times, angiographic recanalization, and discharge outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment. Methods The thoracic component of computed tomographic (CT) angiogram were reviewed by an independent reviewer to determine presence of any calcification; and the severity of calcification was graded as follows: mild, single small calcifications; moderate, multiple small calcifications; or severe, one or more large calcifications. Results Aortic arch calcification was present in 120 (62.4%) of 188 patients and severity was graded as mild (n=24), moderate (n=44), and severe (n=52). Compared with patients without calcification, the mean intracranial access time (minutes ± SD) was similar among patients with aortic arch calcification (70 ± 31 versus 64 ± 31, p=0.9). The mean time intracranial access time increased with increasing severity of aortic arch calcification (61±27, 67±29, and 74±34, p=0.3). Patients with aortic arch calcification had similar rates of complete or partial recanalization [85 (71%) versus 50 (76%)], p=0.6) but lower rates of favorable outcomes [modified Rankin scale 0–2] at discharge 27 (22%) versus 26 (39%), p=0.02). Conclusions A high proportion of acute ischemic stroke patients have aortic arch calcification which is associated with lower rates of favorable outcome following endovascular treatment. Abbreviations: SDstandard deviationICHintracerebral hemorrhageNIHSSNational Institutes of Health Stroke ScaleTIAtransient ischemic attackICHintracerebral hemorrhagemRSmodified Rankin scale PMID:25132902

Qureshi, Adnan I; Rahman, Haseeb A; Adil, Malik M; Hassan, Ameer E; Miley, Jefferson T

2014-01-01

197

Deficits in reaction time due to increased motor time of peroneus longus in people with chronic ankle instability.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neuromuscular adaptations at the site of injury or neural adaptation remote to the injury are affected in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Electromyography data were collected from the peroneus longus (PL) and tibialis anterior during an ankle joint reaction time task in 12 participants with unilateral CAI and 12 healthy control participants. Following an auditory cue, time to onset of muscle activity (pre-motor time) and time from onset of muscle activity to movement (motor time) were measured during rapid ankle eversion and dorsiflexion. Reaction time for ankle eversion on the affected side was significantly slower in the CAI group than the control group, due to significantly slower motor time for the PL. Changes in motor time for the affected PL in participants with CAI may be attributed to a combination of factors associated with local tissue changes. PMID:22177674

Kavanagh, Justin J; Bisset, Leanne M; Tsao, Henry

2012-02-01

198

Does dimethicone increase the efficacy of antacids in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis?  

PubMed Central

Dimethicone is a common additive to antacids, although its value in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis is unproven. Its efficacy was assessed by comparing the effect of a dimethicone-containing antacid gel (Asilone Gel) with a simple antacid gel in a double-blind trial in 45 patients with reflux oesophagitis. Thirty-eight patients completed the eight-week course of therapy. Antacid therapy alone resulted in a significant improvement of both symptoms and oesophagitis in gastro-oesophageal reflux. The inclusion of dimethicone in the antacid gel preparation did not confer any benefit in terms of symptomatic assessment but did confer a small advantage with regard to objective markers of oesophageal inflammation, suggesting that a dimethicone-containing antacid is of value in the treatment of symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:3537288

Ogilvie, A L; Atkinson, M

1986-01-01

199

Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.  

PubMed

Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. PMID:25320342

Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

2014-12-01

200

Reducing Alcohol Availability and Increasing Substance Abuse Treatment in Fighting Back Communities: Effects on Alcohol Related Fatal Crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Comprehensive community interventions that include publicized enforcement of driving while intoxicated laws and reductions in alcohol availability have reduced alcohol- related fatalities. This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that include a focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol-related traffic fatalities. Method: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation awarded Fighting Back (FB) grants to

RW Hingson; T Heeren; D Rosenbloom

201

Postimpoundment time course of increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish in boreal reservoirs have been shown to be increased for up to 3 decades after impoundment. However, the time course of increased concentrations is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the evolution of Hg concentrations in fish in the boreal reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada, and its relationship with severity of flooding. We determined total Hg concentrations in three species of fish for up to 35 years after impoundment in 14 lakes and lake basins. Postimpoundment trends depended on fish species and reservoir. In the benthivorous lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), Hg concentrations increased after flooding to between 0.2 and 0.4 microg g(-1) wet weight compared with preimpoundment concentrations between 0.06 and 0.14 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes between 0.03 and 0.06 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in lake whitefish were usually highest within 6 years after lake impoundment and took 10 to 20 years after impoundment to decrease to background concentrations in most reservoirs. Hg concentrations in predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) were highest 2 to 8 years after flooding at 0.7 to 2.6 microg g(-1) compared with preimpoundment concentrations of 0.19 to 0.47 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes of 0.35 to 0.47 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in these predatory species decreased consistently in subsequent years and required 10 to 23 years to return to background levels. Thus, results demonstrate the effect of trophic level on Hg concentrations (biomagnification). Peak Hg concentrations depended on the amount of flooding (relative increase in lake surface area). Asymptotic concentrations of approximately 0.25 microg g(-1) for lake whitefish and 1.6 microg g(-1) for both walleye and northern pike were reached at approximately 100% flooding. Downstream effects were apparent because many reservoirs downstream of other impoundments had higher Hg concentrations in fish than would be expected on the basis of flooding amount. PMID:17728990

Bodaly, R A Drew; Jansen, W A; Majewski, A R; Fudge, R J P; Strange, N E; Derksen, A J; Green, D J

2007-10-01

202

Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE): a physiological method of increasing apnoea time in patients with difficult airways.  

PubMed

Emergency and difficult tracheal intubations are hazardous undertakings where successive laryngoscopy-hypoxaemia-re-oxygenation cycles can escalate to airway loss and the 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. Between 2013 and 2014, we extended the apnoea times of 25 patients with difficult airways who were undergoing general anaesthesia for hypopharyngeal or laryngotracheal surgery. This was achieved through continuous delivery of transnasal high-flow humidified oxygen, initially to provide pre-oxygenation, and continuing as post-oxygenation during intravenous induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade until a definitive airway was secured. Apnoea time commenced at administration of neuromuscular blockade and ended with commencement of jet ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation or recommencement of spontaneous ventilation. During this time, upper airway patency was maintained with jaw-thrust. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) was used in 15 males and 10 females. Mean (SD [range]) age at treatment was 49 (15 [25-81]) years. The median (IQR [range]) Mallampati grade was 3 (2-3 [2-4]) and direct laryngoscopy grade was 3 (3-3 [2-4]). There were 12 obese patients and nine patients were stridulous. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea time was 14 (9-19 [5-65]) min. No patient experienced arterial desaturation < 90%. Mean (SD [range]) post-apnoea end-tidal (and in four patients, arterial) carbon dioxide level was 7.8 (2.4 [4.9-15.3]) kPa. The rate of increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide was 0.15 kPa.min(-1) . We conclude that THRIVE combines the benefits of 'classical' apnoeic oxygenation with continuous positive airway pressure and gaseous exchange through flow-dependent deadspace flushing. It has the potential to transform the practice of anaesthesia by changing the nature of securing a definitive airway in emergency and difficult intubations from a pressured stop-start process to a smooth and unhurried undertaking. PMID:25388828

Patel, A; Nouraei, S A R

2015-03-01

203

Anti-TNF Treatment Reverts Increased Muscle Ubiquitin Gene Expression in Tumour-Bearing Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of the ascitic tumour Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma (a cachectic tumour) resulted in important increases in muscle ubiquitin gene expression. Administration of daily injections of 25 mg\\/kg b.w. polyclonal goat anti-murine TNF IgG preparation to tumour-bearing rats abolished the increase in muscle ubiquitin gene expression observed in the control (non-anti-TNF-treated) tumour-bearing rats. It is concluded that TNF can have an

Marta Llovera; Neus Carbó; Celia Garc??a-Mart??nez; Paola Costelli; Luciana Tessitore; Francesco M. Baccino; Neus Agell; Gregory J. Bagby; Francisco J. López-Soriano; Josep M. Argilés

1996-01-01

204

[Waiting time for treatment shall be calculated correctly].  

PubMed

Every system is perfectly designed to achieve the results it gets and in the Danish health care system there is a significant waiting time for the patients. If we want this result to change, we have to change something in the system, but before we do that, we need to understand the system. With queuing theory as a frame of reference, the anatomy and physiology of waiting time is illuminated in order to bring additional knowledge into the design of systems in health care. PMID:21627909

Pedersen, Jørgen Ejler

2011-05-23

205

PEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.  

PubMed

Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4h post-delivery, whereas the clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' contents in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14% of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40% for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways. PMID:24845126

Koussoroplis, Salome Juliette; Paulissen, Geneviève; Tyteca, Donatienne; Goldansaz, Hadi; Todoroff, Julie; Barilly, Céline; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Van Snick, Jacques; Cataldo, Didier; Vanbever, Rita

2014-08-10

206

Treatment of shielding in real-time source tracking software.  

SciTech Connect

Within the homeland security and emergency response communities, there is a need for a low-profile system to detect, locate, and identify radioactive sources in real time. Such a system could be deployed for area monitoring around venues for special events. A system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory, called RADTRAC, which is based on a network of radiation detectors and advanced signal-processing algorithms. The initial implementation of RADTRAC did not account for dynamically changing shielding due to crowd movements. An algorithm was developed that utilizes the gamma-ray energy spectrum from each detector to estimate the amount of attenuation and scattering that is present between the source location (a priori unknown) and the detector location in real time. The attenuation and scattering estimations are then included in the maximum likelihood model to significantly improve the source localization solution. Results are presented for several test cases showing the improvement in the real-time source localization solution. This algorithm has been implemented into the current version of RADTRAC such that it now accounts for the effects of dynamically changing shielding and scattering due to crowd movements in real time in order to accurately determine the source location in crowded venues.

de la Barrera, S. C.; Klann, R. T.; Vilim, R. B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-07-01

207

Diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma: at times a challenge.  

PubMed

Hodgkin's lymphoma has been traditionally defined as a hematopoietic neoplasm composed of diagnostic Reed-Sternberg cells. More than 70% of the cases involve cervical or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Isolated sub-diaphragmatic lymphadenopathy or organ involvement is rare. We present the case of Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 51 years old female, who presented with obstructive jaundice and lymphadenopathy, empirically treated previously as a case of tuberculosis. Chemotherapy with modified ABVD protocol was given with dose modification according to LFT's. Her liver functions returned to normal levels after the first cycle. The main purpose of reporting the case is to stress definitive diagnosis of the disease before initiating treatment and the modified chemotherapy regimen used in this infrequent presentation of the disease. PMID:24112267

Abbasi, Nadeem Zia; Jalal-ud-Din, Mir; Zahur, Zainab; Khan, Amjad Aziz; Sheikh, Abdul Samad; Ali, Furqan; Memon, Khalid Hussain

2013-10-01

208

SLUDGE BATCH SUPPLEMENTAL SRAT RUNS EFFECTS OF YIELD STRESS AND CYCLE TIME INCREASE  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

Fernandez, A.

2010-08-10

209

Increase in involuntary psychiatric treatment and child welfare placements in Finland 1996–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Emotional and behavioural problems are common in young people and mental health problems are frequently intertwined with social\\u000a problems. Both involuntary psychiatric treatment and taking into care may be used in order to manage youth behavioural problems.\\u000a Compulsory interventions always endanger violating basic civil rights and therefore careful monitoring of them is warranted.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  The aim of this study was to

Ulla Siponen; Maritta Välimäki; Matti Kaivosoja; Mauri Marttunen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2007-01-01

210

An acute psychosocial stressor increases drinking in non-treatment-seeking alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Although studies suggest that stress is an important reason for relapse in alcoholics, few controlled studies have been conducted\\u000a to examine this assumption. Evidence of stress-potentiated drinking would substantiate this clinical observation and would\\u000a contribute to the development of a model that would be valuable to alcohol treatment research.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The hypothesis was tested that an acute psychosocial stressor, the Trier

Suzanne E. Thomas; Amy K. Bacon; Patrick K. Randall; Kathleen T. Brady; Ronald E. See

211

Increased cleavage rate of human nuclear transfer embryos after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment.  

PubMed

As an abundant source that involves fewer ethical considerations, human abnormally fertilized zygotes are superior to oocytes as therapeutic cloning recipients of nuclear transfer. However, more effective manipulation conditions should be developed for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) studies using human abnormally fertilized zygotes as recipients. The present study found that the use of cytochalasin B was not necessary for, and even harmful to, the enucleation of human zygotes. This study also decreased the DNA methylation levels in reconstructed embryos using a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), in an attempt to correct the abnormalities in DNA methylation that might play an important role in the failure of embryo development. After 5-aza-dC treatment and nuclear transfer (NT-Aza group), 32.7% of reconstructed embryos developed to the 8-cell stage, which is a much higher percentage than that of the nuclear transfer only (NT) group (11.1%). The DNA methylation level in the NT-Aza group was significantly lower than that of the NT group, as determined by 5-methylcytosine immunodetection. Based on the present results, this study recommends performing the enucleation procedure without cytochalasin B treatment and using 5-aza-dC in the culture of reconstructed embryos in human SCNT studies. PMID:22874064

Sun, Lei; Wu, Ke-Liang; Zhang, Di; Wang, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yue; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Xiu-Ying; Chen, Zi-Jiang; Liu, Hou-Qi

2012-10-01

212

Anti-TNF treatment reverts increased muscle ubiquitin gene expression in tumour-bearing rats.  

PubMed

Implantation of the ascitic tumour Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma (a cachectic tumour) resulted in important increases in muscle ubiquitin gene expression. Administration of daily injections of 25 mg/kg b.w. polyclonal goat anti-murine TNF IgG preparation to tumour-bearing rats abolished the increase in muscle ubiquitin gene expression observed in the control (non-anti-TNF-treated) tumour-bearing rats. It is concluded that TNF can have an important role in the activation of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system during tumour growth. PMID:8630016

Llovera, M; Carbó, N; García-Martínez, C; Costelli, P; Tessitore, L; Baccino, F M; Agell, N; Bagby, G J; López-Soriano, F J; Argilés, J M

1996-04-25

213

A? vaccination, but not nitro-NSAID treatment, increases vascular amyloid and microhemorrhage while both reduce parenchymal amyloid.  

PubMed Central

Vaccination with A?1–42 and treatment with NCX-2216, a novel nitric oxide releasing flurbiprofen derivative, have each been shown separately to reduce amyloid deposition in transgenic mice and have been suggested as potential therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. In the current study we treated doubly transgenic amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP+PS1) mice with A?1–42 vaccination, NCX-2216 or both drugs simultaneously for 9 months. We found that all treatments reduced amyloid deposition, both compact and diffuse, to the same extent while only vaccinated animals, with or without non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment, showed increased microglial activation associated with the remaining amyloid deposits. We also found that active A? vaccination resulted in significantly increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy and associated microhemorrhages, while NCX-2216 did not, in spite of similar reductions in parenchymal amyloid. Co-administration of NCX-2216 did not attenuate this effect of the vaccine. This is the first report showing that active immunization can result in increased vascular amyloid and microhemorrhage, as has been observed with passive immunization. Co-administration of an NSAID agent with A? vaccination does not substantially modify the effects of A? immunotherapy. The difference between these treatments with respect to vascular amyloid development may reflect the clearance-promoting actions of the vaccine as opposed to the production-modifying effects proposed for flurbiprofen. PMID:17137722

Wilcock, Donna M.; Jantzen, Paul T.; Li, Qingyou; Morgan, Dave; Gordon, Marcia N.

2007-01-01

214

BH4 treatment in BH4-responsive PKU patients: preliminary data on blood prolactin concentrations suggest increased cerebral dopamine concentrations.  

PubMed

In phenylketonuria (PKU), cerebral neurotransmitter deficiencies have been suggested to contribute to brain dysfunction. Present treatment aims to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations by a phenylalanine-restricted diet, while in some patients blood phenylalanine concentrations also respond to cofactor treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Recently, a repurposing approach of BH4 was suggested to increase cerebral neurotransmitter synthesis. To investigate whether BH4 may improve cerebral dopamine concentrations in PKU patients beyond its effect through lowering blood phenylalanine concentrations, we investigated blood prolactin concentrations-as a parameter of brain dopamine availability. We retrospectively compared blood prolactin in relation to blood phenylalanine concentrations of nine (male) BH4-responsive PKU patients, when being treated without and with BH4. Blood prolactin concentrations positively correlated to blood phenylalanine concentrations (p=0.002), being significantly lower with than without BH4 treatment (p=0.047). In addition, even in this small number of male patients, blood prolactin concentrations tended to be lower at increasing BH4 dose (p=0.054), while taking blood phenylalanine concentrations into account (p=0.002). In individual BH4-responsive patients, median blood prolactin concentrations were significantly lower while using BH4 than before using BH4 treatment (p=0.024), whereas median blood phenylalanine concentrations tended to be lower, but this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.107). Therefore, these data show that high blood phenylalanine in BH4-responsive PKU male patients seems to be associated with increased blood prolactin concentrations, suggesting reduced cerebral dopamine availability. Moreover, these data suggest that BH4 treatment in itself could decrease blood prolactin concentrations in a dose-responsive way, independent of blood phenylalanine concentrations. We conclude that these preliminary data indicate that BH4 treatment may improve cerebral dopamine concentrations in PKU patients beyond its effect through lowering blood phenylalanine concentrations, possibly in a dose-dependent manner, but further research would be warranted. PMID:25466353

van Vliet, Danique; Anjema, Karen; Jahja, Rianne; de Groot, Martijn J; Liemburg, Geertje B; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; Derks, Terry G J; Kema, Ido P; van Spronsen, Francjan J

2015-01-01

215

Clinical chronopharmacology: the importance of time in drug treatment.  

PubMed

Nearly all functions of the body, including those influencing pharmacokinetic parameters such as drug absorption and distribution, drug metabolism and renal elimination, show significant daily variations: these include liver metabolism, hepatic blood flow and the first-pass effect; glomerular filtration, renal plasma flow and urine volume and pH; blood pressure, heart rate and organ perfusion rates; acid secretion in the gastro-intestinal tract and gastric emptying time. The onset and symptoms of diseases such as asthma attacks, coronary infarction, angina pectoris, stroke and ventricular tachycardia are circadian phase dependent. In humans, variations during the 24 h day in pharmacokinetics (chrono-pharmacokinetics) have been shown for cardiovascularly active drugs (propranolol, nifedipine, verapamil, enalapril, isosorbide 5-mononitrate and digoxin), anti-asthmatics (theophylline and terbutaline), anticancer drugs, psychotropics, analgesics, local anaesthetics and antibiotics, to mention but a few. Even more drugs have been shown to display significant variations in their effects throughout the day (chronopharmacodynamics and chronotoxicology) even after chronic application or constant infusion. Moreover, there is clear evidence that even dose/concentration-response relationships can be significantly modified by the time of day. Thus, circadian time has to be taken into account as an important variable influencing a drug's pharmacokinetics and its effects or side-effects. PMID:7656688

Lemmer, B

1995-01-01

216

UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:  

Cancer.gov

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.

217

Neonatal Treatment with Monosodium Glutamate Increases Plasma Corticosterone in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been shown to alter several neuroendocrine functions in neonatally treated rats. To evaluate for possible alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we injected rats during the neonatal period with MSG or saline (controls). An increase in basal plasma corticosterone levels associated with a blunted circadian variation was observed. Ether exposure produced a significant elevation in plasma corticosterone

Miriam Sterman Dolnikoff; Claudio Elias Kater; Mizue Egami; Iracema Senna de Andrade; Maria Regina Marmo

1988-01-01

218

Stated Briefly: What Does the Research Say about Increased Learning Time and Student Outcomes? REL 2015-061  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REL Appalachia conducted a systematic review of the research evidence on the effects of increased learning time. After screening more than 7,000 studies, REL Appalachia identified 30 that met the most rigorous standards for research. A review of those 30 studies found that increased learning time does not always produce positive results. However,…

Kidron, Yael; Lindsay, Jim

2014-01-01

219

Men at low-risk of dying from their prostate cancer increasingly opting for advanced treatment options  

Cancer.gov

For men with a low risk of dying from their prostate cancer, advanced treatment options may offer little to no benefit, yet more and more patients are opting for these procedures. A new study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center examined Medicare data between 2004 and 2009 for men with prostate cancer whose disease was low-risk or those who were at a high risk to die from other causes. The researchers found that these men increasingly underwent advanced treatment options, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and robotic prostatectomy.

220

Increased cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-8 in bipolar disorder patients associated with lithium and antipsychotic treatment.  

PubMed

Inflammation has been linked to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder based on studies of inflammation markers, such as cytokine concentrations, in plasma and serum samples from cases and controls. However, peripheral measurements of cytokines do not readily translate to immunological activity in the brain. The aim of the present study was to study brain immune and inflammatory activity. To this end, we analyzed cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid from 121 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 age and sex matched control subjects. Concentrations of 11 different cytokines were determined using immunoassays. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls. The other cytokines measured were only detectable in part of the sample. IL-8 concentrations were positively associated to lithium- and antipsychotic treatment. The findings might reflect immune aberrations in bipolar disorder, or be due to the effects of medication. PMID:25451615

Isgren, Anniella; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Ekman, Carl Johan; Johansson, Anette G M; Sellgren, Carl; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Landén, Mikael

2015-01-01

221

In vivo treatment by diallyl disulfide increases histone acetylation in rat colonocytes  

SciTech Connect

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is an organosulfur compound from garlic which exhibits various anticarcinogenic properties including inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. DADS antiproliferative effects were previously associated with an increase in histone acetylation in two human tumor colon cell lines, suggesting that DADS-induced histone hyperacetylation could be one of the mechanisms involved in its protective properties on colon carcinogenesis. The effects of DADS on histone H4 and H3 acetylation levels were investigated in vivo in colonocytes isolated from non-tumoral rat. Administrated by intracaecal perfusion or gavage, DADS increases histone H4 and H3 acetylation in colonocytes. Moreover, data generated using cDNA expression arrays suggest that DADS could modulate the expression of a subset of genes. These results suggest the involvement of histone acetylation in modulation of gene expression by DADS in normal rat colonocytes, which might play a role in its biological effects as well as in its anticarcinogenic properties in vivo.

Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France)]. E-mail: Nathalie.Pecollo@jouy.inra.fr; Chaumontet, Catherine [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Pagniez, Anthony [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Vaugelade, Pierre [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Bruneau, Aurelia [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Thomas, Muriel [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Cherbuy, Claire [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Duee, Pierre-Henri [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Martel, Paule [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France)

2007-03-02

222

Increased allergen production in turnip ( Brassica rapa) by treatments activating defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Practical applications to enhance the productivity of agriculture by using plants with improved resistance to pathogens are expected to increase in the near future. Defense proteins play an important role in pathogen resistance, and some defense-related proteins are significant cross-reacting allergens. For example, cross-allergies are common among patients allergic to natural rubber latex (NRL), which contains many defense-related proteins.

Anna-Riitta Hänninen; Jari H. Mikkola; Nisse Kalkkinen; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Leea Ylitalo; Timo Reunala; Timo Palosuo

1999-01-01

223

Noninvasive corticosterone treatment rapidly increases activity in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).  

PubMed

Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that corticosteroids influence behavioral changes associated with stressful events. Most investigations into this relationship focus on the long-term behavioral effects of corticosterone. Because many behavioral responses to environmental perturbations occur within minutes, we determined what rapid effects corticosterone may have on behavior. With this goal in mind, we devised and evaluated a method of corticosterone delivery which allowed us to examine immediate effects of corticosterone on behavior in a noninvasive manner. White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) were allowed access to mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) injected with corticosterone. Once ingested, the corticosterone moves across the digestive epithelium into the circulation. This method was evaluated using two vehicles: dimethyl sulfoxide and peanut oil. We tested the efficiency and consistency of corticosterone transfer into the circulation for both vehicles. Dimethyl sulfoxide gave a more efficient transfer of corticosterone. Injecting mealworms with corticosterone (carried in dimethyl sulfoxide) and feeding those worms to white-crowned sparrows increased circulating corticosterone to a discrete, repeatable level which peaked within 7 min and was cleared within 60 min. Using this method, we demonstrated that intermediate levels of corticosterone caused an increase in perch hopping in white-crowned sparrows within 15 min of hormone administration. An increase in perch hopping indicated elevated locomotor activity that is consistent with behavioral responses to natural perturbations. High levels of corticosterone did not induce this behavioral change. In light of the rapid effect of corticosterone on behavior, we propose that corticosterone was acting through a nongenomic mechanism. PMID:9707484

Breuner, C W; Greenberg, A L; Wingfield, J C

1998-09-01

224

A reverse shoulder arthroplasty with increased offset for the treatment of cuff-deficient shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis.  

PubMed

Inherent disadvantages of reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs based on the Grammont concept have raised a renewed interest in less-medialised designs and techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) with the fully-constrained, less-medialised, Bayley-Walker prosthesis performed for the treatment of rotator-cuff-deficient shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis. A total of 97 arthroplasties in 92 patients (53 women and 44 men, mean age 67 years (standard deviation (sd) 10, (49 to 85)) were retrospectively reviewed at a mean follow-up of 50 months ((sd 25) (24 to 96)). The mean Oxford shoulder score and subjective shoulder value improved from 47 (sd 9) and 24 points (sd 18) respectively before surgery to 28 (sd 11) and 61 (sd 24) points after surgery (p < 0.001). The mean pain at rest decreased from 5.3 (sd 2.8) to 1.5 (sd 2.3) (p < 0.001). The mean active forward elevation and external rotation increased from 42(°)(sd 30) and 9(°) (sd 15) respectively pre-operatively to 78(°) (sd 39) and 24(°) (sd 17) post-operatively (p < 0.001). A total of 20 patients required further surgery for complications; 13 required revision of components. No patient developed scapular notching. The Bayley-Walker prosthesis provides reliable pain relief and reasonable functional improvement for patients with symptomatic cuff-deficient shoulders. Compared with other designs of RSA, it offers a modest improvement in forward elevation, but restores external rotation to some extent and prevents scapular notching. A longer follow-up is required to assess the survival of the prosthesis and the clinical performance over time. PMID:24986948

Middleton, C; Uri, O; Phillips, S; Barmpagiannis, K; Higgs, D; Falworth, M; Bayley, I; Lambert, S

2014-07-01

225

Temperature, plant species and residence time effects on nitrogen removal in model treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Total nitrogen (TN) removal in treatment wetlands (TWs) is challenging due to nitrogen cycle complexity and the variation of influent nitrogen species. Plant species, season, temperature and hydraulic loading most likely influence root zone oxygenation and appurtenant nitrogen removal, especially for ammonium-rich wastewater. Nitrogen data were collected from two experiments utilizing batch-loaded (3-, 6-, 9- and 20-day residence times), sub-surface TWs monitored for at least one year during which temperature was varied between 4 and 24 °C. Synthetic wastewater containing 17 mg/l N as NH4 and 27 mg/l amino-N, 450 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 13 mg/l SO4-S was applied to four replicates of Carex utriculata, Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha latifolia and unplanted controls. Plant presence and species had a greater effect on TN removal than temperature or residence time. Planted columns achieved approximately twice the nitrogen removal of unplanted controls (40-95% versus 20-50% removal) regardless of season and temperature. TWs planted with Carex outperformed both Typha and Schoenoplectus and demonstrated less temperature dependency. TN removal with Carex was excellent at all temperatures and residence times; Schoenoplectus and Typha TN removal improved at longer residence times. Reductions in TN were not accompanied by increases in NO3, which was consistently below 1 mg/l N. PMID:24334880

Allen, C R; Stein, O R; Hook, P B; Burr, M D; Parker, A E; Hafla, E C

2013-01-01

226

Soil drench treatment with ß-aminobutyric Acid increases drought tolerance of potato.  

PubMed

The non-protein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to be a priming agent for a more efficient activation of cellular defence responses and a potent inducer of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Nevertheless, most of the studies on priming have been carried out in Arabidopsis. In potato, the effect of BABA was demonstrated only on biotic stress tolerance. We investigated the effect of BABA on the drought tolerance of potato and found that soil drenched with BABA at a final concentration of 0.3 mM improves the drought tolerance of potato. Water loss from the leaves of the primed plants is attenuated and the yield is increased compared to the unprimed drought-stressed plants. The metabolite composition of the tubers of the BABA-treated plants is less affected by drought than the tuber composition of the non-treated plants. Nitric oxide and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production is increased in the BABA-treated roots but not in the leaves. In the leaves of the BABA-treated plants, the expression of the drought-inducible gene StDS2 is delayed, but the expression of ETR1, encoding an ethylene receptor, is maintained for a longer period under the drought conditions than in the leaves of the non-treated, drought-stressed control plants. This result suggests that the ethylene-inducible gene expression remains suppressed in primed plants leading to a longer leaf life and increased tuber yield compared to the non-treated, drought-stressed plants. The priming effect of BABA in potato, however, is transient and reverts to an unprimed state within a few weeks. PMID:25489951

Sós-Heged?s, Anita; Juhász, Zsófia; Poór, Péter; Kondrák, Mihály; Antal, Ferenc; Tari, Irma; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Bánfalvi, Zsófia

2014-01-01

227

Soil Drench Treatment with ß-Aminobutyric Acid Increases Drought Tolerance of Potato  

PubMed Central

The non-protein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to be a priming agent for a more efficient activation of cellular defence responses and a potent inducer of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Nevertheless, most of the studies on priming have been carried out in Arabidopsis. In potato, the effect of BABA was demonstrated only on biotic stress tolerance. We investigated the effect of BABA on the drought tolerance of potato and found that soil drenched with BABA at a final concentration of 0.3 mM improves the drought tolerance of potato. Water loss from the leaves of the primed plants is attenuated and the yield is increased compared to the unprimed drought-stressed plants. The metabolite composition of the tubers of the BABA-treated plants is less affected by drought than the tuber composition of the non-treated plants. Nitric oxide and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production is increased in the BABA-treated roots but not in the leaves. In the leaves of the BABA-treated plants, the expression of the drought-inducible gene StDS2 is delayed, but the expression of ETR1, encoding an ethylene receptor, is maintained for a longer period under the drought conditions than in the leaves of the non-treated, drought-stressed control plants. This result suggests that the ethylene-inducible gene expression remains suppressed in primed plants leading to a longer leaf life and increased tuber yield compared to the non-treated, drought-stressed plants. The priming effect of BABA in potato, however, is transient and reverts to an unprimed state within a few weeks. PMID:25489951

Sós-Heged?s, Anita; Juhász, Zsófia; Poór, Péter; Kondrák, Mihály; Antal, Ferenc; Tari, Irma; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Bánfalvi, Zsófia

2014-01-01

228

Time?dependent increase in risk of hospitalisation with infection among Swedish RA patients treated with TNF antagonists  

PubMed Central

Objectives The degree to which treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may be associated with increased risks for serious infections is unclear. An observational cohort study was performed using prospectively collected data from the Swedish Biologics Register (ARTIS) and other national Swedish registers. Methods First, in the ARTIS, all 4167 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients starting TNF antagonist treatment between 1999 and 2003 were identified. Secondly, in the Swedish Inpatient Register, all individuals hospitalised for any reason and who also carried a diagnosis of RA, between 1964 and 2003 (n?=?44?946 of whom 2692 also occurred in ARTIS), were identified. Thirdly, in the Swedish Inpatient Register, all hospitalisations listing an infection between 1999 and 2003 were identified. By cross?referencing these three data sets, RRs for hospitalisation with infection associated with TNF antagonist treatment were calculated within the cohort of 44?946 RA patients, using Cox regression taking sex, age, geography, co?morbidity and use of inpatient care into account. Results Among the 4167 patients treated with TNF antagonists, 367 hospitalisations with infections occurred during 7776 person?years. Within the cohort of 44?496 RA patients, the RR for infection associated with TNF antagonists was 1.43 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.73) during the first year of treatment, 1.15 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.51) during the second year of treatment, and 0.82 (95% CI 0.62 to 1.08) for subjects remaining on their first TNF antagonist treatment after 2 years. Conclusion Treatment with TNF antagonists may be associated with a small to moderate increase in risk of hospitalisation with infection, which disappears with increasing treatment duration. PMID:17261532

Askling, Johan; Fored, C Michael; Brandt, Lena; Baecklund, Eva; Bertilsson, Lennart; Feltelius, Nils; Cöster, Lars; Geborek, Pierre; Jacobsson, Lennart T; Lindblad, Staffan; Lysholm, Jörgen; Rantapää?Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Saxne, Tore; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Klareskog, Lars

2007-01-01

229

Differential display polymerase chain reaction reveals increased expression of striatal rat glia-derived nexin following chronic clozapine treatment.  

PubMed

Clozapine is considered a prototype of the 'so-called' atypical antipsychotic drug class. It has affinity for a broad range of receptors and, in comparison to typical antipsychotic drugs, produces less extrapyramidal side effects. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Differential display polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was implemented in this study to contribute to the current understanding of this mechanism at the genetic level and to identify novel genes regulated by clozapine. This technique generated approximately 2400 gene sequences that were analyzed for differential gene expression following protracted clozapine treatment. One of these sequences, originally termed Clozapine Regulated Gene (CRG), was shown to be significantly upregulated following the treatment. Northern hybridization confirmation of this finding revealed that chronic clozapine administration caused a five-fold increase in CRG mRNA. Elongation of the 5'- and 3'-ends of CRG indicated that the fragment was in fact rat glia-derived nexin mRNA. Western blotting demonstrated that levels of the mRNA's associated protein also increased comparably (three-fold) following chronic treatment with the antipsychotic drug. This study presents a possible neuroprotective role of nexin in clozapine treatment, particularly in the prevention of neuronal proteolytic degradation, since nexin has been shown to be a protease inhibitor. PMID:15354176

Chong, V Z; Costain, W; Marriott, J; Sindwani, S; Knauer, D J; Wang, J-F; Young, L T; MacCrimmon, D; Mishra, R K

2004-01-01

230

Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?  

PubMed Central

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

Stewart, A. Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kyle, Robert A.; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P. Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Lust, John A.; Russell, Stephen J.; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K.

2013-01-01

231

Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?  

PubMed

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

Dispenzieri, Angela; Stewart, A Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K

2013-12-19

232

Nanoencapsulation of olanzapine increases its efficacy in antipsychotic treatment and reduces adverse effects.  

PubMed

Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, whose chronic use has been associated with the development of potential adverse effects such as weight gain and cardio-metabolic disorders like hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. To circumvent these side effects, the controlled release of olanzapine is a promising approach to improve adhesion of schizophrenic patients to the treatment. An innovative strategy to prolong drug release consists of loading the drug into biodegradable polymeric lipid-core nanocapsules. In this study, particle size, polydispersity, pH, zeta potential and drug loading of olanzapine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules were analyzed. Weight gain, biochemical parameters and antipsychotic activity were evaluated in male Wistar rats. The lipid-core nanocapsules had a mean diameter of 156 +/- 13 nm, a polydispersity index lower than 0.1, a pH value of 6.12 +/- 0.14, zeta potential of -17 +/- 2.40 mV and encapsulation efficiency close to 100%. The animals treated with olanzapine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed significantly lower weight gain (63.4 +/- 19.6 g) and total cholesterol levels (66.2 +/- 3.5 g x dl(-1)), compared to those administered with free olanzapine (112.6 +/- 10.3 g and 90.4 +/- 2.4 g x dl(-1)), respectively. Additionally, a more prolonged antipsychotic action was observed in the stereotyped behavior animal model induced by D,L-amphetamine, which affords to conclude that nanoencapsulation is a promising alternative to treat schizophrenic patients. PMID:24749408

Dimer, Frantiescoli A; Ortiz, Manoel; Pase, Camila S; Roversi, Katiane; Friedrich, Rossana B; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Burger, Marilise E; Guterres, Silvia S

2014-06-01

233

Increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment: A phenomenology study  

PubMed Central

Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Results: Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind". PMID:24799869

Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh

2014-01-01

234

Individual and system influences on waiting time for substance abuse treatment  

PubMed Central

Waiting time is a contemporary reality of many drug abuse treatment programs, resulting in substantial problems for substance users and society. Individual and system factors that influence waiting time are diverse and may vary at different points in the treatment continuum. This study assessed waiting time preceding clinical assessment at a centralized intake unit and during the period after the assessment but before treatment entry. The present study included 577 substance abusers who were enrolled in a large clinical trial of two brief treatment interventions in a midsize metropolitan area in Ohio. Bivariate analyses identified individual and system factors that influenced preassessment and postassessment waiting time, as well as total wait to treatment services. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that longer wait time for an assessment is influenced by being court referred, less belief in having a substance abuse problem, and less desire for change. A shorter wait to actually enter treatment is predicted by having a case manager, being more ready for treatment, and having less severe employment and alcohol problems. The different influences present during the two waiting periods suggest that assessment and treatment programs need to implement system changes and entry enhancement interventions that are specific to the needs of substance abusers at each waiting period. PMID:17512159

Carr, Carey J.A.; Xu, Jiangmin; Redko, Cristina; Lane, D. Timothy; Rapp, Richard C.; Goris, John; Carlson, Robert G.

2007-01-01

235

Increasing platelets without transfusion: is it time to introduce novel thrombopoietic agents in neonatal care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food and Drug Administration recently approved two novel thrombopoiesis-stimulating agents, Romiplostim (AMG-531, Nplate) and Eltrombopag (Promacta), for the treatment of adults with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. For physicians taking care of critically ill neonates, this offers the opportunity of decreasing platelet transfusions and potentially improving the outcomes of neonates with severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. However, several developmental factors need to

H Sallmon; R K Gutti; F Ferrer-Marin; Z-J Liu; M C Sola-Visner

2010-01-01

236

Long-Term Valproate Treatment Increases Brain Neuropeptide Y Expression and Decreases Seizure Expression in a Genetic Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which valproate, one of the most widely prescribed anti-epileptic drugs, suppresses seizures have not been fully elucidated but may involve up-regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We investigated the effects of valproate treatment in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) on brain NPY mRNA expression and seizure control. GAERS were administered either valproate (42 mg.kg?1 hr?1) or saline continuously for 5 days. Electroencephalograms were recorded for 24 hrs on treatment days 1, 3 and 5 and the percentage of time spent in seizure activity was analysed. NPY mRNA expression was measured in different brain regions using qPCR. Valproate treatment suppressed seizures by 80% in GAERS (p<0.05) and increased NPY mRNA expression in the thalamus (p<0.05) compared to saline treatment. These results demonstrate that long-term valproate treatment results in an upregulation of thalamic expression of NPY implicating this as a potential contributor to the mechanism by which valproate suppresses absence seizures. PMID:24039965

van Raay, Leena; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; O’Brien, Terence J.; Morris, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

237

Reaching the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases Goals for Onchocerciasis: An Economic Evaluation of Increasing the Frequency of Ivermectin Treatment in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background.?Recently, there has been a shift in onchocerciasis control policy, changing from prevention of morbidity toward elimination of infection. Switching from annual to biannual ivermectin distribution may accelerate progress toward the elimination goals. However, the settings where this strategy would be cost effective in Africa have not been described. Methods.?An onchocerciasis transmission framework (EpiOncho) was coupled to a disease model in order to explore the impact on disability-adjusted life years averted, program cost, and program duration of biannual ivermectin treatment in different epidemiological and programmatic scenarios in African savannah. Results.?While biannual treatment yields only small additional health gains, its benefit is pronounced in the context of the elimination goals, shortening the time frames for and increasing the feasibility of reaching the proposed operational thresholds for stopping treatment. In settings with high precontrol endemicity (and/or poor coverage and compliance), it may not be possible to reach such thresholds even within 50 years of annual ivermectin, requiring adoption of biannual treatment. Our projections highlight the crucial role played by coverage and compliance in achieving the elimination goals. Conclusions.?Biannual ivermectin treatment improves the chances of reaching the 2020/2025 elimination goals, potentially generating programmatic cost savings in settings with high precontrol endemicity. However, its benefit and cost are highly sensitive to levels of systematic noncompliance and, in many settings, it will lead to an increase in costs. Furthermore, it may not always be feasible to implement biannual treatment, particularly in hard-to-reach populations. This highlights the continued need for a macrofilaricide. PMID:24944228

Turner, Hugo C.; Walker, Martin; Churcher, Thomas S.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Hopkins, Adrian; Prichard, Roger K.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

2014-01-01

238

Does Global Warming Increase Establishment Rates of Invasive Alien Species? A Centurial Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the relationship between global warming and establishment rate of

Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi Zhang; Howard Browman

2011-01-01

239

Head Injury in Children: Has a Change in Circumstances Caused an Increase in Treatment Numbers?  

PubMed

The number of hospitalizations for head injuries in children is rising. The exact causes remain unclear. We analyzed data of children aged between 0 and 18 years who sustained a head injury between 2010 and 2011. The analysis focused on data related to demographics, trauma mechanism, clinical course, results of imaging scans, concomitant injuries, and outcome. A total of 794 inpatient cases of head injury were treated. The leading mechanism of injury was a fall (at home) primarily at the age of 1 to 4 years (46.5%), with the majority of the children sustaining a mild brain injury (764, 96.2%). Neurosurgery was performed in 21 (2.64%) cases; average hospital stay was 2.9 days (range: 0-68 days). This study is not able to confirm that children are increasingly being brought to the hospital by their parents because of new trauma mechanisms or parents' uncertainty, nor can we confirm that the number of nonaccidental injuries is rising. PMID:25370862

Pal'a, Andrej; Kapapa, Melanie; Posovszky, Carsten; Röderer, Götz; König, Ralph; Woischneck, Dieter; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Kapapa, Thomas

2014-11-01

240

Stroke treatment in rats with tail temperature increase by 40-min moxibustion.  

PubMed

The distant heat induced by suspended moxibustion (SM) for 40 min is confirmed to have a favorable effect in treating diseases such as ischemic brain injury in the clinical setting, but its precise mechanism remains to be explained. Since a similar reaction to the phenomenon of distant heat is found in some transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rats treated by a 40-min SM session with tail temperature increase (TTI), we hereby study its mechanism by comparing the neuroprotective effect of 40 min's SM with TTI to those without. The experimental results show that 40 min's SM with TTI can significantly reduce the infarct volume and neurological deficit score in tMCAO rats. Western blot demonstrates that a reduction in the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in tMCAO rats with TTI is more striking than that of the rats without TTI. The expression of caspase-3 protein is inhibited in tMCAO rats with TTI. The results suggest that the efficacy of SM for 40 min with TTI is higher than that without. Although neuroprotective effects present in tMCAO rats with and without TTI, those with TTI revealed a higher level of anti-inflammation effect and exhibited an anti-apoptosis effect. PMID:21875649

Chen, Ri-Xin; Lv, Zhi-Mai; Chen, Ming-Ren; Yi, Fan; An, Xin; Xie, Ding-Yi

2011-10-01

241

Subetta treatment increases adiponectin secretion by mature human adipocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Purpose. To investigate the mechanism of action in peripheral tissues of novel complex drug containing release-active dilutions of antibodies to the beta subunit of the insulin receptor and antibodies to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Subetta), which has shown efficacy in animal models of diabetes. Methods. Human mature adipocytes were incubated either with Subetta, with one of negative controls (placebo or vehicle), with one of nonspecific controls (release-active dilutions of antibodies to cannabinoid receptor type I or release-active dilutions of rabbit nonimmune serum), or with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 37°C in a humidified incubator at 5% CO2 for three days. Rosiglitazone was used as reference drug. Secretion of adiponectin was measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Only Subetta significantly stimulates adiponectin production by mature human adipocytes. Nonspecific controls did not significantly affect adiponectin secretion, resulting in adiponectin levels comparable to background values of the negative controls and DMSO. Conclusion. Increasing adiponectin production in absence of insulin by Subetta probably via modulating effect on the beta subunit of the insulin receptor might serve as one of the mechanisms of the antidiabetic effect of this drug. These in vitro results give first insight on possible mechanism of action of Subetta and serve as a background for further studies. PMID:23690773

Nicoll, Jim; Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

2013-01-01

242

Patient compliance behavior: the effects of time on patients' values of treatment regimens.  

PubMed

Present medical models of treatment compliance have not addressed the role that time plays in the perception of a treatment regimen's costs and benefits. This paper re-evaluates the role of time in understanding compliance behavior. Models from the economic and psychological literature are used to demonstrate that the 'discounting effect' associated with future events, and the 'sunk cost effect' associated with past events may have a direct and predictable impact on the patient's values in health care choices. This article suggests that when the effects of time are incorporated into expectancy models of compliance behavior (such as the Health Belief Model) the resulting predictions are supported by numerous findings in the compliance literature, many of which were previously unaccountable by these expectancy models. From this finding an explanation is derived for the variable results of educational and attitudinal change programs upon compliance behavior, the success of patient contracts, the sudden occurrence of preference reversals in health care choices, and the 'confusing' effect of treatment cost on treatment adherence. This paper also introduces to the compliance literature the concept of a treatment's 'time adjusted rate of return', and speculates upon how this concept may be used to understand the relationship between a treatment's 'desirability' or its ability to motivate a person to start the treatment, and its 'resistance' or its capacity to help a person to finish the treatment once it has begun. It proposes that changes in the temporal distribution of a treatment's benefits and costs can improve the treatment's desirability and resistance, and that a treatment's time adjusted rate of return can be used to allocate more efficiently the effort that providers spend monitoring patient compliance. PMID:3929392

Christensen-Szalanski, J J; Northcraft, G B

1985-01-01

243

Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

Singh, Anurag K., E-mail: Anurag.singh@roswellpark.or [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States)

2010-11-15

244

Hydroxylamine treatment increases glutathione-protein and protein-protein binding in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Hydroxylamine is a direct-acting hematotoxic agent leading to hemolytic anemia in animals and man. The effect of hydroxylamine on the morphology, sulfhydryl status and membrane skeletal proteins of human erythrocytes were studied. Loss of reduced glutathione (GSH) from the red blood cells was directly proportional to the hydroxylamine concentration used. This loss of GSH was larger than the sum of the increase in the amounts of extracellular glutathione and intracellular oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The extracellular glutathione is mainly present as GSSG, which is in agreement with the fact that only GSSG is exported from the erythrocytes by membrane bound ATPases. Lack of GSSG export was not limited by decreased ATP levels in the erythrocytes and we concluded that the GSH that disappeared did not become available as intracellular GSSG. After reduction of the erythrocyte incubates the lost GSH was almost completely recovered indicating that the lost GSH is present in the cell as protein-glutathione mixed disulfides. Glutathione thus stored within the cell can be quickly recovered by combined thioltransferase and glutathione reductase activity when conditions become more favorable again. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane ghosts from human red cells revealed changes in skeletal proteins with a smearing of bands 1, 2 and 3 to the higher molecular weight end of the gel and the appearance of new monomeric and dimeric hemoglobin bands at about 16 and 30 kD. The observed alterations are probably a consequence of disulfide bridge formation between cellular proteins (mainly hemoglobin) and skeletal proteins as well as between hemoglobin monomers. Exposure of hydroxylamine to erythrocytes caused severe Heinz body formation but the outside morphology of the cells was only marginally altered. The described changes in sulfhydryl status of the red blood cells are likely to play a major role in the premature splenic sequestration of hydroxylamine-damaged erythrocytes. PMID:9398534

Spooren, A A; Evelo, C T

1997-12-01

245

Time-dependent treatment of scattering - Integral equation approaches using the time-dependent amplitude density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The time-dependent form of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is used as the basis of several new wave packet propagation schemes. These can be formulated in terms of either the time-dependent wave function or a time-dependent amplitude density. The latter is nonzero only in the region of configuratiaon space for which the potential is nonzero, thereby in principle obviating the necessity of large grids or the use of complex absorbing potentials when resonances cause long collision times (leading, consequently, to long propagation times). Transition amplitudes are obtained in terms of Fourier transforms of the amplitude density from the time to the energy domain. The approach is illustrated by an application to a standard potential scattering model problem where, as in previous studies, the action of the kinetic energy operator is evaluated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques.

Hoffman, David K.; Sharafeddin, Omar; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.

1990-01-01

246

Increasing Project Control and Guidance through a Time-frame Simulation Approach  

E-print Network

and updates in real-time the estimation of the project completion. Concurrently, it allows the calculation of specific performance indexes which permit to identify in real-time possible occurring "warnings" to users advancement requires a closer integration between executing and planning phases and, therefore, it implies

Boyer, Edmond

247

Increased Learning Time and Targeted Instruction Improve Academic Skills for At-Risk ESL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with English as a Second Language (ESL) face two critical challenges: they need to develop English literacy while, at the same time, acquire content knowledge across subject areas. These students need a targeted ESL curriculum from elementary to high school that will allow an extended learning time and opportunities to practice as they…

Nelson, April, Comp.

2005-01-01

248

Treatment with the nitric oxide donor SNP increases triiodothyronine levels in hyper- and hypothyroid Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide pathway might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of nitric oxide (NO) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague-Dawley rats under controlled diet. Furthermore, the effects of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on thyroid dysfunctions were also assessed. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=107) were subdivided into normal diet and high-fat diet (HFD) groups and grouped into controls, hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, and SNP treated groups. Hypothyroidism was induced through propylthiouracil, whereas hyperthyroidism by triiodothyronine (T3). After 12 weeks of T3 treatment, serum nitric oxides (NOX), endogenous asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), body weight and food intake were analyzed. Hypothyroid rats showed decreased serum T3 levels, hyperthyroid rats increased T3 compared to controls. Diet had no impact on T3. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. Serum NOX was significantly reduced in normal diet hypothyroid rats. SNP administration compensated the decrease and markedly increased T3. NO synthase inhibitor ADMA levels were significantly higher in the HFD control group than in the normal diet controls. ADMA was declined in both hypothyroid groups and increased in normal diet hyperthyroid rats. An association of thyroid dysfunctions with reduced bioavailability of NO and alterations of ADMA levels could be established. Treatment with the NO donor SNP resulted in an increase of serum T3 levels. These results demonstrate that the NO pathway is implicated in thyroid dysfunctions, which may be of clinical relevance. PMID:23918691

Ragginer, C; Bernecker, C; Ainoedhofer, H; Pailer, S; Kieslinger, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Gruber, H-J

2013-10-01

249

Increased Ras GTPase activity is regulated by miRNAs that can be attenuated by CDF treatment in pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Ras gene is frequently mutated, and also associated with increased Ras expression and its GTPase activity (activity) in pancreatic cancer (PC), which could in part be due to deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributing to tumor aggressiveness. Here we report, for the first time, that Ras expression and its activity were significantly higher in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cell lines, which was correlated with loss of let-7 family and miR-143 expression in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cells. Whereas the expression of miR-21, a frequently up-regulated miRNA in solid tumors was up-regulated in MIAPaCa-2 cells and it was correlated with increased Ras expression and its activity. The miRNAs, let-7i and miR-143 was found to target Ras, and forced re-expression of let-7i and miR-143 inhibited Ras activity, cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. We also found that the treatment of cells in vitro or treatment of MIAPaCa-2 induced tumors in vivo with CDF, a novel synthetic analog of curcumin, led to the re-expression of let-7 and miR-143, and down-regulated miR-21 expression, which was consistent with attenuation of Ras expression and its activity. Moreover, re-expression of let-7iin vivo resulted in decreased tumor growth and Ras activity. These results suggest that the loss of expression of let-7 and miR-143, and increased expression of miR-21 leads to increased expression of Ras and its GTPase activity, which could be attenuated by CDF treatment and, thus CDF could become a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of PC. PMID:22261338

Ali, Shadan; Ahmad, Aamir; Aboukameel, Amro; Bao, Bin; Padhye, Subhash; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

2012-01-01

250

Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

2012-01-01

251

Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

1976-01-01

252

IL6 -174G>C polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of psoriasis but not response to treatment.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis as well as in its treatment efficacy. The aim of this study of 406 patients with psoriasis and 203 healthy controls was to evaluate the association between the IL6 -174G>C (rs1800795) polymorphism and psoriasis susceptibility, as well as treatment efficacy. The frequency of genotype GG (33.7% vs 20.7%; P = 0.00022; OR = 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.34-0.76) and of allele G (56.2% vs 46.8%; P = 0.0023) was significantly higher in the psoriasis group compared with controls. No polymorphism variants were associated with better response to topical or combined topical/narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) treatment. We conclude that the IL6 -174G>C polymorphism can be a marker of susceptibility to psoriasis, with an almost twofold increased risk of the disease in individuals carrying the GG genotype; however, it was not associated with treatment response to topical and/or NB-UVB therapy. PMID:25357087

Bia?ecka, Monika; Ostasz, Roksana; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Klimowicz, Adam; Fabia?czyk, Honorata; Bojko, Piotr; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dro?dzik, Marek

2015-02-01

253

Increased risk of ischemic bowel complications during treatment with bevacizumab after pelvic irradiation: Report of three cases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the rate of severe bowel complications during treatment with the antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective evaluation of bevacizumab-associated severe intestinal adverse events from our institutional database. Results: A total of 33 patients started treatment with bevacizumab at our institution during the first 6 months after its approval in Germany. Three patients (9%) presented with severe bowel complications: two with acute ischemic colitis and one with gastrointestinal perforation with a fatal outcome. All 3 patients had undergone radiotherapy directed to the pelvis before treatment with bevacizumab. None of the 30 patients without bowel complications had been pretreated with infradiaphragmatic irradiation. Histologic evaluation of bowel biopsies and resection specimens revealed severe ischemic bowel damage as the pathophysiologic background of the clinical findings. Conclusion: This report contributes to the pathophysiologic clarification of bevacizumab-induced bowel complications and points to a potentially increased risk of severe ischemic damage during treatment with bevacizumab in patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy.

Lordick, Florian [Third Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology/Medical Oncology), Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: f.lordick@lrz.tum.de; Geinitz, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Theisen, Joerg [Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Sendler, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Sarbia, Mario [Department of Pathology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

2006-04-01

254

A Hybrid Geometric Phase II/III Clinical Trial Design based on Treatment Failure Time and Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The problem of comparing several experimental treatments to a standard arises frequently in medical research. Various multi-stage randomized phase II/III designs have been proposed that select one or more promising experimental treatments and compare them to the standard while controlling overall Type I and Type II error rates. This paper addresses phase II/III settings where the joint goals are to increase the average time to treatment failure and control the probability of toxicity while accounting for patient heterogeneity. We are motivated by the desire to construct a feasible design for a trial of four chemotherapy combinations for treating a family of rare pediatric brain tumors. We present a hybrid two-stage design based on two-dimensional treatment effect parameters. A targeted parameter set is constructed from elicited parameter pairs considered to be equally desirable. Bayesian regression models for failure time and the probability of toxicity as functions of treatment and prognostic covariates are used to define two-dimensional covariate-adjusted treatment effect parameter sets. Decisions at each stage of the trial are based on the ratio of posterior probabilities of the alternative and null covariate-adjusted parameter sets. Design parameters are chosen to minimize expected sample size subject to frequentist error constraints. The design is illustrated by application to the brain tumor trial design. PMID:22228921

Thall, Peter F.; Nguyen, Hoang Q.; Wang, Xuemei; Wolff, Johannes E.

2011-01-01

255

Open Lab Time as a Strategy to Increase Female (and Male) Retention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report explains how El Camino College used additional open lab time for their welding and electronics classes to aid all students and especially female students. This is because "female students come to classes with less hands-on experience than their male counterparts." El Camino College also added flexibility to the lab times to allow students who were taking night classes to use the lab.

2012-04-12

256

Pulsed Electric Field inactivation of microbial cells: the use of ceramic layers to increase the efficiency of treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on bacteria and plant or animal cells has been investigated since the early 1960s. High electric fields pulses (20-70 kV/cm, 1-10 ?s) are reported to cause rupture of the cellular lipid membrane, through the mechanism of irreversible electroporation. Quantitative description of cell inactivation kinetics is based on the analysis of stability of lipid bilayers under electric fields and the thermal fluctuations associated with the production of pores. PEF has been successfully applied to inactivation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in many sorts of liquids, such as milk, fruit juices and liquid eggs. In all these media, the level of inactivation could reach the 5 Logs for an approximate range of pulses of 100-200, and an energy consumption of ˜ 10-100 kJ/kg. The advantages of PEF are the superior maintenance of functional and nutritional levels (if compared to traditional thermal treatment), continuous treatment and short processing times, while the current high costs of this technique make it more suitable for treatment of expensive media. We present a solution to the problem of volumes in PEF treatment through the use of high permittivity ceramics, while retaining the same inactivation efficiency and improving the duration of the electrodes.

Pizzichemi, M.

2009-12-01

257

Investigation of Pitch and Jaw Width to Decrease Delivery Time of Helical Tomotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Helical tomotherapy plans using a combination of pitch and jaw width settings were developed for 3 patients previously treated for head and neck cancer. Three jaw widths (5, 2.5, and 1 cm) and 4 pitches (0.86, 0.43, 0.287, and 0.215) were used with a (maximum) modulation factor setting of 4. Twelve plans were generated for each patient using an identical optimization procedure (e.g., number of iterations, objective weights, and penalties, etc.), based on recommendations from TomoTherapy (Madison, WI). The plans were compared using isodose plots, dose volume histograms, dose homogeneity indexes, conformity indexes, radiobiological models, and treatment times. Smaller pitches and jaw widths showed better target dose homogeneity and sparing of normal tissue, as expected. However, the treatment time increased inversely proportional to the jaw width, resulting in delivery times of 24 {+-} 1.9 min for the 1-cm jaw width. Although treatment plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw were dosimetrically superior to plans produced with the 5-cm jaw, subsequent calculations of tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities suggest that these differences may not be radiobiologically meaningful. Because treatment plans produced with the 5-cm jaw can be delivered in approximately half the time of plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw (5.1 {+-} 0.6 min vs. 9.5 {+-} 1.1 min), use of the 5-cm jaw in routine treatment planning may be a viable approach to decreasing treatment delivery times from helical tomotherapy units.

Moldovan, Monica [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D., E-mail: jfontenot@marybird.com [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Gibbons, John P. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lee, Tae Kyu [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Rosen, Isaac I. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Fields, Robert S. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Hogstrom, Kenneth R. [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2011-01-01

258

The Role of Increased Accountability on the Use of Instructional Leadership Time by New York State Superintendents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of the school superintendent has evolved as a result of increased accountability, specifically under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Prior to NCLB, superintendents spent time the majority of their time on the managerial and political domains of leadership; however, the NCLB accountability movement combined with research on…

Pustolka, Elizabeth Wood

2012-01-01

259

Exercise-mimicking treatment fails to increase Fndc5 mRNA & irisin secretion in primary human myotubes.  

PubMed

Irisin, myokine secreted by skeletal muscle, was suggested to mediate some of exercise health benefits via "browning" of white adipose tissue. However, mounting evidence contradicts the regulatory role of exercise for muscle irisin production/secretion in humans. Thus, we explored the direct effect of exercise-mimicking treatment on irisin in human primary muscle cells in vitro. Human primary muscle cell cultures were established from lean, obese prediabetic and type-2-diabetic individuals. Complex metabolic phenotyping included assessment of insulin sensitivity (euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp) and adiposity content&distribution (MRI&MRS). In vitro exercise-mimicking treatment (forskolin+ionomycin) was delivered in 1-h pulse/day during differentiation. Fndc5 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and secreted irisin (ELISA) were determined in cells and media. Exercise-mimicking treatment more than doubled Pgc1? mRNA in differentiated muscle cells. Nevertheless, Fndc5 mRNA was reduced by 18% and irisin in media by 20%. Moreover, Fncd5 mRNA was increased in myotubes derived from individuals with type-2-diabetes, independent on exercise-mimicking treatment. Fndc5 mRNA in cells was positively related to fasting glycemia (p=0.0001) and negatively to whole-body insulin sensitivity (p<0.05). Collectively, our data do not support the role of exercise-related signaling pathways in irisin regulation in human skeletal muscle and confirm our previous observations on increased Fndc5 expression in muscle cells from individuals with type-2-diabetes. PMID:24642356

Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Mayer, Alexander; Maderova, Denisa; Belan, Vitazoslav; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

2014-06-01

260

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori in times of increasing antibiotic resistance  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Treatment is recommended in all symptomatic patients. The current treatment options for H. pylori infection are outlined in this review in light of the recent challenges in eradication success, largely due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance is a constantly evolving process and numerous studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori antibiotic resistance varies significantly from country to country, and even between regions within the same country. In addition, recent data has shown that previous antibiotic use is associated with harbouring antibiotic resistant H. pylori. Local surveillance of antibiotic resistance is warranted to guide clinicians in their choice of therapy. Antimicrobial resistance is assessed by H. pylori culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Recently developed molecular tests offer an attractive alternative to culture and allow for the rapid molecular genetic identification of H. pylori and resistance-associated mutations directly from biopsy samples or bacterial culture material. Accumulating evidence indicates that surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by susceptibility testing is feasible and necessary to inform clinicians in their choice of therapy for management of H. pylori infection. PMID:25110421

Smith, Sinéad M; O’Morain, Colm; McNamara, Deirdre

2014-01-01

261

Partial branching enzyme treatment increases the low glycaemic property and ?-1,6 branching ratio of maize starch.  

PubMed

Partial branching enzyme treatment was used to modulate the starch fine chain structure responsible for a high content of slowly digestible starch fraction. Normal maize starch modified using branching enzyme for 4h showed a maximum slowly digestible starch content of 23.90%. The branching enzyme hydrolysis decreased the amylose content from 32.8% to 12.8%. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches showed a larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in the enzyme treated starch sample compare to native starch. The number of shorter chains (DP<13) increased from 18.71% to 28.23.1%, accompanied by a reduction of longer chains (DP>30) from 20.11% to 11.95%. (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of ?-1,6 branching ratio from 4.7% to 9.4% during enzyme treatment. The increase in the amount of shorter chains and more ?-1,6 linkages likely contribute to their slow digestion property. These results suggest that starches treated with partial branching enzyme synthesis a novel branched structure with slowly digestible character. PMID:24996363

Li, Xingfeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Xue, Jiangchao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yaqi; Jia, Yingmin

2014-12-01

262

Heat treatment increases the incidence of alopecia areata in the C3H/HeJ mouse model  

PubMed Central

Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring hair loss. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between AA and physiological/psychological stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat treatment, a physiological stress, on AA development in C3H/HeJ mice. Whereas this strain of mice are predisposed to AA at low incidence by 18 months of age, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of hair loss in heat-treated 8-month-old C3H/HeJ mice compared with sham-treated mice. Histological analysis detected mononuclear cell infiltration in anagen hair follicles, a characteristic of AA, in heat-treated mouse skin. As expected, increased expression of induced HSPA1A/B (formerly called HSP70i) was detected in skin samples from heat-treated mice. Importantly, increased HSPA1A/B expression was also detected in skin samples from C3H/HeJ mice that developed AA spontaneously. Our results suggest that induction of HSPA1A/B may precipitate the development of AA in C3H/HeJ mice. For future studies, the C3H/HeJ mice with heat treatment may prove a useful model to investigate stress response in AA. PMID:20582641

Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Alvarez-Connelly, Elizabeth; Simon, Jessica; Mauro, Lucia M.; Guzman, Javier; Elgart, George; Schachner, Lawrence A.; Chen, Juan; Plano, Lisa R.

2010-01-01

263

Promoting new practices to increase access to and retention in addiction treatment: an analysis of five communication channels.  

PubMed

Addiction treatment programs adopt evidence-based practices slowly, in part because adopting a new practice is a process, not an event. Using different communication channels may have a different effect at different points in the process. This paper reports the effectiveness of five communication channels in getting substance abuse treatment programs to adopt new business practices. In this study, national trade media coverage produced the greatest interest among programs and the greatest number of decisions to adopt. Conference presentations produced fewer decisions to adopt than national media, but were the most effective channel when compared to the number of programs they reached. Peers were the greatest influence in moving clinic staff from the decision to adopt to implementation. These findings give preliminary evidence for using different communication channels at different times during an effort to promote the adoption of best practices. PMID:22771023

Johnson, Kimberly A; Ford, James H; McCluskey, Matthew

2012-11-01

264

Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Automatic fault detection is becoming increasingly important in wastewater treatment plant operation, given the stringent treatment standards and the need to protect the investment costs from the potential damage of an unchecked fault propagating through the plant. This paper describes the development of a real-time Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system based on an adaptive Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, used to compare the current plant operation with a correct performance model based on a reference data set and the output of three ion-specific sensors (Hach-Lange gmbh, Düsseldorf, Germany): two Nitratax NOx UV sensors, in the denitrification tank and downstream of the oxidation tanks, where an Amtax ammonium-N sensor was also installed. The algorithm was initially developed in the Matlab environment and then ported into the LabView 8.20 (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA) platform for real-time operation using a compact Field Point, a Programmable Automation Controller by National Instruments. The FDI was tested with a large set of operational data with 1 min sampling time from August 2007 through May 2008 from a full-scale plant. After describing the real-time version of the PCA algorithm, this was tested with nine months of operational data which were sequentially processes by the algorithm in order to simulate an on-line operation. The FDI performance was assessed by organizing the sequential data in two differing moving windows: a short-horizon window to test the response to single malfunctions and a longer time-horizon to simulate multiple unrepaired failures. In both cases the algorithm performance was very satisfactory, with a 100% failure detection in the short window case, which decreased to 84% in the long window setting. The short-window performance was very effective in isolating sensor failures and short duration disturbances such as spikes, whereas the long term horizon provided accurate detection of long-term drifts and proved robust enough to allow for some delay in failure recovery. The system robustness is based on the use of multiple statistics which proved instrumental in discriminating among the various causes of malfunctioning. PMID:19934517

Baggiani, F; Marsili-Libelli, S

2009-01-01

265

Manuka honey treatment of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in the emergence of isolates with increased honey resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Medical grade manuka honeys are well known to be efficacious against Pseudomonas aeruginosa being bactericidal and inhibiting the development of biofilms; moreover manuka honey effectively kills P. aeruginosa embedded within an established biofilm. Sustained honey resistance has not been previously documented for planktonic or biofilm P. aeruginosa. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations for manuka honey and antibiotics were determined using broth micro-dilution methods. Minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) and biofilm biomass were determined using the crystal violet method. Sub-culture used non-selective media and the grid-plate method. Results When honey treated biofilm biomass of two strains of P. aeruginosa (reference strain ATCC 9027 and the clinical isolate 867) were sub-cultured onto non-selective media isolates emerged that exhibited reduced susceptibility to manuka honey. Significantly, this characteristic was sustained with repeated sub-culture onto non-selective media resulting in increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of between 5-7% (w/v) and increased minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) of up to 15% (w/v). Interestingly the resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to antibiotic treatment with rifampicin and imipenem as well as being more prolific biofilm-formers than the progenitor strains. Conclusions P. aeruginosa biofilms treated with manuka honey equivalent to the MBEC harbour slow growing, viable persistor organisms that exhibit sustained, increased resistance to manuka honey and antibiotic treatment, suggesting a shared mechanism of resistance. This sheds new light on the propensity for biofilm embedded organisms to resist honey treatment and become persistor organisms that are tolerant to other antimicrobial therapies. PMID:24884949

2014-01-01

266

Examples of Decisions That Increased Risk At Macondo While Potentially Saving Time  

E-print Network

/or redesigning slurry Yes Saved Time Halliburton (and perhaps BP) on shore Not running cement evaluation log Yes/20/97 Freeport-McMoRan Resource Partners 01/06/98 Hall-Houston Oil Company 01/16/98 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. 04

267

Evaluation of Reaction Time in Virtual Reality environment for road safety increasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road safety is actually an overall objective of all industrialized countries. Design and development standards for roads and infrastructures' management are considered the main strategy to assure an adequate safety level. Since reaction time impacts on many design standards, they are based on kinetic and dynamic assumptions. Technical regulations for road design and institutional laws often disagree, both about conceptual

A. Benedetto; C. Benedetto

268

The Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools: Cultural Recognition in a Time of Increasing Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools" examines cultural recognition and the struggle for identity in America's schools. In particular, the contributing authors focus on the recognition and misrecognition as antagonistic cultural forces that work to shape, and at times distort identity. What surfaces throughout the chapters are two lessons…

Jenlink, Patrick M., Ed; Townes, Faye Hicks, Ed

2009-01-01

269

Shear Stress Increases the Residence Time of Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ubiquitous, the processes by which bacteria colonize surfaces remain poorly understood. Here we report results for the influence of the wall shear stress on the early-stage adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 on glass and polydimethylsiloxane surfaces. We use image analysis to measure the residence time of each adhering bacterium under flow. Our main finding is that, on either surface,

Sigolene Lecuyer; Roberto Rusconi; Yi Shen; Alison Forsyth; Hera Vlamakis; Roberto Kolter; Howard A. Stone

2011-01-01

270

Increasing Patient Safety and Surgical Team Communication by Using a Count\\/Time Out Board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication and collaboration in patient care settings is vital for promoting the best possible patient outcomes. The counting of sponges, sharps, and instruments, and the surgical time out before the start of any surgical procedure are opportunities for the surgical team to address patient safety risks. Personnel in the surgical services department at St Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas, implemented

Elizabeth Morell Edel

2010-01-01

271

Thermal-Aware Clock Tree Design to Increase Timing Reliability of Embedded SoCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip heating and nonuniform distribution of hot and cool zones on the die negatively affect reliability and robustness to failures of nanometer integrated circuits. In fact, signal propagation on interconnects slows down as temperature rises; for long wires crossing regions at different temperatures, such as the clock network, thermally induced delay and skew get altered and may result in timing

Ashutosh Chakraborty; Karthik Duraisami; Prassanna Sithambaram; Alberto Macii; Enrico Macii; Massimo Poncino

2010-01-01

272

Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.  

PubMed

The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-?, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP. PMID:24671717

Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

2014-06-01

273

How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how to plan and analyze studies to optimize this timing. Methods General considerations about studying the optimal timing are given and four fundamental steps are illustrated using data from a published study. Results The optimal timing should be examined by optimizing the schedule with respect to predicting the overall individual time course we can observe in the case of dense measurements. The optimal timing needs not to and should not be studied by optimizing the association with the prognosis of the patient. Conclusions The optimal timing should be examined in specific ‘schedule optimizing studies’. These should be clearly distinguished from studies evaluating the prognostic value of a reduction in viable tumor tissue. PMID:23133795

Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Fischer, Barbara Malene; Gerke, Oke; Weber, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

274

A Proton Beam Therapy System Dedicated to Spot-Scanning Increases Accuracy with Moving Tumors by Real-Time Imaging and Gating and Reduces Equipment Size  

PubMed Central

Purpose A proton beam therapy (PBT) system has been designed which dedicates to spot-scanning and has a gating function employing the fluoroscopy-based real-time-imaging of internal fiducial markers near tumors. The dose distribution and treatment time of the newly designed real-time-image gated, spot-scanning proton beam therapy (RGPT) were compared with free-breathing spot-scanning proton beam therapy (FBPT) in a simulation. Materials and Methods In-house simulation tools and treatment planning system VQA (Hitachi, Ltd., Japan) were used for estimating the dose distribution and treatment time. Simulations were performed for 48 motion parameters (including 8 respiratory patterns and 6 initial breathing timings) on CT data from two patients, A and B, with hepatocellular carcinoma and with clinical target volumes 14.6 cc and 63.1 cc. The respiratory patterns were derived from the actual trajectory of internal fiducial markers taken in X-ray real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT). Results With FBPT, 9/48 motion parameters achieved the criteria of successful delivery for patient A and 0/48 for B. With RGPT 48/48 and 42/48 achieved the criteria. Compared with FBPT, the mean liver dose was smaller with RGPT with statistical significance (p<0.001); it decreased from 27% to 13% and 28% to 23% of the prescribed doses for patients A and B, respectively. The relative lengthening of treatment time to administer 3 Gy (RBE) was estimated to be 1.22 (RGPT/FBPT: 138 s/113 s) and 1.72 (207 s/120 s) for patients A and B, respectively. Conclusions This simulation study demonstrated that the RGPT was able to improve the dose distribution markedly for moving tumors without very large treatment time extension. The proton beam therapy system dedicated to spot-scanning with a gating function for real-time imaging increases accuracy with moving tumors and reduces the physical size, and subsequently the cost of the equipment as well as of the building housing the equipment. PMID:24747601

Shimizu, Shinichi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Matsuura, Taeko; Fujii, Yusuke; Umezawa, Masumi; Umegaki, Kikuo; Hiramoto, Kazuo; Shirato, Hiroki

2014-01-01

275

Accounting for individual differences and timing of events: estimating the effect of treatment on criminal convictions in heroin users  

PubMed Central

Background The reduction of crime is an important outcome of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Criminal intensity and treatment regimes vary among OMT patients, but this is rarely adjusted for in statistical analyses, which tend to focus on cohort incidence rates and rate ratios. The purpose of this work was to estimate the relationship between treatment and criminal convictions among OMT patients, adjusting for individual covariate information and timing of events, fitting time-to-event regression models of increasing complexity. Methods National criminal records were cross linked with treatment data on 3221 patients starting OMT in Norway 1997–2003. In addition to calculating cohort incidence rates, criminal convictions was modelled as a recurrent event dependent variable, and treatment a time-dependent covariate, in Cox proportional hazards, Aalen’s additive hazards, and semi-parametric additive hazards regression models. Both fixed and dynamic covariates were included. Results During OMT, the number of days with criminal convictions for the cohort as a whole was 61% lower than when not in treatment. OMT was associated with reduced number of days with criminal convictions in all time-to-event regression models, but the hazard ratio (95% CI) was strongly attenuated when adjusting for covariates; from 0.40 (0.35, 0.45) in a univariate model to 0.79 (0.72, 0.87) in a fully adjusted model. The hazard was lower for females and decreasing with older age, while increasing with high numbers of criminal convictions prior to application to OMT (all p?time-varying with their effects diminishing over time. Conclusions Analyzing complex observational data regarding to fixed factors only overlooks important temporal information, and naïve cohort level incidence rates might result in biased estimates of the effect of interventions. Applying time-to-event regression models, properly adjusting for individual covariate information and timing of various events, allows for more precise and reliable effect estimates, as well as painting a more nuanced picture that can aid health care professionals and policy makers. PMID:24886472

2014-01-01

276

Third Place: Increasing Dwell Time of Mitomycin C in the Upper Tract with a Reverse Thermosensitive Polymer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Purpose Topical chemotherapy for urothelial cancer is dependent on adequate contact time of the chemotherapeutic agent with the urothelium. To date, there has not been a reliable method of maintaining this contact for renal or ureteral urothelial carcinoma. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of using a reverse thermosensitive polymer to improve dwell times of mitomycin C (MMC) in the upper tract. Materials and Methods Using a porcine model, four animals were treated ureteroscopically with both upper urinary tracts receiving MMC mixed with iodinated contrast. One additional animal received MMC percutaneously. The treatment side had ureteral outflow blocked with a reverse thermosensitive polymer plug. MMC dwell time was monitored fluoroscopically and intrarenal pressures measured. Two animals were euthanized immediately, and three animals were euthanized 5 days afterward. Results In control kidneys, drainage occurred at a mean of 5.3±0.58 minutes. Intrarenal pressures stayed fairly stable: 9.7±14.0?cm H20. In treatment kidneys, dwell time was extended to 60 minutes, when the polymer was washed out. Intrarenal pressures in the treatment kidneys peaked at 75.0±14.7?cm H20 and reached steady state at 60?cm H20. Pressures normalized after washout of the polymer with cool saline. Average washout time was 11.8±9.6 minutes. No histopathologic differences were seen between the control and treatment kidneys, or with immediate compared with delayed euthanasia. Conclusions A reverse thermosensitive polymer can retain MMC in the upper urinary tract and appears to be safe from our examination of intrarenal pressures and histopathology. This technique may improve the efficacy of topical chemotherapy in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. PMID:22998421

Wang, Agnes J.; Goldsmith, Zachariah G.; Neisius, Andreas; Astroza, Gaston M.; Oredein-McCoy, Olugbemisola; Iqbal, Muhammad W.; Simmons, W. Neal; Madden, John F.; Preminger, Glenn M.; Inman, Brant A.; Lipkin, Michael E.

2013-01-01

277

Increasing access to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment: effectiveness of a free nicotine patch program among Chinese immigrants.  

PubMed

Pharmacotherapy substantially increases smoking cessation rates. However, programs to reduce barriers to this evidence-based treatment may not improve access among high risk immigrant non English speaking populations. This study estimates the effectiveness of a tailored free nicotine patch (NRT) program among Chinese American smokers living in New York City (NYC). Between July 2004 and May 2005 NRT was distributed to 375 smokers through two community-based organizations that serve the Asian American population in NYC. Participants completed an in person baseline survey and a 4-month follow-up telephone survey. Using an intention to treat analysis the abstinence rate at 4 months was 26.7% (100/375). Predictors of cessation included higher levels of self efficacy at baseline, not smoking while using the patch and concern about personal health risks. Distribution through easy to access, culturally competent local community organizations increased the reach of a free nicotine patch program and assisted smokers in quitting. PMID:18825498

Shelley, Donna; Nguyen, Nam; Peng, Cha-Hui; Chin, Margaret; Chang, Ming-der; Fahs, Marianne

2010-04-01

278

Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

Wooley, John F.

279

A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change with Increased Investment in Instructional Time  

PubMed Central

There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant investment of course time is required to enable students to show gains commensurate to a summer research experience. An alumni survey revealed that time spent on a research project is also a significant factor in the value former students assign to the experience one or more years later. We conclude: 1) implementation of a bioinformatics project within the biology curriculum provides a mechanism for successfully engaging large numbers of students in undergraduate research; 2) benefits to students are achievable at a wide variety of academic institutions; and 3) successful implementation of course-based research experiences requires significant investment of instructional time for students to gain full benefit. PMID:24591510

Shaffer, Christopher D.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Bednarski, April E.; Dunbar, David; Goodman, Anya L.; Reinke, Catherine; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bazinet, Christopher; Beach, Dale L.; Bedard, James E. J.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John; Burg, Martin; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Clase, Kari; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Eisler, Heather; Emerson, Julia A.; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hauser, Charles; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Howell, Carina E.; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J.; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Silver Key, S. Catherine; Kleinschmit, Adam; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga; Kuleck, Gary; Leatherman, Judith; Lopilato, Jane; MacKinnon, Christy; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Mistry, Hemlata; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul; Paetkau, Don W.; Parrish, Susan; Peterson, Celeste N.; Preuss, Mary; Reed, Laura K.; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary A.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Stamm, Joyce; Szauter, Paul; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Mardis, Elaine R.; Buhler, Jeremy; Leung, Wilson; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

2014-01-01

280

Delay and déjà vu: timing and repetition increase the power of false evidence.  

PubMed

False images and videos can induce people to believe in and remember events that never happened. Using a novel method, we examined whether the timing of false evidence would influence its effect (Experiment 1) and determined the relationship between timing and repetition (Experiment 2). Subjects completed a hazard perception driving test and were falsely accused of cheating. Some subjects were shown a fake video or photograph of the cheating either after a 9-min delay (Experiment 1) or more than once with or without a delay (Experiment 2). Subjects were more likely to falsely believe that they had cheated and to provide details about how the cheating happened when the false evidence was delayed or repeated-especially when repeated over time-relative to controls. The results show that even a strikingly short delay between an event and when false evidence is disclosed can distort people's beliefs and that repeating false evidence over a brief delay fosters false beliefs more so than without a delay. These findings have theoretical implications for metacognitive models of autobiographical memory and practical implications for police interrogations. PMID:23392652

Wright, Deborah S; Wade, Kimberley A; Watson, Derrick G

2013-08-01

281

Wait times for publicly funded addiction and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background This study describes the definitions of wait times and intake processes used by drug and problem gambling treatment agencies in Ontario, Canada, as well as the various strategies employed to ameliorate client backlog. Methods An online survey was developed and distributed to 203 publicly-funded, provincial substance use and problem gambling treatment agencies from June to August, 2011. All aspects of the intake process were covered in the survey. Results Based on 139 responses, six different wait time periods were identified. Additional analyses were completed by type of service offered. Suggestions for effective interventions to shorten wait times and recommendations for future research are provided. Conclusion The results of this study highlight a need for standardized definitions of wait times across substance use and problem gambling treatment services. PMID:24252217

2013-01-01

282

Automated method for detecting increases in frequency of spontaneous adverse event reports over time.  

PubMed

A statistical methodology--focused on temporal change detection--was developed to highlight excursions from baseline spontaneous adverse event (AE) reporting. We used regression (both smooth trend and seasonal components) to model the time course of a drug's reports containing an AE, and then compared the sum of counts in the past 2 months with the fitted trend. The signaling threshold was tuned, using retrospective analysis, to yield acceptable sensitivity and specificity. The method may enhance pharmacovigilance by providing effective automated alerting of reporting aberrations when databases are small, when drugs have established safety profiles, and/or when product quality issues are of concern. PMID:23331229

DuMouchel, William; Yuen, Nancy; Payvandi, Nassrin; Booth, Wendy; Rut, Andrew; Fram, David

2013-01-01

283

Sleep deprivation blunts the night time increase in aldosterone release in humans.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sleep deprivation on the 24-h profile of aldosterone and its consequences on renal function. Aldosterone and its main hormonal regulatory factors, ACTH (evaluated by cortisol measurement) and the renin-angiotensin system [RAS, evaluated by plasma renin activity (PRA) measurement] were determined every 10 min for 24 h in eight healthy subjects in the supine position, once with nocturnal sleep and once during total 24-h sleep deprivation. Plasma Na(+) and K(+) were measured every 10 min in four of these subjects. In an additional group of 13 subjects under enteral nutrition, diuresis, natriuresis and kaliuresis were measured once during the sleep period (23.00--07.00 h) and once during a 23.00--07.00 hours sleep deprivation period. During sleep deprivation, aldosterone displayed lower plasma levels and pulse amplitude in the 23.00--07.00-hour period than during sleep. Similarly, PRA showed reduced levels and lower pulse frequency and amplitude. Plasma cortisol levels were slightly enhanced during sleep deprivation. Overnight profiles of plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not affected. Diuresis and kaliuresis were not influenced by sleep deprivation. In contrast, natriuresis significantly increased during sleep deprivation. This study demonstrates that sleep deprivation modifies the 24-h aldosterone profile by preventing the nocturnal increase in aldosterone release and leads to altered overnight hydromineral balance. PMID:11285052

Charloux, A; Gronfier, C; Chapotot, F; Ehrhart, J; Piquard, F; Brandenberger, G

2001-03-01

284

Increased beam attenuation and surface dose by different couch inserts of treatment tables used in megavoltage radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The use of solid carbon fiber table materials in radiotherapy has become more common with the implementation of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), since the solid materials give less imaging artifacts than the so-called tennis racket couchtops. The downside of the solid carbon fiber couch inserts is that they increase the beam attenuation, resulting in increased surface doses and inaccuracies in determine the dose in the patient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interaction of 6 and 15 MV photons with eight different couch inserts. The presented results enable direct comparison of the attenuation properties of the studied couchtops. With a direct posterior beam the maximum attenuations reach 3.6% and 2.4% with 6 and 15 MV, respectively. The measured maximum attenuation by a couchtop with an oblique gantry angle was 10.8% and 7.4% at 6 and 15 MV energies, respectively. The skin-sparing effect was decreased substantially with every couchtop. The highest increases in surface doses were recorded to be four- and threefold, as compared to the direct posterior open field surface doses of 6 and 15 MV, respectively. In conclusion, the carbon fiber tabletops decrease the skin-sparing effect of megavoltage photon energies. The increased beam attenuation and skin doses should be taken into account in the process of treatment planning. PMID:22089010

Seppälä, Jan K H; Kulmala, Jarmo A J

2011-01-01

285

Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT.  

PubMed

Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6?MV, 10?MV, 6?MV-FFF, 10?MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3?mm, 0.5?sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications. PMID:25088064

Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Scheib, Stefan G; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

2014-08-21

286

A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) increases the sensitivity of antigen-driven cytokine detection.  

PubMed

In an effort to improve the quantification of the low levels of cytokines released in response to antigenic stimulation of T cells, a sandwich dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA) was developed and compared to a standard sandwich ELISA. The DELFIA enhanced the sensitivity of a mouse IL-2 assay 8- to 27-fold, and a human GM-CSF assay 10-fold, as compared to colorimetric ELISA. The increase in sensitivity allows for the use of lower sample volumes per well, and the ability to run more assays per supernatant sample. This sensitive, nonisotopic alternative to other cytokine detection methods will be useful for those researchers wanting to quantitate low levels of antigen-driven cytokine production. PMID:14677653

Allicotti, Gina; Borras, Eva; Pinilla, Clemencia

2003-01-01

287

GCN2 is required to increase fibroblast growth factor 21 and maintain hepatic triglyceride homeostasis during asparaginase treatment.  

PubMed

The antileukemic agent asparaginase triggers the amino acid response (AAR) in the liver by activating the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2). To explore the mechanism by which AAR induction is necessary to mitigate hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent liver dysfunction during continued asparaginase treatment, wild-type and Gcn2 null mice were injected once daily with asparaginase or phosphate buffered saline for up to 14 days. Asparaginase induced mRNA expression of multiple AAR genes and greatly increased circulating concentrations of the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) independent of food intake. Loss of Gcn2 precluded mRNA expression and circulating levels of FGF21 and blocked mRNA expression of multiple genes regulating lipid synthesis and metabolism including Fas, Ppara, Pparg, Acadm, and Scd1 in both liver and white adipose tissue. Furthermore, rates of triglyceride export and protein expression of apolipoproteinB-100 were significantly reduced in the livers of Gcn2 null mice treated with asparaginase, providing a mechanistic basis for the increase in hepatic lipid content. Loss of AAR-regulated antioxidant defenses in Gcn2 null livers was signified by reduced Gpx1 gene expression alongside increased lipid peroxidation. Substantial reductions in antithrombin III hepatic expression and activity in the blood of asparaginase-treated Gcn2 null mice indicated liver dysfunction. These results suggest that the ability of the liver to adapt to prolonged asparaginase treatment is influenced by GCN2-directed regulation of FGF21 and oxidative defenses, which, when lost, corresponds with maladaptive effects on lipid metabolism and hemostasis. PMID:25491724

Wilson, Gabriel J; Lennox, Brittany A; She, Pengxiang; Mirek, Emily T; Al Baghdadi, Rana J T; Fusakio, Michael E; Dixon, Joseph L; Henderson, Gregory C; Wek, Ronald C; Anthony, Tracy G

2015-02-15

288

Increasing time to operation is associated with decreased survival in patients with a positive FAST exam requiring emergent laparotomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is commonly used to facilitate the timely diagnosis of life threatening hemorrhage in injured patients. Most patients with positive findings on FAST require laparotomy. Though it is assumed that an increasing time to operation leads to higher mortality, this relationship has not been quantified. This study sought to determine the impact of time to operation (T-OR) on survival in patients with a positive FAST that required emergent laparotomy. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients from the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) study that underwent laparotomy within 90 minutes of presentation and had a FAST performed. Cox proportional hazards models including Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, base deficit and hospital site were created to examine the impact of increasing T-OR on in-hospital survival at 24 hours and 30 days. The impact of time from the performance of the FAST exam to operation (TFAST-OR) on in-hospital mortality was also examined using the same model. Results One hundred and fifteen patients met study criteria and had complete data. Increasing T-OR was associated with increased in-hospital mortality at 24 hours (hazard ratio [HR] 1.50 for each 10 minute increase in T-OR, confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.97, p = 0.003) and 30 days (HR 1.41, CI 1.18-2.10, p = 0.002). Increasing TFAST-OR was also associated with higher in-hospital mortality at 24 hours (HR 1.34, CI 1.03-1.72, p = 0.03) and 30 days (HR 1.40, CI 1.06-1.84, p = 0.02). Conclusion In patients with a positive FAST who required emergent laparotomy, delay in operation was associated with increased early and late in-hospital mortality. Delays in time to operation in trauma patients with a positive FAST should be minimized. PMID:23778511

Barbosa, Ronald R.; Rowell, Susan E.; Fox, Erin E.; Holcomb, John B.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Phelan, Herbert A; Alarcon, Louis H.; Myers, John G.; Brasel, Karen J.; Muskat, Peter C.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Wade, Charles E.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.

2013-01-01

289

Increasing the time resolution of a pulse width modulator in a class D power amplifier by using delay lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method to increase the time resolution of a pulse width modulator by using delay lines. The modulator is part of an open loop class D power amplifier, which uses the ZePoC algorithm to code the audio signal which is amplified in the class D power stage. If the time resolution of the pulse width modulator is high enough, ZePoC could also be used to build an high accuracy AC power standard, because of its open loop property. With the presented method the time resolution theoretically could be increased by a factor of 16, which means here the time resolution will be enhanced from 5 ns to 312.5 ps.

Weber, M.; Vennemann, T.; Mathis, W.

2014-11-01

290

Time course of imaging changes of GBM during extended bevacizumab treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are morphologically heterogeneous tumors, with varying amounts of necrosis, and edema. Previous\\u000a studies have shown that treatments incorporating the VEGF antibody bevacizumab can reduce edema and tumor burden in GBM. Additionally\\u000a it has been suggested that bevacizumab regimen treatment reduces the percent of tumoral necrosis. Therefore we sought to (1)\\u000a determine the time course of change in

Suchitra Ananthnarayan; Jennie Bahng; James Roring; Phioanh Nghiemphu; Albert Lai; Timothy Cloughesy; Whitney B. Pope

2008-01-01

291

Quantitative analysis of beam delivery parameters and treatment process time for proton beam therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate patient census, equipment clinical availability, maximum daily treatment capacity, use factor for major beam delivery parameters, and treatment process time for actual treatments delivered by proton therapy systems. Methods: The authors have been recording all beam delivery parameters, including delivered dose, energy, range, spread-out Bragg peak widths, gantry angles, and couch angles for every treatment field in an electronic medical record system. We analyzed delivery system downtimes that had been recorded for every equipment failure and associated incidents. These data were used to evaluate the use factor of beam delivery parameters, the size of the patient census, and the equipment clinical availability of the facility. The duration of each treatment session from patient walk-in and to patient walk-out of the treatment room was measured for 82 patients with cancers at various sites. Results: The yearly average equipment clinical availability in the last 3 yrs (June 2007-August 2010) was 97%, which exceeded the target of 95%. Approximately 2200 patients had been treated as of August 2010. The major disease sites were genitourinary (49%), thoracic (25%), central nervous system (22%), and gastrointestinal (2%). Beams have been delivered in approximately 8300 treatment fields. The use factor for six beam delivery parameters was also evaluated. Analysis of the treatment process times indicated that approximately 80% of this time was spent for patient and equipment setup. The other 20% was spent waiting for beam delivery and beam on. The total treatment process time can be expressed by a quadratic polynomial of the number of fields per session. The maximum daily treatment capacity of our facility using the current treatment processes was estimated to be 133 {+-} 35 patients. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the facility has operated at a high performance level and has treated a large number of patients with a variety of diseases. The use factor of beam delivery parameters varies by disease site. Further improvements in efficiency may be realized in the equipment- and patient-related processes of treatment.

Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.; Lippy, Denise [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); The Proton Therapy Center Houston, Ltd., L.L.P., 1840 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, Texas 77054 (United States)

2011-07-15

292

Time to discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in a schizophrenia cohort: influence of current treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia are high and evidence is limited by selective inclusion and high attrition in randomized controlled trials. Aims To study time to discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Method All patients with schizophrenia (n = 396) discharged between 2005 and 2011 were followed until discontinuation (clinician or patient decided) of antipsychotic treatment or other endpoints. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses (with time on antipsychotic treatment as the dependent variable) using time-dependent variables were performed. Results Clozapine displayed lower risk for all-cause (p < 0.001), clinician-decided (p = 0.012) and patient-decided (p = 0.039) discontinuation versus olanzapine oral treatment in the multivariate Cox regression. Second-generation long-acting injection antipsychotics (LAI) (p = 0.015) and first-generation long-acting injection antipsychotics (p = 0.013) showed significantly lower risks for patient-decided discontinuation than olanzapine oral. Conclusion Higher effectiveness of clozapine and LAI treatment versus oral olanzapine were identified in a clinical cohort of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25489474

Kjelby, Eirik; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Mellesdal, Liv S.; Jørgensen, Hugo A.; Johnsen, Erik

2014-01-01

293

Environmental enrichment preceding early adulthood methylphenidate treatment leads to long term increase of corticosterone and testosterone in the rat.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) has been emerging as a world-wide psychiatric disorder. There appears to be an increasing rate of stimulant drug abuse, specifically methylphenidate (MPH) which is the most common treatment for ADHD, among individuals who do not meet the criteria for ADHD and particularly for cognitive enhancement among university students. However, the long term effects of exposure to MPH are unknown. Thus, in light of a developmental approach in humans, we aimed to test the effects of adolescence exposure to enriched environment (EE) followed by MPH administration during early adulthood, on reactions to stress in adulthood. Specifically, at approximate adolescence [post natal days (PND) 30-60] rats were reared in EE and were treated with MPH during early adulthood (PND 60-90). Adult (PND 90-92) rats were exposed to mild stress and starting at PND 110, the behavioral and endocrine effects of the combined drug and environmental conditions were assessed. Following adolescence EE, long term exposure to MPH led to decreased locomotor activity and increased sucrose preference. EE had a beneficial effect on PPI (attentive abilities), which was impaired by long term exposure to MPH. Finally, the interaction between EE and, exposure to MPH led to long-term elevated corticosterone and testosterone levels. In view of the marked increase in MPH consumption over the past decade, vigilance is crucial in order to prevent potential drug abuse and its long term detrimental consequences. PMID:21789212

Avital, Avi; Dolev, Talya; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

2011-01-01

294

Systems Biology Investigation of cAMP Modulation to Increase SMN Levels for the Treatment of Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant death worldwide, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1), which encodes the protein SMN. The loss of SMN1 causes a deficiency in SMN protein levels leading to motor neuron cell death in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMN2, however, can also produce some functional SMN to partially compensate for loss of SMN1 in SMA suggesting increasing transcription of SMN2 as a potential therapy to treat patients with SMA. A cAMP response element was identified on the SMN2 promoter, implicating cAMP activation as a step in the transcription of SMN2. Therefore, we investigated the effects of modulating the cAMP signaling cascade on SMN production in vitro and in silico. SMA patient fibroblasts were treated with the cAMP signaling modulators rolipram, salbutamol, dbcAMP, epinephrine and forskolin. All of the modulators tested were able to increase gem formation, a marker for SMN protein in the nucleus, in a dose-dependent manner. We then derived two possible mathematical models simulating the regulation of SMN2 expression by cAMP signaling. Both models fit well with our experimental data. In silico treatment of SMA fibroblasts simultaneously with two different cAMP modulators resulted in an additive increase in gem formation. This study shows how a systems biology approach can be used to develop potential therapeutic targets for treating SMA. PMID:25514431

Mack, Sean G.; Cook, Daniel J.; Dhurjati, Prasad; Butchbach, Matthew E. R.

2014-01-01

295

Treatment times of Class II malocclusion: four premolar and non-extraction protocols.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the treatment times of Class II division 1 malocclusion subjects treated with four first premolar extractions or a non-extraction protocol and fixed edgewise appliances. Eighty-four patients were selected and divided into two groups. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 48 patients (27 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 13.03 years and group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 36 patients (18 males and 18 females) with a mean age of 13.13 years. Group 2 was subdivided into two subgroups, 2A consisting of 16 patients treated in one phase and 2B consisting of 20 patients treated in two phases. The initial and final Treatment Priority Index (TPI), initial ages, initial mandibular crowding, and treatment times of groups 1 and 2 were compared with t-tests. These variables were also compared between group 1 and the subgroups with analysis of variance followed by Tukey's tests. The treatment times for groups 1 and 2 and subgroups 2A and 2B were 2.36, 2.47, 2.25, and 2.64 years, respectively, which were not significantly different. Treatment times with non-extraction and four premolar extraction protocols are similar. PMID:21393372

Janson, Guilherme; Valarelli, Danilo Pinelli; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

2012-04-01

296

An Increasing Hybrid Morphological-Linear Perceptron with Evolutionary Learning and Phase Correction for Financial Time Series Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a suitable model to solve the financial time series forecasting problem, called increasing hybrid morphological-linear perceptron (IHMP). An evolutionary training algorithm is presented to design the IHMP (learning process), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA). The learning process includes an automatic phase correction step that is geared at eliminating the time phase distortions that typically occur in financial time series forecasting. Furthermore, we compare the proposed IHMP with other neural and statistical models using two complex nonlinear problems of financial forecasting.

de A. Araújo, Ricardo; Sussner, Peter

297

Ultrasound Treatment Increases Transfection Efficiency of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan in Fibroblasts but Not in KB Cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to optimize transfection efficiency (TE) of the depolymerized low molecular weight (LW) chitosan with molecular weight (Mw) at 16 kDa and 54% degree of deacetylation (DDA) on three primary cells of fibroblast (F), dental pulp (P), and periodontal ligament (PDL). The effect of low frequency ultrasound treatment on the chitosan-DNA complexes prior transfection on TE was also evaluated. This LW chitosan required high N/P ratio (>34) to bind DNA completely. An N/P ratio above 56 tended to improve TE in most primary cells nearly at the level of Lipofectamine. Ultrasonication can reduce the aggregation and sizes of the chitosan-DNA microparticles. It increased TE of F cells at an N/P ratio above 34, which was higher than Lipofectamine. However, this ultrasound treatment caused loss of TE in KB cells. MTT assay of these chitosan-DNA complexes revealed no significant cytotoxicity to both KB and F cells. This LW chitosan has potential for further development into a safer alternative to gene delivery systems in various cells of interest; however the optimal conditions have to be adjusted, depending on each cell source. PMID:24651870

Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn; Supaprutsakul, Chanyapat; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

2014-01-01

298

Methotrexate Treatment Causes Early Onset of Disease in a Mouse Model of Ross River Virus-Induced Inflammatory Disease through Increased Monocyte Production  

PubMed Central

Part of the Togaviridae family, alphaviruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Sindbis virus (SINV) and Ross River virus (RRV), are able to cause significant inflammatory pathologies ranging from arthritis to encephalitis. Following symptomatic infection with arthritis-associated alphaviruses, patients often experience severe joint pain, affecting distal and small joints, which can last six months or longer. Recently, methotrexate (MTX), a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD), was used to treat patients experiencing chronic rheumatic symptoms following infection with CHIKV. Here, the effect of MTX on Ross River virus disease (RRVD) in mice was examined to better understand its therapeutic potential for alphaviral-induced musculoskeletal disease and to further our knowledge of the development of alphaviral pathologies. Using a mouse model, we analyzed the effect of MTX on RRVD. RRV disease pathogenesis in response to MTX treatment was determined by measuring levels of proinflammatory factors, cellular infiltrates, viral titer and histological analysis of infected tissues. RRV-infected mice receiving MTX treatment rapidly developed musculoskeletal disease, which correlated with a significant influx of inflammatory cell infiltrates into the skeletal muscle tissue. Although no difference was observed in the level of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the viral load increased at early time points post infection in the serum and quadriceps of MTX treated mice, possibly contributing to disease pathogenesis. Results suggest that MTX treatment of acute RRVD in mice provides no therapeutic benefit and underline the importance of inflammatory monocytes in alphaviral induced arthritides. PMID:23951095

Taylor, Adam; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Herrero, Lara J.; Chen, Weiqiang; Rulli, Nestor E.; Mahalingam, Suresh

2013-01-01

299

Feedlot health and performance effects associated with the timing of respiratory disease treatment.  

PubMed

Generalized linear mixed models were developed using retrospective feedlot data collected on individually treated cattle (n = 31,131) to determine whether cattle performance and health outcomes in feedlot cattle were associated with timing of treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) during the feeding phase. Cattle that died at any point during the feeding phase were removed from the analysis. Information on individual animal performance (ADG, HCW, quality grade, yield grade) and health outcomes (treatments) were incorporated into an economic model that generated a standardized net return estimate for each animal. Prices were standardized to minimize variation between economic outcomes due to market conditions allowing direct comparisons of health and performance effects between animals. While controlling for sex, risk code, and arrival BW class, potential associations between net returns and the timing of BRD identification were investigated using 2 categorical variables created to measure time: 1) weeks on feed at initial BRD treatment, and 2) weeks from BRD treatment to slaughter. The first model using net return as the outcome identified an interaction between weeks on feed at initial BRD treatment and animal arrival BW. Cattle with arrival BW between 227 and 272 kg (5WT) and 273 and 318 kg (6WT) displayed decreased net returns (P < 0.05) if treated during wk 1 as compared with subsequent weeks in the first month of the feeding phase. The cattle with BW between 319 and 363 kg (7WT) and 364 and 408 kg (8WT) exhibited decreased net returns (P < 0.05) if treated during the later weeks of the feeding phase compared with earlier in the feeding phase. The number of times cattle were treated contributed to variation in net returns for the 5WT and 6WT cattle. For the 7WT and 8WT cattle, HCW was the main factor contributing to decreased net returns when cattle were treated late in the feeding phase. The second model identified an interaction between weeks from BRD treatment to slaughter and arrival BW. The 181 to 226 kg of BW, 5WT, 6WT, 7WT, and 8WT cattle all exhibited decreased net returns (P < 0.05) when cattle were on feed fewer weeks from BRD treatment to slaughter. Cattle with more weeks on feed between BRD treatment and slaughter had greater HCW, decreased ADG, and more total treatments compared with cattle treated closer to slaughter. This research indicates that timing of initial BRD treatment is associated with performance and health outcomes. PMID:18765846

Babcock, A H; White, B J; Dritz, S S; Thomson, D U; Renter, D G

2009-01-01

300

Sub-volume Heating Strategy To Shorten Treatment Time In Ultrasound Surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treating tumors or other potentially large targets for thermal ablation can be a very time-consuming task in ultrasound surgery. Tumors are conventionally treated by pointwise scanning over the tumor region using predetermined focal points. During scanning, cooling times are needed between two consecutive focal points to diffuse thermal buildup in the near field, which can prevent undesired temperature rises in healthy tissue. It is possible to accelerate the treatment while ensuring the safety of healthy tissue by reallocation of the heating and cooling times for individual focus points. In this study, we proposed a sub-volume heating strategy by reducing the number of cooling periods, to shorten the treatment time. The target volume is divided into several equally sized sub-volumes, each of which is covered by the same number of focal points. The sub-volume is sonicated, followed by a constant cooling period (the number of cooling periods = the number of sub-volumes). The proposed strategy was evaluated with numerical simulations in 3D and ex vivo experiments using three different: (1) a `conservative' approach, wherein each focal point is a sub-volume; (2) an `aggressive' approach, wherein all focal points make up a sub-volume; and (3) an `intermediate' approach, wherein several focus points make up a sub-volume. The results demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy; it was able to effectively reduce the treatment times by decreasing total cooling times. This study indicated that by appropriate selection of the sub-volume size and heating sequence, it may be useful to overcome the current obstacle of treatment time during large tumor treatments.

Xiang, Ji; Guofeng, Shen; Jingfeng, Bai; Yazhu, Chen

2011-09-01

301

Treatment by specialist surgical neurooncologists improves survival times for patients with malignant glioma.  

PubMed

OBJECT Surgeries for CNS tumors are frequently performed by general neurosurgeons and by those who specialize in surgical neurooncology. Subspecialization in neurosurgical practice has become common and may improve patient morbidity and mortality rates. However, the potential benefits for patients of having their surgeries performed by surgical neurooncologists remain unclear. Recently, a shift in patient care to those who practice predominantly surgical neurooncology has been promoted. Evidence for this practice is lacking and therefore requires fundamental investigation. METHODS The authors conducted a case-control study of neurooncology patients who underwent surgery for glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma during 2006-2009. Outcomes were compared for patients whose surgery was performed by general neurosurgeons (generalists) or by specialist neurooncology neurosurgeons (specialists). An electronic record database and a picture archiving and communication system were used to collect data and assess the extent of tumor resection. Mortality rates and survival times were compared. Patient comorbidity and postoperative morbidity were assessed by using the Waterlow, patient handling, and falls risk assessment scores. Effects of case mix were adjusted for by using Cox regression and a hazards model. RESULTS Outcomes for 135 patients (65 treated by generalists and 70 by specialists) were analyzed. Survival times were longer for patients whose surgery was performed by specialists (p = 0.026) and after correction for case mix (p = 0.019). Extent of tumor resection was greater when performed by specialists (p = 0.005) and correlated with increased survival times (p = 0.004). There was a trend toward reduced surgical deaths when surgery was performed by specialists (2.8%) versus generalists (7%) (p = 0.102), and inpatient stays were significantly shorter when surgery was performed by specialists (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS The prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme remains dire, and improved treatments are urgently needed. This study provides evidence for a survival benefit when surgery is performed by specialist neurooncology neurosurgeons. The benefit might be attributable to increased tumor resection. Furthermore, specialist neurooncology surgical care may reduce the number of surgical patient deaths and length of inpatient stay. These findings support the recommendations for subspecialization within surgical neurooncology and advocate for care of these patients by specialists. PMID:25415070

Khan, Ursalan A; Bhavsar, Amar; Asif, Hasan; Karabatsou, Konstantina; Leggate, James R S; Sofat, Ajit; Kamaly-Asl, Ian D

2015-02-01

302

Post-hospitalization adjustment of psychiatric patients following a time-limited psychoeducational treatment program  

E-print Network

; Nuechterlein, Snyder, Dawson, Rappe, Gitlin, & Fogelson, 1986). These studies have shown that the chance of relapse typically increases by a factor of approximately four when a patient returns to a family environment marked by high levels of criticism... and use of community resources. The treatment condition patients were provided a short-term, five session psychoeducational intervention which emphasized increasing their knowledge of their illness and ways in which they could manage their symptoms...

Velasquez, John Martin

1992-01-01

303

Disruption of IGF-1R signaling increases TRAIL-induced apoptosis: A new potential therapy for the treatment of melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis is dependent on a balance of multiple genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, which up-regulate efficacy of the surviving growth factor-receptor signaling pathways and suppress death-receptor signaling pathways. The Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is highly active in metastatic melanoma cells by mediating downstream activation of PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways and controlling general cell survival and proliferation. In the present study, we used human melanoma lines with established genotypes that represented different phases of cancer development: radial-growth-phase WM35, vertical-growth-phase WM793, metastatic LU1205 and WM9 [1]. All these lines have normal NRAS. WM35, WM793, LU1205 and WM9 cells have mutated BRAF (V600E). WM35 and WM9 cells express normal PTEN, while in WM793 cells PTEN expression is down-regulated; finally, in LU1205 cells PTEN is inactivated by mutation. Cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP), a specific inhibitor of IGF-1R kinase activity, strongly down-regulated the basal levels of AKT activity in WM9 and in WM793 cells, modestly does so in LU1205, but has no effect on AKT activity in the early stage WM35 cells that are deficient in IGF-1R. In addition, PPP partially down-regulated the basal levels of active ERK1/2 in all lines used, highlighting the role of an alternative, non-BRAF pathway in MAPK activation. The final result of PPP treatment was an induction of apoptosis in WM793, WM9 and LU1205 melanoma cells. On the other hand, dose-dependent inhibition of IGF-1R kinase activity by PPP at a relatively narrow dose range (near 500 nM) has different effects on melanoma cells versus normal cells, inducing apoptosis in cancer cells and G2/M arrest of fibroblasts. To further enhance the pro-apoptotic effects of PPP on melanoma cells, we used a combined treatment of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and PPP. This combination substantially increased death by apoptosis for WM793 and WM9 cells, but did so only modestly for LU1205 cells with very high basal activity of AKT. The ultimate goal of this direction of research is the discovery of a new treatment method for highly resistant human metastatic melanomas. Our findings provide the rationale for further preclinical evaluation of this novel treatment.

Karasic, Thomas B.; Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)] [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

2010-07-15

304

Disruption of IGF-1R signaling increases TRAIL-induced apoptosis: a new potential therapy for the treatment of melanoma  

PubMed Central

Resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis is dependent on a balance of multiple genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, which up-regulate efficacy of the surviving growth factor-receptor signaling pathways and suppress death-receptor signaling pathways. The Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is highly active in metastatic melanoma cells by mediating downstream activation of PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways and controlling general cell survival and proliferation. In the present study, we used human melanoma lines with established genotypes that represented different phases of cancer development: radial-growth-phase WM35, vertical-growth-phase WM793, metastatic LU1205 and WM9 [1]. All these lines have normal NRAS. WM35, WM793, LU1205 and WM9 cells have mutated BRAF (V600E). WM35 and WM9 cells express normal PTEN, while in WM793 cells PTEN expression is down-regulated; finally, in LU1205 cells PTEN is inactivated by mutation. Cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP), a specific inhibitor of IGF-1R kinase activity, strongly down-regulated the basal levels of AKT activity in WM9 and in WM793 cells, modestly does so in LU1205, but has no effect on AKT activity in the early stage WM35 cells that are deficient in IGF-1R. In addition, PPP partially down-regulated the basal levels of active ERK1/2 in all lines used, highlighting the role of an alternative, non-BRAF pathway in MAPK activation. The final result of PPP treatment was an induction of apoptosis in WM793, WM9 and LU1205 melanoma cells. On the other hand, dose-dependent inhibition of IGF-1R kinase activity by PPP at a relatively narrow dose range (near 500 nM) has different effects on melanoma cells versus normal cells, inducing apoptosis in cancer cells and G2/M arrest of fibroblasts. To further enhance the pro-apoptotic effects of PPP on melanoma cells, we used a combined treatment of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and PPP. This combination substantially increased death by apoptosis for WM793 and WM9 cells, but did so only modestly for LU1205 cells with very high basal activity of AKT. The ultimate goal of this direction of research is the discovery of a new treatment method for highly resistant human metastatic melanomas. Our findings provide the rationale for further preclinical evaluation of this novel treatment. PMID:20417200

Karasic, Thomas B.; Hei, Tom K.; Ivanov, Vladimir N.

2010-01-01

305

Time at Treatment of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity in China: Recommendations for Guidelines in More Mature Infants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the postmenstrual (PMA) age at treatment of severe retinopathy of prematurity (i.e. Type 1 prethreshold or threshold) in infants in a tertiary referral center in China. Principal Findings 76.6% (359/469) of infants were treated for threshold disease. 67.5% (317/469) of infants had a birth weight (BW) of 1250g or above and almost 30% (126) had a gestational age (GA) of 32 weeks or above. There was little difference in the characteristics of infants treated for Type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. After controlling for GA, PMA age at treatment was highest in infants with BW ?2000g (mean PMA 40.3±4.4 weeks, p<0.001); after controlling for BW, higher GA was associated with higher PMA at treatment (mean PMA 41.5 weeks for gestational age >34 weeks, p<0.001). For every three weeks increase in GA there was a two-week increase in PMA at treatment (R2 = 0.20, p<0.001). The time at treatment of Type 1 prethreshold disease was similar to that for threshold disease i.e. chronological age 5.6?7.4 weeks, or PMA 34.1?40.2 weeks but the lower end of the 95% confidence interval for chronological age for Type 1 prethreshold disease among infants with BW ?2000g was 3.7 weeks (i.e. before the recommended interval of 4?6 weeks after birth). Significance The Chinese guidelines regarding timing of the first examination are appropriate for infants with BW <2000g, but more mature infants should be examined a little earlier, at 3 weeks after birth, in order to detect Type 1 prethreshold disease which has a better prognosis than threshold. PMID:25664992

Chen, Yi; Feng, Jing; Gilbert, Clare; Yin, Hong; Liang, Jianhong; Li, Xiaoxin

2015-01-01

306

Computational Modeling and Real-Time Control of Patient-Specific Laser Treatment of Cancer  

PubMed Central

An adaptive feedback control system is presented which employs a computational model of bioheat transfer in living tissue to guide, in real-time, laser treatments of prostate cancer monitored by magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI). The system is built on what can be referred to as cyberinfrastructure - a complex structure of high-speed network, large-scale parallel computing devices, laser optics, imaging, visualizations, inverse-analysis algorithms, mesh generation, and control systems that guide laser therapy to optimally control the ablation of cancerous tissue. The computational system has been successfully tested on in-vivo, canine prostate. Over the course of an 18 minute laser induced thermal therapy (LITT) performed at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in Houston, Texas, the computational models were calibrated to intra-operative real time thermal imaging treatment data and the calibrated models controlled the bioheat transfer to within 5°C of the predetermined treatment plan. The computational arena is in Austin, Texas and managed at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES). The system is designed to control the bioheat transfer remotely while simultaneously providing real-time remote visualization of the on-going treatment. Post operative histology of the canine prostate reveal that the damage region was within the targeted 1.2cm diameter treatment objective. PMID:19148754

Fuentes, D.; Oden, J. T.; Diller, K. R.; Hazle, J. D.; Elliott, A.; Shetty, A.; Stafford, R. J.

2014-01-01

307

Computational modeling and real-time control of patient-specific laser treatment of cancer.  

PubMed

An adaptive feedback control system is presented which employs a computational model of bioheat transfer in living tissue to guide, in real-time, laser treatments of prostate cancer monitored by magnetic resonance thermal imaging. The system is built on what can be referred to as cyberinfrastructure-a complex structure of high-speed network, large-scale parallel computing devices, laser optics, imaging, visualizations, inverse-analysis algorithms, mesh generation, and control systems that guide laser therapy to optimally control the ablation of cancerous tissue. The computational system has been successfully tested on in vivo, canine prostate. Over the course of an 18 min laser-induced thermal therapy performed at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in Houston, Texas, the computational models were calibrated to intra-operative real-time thermal imaging treatment data and the calibrated models controlled the bioheat transfer to within 5 degrees C of the predetermined treatment plan. The computational arena is in Austin, Texas and managed at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES). The system is designed to control the bioheat transfer remotely while simultaneously providing real-time remote visualization of the on-going treatment. Post-operative histology of the canine prostate reveal that the damage region was within the targeted 1.2 cm diameter treatment objective. PMID:19148754

Fuentes, D; Oden, J T; Diller, K R; Hazle, J D; Elliott, A; Shetty, A; Stafford, R J

2009-04-01

308

A Real-Time Tool to Display the Predicted Disease Course and Treatment Response for Children with Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Immunomodulators and biologics are effective treatments for children with Crohn’s disease (CD). The challenge of communicating the anticipated disease course with and without therapy to patients and parents is a barrier to the timely use of these agents. The aim of this project was to develop a tool to graphically display the predicted risks of CD and expected benefits of therapy. METHODS Using prospectively collected data from 796 pediatric CD patients we developed a model using system dynamics analysis (SDA). The primary model outcome is the probability of developing a CD related complication. Input variables include patient and disease characteristics, magnitude of serologic immune responses expressed as the quartile sum score (QSS), and exposure to medical treatments. RESULTS Multivariate Cox proportional analyses show variables contributing a significant increase in the hazard ratio (HR) for a disease complication include female gender, older age at diagnosis, small bowel or perianal disease, and a higher QSS. As QSS increases, the HR for early use of corticosteroids increases, in contrast to a decreasing HR with early use of immunomodulators, early or late biologics, and early combination therapy. The concordance index for the model is 0.81. Using SDA, results of the Cox analyses are transformed into a simple graph displaying a real-time individualized probability of disease complication and treatment response. CONCLUSIONS We have developed a tool to predict and communicate individualized risks of CD complications and how this is modified by treatment. Once validated, it can be used at the bedside to facilitate patient decision making. PMID:20812335

Siegel, Corey A.; Siegel, Lori S.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Kugathasan, Subra; Markowitz, James; Rosh, Joel R.; Leleiko, Neal; Mack, David R.; Crandall, Wallace; Evans, Jonathan; Keljo, David J.; Otley, Anthony R.; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Farrior, Sharmayne; Langton, Christine R.; Wrobel, Iwona T.; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Quiros, J. Antonio; Silber, Gary; Bahar, Ron J.; Sands, Bruce E.; Dubinsky, Marla C.

2010-01-01

309

Biochemical and histopathological changes induced by different time intervals of methomyl treatment in mice liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects induced by different time intervals of methomyl exposure on liver antioxidant defense system, oxidative stress, liver function biomarkers and histopathology in CD-1 mice. Ten male mice per group were assigned to one of four treatment groups. Group one served as control while group 2, 3 and 4 were orally treated

Fatma El-Demerdash; Azza A. Attia; Reda H. Elmazoudy

2012-01-01

310

Chronic Treatment with Haloperidol Induces Deficits in Working Memory and Feedback Effects of Interval Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normal participants (n=5) having no experience with antipsychotic drugs and medicated participants (n=5) with clinical experience with chronic low doses of haloperidol (3-10mg/day for 2-4 months) in the treatment of neuroses were evaluated for the effects of inter-trial interval (ITI) feedback on a discrete-trials peak-interval timing procedure.…

Lustig, C.; Meck, W.H.

2005-01-01

311

Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

2012-01-01

312

Long-term treatment with PP2 after spinal cord injury resulted in functional locomotor recovery and increased spared tissue  

PubMed Central

The spinal cord has the ability to regenerate but the microenvironment generated after trauma reduces that capacity. An increase in Src family kinase (SFK) activity has been implicated in neuropathological conditions associated with central nervous system trauma. Therefore, we hypothesized that a decrease in SFK activation by a long-term treatment with 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyramidine (PP2), a selective SFK inhibitor, after spinal cord contusion with the New York University (NYU) impactor device would generate a permissive environment that improves axonal sprouting and/or behavioral activity. Results demonstrated that long-term blockade of SFK activation with PP2 increases locomotor activity at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-injury in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan open field test, round and square beam crossing tests. In addition, an increase in white matter spared tissue and serotonin fiber density was observed in animals treated with PP2. However, blockade of SFK activity did not change the astrocytic response or infiltration of cells from the immune system at 28 days post-injury. Moreover, a reduced SFK activity with PP2 diminished Ephexin (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor) phosphorylation in the acute phase (4 days post-injury) after trauma. Together, these findings suggest a potential role of SFK in the regulation of spared tissue and/or axonal outgrowth that may result in functional locomotor recovery during the pathophysiology generated after spinal cord injury. Our study also points out that ephexin1 phosphorylation (activation) by SFK action may be involved in the repulsive microenvironment generated after spinal cord injury.

Rosas, Odrick R.; Torrado, Aranza I.; Santiago, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Ana E.; Salgado, Iris K.; Miranda, Jorge D.

2014-01-01

313

Influence of gas and treatment time on the surface modification of EPDM rubber treated at afterglow microwave plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber possesses excellent physical/chemical bulk properties, is cost-effective, and has been used in the mechanical and aerospace industry. However, it has an inert surface and needs a surface treatment in order to improve its adhesion properties. Plasma modification is the most accepted technique for surface modification of polymers without affecting the properties of the bulk. In this study, an afterglow microwave plasma reactor was used to generate the plasma species responsible for the EPDM surface modification. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, adhesion tests, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Two experimental variables were analyzed: type of the plasma gases and exposure time were considered. The predominant failure mode was adhesive, for long treatment times a mixture of adhesive and cohesive failure can be observed and the best conditions tested there was an increase of the rupture strength of about 27%, that can be associated mainly with the creation of oxygen containing functional groups on the rubber surface (CO, COC and CO) identified by spectroscopic methods. The predominant failure mode was adhesive, for long treatment times a mixture of adhesive and cohesive failure can be observed. In various conditions tested the contact angles easily decreased more than 500%. What can be concluded that high wettability is a necessary condition to obtain good adhesion, but this is not a sufficient condition.

da Maia, J. V.; Pereira, F. P.; Dutra, J. C. N.; Mello, S. A. C.; Becerra, E. A. O.; Massi, M.; Sobrinho, A. S. da Silva

2013-11-01

314

'Mind the Gap'-The Impact of Variations in the Duration of the Treatment Gap and Overall Treatment Time in the First UK Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research anal cancer trial demonstrated the benefit of combined modality treatment (CMT) using radiotherapy (RT), infusional 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin C over RT alone. The present study retrospectively examines the impact of the recommended 6-week treatment gap and local RT boost on long-term outcome. Methods and Materials: A total of 577 patients were randomly assigned RT alone or CMT. After a 6-week gap responders received a boost using either additional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (15 Gy) or iridium-192 implant (25 Gy). The effect of boost, the gap between initial treatment (RT alone or CMT) and boost (Tgap), and overall treatment time (OTT) were examined for their impact on outcome. Results: Among the 490 good responders, 436 (89%) patients received a boost after initial treatment. For boosted patients, the risk of anal cancer death decreased by 38% (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62, 99% CI 0.35-1.12; p = 0.04), but there was no evidence this was mediated via a reduction in locoregional failure (LRF) (HR: 0.90, 99% CI 0.48-1.68; p = 0.66). The difference in Tgap was only 1.4 days longer for EBRT boost, compared with implant (p = 0.51). OTT was longer by 6.1 days for EBRT (p = 0.006). Tgap and OTT were not associated with LRF. Radionecrosis was reported in 8% of boosted, compared with 0% in unboosted patients (p = 0.03). Conclusions: These results question the benefit of a radiotherapy boost after a 6-week gap. The higher doses of a boost may contribute more to an increased risk of late morbidity, rather than local control.

Glynne-Jones, Rob, E-mail: rob.glynnejones@nhs.net [Mount Vernon Centre for Cancer Treatment, Northwood (United Kingdom); Sebag-Montefiore, David [St James's Institute of Oncology, St James's University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Adams, Richard [Cardiff University and Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff (United Kingdom); McDonald, Alec [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gollins, Simon [North Wales Cancer Treatment Centre, Rhyl (United Kingdom); James, Roger [Kent Oncology Centre, Maidstone General Hospital, Maidstone (United Kingdom); Northover, John M.A. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund Colorectal Cancer Unit, St Mark's Hospital, Harrow (United Kingdom); Meadows, Helen M.; Jitlal, Mark [Cancer Research UK and University College London Cancer Trials Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2011-12-01

315

Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?  

PubMed Central

Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner. PMID:24616673

Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

2014-01-01

316

Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?  

PubMed

Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces "detrimental" effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a "substitute" mother. The maternal care of biological and "substitute" mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the "substitute" mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of "detrimental" and "beneficial" effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may "buffer" the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner. PMID:24616673

Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

2014-01-01

317

Origins of timed cancer treatment: early marker rhythm-guided individualized chronochemotherapy*  

PubMed Central

A 21-year old patient who presented in 1973 with a rare and highly malignant ovarian endodermal sinus tumor with spillage into the peritoneal cavity is alive and well today after receiving chronochemotherapy. During the first four courses of treatment, medications were given at different circadian stages. Complete blood counts and marker variables such as mood, vigor, nausea, and temperature were monitored around the clock and analyzed by cosinor to seek times of highest tolerance. Remaining treatment courses were administered at a time corresponding to the patient's best drug tolerance, rather than extrapolating the timing of optimal cyclophosphamide administration from also-implemented parallel laboratory studies on mice. Notwithstanding remaining hurdles in bringing chronochemotherapy to the clinic for routine care, merits of marker rhythm-guided chronotherapy documented in this and other case reports have led to the doubling of the two-year disease-free survival of patients with large perioral tumors in a clinical trial. PMID:17228525

Halberg, Franz; Prem, Konald; Halberg, Francine; Norman, Catherine; Cornélissen, Germaine

2008-01-01

318

Multi-Active Catheters For Real Time Dose Distribution Measurements In Prostate Brachytherapy Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed real time 3D dose distribution measurements of high dose rate brachytherapy sources. These data demonstrate the possibility of in-vivo dosimetry monitoring of the dose rate while treating patients with particle radiation therapy. The prototype used for these experiments is made out of 16 scintillating fibers, 30 cm long and with a 1 mm^2 transverse cross section. Each fiber was coupled to a 16 channel Hamamatsu photo-multiplier tube for photon to current conversion. Millimeter accuracy in position was attained with sub-seconds timing scale. No correction was done from Cherenkov radiation background. The (over)estimated systematic uncertainty is 10% and includes electronic and computer dead times, channel-to-channel efficiency, and signal attenuation. We will discuss the impact of such device to clinical prostate cancer treatments and treatment planning softwares.

Velasco, Carlos

2006-03-01

319

Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.  

PubMed

Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

2012-12-01

320

Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature for excess sludge dewatering: influence of operating conditions and the process energetics.  

PubMed

Dewatering is very important for excess sludge treatment and disposal. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression is a novel technology, in which a conventional pressure dewatering is combined with hydrothermal effect to realize an improved liquid/solids separation with low energy consumption. In this study, the process was performed by way of that the excess sludge was hydrothermally treated first and then the mechanical expression was employed immediately at increased temperature in two separate cells respectively. The results demonstrated that the mechanical expression employed at increased temperature showed a significant advantage than that at room temperature, given a further reduction of 19-47% of the moisture content. The dewatering process at room temperature was mostly depended on the effect of mechanical expression. Hydrothermal process, more importantly than mechanical effect at increased temperatures, seemed to govern the extent to which the dewatering process occurred. The dewatering began to show a positive effect when the temperature was exceeded the threshold temperature (between 120 and 150 °C). The residence time of 30 min promoted a substantial conversion in the sludge surface properties. After dewatering at temperatures of 180-210 °C, the moisture content decreased from 52 to 20% and the corresponding total water removal as filtrate was between 81 and 93%. It was observed that the moisture content of filter cake correlated with surface charge (Rp = -0.93, p < 0.05) and relative hydrophobicity (Rp = -0.99, p < 0.05). The calculated energy balance suggested that no additional external energy input is needed to support the dewatering process for excess sludge. The dewatering process needs an obviously lower energy input compared to thermal drying and electro-dewatering to produce a higher solids content cake. PMID:25090626

Wang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

2014-11-15

321

A simple method of independent treatment time verification in gamma knife radiosurgery using integral dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop a simple independent dose calculation method to verify treatment plans for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Our approach uses the total integral dose within the skull as an end point for comparison. The total integral dose is computed using a spreadsheet and is compared to that obtained from Leksell GammaPlan registered . It is calculated as the sum of the integral doses of 201 beams, each passing through a cylindrical volume. The average length of the cylinders is estimated from the Skull-Scaler measurement data taken before treatment. Correction factors are applied to the length of the cylinder depending on the location of a shot in the skull. The radius of the cylinder corresponds to the collimator aperture of the helmet, with a correction factor for the beam penumbra and scattering. We have tested our simple spreadsheet program using treatment plans of 40 patients treated with Gamma Knife registered in our center. These patients differ in geometry, size, lesion locations, collimator helmet, and treatment complexities. Results show that differences between our calculations and treatment planning results are typically within {+-}3%, with a maximum difference of {+-}3.8%. We demonstrate that our spreadsheet program is a convenient and effective independent method to verify treatment planning irradiation times prior to implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

Jin Jianyue; Drzymala, Robert; Li Zuofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2004-12-01

322

Quantification of Acute Vocal Fold Epithelial Surface Damage with Increasing Time and Magnitude Doses of Vibration Exposure  

PubMed Central

Because the vocal folds undergo repeated trauma during continuous cycles of vibration, the epithelium is routinely susceptible to damage during phonation. Excessive and prolonged vibration exposure is considered a significant predisposing factor in the development of vocal fold pathology. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent of epithelial surface damage following increased time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Forty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to nine groups and received varying phonation time-doses (30, 60, or 120 minutes) and magnitude-doses (control, modal intensity phonation, or raised intensity phonation) of vibration exposure. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify the degree of epithelial surface damage. Results revealed a significant reduction in microprojection density, microprojection height, and depth of the epithelial surface with increasing time and phonation magnitudes doses, signifying increased epithelial surface damage risk with excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. Destruction to the epithelial cell surface may provide significant insight into the disruption of cell function following prolonged vibration exposure. One important goal achieved in the present study was the quantification of epithelial surface damage using objective imaging criteria. These data provide an important foundation for future studies of long-term tissue recovery from excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. PMID:24626217

Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Van Deusen, Mark; Jerome, W. Gray; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

2014-01-01

323

The effects of increasing body mass index on heartburn severity, frequency and response to treatment with dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole  

PubMed Central

Background Higher body mass index (BMI) is a recognised risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Data regarding the impact of BMI on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are conflicting. Aim To assess the impact of BMI on baseline heartburn symptom severity and frequency and response to PPI therapy in patients with non-erosive GERD (NERD) or erosive oesophagitis (EO). Methods In post hoc analyses of phase 3 trial data, 621 NERD and 2692 EO patients were stratified by BMI (<25, 25 to <30 and ?30 kg/m2). NERD patients received either dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg or placebo daily for 4 weeks. EO patients received either dexlansoprazole MR 60 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg for 8 weeks. Symptom frequency and severity were assessed at baseline and subsequently by daily diary. Results In both the NERD and EO cohorts, baseline heartburn severity increased with increasing BMI. The impact of PPI therapy on the reduction in heartburn symptom frequency and severity in both NERD and EO patients was similar across BMI categories. EO healing rates in patients treated with dexlansoprazole but not lansoprazole were higher in obese patients compared with those with a BMI <30 kg/m2. Differences between the PPIs were small. Conclusions The PPIs evaluated in this study reduced the frequency and severity of 24-h heartburn regardless of baseline BMI. In addition, because patients with higher BMI have more severe symptoms at baseline, they may experience greater therapeutic gain with dexlansoprazole (NERD and erosive oesophagitis) and possibly lansoprazole (erosive oesophagitis) treatment. PMID:23451835

Peura, D A; Pilmer, B; Hunt, B; Mody, R; Perez, M C

2013-01-01

324

Behavioral flexibility is increased by optogenetic inhibition of neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell during specific time segments  

PubMed Central

Behavioral flexibility is vital for survival in an environment of changing contingencies. The nucleus accumbens may play an important role in behavioral flexibility, representing learned stimulus–reward associations in neural activity during response selection and learning from results. To investigate the role of nucleus accumbens neural activity in behavioral flexibility, we used light-activated halorhodopsin to inhibit nucleus accumbens shell neurons during specific time segments of a bar-pressing task requiring a win–stay/lose–shift strategy. We found that optogenetic inhibition during action selection in the time segment preceding a lever press had no effect on performance. However, inhibition occurring in the time segment during feedback of results—whether rewards or nonrewards—reduced the errors that occurred after a change in contingency. Our results demonstrate critical time segments during which nucleus accumbens shell neurons integrate feedback into subsequent responses. Inhibiting nucleus accumbens shell neurons in these time segments, during reinforced performance or after a change in contingencies, increases lose–shift behavior. We propose that the activity of nucleus shell accumbens shell neurons in these time segments plays a key role in integrating knowledge of results into subsequent behavior, as well as in modulating lose–shift behavior when contingencies change. PMID:24639489

Aquili, Luca; Liu, Andrew W.; Shindou, Mayumi; Shindou, Tomomi; Wickens, Jeffery R.

2014-01-01

325

Plasma Gelsolin Levels Decrease in Diabetic State and Increase upon Treatment with F-Actin Depolymerizing Versions of Gelsolin  

PubMed Central

The study aims to map plasma gelsolin (pGSN) levels in diabetic humans and mice models of type II diabetes and to evaluate the efficacy of gelsolin therapy in improvement of diabetes in mice. We report that pGSN values decrease by a factor of 0.45 to 0.5 in the blood of type II diabetic humans and mice models. Oral glucose tolerance test in mice models showed that subcutaneous administration of recombinant pGSN and its F-actin depolymerizing competent versions brought down blood sugar levels comparable to Sitagliptin, a drug used to manage hyperglycemic condition. Further, daily dose of pGSN or its truncated versions to diabetic mice for a week kept sugar levels close to normal values. Also, diabetic mice treated with Sitagliptin for 7 days, showed increase in their pGSN values with the decrease in blood glucose as compared to their levels at the start of treatment. Gelsolin helped in improving glycemic control in diabetic mice. We propose that gelsolin level monitoring and replacement of F-actin severing capable gelsolin(s) should be considered in diabetic care. PMID:25478578

Khatri, Neeraj; Sagar, Amin; Peddada, Nagesh; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Veena; Ashish

2014-01-01

326

Anti-IL-4 treatment at immunization modulates cytokine expression, reduces illness, and increases cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus.  

PubMed Central

Upon respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge, mice previously immunized intramuscularly with inactivated whole virus express a Th2-like pattern of cytokine mRNA, while mice immunized with live virus intranasally express a Th1-like pattern. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anti-IL-4 treatment on the induction of immune responses after immunization. Mice treated with anti-IL-4 at the time of immunization with inactivated RSV had reduced clinical illness after live virus challenge, as measured by weight loss, illness score, and virus replication. This was associated with an augmented CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, increased expression of IFN-gamma mRNA relative to IL-4 mRNA, and a higher titer of RSV-specific IgG2a in the anti-IL-4 treated mice before challenge. Anti-IL-4 administration at the time of challenge had no effects on illness, immunoglobulin isotype, or cytokine patterns. These results suggest that inhibition of IL-4 action at immunization can shift the selective activation of lymphocytes to a more Th1-like response. This cytokine milieu is associated with augmented CTL activity, which may be the factor responsible for rapid viral clearance and reduced illness at the time of remote RSV challenge. Images PMID:7962541

Tang, Y W; Graham, B S

1994-01-01

327

Evidence for Sequential and Increasing Activation of Replication Origins along Replication Timing Gradients in the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins are spaced at 40 kb intervals and fire as small clusters whose synchrony increases during S phase and that replication fork velocity (mean 0.7 kb/min, maximum 2.0 kb/min) remains constant and narrowly distributed through S phase. However, multi-scale analysis of a genome-wide replication timing profile shows a broad distribution of replication timing gradients with practically no regions larger than 100 kb replicating at less than 2 kb/min. Therefore, HeLa cells lack large regions of unidirectional fork progression. Temporal transition regions are replicated by sequential activation of origins at a rate that increases during S phase and replication timing gradients are set by the delay and the spacing between successive origin firings rather than by the velocity of single forks. Activation of internal origins in a specific temporal transition region is directly demonstrated by DNA combing of the IGH locus in HeLa cells. Analysis of published origin maps in HeLa cells and published replication timing and DNA combing data in several other cell types corroborate these findings, with the interesting exception of embryonic stem cells where regions of unidirectional fork progression seem more abundant. These results can be explained if origins fire independently of each other but under the control of long-range chromatin structure, or if replication forks progressing from early origins stimulate initiation in nearby unreplicated DNA. These findings shed a new light on the replication timing program of mammalian genomes and provide a general model for their replication kinetics. PMID:22219720

Guilbaud, Guillaume; Rappailles, Aurélien; Baker, Antoine; Chen, Chun-Long; Arneodo, Alain; Goldar, Arach; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Audit, Benjamin; Hyrien, Olivier

2011-01-01

328

One-Year Treatment Patterns and Change Trajectories for Adolescents Participating in Outpatient Treatment for the First Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Society on Addiction Medicine's Patient Placement criteria are commonly used in adolescent treatment. However, the use of these criteria and how they affect the course of treatment and interact with adolescent change has not been examined. Twelve-month treatment patterns were examined for 176 adolescents who entered their first ever episode in a treatment system using these criteria. Forty-one

Susan H. Godley; Lora L. Passetti; Rodney R. Funk; Bryan R. Garner; Mark D. Godley

2008-01-01

329

Long-Time Treatment by Low-Dose N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Enhances Proinflammatory Cytokine Expressions in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages  

PubMed Central

N-acetyl-L-cysteine is known to act as a reactive oxygen species scavenger and used in clinical applications. Previous reports have shown that high-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment inhibits the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages. Here, we have found that long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low-concentration increases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT, which are essential for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1? and interleukin 6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment decreases expressions of protein phosphatases, catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-2A and dual specificity phosphatase 1. On the other hand, we have found that short-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low dose increases p53 expression, which inhibits expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. These observations suggest that long-time low-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment increases expressions of proinflammatory cytokines through enhancement of kinase phosphorylation. PMID:24504121

Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Kusuyama, Joji; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

330

The prospective relationship between sedentary time and cardiometabolic health in adults at increased cardiometabolic risk – the Hoorn Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sedentary time has been identified as an important and independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adults. However, to date most studies have focused on TV time, few also included other sedentary behaviours such as computer use and reading, and most studies had a cross-sectional design. We aimed to examine the prospective relationship between time spent on sedentary behaviours in different domains with individual and clustered cardiometabolic risk in adults. Methods Longitudinal data of 622 adults aged 30-50 years (42% males) at increased cardiometabolic risk were used. Leisure time TV viewing, computer use, reading and other sedentary activities (e.g. passive transport) were assessed using a subscale of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (AQuAA), and summed into overall sedentary behaviour (min/day). Weight and blood pressure were measured, waist-to-hip ratio and BMI calculated, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides determined. T2DM risk score was estimated according to the ARIC formula and CVD mortality risk according to the SCORE formula. Results Generalized Estimating Equation analysis demonstrated that over a two-year period higher levels of overall sedentary time and TV time were weakly but negatively associated with one out of 13 studied cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. HDL cholesterol). Conclusion Overall sedentary time, as well as sedentary time in different domains, was virtually not related with cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:25027974

2014-01-01

331

Potential role of pectate lyase and Ca(2+) in the increase in strawberry fruit firmness induced by short-term treatment with high-pressure CO2.  

PubMed

Postharvest treatment with high-pressure CO2 helps to control decay and increase firmness in strawberries. Increases in firmness occurred through modification of calcium binding to cell wall. However, the mechanism(s) involved in Ca(2+) migration to pectic polymers and other physiological events associated with the maintenance of increased firmness are not clearly understood. The focus of this study was to find potential mechanism(s) that are associated with calcium movement, increases in firmness, or maintenance of firmness in strawberry fruit after high-pressure CO2 treatment. An increase in firmness was induced by high-pressure CO2 treatment, but not by high-pressure N2 treatment. This indicates that CO2 stimulates a change in firmness. The increase in firmness induced by high-pressure CO2 seems to involve calcium efflux. Using membrane Ca(2+) -dependent ATPase inhibitors sodium vanadate (250 ?M) and erythrosin B (100 ?M) delayed both the increase in firmness and calcium binding to wall polymers. Exogenous application of CaCl2 (10 mM) enhanced the firmness increase of fruit slices only when they were exposed to high-pressure CO2 . The activity of pectate lyase was downregulated by CO2 treatment, but ?-galactosidase activity was not affected. The increase in strawberry firmness induced by high-pressure CO2 treatment primarily involves the efflux of calcium ions and their binding to wall polymers. These physiological changes are not induced by an anaerobic environment. The downregulation of wall-modifying enzymes, such as pectate lyase, appeared to contribute to the maintenance of firmness that was induced by high-pressure CO2 treatment. PMID:24592970

Wang, Mao Hua; Kim, Jin Gook; Ahn, Sun Eun; Lee, Ah Youn; Bae, Tae Min; Kim, Deu Re; Hwang, Yong Soo

2014-04-01

332

Transcranial near infrared laser treatment (NILT) increases cortical adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) content following embolic strokes in rabbits.  

PubMed

Transcranial near infrared laser therapy (NILT) improves behavioral outcome following embolic strokes in embolized rabbits and clinical rating scores in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients; however, the cellular mechanism(s) involved in NILT neuroprotection have not been elucidated. It has been proposed that mitochondrial energy production may underlie a response to NILT, but this has not been demonstrated using an in vivo embolic stroke model. Thus, we evaluated the effect of NILT on cortical ATP content using the rabbit small clot embolic stroke model (RSCEM), the model originally used to demonstrate NILT efficacy and initiate the NEST-1 clinical trial. Five minutes following embolization, rabbits were exposed to 2 min of NILT using an 808 nm laser source, which was driven to output either continuous wave (CW), or pulsed wave modes (PW). Three hours after embolization, the cerebral cortex was excised and processed for the measurement of ATP content using a standard luciferin-luciferase assay. NILT-treated rabbits were directly compared to sham-treated embolized rabbits and naïve control rabbits. Embolization decreased cortical ATP content in ischemic cortex by 45% compared to naive rabbits, a decrease that was attenuated by CW NILT which resulted in a 41% increase in cortical ATP content compared to the sham embolized group (p>0.05). The absolute increase in ATP content was 22.5% compared to naive rabbits. Following PW NILT, which delivered 5 (PW1) and 35 (PW2) times more energy than CW, we measured a 157% (PW1 p=0.0032) and 221% (PW2 p=0.0001) increase in cortical ATP content, respectively, compared to the sham embolized group. That represented a 41% and 77% increase in ATP content compared to naive control rabbits. This is the first demonstration that embolization can decrease ATP content in rabbit cortex and that NILT significantly increases cortical ATP content in embolized rabbits, an effect that is correlated with cortical fluence and the mode of NILT delivery. The data provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with clinical improvement following NILT. PMID:19837048

Lapchak, Paul A; De Taboada, Luis

2010-01-01

333

Peritumoral Neuropilin-1 and VEGF receptor-2 expression increases time to recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing curative hepatectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determined Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) expression in the tumoral and peritumoral tissues of 214 treatment-naïve HCC patients and its correlation with overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR). Experimental Design NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression were examined by tissue microarray and peritumoral hypoxia by pimonidazole staining and angiogenesis by microvessel density (MVD). OS and TTR were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. Results Peritumoral NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression were significantly higher than that of the tumoral tissue (p < 0.001 for both), and high peritumoral expression of both factors was negatively associated with tumor size (p < 0.001 for both). Patients with high peritumoral expression of both proteins had the longest median OS (>94.0 months) and TTR (>84.0 months). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that patients with high peritumoral expression of both NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 were more than 4 times less likely to have recurrence (p = 0.004) and more than 10 times likely to survive (p < 0.001). Conclusions Peritumoral NRP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression is associated with prolonged TTR and extended OS of HCC patients and both may be useful as predictors of surgical outcome of HCC patients and explored as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25333267

Zhuang, Peng-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Dong; Tang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Yang, Yong; Quan, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Ying-Bin; Shen, Jun

2014-01-01

334

Time to failure after definitive therapy for prostate cancer: implications for importance of aggressive local treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore patterns of time to failure in men receiving high doses of permanent seed brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation therapy as a function of risk status. Material and methods Two thousand two hundred and thirty four patients were treated with prostate brachytherapy with median follow up of 8.0 years. The population was 35% low risk, 49% intermediate risk, and 16% high risk (NCCN). Median day 0 implant D90 was 119% and V100 was 98%. Treatment failure was defined as PSA > 0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Rates of biochemical failure, distant metastases, and prostate cancer death were determined with non-prostate death as a competing risk. Results For all patients, the 10-year biochemical failure, distant metastases, and cause-specific mortality were 4.4%, 1.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The biochemical failure rates were 1.3%, 4.8%, and 10.0% for men with low, intermediate, and high risk disease, respectively. Median time to failure was 2.8 years. In men who died from prostate cancer, the median time from treatment failure to death was 4.2 years. Overall, 83% of biochemical failures and 97% of metastases occurred within the first 4 years after treatment. Conclusions With the dose escalation achieved by high quality brachytherapy dosimetry, even high-risk prostate cancer patients have excellent long term biochemical outcomes. Treatment failures occur early, and one third become metastatic and progress rapidly to prostate cancer death. The low frequency and pattern of failures suggest the presence of micrometastatic disease prior to treatment is rare, even in high risk patients. PMID:24474970

Taira, Al V.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Fiano, Ryan; Wallner, Kent E.; Adamovich, Edward

2013-01-01

335

Time Course of Mild Arm Lymphedema After Breast Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Arm lymphedema is a potential consequence of the treatment for breast carcinoma. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the progression of mild arm lymphedema after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study cohort was drawn from 1,713 consecutive Stage I or II breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy, including axillary staging followed by radiation. Arm lymphedema was documented in 266 (16%) of 1,713 patients. One hundred nine patients, 6% of the overall group and 40% of the patients with arm lymphedema, presented with mild arm lymphedema, defined as a difference of 2 cm or less between the measured circumferences of the affected and unaffected arms. Results: Among the 109 patients with mild arm lymphedema at the time of arm lymphedema diagnosis, the rate of freedom from progression to more severe lymphedema was 79% at 1 year, 66% at 3 years, and 52% at 5 years. The patients who were morbidly obese, had positive axillary lymph nodes, or received supraclavicular irradiation at the time of breast cancer treatment were at higher risk of progression from mild arm lymphedema to more severe edema. Conclusions: Mild arm lymphedema, generally considered to be a minor complication after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer, was associated with a risk of progression to a more severe grade of arm lymphedema in a substantial fraction of patients.

Bar Ad, Voichita, E-mail: barad@xrt.upenn.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cheville, Andrea [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dutta, Pinaki; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harris, Eleanor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2010-01-15

336

Attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric treatment--changes over time in a Swedish population.  

PubMed

Over the years a lot of research of attitudes towards mental disorders, towards people with mental illness and towards psychiatric services and treatment have shown a persistent negative attitude. There are, however, few studies on changes over time. The aim of this study was to compare responses to a questionnaire on attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric patients and the perception of psychiatric treatment in a community in northern Sweden in 1976 and 2003. In 1976 a random sample of 391 persons 18-70 years of age were asked and in 2003 a new sample of 500 persons from the same community were approached with the same questions. There are considerable changes over time. In 2003, almost 90% agree to the statement that mental illness harms the reputation more than physical illness, compared with 50% in 1976. In 2003, 51% agreed to the statement "Most people with mental disorders commit violent acts more than others" compared with 24% in 1976. There is an apparent ambivalence towards psychiatric treatment. Whilst 88% would advice a person with mental problems to contact a psychiatrist, still 26% would not like themselves to be referred to a psychiatrist. We argue that improving treatment methods is as important as changing attitudes through accurate information. PMID:18609028

Ineland, Lisa; Jacobssson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Sjölander, Per

2008-01-01

337

Leptin plasma concentrations increase during antidepressant treatment with amitriptyline and mirtazapine, but not paroxetine and venlafaxine: leptin resistance mediated by antihistaminergic activity?  

PubMed

Treatment with several psychopharmacological agents has been associated with increased leptin plasma concentrations. We measured leptin plasma concentrations in 76 adult depressed patients after a 6-day washout phase and again after 35 days of treatment with amitriptyline or paroxetine, as well as in 73 depressed patients after 28 days of treatment with either mirtazapine or venlafaxine. Leptin plasma concentrations increased during treatment with amitriptyline and mirtazapine, even after controlling for increased body mass index and irrespective of response to treatment [14.5 (13.8) vs 20.3 (18.7) ng/mL, and 12.2 (15.8) vs 14.4 (16.5) ng/mL in the 2 cohorts, respectively]. In contrast, paroxetine and venlafaxine treatment was not associated with changes in leptin plasma concentrations [14.8 (12.0) vs 13.6 (10.6); 15.9 (17.3) vs 13.5 (14.6) ng/mL] nor with weight gain. We conclude that treatment with amitriptyline or mirtazapine is associated with an increase in leptin secretion beyond change in weight. Thus, high leptin levels apparently are ineffective in the control of weight gain, indicating leptin resistance. Leptin resistance may be mediated by an antihistaminergic effect on hypothalamic nuclei integrating signals relevant for energy balance. PMID:23277262

Schilling, Claudia; Gilles, Maria; Blum, Werner F; Daseking, Emmerich; Colla, Michael; Weber-Hamann, Bettina; Lederbogen, Florian; Krumm, Bertram; Heuser, Isabella; Wudy, Stefan A; Kopf, Daniel; Deuschle, Michael

2013-02-01

338

Half-century nitrogen deposition increase across China: A gridded time-series data set for regional environmental assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of studies have revealed a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) deposition in China, but the lack of spatially-explicit time-series N deposition data set has long hindered us from assessing the impacts of atmospheric N input on ecosystem services. In this study, we combined site-level monitoring, gridded precipitation data and atmospheric transport modeling results to generate annual N bulk deposition data in China with a spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km and a time span from 1961 to 2008. It shows that national average N deposition rate had large interannual variation, and it increased by 59%, from 12.64 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the 1960s to 20.07 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the recent decade, with the most rapid increase centered in the southeastern China that is already N-enriched. Large spatial variation as well as dry deposition input has to be taken into account when estimating the amount of N deposited onto land surface of China. The spatial and temporal information on N deposition derived from this study could be used by ecosystem, hydrological, and climate modeling as well as by policy makers for assessing the impacts of nitrogen enrichment on regional climate, water resources, and biogeochemical cycles.

Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin

2014-11-01

339

The effect of increasing the innervation field sizes of nerves on their reflex response time in salamanders  

PubMed Central

1. A simple quantitative measure was sought which could describe the relationship between reflex coupling in the spinal cord of salamanders and the peripheral innervation fields of the nerves from which the reflexes were elicited. 2. In decerebrate salamanders reflex responses were recorded between pairs of cut hind limb nerves. The latencies (S/R times) of these reflex responses were bilaterally symmetrical for a given pair of nerves and were shorter when the stimulated nerve of the pair had a large motor and sensory peripheral limb innervation field; this was especially obvious for reflexes between 15th and 17th segmental nerves. 3. After cutting or crushing the 16th nerve in adult salamanders, the adjacent 15th and 17th nerves sprouted collaterally to innervate denervated skin and muscle. There was apparently complete recovery of normal tactile reflexes and walking movements within a month. 4. The operation did not affect the reflex response (S/R) times for nerve combinations on the unoperated side, which were not significantly different from those of normal animals with similar sized peripheral nerve fields. The unoperated side therefore represented the preoperative condition. 5. In animals where one or both the 15th and 17th nerves had increased its innervation field size, the S/R times between them were significantly shorter on the operated side when the nerve with the enlarged field was stimulated. The degree of shortening was greatest for nerves showing the largest increase in peripheral field area. 6. The S/R times between the 15th and 17th nerves were similar to those measured in normal animals in which the peripheral fields were of similar size to the enlarged fields in the operated animals. In a few cases where the increase in field size was considerable, the S/R time between the 15th and 17th nerves became as short as that between the 15th and 16th nerves on the control side. 7. After removal of the 15th nerve, the 14th nerve sprouted into the trunk skin and muscle previously innervated by the 15th nerve and the 16th nerve into denervated limb skin and muscle. In spite of the increased peripheral fields of both these nerves, there was no change in the S/R times between them, or between any other pair of limb nerves on the operated side. 8. The decrease in the S/R times between the 15th and 17th nerves was only observed where the stimulated nerve had increased its peripheral limb innervation field. The possible causes and significance of this shortening reflex response times are discussed in the context of an apparently functionally appropriate adaptation in the spinal cord. PMID:4693677

Stirling, R. Victoria

1973-01-01

340

Effects of Heat-Treatment Time on the Structural, Dielectric, Electrical, and Magnetic Properties of BaM Hexaferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M-type hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) powders have been synthesized by means of the sol-gel autocombustion technique and is heat treated at 1000 °C for different times ( t = 1, 2, 3, and 4 h). Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses are carried out to observe the weight loss and transformation of different phases during heat treatment. X-Ray diffraction patterns of the sample heat treated for 4 h confirms the formation of single phase M-type hexaferrite. The dielectric parameters and ac conductivity (?ac) are measured in the high frequency range 1 MHz-3 GHz. The dielectric properties and ac conductivity are based on the space charge polarization according to the Maxwell-Wagner two-layer model and the Koop's phenomenological theory. The dielectric constant (?') and dielectric loss (tan ?) decrease, while ac conductivity enhances with the increase of frequency. The room temperature DC electrical resistivity of the sample heat treated for 2 h enhances up to 2.93 × 109 (?-cm) and attributed to the migration of Fe2+ ions to the neighboring tetrahedral sites and lowering the Fe3+ contents on the octahedral sites. The temperature-dependent DC resistivity of samples shows a normal semiconducting behavior. The saturation magnetization, magnetic moment, and coercivity of the samples are observed to enhance with the increase of heat-treatment time. Owing to these qualities, the synthesized materials may be considered useful for high frequency applications, recording media, and permanent magnets.

Ali, Ihsan; Islam, M. U.; Awan, M. S.; Ahmad, Mukhtar

2013-07-01

341

Increase in body size is correlated to warmer winters in a passerine bird as inferred from time series data  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to affect natural populations in many ways. One way of getting an understanding of the effects of a changing climate is to analyze time series of natural populations. Therefore, we analyzed time series of 25 and 20 years, respectively, in two populations of the citril finch (Carduelis citrinella) to understand the background of a dramatic increase in wing length in this species over this period, ranging between 1.3 and 2.9 phenotypic standard deviations. We found that the increase in wing length is closely correlated to warmer winters and in one case to rain in relation to temperature in the summer. In order to understand the process of change, we implemented seven simulation models, ranging from two nonadaptive models (drift and sampling), and five adaptive models with selection and/or phenotypic plasticity involved and tested these models against the time series of males and females from the two population separately. The nonadaptive models were rejected in each case, but the results were mixed when it comes to the adaptive models. The difference in fit of the models was sometimes not significant indicating that the models were not different enough. In conclusion, the dramatic change in mean wing length can best be explained as an adaptive response to a changing climate. PMID:25628864

Björklund, Mats; Borras, Antoni; Cabrera, Josep; Senar, Juan Carlos

2015-01-01

342

Computational Modeling and Real-Time Control of Patient-Specific Laser Treatment of Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive feedback control system is presented which employs a computational model of bioheat transfer in living tissue\\u000a to guide, in real-time, laser treatments of prostate cancer monitored by magnetic resonance thermal imaging. The system is\\u000a built on what can be referred to as cyberinfrastructure—a complex structure of high-speed network, large-scale parallel computing\\u000a devices, laser optics, imaging, visualizations, inverse-analysis algorithms,

D. Fuentes; J. T. Oden; K. R. Diller; J. D. Hazle; A. Elliott; A. Shetty; R. J. Stafford

2009-01-01

343

Longer treatment time and slower ultrafiltration in hemodialysis: Associations with reduced mortality in the DOPPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longer treatment time (TT) and slower ultrafiltration rate (UFR) are considered advantageous for hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study included 22 000 HD patients from seven countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Logistic regression was used to study predictors of TT>240 min and UFR>10 ml\\/h\\/kg bodyweight. Cox regression was used for survival analyses. Statistical adjustments were made

R Saran; J L Bragg-Gresham; N W Levin; Z J Twardowski; V Wizemann; A Saito; N Kimata; B W Gillespie; C Combe; J Bommer; T Akiba; D L Mapes; E W Young; F K Port

2006-01-01

344

Time to first consultation, diagnosis and treatment of TB among patients attending a referral hospital in Northwest, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection and treatment of TB is essential for the success of TB control program performance. The aim of this study was to determine the length and analyze predictors of patients’, health systems’ and total delays among patients attending a referral hospital in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly diagnosed TB cases???15 years of age. Delay was analyzed at three levels: the periods between 1) onset of TB symptoms and first visit to medical provider, i.e. patients’ delay, 2) the first visit to a medical provider and the initiation of treatment i.e. health systems’ delay and 3) onset of TB symptoms and initiation of treatment i.e. total delay. Uni- and multi-variate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate predictors of patients’, health systems’ and total delays. Results The median time of patients’ delay was 21 days [(interquartile range (IQR) (7 days, 60 days)]. The median health systems’ delay was 27 days (IQR 8 days, 60 days) and the median total delay was 60 days (IQR 30 days, 121 days). Patients residing in rural areas had a three-fold increase in patients’ delay compared to those from urban areas [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 3.4; 95% (CI 1.3, 8.9)]. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were more likely to experience delay in seeking treatment compared to pulmonary (PTB) cases [(AOR 2.6; 95% (CI 1.3, 5.4)]. Study subjects who first visited health centres [(AOR) 5.1; 95% (CI 2.1, 12.5)], private facilities [(AOR) 3.5; 95% (CI 1.3, 9.7] and health posts [(AOR) 109; 95% (CI 12, 958], were more likely to experience an increase in health systems’ delay compared to those who visited hospitals. Conclusions The majority of TB patients reported to medical providers within an acceptable time after the onset of symptoms. Rural residence was associated with patients’ and total delays. Providing the population with information about TB symptoms and the importance of early health seeking may be an efficient way to decrease TB transmission, morbidity and mortality. Establishing efficient TB diagnostic and treatment facilities at the periphery level is imperative to reduce diagnostic delay and expedite TB treatment. PMID:24410927

2014-01-01

345

Timing underpins the benefits associated with injectable collagen biomaterial therapy for the treatment of myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Injectable hydrogel biomaterials are promising therapies to promote repair and regeneration post-myocardial infarction (MI). However, the timing of delivery and the mechanisms through which biomaterial treatments confer their benefits are translational issues that remain to be addressed. We assessed the efficacy of an injectable collagen matrix at 3 different delivery time points post-MI. Infarcted mice received the matrix or control (saline) treatment at 3 h, 1 week or 2 weeks after MI. The earlier treatment delivery better prevented negative ventricular remodeling and long-term deterioration of cardiac function (up to 3 months), whereas waiting longer to administer the matrix (1 and 2 weeks post-MI) reduced the therapeutic effects. Collagen matrix delivery did not stimulate an inflammatory response acutely and favorably modulated inflammation in the myocardium long-term. We found that the matrix interacts with the host tissue to alter the myocardial cytokine profile, promote angiogenesis, and reduce fibrosis and cell death. This work highlights that the timing of delivery can significantly affect the ability of an injectable hydrogel to protect the post-MI environment, which will be an important consideration in the clinical translation of cardiac biomaterial therapy. PMID:25468370

Blackburn, Nick J R; Sofrenovic, Tanja; Kuraitis, Drew; Ahmadi, Ali; McNeill, Brian; Deng, Chao; Rayner, Katey J; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Ruel, Marc; Suuronen, Erik J

2015-01-01

346

The increase in prolactin-secreting cells in incubating chicken hens can be mimicked by extended treatment of pituitary cells in vitro with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation of eggs by birds and lactation in mammals are regulated by pituitary prolactin (PRL) and associated with an increase in pituitary PRL-producing cells or lactotrophs. However, the mechanisms controlling this increase in lactotroph numbers are not known. PRL secretion in birds is regulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). This study was designed to determine whether VIP treatment could modulate

Tom E. Porter; Marisol E. Lopez; Rebecca Mike; Andrea F. Huberty

2006-01-01

347

Hyperoxia improves 20 km cycling time trial performance by increasing muscle activation levels while perceived exertion stays the same.  

PubMed

Increasing inspiratory oxygen tension improves exercise performance. We tested the hypothesis that this is partly due to changes in muscle activation levels while perception of exertion remains unaltered. Eleven male subjects performed two 20-km cycling time-trials, one in hyperoxia (HI, FiO2 40%) and one in normoxia (NORM, FiO2 21%). Every 2 km we measured power output, heart rate, blood lactate, integrated vastus lateralis EMG activity (iEMG) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Performance was improved on average by 5% in HI compared to NORM (P < 0.01). Changes in heart rate, plasma lactate concentration and RPE during the trials were similar. For the majority of the time-trials, power output was maintained in HI, but decreased progressively in NORM (P < 0.01) while it increased in both trials for the last kilometre (P < 0.0001). iEMG was proportional to power output and was significantly greater in HI than in NORM. iEMG activity increased significantly in the final kilometer of both trials (P < 0.001). This suggests that improved exercise performance in hyperoxia may be the result of increased muscle activation leading to greater power outputs. The finding of identical RPE, lactate and heart rate in both trials suggests that pacing strategies are altered to keep the actual and perceived exercise stress at a similar level between conditions. We suggest that a complex, intelligent system regulates exercise performance through the control of muscle activation levels in an integrative manner under conditions of normoxia and hyperoxia. PMID:17909845

Tucker, Ross; Kayser, Bengt; Rae, Erin; Raunch, Laurie; Bosch, Andrew; Noakes, Timothy

2007-12-01

348

Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism  

E-print Network

OPEN ORIGINAL ARTICLE Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism B Auyeung1,2, MV Lombardo2,3,4, M Heinrichs5,6, B Chakrabarti2,7, A Sule8, JB Deakin9,10, RAI Bethlehem2, L... Dickens2, N Mooney2, JAN Sipple2, P Thiemann2 and S Baron-Cohen2,10 Autism spectrum conditions (autism) affect ~1% of the population and are characterized by deficits in social communication. Oxytocin has been widely reported to affect social...

Auyeung, B.; Lombardo, M. V.; Heinrichs, M.; Chakrabarti, B.; Sule, A.; Deakin, J. B.; Bethlehem, R. A. I.; Dickens, L.; Mooney, N.; Sipple, J. A. N.; Thiemann, P.; Baron-Cohen, S.

2015-02-10

349

Artificial Neural Network classification of operator workload with an assessment of time variation and noise-enhancement to increase performance  

PubMed Central

Workload classification—the determination of whether a human operator is in a high or low workload state to allow their working environment to be optimized—is an emerging application of passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems. Practical systems must not only accurately detect the current workload state, but also have good temporal performance: requiring little time to set up and train the classifier, and ensuring that the reported performance level is consistent and predictable over time. This paper investigates the temporal performance of an Artificial Neural Network based classification system. For networks trained on little EEG data good classification accuracies (86%) are achieved over very short time frames, but substantial decreases in accuracy are found as the time gap between the network training and the actual use is increased. Noise-enhanced processing, where artificially generated noise is deliberately added to the testing signals, is investigated as a potential technique to mitigate this degradation without requiring the network to be re-trained using more data. Small stochastic resonance effects are demonstrated whereby the classification process gets better in the presence of more noise. The effect is small and does not eliminate the need for re-training, but it is consistent, and this is the first demonstration of such effects for non-evoked/free-running EEG signals suitable for passive BCI. PMID:25520608

Casson, Alexander J.

2014-01-01

350

Antepartum depression severity is increased during seasonally longer nights: Relationship to melatonin and cortisol timing and quantity  

PubMed Central

Current research suggests that mood varies from season to season in some individuals, in conjunction with light-modulated alterations in chronobiologic indices like melatonin and cortisol. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations in darkness on mood in depressed antepartum women, and to determine the relationship of seasonal mood variations to contemporaneous blood melatonin and cortisol measures; a secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors on measures of melancholic versus atypical depressive symptoms. We obtained measures of mood and overnight concentrations of plasma melatonin and serum cortisol in 19 depressed patients (DP) and 12 healthy control (HC) antepartum women, during on-going seasonal variations in daylight/darkness, in a cross-sectional design. Analyses of variance showed that in DP, but not HC, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD) scores were significantly higher in women tested during seasonally longer vs. shorter nights. This exacerbation of depressive symptoms occurred when the dim light melatonin onset, the melatonin synthesis offset and the time of maximum cortisol secretion (acrophase) were phase-advanced (temporally shifted earlier), and melatonin quantity was reduced, in DP but not HC. Serum cortisol increased across gestational weeks in both the HC and DP groups, which did not differ significantly in cortisol concentration. Nevertheless, serum cortisol concentration correlated positively with HRSD score in DP but not HC; notably, HC showed neither significant mood changes nor altered melatonin and cortisol timing or quantity in association with seasonal variations. These findings suggest that depression severity during pregnancy may become elevated in association with seasonally-related phase-advances in melatonin and cortisol timing and reduced melatonin quantity that occur in DP, but not HC. Thus, women who experience antepartum depression may be more susceptible than their non-depressed counterparts to phase alterations in melatonin and cortisol timing during seasonally longer nights. Interventions that phase delay melatonin and/or cortisol timing -- for example, increased exposure to bright evening light -- might serve as an effective intervention for antepartum depressions whose severity is increased during seasonally longer nights. PMID:23998286

Meliska, Charles J.; Martínez, Luis F.; López, Ana M.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Nowakowski, Sara; Kripke, Daniel F.; Elliott, Jeffrey; Parry, Barbara L.

2014-01-01

351

Modeling and optimization of a time-resolved proton radiographic imaging system for proton cancer treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes a research project to test the clinical utility of a time-resolved proton radiographic (TRPR) imaging system by performing comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations of a physical device coupled with realistic lung cancer patient anatomy defined by 4DCT for proton therapy. A time-resolved proton radiographic imaging system was modeled through Monte Carlo simulations. A particle-tracking feature was employed to evaluate the performance of the proton imaging system, especially in its ability to visualize and quantify proton range variations during respiration. The Most Likely Path (MLP) algorithm was developed to approximate the multiple Coulomb scattering paths of protons for the purpose of image reconstruction. Spatial resolution of ˜ 1 mm and range resolution of 1.3% of the total range were achieved using the MLP algorithm. Time-resolved proton radiographs of five patient cases were reconstructed to track tumor motion and to calculate water equivalent length variations. By comparing with direct 4DCT measurement, the accuracy of tumor tracking was found to be better than 2 mm in five patient cases. Utilizing tumor tracking information to reduce margins to the planning target volume, a gated treatment plan was compared with un-gated treatment plan. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were used to quantify the gain in the quality of treatments. The EUD of the OARs was found to be reduced up to 11% and the corresponding NTCP of organs at risk (OARs) was found to be reduced up to 16.5%. These results suggest that, with image guidance by proton radiography, dose to OARs can be reduced and the corresponding NTCPs can be significantly reduced. The study concludes that the proton imaging system can accurately track the motion of the tumor and detect the WEL variations, leading to potential gains in using image-guided proton radiography for lung cancer treatments.

Han, Bin

352

Induction of the Chlamydia muridarum Stress/Persistence Response Increases Azithromycin Treatment Failure in a Murine Model of Infection  

PubMed Central

Viable but noninfectious (stressed/persistent) chlamydiae are more resistant to azithromycin (AZM) in culture than are organisms in the normal developmental cycle. Chlamydia muridarum-infected mice were exposed to amoxicillin to induce the organisms to enter the persistent/stressed state and subsequently treated with AZM. AZM treatment failure was observed in 22% of persistently infected mice, with an average of 321,667 inclusion-forming units (IFU) shed after AZM treatment. Productively infected mice had a 9% rate of AZM treatment failure and shed an average of 12,083 IFU. These data suggest that stressed chlamydiae are more resistant to frontline antichlamydial drugs in vivo. PMID:24342653

Phillips-Campbell, R.; Kintner, J.

2014-01-01

353

How much does Low Socioeconomic Status Increase the Risk of Prenatal and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in First Time Mothers?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine socioeconomic status (SES) as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. A secondary objective was to determine whether SES was a specific risk factor for elevated postpartum depressive symptoms beyond its contribution to prenatal depressive symptoms. Design Quantitative, secondary analysis, repeated measures, descriptive design. Setting Participants were recruited from paid childbirth classes serving upper middle class women and Medicaid-funded hospitals serving low-income clients in Northern California. Participants A sample of 198 first time mothers was assessed for depressive symptoms in their third trimester of pregnancy and at one, two, and three months postpartum. Main Outcome Measure Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. Results Low SES was associated with increased depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and at 2 and 3 months, but not at 1 month postpartum. Women with four SES risk factors (low monthly income, less than a college education, unmarried, unemployed) were 11 times more likely than women with no SES risk factors to have clinically elevated depression scores at 3 months postpartum, even after controlling for the level of prenatal depressive symptoms. Conclusion Although new mothers from all SES strata are at risk for postpartum depression, SES factors including low education, low income, being unmarried, and being unemployed increased the risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms in this sample. PMID:20133153

Goyal, Deepika; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn A.

2009-01-01

354

Optimizing Treatment Regimes to Hinder Antiviral Resistance in Influenza across Time Scales  

PubMed Central

The large-scale use of antivirals during influenza pandemics poses a significant selection pressure for drug-resistant pathogens to emerge and spread in a population. This requires treatment strategies to minimize total infections as well as the emergence of resistance. Here we propose a mathematical model in which individuals infected with wild-type influenza, if treated, can develop de novo resistance and further spread the resistant pathogen. Our main purpose is to explore the impact of two important factors influencing treatment effectiveness: i) the relative transmissibility of the drug-resistant strain to wild-type, and ii) the frequency of de novo resistance. For the endemic scenario, we find a condition between these two parameters that indicates whether treatment regimes will be most beneficial at intermediate or more extreme values (e.g., the fraction of infected that are treated). Moreover, we present analytical expressions for effective treatment regimes and provide evidence of its applicability across a range of modeling scenarios: endemic behavior with deterministic homogeneous mixing, and single-epidemic behavior with deterministic homogeneous mixing and stochastic heterogeneous mixing. Therefore, our results provide insights for the control of drug-resistance in influenza across time scales. PMID:23555694

Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Goerg, Georg M.; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent

2013-01-01

355

A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards  

E-print Network

The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions $n$ is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions has been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a stadanrd simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration.

A. K. Karlis; F. K. Diakonos; V. Constantoudis

2012-01-07

356

Weighted logrank tests for interval censored data when assessment times depend on treatment.  

PubMed

We consider weighted logrank tests for interval censored data when assessment times may depend on treatment, and for each individual, we only use the two assessment times that bracket the event of interest. It is known that treating finite right endpoints as observed events can substantially inflate the type I error rate under assessment-treatment dependence (ATD), but the validity of several other implementations of weighted logrank tests (score tests, permutation tests, multiple imputation tests) has not been studied in this situation. With a bounded number of unique assessment times, the score test under the grouped continuous model retains the type I error rate asymptotically under ATD; however, although the approximate permutation test based on the permutation central limit theorem is not asymptotically valid under every ATD scenario, we show through simulation that in many ATD scenarios, it retains the type I error rate better than the score test. We show a case where the approximate permutation test retains the type I error rate when the exact permutation test does not. We study and modify the multiple imputation logrank tests of Huang, Lee, and Yu (2008, Statistics in Medicine, 27: 3217-3226), showing that the distribution of the rank-like scores asymptotically does not depend on the assessment times. We show through simulations that our modifications of the multiple imputation logrank tests retain the type I error rate in all cases studied, even with ATD and a small number of individuals in each treatment group. Simulations were performed using the interval R package. PMID:22786795

Fay, Michael P; Shih, Joanna H

2012-12-10

357

A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration.

Karlis, A. K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.

2012-06-01

358

Process Improvement to Enhance Existing Stroke Team Activity Toward More Timely Thrombolytic Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Process improvement (PI) is an approach for enhancing the existing quality improvement process by making changes while keeping the existing process. We have shown that implementation of a stroke code program using a computerized physician order entry system is effective in reducing the in-hospital time delay to thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. We investigated whether implementation of this PI could further reduce the time delays by continuous improvement of the existing process. Methods After determining a key indicator [time interval from emergency department (ED) arrival to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis] and conducting data analysis, the target time from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was set at 40 min. The key indicator was monitored continuously at a weekly stroke conference. The possible reasons for the delay were determined in cases for which IV thrombolysis was not administered within the target time and, where possible, the problems were corrected. The time intervals from ED arrival to the various evaluation steps and treatment before and after implementation of the PI were compared. Results The median time interval from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was significantly reduced after implementation of the PI (from 63.5 to 45 min, p=0.001). The variation in the time interval was also reduced. A reduction in the evaluation time intervals was achieved after the PI [from 23 to 17 min for computed tomography scanning (p=0.003) and from 35 to 29 min for complete blood counts (p=0.006)]. Conclusions PI is effective for continuous improvement of the existing process by reducing the time delays between ED arrival and IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. PMID:25324882

Cho, Han-Jin; Lee, Kyung Yul; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae-Jin; Jung, Yo Han; Choi, Hye-Yeon

2014-01-01

359

Reduction of cortical excitability and increase of thalamic activity in a low-frequency rTMS treatment for chronic tinnitus.  

PubMed

Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has received increasing attention for the treatment of tinnitus, but its therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. We performed low-frequency rTMS treatment for a patient with chronic tinnitus and examined changes of cortical excitability and cerebral blood flow using paired-pulse TMS and single-photon emission computed tomography. After the rTMS treatment, tinnitus loudness was decreased, cortical excitability was reduced, and blood flow in the thalamus was increased. Our results suggest that low-frequency rTMS treatment reduces tinnitus loudness by an inhibitory effect on the cortical excitability and a remote activation effect on the thalamus through the corticothalamic networks. PMID:24606019

Takahashi, Shun; Ukai, Satoshi; Tsuji, Tomikimi; Ueyama, Takashi; Kono, Masamitsu; Yamanaka, Noboru; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

2015-06-01

360

Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes.  

PubMed

The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers not sprouted. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. PMID:24425925

Rezaee, Mehdi; Almassi, Morteza; Minaei, Saeed; Paknejad, Farzad

2013-04-01

361

Increased adenylyl cyclase type 1 mRNA, but not adenylyl cyclase type 2 in the rat hippocampus following antidepressant treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adenylyl cyclase (AC) system is affected by several types of antidepressant treatments, and increased activity in this system is linked to the therapeutic action of antidepressants. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of single-dose and long-term treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram (10 mg\\/kg, i.p.), on the AC system in the male rat brain

Jens Bitsch Jensen; Jens D. Mikkelsen

2000-01-01

362

[Successful surgical treatment for catamenial pneumothorax at the time of menstruation].  

PubMed

A 39-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to repeated right pneumothorax. Each episode was related to the onset of menstruation, suggesting catamenial pneumothorax. Thoracoscopy showed multiple blue berry spots on the diaphragm. Partial resection of the diaphragm including these lesions were performed. But she had a recurrent right pneumothorax. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue was started, resulting in failure to introduce menopose and the pneumothorax repeatedly appeared again. Reoperation was intentionally done at the time of menstruation enable to find the lesion. Patient is free from pneumothorax more than 6 years after surgery. PMID:24322315

Kita, Hidefumi; Shiraishi, Yuji; Katsuragi, Naoya; Shimoda, Kiyomi; Saitou, Miyako

2013-11-01

363

Treatment crossovers in time-to-event non-inferiority randomised trials of radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In non-inferiority trials of radiotherapy in patients with early stage breast cancer, it is inevitable that some patients will cross over from the experimental arm to the standard arm prior to initiation of any treatment due to complexities in treatment planning or subject preference. Although the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis is the preferred approach for superiority trials, its role in non-inferiority trials is still under debate. This has led to the use of alternative approaches such as the per-protocol (PP) analysis or the as-treated (AT) analysis, despite the inherent biases of such approaches. Methods Using simulations, we investigate the effect of 2%, 5% and 10% random and non-random crossovers prior to radiotherapy initiation on the ITT, PP, AT and the combination of ITT and PP analyses with respect to type I error in trials with time-to-event outcomes. We also evaluate bias and SE of the estimates from the ITT, PP and AT approaches. Results The AT approach had the best performance in terms of type I error, but was anticonservative as non-random crossover increased. The ITT and PP approaches were anticonservative under all percentages of random and non-random crossover. Similarly, lowest bias was seen with the AT approach; however, bias increased as the percentage of non-random crossover increased. The ITT and PP had poor performance in terms of bias as crossovers increased. Conclusions If minimal crossovers were to occur, we have shown that the AT approach has the lowest type I error rates and smallest opportunity for bias. Results of trials with a high number of crossovers should be interpreted with caution, especially when crossover is non-random. Attempts to prevent crossovers should be maximised. PMID:25344487

Parpia, Sameer; Julian, Jim A; Thabane, Lehana; Gu, Chushu; Whelan, Timothy J; Levine, Mark N

2014-01-01

364

[Investigation for decrease of delivery time for the prostate cancer patient by modifications of treatment planning parameters in TomoTherapy planning station].  

PubMed

The purpose of present study is to investigate the decrease of delivery time for prostate cancer patient by using the helical type accelerator, Hi-Art System. The delivery time for Hi-Art System depends on planning parameters [pitch, modulation factor (MF) and field width (FW)], which are set by the operator at the beginning of the treatment planning. If you can allow for the deterioration of the dose distribution, the delivery time is able to decrease by increasing of FW and/or by decreasing of MF. On the other hands, as the use of 5.0 cm FW tends to increase the dose for the penile bulb, enough consideration for the dose distribution is needed. In addition, pitch should be set for the gantry rotation period not to become 15 s or less to prevent the increase of delivery time. PMID:22186200

Shimizu, Hidetoshi; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Takashi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, Manabu; Kodaira, Takeshi

2011-01-01

365

Medicare, Ethics, and Reflexive Longevity: Governing Time and Treatment in an Aging Society  

PubMed Central

The clinical activities that constitute longevity making in the United States are perhaps the quintessential example of a dynamic modern temporality, characterized by the quest for risk reduction, the powerful progress narratives of science and medicine, and the personal responsibility of calculating the worth of more time in relation to medical options and age. This article explores how medicine materializes and problematizes time through a discussion of ethicality—in this case, the form of governance in which scientific evidence, Medicare policy and clinical knowledge and practice organize first, what becomes “thinkable” as the best medicine, and second, how that kind of understanding shapes a telos of living. Using liver disease and liver transplantation in the United States as my example, I explore the influence of Medicare coverage decisions on treatments, clinical standards, and ethical necessity. Reflexive longevity—a relentless future-thinking about life itself—is one feature of this ethicality. PMID:21834359

Kaufman, Sharon R.; Fjord, Lakshmi

2013-01-01

366

Effects of chronic drug treatments on increases in intracellular calcium mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in SH-SY5Y cells  

PubMed Central

SH-SY5Y cells express ?7 and ?3* subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR). Numbers of these receptors are upregulated by chronic treatment with nicotinic agonists or KCl. In this study we have examined the functional consequences of these drug treatments on nicotine- or KCl-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i, in SH-SY5Y cells. In untreated cells, nicotine increased [Ca2+]i (EC50 7.5??M). Responses to 10??M nicotine were abolished by the non-selective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine and were partially blocked by ?7-selective antagonists, the ?3?2*-selective antagonist ?-conotoxin-MII, and by cadmium and verapamil. After treatment for 4 days with nicotinic agonists, nicotine-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i were significantly decreased by about 25%. Nicotine-evoked responses were paradoxically increased in the presence of acute methyllycaconitine (MLA; an ?7-selective antagonist) although other ?7-selective antagonists were without effect, while ?-conotoxin-MII gave a partial inhibition. The increase observed with MLA was abolished by mecamylamine but not by ?-conotoxin-MII and was still observed 24?h after chronic nicotine treatment. After treatment for 4 days with KCl, nicotine-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i were also decreased by 25%, but acute MLA was without effect. Responses to 20?mM KCl were unchanged by prior treatment with nicotine or KCl. Treatment for 4 days with 5??M verapamil reduced responses to both nicotine and KCl by about 50%. Multiple nicotinic AChR subtypes contribute to nicotine-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i in SH-SY5Y cells. Responses to acute nicotine are reduced after chronic nicotine or KCl treatment, with loss of the component attributed to the ?7 subtype. However, in nicotine-treated cells this effect is reversed when nicotine stimulation is applied in the presence of acute MLA. The antagonist may assist in converting a non-functional ?7 nicotinic AChR to a conducting state. PMID:11861334

Ridley, Diana L; Pakkanen, Jukka; Wonnacott, Susan

2002-01-01

367

Increased Survivorship and Altered Cytokine Profile from Treatment of Influenza A H1N1-Infected Mice with Ekybion: A Drug Complex of Natural Extracts and Inorganic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Ekybion is a drug complex of 16 natural extracts and inorganic compounds designed to treat a variety of respiratory pathogens of bacterial and viral origin. It is licensed throughout Europe for the treatment of respiratory tract infections from equine parainfluenza type 3 and equine herpes virus type 1 in equine stables. The purpose of this paper was to test the efficacy of Ekybion on a well-developed animal model of influenza A infection and determine a mode of action. Experiments were performed with Balb/c mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus and treated with nebulized Ekybion every 8?h in a time-dependant or dose-dependant fashion. These experiments showed that mice treated prior to infection with Ekybion had a higher survival rates (~46%) compared with untreated animals (~0%). Paradoxically, these mice showed no significant difference in lung virus titer or weight loss. There was, however, a decrease in the level of GM-CSF, IL-6, and G-CSF cytokines in the lungs of Ekybion-treated, infected mice. It is possible that decreases in proinflammatory cytokines may have contributed to increased survivorship in Ekybion-treated influenza-infected mice. PMID:20981272

Lupfer, Christopher; Besnouin, Didier; Tepper, Samuel E.; Maselko, Maciej; Patton, Kristin M.; Pastey, Manoj

2011-01-01

368

Time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate the use of time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems. Methods Time intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge for patients with isolated femur fractures in four low- and middle-income countries were compared with the corresponding values from one German hospital, an Israeli hospital and the National Trauma Data Bank of the United States of America by means of Student’s t-tests. The correlations between the time intervals recorded in a country and that country’s expenditure on health and gross domestic product (GDP) were also evaluated using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Findings Relative to patients from high-income countries, those from low- and middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be male and to have been treated by open femoral nailing, and their intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge were significantly longer. Strong negative correlations were detected between the interval from injury to admission and government expenditure on health, and between the interval from admission to surgery and the per capita values for total expenditure on health, government expenditure on health and GDP. Strong positive correlations were detected between the interval from surgery to discharge and general government expenditure on health. Conclusion The time intervals for the treatment of femur fractures are relatively long in low- and middle-income countries, can easily be measured, and are highly correlated with accessible and quantifiable country data on health and economics. PMID:24391299

Elliott, Iain; Marmor, Meir; Caldwell, Amber; Coughlin, Richard; Gosselin, Richard A

2014-01-01

369

Interactive Dose Shaping - efficient strategies for CPU-based real-time treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is based on the traditional concept of iterative optimization using an objective function specified by dose volume histogram constraints for pre-segmented VOIs. This indirect approach suffers from unavoidable shortcomings: i) The control of local dose features is limited to segmented VOIs. ii) Any objective function is a mathematical measure of the plan quality, i.e., is not able to define the clinically optimal treatment plan. iii) Adapting an existing plan to changed patient anatomy as detected by IGRT procedures is difficult. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce the method of Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS) as a new paradigm for IMRT treatment planning. IDS allows for a direct and interactive manipulation of local dose features in real-time. The key element driving the IDS process is a two-step Dose Modification and Recovery (DMR) strategy: A local dose modification is initiated by the user which translates into modified fluence patterns. This also affects existing desired dose features elsewhere which is compensated by a heuristic recovery process. The IDS paradigm was implemented together with a CPU-based ultra-fast dose calculation and a 3D GUI for dose manipulation and visualization. A local dose feature can be implemented via the DMR strategy within 1-2 seconds. By imposing a series of local dose features, equal plan qualities could be achieved compared to conventional planning for prostate and head and neck cases within 1-2 minutes. The idea of Interactive Dose Shaping for treatment planning has been introduced and first applications of this concept have been realized.

Ziegenhein, P.; Kamerling, C. P.; Oelfke, U.

2014-03-01

370

Combining Taipan snake venom time/Ecarin time screening with the mixing studies of conventional assays increases detection rates of lupus anticoagulants in orally anticoagulated patients  

PubMed Central

Background Oral anticoagulation compromises conventional lupus anticoagulant (LA) screening assays. Mixing studies can counteract the oral anticoagulant effect but the dilution reduces sensitivity and can generate false negative results. A firm diagnosis can be made from mixing studies when an elevated screen ratio is accompanied by a confirm ratio that generates significant correction to demonstrate phospholipid dependence, but also returns into the reference range, indicating complete normalisation of the oral anticoagulant effect. Taipan snake venom time (TSVT) with Ecarin time (ET) as a confirmatory test comprises an oral anticoagulant insensitive LA detection system and this study investigates the potential impact on detection rates when coupled with mixing studies on standard assays. Methods Eighty patients known to have LA who were receiving oral anticoagulation were tested with TSVT/ET and 1:1 mixing studies with normal plasma by dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT) and dilute activated partial thromboplastin time (DAPTT) to assess detection rates by single and multiple assays. Results Thirty three of the 80 samples from known LA positive patients were positive in all three assays and 15 were positive in combinations of DRVVT, DAPTT or TSVT/ET. The remainder were positive in only one assay; 12 by DRVVT, 4 by DAPTT and 16 by TSVT/ET. Although all DRVVT and DAPTT positive mixing studies generated significant correction of the screen ratio by the confirm ratio, not all confirm ratios corrected back into the reference range. This was the case for 87.5% of the DRVVT results, 44.7% of the DAPTT results and 13.3% of the TSVT/ET positive mixing tests. Conclusion Addition of TSVT/ET screening for LA in orally anticoagulated patients could increase diagnostic efficacy either by detecting antibodies diluted in the mixing tests of conventional assays or those that do not react in DRVVT or DAPTT. Additionally, TSVT/ET can affirm the presence of a LA where conventional assay mixing tests may not have fully counteracted the oral anticoagulant effect but confirmatory test correction suggests the presence of a LA. PMID:17822554

Moore, Gary W

2007-01-01

371

Two Years of Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment Increase Isometric and Isokinetic Muscle Strength in GH-Deficient Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

GH deficiency in adults is associated with reduced muscle mass and muscle strength. The objective of this trial was to follow the effect of 2 yr of GH treatment in GH-deficient adults on muscle performance in relation to a reference population. Knee extensor and flexor strengths for isometric and isokinetic concentric muscle strength were measured using a Kin-Com dynamometer. Hand-grip

GUDMUNDUR JOHANNSSON; GUNNAR GRIMBY; KATHARINA STIBRANT SUNNERHAGEN; BENGT-ÅKE BENGTSSON

2009-01-01

372

Increased Maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Remission after Integrated Serotonergic Treatment and Cognitive Psychotherapy Compared with Medication Alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both medication and psychotherapy are effective in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, they both have disadvantages. We aimed at studying the long-term effectiveness of integrated treatment compared with medication alone. Methods: A private practice sample of 20 consecutive patients with OCD (DSM-III-R) who achieved remission or marked improvement [Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score ?10 and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)

Massimo Biondi; Angelo Picardi

2005-01-01

373

Heat treatment increases the incidence of alopecia areata in the C3H\\/HeJ mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring hair loss. Previous studies have demonstrated\\u000a an association between AA and physiological\\/psychological stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat treatment,\\u000a a physiological stress, on AA development in C3H\\/HeJ mice. Whereas this strain of mice are predisposed to AA at low incidence\\u000a by 18 months of age, we

Tongyu Cao Wikramanayake; Elizabeth Alvarez-Connelly; Jessica Simon; Lucia M. Mauro; Javier Guzman; George Elgart; Lawrence A. Schachner; Juan Chen; Lisa R. Plano; Joaquin J. Jimenez

2010-01-01

374

Short-term leptin treatment increases fatty acids uptake and oxidation in muscle of high fat–fed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of short-term (10 days) leptin treatment on insulin sensitivity as it pertains to fatty acid (FA) uptake, oxidation, and muscle triglyceride (mTG) synthesis in animals that have been administered a high-fat (HF) diet for 3 months. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. One group was

Mark K. Todd; Ben B. Yaspelkis; Lorraine P. Turcotte

2005-01-01

375

A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Integrated Care Intervention to Increase Eligibility for Chronic Hepatitis C Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Mental health and substance abuse (MH\\/SA) comorbidities are the most oft-cited reasons for deferral from peginterferon (PegIFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We sought to determine whether an integrated care intervention (INT) for patients deferred from PegIFN owing to MH\\/SA could improve subsequent treatment eligibility rates.METHODS:In this randomized controlled trial, 101 HCV patients who were evaluated at two

Donna M Evon; Kelly Simpson; Scott Kixmiller; Joseph Galanko; Karen Dougherty; Carol Golin; Michael W Fried

2011-01-01

376

Increasing Willingness to Experience Obsessions: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-session Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for OCD intervention in a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline, across-participants design. Results on self-reported compulsions showed that the intervention produced clinically significant reductions in compulsions by the end of treatment for all participants, with results maintained at 3-month follow-up. Self-monitoring was supported with similar decreases in scores on standardized measures

Michael P. Twohig; Steven C. Hayes; Akihiko Masuda

2006-01-01

377

Strengthening of oxidation resistant materials for gas turbine applications. [treatment of silicon ceramics for increased flexural strength and impact resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics were treated to form compressive surface layers. On the silicon carbide, quenching and thermal exposure treatments were used, and on the silicon nitride, quenching, carburizing, and a combination of quenching and carburizing were used. In some cases substantial improvements in impact resistance and/or flexural strength were observed. The presence of compressive surface stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests.

Kirchner, H. P.

1974-01-01

378

Does examination of fecal samples 24 hours after cestocide treatment increase the sensitivity of Anoplocephala spp. detection in naturally infected horses?  

PubMed Central

Fecal samples were examined immediately before and 24 to 48 h after cestocide treatment for a comparative detection of tapeworm-positive horses. In early winter, 17 weanlings, 20 yearlings, 15 2-year-old horses, 24 breeding mares, and 2 stallions were treated with praziquantel in combination with a macrocyclic lactone. The horses were presumed to be naturally infected with tapeworms after pasture grazing. Fecal samples were collected before treatment (Day 0), at 24 or 48 h after treatment (Day 1–2), and 16 to 21 d after treatment (Day 16–21). A Wisconsin test was done on all fecal samples. Odds of detection of infection for all age groups increased by a factor of 2.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30 to 3.20] from Day 0 to Day 1–2 (P = 0.002). PMID:21532821

Elsener, Johanne; Villeneuve, Alain

2011-01-01

379

Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...