Sample records for increasing treatment time

  1. Is increased time to diagnosis and treatment in symptomatic cancer associated with poorer outcomes? Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neal, R D; Tharmanathan, P; France, B; Din, N U; Cotton, S; Fallon-Ferguson, J; Hamilton, W; Hendry, A; Hendry, M; Lewis, R; Macleod, U; Mitchell, E D; Pickett, M; Rai, T; Shaw, K; Stuart, N; Tørring, M L; Wilkinson, C; Williams, B; Williams, N; Emery, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether more timely cancer diagnosis brings favourable outcomes, with much of the previous evidence, in some cancers, being equivocal. We set out to determine whether there is an association between time to diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcomes, across all cancers for symptomatic presentations. Methods: Systematic review of the literature and narrative synthesis. Results: We included 177 articles reporting 209 studies. These studies varied in study design, the time intervals assessed and the outcomes reported. Study quality was variable, with a small number of higher-quality studies. Heterogeneity precluded definitive findings. The cancers with more reports of an association between shorter times to diagnosis and more favourable outcomes were breast, colorectal, head and neck, testicular and melanoma. Conclusions: This is the first review encompassing many cancer types, and we have demonstrated those cancers in which more evidence of an association between shorter times to diagnosis and more favourable outcomes exists, and where it is lacking. We believe that it is reasonable to assume that efforts to expedite the diagnosis of symptomatic cancer are likely to have benefits for patients in terms of improved survival, earlier-stage diagnosis and improved quality of life, although these benefits vary between cancers. PMID:25734382

  2. Treatment Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chazot; G. Jean

    2008-01-01

    The session duration for hemodialysis (HD) patients has become an old-fashioned issue since the blooming debate on dialysis frequency. However, all over the dialysis community, the most frequent scheme of HD treatment remains three-weekly sessions. Pursuing long dialysis strategy 3 times\\/week for ESRD patients in Tassin after the retirement of the historical leaders relies on the wisdom pillars of dialysis

  3. Increasing Hydraulic Residence Time in Constructed Stormwater

    E-print Network

    Fiedler, Fritz R.

    Increasing Hydraulic Residence Time in Constructed Stormwater Treatment Wetlands with Designed Environ. Res., 78, 2514 (2006). KEYWORDS: wetland design, stormwater wetlands, wetland modeling, residence time, wetland topography. doi:10.2175/106143006X101944 Introduction Stormwater runoff from urbanized

  4. Night-time sedating H1-antihistamine increases daytime somnolence but not treatment efficacy in chronic spontaneous urticaria: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Staevska, M; Gugutkova, M; Lazarova, C; Kralimarkova, T; Dimitrov, V; Zuberbier, T; Church, MK; Popov, TA

    2014-01-01

    Background Many physicians believe that the most effective way to treat chronic urticaria is to take a nonsedating second-generation H1-antihistamine in the morning and a sedating first-generation H1-antihistamine, usually hydroxyzine, at night to enhance sleep. But is this belief well founded? Objectives To test this belief by comparing the effectiveness and prevalence of unwanted sedative effects when treating patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) with levocetirizine 15 mg daily plus hydroxyzine 50 mg at night (levocetirizine plus hydroxyzine) vs. levocetirizine 20 mg daily (levocetirizine monotherapy). Methods In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, 24 patients with difficult-to-treat CSU took levocetirizine plus hydroxyzine or levocetirizine monotherapy for periods of 5 days each. At the end of each treatment period, assessments were made of quality of life (Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire, CU-Q2oL), severity of urticaria symptoms (Urticaria Activity Score, UAS), sleep disturbance during the night and daytime somnolence. Results Both treatments significantly decreased UAS, night-time sleep disturbances and CU-Q2oL scores (P < 0·001) without significant differences between the two. Compared with baseline, daytime somnolence was significantly reduced by levocetirizine monotherapy (P = 0·006) but not by levocetirizine plus hydroxyzine (P = 0·218). Direct comparison of the two treatment modalities in terms of daytime somnolence favoured levocetirizine monotherapy (P = 0·026). Conclusions The widespread belief that sleep is aided by the addition of a sedating first-generation H1-antihistamine, usually hydroxyzine, at night is not supported. These results are in line with the urticaria guidelines, which state that first-line treatment for urticaria should be new-generation, nonsedating H1-antihistamines only. PMID:24472058

  5. Improvement of grafted watermelon transplant survival as a result of size and starch increases over time caused by rootstock fatty alcohol treatment Part II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty alcohol treatments can be used to eliminate the meristem of cucurbit (Family Cucurbitaceae) rootstocks which prevents regrowth when grafting, but the effects of the treatment on the rootstock have not been documented. Two rootstock types, ‘Emphasis’ bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and ‘Car...

  6. Maternal Baicalin Treatment Increases Fetal Lung Surfactant Phospholipids in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Ming; Wang, Leng-Fang; Cheng, Kur-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to stimulate surfactant protein (SP)-A gene expression in human lung epithelial cell lines (H441). The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal baicalin treatment could increase lung surfactant production and induce lung maturation in fetal rats. This study was performed with timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. One-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Day 18 of gestation. Two-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were injected with vehicle alone on Day 18 of gestation. On Day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Maternal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased saturated phospholipid when compared with control group and total phospholipid in fetal lung tissue when compared with control and 1-day baicalin groups. Antenatal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased maternal growth hormone when compared with control group. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA expression and maternal serum corticosterone levels were comparable among the three experimental groups. Maternal baicalin treatment increases pulmonary surfactant phospholipids of fetal rat lungs and the improvement was associated with increased maternal serum growth hormone. These results suggest that antenatal baicalin treatment might accelerate fetal rat lung maturation. PMID:19584080

  7. Practical Tips for Increasing Listening Practice Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Learning a language--like learning to dance ballet, weaving carpets, or playing the saxophone--takes time and practice. In general, it is safe to say that the more practice one gets, the better one will become. This article will help teachers of English reconsider how to think about listening tasks. It will provide guidance for increasing

  8. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  9. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Dana [Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Proulx, Denise [Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Saoudi, A. [Department of Medical Physics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Ng, Cheng E. [Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada) and Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]. E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  10. Development of equations to determine the increase in pavement condition due to treatment and the rate of decrease in condition after treatment for a local agency pavement network. 

    E-print Network

    Deshmukh, Maithilee Mukund.

    2010-07-14

    Cost effective maintenance of pavement sections requires timely preventive maintenance and planned rehabilitation treatments. Knowledge of the increase in condition due to application of treatment and the loss of condition after treatment...

  11. Can increasing adult vaccination rates reduce lost time and increase productivity?

    PubMed

    Rittle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses limited vaccination coverage by providing an overview of the epidemiology of influenza, pertussis, and pneumonia, and the impact these diseases have on work attendance for the worker, the worker's family, and employer profit. Studies focused on the cost of vaccination programs, lost work time, lost employee productivity and acute disease treatment are discussed, as well as strategies for increasing vaccination coverage to reduce overall health care costs for employers. Communicating the benefits of universal vaccination for employees and their families and combating vaccine misinformation among employees are outlined. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(12):508-515.]. PMID:25216055

  12. Elimination of African Onchocerciasis: Modeling the Impact of Increasing the Frequency of Ivermectin Mass Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Hoerauf, Achim; Habbema, Dik; Bakker, Roel; Hopkins, Adrian D.; de Vlas, Sake J.

    2014-01-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is currently shifting its focus from morbidity control to elimination of infection. To enhance the likelihood of elimination and speed up its achievement, programs may consider to increase the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment from annual to 6-monthly or even higher. In a computer simulation study, we examined the potential impact of increasing the mass treatment frequency for different settings. With the ONCHOSIM model, we simulated 92,610 scenarios pertaining to different assumptions about transmission conditions, history of mass treatment, the future mass treatment strategy, and ivermectin efficacy. Simulation results were used to determine the minimum remaining program duration and number of treatment rounds required to achieve 99% probability of elimination. Doubling the frequency of treatment from yearly to 6-monthly or 3-monthly was predicted to reduce remaining program duration by about 40% or 60%, respectively. These reductions come at a cost of additional treatment rounds, especially in case of 3-monthly mass treatment. Also, aforementioned reductions are highly dependent on maintained coverage, and could be completely nullified if coverage of mass treatment were to fall in the future. In low coverage settings, increasing treatment coverage is almost just as effective as increasing treatment frequency. We conclude that 6-monthly mass treatment may only be worth the effort in situations where annual treatment is expected to take a long time to achieve elimination in spite of good treatment coverage, e.g. because of unfavorable transmission conditions or because mass treatment started recently. PMID:25545677

  13. Long term myriocin treatment increases MRP1 transport activity

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Peter; Klappe, Karin; van Dam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Hoekstra, Dick; Kok, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of myriocin treatment, which extensively depletes sphingolipids from cells, on multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1) efflux activity in MRP1 expressing cells and isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Our data reveal that both short term (3 days) and long term (7 days) treatment effectively reduce the cellular sphingolipid content to the same level. Intriguingly, a two-fold increase in MRP1-mediated efflux activity was observed following long term treatment, while short term treatment had no impact. Very similar data were obtained with plasma membrane vesicles isolated from myriocin-treated cells. Exploiting the cell-free vesicle system, Michaelis–Menten analysis revealed that the intrinsic MRP1 activity remained unaltered; however, the fraction of active transporter molecules increased. We demonstrate that the latter effect is due to an enhanced recruitment of MRP1 into lipid raft fractions, thereby promoting MRP1 activity. PMID:23178537

  14. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  15. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); McMasters, O. D. (Ames, IA)

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  16. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rekha Garg; M. Malinow; Mary Pettinger; Barbara Upson; Donald Hunninghake

    1999-01-01

    Background Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. Methods The

  17. An investigation of productivity increases from hydraulic fracturing treatments 

    E-print Network

    Boriskie, Robert Joe

    1963-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES FROM HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS A Thesis b7 Robert Joe Boriskie Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Head of Department) August, 1963 1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION. TABLE OF CONTENTS PRgB 3. THEORY AND PROCEDURE. 4. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. . 5. CONCLUSIONS. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 7. APPENDIX. 8. REFERENCES. 18 19 20 32 LIST OF FIGURES...

  18. Increased anthocyanin accumulation in aster flowers at elevated temperatures due to magnesium treatment.

    PubMed

    Shaked-Sachray, Liat; Weiss, David; Reuveni, Moshe; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2002-04-01

    Temperature is one of the main external factors affecting anthocyanin accumulation in plant tissues: low temperatures cause an increase and elevated temperatures cause a decrease in anthocyanin concentration. Several metals have been shown to increase the half-life time of anthocyanins, by forming complexes with them. We studied the combined effect of elevated temperatures and increased metal concentrations on the accumulation of anthocyanins in aster 'Sungal' flowers. It has been found that magnesium treatment of aster plants or detached flower buds, partially prevents colour fading at elevated temperatures. Anthocyanin concentration of aster 'Sungal' flowers grown at 29 degrees C/21 degrees C day/night, respectively, was about half that of flowers grown at 17 degrees C/9 degrees C. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) decreased as the temperature increased. Treatment of both whole plants and detached flower buds grown at elevated temperatures in the presence of magnesium salts, increased flower anthocyanin concentration by up to 80%. Measurement of magnesium following these treatments revealed an increased level of the metal in the petals, suggesting a direct effect. Magnesium treatment does not seem to cause increased synthesis of anthocyanin through a stress-related reaction, since the activities of both PAL and CHI did not increase due to this treatment. The results of this study show that increasing magnesium levels in aster petals prevents the deleterious effect of elevated temperatures on anthocyanin accumulation, thus enhancing flower colour. PMID:11975729

  19. Time and motion study of radiotherapy delivery: Economic burden of increased quality assurance and IMRT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Van de Werf; Yolande Lievens; Jan Verstraete; Kris Pauwels; Walter Van den Bogaert

    2009-01-01

    Time measurements were performed on daily treatment delivery with the aim to quantify the impact of quality assurance (QA) using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) on RT delivery time and to validate the time burden of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as an example of advanced technology.Both increased QA and the delivery of IMRT were found to be significant

  20. Therapeutic recreation treatment time during inpatient rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Gassaway, Julie; Dijkers, Marcel; Rider, Cecelia; Edens, Kelly; Cahow, Claire; Joyce, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Following spinal cord injury (SCI), certified therapeutic recreation specialists (CTRSs) work with patients during rehabilitation to re-create leisure lifestyles. Although there is much literature available to describe the benefits of recreation, little has been written about the process of inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation therapeutic recreation (TR) programs or the effectiveness of such programs. To delineate how TR time is used during inpatient rehabilitation for SCI. Methods Six rehabilitation centers enrolled 600 patients with traumatic SCI for an observational study. CTRSs documented time spent on each of a set of specific TR activities during each patient encounter. Patterns of time use are described, for all patients and by neurologic category. Ordinary least-squares stepwise regression models are used to identify patient and injury characteristics predictive of total treatment time (overall and average per week) and time spent in TR activities. Results Ninety-four percent of patients enrolled in the SCIRehab study participated in TR. Patients received a mean total of 17.5 hours of TR; significant differences were seen in the amount of time spent in each activity among and within neurologic groups. The majority (76%) of patients participated in at least one structured therapeutic outing. Patient and injury characteristics explained little of the variation in time spent within activities. Conclusion The large amount of variability seen in TR treatment time within and among injury group categories, which is not explained well by patient and injury characteristics, sets the stage for future analyses to associate treatments with outcomes. PMID:21675356

  1. [Acute mastoiditis: increase of incidence and controversies in antibiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Bartolomé Benito, M; Pérez Gorricho, B

    2006-12-01

    An important complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis which responds to antibiotic therapy and myringotomy. Patients with acute mastoiditis were reviewed during 1996-2005 in the tertiary University Children's Hospital in Madrid. The number of patients with acute mastoiditis increased by about 2-fold during this period. Of 205 children with mastoiditis, ranging from 0.6-17 years of age, surgical treatment was needed in about 4.3% in 1996 and in 70% in 2005. In spite of 80% of the children having received antibiotics at the pediatric visit, the number of complications increased (periostitis, subperiosteal abscess), and the number of surgical interventions increased by 8-fold. Etiological agents were Streptococcus pneumoniae (28.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.3%). Negative cultures were obtained in 53.6% of cases. Lack of response to conventional therapy may require more tympanocentesis procedures for a middle ear culture, and surgical therapy may be necessary more often, as is the tendency in our hospital. PMID:17235402

  2. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge. PMID:25560267

  3. Prolonged Treatment Time Deteriorates Positioning Accuracy for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yin-Chun; Tseng, Ham-Min; Xiao, Furen; Chen, Chang-Mu; Cheng, Wei-Li; Lu, Szu-Huai; Lan, Keng-Hsueh; Chen, Wan-Yu; Liang, Hsiang-Kuang; Kuo, Sung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The accuracy of radiation delivery is increasingly important as radiotherapy technology continues to develop. The goal of this study was to evaluate intrafractional motion during intracranial radiosurgery and the relationship between motion change and treatment time. Methods and Materials A total of 50 treatment records with 5988 images, all acquired during treatments with the CyberKnife Radiosurgery System, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. We measured translation and rotation motion including superior-inferior (SI), right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP), roll, tilt and yaw. All of the data was obtained during the first 45 minutes of treatment. The records were divided into 3 groups based on 15-min time intervals following the beginning of treatment: group A (0-15 min), group B (16-30 min) and group C (31-45 min). The mean deviations, systematic errors, random errors and margin for planning target volume (PTV) were calculated for each group. Results The mean deviations were less than 0.1 mm in all three translation directions in the first 15 minutes. Greater motion occurred with longer treatment times, especially in the SI direction. For the 3D vector, a time-dependent change was observed, from 0.34 mm to 0.77 mm (p=0.01). There was no significant correlation between the treatment time and deviations in the AP, LR and rotation axes. Longer treatment times were associated with increases in systematic error, but not in random error. The estimated PTV margin for groups A, B and C were 0.86 / 1.14 / 1.31 mm, 0.75 / 1.12 / 1.20 mm, and 0.43 / 0.54 / 0.81 mm in the SI, RL, and AP directions, respectively. Conclusions During intracranial radiosurgery, a consistent increase in the positioning deviation over time was observed, especially in the SI direction. If treatment time is greater than 15 minutes, we recommend increasing the PTV margins to ensure treatment precision. PMID:25894841

  4. Evaluation of increased milking frequency as an additional treatment for cows with clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Krömker, Volker; Zinke, Claudia; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Klocke, Doris; Reimann, Anette; Eller, Georg

    2010-02-01

    This field study focused on the possible effects of increased milking frequency (milking four times a day in comparison with milking twice a day) on clinical and bacteriological cure rates of clinical, antibiotically treated mastitis cases. Parameters tested were clinical, microbiological and full (cytomicrobiological) cure as well as the development of milk yield after the clinical mastitis episode. Cows from a large dairy herd meeting the study criteria (n=93) were assigned to two treatment groups by a systematic randomization scheme (blocked by body temperature <=or >39.5 degrees C). Both groups were randomly divided by experimental treatments: a) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 2-times a day; b) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 4-times a day. Treatments were initiated before the culture results were known. Cows were surveyed and evaluated on days 1-6, 24 and 31. No significant differences between treatment and control groups regarding clinical cure, microbiological cure, full cure and milk production could be established. Applying a 4-times a day milking regime did not lead to any significant effect, either positive or negative. Therefore, the results suggest that milking 4-times a day as a supporting therapy for mild, moderate and severe antimicrobially treated mastitis cases cannot be recommended. PMID:19919726

  5. Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment.

    PubMed

    Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander

    2014-08-20

    This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. PMID:24886905

  6. Non-linear increase of vitamin D content in eggs from chicks treated with increasing exposure times of ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Julia; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Hirche, Frank; Baur, Anja C; Mielenz, Norbert; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D fortified food can help to reduce the prevalence for vitamin D deficiency. Previous data provided evidence that eggs from hens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light contain large quantities of vitamin D. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of vitamin D enrichment in eggs upon increasing daily UVB exposure times. We further addressed the question whether extended UVB irradiation affects the skin content of 7-dehydrocholesterol. To this end, 35 hens were assigned to 7 groups of 5 animals each and were exposed to UVB light (76?W/cm(2)) for 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300min per day, respectively. Eggs from the treatment groups were collected at baseline and after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, respectively. Skin samples were gained at the end of 4 weeks. Vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The contents of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in egg yolk raised non-linear in response to increasing daily UVB exposure times. The vitamin D3 content did not reach a clear-cut plateau within the chosen UVB treatment times. A daily UVB exposure time of 300min resulted in vitamin D3 contents of 28.6?g/100g egg yolk dry matter. In contrast to vitamin D3, the 25(OH)D3 content in the egg yolk achieved a maximum upon an UVB irradiation time of 60min/d. The cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol contents were not altered in response to the chosen UVB irradiation times. In conclusion, the data show a distinct non-linear dose-response relationship of UVB exposure times on the total vitamin D content in eggs. This article is part of a special issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:25445915

  7. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor Tadalafil increases Rituximab treatment efficacy in a mouse brain lymphoma model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Wenli; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yong; Qiao, Xiaoyun; Meng, Kui; Mao, Ying

    2015-03-01

    The treatment efficacy of Rituximab on lymphoma as an immunotherapeutic approach is confirmed, but this treatment has limited penetration through the brain micro vessels. Such limitation significantly attenuates the efficacy of systemic administration of this antibody on brain lymphomas. We aimed to confirm that Tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, could increase microvascular permeability and Rituximab treatment efficacy in brain lymphomas. We established a mouse brain lymphoma model by planting human-derived lymphoma cell line Raji into brain parenchyma of mice using stereotaxic techniques. After 16 days, 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging was performed to confirm the presence of the mass. The mice were observed under near-infrared fluorescence after intravenous injection of fluorescence-labeled Rituximab. Evans Blue was used as probe to detect the microvascular permeability of brain lymphomas after Tadalafil administration. Starting from 4 days after implantation, the mice were administered different treatments. Survival analysis of brain lymphoma-loaded mice was performed. Evans Blue detection showed that Tadalafil administration could increase brain vascular permeability in the tumor-bearing group compared with control mice. Rituximab treatment prolonged the survival time of mice compared with the untreated control group (mean 25.75 vs. 20.8 days, p < 0.05). Tadalafil with Rituximab treatment resulted in the longest survival time (29 days, p < 0.05). Rituximab may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of brain lymphoma. Tadalafil can enhance Rituximab treatment efficacy by improving the microvascular permeability in mice brain lymphoma. PMID:25524816

  8. Real-time interactive treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Karl

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient's treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ~2-20?ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. 'drag' a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ~1-5?min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT. PMID:25097184

  9. Increasing the fatigue limit of a high-strength bearing steel by a deep cryogenic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerscher, E.; Lang, K.-H.

    2010-07-01

    High-strength steels typically fail from inclusions. Therefore, to increase the fatigue limit of high-strength steels it is necessary to modify the inclusions and/or the surrounding matrix. The goal must be a higher threshold for crack initiation and/or crack propagation. One possibility to reach this goal seems to be a deep cryogenic treatment which is reported to completely transform the retained austenite as well as to facilitate the formation of fine carbides. Therefore, specimens were annealed before or after deep cryogenic treatment, which was carried out with different cooling and heating rates as well as different soaking times at -196° C. Hardness and retained austenite measurements and fatigue experiments were used to evaluate the different sequences of treatments mentioned above. The fatigue limit increases only after some of the sequences. The results show that the soaking times are not relevant for the fatigue limit but it is very important to temper the specimens before the deep cryogenic treatment. Also, repeated deep cryogenic treatments had a positive influence on the fatigue limit.

  10. Real Time Search User Behavior Real time search is an increasingly important area of

    E-print Network

    Jansen, James

    Real Time Search User Behavior Abstract Real time search is an increasingly important area% of the traffic comes from the engine's application program interface, indicating that real time search is heavily Web search. Searchers of real time content often repeat queries overtime, perhaps indicating long term

  11. Early postnatal dexamethasone treatment and increased incidence of cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E S Shinwell; M Karplus; D Reich; Z Weintraub; S Blazer; D Bader; S Yurman; T Dolfin; A Kogan; S Dollberg; E Arbel; M Goldberg; I Gur; N Naor; L Sirota; S Mogilner; A Zaritsky; M Barak; E Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo study the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of children who participated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of early postnatal dexamethasone treatment for prevention of chronic lung disease.METHODSThe original study compared a three day course of dexamethasone (n = 132) with a saline placebo (n = 116) administered from before 12 hours of age in preterm infants, who

  12. Government to increase controls regarding unfair treatment of Polish workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Grünell

    2008-01-01

    The Labour Inspectorate of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment plans to intensify its controls on irregularities concerning the treatment of Polish employees in 2008, but remains less committal about housing problems. In December 2007, the Dutch House of Representatives decided that the ministry must first resolve matters related to Polish workers before discussions could be initiated on granting

  13. A Role for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Increasing the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Marsha E.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Nguyen, Tam T.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairments are prevalent in persons seeking treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These impairments and their physical, social, psychological and occupational consequences vary in severity across persons, much like those resulting from traumatic brain injury; however, due to their slower course of onset, alcohol-related cognitive impairments are often overlooked both within and outside of the treatment setting. Evidence suggests that cognitive impairments can impede treatment goals through their effects on treatment processes. Although some recovery of alcohol-related cognitive impairments often occurs after cessation of drinking (time-dependent recovery), the rate and extent of recovery is variable across cognitive domains and individuals. Following a long hiatus in scientific interest, a new generation of research aims to facilitate treatment process and improve AUD treatment outcomes by directly promoting cognitive recovery (experience-dependent recovery). This review updates knowledge about the nature and course of cognitive and brain impairments associated with AUD, including cognitive effects of adolescent AUD. We summarize current evidence for indirect and moderating relationships of cognitive impairment to treatment outcome, and discuss how advances in conceptual frameworks of brain-behavior relationships are fueling the development of novel AUD interventions that include techniques for cognitive remediation. Emerging evidence suggests that such interventions can be effective in promoting cognitive recovery in persons with AUD and other substance use disorders, and potentially increasing the efficacy of AUD treatments. Finally, translational approaches based on cognitive science, neurophysiology, and neuroscience research are considered as promising future directions for effective treatment development that includes cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:23412885

  14. This is an exciting time in the treatment of lymphoma.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma "This is an exciting time in the treatment of lymphoma." Past Issues / Summer ... best medication for each patient, indicates the best time for treatments, and sheds light on the patient's ...

  15. Acute mastoiditis: Increase of incidence and controversies in antibiotic treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bartolomé Benito; B. Pérez Gorricho

    SUMMARY An important complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis which responds to antibiotic therapy and myringotomy. Patients with acute mastoiditis were reviewed during 1996-2005 in the tertiary University Children's Hospital in Madrid. The number of patients with acute mastoiditis increased by about 2-fold during this period. Of 205 children with mastoiditis, ranging from 0.6-17 years of age, surgical

  16. Increased duration of simulated childbirth injuries results in increased time to recovery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, H. Q.; Kerns, J. M.; Lin, D. L.; Liu, S.; Esparza, N.; Damaser, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) development is strongly correlated with vaginal childbirth, particularly increased duration of the second stage of labor. However, the mechanisms of pelvic floor injury leading to SUI are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of increased duration of vaginal distension (VD) on voiding cystometry, leak point pressure testing, and histology. Sixty-nine virgin female rats underwent VD with an inflated balloon for either 1 or 4 h, while 33 age-matched rats were sham-VD controls. Conscious cystometry, leak point pressure testing, and histopathology were determined 4 days, 10 days, and 6 wk after VD. The increase in abdominal pressure to leakage (LPP) during leak point pressure testing was significantly decreased in both distension groups 4 days after distension, indicative of short-term decreased urethral resistance. Ten days after VD, LPP was significantly decreased in the 4-h but not the 1-h distension group, indicating that a longer recovery time is needed after longer distension duration. Six weeks after VD, LPP was not significantly different from sham-VD values, indicating a return toward normal urethral resistance. In contrast, 6 wk after VD of either duration, the distended rats had not undergone the same increase in voided volume as the sham-VD group, suggesting that some effects of VD do not resolve within 6 wk. Both VD groups demonstrated histopathological evidence of acute injuries and tissue remodeling. In conclusion, this experiment suggests pressure-induced hypoxia as a possible mechanism of injury in vaginal delivery. PMID:17204590

  17. Hot-Pack and 1-MHz Ultrasound Treatments Have an Additive Effect on Muscle Temperature Increase

    PubMed Central

    Draper, David O.; Harris, Shane T.; Schulthies, Shane; Durrant, Earlene; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Therapeutic ultrasound is an effective deep heating modality commonly applied alone or after cooling or heating of the treatment area. The purpose of this study was to examine the tissue temperature rise in the human triceps surae muscle group after ultrasound with prior heating via a silicate gel hot pack. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial with repeated measures on two factors (depth and time). Independent variables were temperature of pack (hot and room temperature), depth of measurement (1 cm and 3 cm), and time (beginning, after pack application, and after ultrasound). The dependent variable was tissue temperature. Subjects were assigned to one of two treatment groups: ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute hot pack treatment or ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute application with a silicate gel pack at room temperature. Measurements were taken while subjects were treated in a university training room. Subjects: Twenty-one uninjured male and female college student volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the two pack groups. Measurements: The hot packs were stored in 75°C water. A 1-MHz ultrasound treatment was administered for 10 minutes at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm². Tissue temperature was measured every 30 seconds using 23-gauge hypodermic microprobes interfaced with a telethermometer and inserted 1 and 3 cm below the surface of anesthetized triceps surae muscle. Results: At both tissue depths, there was a 0.8°C greater increase in tissue temperature with hot packs and ultrasound. At 1 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.5°C after a 0.5°C rise during the room temperature-pack application, but only 0.6°C after a 3.8°C increase during hot-pack application. At 3 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.85°C following a slight (-0.26°C) decrease during the room temperature-pack application and 3.68°C after a 0.74°C increase during hot-pack application. Conclusions: Vigorous increases in deep muscle temperature (?4°C) can be reached with 2 to 3 minutes less total sonation time when preheated with a hot pack. Thus, ultrasound and hot packs have an additive effect on intramuscular temperature, but the characteristics of the additive effect are different, primarily because there appears to be a tissue temperature plateau. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558479

  18. Corticosteroid treatment increases parasite numbers in murine giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K V; Gillon, J; Ferguson, A

    1981-01-01

    Corticosteroid therapy is known to be hazardous in patients with occult infection but the mechanism by which the host parasite relationship is altered by steroids is not known.We have used an intestinal protozoal parasite, Giardia muris, to examine the effects of corticosteroids on the number of parasites in the intestine in the course of a primary infection. A single injection of cortisone acetate, subcutaneously, one day before oral inoculation of CBA mice with 1000 cysts of Giardia muris, resulted in significantly higher trophozoite counts in animals studied at one, two, three, four, and eight weeks post-infection, when they were compared with saline injected controls. Recrudescence of occult infection was also achieved by cortisone acetate treatment of mice which had been infected with Giardia muris eight months previously. Clinical studies are required to establish if recrudescence of occult protozoal infection is an important cause of morbidity when immunosuppressive therapy is given to patients in areas where giardiasis is endemic. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7262625

  19. [Statin treatment causes an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Solis, Anette Bratt; Pilemann-Lyberg, Sascha; Gæde, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Statins are important in the prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, they are associated with new-onset diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, particularly when the patient is already in risk of contracting diabetes. Meta-analyses estimate that the risk is increased by 9%. In absolute terms one major CV event can be prevented per 155 patients treated with statins per year compared to one new case of diabetes per 498 patients treated per year. However, this new evidence should not affect the guidelines, where the goal of LDL-cholesterol concentration is < 1,8 mmol/l in patients with high CV risk. PMID:24629749

  20. Intensive insulin treatment increases donor site wound protein synthesis in burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chinkes, David L.; Aarsland, Asle; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the treatment of burns, patients’ own skin is the preferred material to cover burn wounds, resulting in the need to create a donor site wound. Enhancement of healing of the donor site wound would be beneficial in burn patients. Insulin, an anabolic agent, is routinely used to treat hyperglycemia after injury. We investigated whether intensive insulin treatment (INS) increases fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of the donor site wound protein and decreases the length of hospitalization normalized for total body surface area burned (LOS/TBSA). Methods FSR of the donor site wound protein was measured in pediatric patients randomized to control (CNT) (n = 13) and INS (n = 10) treatments. Depending on the postoperative day when the tracer study was done studies were divided into “Early” (days < 5) and “Late” (days >=5) periods. Results FSR of the donor site wound protein was greater in the INS group at the “Early” period of wound healing (CNT vs. INS, 8.2±3.8 vs. 13.1±6.9 %/day, p: < 0.05); but not at the “Late” (CNT vs. INS, 19.7±4.6 vs. 16.6±4.0 %/day, p > 0.05). Despite these differences LOS/TBSA was not decreased in the INS group. Correlation analyses demonstrated that independently of the treatment regimen FSR positively correlated (p < 0.05) with time post creation of the donor site and negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with LOS/TBSA. Conclusions Insulin treatment increased FSR of the donor site wound protein in the early period of wound healing; FSR correlated with LOS/TBSA independently of the treatment regimen. PMID:21236451

  1. Potential Increase in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Interceptions Using Ionizing Irradiation Phytosanitary Treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ionizing irradiation is a postharvest phytosanitary treatment that is used increasingly in the world and shows further promise with some advantages compared to other treatments. Its chief disadvantage is that, unlike all other commercially used treatments, it does not provide acute mortality but pr...

  2. Increased Impulsivity and Disrupted Attention Induced by Repeated Phencyclidine are not Attenuated by Chronic Quetiapine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Nurith; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic medications differ in how effectively they attenuate cognitive and other deficits in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to explore whether quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, would reverse disruptions of performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a test of attention and impulsivity, induced by repeated administration of the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP). In confirmation of previous findings, repeated PCP administration (2 mg/kg, s.c., 30 min before behavioral testing, for two consecutive days, followed by a 2-week PCP-free period and then five consecutive days of PCP treatment) increased premature responding (impulsivity), decreased accuracy (attention), and increased response latencies (processing speed) and timeout responding (impulsivity/cognitive inflexibility). Chronic quetiapine (5 or 10 mg/kg/day, s.c.) did not attenuate these PCP-induced disruptions in performance, while at the highest dose used, quetiapine disrupted 5-CSRTT performance in the absence of PCP treatment and tended to exacerbate the PCP-induced increase in premature responding. Considering that clozapine, another atypical antipsychotic, was shown previously to reverse PCP-induced deficits in the same task (Amitai et al. 2007), the present findings demonstrate differences between clozapine and quetiapine in their effectiveness on schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits and impulsivity that may be attributable to their different receptor affinity profiles. PMID:18809428

  3. Cimetidine increases serum mebendazole concentrations. Implications for treatment of hepatic hydatid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Bekhti, A; Pirotte, J

    1987-01-01

    In eight patients (five with peptic ulcer disease and three with hydatid cysts), the [14C]-aminopyrine breath test (ABT) and maximum serum concentration of mebendazole following a dose of 1.5 g of mebendazole three times daily were determined before and after treatment with cimetidine (400 mg three times daily for 30 days). Serum mebendazole concentrations were measured in blood samples taken 2 h after each drug intake. Cimetidine lowered the 14CO2 specific activity (SA) at 1 h (P less than 0.01) and increased the maximum serum concentration of mebendazole (P less than 0.01). A significant correlation was found between SA at 1 h and the highest concentration of mebendazole before (r = -0.71, P less than 0.05) and after (r = -0.82, P less than 0.05) cimetidine ingestion. Combined administration of cimetidine and mebendazole resulted in the complete resolution of previously unresponsive hydatid cysts. PMID:3663452

  4. A simple process for increasing the specific activity of porcine pancreatic lipase by supercritical carbon dioxide treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Gießauf; Thomas Gamse

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of crude porcine pancreatic lipase preparations (powders) with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at 75°C and 150 bar leads to a time-dependent increase of enzyme activity (activities were measured prior and after SC-CO2 treatment). After 24 h of incubation in SC-CO2, a maximum activity of 860% was measured compared to the untreated enzyme (using 1,2-O-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid resorufin ester as substrate).

  5. What drives the increased informativeness of earnings announcements over time?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Collins; Oliver Zhen Li; Hong Xie

    2009-01-01

    Landsman and Maydew (J Acc Res 40:797–808, 2002) document that the information content of earnings announcements has increased\\u000a over the past three decades, and Francis et al. (Acc Rev, 77:515–546, 2002) conclude that expanded concurrent disclosures\\u000a in firms’ earnings announcements, especially the inclusion of detailed income statements, explain this increase. We posit\\u000a and find that the temporal increase in the intensity

  6. Causal Inference for Time-Varying Instructional Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanglei Hong; Stephen W. Raudenbush

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose a strategy for studying the effects of time-varying instructional treatments on repeatedly observed student achievement. This approach responds to three challenges: (a) The yearly reallocation of students to classrooms and teachers creates a complex structure of dependence among responses; (b) a child’s learning outcome under a certain treatment may depend on the treatment assignment of other children,

  7. Interval Diagrams: Increasing Efficiency of Symbolic Real-Time Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Strehl; Timed Automata

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest interval diagram techniques for formal verification of real-time systems modeled by means of timed au- tomata. Interval diagram techniques are based on interval deci- sion diagrams (IDDs)—representing sets of system configurations of, e.g., timed automata—and interval mapping diagrams(IMDs)— modeling their transition behavior. IDDs are canonical rep resenta- tions of Boolean functions and allow for their

  8. Transitions out of High School: Time of Increased Cancer Risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Baranowski; Karen Weber Cullen; Karen Basen-Engquist; David W. Wetter; Scott Cummings; Daniel S. Martineau; Alexander V. Prokhorov; Joe Chorley; Bettina Beech; Albert C. Hergenroeder

    1997-01-01

    Background.The effectiveness of lifestyle behavior interventions with children to reduce chronic disease risks in adulthood assumes stability in the lifestyle behaviors across time. The transition out of high school is a time when many changes occur in social roles, e.g., changing schools, leaving the parents' home, changing peers, finding employment, getting married, and becoming a parent. Cancer risk behaviors may

  9. A Money Management-Based Substance Use Treatment Increases Valuation of Future Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Black, Anne C.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A positive association between delay discounting and substance use has been documented; substance users tend to discount future rewards more than non-users. However, studies detailing the responsiveness of delay discounting to interventions are lacking, and few have examined how any behavioral intervention affects delay discounting and whether these effects moderate changes in substance abuse. This study assesses the effectiveness of a money management intervention, Advisor-Teller Money Manager (ATM), in reducing delay discounting over time and the relationship of these effects to changes in cocaine use. Method Ninety psychiatric patients with histories of cocaine and/or alcohol use were randomly assigned to 36-weeks of ATM treatment or to a minimal-attention control condition. Delay discounting and cocaine use were measured throughout the intervention with a 52-week follow up measure of cocaine use. Analyses were conducted of (a) the effect of ATM on slopes of delay discounting and cocaine abstinence and (b) the relationship between change in delay discounting and change in cocaine abstinence. Results The ATM intervention was associated with significantly less delay discounting and less cocaine use over time relative to controls. Increases in delay discounting were associated with decreased abstinence from cocaine. Conclusions ATM treatment decreased delay discounting rates and these effects extended to cocaine use. Concrete conceptualizations of future events, as occur in financial planning, with higher perceived probability may account for higher valuation of future rewards in counseled patients. PMID:20826055

  10. Influence of electrolytic treatment time on the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti orthodontic wire.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, Maki; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takahiko; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Hanawa, Takao; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of electrolytic treatment, which can improve the corrosion resistance of Ni-Ti orthodontic wires, to minimize adverse effects. Electrolytic treatment of Ni-Ti wires was performed in a solution composed of glycerol and lactic acid for 5, 15, or 30 min. The anodic polarization test, three-point bending test, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the wire surface were performed to explore an optimal treatment condition. Breakdown potentials of treated wires increased with increasing treatment time and higher corrosion resistance was obtained by performing the electrolytic treatment for more than 5 min. The relative concentration of nickel in the layer was decreased in inverse proportion to the treatment time. The results suggest that the commercial Ni-Ti wire with low corrosion resistance can be improved by the electrolytic treatment for more than 5 min. PMID:23538767

  11. Effectiveness of the Treatment Readiness and Induction Program for increasing adolescent motivation for change.

    PubMed

    Becan, Jennifer E; Knight, Danica K; Crawley, Rachel D; Joe, George W; Flynn, Patrick M

    2015-03-01

    Success in substance abuse treatment is improved by problem recognition, desire to seek help, and readiness to engage in treatment, all of which are important aspects of motivation. Interventions that facilitate these at treatment induction for adolescents are especially needed. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of TRIP (Treatment Readiness and Induction Program) in promoting treatment motivation. Data represent 519 adolescents from 6 residential programs who completed assessments at treatment intake (time 1) and 35 days after admission (time 2). The design consisted of a comparison sample (n=281) that had enrolled in treatment prior to implementation of TRIP (standard operating practice) and a sample of clients that had entered treatment after TRIP began and received standard operating practice enhanced by TRIP (n=238). Repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted using each time 2 motivation scale as a dependent measure. Motivation scales were conceptualized as representing sequential stages of change. LISREL was used to test a structural model involving TRIP participation, gender, drug use severity, juvenile justice involvement, age, race-ethnicity, prior treatment, and urgency as predictors of the stages of treatment motivation. Compared to standard practice, adolescents receiving TRIP demonstrated greater gains in problem recognition, even after controlling for the other variables in the model. The model fit was adequate, with TRIP directly affecting problem recognition and indirectly affecting later stages of change (desire for help and treatment readiness). Future studies should examine which specific components of TRIP affect change in motivation. PMID:25456094

  12. Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment, Part 2: Treatment “Roles of Capillary Index Score, Revascularization and Time

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ali, Firas; Elias, John J.; Filipkowski, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    Due to recent results from clinical intra-arterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke (IAT-AIS) trials such as the interventional management of stroke III, IAT-AIS and the merit of revascularization have been contested. Even though intra-arterial treatment (IAT) has been shown to improve revascularization rates, a corresponding increase in good outcomes has only recently been noted. Even though a significant percentage of patients achieve good revascularization in a timely manner, results do not translate into good clinical outcomes (GCOs). Based on a review of the literature, the authors suspect limited GCOs following timely and successful revascularization are due to poor patient selection that led to futile and possibly even harmful revascularization. The capillary index score (CIS) is a simple angiography-based scale that can potentially be used to improve patient selection to prevent revascularization being performed on patients who are unlikely to benefit from treatment. The CIS characterizes presence of capillary blush related to collateral flow as a marker of residual viable tissue, with absence of blush indicating the tissue is no longer viable due to ischemia. By only selecting patients with a favorable CIS for IAT, the rate of GCOs should consistently approach 80–90%. Current methods of patient selection are primarily dependent on time from ischemia. Time from cerebral ischemia to irreversible tissue damage seems to vary from patient to patient; so focusing on viable tissue based on the CIS rather than relying on an artificial time window seems to be a more appropriate approach to patient selection.

  13. Warming Rather Than Increased Precipitation Increases Soil Recalcitrant Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Grassland after 6 Years of Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Chen, Chengrong; Wang, Yanfen; Smaill, Simeon; Clinton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C) in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC) storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0–10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P?=?0.038) and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10–20 cm depth (P?=?0.082). In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0–10 cm depth (both P<0.05), indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10–20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland. PMID:23341995

  14. On-Line Scheduling Policies for a Class of IRIS (Increasing Reward with Increasing Service) Real-Time Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayanta K. Dey; James F. Kurose; Donald F. Towsley

    1996-01-01

    We consider a real time task model where a task receives a “reward” that depends on the amount of service received prior to its deadline. The reward of the task is assumed to be an increasing function of the amount of service that it receives, i.e., the task has the property that it receives increasing reward with increasing service (IRIS).

  15. Contingent Time Off To Increase Verbal Behavior: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertshaw, C. Stuart; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A withdrawn adolescent, an outpatient at a mental health clinic, was the subject for this case report. Baseline data were collected on the frequency of the subjects' verbalizations. The subject was then instructed to record his own verbal behavior. The subject "earned" his way out of the mental health clinic by increasing his verbal behavior to an…

  16. Potential treatment options and future research to increase hepatitis C virus treatment response rate

    PubMed Central

    TenCate, Veronica; Sainz, Bruno; Cotler, Scott J; Uprichard, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a liver-tropic blood-borne pathogen that affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Although acute infections are usually asymptomatic, up to 90% of HCV infections persist with the possibility of long-term consequences such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, steatosis, insulin resistance, or hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, HCV-associated liver disease is a major public health concern. Although the currently available standard of care therapy of pegylated interferon ? plus ribavirin successfully treats infection in a subset of patients, the development of more effective, less toxic HCV antivirals is a health care imperative. This review not only discusses the limitations of the current HCV standard of care but also evaluates upcoming HCV treatment options and how current research elucidating the viral life cycle is facilitating the development of HCV-specific therapeutics that promise to greatly improve treatment response rates both before and after liver transplantation. PMID:21331152

  17. Temozolomide and irradiation combined treatment-induced Nrf2 activation increases chemoradiation sensitivity in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Han-Dong; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Jia-Wei; Pan, Hao; Zhang, Ding-Ding; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to chemoradiotherapy is a major obstacle to successful treatment of glioblastoma. Recently, the role of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in enhancing chemoradiation sensitivity has been reported in several types of cancers. Here, we investigated whether temozolomide (TMZ) and irradiation (IR) combined treatment induced Nrf2 activation in human glioblastoma cells. And we further performed a preliminary study about the effect of Nrf2 on chemoradiation sensitivity. Immunohistochemical staining for Nrf2 in paired clinical specimens showed that TMZ and IR combined treatment increased the expression and nuclear localization of Nrf2 in human glioblastoma tissues. Moreover, we found nuclear Nrf2 expression in the glioblastoma tissues obtained from the patients undergoing TMZ and IR combined treatment was associated with the time to tumor recurrence. In vitro, we further verified these findings. First, we detected increased nuclear localization of Nrf2 following treatment with TMZ+IR in human glioblastoma cell lines. Second, we demonstrated TMZ+IR increased the levels of Nrf2 protein in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of U251 cells and induced Nrf2 target genes expression. Finally, downregulating Nrf2 expression increased TMZ+IR-induced cell death in the U251 cells. These findings suggest TMZ+IR combined treatment induces Nrf2 activation in human glioblastoma cells. The activation of Nrf2 may be associate with enhancing chemoradiation sensitivity in human glioblastoma cell. Blocking Nrf2 activation may be a promising method enhancing chemoradiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. PMID:24078215

  18. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Andrén; Thomas Andrén

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick

  19. Genome-wide association study of increasing suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment in the GENDEP project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Perroud; R Uher; M Y M Ng; M Guipponi; J Hauser; N Henigsberg; W Maier; O Mors; M Gennarelli; M Rietschel; D Souery; M Z Dernovsek; A S Stamp; M Lathrop; A Farmer; G Breen; K J Aitchison; C M Lewis; I W Craig; P McGuffin

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal thoughts during antidepressant treatment have been the focus of several candidate gene association studies. The aim of the present genome-wide association study was to identify additional genetic variants involved in increasing suicidal ideation during escitalopram and nortriptyline treatment. A total of 706 adult participants of European ancestry, treated for major depression with escitalopram or nortriptyline over 12 weeks in

  20. Pancreatic cancer Increased organ sparing using shape-based treatment plan optimization for

    E-print Network

    Kazhdan, Michael

    Pancreatic cancer Increased organ sparing using shape-based treatment plan optimization Available online 15 June 2011 Keywords: Pancreatic cancer Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) Treatment with pancreatic cancer was queried to find patients with less favorable PTV-OAR configuration than a new case

  1. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ted

    Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non- multidrug-resistant tuberculosis proportions of TB patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Objective--To assess risk while incarcerated). Conclusions--Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients

  2. Increased onset of vergence adaptation reduces excessive accommodation during the orthoptic treatment of convergence insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R

    2015-06-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that the successful treatment of convergence insufficiency (CI) with vision-training (VT) procedures, leads to an increased capacity of vergence adaptation (VAdapt) allowing a more rapid downward adjustment of the convergence accommodation cross-link. Nine subjects with CI were recruited from a clinical population, based upon reduced fusional vergence amplitudes, receded near point of convergence or symptomology. VAdapt and the resulting changes to convergence accommodation (CA) were measured at specific intervals over 15min (pre-training). Separate clinical measures of the accommodative convergence cross link, horizontal fusion limits and near point of convergence were taken and a symptomology questionnaire completed. Subjects then participated in a VT program composed of 2.5h at home and 1h in-office weekly for 12-14weeks. Clinical testing was done weekly. VAdapt and CA measures were retaken once clinical measures normalized for 2weeks (mid-training) and then again when symptoms had cleared (post-training). VAdapt and CA responses as well as the clinical measures were taken on a control group showing normal clinical findings. Six subjects provided complete data sets. CI clinical findings reached normal levels between 4 and 7weeks of training but symptoms, VAdapt, and CA output remained significantly different from the controls until 12-14weeks. The hypothesis was retained. The reduced VAdapt and excessive CA found in CI were normalized through orthoptic treatment. This time course was underestimated by clinical findings but matched symptom amelioration. PMID:25891521

  3. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  4. Chemotherapeutic treatment efficacy and sensitivity are increased by adjuvant alternating electric fields (TTFields)

    PubMed Central

    Kirson, Eilon D; Schneiderman, Rosa S; Dbalý, Vladimír; Tovaryš, František; Vymazal, Josef; Itzhaki, Aviran; Mordechovich, Daniel; Gurvich, Zoya; Shmueli, Esther; Goldsher, Dorit; Wasserman, Yoram; Palti, Yoram

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study explores the efficacy and toxicity of combining a new, non-toxic, cancer treatment modality, termed Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields), with chemotherapeutic treatment in-vitro, in-vivo and in a pilot clinical trial. Methods Cell proliferation in culture was studied in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and human glioma (U-118) cell lines, exposed to TTFields, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and dacarbazine (DTIC) separately and in combinations. In addition, we studied the effects of combining chemotherapy with TTFields in an animal tumor model and in a pilot clinical trial in recurrent and newly diagnosed GBM patients. Results The efficacy of TTFields-chemotherapy combination in-vitro was found to be additive with a tendency towards synergism for all drugs and cell lines tested (combination index ? 1). The sensitivity to chemotherapeutic treatment was increased by 1–3 orders of magnitude by adjuvant TTFields therapy (dose reduction indexes 23 – 1316). Similar findings were seen in an animal tumor model. Finally, 20 GBM patients were treated with TTFields for a median duration of 1 year. No TTFields related systemic toxicity was observed in any of these patients, nor was an increase in Temozolomide toxicity seen in patients receiving combined treatment. In newly diagnosed GBM patients, combining TTFields with Temozolomide treatment led to a progression free survival of 155 weeks and overall survival of 39+ months. Conclusion These results indicate that combining chemotherapeutic cancer treatment with TTFields may increase chemotherapeutic efficacy and sensitivity without increasing treatment related toxicity. PMID:19133110

  5. Participation in drug treatment court and time to rearrest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duren Banks; Denise C. Gottfredson

    2004-01-01

    This study uses an experimental design to assess the impact of a drug treatment court on nonviolent felony offenders. The drug court program combines intensive supervision, judicial monitoring, drug testing, and drug treatment to reduce recidivism and other problem behaviors. Survival analyses showed that the drug court sample had a significantly longer time to first rearrest than the control sample.

  6. Modeling the Timing of Antilatency Drug Administration during HIV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Petravic, Janka; Martyushev, Alexey; Reece, Jeanette C.; Kent, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latently infected cells are considered a major barrier to the cure of HIV infection, since they are long-lived under antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cause viral replication to restart soon after stopping ART. In the last decade, different types of antilatency drugs have been explored with the aim of reactivating and purging this latent reservoir and the hope of achieving a cure. Because of toxicity and safety considerations, antilatency drugs can only be given for a short time to patients on long-term ART, with little effect. We recently investigated the turnover of latently infected cells during active infection and have found that it was strongly correlated with viral load. This implies that although latently infected cells had long life spans in a setting of a low viral load (such as during ART), they turned over quickly under a high viral load. Possible reasons for this could be that an increased viral load causes increased activation or death of CD4+ T cells, including those that are latently infected. Taking these results into account, we developed a mathematical model to study the most appropriate timing of antilatency drugs in relationship to the initiation of ART. We found that the best timing of a short-term antilatency drug would be the start of ART, when viral load, CD4+ T cell activation, and latent cell turnover are all high. These results have important implications for the design of HIV cure-related clinical trials. IMPORTANCE The antiretroviral therapy (ART) of HIV-infected patients currently needs to be lifelong, because the cells latently infected with HIV start new rounds of infection as soon as the treatment is stopped. In the last decade, a number of different types of antilatency drugs have been explored with the aim of “reactivating” and “purging” this latent reservoir and thus achieving a cure. These drugs have thus far been tested on patients only after long-term ART and have demonstrated little or no effect. We use mathematical modeling to show that the most efficacious timing of a short-term antilatency treatment may be the start of ART because of possible interactions of antilatency drugs with natural activation pathways. PMID:25253352

  7. High energy neutron treatment for pelvic cancers: study stopped because of increased mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Errington, R D; Ashby, D; Gore, S M; Abrams, K R; Myint, S; Bonnett, D E; Blake, S W; Saxton, T E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare high energy fast neutron treatment with conventional megavoltage x ray treatment in the management of locally advanced pelvic carcinomas (of the cervix, bladder, prostate, and rectum). DESIGN--Randomised study from February 1986; randomisation to neutron treatment or photon treatment was unstratified and in the ratio of 3 to 1 until January 1988, when randomisation was in the ratio 1 to 1 and stratified by site of tumour. SETTING--Mersey regional radiotherapy centre at Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral. PATIENTS--151 patients with locally advanced, non-metastatic pelvic cancer (27 cervical, 69 of the bladder, seven prostatic, and 48 of the rectum). INTERVENTION--Randomisation to neutron treatment was stopped in February 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient survival and causes of death in relation to the development of metastatic disease and treatment related morbidity. RESULTS--In the first phase of the trial 42 patients were randomised to neutron treatment and 14 to photon treatment, and in the second phase 48 to neutron treatment and 47 to photon treatment. The relative risk of mortality for photons compared with neutrons was 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.40 to 1.10) after adjustment for site of tumour and other important prognostic factors. Short term and long term complications were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS--The trial was stopped because of the increased mortality in patients with cancer of the cervix, bladder, or rectum treated with neutrons. PMID:1903663

  8. Subacute treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor after traumatic brain injury increases angiogenesis and gliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thau-Zuchman, O; Shohami, E; Alexandrovich, A G; Leker, R R

    2012-01-27

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is neuroprotective and induces neurogenesis and angiogenesis when given early after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the effects of VEGF administration in the subacute phase after TBI remain unknown. Mice were subjected to TBI and treated with vehicle or VEGF beginning 7 days later for an additional 7 days. The animals were injected with BrdU to label proliferating cells and examined with a motor-sensory scale at pre-determined time points. Mice were killed 90 days post injury and immunohistochemistry was used to study cell fates. Our results demonstrate that lesion volumes did not differ between the groups confirming the lack of neuroprotective effects in this paradigm. VEGF treatment led to significant increments in cell proliferation (1.9 fold increase vs. vehicle, P<0.0001) and angiogenesis in the lesioned cortex (1.7 fold increase vs. vehicle, P=0.0001) but most of the proliferating cells differentiated into glia and no mature newly-generated neurons were detected. In conclusion, VEGF induces gliogenesis and angiogenesis when given 7 days post TBI. However, treated mice had only insignificant motor improvements in this paradigm, suggesting that the bulk of the beneficial effects observed when VEGF is given early after TBI results from the neuroprotective effects. PMID:22173016

  9. Hydroprene prolongs developmental time and increases mortality in wandering-phase Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mohandass, S; Arthur, F H; Zhu, K Y; Throne, J E

    2006-08-01

    Wandering phase Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), larvae were exposed to the label rate of hydroprene (1.9 x 10(-3) mg [AI] /cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. Larvae were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h and maintained at 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 degrees C and 57% RH until adult emergence. Larval developmental time and mortality were significantly influenced by temperature and exposure intervals. Maximum developmental time (47.2 +/- 1.3 d) occurred at 16 degrees C, and the minimum developmental time (7.0 +/- 0.5 d) occurred at 32 degrees C. Larval mortality generally increased at all of the five tested temperatures as exposure period increased. The greatest mortality (82.0 +/- 0.1%) occurred when larvae were exposed for 30 h at 28 degrees C, and minimum mortality (0.0 +/- 0.5%) occurred at 16 degrees C when larvae were exposed for 1 h. The relationships between temperature, exposure period, and developmental time were described by polynomial models, based on lack-of-fit tests. Hydroprene has potential to be an effective alternative to conventional insecticides in surface treatments for Indianmeal moth management. Response-surface models derived from this study can be used in simulation models to estimate the potential consequences of hydroprene on Indianmeal moth population dynamics. PMID:16937710

  10. Chronic estradiol treatment increases ovariectomized rat striatal D-1 dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, D.; de Paolo, T. (Laval Univ., Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    Striatal D-1 dopamine (DA) receptors were investigated following chronic 17{beta}-estradiol to ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. This treatment initiated the day after ovariectomy has revealed that the maximal density in homogenates of striatal D-1 DA receptors (Bmax) labelled with ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 was increased. Estradiol treatment initiated 2 or 4 weeks after ovariectomy did not induce D-1 DA receptor binding modifications. The affinity (Kd) of the ligand for the receptor remains unchanged by the steroid treatment while NaCl increased both the density and the affinity of ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 binding to striatal D-1 DA receptors. By autoradiography, the increase of striatal ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 binding to D-1 DA receptors after chronic estradiol treatment was found to be homogeneously distributed in this brain region. Thus, chronic treatment with estradiol of ovariectomized rats leads to an increased density of striatal D-1 DA receptors but, this hormonal modulation of D-1 DA receptors is lost when treatment is started 2 weeks after ovariectomy or later.

  11. Increased expression of renal TRPM6 compensates for Mg2+ wasting during furosemide treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Angelen, Annelies A.; van der Kemp, AnneMiete W.; Hoenderop, Joost G.; Bindels, René J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Furosemide is a loop diuretic, which blocks the Na+, K+, 2Cl? cotransporter (NKCC2) in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL). By diminishing sodium (Na+) reabsorption, loop diuretics reduce the lumen-positive transepithelial voltage and consequently diminish paracellular transport of magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+) in TAL. Indeed, furosemide promotes urinary Mg2+ excretion; however, it is unclear whether this leads, especially during prolonged treatment, to hypomagnesaemia. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine the effect of chronic furosemide application on renal Mg2+ handling in mice. Methods Two groups of 10 mice received an osmotic minipump subcutaneously for 7 days with vehicle or 30 mg/kg/day furosemide. Serum and urine electrolyte concentrations were determined. Next, renal mRNA levels of the epithelial Mg2+ channel (TRPM6), the Na+, Cl? cotransporter (NCC), the epithelial Ca2+ channel (TRPV5), the cytosolic Ca2+-binding protein calbindin-D28K, as well parvalbumin (PV), claudin-7 (CLDN7) and claudin-8 (CLDN8), the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and the Na+–H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Renal protein levels of NCC, TRPV5, calbindin-D28K and ENaC were also measured using semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Results The mice chronically treated with 30 mg/kg/day furosemide displayed a significant polyuria (2.1 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.2 mL/24 h, furosemide versus control respectively, P < 0.05). Furosemide treatment resulted in increased serum concentrations of Na+ [158 ± 3 (treated) and 147 ± 1 mmol/L (control), P < 0.01], whereas serum K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ values were not significantly altered in mice treated with furosemide. Urinary excretion of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ was not affected by chronic furosemide treatment. The present study shows specific renal upregulation of TRPM6, NCC, TRPV5 and calbindin-D28K. Conclusions During chronic furosemide treatment, enhanced active reabsorption of Mg2+ via the epithelial channel TRPM6 in DCT compensates for the reduced reabsorption of Mg2+ in TAL.

  12. The accelerated intake: a method for increasing initial attendance to outpatient cocaine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Festinger, D S; Lamb, R J; Kirby, K C; Marlowe, D B

    1996-01-01

    We examined whether offering an accelerated (same-day) versus a standard (1- to 7-day delay) intake appointment increased initial attendance at an outpatient cocaine treatment program. Significantly more of the subjects who were offered an accelerated intake (59%) attended than those who were given a standard intake (33%), chi 2 (2, N = 78) = 4.198, p < .05. The accelerated intake procedure appears to be useful for enhancing enrollment in outpatient addiction treatment. PMID:8810062

  13. Growth In Buprenorphine Waivers For Physicians Increased Potential Access To Opioid Agonist Treatment, 2002-11.

    PubMed

    Dick, Andrew W; Pacula, Rosalie L; Gordon, Adam J; Sorbero, Mark; Burns, Rachel M; Leslie, Douglas; Stein, Bradley D

    2015-06-01

    Opioid use disorders are a significant public health problem, affecting two million people in the United States. Treatment with buprenorphine, methadone, or both is predominantly offered in methadone clinics, yet many people do not receive the treatment they need. In 2002 the Food and Drug Administration approved buprenorphine for prescription by physicians who completed a course and received a waiver from the Drug Enforcement Administration, exempting them from requirements in the Controlled Substances Act. To determine the waiver program's impact on the availability of opioid agonist treatment, we analyzed data for the period 2002-11 to identify counties with opioid treatment shortages. We found that the percentage of counties with a shortage of waivered physicians fell sharply, from 98.9 percent in 2002 to 46.8 percent in 2011. As a result, the percentage of the US population residing in what we classified as opioid treatment shortage counties declined from 48.6 percent in 2002 to 10.4 percent in 2011. These findings suggest that the increase in waivered physicians has dramatically increased potential access to opioid agonist treatment. Policy makers should focus their efforts on further increasing the number and geographical distribution of physicians, particularly in more rural counties, where prescription opioid misuse is rapidly growing. PMID:26056209

  14. Cyclosporin treatment in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an increased serum activity of beta-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Falkenbach, A; Wigand, R; Unkelbach, U; Jörgens, K; Martinovic, A; Scheuermann, E H; Seiffert, U B; Kaltwasser, J P

    1993-01-01

    The serum activity of beta-glucuronidase (beta-gluc) has been presumed to indicate the disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 10 patients with RA the serum beta-gluc was repeatedly determined after the initiation of a treatment with cyclosporin for one year. A significant increase of beta-gluc was found after 8, 12 and 16 weeks compared to the values before treatment, while the concentration of the soluble interleukin 2-receptor decreased. The data reveal, that beta-gluc is not a useful indicator of the disease activity during cyclosporin treatment. PMID:8480143

  15. Increased accumulation and decreased catabolism of anthocyanins in red grape cell suspension culture following magnesium treatment.

    PubMed

    Sinilal, Bhaskaran; Ovadia, Rinat; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Perl, Avichai; Carmeli-Weissberg, Mira; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2011-07-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest and best studied group of plant pigments. However, not very much is known about the fate of these phenolic pigments after they have accumulated in the cell vacuoles of plant tissues. We have previously shown that magnesium treatment of ornamentals during the synthesis of anthocyanins in the flowers or foliage caused an increase in the pigment concentration. In this study, we characterized the effect of magnesium on the accumulation of anthocyanin in red cell suspension originating from Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red grapes. Magnesium treatment of the cells caused a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increase in anthocyanin concentration, with no substantial induction of the biosynthetic genes. This treatment inhibited the degradation of anthocyanins occurring in the cells, and changed the ratio between different anthocyanins determining cell color, with an increase in the relative concentration of the less stable pigment molecules. The process by which magnesium treatment affects anthocyanin accumulation is still not clear. However, the results presented suggest at least part of its effect on anthocyanin accumulation stems from inhibition of the pigments' catabolism. When anthocyanin biosynthesis was inhibited, magnesium treatments prevented the constant degradation of anthocyanins in the cell suspension. Future understanding of the catabolic processes undergone by anthocyanins in plants may enable more efficient inhibition of this process and increased accumulation of these pigments, and possibly of additional phenolic compounds. PMID:21369922

  16. On Optimal Treatment Regimes Selection for Mean Survival Time

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yuan; Zhang, Hao Helen; Lu, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    In clinical studies with time-to-event as a primary endpoint, one main interest is to find the best treatment strategy to maximize patients’ mean survival time. Due to patient’s heterogeneity in response to treatments, great efforts have been devoted to developing optimal treatment regimes by integrating individuals’ clinical and genetic information. A main challenge arises in the selection of important variables that can help to build reliable and interpretable optimal treatment regimes since the dimension of predictors may be high. In this paper, we propose a robust loss-based estimation framework that can be easily coupled with shrinkage penalties for both estimation of optimal treatment regimes and variable selection. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are studied. Moreover, a model-free estimator of restricted mean survival time under the derived optimal treatment regime is developed and its asymptotic property is studied. Simulations are conducted to assess the empirical performance of the proposed method for parameter estimation, variable selection, and optimal treatment decision. An application to an AIDS clinical trial data set is given to illustrate the method. PMID:25515005

  17. Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-10-16

    A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility.

  18. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in the aspect of increasing antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Iwa?czak, Franciszek; Iwa?czak, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the problem of Helicobacter pylori infection in the world and its increasing antibiotic resistance are analyzed. The authors discuss the efficacy of treatment, noting that the clarithromycin--and metronidazole-resistance of H. pylori is the main cause of this treatment failure. Because of this phenomenon, a quadruple therapy is being introduced and clarithromycin is being replaced by new antibiotics. The authors also present various schemes of triple and quadruple therapy as well as sequential therapy. Attention is directed to the fact that, in order to obtain better results of the eradication, the treatment should be prolonged from 7 to 10 or even 14 days, and that the doses of the drugs should be increased. PMID:23356205

  19. Correcting radiation survey data to account for increased leakage during intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Kairn, T. [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V. [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments require more beam-on time and produce more linac head leakage to deliver similar doses to conventional, unmodulated, radiotherapy treatments. It is necessary to take this increased leakage into account when evaluating the results of radiation surveys around bunkers that are, or will be, used for IMRT. The recommended procedure of applying a monitor-unit based workload correction factor to secondary barrier survey measurements, to account for this increased leakage when evaluating radiation survey measurements around IMRT bunkers, can lead to potentially costly overestimation of the required barrier thickness. This study aims to provide initial guidance on the validity of reducing the value of the correction factor when applied to different radiation barriers (primary barriers, doors, maze walls, and other walls) by evaluating three different bunker designs.Methods: Radiation survey measurements of primary, scattered, and leakage radiation were obtained at each of five survey points around each of three different radiotherapy bunkers and the contribution of leakage to the total measured radiation dose at each point was evaluated. Measurements at each survey point were made with the linac gantry set to 12 equidistant positions from 0° to 330°, to assess the effects of radiation beam direction on the results.Results: For all three bunker designs, less than 0.5% of dose measured at and alongside the primary barriers, less than 25% of the dose measured outside the bunker doors and up to 100% of the dose measured outside other secondary barriers was found to be caused by linac head leakage.Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IMRT workload corrections are unnecessary, for survey measurements made at and alongside primary barriers. Use of reduced IMRT workload correction factors is recommended when evaluating survey measurements around a bunker door, provided that a subset of the measurements used in this study are repeated for the bunker in question. Reduction of the correction factor for other secondary barrier survey measurements is not recommended unless the contribution from leakage is separately evaluated.

  20. Genetic Predictors of Increase in Suicidal Ideation During Antidepressant Treatment in the GENDEP Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Perroud; Katherine J Aitchison; Rudolf Uher; Rebecca Smith; Patricia Huezo-Diaz; Andrej Marusic; Wolfgang Maier; Ole Mors; Anna Placentino; Neven Henigsberg; Marcella Rietschel; Joanna Hauser; Daniel Souery; Pawel Kapelski; Cristian Bonvicini; Astrid Zobel; Lisbeth Jorgensen; Ana Petrovic; Petra Kalember; Thomas G Schulze; Bhanu Gupta; Joanna Gray; Cathryn M Lewis; Anne E Farmer; Peter McGuffin; Ian Craig

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genetic predictors of an increase in suicidal ideation during treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or a tricyclic antidepressant. A total of 796 adult patients with major depressive disorder who were treated with a flexible dosage of escitalopram or nortriptyline in Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) were included in the

  1. L-4F treatment reduces adiposity, increases adiponectin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    bone marrow (P , 0.039) and in cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchy- mal stem cells (P , 0 are associated with an inflammatory response in these cells. Adipose tissue plays an important role in insulinL-4F treatment reduces adiposity, increases adiponectin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity

  2. Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein expression in hippocampal synaptic fractions

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein of the basolateral com- plex of the amygdala (BLA). We previously reported that intra-BLA administration of a b-Dawley rats immediately after inhibitory avoidance training to examine effects on long- term memory, amygdala

  3. Increasing engagement in evidence-based PTSD treatment through shared decision-making: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mott, Juliette M; Stanley, Melinda A; Street, Richard L; Grady, Rebecca H; Teng, Ellen J

    2014-02-01

    Within the Veterans Health Administration, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment decisions are left to the patient and provider, allowing substantial variability in the way treatment decisions are made. Theorized to increase treatment engagement, shared decision-making interventions provide a standardized framework for treatment decisions. This study sought to develop (phase 1) and pilot test the feasibility and potential effectiveness (phase 2) of a brief shared decision-making intervention to promote engagement in evidence-based PTSD treatment. An initial version of the intervention was developed and then modified according to stakeholder feedback. Participants in the pilot trial were 27 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans recruited during an intake assessment at a Veterans Affairs PTSD clinic. Participants randomized to the intervention condition (n = 13) participated in a 30-minute shared decision-making session, whereas patients randomized to the usual care condition (n = 14) completed treatment planning during their intake appointment, per usual clinic procedures. Among the 20 study completers, a greater proportion of participants in the intervention condition preferred an evidence-based treatment and received an adequate (?9 sessions) dose of psychotherapy. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the intervention and suggest that larger-scale trials are warranted. PMID:24491609

  4. Treatment with endotracheal therapeutics after sarin microinstillation inhalation exposure increases blood cholinesterase levels in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Che, Magnus M; Song, Jian; Oguntayo, Samuel; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Rezk, Peter; Perkins, Michael W; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2012-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured in the blood and tissues of animals that are treated with a number of endotracheally aerosolized therapeutics for protection against inhalation toxicity to sarin. Therapeutics included, aerosolized atropine methyl bromide (AMB), scopolamine or combination of AMB with salbutamol, sphingosine 1-phosphate, keratinocyte growth factor, adenosine A1 receptor antisense oligonucleotide (EPI2010), 2,3-diacetyloxybenzoic acid (2,3 DABA), oxycyte, and survanta. Guinea pigs exposed to 677.4?mg/m(3) or 846.5?mg/m(3) (1.2 LCt(50)) sarin for 4?min using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique and treated 1?min later with the aerosolized therapeutics. Treatment with all therapeutics significantly increased the survival rate with no convulsions throughout the 24?h study period. Blood AChE activity determined using acetylthiocholine as substrate showed 20% activity remaining in sarin-exposed animals compare to controls. In aerosolized AMB and scopolamine-treated animals the remaining AChE activity was significantly higher (45-60%) compared to sarin-exposed animals (p?treatment with all the combination therapeutics resulted in significant increase in blood AChE activity in comparison to sarin-exposed animals although the increases varied between treatments (p?increased after treatment with aerosolized therapeutics but was lesser in magnitude compared to AChE activity changes. Various tissues showed elevated AChE activity after therapeutic treatment of sarin-exposed animals. Increased AChE and BChE activities in animals treated with nasal therapeutics suggest that enhanced breathing and reduced respiratory toxicity/lung injury possibly contribute to rapid normalization of chemical warfare nerve agent inhibited cholinesterases. PMID:22145985

  5. Glioblastoma Treatment: Bypassing the Toxicity of Platinum Compounds by Using Liposomal Formulation and Increasing Treatment Efficiency With Concomitant Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Leon [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, David; Mathieu, David [Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Paquette, Benoit, E-mail: Benoit.Paquette@USherbrooke.ca [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Treatments of glioblastoma with cisplatin or oxaliplatin only marginally improve the overall survival of patients and cause important side effects. To prevent adverse effects, improve delivery, and optimize the tumor response to treatment in combination with radiotherapy, a potential approach consists of incorporating the platinum agent in a liposome. Methods and Materials: In this study, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, Lipoplatin (the liposomal formulation of cisplatin), and Lipoxal (the liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin) were tested on F98 glioma orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. The platinum compounds were administered by intracarotid infusion and were assessed for the ability to reduce toxicity, improve cancer cell uptake, and increase survival of animals when combined or not combined with radiotherapy. Results: The tumor uptake was 2.4-fold more important for Lipoxal than the liposome-free oxaliplatin. Lipoxal also improved the specificity of oxaliplatin as shown by a higher ratio of tumor to right hemisphere uptake. Surprisingly, Lipoplatin led to lower tumor uptake compared with cisplatin. However, Lipoplatin had the advantage of largely reducing the toxicity of cisplatin and allowed us to capitalize on the anticancer activity of this agent. Conclusion: Among the five platinum compounds tested, carboplatin showed the best increase in survival when combined with radiation for treatment of glioma implanted in Fischer rats.

  6. Increasing dependency of older people in nursing homes is associated with need for dental treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Rammelsberg, Peter; Cabrera, Tomas; Hassel, Alexander Jochen

    2014-01-01

    To determine relationships between the need for dental treatments of institutionalized elderly people and cognitive impairment and the general level of care needed. Two hundred and sixty-eight residents of long-term care facilities in Germany were included in this study. Age, sex, diseases, number of frequently taken drugs, and location of the long-term care facility of the participants were recorded. For each participant, the need for care was assessed by use of the Barthel index (BI). Cognitive impairment was evaluated by use of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). To assess dental treatment needs, the revised oral assessment guide (ROAG) was applied for different oral health conditions, which were rated “healthy” or “treatment needed”. Spearman correlations were performed to evaluate associations between BI and MMSE and dental treatment needs. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations of BI (P<0.001) and MMSE (P=0.015) with the ROAG score. Increasing dependency and decreasing cognitive ability worsen oral health and increase the need for dental treatment. PMID:25506220

  7. An ACA provision increased treatment for young adults with possible mental illnesses relative to comparison group.

    PubMed

    Saloner, Brendan; Lê Cook, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) required that insurers allow people ages 19-25 to remain as dependents on their parents' health insurance beginning in 2010. Using data from the 2008-12 National Survey of Drug Use and Health, we examined the impact of the ACA dependent coverage provision on people ages 18-25 with possible mental health or substance use disorders. We found that after implementation of the ACA provision, among people ages 18-25 with possible mental health disorders, mental health treatment increased by 5.3 percentage points relative to a comparison group of similar people ages 26-35. Smaller, but consistent, effects were found among all young adults, not only those with possible illnesses. For people using mental health treatment, uninsured visits declined by 12.4 percentage points, and visits paid by private insurance increased by 12.9 percentage points. We observed no changes in mental health treatment setting. Outcomes related to substance abuse treatment did not change during the study period. The dependent coverage provision can contribute to a broader strategy for improving behavioral health treatment for young adults. PMID:25092845

  8. It's time to change the default for tobacco treatment.

    PubMed

    Richter, Kimber P; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 1 billion people will die from tobacco-related illnesses this century. Most health-care providers, however, fail to treat tobacco dependence. This may be due in part to the treatment 'default'. Guidelines in many countries recommend that health-care providers: (i) ask patients if they are 'ready' to quit using tobacco; and (ii) provide treatment only to those who state they are ready to quit. For other health conditions--diabetes, hypertension, asthma and even substance abuse--treatment guidelines direct health-care providers to identify the health condition and initiate evidence-based treatment. As with any medical care, patients are free to decline--they can 'opt out' from care. If patients do nothing, they will receive care. For tobacco users, however, the treatment default is often that they have to 'opt in' to treatment. This drastically limits the reach of tobacco treatment because, at any given encounter, a minority of tobacco users will say they are ready to quit. As a result, few are offered treatment. It is time to change the treatment default for tobacco dependence. All tobacco users should be offered evidence-based care, without being screened for readiness as a precondition for receiving treatment. Opt-out care for tobacco dependence is warranted because changing defaults has been shown to change choices and outcomes for numerous health behaviors, and most tobacco users want to quit; there is little to no evidence supporting the utility of assessing readiness to quit, and an opt-out default is more ethical. PMID:25323093

  9. Lung Cancer Treatment Waiting Times and Tumour Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. O'Rourke; R. Edwards

    2000-01-01

    We report a single-centre prospective audit of 29 lung cancer patients who were awaiting radical (potentially curative) radiotherapy. This was the total number assessed as suitable for radical treatment by one consultant during 1999. At the time of assessment they had been newly diagnosed and staged with a computed tomographic (CT) scan of chest. They had a subsequent CT scan

  10. Attractiveness of periodic orbits in parametrically forced systems with time-increasing friction

    E-print Network

    Bartuccelli, Michele

    Attractiveness of periodic orbits in parametrically forced systems with time- increasing friction with time-increasing friction Michele Bartuccelli,1,a) Jonathan Deane,1,b) and Guido Gentile2,c) 1 oscillator in the presence of friction, and study numerically how time-varying friction affects the dynamics

  11. Increased oil recovery from mature oil fields using gelled polymer treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G. Paul; Green, Down W.; McCool, Stan

    2000-02-23

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This research program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. This report describes the progress of the research during the first six months of work. A Dawn EOS multi-angle laser light scattering detector was purchased, installed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted to determine the permeabilities of a bulk gel and of a filter cake which forms when a gel is dehydrated. The pressure at which a gel in a tube is ruptured was measured and was correlated to the length and diameter of the gel.

  12. UV/ozone surface treatment increases hydrophilicity and enhances functionality of SU-8 photoresist polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delplanque, Aleksandra; Henry, Etienne; Lautru, Joseph; Leh, Hervé; Buckle, Malcolm; Nogues, Claude

    2014-09-01

    SU-8 photoresist polymer is widely used in the fabrication of microdevices. However, for biological applications, the problem of efficiently modifying SU-8 surfaces without perturbing roughness has not been successfully resolved. We present UV/ozone (UVO) surface pre-treatment as an effective method to increase the hydrophilicity of SU-8 films without affecting surface roughness, thus improving specific covalent binding of bio-molecules. We demonstrate that 30 s UVO treatment suffices to create carboxyl groups at the surface that can then be used for high density binding of molecules via amide bond formation. We further demonstrate that a two-step surface modification where the surface is first protected with an ethylene glycol monolayer leads to an increase in binding specificity. Finally, to illustrate the controlled binding and accessibility of immobilized molecules, we show three cycles of reversible interactions between anti-tamra antibody and tamra-cadaverine immobilized on the surface of SU-8.

  13. PEGylation of bacteriophages increases blood circulation time and reduces T?helper type 1 immune response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang?Pyo; Cha, Jeong?Dan; Jang, Eun?Hye; Klumpp, Jochen; Hagens, Steven; Hardt, Wolf?Dietrich; Lee, Kyung?Yeol; Loessner, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The increasing occurrence of antibiotic?resistant pathogens is of growing concern, and must be counteracted by alternative antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages represent the natural enemies of bacteria. However, the strong immune response following application of phages and rapid clearance from the blood stream are hurdles which need to be overcome. Towards our goal to render phages less immunogenic and prolong blood circulation time, we have chemically modified intact bacteriophages by conjugation of the non?immunogenic polymer monomethoxy?polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to virus proteins. As a proof of concept, we have used two different polyvalent and strictly virulent phages of the Myoviridae, representing typical candidates for therapeutical approaches: Felix?O1 (infects Salmonella) and A511 (infects Listeria). Loss of phage infectivity after PEGylation was found to be proportional to the degree of modification, and could be conveniently controlled by adjusting the PEG concentration. When injected into naïve mice, PEGylated phages showed a strong increase in circulation half?life, whereas challenge of immunized mice did not reveal a significant difference. Our results suggest that the prolonged half?life is due to decreased susceptibility to innate immunity as well as avoidance of cellular defence mechanisms. PEGylated viruses elicited significantly reduced levels of T?helper type 1?associated cytokine release (IFN?? and IL?6), in both naïve and immunized mice. This is the first study demonstrating that PEGylation can increases survival of infective phage by delaying immune responses, and indicates that this approach can increase efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. PMID:21261844

  14. Experience of a Six-Month Treatment with Sandostatin at Increasing Doses in Acromegaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sassolas; P. Fossati; P. Chanson; R. Costa; B. Estour; A. Deidier; A. G. Harris

    1989-01-01

    The French Sandostatin\\/Acromegaly Study Group performed a multicentric, prospective, open-label trial of incremental doses with the aim of obtaining the best antisecretory effect. Forty-two patients (24 women, 18 men) aged 22–71 years were involved, either after unsuccessful surgery and\\/or radiotherapy (30 patients), or as primary treatment (12 patients). Doses were increased from 3 × 100 to 3 × 500 ?g\\/day,

  15. Increased accumulation and decreased catabolism of anthocyanins in red grape cell suspension culture following magnesium treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhaskaran Sinilal; Rinat Ovadia; Ada Nissim-Levi; Avichai Perl; Mira Carmeli-Weissberg; Michal Oren-Shamir

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest and best studied group of plant pigments. However, not very much is known about the fate of these\\u000a phenolic pigments after they have accumulated in the cell vacuoles of plant tissues. We have previously shown that magnesium\\u000a treatment of ornamentals during the synthesis of anthocyanins in the flowers or foliage caused an increase in the pigment

  16. Statin Treatment Increases Lifespan and Improves Cardiac Health in Drosophila by Decreasing Specific Protein Prenylation

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Dhahbi, Joseph M.; Yamakawa, Amy; Mote, Patricia; Bodmer, Rolf; Ocorr, Karen; Williams, Renee T.; Wang, Yinsheng; Ablao, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Statins such as simvastatin are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and standard therapy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in mammals. Here we show that simvastatin significantly increased the mean and maximum lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila) and enhanced cardiac function in aging flies by significantly reducing heart arrhythmias and increasing the contraction proportion of the contraction/relaxation cycle. These results appeared independent of internal changes in ubiquinone or juvenile hormone levels. Rather, they appeared to involve decreased protein prenylation. Simvastatin decreased the membrane association (prenylation) of specific small Ras GTPases in mice. Both farnesyl (L744832) and type 1 geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI-298) inhibitors increased Drosophila lifespan. These data are the most direct evidence to date that decreased protein prenylation can increase cardiac health and lifespan in any metazoan species, and may explain the pleiotropic (non-cholesterol related) health effects of statins. PMID:22737247

  17. High-dose thalidomide increases the risk of peripheral neuropathy in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hong-xia; Fu, Wen-yi; Cui, Hua-dong; Yang, Li-li; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Li-juan

    2015-01-01

    Thalidomide is an effective drug for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis but might induce peripheral neuropathy. This major adverse reaction has attracted much concern. The current study aimed to observe the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy among ankylosing spondylitis patients for 1 year after treatment. In this study, 207 ankylosing spondylitis cases received thalidomide treatment, while 116 ankylosing spondylitis cases received other treatments. Results showed that the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in the thalidomide group was higher than that in the non-thalidomide group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neuropathy between the < 6 months medication and ? 6 months medication groups. There were no differences in the mean age, gender, or daily dose between the two groups. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy among patients receiving 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg thalidomide per day was 4.6%, 8.5%, 17.1%, 21.7%, respectively. The incidence was significantly different between the groups receiving 25 mg and 100 mg thalidomide. In conclusion, thalidomide can induce peripheral neuropathy within 1 year after treatment of ankylosing spondylitis; however, age and gender have no obvious impact on the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy is associated with increasing daily doses of thalidomide.

  18. EFFECTS OF MANURE AMENDMENTS AND DIET TREATMENTS ON SOIL TEST P WITH TIME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent data indicate that dietary modification may increase potential phosphorus (P) losses when manure is applied to pastures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of feed and manure treatments on P in soil with time. Manure was collected from studies of swine and poultry fed modified ...

  19. Increases in Creatine Kinase with Atorvastatin Treatment are Not Associated with Decreases in Muscular Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Cole, Stephanie M.; Keadle, Justin; Chipkin, Stuart; Pescatello, Linda S.; Simpson, Kathleen; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study examined if increases in creatine kinase (CK) levels during high-dose atorvastatin treatment are associated with changes in skeletal muscle function and symptoms. Methods The Effect of Statins on Muscle Performance study (STOMP) investigated the effects of atorvastatin 80 mg daily for 6 months on muscle performance, exercise capacity, and the incidence of statin-associated muscle complaints in healthy adults. Results CK levels increased with atorvastatin (n = 202) from 132.3 ± 120.9 U/L (mean ± SD) at baseline to 159.7 ± 170.4 and 153.1 ± 139.4 U/L at 3 and 6 months, respectively (P?0.002 for both). Changes in CK with atorvastatin treatment were not associated with changes in muscle function or the incidence of myalgia. More subjects on atorvastatin (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 12 of 217) doubled their CK level at 6 months (P = 0.02). No differences in muscle function or physical activity were observed between atorvastatin-treated subjects who did or did not double their CK. Conclusions Results of the present investigation extend the findings of STOMP by demonstrating that greater increases in CK levels with high-dose atorvastatin treatment did not deleteriously impact skeletal muscle function or predict skeletal muscle complaints. PMID:23958263

  20. Increased Memory Load-Related Frontal Activation after Estradiol Treatment in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; Naylor, Magdalena R.; Johnson, Julia V.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research shows that menopause is associated with changes in cognition in some older women. However, how estrogen loss and subsequent estrogen treatment affects cognition and particularly the underlying brain processes responsible for any cognitive changes is less well understood. We examined the ability of estradiol to modulate the manipulation of information in working memory and related brain activation in postmenopausal women. Twenty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age (SD) = 59.13 (5.5)) were randomly assigned to three months of 1 mg oral 17-? estradiol or placebo. At baseline and three months later each woman completed a visual verbal N-back sequential letter test of working memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data showed that women who were treated with estradiol for three months had increased frontal activation during the more difficult working memory load conditions compared to women treated with placebo. Performance on the verbal working memory task showed no difference between estradiol and placebo treated subjects. These data are consistent with prior work showing increases in frontal activation on memory tasks after estrogen treatment. However, this is the first study to show that estrogen-induced increases in brain activity were tied to cognitive load during a verbal working memory task. These data suggest that estradiol treatment effects on cognition may be in part produced through modulation of frontal lobe functioning under difficult task conditions. PMID:20849856

  1. Protracted treatment with diazepam increases the turnover of putative endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine/. beta. -carboline recognition site

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, M.; Mocchetti, I.; Ferrarese, C.; Guidotti, A.; Costa, E.

    1987-03-01

    DBI (diazepam-binding inhibitor) is a putative neuromodulatory peptide isolated from rat brain that acts on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine-Cl/sup -/ ionosphore receptor complex inducing ..beta..-carboline-like effects. The authors used a cDNA probe complementary to DBI mRNA and a specific antibody for rat DBI to study in rat brain how the dynamic state of DBI can be affected after protected (three times a day for 10 days) treatment with diazepam and chlordiazepoxide by oral gavage. Both the content of DBI and DBI mRNA increased in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex but failed to change in the hippocampus and striatum of rats receiving this protracted benzodiazepine treatment. Acute treatment with diazepam did not affect the dynamic state of brain DBI. An antibody was raised against a biologically active octadecaneuropeptide derived from the tryptic digestion of DBI. The combined HPLC/RIA analysis of rat cerebellar extracts carried out with this antibody showed that multiple molecular forms of the octadecaneuropeptide-like reactivity are present and all of them are increased in rats receiving repeated daily injections of diazepam. It is inferred that tolerance to benzodiazepines in associated with an increase in the turnover rate of DBI, which may be responsible for the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid receptor desensitization that occurs after protracted benzodiazepine administration.

  2. Corticosteroid Treatments in Males With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Treatment Duration and Time to Loss of Ambulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunkyung; Campbell, Kimberly A; Fox, Deborah J; Matthews, Dennis J; Valdez, Rodolfo

    2014-11-20

    This population-based study examines the association between corticosteroid treatment and time to loss of ambulation, stratifying by treatment duration (short: 0.25-3 years, long: >3 years), among 477 Duchenne muscular dystrophy cases identified by the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network (MDSTARnet). Those cases who received short-term corticosteroid treatment had a time to loss of ambulation that was 0.8 years shorter (t test) and an annual risk of losing ambulation 77% higher than the untreated (Cox regression). Conversely, cases who received long-term corticosteroid treatment had a time to loss of ambulation that was 2 years longer and an annual risk of losing ambulation 82% lower than the untreated, up to age 11 years; after which the risks were not statistically different. The relationship of corticosteroids and time to loss of ambulation is more complex than depicted by previous studies limited to treatment responders or subjects who lost ambulation during study follow-up. PMID:25414237

  3. Increase of bulk optical damage threshold fluences of KDP crystals by laser irradiation and heat treatment

    DOEpatents

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.; Rainer, F.

    1982-07-07

    The bulk optical damage threshold fluence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is increased by irradiating the crystals with laser pulses of duration 1 to 20 nanoseconds of increasing fluence, below the optical damage threshold fluence for untreated crystals, or by baking the crystals for times of the order of 24 hours at temperatures of 110 to 165/sup 0/C, or by a combination of laser irradiation and baking.

  4. Increased prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in canine samples after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Luisa; Blagburn, Byron L; Duncan-Decoq, Rebecca; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Meinkoth, James; Gruntmeir, Jeff; Little, Susan E

    2014-11-15

    Canine serum samples may contain factors that prevent detection of antigen of Dirofilaria immitis on commercial assays, precluding accurate diagnosis. To determine the degree to which the presence of blocking antibodies or other inhibitors of antigen detection may interfere with our ability to detect circulating antigen in canine samples, archived plasma and serum samples (n=165) collected from dogs in animal shelters were tested for D. immitis antigen before and after heat treatment. Negative samples were also evaluated for their ability to block detection of D. immitis antigen in a sample from a positive dog. All 165 samples were negative prior to heating, but 11/154 (7.1%) became positive after heat treatment, a conversion that was documented and quantified on spectrophotometric plate assays, and 7/165 (4.2%) samples decreased detection of antigen when mixed with a known positive sample, suggesting some blocking ability was present. An additional 103 plasma and serum samples that tested positive prior to heating also were evaluated; the optical density of 14/101 (13.9%) increased by ?50%, and one sample by as much as 15-fold, after heat treatment. Our results suggest that canine serum and plasma samples from dogs in the southeastern United States can contain inhibitors of D. immitis antigen detection, and that prevalence estimates of heartworm infection based on these assays would benefit from heat treatment of samples prior to testing. PMID:24785291

  5. Increasing olfactory bulb volume due to treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis--a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gudziol, V; Buschhüter, D; Abolmaali, N; Gerber, J; Rombaux, P; Hummel, T

    2009-11-01

    Differentiation of progenitor cells into neurons in the olfactory bulb depends on olfactory stimulation that can lead to an increase in olfactory bulb volume. In this study, we investigated whether the human olfactory bulb volume increases with increasing olfactory function due to treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Nineteen patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were investigated before and after treatment. For comparison, additional measurements were performed in 18 healthy volunteers. Volumetric measurements of the olfactory bulb were based on planimetric manual contouring of magnetic resonance scans. Olfactory function was evaluated separately for each nostril using tests for odour threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification. Measurements were performed on two occasions, 3 months apart. In healthy controls, the olfactory bulb volume did not change significantly between the two measurements. In contrast, the olfactory bulb volume in patients increased significantly from the initial 64.5 +/- 3.2 to 70.0 +/- 3.5 mm(3) on the left side (P = 0.02) and from 60.9 +/- 3.5 to 72.4 +/- 2.8 mm(3) on the right side (P < 0.001). The increase in olfactory bulb volume correlated significantly with an increase in odour thresholds (r = 0.60, P = 0.006, left side; r = 0.49, P = 0.03, right side), but not with changes in odour discrimination or odour identification. Results of this study support the idea that stimulation of olfactory receptor neurons impacts on the cell death in the olfactory bulb, not only in rodents but also in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study that describes an enlargement of the human olfactory bulb due to improvement of peripheral olfactory function. PMID:19773353

  6. Increasing Paid Work Time? A New Puzzle for Multinational Time-Diary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershuny, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This explores the reasons that paid work time may be rising, at least in anglophone countries. Three explanations are discussed. (1) An historical reversal of the work/leisure gradient with respect to social position or social status. This gradient was once positive, but is now negative; evidence of this change from 11 developed countries is drawn…

  7. Increase in platelet immunoglobulin in Alzheimer's disease is normalised following cholinesterase inhibitor treatment: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta B; Abdel-All, Zeinab; Andrade, Joana; McNally, Richard J Q; James, Peter W; Kalaria, Raj N; O'Brien, John T

    2012-01-01

    We report a 16.5% increase in platelet immunoglobulin (Ig) content in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in relation to cognitively intact individuals (p = 0.021), whereas the plasma Ig levels were unaltered (p = 0.428). The upregulation of platelet Ig was not explained by age, duration of dementia, or degree of cognitive impairment. However, AD subjects treated with cholinesterase inhibitors (n = 21) had lower levels of platelet Ig (p = 0.009) than AD subjects not treated with anti-dementia drugs (n = 4) and similar to those of control subjects (n = 24; p = 0.069). The anti-dementia treatment did not influence the plasma Ig levels (p = 0.177). These preliminary findings require further confirmation in studies on larger number of AD subjects with various stages of cognitive impairment, and who would be assessed prior to initiation of and during cholinesterase inhibitor treatment. PMID:22810090

  8. Timing and Magnitude of Increases in Levothyroxine Requirements during Pregnancy in Women with Hypothyroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik K. Alexander; Ellen Marqusee; Jennifer Lawrence; Petr Jarolim; George A. Fischer; P. Reed Larsen

    2010-01-01

    background Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with impaired cognitive devel- opment and increased fetal mortality. During pregnancy, maternal thyroid hormone re- quirements increase. Although it is known that women with hypothyroidism should increase their levothyroxine dose during pregnancy, biochemical hypothyroidism occurs in many. In this prospective study we attempted to identify precisely the timing and amount of levothyroxine adjustment

  9. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments of tomato seeds increase the growth and yield of plants.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A; Garcí, D; Sueiro, L; Gilart, F; Porras, E; Licea, L

    2006-05-01

    The effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on growth and yield of tomato (cv Campbell-28) were investigated under field conditions. Tomato seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 100 mT (rms) for 10 min and at 170 mT (rms) for 3 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental plots (30.2 m(2)) and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During the vegetative and generative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses, and the resistance of plants to geminivirus and early blight was evaluated. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each plot and the yield and yield parameters were determined. In the vegetative stage, the treatments led to a significant increase in leaf area, leaf dry weight, and specific leaf area (SLA) per plant. Also, the leaf, stem, and root relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically treated seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. In the generative stage, leaf area per plant and relative growth rates of fruits from plants from magnetically exposed seeds were greater than those of the control plant fruits. At fruit maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (P < .05) the mean fruit weight, the fruit yield per plant, the fruit yield per area, and the equatorial diameter of fruits in comparison with the controls. At the end of the experiment, total dry matter was significantly higher for plants from magnetically treated seeds than that of the controls. A significant delay in the appearance of first symptoms of geminivirus and early blight and a reduced infection rate of early blight were observed in the plants from exposed seeds to MFs. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and yield of tomato crop. PMID:16511881

  10. An investigation on sol-gel treatment to aramid yarn to increase inter-yarn friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yanyan; Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Qing; Cui, Shizhong

    2014-11-01

    Inter-yarn friction helps to increase energy absorption in ballistic fabrics. This paper reports on the results of sol-gel treatment on aramid yarns to increase the inter-yarn friction. Two types of TiO2/ZnO hydrosols (submicro-sized and nano-sized) prepared using hydrolysis and peptization methods were used to treat aramid yarns with and without curing. SEM was used to characterize the change in morphology. FTIR and EDX analyses were applied to identify the coating substance. The inter-yarn friction was tested using Capstan method. Images from SEM showed that the surface of the yarn treated with TiO2/ZnO submicro-sized hydrosol was covered with lump-like coating whilst in the case of TiO2/ZnO nano-sized sol treatment, the coating on the fibres was more film-like. The substance in the coating was confirmed as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide by FTIR and EDX analyses. The test results for coefficient of friction revealed that the coefficient of friction between the yarns treated by submicro-sized hydrosol was 54% higher than the non-treated, and the nano-sized hydrosol was associated to a 10% increase. However, the curing process had little effect on the coefficient of friction between yarns. The study also showed that the tensile properties of the treated yarns and the weight add-on were not significantly affected.

  11. Increasing Physicians' and Nurses' Compliance with Treatment Guidelines in Cancer Care Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the use of guidelines on the care of patients with breast, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers is reported. Audits of patient records revealed an increase over time in the percentage of recommended cancer care procedures that were complied with. (Author/MLW)

  12. A method to increase optical timing spectra measurement rates using a multi-hit TDC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Moses

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for using a modern time to digital converter (TDC) to increase the data collection rate for optical timing measurements such as scintillator decay times. It extends the conventional delayed coincidence method, where a synchronization signal ``starts'' a TDC and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sampling the optical signal ``stops'' the TDC. Data acquisition rates are low with

  13. Time-dependent modulation of glutamate synapses onto 5-HT neurons by antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Sean D; Assadzada, Saleha; Sokolovski, Alexandra; Bergeron, Richard; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Béïque, Jean-Claude

    2015-08-01

    Antidepressants, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are thought to exert their clinical effects by enhancing serotonin (5-HT) transmission. However, animal studies show that the full magnitude of this enhancement is reached only following prolonged treatments with SSRIs, consistent with the well-described therapeutic delay of this class of medications. Thus, the clinical efficacy of SSRIs most likely does not emerge from their acute pharmacological actions, but rather indirectly from cellular alterations that develop over the course of a sustained treatment. Here, we show that sustained administration of the SSRI citalopram leads to a homeostatic-like increase in the strength of excitatory glutamate synapses onto 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus that was apparent following one week of treatment. A shorter treatment with citalopram rather induced a paradoxical decrease in the strength of these synapses, which manifested itself by both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. As such, these results show that an SSRI treatment induced a concerted and time-dependent modulation of the synaptic drive of 5-HT neurons, which are known to be critically involved in mood regulation. This regulation, and its time course, provide a mechanistic framework that may be relevant not only for explaining the therapeutic delay of antidepressants, but also for the perplexing increases in suicide risks reportedly occurring early in the course of antidepressant treatments. PMID:25747603

  14. Do increasing rates of loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programs imply deteriorating patient retention?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Leigh F; Estill, Janne; Keiser, Olivia; Cornell, Morna; Moolla, Haroon; Schomaker, Michael; Grimsrud, Anna; Davies, Mary-Ann; Boulle, Andrew

    2014-12-15

    In several studies of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs for persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection, investigators have reported that there has been a higher rate of loss to follow-up (LTFU) among patients initiating ART in recent years than among patients who initiated ART during earlier time periods. This finding is frequently interpreted as reflecting deterioration of patient retention in the face of increasing patient loads. However, in this paper we demonstrate by simulation that transient gaps in follow-up could lead to bias when standard survival analysis techniques are applied. We created a simulated cohort of patients with different dates of ART initiation. Rates of ART interruption, ART resumption, and mortality were assumed to remain constant over time, but when we applied a standard definition of LTFU, the simulated probability of being classified LTFU at a particular ART duration was substantially higher in recently enrolled cohorts. This suggests that much of the apparent trend towards increased LTFU may be attributed to bias caused by transient interruptions in care. Alternative statistical techniques need to be used when analyzing predictors of LTFU--for example, using "prospective" definitions of LTFU in place of "retrospective" definitions. Similar considerations may apply when analyzing predictors of LTFU from treatment programs for other chronic diseases. PMID:25399412

  15. Treatment with oxytocin antagonists before embryo transfer may increase implantation rates after IVF.

    PubMed

    Moraloglu, Ozlem; Tonguc, Esra; Var, Turgut; Zeyrek, Tugba; Batioglu, Sertac

    2010-09-01

    This report aimed to examine the effects of atosiban on pregnancy outcome after IVF-embryo transfer. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed. A total of 180 women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection who had top-quality embryos were randomly allocated into treatment and control groups. All the patients had infertility due to tubal factor, hormonal-anovulatory disorders, male factor or unexplained reasons. The treatment group received intravenous administration of atosiban before embryo transfer with a total administered dose of 37.5 mg. In the control group, the same number of cycles was performed with placebo medication. The clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per cycle and implantation rate (IR) per transfer were 46.7% and 20.4% in the atosiban-treated group, which were significantly higher than in the control group (28.9% and 12.6%, respectively, P=0.01). The miscarriage rates of groups 1 and 2 were 16.7% and 24.4%, respectively (P=0.01). These results have indicated that atosiban increases the IR and PR after IVF-embryo transfer. These results suggest that atosiban treatment before embryo transfer is effective in priming of the uterus for implantation. This is the first study to investigate the possible contributions of atosiban for improving the PR after IVF-embryo transfer. PMID:20638340

  16. Importance of Baseline Prognostic Factors With Increasing Time Since Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which the prognosis for AIDS and death of patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) continues to be affected by their characteristics at the time of initiation (baseline) is unclear. Methods We analyzed data on 20,379 treatment-naive HIV-1–infected adults who started HAART in 1 of 12 cohort studies in Europe and North America (61,798 person-years of follow-up, 1844 AIDS events, and 1005 deaths). Results Although baseline CD4 cell count became less prognostic with time, individuals with a baseline CD4 count <25 cells/µL had persistently higher progression rates than individuals with a baseline CD4 count >350 cells/µL (hazard ratio for AIDS = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 2.3; mortality hazard ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5, 4 to 6 years after starting HAART). Rates of AIDS were persistently higher in individuals who had experienced an AIDS event before starting HAART. Individuals with presumed transmission by means of injection drug use experienced substantially higher rates of AIDS and death than other individuals throughout follow-up (AIDS hazard ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.8 to 3.0; mortality hazard ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.2 to 5.5, 4 to 6 years after starting HAART). Conclusions Compared with other patient groups, injection drug users and patients with advanced immunodeficiency at baseline experience substantially increased rates of AIDS and death up to 6 years after starting HAART. PMID:18043315

  17. Clinical impact of treatment timing for chronic hepatitis C infection: a decision model.

    PubMed

    Pho, M T; Jensen, D M; Meltzer, D O; Kim, A Y; Linas, B P

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have led to the availability of both highly efficacious interferon-containing and interferon-sparing regimens. However, the use of such therapies faces restrictions due to high costs. For patients who are medically eligible to receive interferon, the choice between the two will likely be impacted by preferences surrounding interferon, severity of disease, coverage policies and out-of-pocket costs. We developed a decision model to quantify the trade-offs between immediate, interferon-containing therapy and delayed, interferon-free therapy for patients with chronic, genotype 1 HCV infection. We projected the quality-adjusted life expectancy stratified by the presence or absence of cirrhosis for four strategies: (i) no treatment; (ii) immediate, one-time treatment with an interferon-containing regimen; (iii) immediate treatment as above with the opportunity for retreatment in patients who fail to achieve sustained virologic response with interferon-free therapy in 1 year; and (iv) delayed therapy with interferon-free therapy in 1 year. When compared to one-time immediate treatment with the interferon-containing regimen, delayed treatment with the interferon-free regimen in 1 year resulted in longer life expectancy, with a 0.2 quality-adjusted life year (QALY) increase in noncirrhotic patients, and a 1.1 QALY increase in patients with cirrhosis. This superiority in health benefits was lost when wait time for interferon-free therapy was greater than 3-3.2 years. In this modelling analysis, interferon-free therapy resulted in superior health benefits compared to immediate therapy with interferon until wait time exceeded 3-3.2 years. Such data can inform decision-making regarding treatment initiation for HCV as healthcare financing evolves. PMID:26135026

  18. Enalapril treatment corrects the reduced response to bradykinin in diabetes increasing the B2 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Viviani Milan Ferreira; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Rosangela; de Cássia Tostes Passaglia, Rita; Nigro, Dorothy; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; Fortes, Zuleica Bruno

    2008-03-01

    Considering the growing importance of the interaction between components of kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems in physiological and pathological processes, particularly in diabetes mellitus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of enalapril on the reduced response of bradykinin and on the interaction between angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) and bradykinin (BK), important components of these systems, in an insulin-resistance model of diabetes. For the above purpose, the response of mesenteric arterioles of anesthetized neonatal streptozotocin-induced (n-STZ) diabetic and control rats was evaluated using intravital microscopy. In n-STZ diabetic rats, enalapril treatment restored the reduced response to BK but not the potentiation of BK by Ang-(1-7) present in non-diabetic rats. The restorative effect of enalapril was observed at a dose that did not correct the altered parameters induced by diabetes such as hyperglycemia, glicosuria, insulin resistance but did reduce the high blood pressure levels of n-SZT diabetic rats. There was no difference in mRNA and protein expressions of B1 and B2 kinin receptor subtypes between n-STZ diabetic and control rats. Enalapril treatment increased the B2 kinin receptor expression. From our data, we conclude that in diabetes enalapril corrects the impaired BK response probably by increasing the expression of B2 receptors. The lack of potentiation of BK by Ang-(1-7) is not corrected by this agent. PMID:18190998

  19. Increase of 5HT and VIP immunoreactivity within the hamster ( Mesocricetus auratus) SCN during chronic MAOI treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C Duncan; K. A Johnson; T. A Wehr

    1997-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), clorgyline (CLG; 2 mg\\/kg per day) on serotonin (5HT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactivity (IR) within the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were examined. Optical densities of 5HT IR and VIP IR were increased by MAOI treatment. VIP IR was increased in both the ventrolateral and dorsal regions of

  20. Volume-targeted therapy of increased intracranial pressure: the Lund concept unifies surgical and non-surgical treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-O. GRÄNDE; B. A SGEIRSSON; C.-H. NORDSTRÖM

    2002-01-01

    Opinions differ widely on the various treatment protocols for sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). This review fo- cuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. Based on these mechanisms we describe a proto- col called 'volume-targeted' ('Lund concept') for treatment of increased ICP. The driving force for transcapillary fluid exchange is deter- mined by the balance between

  1. Quiet-time electron increases, a measure of conditions in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A.; Vanhollebeke, M.

    1972-01-01

    One possible explanation for quiet-time electron increases, increases in the intensity of 3-12 MeV interplanetary electrons that have been reported by McDonald, Cline and Simnett, is discussed. It is argued that the electrons in quiet-time increases are galactic in origin, but that the observed increases are not the result of any variation in the modulation of these particles in the inner solar system. It is suggested instead that quiet-time increases may occur when more electrons than normal penetrate a modulating region that lies far beyond the orbit of earth. The number of electrons penetrating this region may increase when field lines that have experienced an unusually large random walk in the photosphere are carried by the solar wind out to the region. As evidence for this increased random walk, it is shown that five solar rotations before most of the quiet-time increases there is an extended period when the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy, as is measured by the Deep River neutron monitor, is relatively low. Five rotations delay time implies that the proposed modulating region lies at approximately 30 AU from the Sun, assuming that the average solar wind speed is constant over this distance at approximately 400 km/sec.

  2. Thoracic intramedullary epidermoid cyst-timely fashion diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Babayev, Rasim; Abbasov, Bahadur; Ek?i, Murat ?akir

    2015-05-01

    Epidermoid cysts are composed of stratified squamous epithelium, which develop from inclusion of ectodermal tissue remnants entrapped during primitive neural tube closure period between the 3rd and 5th weeks of gestation. Intramedullary epidermoid cysts (IEC) are very rare in childhood. Eleven cases have been reported previously. Even though it is a rare entity, early diagnosis with timely fashioned surgical treatment has a great influence on patients' symptoms, especially if there are myelopathic findings. In this case report, we demonstrate this fact with a demonstrative clinical case and review radiological, pathological, and surgical perspectives with literature review. PMID:25681950

  3. Timing of decontamination and treatment in case of percutaneous VX poisoning: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Marloes J A; van der Schans, Marcel J; Kuijpers, Willem C; van Helden, Herman P M; Noort, Daan

    2013-03-25

    Low volatile organophosphorous nerve agents such as VX, will most likely enter the body via the skin. The pharmacokinetics of drugs such as oximes, atropine and diazepam, are not aligned with the variable and persistent toxicokinetics of the agent. Repeated administration of these drugs showed to improve treatment efficacy compared to a single injection treatment. Because of the effectiveness of continuous treatment, it was investigated to what extent a subchronic pretreatment with carbamate (pyridostigmine or physostigmine combined with either procyclidine or scopolamine) would protect against percutaneous VX exposure. Inclusion of scopolamine in the pretreatment prevented seizures in all animals, but none of the pretreatments affected survival time or the onset time of cholinergic signs. These results indicate that percutaneous poisoning with VX requires additional conventional treatment in addition to the current pretreatment regimen. Decontamination of VX-exposed skin is one of the most important countermeasures to mitigate the effects of the exposure. To evaluate the window of opportunity for decontamination, the fielded skin decontaminant Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) was tested at different times in hairless guinea pigs percutaneously challenged with 4× LD50 VX in IPA. The results showed that RSDL decontamination at 15 min after exposure could not prevent progressive blood cholinesterase inhibition and therefore would still require additional treatment. A similar decontamination regimen with RSDL at 90 min showed that it still might effectively increase the time window of opportunity for treatment. In conclusion, the delay in absorption presents a window of opportunity for decontamination and treatment. The continuous release of VX from the skin presents a significant challenge for efficacious therapy, which should ideally consist of thorough decontamination and continuous treatment. PMID:23085122

  4. Reaction-time binning: A simple method for increasing the resolving power of ERP averages

    E-print Network

    Poli, Riccardo

    Reaction-time binning: A simple method for increasing the resolving power of ERP averages RICCARDO-locked, response-locked, and ERP-locked averaging are effective methods for reducing artifacts in ERP analysis. However, they suffer from a magnifying-glass effect: they increase the resolution of specific ERPs

  5. Covariate Adjustment Strategy Increases Power in the Randomized Controlled Trial With Discrete-Time Survival Endpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safarkhani, Maryam; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, a decision needs to be made about the total number of subjects for adequate statistical power. One way to increase the power of a trial is by including a predictive covariate in the model. In this article, the effects of various covariate adjustment strategies on increasing the power is studied for discrete-time

  6. Additional highway capacity gained by increasing travel speed affects the share of time an individual

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    of a resource, in this case, increased road capacity. Carefully measuring changes in individuals' travelABSTRACT Additional highway capacity gained by increasing travel speed affects the share of time. Some activities will be undertaken more, others less. Using the 1990 and 1995 Nationwide Personal

  7. Efficiency of Colorectal Cancer Care Among Veterans: Analysis of Treatment Wait Times at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers

    PubMed Central

    Merkow, Ryan P.; Bilimoria, Karl Y.; Sherman, Karen L.; McCarter, Martin D.; Gordon, Howard S.; Bentrem, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Timeliness of cancer treatment is an important aspect of health care quality. Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) are expected to treat a growing number of patients with cancer. Our objectives were to examine treatment times from diagnosis to first-course therapy for patients with colon and rectal cancers and assess factors associated with prolonged wait times. Methods: From the VA Central Cancer Registry, patients who underwent colon or rectal resection for cancer from 1998 to 2008 were identified. Time from diagnosis to definitive cancer-directed therapy was measured, and multivariable regression methods were used to determine predictors of prolonged wait times for colon (? 45 days) and rectal (? 60 days) cancers. Results: From 124 VAMCs, 14,097 patients underwent colectomy, and 3,390 underwent rectal resection for cancer. For colon cancer, the median time to treatment increased by 68% over time (P < .001). From 2007 to 2008, the median time to colectomy was 32 days. Predictors of prolonged wait times included age ? 55 years (v < 55 years), time period (2007 to 2008 v 1998 to 2000), black race (v white), marriage status (married v unmarried), high-volume center status (v low volume), and treatment at a different hospital (v same hospital as initial diagnosis; all P < .05). For rectal cancer, the overall median time to first-course treatment increased by 74% (P < .001). From 2007 to 2008, the median time to proctectomy was 47 days. Similar predictors of prolonged wait times were identified for rectal cancer. Conclusion: Time to first treatment has increased for patients with colon and rectal cancers at VAMCs. Patient, tumor, and hospital factors are associated with prolonged time to treatment. PMID:23942933

  8. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    PubMed

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate. PMID:24803713

  9. Women-focused treatment agencies and process improvement: Strategies to increase client engagement

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Hoffman, Kim; Rechberger, Elke; Seim, Kay; Owens, Betta

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral health treatment agencies often struggle to keep clients engaged in treatment. Women clients often have additional factors such as family responsibilities, financial difficulties, or abuse histories that provide extra challenges to remaining in care. As part of a national initiative, four women-focused drug treatment agencies used process improvement to address treatment engagement. Interviews and focus groups with staff assessed the nature and extent of interventions. Women-focused drug treatment agencies selected relational-based interventions to engage clients in treatment and improved four-week treatment retention from 66% to 76%. Process improvement interventions in women-focused treatment may be useful to improve engagement. PMID:20046914

  10. Time Delay Embedding Increases Estimation Precision of Models of Intraindividual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Oertzen, Timo; Boker, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the precision of parameters estimated from local samples of time dependent functions. We find that "time delay embedding," i.e., structuring data prior to analysis by constructing a data matrix of overlapping samples, increases the precision of parameter estimates and in turn statistical power compared to standard…

  11. Local Bisphosphonate Treatment Increases Fixation of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Implants Inserted with Bone Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jørgen; Kold, Søren; Bechtold, Joan E.; Elmengaard, Brian; Søballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that fixation of primary cementless joint replacement can independently be enhanced by either: (1) use of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implants, (2) compaction of the peri-implant bone, or (3) local application of bisphosphonate. We investigated whether the combined effect ofHAcoating and bone compaction can be further enhanced with the use of local bisphosphonate treatment .HA-coated implants were bilaterally inserted into the proximal tibiae of 10 dogs. On one side local bisphosphonate was applied prior to bone compaction. Saline was used as control on the contralateral side. Implants were evaluated with histomorphometry and biomechanical pushout test. We found that bisphosphonate increased the peri-implant bone volume fraction (1.3-fold), maximum shear strength (2.1-fold), and maximum shear stiffness (2.7-fold). No significant difference was found in bone-to-implant contact or total energy absorption. This study indicates that local alendronate treatment can further improve the fixation of porous-coated implants that have also undergone HA-surface coating and peri-implant bone compaction. PMID:18752278

  12. Increasing The Flexibility Of Beam Integrating Multifaceted Mirrors For High Power Laser Surface Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantello, Maichi; Celani, Marco; Cruciani, Diego; Salvoni, Alberto

    1989-03-01

    Multifaceted mirrors for providing uniform intensity of the laser beam over a well-defined area are a valid alternative to kaleidoscopes and scanning optics in laser surface treatment applications. Beam integrators usually provide intensity distribution uniformity of higher quality but their applications are limited since they are less flexible than kaleidoscopes and scanning optics. Optical reimaging systems increase their flexibility but nevertheless they are still difficult to handle automatically due to the large number of degrees of freedom to be controlled. New arrangements of reimaging systems are currently being studied at RTM and the results are discussed in this paper. Initially a converging beam integrator was applied with a single spherical mirror used as a reimaging system. Flexibility was achieved by manually adjusting the position of the spherical mirror. A more complex reimaging system, based on several mirrors, was designed and assembled. The performances of both systems were tested in laser surface treatment applications with laser powers of up to 15 kW. Diverging beam integrators were considered on account of their low cost and wider availability in Italy. Reimaging of these beam integrators presents different problems and offers new possibilities. Reimaging systems with automatic handling of the mirrors were designed by RTM researchers The problems and advantages of these automatic and flexible beam integrating systems are discussed in detail.

  13. Increase in plasma phylloquinone concentrations following acupoint injection for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Chao, Maria T; Wade, Christine M; Booth, Sarah L

    2014-06-01

    The therapeutic benefits of acupoint injection of vitamin K in spleen-6 (SP6) for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea have been observed in limited clinical settings. However, menadione, the form of vitamin K most studied for treating dysmenorrhea, is not routinely used in clinical practice in North America. As part of a larger clinical trial among women aged 18-25 years with primary dysmenorrhea, we conducted a substudy to test the plasma concentration of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We collected blood samples from four women before and 24-48 hours after an acupoint injection of phylloquinone in SP6. Despite the rapid turnover of phylloquinone observed in previous studies, we found that the plasma phylloquinone concentrations increased significantly from preinjection to 1-2 days after the injection. Interestingly, higher phylloquinone concentrations were correlated with less pain intensity among women with dysmenorrhea. Additional research is needed to understand the association between vitamin K and menstrual pain, including the role of vitamin K deficiency in inflammation and pain, and on the possible mechanisms of acupoint injection of vitamin K for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24929459

  14. Impaired movement timing in neurological disorders: rehabilitation and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Keller, Peter E

    2015-03-01

    Timing abnormalities have been reported in many neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD, motor-timing impairments are especially debilitating in gait. Despite impaired audiomotor synchronization, PD patients' gait improves when they walk with an auditory metronome or with music. Building on that research, we make recommendations for optimizing sensory cues to improve the efficacy of rhythmic cuing in gait rehabilitation. Adaptive rhythmic metronomes (that synchronize with the patient's walking) might be especially effective. In a recent study we showed that adaptive metronomes synchronized consistently with PD patients' footsteps without requiring attention; this improved stability and reinstated healthy gait dynamics. Other strategies could help optimize sensory cues for gait rehabilitation. Groove music strongly engages the motor system and induces movement; bass-frequency tones are associated with movement and provide strong timing cues. Thus, groove and bass-frequency pulses could deliver potent rhythmic cues. These strategies capitalize on the close neural connections between auditory and motor networks; and auditory cues are typically preferred. However, moving visual cues greatly improve visuomotor synchronization and could warrant examination in gait rehabilitation. Together, a treatment approach that employs groove, auditory, bass-frequency, and adaptive (GABA) cues could help optimize rhythmic sensory cues for treating motor and timing deficits. PMID:25773624

  15. Evaluating sedimentation problems in activated sludge treatment plants operating at complete sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Pekridis, George; Taousanidis, Nikolaos

    2015-02-01

    Zero net sludge growth can be achieved by complete retention of solids in activated sludge wastewater treatment, especially in high strength and biodegradable wastewaters. When increasing the solids retention time, MLSS and MLVSS concentrations reach a plateau phase and observed growth yields values tend to zero (Yobs ? 0). In this work, in order to evaluate sedimentation problems arised due to high MLSS concentrations and complete sludge retention operational conditions, two identical innovative slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants were studied. Measurements of wastewaters' quality characteristics, treatment plant's operational conditions, sludge microscopic analysis and state point analysis were conducted. Results have shown that low COD/Nitrogen ratios increase sludge bulking and flotation phenomena due to accidental denitrification in clarifiers. High return activated sludge rate is essential in complete retention systems as it reduces sludge condensation and hydraulic retention time in the clarifiers. Under certain operational conditions sludge loading rates can greatly exceed literature limit values. The presented methodology is a useful tool for estimation of sedimentation problems encountered in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with complete retention time. PMID:25463928

  16. Permeability Enhancers Dramatically Increase Zanamivir Absolute Bioavailability in Rats: Implications for an Orally Bioavailable Influenza Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Eric H.; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Li, Libin; Perdue, Michael L.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol) was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (tmax of 5 min) and a Cmax of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted Cmax for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results are being utilized to design prototype dosage forms for initial human pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23613954

  17. Diphenylpyrazole-derived compounds increase survival time of mice after prion infection.

    PubMed

    Leidel, Fabienne; Eiden, Martin; Geissen, Markus; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Giese, Armin; Hirschberger, Thomas; Tavan, Paul; Schätzl, Hermann M; Groschup, Martin H

    2011-10-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) represent a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that can be transmitted by natural infection or inoculation. TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The emergence of a variant form of CJD (vCJD), which has been associated with BSE, produced strong pressure to search for effective treatments with new drugs. Up to now, however, TSEs have proved incurable, although many efforts have been made both in vitro and in vivo to search for potent therapeutic and prophylactic compounds. For this purpose, we analyzed a compound library consisting of 10,000 compounds with a cell-based high-throughput screening assay dealing with scrapie-infected scrapie mouse brain and ScN(2)A cells and identified a new class of inhibitors consisting of 3,5-diphenylpyrazole (DPP) derivatives. The most effective DPP derivative showed half-maximal inhibition of PrP(Sc) formation at concentrations (IC(50)) of 0.6 and 1.2 ?M, respectively. This compound was subsequently subjected to a number of animal experiments using scrapie-infected wild-type C57BL/6 and transgenic Tga20 mice. The DPP derivative induced a significant increase of incubation time both in therapeutic and prophylactic experiments. The onset of the prion disease was delayed by 37 days after intraperitoneal and 42 days after oral application, respectively. In summary, we demonstrate a high in vitro efficiency of DPP derivatives against prion infections that was substantiated in vivo for one of these compounds. These results indicate that the novel class of DPP compounds should comprise excellent candidates for future therapeutic studies. PMID:21746938

  18. Diphenylpyrazole-Derived Compounds Increase Survival Time of Mice after Prion Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Leidel, Fabienne; Eiden, Martin; Geissen, Markus; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Giese, Armin; Hirschberger, Thomas; Tavan, Paul; Schätzl, Hermann M.; Groschup, Martin H.

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) represent a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that can be transmitted by natural infection or inoculation. TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The emergence of a variant form of CJD (vCJD), which has been associated with BSE, produced strong pressure to search for effective treatments with new drugs. Up to now, however, TSEs have proved incurable, although many efforts have been made both in vitro and in vivo to search for potent therapeutic and prophylactic compounds. For this purpose, we analyzed a compound library consisting of 10,000 compounds with a cell-based high-throughput screening assay dealing with scrapie-infected scrapie mouse brain and ScN2A cells and identified a new class of inhibitors consisting of 3,5-diphenylpyrazole (DPP) derivatives. The most effective DPP derivative showed half-maximal inhibition of PrPSc formation at concentrations (IC50) of 0.6 and 1.2 ?M, respectively. This compound was subsequently subjected to a number of animal experiments using scrapie-infected wild-type C57BL/6 and transgenic Tga20 mice. The DPP derivative induced a significant increase of incubation time both in therapeutic and prophylactic experiments. The onset of the prion disease was delayed by 37 days after intraperitoneal and 42 days after oral application, respectively. In summary, we demonstrate a high in vitro efficiency of DPP derivatives against prion infections that was substantiated in vivo for one of these compounds. These results indicate that the novel class of DPP compounds should comprise excellent candidates for future therapeutic studies. PMID:21746938

  19. Increased faecal mucin sulphatase activity in ulcerative colitis: a potential target for treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, H H; Dwarakanath, A D; Hart, C A; Milton, J D; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    Colonic mucin is heavily sulphated and it has been shown that enzymatic desulphation by faecal bacterial sulphatases greatly increases its susceptibility to degradation by faecal glycosidases. A possible role for faecal mucin sulphatase in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease has therefore been explored. Faecal mucin sulphatase activity assayed using 35S mucin as substrate was increased in ulcerative colitis (median 80.2 units/g pellet weight (range 6.9-1063; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 45.2 to 293.8, n = 22) compared with 11.3 units/g (range 3.0-53.5; 95% CI: 8.7 to 29.8, n = 17) in healthy controls (p < 0.01), where one unit released 1000 dpm free sulphate/hour from 35S mucin (1680 dpm/microgram). Patients with active ulcerative colitis had higher sulphatase activity (median 146; 95% CI: 98 to 253 units/g, n = 10) than those with inactive ulcerative colitis (median 42.2; CI: 22.5 to 81.6 units/g, n = 12) (p < 0.05). Longitudinal studies in patients with ulcerative colitis show fluctuations of faecal mucin sulphatase activity corresponding to clinical disease activity in six of seven patients. Faecal mucin sulphatase activity was not significantly increased in Crohn's disease (median 36.6, range 5.7-106.6; 95% CI: 22.9 to 65.3 units/g, n = 14). The bismuth salts, bismuth subcitrate and bismuth subsalicylate were found to inhibit faecal mucin sulphatase activity at concentrations achievable therapeutically. The increased faecal mucin sulphatase activity in ulcerative colitis could be the result of greater intraluminal substrate (mucin) availability leading to bacterial enzyme induction, but would probably result in more rapid degradation of secreted mucin and represents a potential target for treatment. PMID:7737566

  20. A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada) [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kuncic, Zdenka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ?1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

  1. Increasing Whole Grain Intake as Part of Prevention and Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alastair B.; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Minehira, Kaori; Kirwan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    In conjunction with the rise in rates of obesity, there has been an increase in the rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While NAFLD at least partially originates from poor diet, there is a lack of nutritional recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed diagnosis of NAFLD, beyond eating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and emphasising weight loss. The limited current literature suggests that there may be opportunities to provide more tailored dietary advice for people diagnosed with or at risk of NAFLD. Epidemiological studies consistently find associations between whole grain intake and a reduced risk of obesity and related diseases, yet no work has been done on the potential of whole grains to prevent and/or be a part of the treatment for fatty liver diseases. In this review, we examine the potential and the current evidence for whole grains having an impact on NAFLD. Due to their nutrient and phytochemical composition, switching from consuming mainly refined grains to whole grains should be considered as part of the nutritional guidelines for patients diagnosed with or at risk for fatty liver disease. PMID:23762052

  2. Obesity increases operating room times in patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kadry, Bassam; Press, Christopher D.; Alosh, Hassan; Opper, Isaac M.; Orsini, Joe; Popov, Igor A.; Macario, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity impacts utilization of healthcare resources. The goal of this study was to measure the relationship between increasing body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) with different components of operating room (OR) time. Methods. The Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) was utilized to identify all ASA PS 2 or 3 patients who underwent primary THA at Stanford Medical Center from February 1, 2008 through January 1, 2013. Patients were divided into five groups based on the BMI weight classification. Regression analysis was used to quantify relationships between BMI and the different components of total OR time. Results. 1,332 patients were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, height, and ASA PS classification between the BMI groups. Normal-weight patients had a total OR time of 138.9 min compared 167.9 min (P < 0.001) for morbidly obese patients. At a BMI > 35 kg/m2 each incremental BMI unit increase was associated with greater incremental total OR time increases. Conclusion. Morbidly obese patients required significantly more total OR time than normal-weight patients undergoing a THA procedure. This increase in time is relevant when scheduling obese patients for surgery and has an important impact on health resource utilization. PMID:25210656

  3. Pluronic modified leptin with increased systemic circulation, brain uptake and efficacy for treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiang; Yuan, Dongfen; Farr, Susan A; Banks, William A; Poon, Chi-Duen; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2014-10-10

    Modification of hydrophilic proteins with amphiphilic block copolymers capable of crossing cell membranes is a new strategy to improve protein delivery to the brain. Leptin, a candidate for the treatment of epidemic obesity, has failed in part because of impairment in its transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that develops with obesity. We posit that modification of leptin with poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide), Pluronic P85 (P85) might permit this protein to penetrate the BBB independently of its transporter, thereby overcoming peripheral leptin resistance. Here we report that peripherally administered leptin-P85 conjugates exhibit biological activity by reducing food intake in mouse models of obesity (ob/ob, and diet-induced obese mouse). We further generated two new leptin-P85 conjugates: one, Lep(ss)-P85(L), containing one P85 chain and another, Lep(ss)-P85(H), containing multiple P85 chains. We report data on their purification, analytical characterization, peripheral and brain pharmacokinetics (PK). Lep(ss)-P85(L) crosses the BBB using the leptin transporter, and exhibits improved peripheral PK along with increased accumulation in the brain compared to unmodified leptin. Lep(ss)-P85(H) also has improved peripheral PK but in a striking difference to the first conjugate penetrates the BBB independently of the leptin transporter via a non-saturable mechanism. The results demonstrate that leptin analogs can be developed through chemical modification of the native leptin with P85 to overcome leptin resistance at the level of the BBB, thus improving the potential for the treatment of obesity. PMID:24881856

  4. Estimating the causal effect of a time-varying treatment on time-to-event using structural nested failure time models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Lok; R. D. Gill; A. W. van der Vaart; J. M. Robins

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we review an approach to estimating the causal effect of a time-varying treatment on time to some event of interest. This approach is designed for the situation where the treatment may have been repeatedly adapted to patient characteristics, which themselves may also be time-dependent. In this situation the effect of the treatment cannot simply be estimated by

  5. The presence of comorbidity in Tourette syndrome increases the need for pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2009-12-01

    Tourette syndrome is often accompanied by other syndromes, like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and its treatment is symptomatic. Because there are no European guidelines for pharmacological treatment in Tourette syndrome, we wanted to contribute to a better insight into the common practice in Scandinavia. Furthermore, we wanted to elaborate the influence of the presence of comorbidities and of the severity of tics on pharmacological treatment. We have examined the frequency, art, and reason for pharmacological treatment in a Danish clinical cohort of 314 children with Tourette syndrome. In total, 60.5% of the children once had received pharmacological treatment. Mostly, the treatment was started because of tics or ADHD. If ADHD or obsessive-compulsive disorder were present, more children received pharmacological treatment and more different agents were tried. The children who received pharmacological treatment had more severe tics than those without medication. PMID:19494355

  6. Mini acceleration and deceleration driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Fakeruddin, Shafarul Hafidi; Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Hanafi, Mohd Hafidzal Mohd

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module. The flywheel hybrid module contains low cost mechanical parts which installed on the small motorcycle. Based on normal driving cycles characteristics, the Mini-AD driving strategy is develop. It is involved a series of short or mini acceleration cycle and short deceleration cycle on top of the normal driving cycles. The new strategy is simulated for flywheel hybrid module, aimed for acceleration phase only. Simulations show that the new driving strategy can increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module up to 62.5%.

  7. Analysis of a High-Probability Instructional Sequence and Time-Out in the Treatment of Child Noncompliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rortvedt, Angela K.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of high probability requests and time-out as treatments for noncompliance which appeared to be maintained by contingent attention in two developmentally normal children. The introduction of high-probability requests increased compliance for one child but not the other. Time-out was effective with both…

  8. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Mels

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainabilityMost of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are based on the activated sludge process and include nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Physical-chemical pretreatment might be an option to improve the environmental sustainability of these wastewater treatment facilities. Physical-chemical pretreatment is meant to

  9. Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time Schedule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Riley; Brian C. McKevitt; Mark D. Shriver; Keith D. Allen

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education\\u000a was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students\\u000a in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the effects of the intervention.\\u000a The results

  10. An Intelligent Hybrid Approach for Designing Increasing Translation Invariant Morphological Operators for Time Series Forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo De A. Araújo; Robson P. De Sousa; Tiago A. E. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent hybrid approach is presented for designing increasing translation invariant morphological operators\\u000a for time series forecasting. It consists of an intelligent hybrid model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network\\u000a (MMNN) and an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) with optimal genetic operators to accelerate its search convergence. The improved\\u000a GA searches for the minimum number of time

  11. A New Increasing Translation Invariant Morphological Method for Financial Time Series Forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ara; M. Melo

    ricardo@gm2.com.br and glaucio@gm2.com.br Abstract. This paper presents a new method, referred to as Increasing Trans- lation Invariant Morphological (ITIM), to overcome the random walk dilemma for financial time series forecasting. It consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) and a Modi- fied Genetic Algorithm (MGA), which searches for the minimum number of time

  12. Some changes in pond chemistry and photosynthetic activity following treatment with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Butcher; M. G. Boyer; C. D. Fowle

    1977-01-01

    The recent review by HURLBERT (1975) on secondary effects of aquatic pesticides clearly establishes that enhanced photosynthetic activity by algae in ponds is a consequence of pesticide treatment. In our work on the effects of treatment of standing ponds with Abate and chlorpyrifos (BUTCHER 1975; BUTCHER et al. 1975) we have observed in many experiments, post treatment development of green

  13. Are case management services associated with increased utilization of adolescent mental health treatment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Bender; Stephen Kapp; Sur Ah Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Retention in treatment is one of the strongest predictors of positive mental health outcomes. Adolescents, however, are particularly challenging to retain in mental health treatment. Concurrent case management services may offer one strategy for retaining youth in mental health treatment as it aims to reduce barriers to services, coordinate multiple services, and establish a consistent relationship between each client and

  14. A Multicomponent Treatment Package To Increase Anger Control in Teacher-Referred Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Heather A.; Fee, Virginia E.; Holloway, Keli S.; Giesen, J. Martin

    2003-01-01

    Investigates a treatment package for anger control in boys ages 7 to 10 using a control group outcome design. The treatment package included modeling, rehearsal with self-talk problem-solving, daily report cards and a praise phase. At post-test treatment participants were significantly higher than controls on the Aggression Control factor of the…

  15. Do Drug Treatment Facilities Increase Clients’ Exposure to Potential Neighborhood-Level Triggers for Relapse? A Small-Area Assessment of a Large, Public Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Research on drug treatment facility locations has focused narrowly on the issue of geographic proximity to clients. We argue that neighborhood conditions should also enter into the facility location decision and illustrate a formal assessment of neighborhood conditions at facilities in a large, metropolitan area, taking into account conditions clients already face at home. We discuss choice and construction of small-area measures relevant to the drug treatment context, including drug activity, disadvantage, and violence as well as statistical comparisons of clients’ home and treatment locations with respect to these measures. Analysis of 22,707 clients discharged from 494 community-based outpatient and residential treatment facilities that received public funds during 1998–2000 in Los Angeles County revealed no significant mean differences between home and treatment neighborhoods. However, up to 20% of clients are exposed to markedly higher levels of disadvantage, violence, or drug activity where they attend treatment than where they live, suggesting that it is not uncommon for treatment locations to increase clients’ exposure to potential environmental triggers for relapse. Whereas on average both home and treatment locations exhibit higher levels of these measures than the household locations of the general population, substantial variability in public treatment clients’ home neighborhoods calls into question the notion that they hail exclusively from poor, high drug activity areas. Shortcomings of measures available for neighborhood assessment of treatment locations and implications of the findings for other areas of treatment research are also discussed. PMID:16736365

  16. Increased perivascular laminin predicts damage to astrocytes in CA3 and piriform cortex following chemoconvulsive treatments.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, F; Curia, G; Marinelli, C; Biagini, G

    2012-08-30

    Status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine or kainate is associated with yet not systemically investigated astrocytic and vascular injuries. To investigate their possible association with neuronal damage, the changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), laminin and neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunoreactivities were analyzed in rats treated with pilocarpine (380 mg/kg) or kainate (15 mg/kg), and receiving diazepam (20mg/kg) after 10 min of SE. A different group of rats was injected with endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the caudate putamen to reproduce the changes in GFAP and laminin immunoreactivities associated with ischemia. Focal loss of GFAP immunostaining was accompanied by increased laminin immunoreactivity in blood vessels, in all the examined groups. Regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.01) relationship between astrocytic lesion and increased laminin immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex (Pir) of both pilocarpine (R(2)=0.88) and kainate (R(2)=0.94) groups of treatment. A significant relationship (P<0.01; R(2)=0.81) was also present in the cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) hippocampal region of pilocarpine-treated rats. At variance, neuronal and glial lesions were significantly related (P<0.05, R(2)=0.74) only in the substantia nigra of pilocarpine-treated rats. The ratio between areas of GFAP and laminin changes of immunoreactivity in the ET-1 group was similar to those found in pilocarpine- and kainate-treated rats in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampal CA3 subfield, Pir and the anterior olfactory nucleus. The amygdala and submedius thalamic nucleus in the pilocarpine group, and the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices in the kainate group, also presented ischemic-like changes. These results indicate that laminin immunoreactivity is upregulated in the basal lamina of blood vessels after SE induced by pilocarpine or kainate. This phenomenon is significantly associated with lesions involving more glial than neuronal cells, in specific cerebral regions. PMID:22609936

  17. Surgical Operative Time Increases the Risk of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Robotic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kelvin; Sado, Martins; Leverson, Glen E.; Patel, Sutchin R.; Downs, Tracy M.; Jarrard, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of operative time on the risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: We reviewed the records of all patients at our institution who underwent RARP by a single surgeon from January 2007 until April 2011. Clinical and pathologic information and VTE incidence were recorded for each patient and analyzed by use of logistic regression to evaluate for association with VTE risk. All patients had mechanical prophylaxis, and beginning in February 2008, a single dose of unfractionated heparin, 5000 U, was administered before surgery. Results: A total of 549 consecutive patients were identified, with a median follow-up period of 8 months. During the initial 30 days postoperatively, 10 patients (1.8%) had a VTE (deep venous thrombosis in 7 and pulmonary embolism in 3). The median operative time was 177 minutes (range, 121–360 minutes). An increase in operative time of 30 or 60 minutes was associated with 1.6 and 2.8 times increased VTE risks. A 5-point increase in body mass index and need for blood transfusion were also associated with increased risk of VTEs (odds ratios of 2.0 and 11.8, respectively). Heparin prophylaxis was not associated with a significant VTE risk reduction but also was not associated with a significant increase in estimated blood loss (P = .23) or transfusion rate (P = .37). Conclusion: A prolonged operative time increases the risk of symptomatic VTEs after RARP. Future studies are needed to evaluate the best VTE prophylactic approach in patients at risk. PMID:24960494

  18. Increased connective tissue attachment to silicone implants by a water vapor plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C; Gurevich, L; Patriciu, A; Struijk, J J; Zachar, V; Pennisi, C P

    2012-12-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most common type of silicone polymer for the fabrication of implantable medical devices. Because of its inherent hydrophobic nature, the PDMS surface does not readily promote cellular adhesion, which leads to diverse clinical issues. Previously, we reported a simple water vapor plasma treatment of PDMS surfaces that resulted in stable long-term wettability and excellent in vitro cell compatibility. In this work, we report investigation of the in vivo local responses to PDMS implants treated by water vapor plasma using a subcutaneous rat model. The local tissue responses were assessed after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation by means of macroscopic and histomorphometric analysis. After 2 weeks of implantation, the plasma-treated implants elicited the formation of fibrous tissue capsules that were significantly thinner, more adherent, and vascularized than the control counterparts. The improved cell adhesion was correlated with an increased amount of cells attached to the implant surface after retrieval. There was no difference in the inflammatory response between untreated and treated samples. This study provides a rational approach to optimize the long-term performance of silicone implants, which is likely to have a significant impact in clinical applications demanding enhanced tissue integration of the implants. PMID:22767530

  19. Treatment of coal to increase yields and improve physical characteristics of coal liquefaction distillates and bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Liotta, R.

    1981-03-31

    Treatment of weakly acidic protons in coal by oxygen-alkylation or oxygen-acylation employing a phase transfer reaction under mild conditions increases the yield, lowers the viscosity and boiling ranges of coal liquefaction distillates and renders these coal liquids more compatible with petroleum liquids. The process also improves the compatibility with petroleum liquids of the coal liquefaction bottoms and their solubility in common organic solvents. The phase transfer reaction chemically alters phenolic and carboxylic functional substituents. These two very polar functional groups are converted to relatively non-polar ethers and esters, respectively. The o-alkylation or o-acylation is carried out in a binary liquid phase solution (Organic and water phases with a solid phase suspended in the medium). A quaternary ammonium or phosphonium salt is reacted with alkali or alkaline earth base (Caustic) to produce the corresponding quaternary ammonium or phosphonium base (An example of a phase transfer reagent). This quaternary base is non-nucleophilic and readily removes the phenolic and carboxylic protons, but does little else to the coal structures. After the removal of the weakly acidic protons by the quaternary base, the phenoxides and carboxylates which are produced then under o-alkylation or o-acylation. The alkylating or acylating agent comprises a carbon-bearing functional group and a displaceable leaving group.

  20. Collagen maturity, glycation induced-pentosidine, and mineralization are increased following 3-year treatment with incadronate in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Saito; S. Mori; T. Mashiba; S. Komatsubara; K. Marumo

    2008-01-01

    Summary  Collagen cross-linking is a determinant of bone quality. A three-year treatment of bisphosphonate—incadronate disodium—in\\u000a beagles increased degree of mineralization, collagen maturity, and pentosidine, a compound with advanced glycation end products.\\u000a The treatment had no effect on the total amount of enzymatic cross-link formation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Collagen cross-linking is a determinant of bone quality. Recently, we reported that long-term treatment with bisphosphonate\\u000a increased

  1. Improving Student Attitudes and Writing Abilities through Increased Writing Time and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Elisabeth; Hermanson, Jennifer; Logar, Michele; Smerek, Christine

    This report describes a program for improving student abilities and attitudes toward writing through increased writing time and opportunities. The targeted population consists of second, third, fourth, and fifth grade students at the elementary level in a growing middle class community located in the northwest suburban area of Chicago, Illinois.…

  2. Night-time increase of mesospheric ozone measured with ground-based microwave radiometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lobsiger; K. F. Kuenzi

    1986-01-01

    During February and March 1985 ground-based microwave observations of the 142.175 GHz ozone line were made to measure the variations of mesospheric ozone during sunset, throughout the night, and during sunrise. Data was taken from 2 h before sunset to 2 h after sunrise. The time resolution was approximately 16 min. Above 50 km a rapid ozone increase at sunset

  3. Factors responsible for increased susceptibility of mice to intestinal colonization after treatment with streptomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Que, J U; Casey, S W; Hentges, D J

    1986-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (5 mg/ml) was added to the drinking water of Swiss white mice. After treatment for 1 week, the mice were challenged orogastrically with 10(8) Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells. The organism failed to multiply in the intestinal tract of either treated or untreated animals, but could be recovered from contents and tissues after 48 h. In a previous study, Salmonella typhimurium was shown to multiply in the intestines of streptomycin-treated but not untreated mice when 10(3) organisms were used as inoculum. Streptomycin administration had little effect on Eh, protein or carbohydrate concentrations of cecal contents, or intestinal motility. However, it caused a statistically significant increase in water content and pH of contents and a decrease in the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. S. typhimurium multiplied in pooled cecal contents obtained from both streptomycin-treated and untreated animals, but its multiplication rate and total populations were significantly greater in contents from treated animals. P. aeruginosa did not multiply in contents from either treated or untreated mice. Similar results were obtained when the organisms were inoculated into nutrient broth adjusted to simulate the pH levels and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in cecal contents of treated and untreated mice. The addition of brain heart infusion broth to cecal contents from untreated animals, in concentrations that support multiplication of S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa, did not reverse inhibition. The addition of VFA to cecal contents from treated animals to equal the concentration in cecal contents from untreated animals caused inhibition of a magnitude observed in cecal contents from untreated animals. The results indicate that VFA operating at the pH level of cecal contents of conventional mice inhibit the multiplication of both S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa and restrict colonization of the intestine by these organisms. The decrease in VFA concentrations that occurs as a result of streptomycin administration adequately explains the increased susceptibility of treated mice to colonization with S. typhimurium. It does not explain the increased susceptibility of treated mice to P. aeruginosa colonization, however. PMID:3087876

  4. Reducing Adolescents' Perceived Barriers to Treatment and Increasing Help-Seeking Intentions: Effects of Classroom Presentations by General Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie Joy; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The "Building Bridges to General Practice" (BBGP) program is an outreach initiative. It aims to reduce young peoples' perceived knowledge- and belief-based barriers to engaging in treatment and to increase their behavioral intentions to consult a general medical practitioner (GP) for physical and psychological problems. By increasing intentions,…

  5. Hydroprene prolongs developmental time and increases mortality of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Mohandass, S M; Arthur, F H; Zhu, K Y; Throne, J E

    2006-06-01

    Eggs of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were exposed to the labeled rate of hydroprene (1.9 x 10(-3) mg [AI]/cm2) sprayed on concreted petri dishes. These eggs were exposed for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 h and until hatching (continuous exposure) at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 degrees C and 57% RH until the emergence of first instars. The developmental time and egg mortality were significantly influenced by temperature and exposure periods. At 16 degrees C, hydroprene did not cause differences in developmental time when eggs were exposed for different periods. At temperatures >16 degrees C, both exposure period and temperature influenced developmental time. The maximum developmental time (15.0 +/- 0.2 d) occurred at 16 degrees C, and the minimum developmental time (3.2 +/- 0.3 d) occurred at 32 degrees C. Mortality increased when eggs were exposed to hydroprene for longer periods at all of the five tested temperatures. The greatest mortality (81.6 +/- 2.1%) occurred when eggs were continuously exposed on treated surfaces at 32 degrees C. We used developmental time instead of rate (1/ developmental time) to fit simple linear or polynomial regression models to the development data. Appropriate models for developmental time and mortality were chosen based upon lack-of-fit tests. The regression models can be used in predictive simulation models for the population dynamics of Indianmeal moth to aid in optimizing use of hydroprene for insect management. PMID:16813344

  6. Real-Time Electronic Medical Record Alerts Increase High Blood Pressure Recognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Tammy M.; Neu, Alicia M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Siberry, George K.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pediatric hypertension remains largely unrecognized. We hypothesized that an electronic medical record (EMR) alert would increase elevated blood pressure (BP) recognition in a pediatric primary care setting. Study Design Pre–post evaluation of a real-time EMR alert and one-time provider educational session. A total of 1305 encounters of children 3 to 21 years with elevated intake BP and no prior hypertension diagnosis were included. Elevated BP recognition and relationship of recognition with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during the intervention was compared with an historical control. Results Recognition increased from 12.5% to 42% (P < .001). Recognition increased soon after alert implementation and was sustained without evidence of “alert fatigue.” During both periods, presence of CVD risk factors was associated with recognition. However, the magnitude was lesser in the intervention period. Conclusions Real-time EMR alerts substantially increase elevated BP recognition in children. However, underrecognition of elevated BP persisted, highlighting the need for additional strategies to improve provider recognition. PMID:25416626

  7. Increases in cortical neuropeptide Y and somatostatin concentrations following haloperidol-depot treatment in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Sakai; K Maeda; K Chihara; H Kaneda

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS) have been said to be altered in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients. This alteration could result from the neuroleptic treatment. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate effects of long-term treatment with neuroleptics on the peptide concentrations in the brain. Haloperidol (HPD) is one of the most frequently

  8. Increased kidney size and glomerular filtration rate in untreated juvenile diabetes: Normalization by insulin-treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Mogensen; M. J. F. Andersen

    1975-01-01

    Summary  Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and roentgenographic kidney size were measured in six newly diagnosed male diabetics with a mean age of 25 years. Glomerular filtration rate was elevated before treatment to the same extent as found previously. A significant fall in both kidney size and glomerular filtration rate was found after treatment with insulin for 3

  9. Haloperidol treatments increased macrophage activity in male and female rats: influence of corticosterone and prolactin serum levels.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, G A; Dorce, V A C; Palermo-Neto, J

    2005-05-01

    Haloperidol is a receptor D2 antagonist frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Haloperidol increased prolactin release from anterior pituitary gland, and prolactin modulates immune system activity. Groups of six male and female rats received an acute 2 mg/kg haloperidol treatment (E1), or a long-term (E2) haloperidol treatments (2 mg/kg/day for 21 days); control rats were treated similarly, but with control solution (groups C1 and C2, respectively). In this work long-term haloperidol treatment (E2) increased macrophage spreading, phagocytosis and NO release in male and female rats. However, acute haloperidol treatment (E1) did not change macrophage activity. Corticosterone and prolactin serum levels were increased after acute (E1) and long-term (E2) haloperidol treatments in male and female rats, being this increment higher in female. Macrophage of male and female rats presented the same pattern of alterations after acute and long-term haloperidol treatments. Haloperidol-induced macrophage activation was discussed in the light of a possible indirect effect through prolactin increments in rats, or, alternatively, as a consequence of a direct action of macrophage dopamine receptor. PMID:15820415

  10. Analysis of an Anomaly: The Increase in Time Float following Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianxun; Su, Zhixiong

    2014-01-01

    One fundamental axiom for project plan and schedule relates to the notion that time float will be reduced following its consumption. However, an anomalous scenario can emerge in which an activity's time float increases following its consumption. By exploring the associations between time float and paths in activity networks, we (a) reveal the conditions under which the anomaly occurs and (b) summarize laws related to total float. An activity's total float increases in parallel with its duration prolongation within a given boundary but remains constant or decreases in parallel with a prolongation outside the boundary. Furthermore, whereas a prolongation of an activity's duration in excess of classic total float does not delay project completion time, a lag of its start time to a degree slightly greater than the total float does. This analysis reveals different types of total float that correspond to different ways of usage. From this, we offer definitions for translation total float and prolongation total float that deviate from traditional conventions regarding the uniqueness of total float. PMID:25250376

  11. Subgroups Analysis when Treatment and Moderators are Time-varying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Almirall; Daniel F. McCaffrey; Rajeev Ramchand; Susan A. Murphy

    Prevention scientists are often interested in understanding characteristics of participants that are predictive of treatment\\u000a effects because these characteristics can be used to inform the types of individuals who benefit more or less from treatment\\u000a or prevention programs. Often, effect moderation questions are examined using subgroups analysis or, equivalently, using covariate\\u000a × treatment interactions in the context of regression analysis.

  12. Time to Treatment in Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Correa, Candace R.; Hayman, James A.; Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp; Brenner, Dean; Arenberg, Doug; Curtis, Jeffery; Kalemkerian, Gregory P. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether time to treatment (TTT) has an effect on overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether patient or treatment factors are associated with TTT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 237 consecutive patients with Stage III NSCLC treated at University of Michigan Hospital (UM) or the Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VA). Patients were treated with either palliative or definitive radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone (n = 106) or either sequential (n = 69) or concurrent chemoradiation (n = 62). The primary endpoint was OS. Results: Median follow-up was 69 months, and median TTT was 57 days. On univariate analysis, the risk of death did not increase significantly with longer TTT (p = 0.093). However, subset analysis showed that there was a higher risk of death with longer TTT in patients who survived {>=} 5 years (p = 0.029). Younger age (p = 0.027), male sex (p = 0.013), lower Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) (p = 0.002), and treatment at the VA (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with longer TTT. However, on multivariate analysis, only lower KPS remained significantly associated with longer TTT (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Time to treatment is significantly associated with OS in patients with Stage III NSCLC who lived longer than 5 years, although it is not a significant factor in Stage III patients as a whole. Lower KPS is associated with longer TTT.

  13. In contrast to matrix metalloproteinases, serum adiponectin concentrations increase after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and in chronic inflammation. We have endeavoured to assess whether concentrations of MMPs, TIMPs, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin are altered by pharmacological treatment of acute thyrotoxicosis or by radioiodine therapy (RIT). Material and methods We measured serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin, TSH, free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) in 15 patients (4 males), age (years) 51.8±15.3 (mean±SD) with hyperthyroidism treated with thiamazole (Group 1) and in 20 subjects (2 males), treated for thyrotoxicosis with radioiodine, age 52.3±12.4 (Group 2), where blood samples were taken before RIT, visit 1 (V1), seven days post RIT, visit 2 (V2), and two to three months post RIT, visit 3 (V3). Results In Group 1 there was no significant change in concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 or adiponectin, despite a fall in FT4 and FT3 (8.74±4.79 pg/ml vs 3.54±2.40 pg/ml, for FT3, and 4.48 ±2.21 ng/ml vs 1.02±1.07 ng/ml, for FT4, p<0.001). In Group 2 RIT did not cause any acute change in serum MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 or adiponectin (V1 vs V2). However, there was a significant increase in serum adiponectin [from 15201±8860 ng/ml (V1) to 19373±8657 ng/ml (at V3), p<0.05], and TIMP-2 at V3 [from 129±45 ng/ml (V1) to 149±38 ng/ml (V3), p<0.01]. There was no significant change MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 between V1 and V3. There was a decrease in FT4 and FT3 from 24.4±15.4 pmol/l (V1) to 14.7±10.6 pmol/l (V3), and from 10.0±5.65 (V1) to 6.1±4.8 pmol/l (V2), p<0.01, for FT4 and FT3, respectively. Conclusions Radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis does not alter serum MMP-2, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 concentrations either acutely or after about three months of observation. An increase in serum adiponectin might reflect favourable effects of radioiodine administration on cardiovascular risk factors, while an increase in TIMP-2 (principal MMP-2 inhibitor) might lead to a decrease in free MMP-2 concentrations. PMID:23107223

  14. Time trends of surgical treatment and the prognosis for Japanese patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maehara, Y; Kakeji, Y; Oda, S; Takahashi, I; Akazawa, K; Sugimachi, K

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer is much higher in Japan than in other countries even though diagnostics and treatments of such patients have improved. The objective of this study was to present an overview of the past, present and future of surgical treatment for our patients with gastric cancer. We analysed data on 2152 Japanese men and women with gastric cancer who underwent surgical resection from 1965 to 1995 at Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan, based on a univariate and the multivariate analysis. We focused on time trends of surgical treatment and the postoperative outcome. Over the years, there have been favourable changes in the numbers of patients with early gastric cancer. In all cases of gastric cancer, the rate of 18% in the first six year period (group 1) was 57% in the last 5 year period (group 6). Size of the tumour was smaller, well-differentiated tumour tissue was more common, and lymphatic involvement was less frequent. Lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination all decreased. Extensive lymph node dissection was more frequently done and the rate of curative resection (curability A and B) increased. With increases in identifying the early stage of cancer and better perioperative care, mortality rates 30 days after the surgery greatly decreased. Multivariate analysis revealed that the 10 factors of depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymph node dissection, tumour size, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, lesion in the whole stomach and lesion in the middle stomach were independent factors for determining the prognosis. Detection of the tumour in an early stage, standardized surgical treatment, including routine lymph node dissection, close follow-up schedules and better perioperative management are expected to increase survival time for patients with this malignancy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10993643

  15. How to increase efficiency, safety and cost control in hospital infectious waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Slavik, N S

    1985-01-01

    An efficient and cost-effective on-site infectious waste management program can be implemented by integrating the decontamination advantages offered by both steam sterilization and incineration. To do so requires the understanding of the interrelationship between the components that comprise the program. The physical and chemical characteristics of the various infectious waste constituents will dictate the mode by which each constituent will be decontaminated. The treatment mode will in turn dictate the packaging and containment necessary to ensure decontamination. An understanding of the operating principles, and design features of each treatment mode will further enhance treatment efficacy. PMID:10270257

  16. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kalchenko, V V; Kuznetsov, Yu L; Meglinski, I V

    2013-07-31

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  17. Improving the Depth-Time Fit of Holocene Climate Proxy Measures by Increasing Coherence with a Reference Time-Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, K. J.; Cumming, B. F.; Hallett, D. J.; Thomson, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate assessment of historical local Holocene data is important in making future climate predictions. Holocene climate is often obtained through proxy measures such as diatoms or pollen using radiocarbon dating. Wiggle Match Dating (WMD) uses an iterative least squares approach to tune a core with a large amount of 14C dates to the 14C calibration curve. This poster will present a new method of tuning a time series with when only a modest number of 14C dates are available. The method presented uses the multitaper spectral estimation, and it specifically makes use of a multitaper spectral coherence tuning technique. Holocene climate reconstructions are often based on a simple depth-time fit such as a linear interpolation, splines, or low order polynomials. Many of these models make use of only a small number of 14C dates, each of which is a point estimate with a significant variance. This technique attempts to tune the 14C dates to a reference series, such as tree rings, varves, or the radiocarbon calibration curve. The amount of 14C in the atmosphere is not constant, and a significant source of variance is solar activity. A decrease in solar activity coincides with an increase in cosmogenic isotope production, and an increase in cosmogenic isotope production coincides with a decrease in temperature. The method presented uses multitaper coherence estimates and adjusts the phase of the time series to line up significant line components with that of the reference series in attempt to obtain a better depth-time fit then the original model. Given recent concerns and demonstrations of the variation in estimated dates from radiocarbon labs, methods to confirm and tune the depth-time fit can aid climate reconstructions by improving and serving to confirm the accuracy of the underlying depth-time fit. Climate reconstructions can then be made on the improved depth-time fit. This poster presents a run though of this process using Chauvin Lake in the Canadian prairies and Mt. Barr Cirque Lake located in British Columbia as examples.

  18. Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4 ?·?7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p?times greater than Flisted . Thus, the reduced coded model: Y (U mg-1) = 50.29 + 4.30A - 3.35(A)2 - 4.80(B)2 + 5.62C - 4.26(C)2 was considered predictive and statistically significant (p?increased the phytase yield in 250%. A. japonicus phytase released high levels of Pi from broiler chicken and laying hen food. A. japonicus is an excellent phytase producer in a culture medium using inexpensive components and agricultural wastes. Therefore, these results provide sound arguments for the formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production. PMID:24026803

  19. What Can We Learn about Inflation Targeting? Evidence from Time-Varying Treatment Effects

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    What Can We Learn about Inflation Targeting? Evidence from Time-Varying Treatment Effects Wen effectiveness for developing countries. Allowing for a time-varying relationship (treatment effect) between treatment effects generally conclude the window-dressing view for industrial countries and policy

  20. Estimation of panel data models with binary indicators when treatment effects are not constant over time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey Laporte; Frank Windmeijer

    2005-01-01

    We show that two commonly employed estimation procedures to deal with correlated unobserved heterogeneity in panel data models, within-groups and first-differenced OLS, can lead to very different estimates of treatment effects when these are not constant over time and treatment is a state that only changes occasionally. It is therefore important to allow for flexible time varying treatment effects when

  1. The Timing of Exposure in Clinic-Based Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryczkowski, Michelle R.; Tiede, Michael S.; Dammann, Julie E.; Jacobsen, Amy Brown; Hale, Lisa R.; Whiteside, Stephen P. H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines treatment length and timing of exposure from two child anxiety disorders clinics. Data regarding symptoms and treatment characteristics for 28 youth were prospectively obtained through self, parent, and therapist report at each session. Information regarding length of treatment, timing of exposure initiation, and…

  2. Estimating safety performance trends over time for treatments at intersections in Florida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jung-Han; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A; Park, Juneyoung; Lee, Chris; Kuo, Pei-Fen

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have put great efforts in quantifying Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) for diversified treatment types. In the Highway Safety Manual (HSM), CMFs have been identified to predict safety effectiveness of converting a stop-controlled to a signal-controlled intersection (signalization) and installing Red Light Running Cameras (RLCs). Previous studies showed that both signalization and adding RLCs reduced angle crashes but increased rear-end crashes. However, some studies showed that CMFs varied over time after the treatment was implemented. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate trends of CMFs for the signalization and adding RLCs over time. CMFs for the two treatments were measured in each month and 90-day moving windows respectively. The ARMA time series model was applied to predict trends of CMFs over time based on monthly variations in CMFs. The results of the signalization show that the CMFs for rear-end crashes were lower at the early phase after the signalization but gradually increased from the 9th month. On the other hand, the CMFs for angle crashes were higher at the early phase after adding RLCs but decreased after the 9th month and then became stable. It was also found that the CMFs for total and fatal/injury crashes after adding RLCs in the first 18 months were significantly greater than the CMFs in the following 18 months. This indicates that there was a lag effect of the treatments on safety performance. The results of the ARMA model show that the model can better predict trends of the CMFs for the signalization and adding RLCs when the CMFs are calculated in 90-day moving windows compared to the CMFs calculated in each month. In particular, the ARMA model predicted a significant safety effect of the signalization on reducing angle and left-turn crashes in the long term. Thus, it is recommended that the safety effects of the treatment be assessed using the ARMA model based on trends of CMFs in the long term after the implementation of the treatment. PMID:25866922

  3. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Workman, Joanna L; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Morris, John S; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2010-10-26

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders coincides with the increase of exposure to light at night (LAN) and shift work. Circadian regulation of energy homeostasis is controlled by an endogenous biological clock that is synchronized by light information. To promote optimal adaptive functioning, the circadian clock prepares individuals for predictable events such as food availability and sleep, and disruption of clock function causes circadian and metabolic disturbances. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between nighttime light exposure and obesity, we examined the effects of LAN on body mass in male mice. Mice housed in either bright (LL) or dim (DM) LAN have significantly increased body mass and reduced glucose tolerance compared with mice in a standard (LD) light/dark cycle, despite equivalent levels of caloric intake and total daily activity output. Furthermore, the timing of food consumption by DM and LL mice differs from that in LD mice. Nocturnal rodents typically eat substantially more food at night; however, DM mice consume 55.5% of their food during the light phase, as compared with 36.5% in LD mice. Restricting food consumption to the active phase in DM mice prevents body mass gain. These results suggest that low levels of light at night disrupt the timing of food intake and other metabolic signals, leading to excess weight gain. These data are relevant to the coincidence between increasing use of light at night and obesity in humans. PMID:20937863

  4. Increasing Positive Outlook Partially Mediates the Effect of Empirically Supported Treatments on Depression Symptoms Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.; Silva, Susan G.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Henry, David B.; Reinecke, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Among adolescents there is evidence that cognitive change partially mediates the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on depression outcome. However, prior studies have been limited by small samples, narrow measures of cognition, and failure to compare cognitive change following CBT to cognitive change following antidepressant medication. This study examined whether change in four cognitive constructs (cognitive distortions, cognitive avoidance, positive outlook, and solution-focused thinking) mediated change in depression severity in a sample of 291 adolescents who participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). TADS assessed the effects of CBT, fluoxetine, and their combination on depression severity. All three treatments were associated with change in the cognitive constructs and combination treatment produced the greatest change. Furthermore, change in the cognitive constructs partially mediated change in depression severity within all three treatments. Results implicated positive outlook as the construct most associated with change in depression severity over 36 weeks. PMID:24944436

  5. Late-Start Days Increase Total Operative Time in Microvascular Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Michael W; Barr, Jason S; Hill, J Bradford; Weichman, Katie E; Karp, Nolan S; Levine, Jamie P

    2015-07-01

    Background?Prolonged operative time has been associated with increased postoperative complications and higher costs. Many academic centers have a designated day for didactics that cause cases to start 1 hour later. The purpose of this study is to analyze the late-start effect of microvascular breast reconstructions on operative duration. Methods?A retrospective review was performed on all patients who underwent abdomina-based free flap breast reconstruction from 2007 to 2011 and analyzed by those who had surgery on late-start versus normal-start days. Patient demographics, average operative time, postoperative complications, and individual surgeon effects were analyzed. A Student t-test was used to compare operative times with statistical significance set at p?time for all reconstructions was 434.3 minutes. The average operative times were significantly longer for late-start days, 517.6 versus 427.3 minutes (p?=?0.002). This was true for both unilateral and bilateral reconstructions (432.8 vs. 350.9 minutes, p?=?0.05; 551.5 vs. 461.2 minutes, p?=?0.007). There were no differences in perioperative complications and multivariate regression showed no statistically significant relationship of confounders to duration of surgery. Conclusion?Starting cases 1 hour later can increase operative times. Although outcomes were not affected, we recommend avoiding lengthy procedures on late-start days. PMID:25826441

  6. 12 CFR 1024.34 - Timely escrow payments and treatment of escrow account balances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...payments and treatment of escrow account balances. 1024.34 Section 1024.34 Banks...payments and treatment of escrow account balances. (a) Timely escrow disbursements...17(k). (b) Refund of escrow balance. (1) In general....

  7. Socio-cultural determinants of timely and delayed treatment of Buruli ulcer: Implications for disease control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Public health programmes recommend timely medical treatment for Buruli ulcer (BU) infection to prevent pre-ulcer conditions from progressing to ulcers, to minimise surgery, disabilities and the socio-economic impact of BU. Clarifying the role of socio-cultural determinants of timely medical treatment may assist in guiding public health programmes to improve treatment outcomes. This study clarified the role of socio-cultural determinants and health system factors affecting timely medical treatment for BU in an endemic area in Ghana. Methods A semi-structured explanatory model interview based on the explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC) was administered to 178 BU-affected persons. Based on research evidence, respondents were classified as timely treatment (use of medical treatment 3 months from awareness of disease) and delayed treatment (medical treatment 3 months after onset of disease and failure to use medical treatment). The outcome variable, timely treatment was analysed with cultural epidemiological variables for categories of distress, perceived causes of BU, outside-help and reasons for medical treatment in logistic regression models. The median time for the onset of symptoms to treatment was computed in days. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents’ narratives clarified the meaning, context and dynamic features of the relationship of explanatory variables with timely medical treatment. Results The median time for initiating treatment was 25 days for pre-ulcers, and 204 days for ulcers. Income loss and use of herbalists showed significantly negative associations with timely treatment. Respondents’ use of herbalists was often motivated by the desire for quick recovery in order to continue with work and because herbalists were relatives and easily accessible. However, drinking unclean water was significantly associated with timely treatment and access to health services encouraged timely treatment (OR 8.5, p?=?0.012). Findings show that health system factors of access are responsible for non-compliance to treatment regimes. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of an integrated approach to BU control and management considering the social and economic features that influence delayed treatment and factors that encourage timely medical treatment. This approach should consider periodic screening for early case-detection, collaboration with private practitioners and traditional healers, use of mobile services to improve access, adherence and treatment outcomes. PMID:23849228

  8. Diagnosis of Time of Increased Probability (TIP) for Volcanic Earthquakes at Mt. Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotwain, I.; Natale, G. De; Kuznetsov, I.; Peresan, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of intermediate-term earthquake prediction at Mt. Vesuvius by means of the CN algorithm is explored. CN was originally designed to identify the Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) for the occurrence of strong tectonic earthquakes, with magnitude M ? M 0, within a region a priori delimited. Here the CN algorithm is applied, for the first time, to the analysis of volcanic seismicity. The earthquakes recorded at Mt. Vesuvius during the period from February 1972 to June 2004 are considered, and the magnitude threshold M 0 selecting the events to be predicted is varied within the range: 3.0 3.3. Satisfactory prediction results are obtained, by retrospective analysis, when a time scaling is introduced. In particular, when the length of the time windows is reduced by a factor 2.5 3, with respect to the standard version of CN algorithm, more than 90% of the events with M ? M 0 occur within the TIP intervals, with TIPs occupying about 30% of the total time considered. The control experiment ``Seismic History'' demonstrates the stability of the obtained results and indicates that the CN algorithm can be applied to monitor the preparation of impending earthquakes with M ? 3.0 at Mt. Vesuvius.

  9. Timing of Pathogen Adaptation to a Multicomponent Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bourget, Romain; Chaumont, Loïc; Sapoukhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations. PMID:23991006

  10. Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent treatment.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Romain; Chaumont, Loïc; Sapoukhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations. PMID:23991006

  11. The timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion in transplanted submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, X J; Li, M; Su, J Z; Xie, Z; Yu, G Y

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion and to investigate the possibility of parasympathetic reinnervation of transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs). Citric acid stimulation-induced changes in secretion of transplanted SMGs were evaluated in 27 patients who underwent SMG transplantation for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS); (99m)Tc scintigraphy and Schirmer tests were done at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after transplantation. Acetylcholinesterase staining was conducted to confirm the presence of parasympathetic reinnervation in three SMGs at 6 and 9 months after transplantation. Schirmer tests showed significantly increased secretion of the transplanted SMGs after acid stimulation at 6 and 9 months, but not at 1 and 3 months. On (99m)Tc scintigraphy, no decline was detected on the dynamic time-activity curve after acid stimulation at 1 and 3 months, but a decline was detected in nine glands at 6 months and in 19 glands at 9 months. No decline was observed in the remaining eight glands at 9 months after transplantation. The histology findings were consistent with scintigraphy results. In conclusion, acid-induced increase in saliva secretion occurs at ?6 months after SMG transplantation, and parasympathetic reinnervation of the transplanted SMG might occur. PMID:25697065

  12. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity. To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. Results The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. Conclusion The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp. PMID:24559121

  13. Effect of real-time teledermatology on diagnosis, treatment and clinical improvement.

    PubMed

    Al Quran, Hanadi A; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Shdaifat, Amjad

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of real-time teledermatology consultations on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life and time- and cost-savings. All consecutive patients with skin diseases attending teledermatology clinics at two rural hospitals in Jordan were included in the study. Patients were interviewed at their initial visit and again after eight weeks. Various questionnaires and forms, including quality of life questionnaires, were used to collect the data. Ninety teledermatology consultations were performed for 88 patients between September 2013 and January 2014. A diagnosis was established as part of the teledermatology consultation in 43% of patients and changed from that of the referring provider in 19% of patients. The treatment plan was established for 67% of patients and changed for 9% patients. The mean SF-8 score increased significantly (P?time (96%), shorter waiting time (83%) and less cost (96%) than a visit to the specialist clinic at the main hospital. The patients' mean satisfaction score was 90.5 (SD 8.5), indicating a high level of satisfaction. Teledermatology resulted in changes in the patients' diagnosis and treatment plan, and was associated with improved health state and quality of life. PMID:25589469

  14. Development of supersensitivity of apomorphine-induced increases in acetylcholine levels and stereotypy after chronic fluphenazine treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R CHOI; R ROTH

    1978-01-01

    Sum~ry-Dopamine agonists administered systemically produce an increase in striatal levels of acetyl- choline (AC%). Possible development of postsynaptic dopamine receptor su~rs~nsitivity after neurolep- tic treatment was studied by measurement of apomorphine (APO)-induced increase in ACh levels in the striatum and olfactory tubercle. Apomorphine-induced stereotypic behaviour was also measured. Rats received a single subcutaneous injection of either sesame seed oil vehicle

  15. Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine Increases Verbal Declarative Memory and Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Southwick, Steven M.; Charney, Dennis S.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis and reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal atrophy. This study assessed the effects of long-term treatment with paroxetine on hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in PTSD. Methods Declarative memory was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised and Selective Reminding Test before and after 9–12 months of treatment with paroxetine in PTSD. Hippocampal volume was measured with MRI. Of the 28 patients who started the protocol, 23 completed the full course of treatment and neuropsychological testing. Twenty patients were able to complete MRI imaging. Results Patients with PTSD showed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with treatment. Treatment resulted in significant improvements in verbal declarative memory and a 4.6% increase in mean hippocampal volume. Conclusions These findings suggest that long-term treatment with paroxetine is associated with improvement of verbal declarative memory deficits and an increase in hippocampal volume in PTSD. PMID:14512209

  16. The solids retention time—a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Clara; N. Kreuzinger; B. Strenn; O. Gans; H. Kroiss

    2005-01-01

    Micropollutants as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) or pharmaceuticals are of increased interest in water pollution control. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are relevant point sources for residues of these compounds in the aquatic environment. The solids retention time (SRT) is one important parameter for the design of WWTPs, relating to growth rate of microorganisms and to effluent concentrations. If a

  17. High-temperature strength of prealloyed-powder products increased by heat/pressure treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Heat treatment process involves heating products to a temperature above the solidus, and subsequently applying pressure at a temperature below the solidus. Technique can be modified to one step process involving simultaneous application if both high pressure and heat. Process is not limited to cobalt-base alloys.

  18. Beyond on/off: Increasing the benefits of patch spraying with multiple treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific weed management can encompass both limiting treatment to areas of the field where weed pressure is above the economic threshold (patch spraying) and varying the choice of herbicide for most cost-effective weed control of local populations. The potential benefits of patch spraying with ...

  19. The Social Marketing Approach: A Way to Increase Reporting and Treatment of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…

  20. Outside-of-school time obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O

    2014-10-01

    Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour. PMID:25196405

  1. Increasing the Coherence Time in a Magnetic Stimulated Raman Transition in 85Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desavage, Sara A.; Braje, Danielle A.; Davis, Jon P.; Narducci, Frank A.

    2014-05-01

    We experimentally study, compare and contrast Ramsey and spin echo pulse sequence protocols in a cold 85Rb gas. Our measurements, performed in an unshielded metal vacuum canister, are dominated by laboratory noise. Both Ramsey and spin echo show a decay of the interference in about 100 ? sec, while we have found that changing the axis of rotation of the echo pulse by 90° can increase coherence time by nearly a factor of 10. These results show that this new pulse sequence can be used in our system to reduce dephasing on magnetic transitions. Grateful for funding from ONR.

  2. Prostate and Patient Intrafraction Motion: Impact on Treatment Time-Dependent Planning Margins for Patients With Endorectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.steiner@akhwien.at [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Goldner, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Stock, Markus [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate intrafraction prostate and patient motion during different radiation therapy treatments as a function of treatment time; included were prostate patients with an endorectal balloon (ERB). Margins accounting for setup uncertainties and intrafraction motion were determined. Methods and Materials: The study included 17 patients undergoing prostate cancer radiation therapy. All patients received 3 fiducial gold markers implanted in the prostate and were then immobilized in the supine position with a knee support and treated with an ERB. Twelve patients with intermediate risk for pelvic lymph node metastases received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 5 patients at low risk received a 4-field box treatment. After setup based on skin marks, patients were imaged with a stereoscopic imaging system. If the marker displacement exceeded a 3-mm tolerance relative to planning computed tomography, patients were shifted and verification images were taken. All patients underwent additional imaging after treatment; IMRT patients also received additional imaging at halftime of treatment. Prostate and bone drifts were evaluated as a function of treatment time for more than 600 fractions, and margins were extracted. Results: Patient motion evaluated by bone match was strongly patient dependent but in general was smallest in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Prostate drifts were less patient dependent, showing an increase with treatment time in the SI and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In the lateral (LAT) direction, the prostate stayed rather stable. Mean treatment times were 5.5 minutes for 4-field box, 10 minutes for 5-field boost IMRT, and 15 minutes or more for 9-field boost and 9-field pelvic IMRT treatments. Margins resulted in 2.2 mm, 3.9 mm, and 4.3 mm for 4-field box; 3.7 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.6 mm for 5-field boost IMRT; 2.3 mm, 3.9 mm, and 6.2 mm for 9-field boost IMRT; and 4.2 mm, 5.1 mm, and 6.6 mm for 9-field pelvic IMRT in the LAT, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Conclusion: Intrafraction prostate and patient displacement increased with treatment time, showing different behaviors for the single directions of movement. Repositioning of the patients during long treatments or shorter treatment times will be necessary to further reduce the treatment margin.

  3. Melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grape berries to increase size and synchronicity of berries and modify wine aroma components.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Song, Chang-Zheng; Yu, Yong; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2015-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grapes on grape berries and its wines. Two melatonin treatments of pre-veraison grape berries increased the weight of the berries by approximately 6.6%. Meanwhile, this melatonin treatment could be beneficial in the reduction of underripe and overripe fruits and in enhancing the synchronicity of the berries. In addition, there were significant differences in the volatile compound composition between the wine produced from the melatonin-treated berries and the wines made from untreated berries. The wine from melatonin-treated pre-veraison grape berries had stronger fruity, spicy, and sweet sensory properties, compared to the wines made from untreated berries. Prolonging the treatment through repeated applications can enhance these effects and under different seasonal conditions, more pronounced effects on the grape quality and wine properties can be observed. PMID:25952850

  4. Chronic risperidone treatment preferentially increases rat erythrocyte and prefrontal cortex omega-3 fatty acid composition: Evidence for augmented biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. McNamara; Jessica A. Able; Ronald Jandacek; Therese Rider; Patrick Tso

    2009-01-01

    Prior clinical studies suggest that chronic treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications increase erythrocyte and postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) omega-3 fatty acid composition in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). However, because human tissue phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid composition is potentially influenced by multiple extraneous variables, definitive evaluation of this putative mechanism of action requires an animal model. In the present study, we

  5. Ultraviolet-B light treatment increases antioxidant capacity of carrot products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abiotic stresses such as cutting and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure of plant cells triggers an increased activity response by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase resulting in increased synthesis of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins and flavonoids. This study investigated ...

  6. Changes in Function of HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses with Increasing Time from Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ndongala, Michel L.; Kamya, Philomena; Boulet, Salix; Peretz, Yoav; Rouleau, Danielle; Tremblay, Cécile; Leblanc, Roger; Côté, Pierre; Baril, Jean-Guy; Thomas, RéJean; Vézina, Sylvie; Boulassel, Mohamed R.; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Sékaly, Rafick P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Recently HIV-infected individuals have virus-specific responses characterized by IFN-?/IL-2 secretion and proliferation rarely seen in chronic infection. To investigate the timing of loss of HIV-specific T-cell function, we screened cells from 59 treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals with known dates of infection for proteome-wide responses secreting IFN-?/IL-2 and IFN-? alone by ELISPOT. HIV peptide-specific proliferation was assessed by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution. The contribution of IFN-?/IL-2 and IFN-?-only secretion to the total HIV-specific response was compared in subjects infected <6, 6–12, and 12–36 mo earlier. The frequency of IFN-?/IL-2-secreting cells fell, while that of IFN-?-only secretion rose with time from infection. HIV peptide-specific proliferative responses were almost exclusively mediated by CD8+ T cells, and were significantly lower in cells obtained from the 12–36 mo versus

  7. Current treatment of bulk single walled carbon nanotubes to heal defects without structural change for increased electrical and thermal conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Oshima, Azusa; Yumura, Motoo; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    By applying electrical current with heat, we succeeded in improving the graphitization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) without increasing the diameter and wall number. At 800 °C, 150 A cm-2 (1150 W cm-2) for 1 min, we achieved a 3.2-times increase in the Raman G- to D-band ratio, a 3.1-times increase in electrical conductivity (from 25.2 to 78.1 S cm-1), a 3.7-times increase in thermal conductivity (from 3.5 to 12.8 W m-1 K-1), and even a 1.7-times increase in dispersibility (from 1.7 to 2.9 mg L-1). The electrical and thermal conductivities did not only increase simultaneously, but their relative increases were identical across our experimental range that stems from defect healing without any change in diameter and wall number. In contrast, a significant increase in diameter and wall number was observed when current was not applied. These results demonstrate the importance of applying current to improve the graphitization of SWCNTs while maintaining their structure as SWCNTs.By applying electrical current with heat, we succeeded in improving the graphitization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) without increasing the diameter and wall number. At 800 °C, 150 A cm-2 (1150 W cm-2) for 1 min, we achieved a 3.2-times increase in the Raman G- to D-band ratio, a 3.1-times increase in electrical conductivity (from 25.2 to 78.1 S cm-1), a 3.7-times increase in thermal conductivity (from 3.5 to 12.8 W m-1 K-1), and even a 1.7-times increase in dispersibility (from 1.7 to 2.9 mg L-1). The electrical and thermal conductivities did not only increase simultaneously, but their relative increases were identical across our experimental range that stems from defect healing without any change in diameter and wall number. In contrast, a significant increase in diameter and wall number was observed when current was not applied. These results demonstrate the importance of applying current to improve the graphitization of SWCNTs while maintaining their structure as SWCNTs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00170f

  8. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:20600981

  9. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Extraocular Muscles in Rabbits Results in Increased Myofiber Remodeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irma Ugalde; Stephen P. Christiansen; Linda K. McLoon

    2005-01-01

    METHODS. The superior rectus muscles of adult rabbits were each injected with 5 units of Botox. The contralateral muscle received injections of saline only. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered for various periods after Botox treatment, followed by various BrdU-free periods. Myonuclear addition, the number of BrdU-positive satellite cells, and the number of MyoD-positive satellite cells were quantified, as were alter- ations

  10. Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Bradley J; Wright, Justin P; Cadotte, Marc W; Carroll, Ian T; Hector, Andy; Srivastava, Diane S; Loreau, Michel; Weis, Jerome J

    2007-11-13

    Accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted a growing number of researchers to manipulate the richness of various groups of organisms and examine how this aspect of diversity impacts ecological processes that control the functioning of ecosystems. We summarize the results of 44 experiments that have manipulated the richness of plants to examine how plant diversity affects the production of biomass. We show that mixtures of species produce an average of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are more productive than the average monoculture in 79% of all experiments. However, in only 12% of all experiments do diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their single most productive species. Previously, a positive net effect of diversity that is no greater than the most productive species has been interpreted as evidence for selection effects, which occur when diversity maximizes the chance that highly productive species will be included in and ultimately dominate the biomass of polycultures. Contrary to this, we show that although productive species do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these contributions are equaled or exceeded by species complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological processes that involve multiple species. Importantly, both the net effect of diversity and the probability of polycultures being more productive than their most productive species increases through time, because the magnitude of complementarity increases as experiments are run longer. Our results suggest that experiments to date have, if anything, underestimated the impacts of species extinction on the productivity of ecosystems. PMID:17991772

  11. Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Bradley J.; Wright, Justin P.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Carroll, Ian T.; Hector, Andy; Srivastava, Diane S.; Loreau, Michel; Weis, Jerome J.

    2007-01-01

    Accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted a growing number of researchers to manipulate the richness of various groups of organisms and examine how this aspect of diversity impacts ecological processes that control the functioning of ecosystems. We summarize the results of 44 experiments that have manipulated the richness of plants to examine how plant diversity affects the production of biomass. We show that mixtures of species produce an average of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are more productive than the average monoculture in 79% of all experiments. However, in only 12% of all experiments do diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their single most productive species. Previously, a positive net effect of diversity that is no greater than the most productive species has been interpreted as evidence for selection effects, which occur when diversity maximizes the chance that highly productive species will be included in and ultimately dominate the biomass of polycultures. Contrary to this, we show that although productive species do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these contributions are equaled or exceeded by species complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological processes that involve multiple species. Importantly, both the net effect of diversity and the probability of polycultures being more productive than their most productive species increases through time, because the magnitude of complementarity increases as experiments are run longer. Our results suggest that experiments to date have, if anything, underestimated the impacts of species extinction on the productivity of ecosystems. PMID:17991772

  12. Long Contact Time Ozanation For Swimming Pool Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Eichelsdörfer; J. Jandik

    1985-01-01

    The elimination of contaminants in pool water through the “ozone – activated carbon process” is done stepwise. Sieving, flocculation and filtration steps are followed by ozonation. According to the German standards for the Treatment of Swimming Pool Water, the toxic ozone has to be removed from the water by filtration through an activated carbon layer before the water is brought

  13. Childhood Adversity Accelerates Intended Reproductive Timing in Adolescent Girls without Increasing Interest in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Clutterbuck, Stephanie; Adams, Jean; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1) childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2) childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3) intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies. PMID:24454778

  14. Deep Brain Stimulation effects in Dystonia: Time course of electrophysiological changes in early treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Diane; Tisch, Stephen; Hariz, Marwan I.; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Quinn, Niall P.; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Limousin, Patricia; Rothwell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the internal globus pallidus is an effective treatment for primary dystonia. The optimal clinical effect often occurs only weeks to months after starting stimulation. To better understand the underlying electrophysiological changes in this period we assessed longitudinally two pathophysiological markers of dystonia in patients prior to and in the early treatment period (1,3,6 months) after DBS-surgery. Methods Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to track changes in short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), a measure of excitability of GABAA-ergic corticocortical connections and long-term potentiation-like synaptic plasticity (as a response to paired associative stimulation, PAS). DBS remained ON for the duration of the study. Results Prior to surgery, inhibition was reduced and plasticity increased in patients compared to healthy controls. Following surgery and commencement of DBS, SICI increased towards normal levels over the following months with the same monotonic time course as the patients' clinical benefit. In contrast, synaptic plasticity changed rapidly following a non-monotonic time course: it was absent early (1 month) after surgery, and then over the following months increased towards levels observed in healthy individuals. Conclusion We postulate that before surgery pre-existing high levels of plasticity form strong memories of dystonic movement patterns. When DBS is turned ON, it disrupts abnormal basal ganglia signals resulting in the absent response to PAS at one month. Clinical benefit is delayed because engrams of abnormal movement persist and take time to normalise. Our observations suggest that plasticity may be a driver of long term therapeutic effects of DBS in dystonia. PMID:21547950

  15. Effect of annealing time of CdCl2 vapor treatment on CdTe\\/CdS interface properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Riech; J L Peña; O Ares; A Rios-Flores; V Rejón-Moo; P Rodríguez-Fragoso; J G Mendoza-Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to study the influence of the CdCl2 annealing time on the CdTe\\/CdS solar cell structures. The intensity of the PL peaks related to the CdTe and CdS regions drastically changes after chlorine activation. Regardless of the annealing time of the treatment process, the intensity of the CdTe PL-related defect band increases and the CdS-associated PL

  16. Aortic arch calcification, procedural times, and outcomes of endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Rahman, Haseeb A; Adil, Malik M; Hassan, Ameer E; Miley, Jefferson T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of aortic arch calcification and it’s relationship with procedural times, angiographic recanalization, and discharge outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment. Methods The thoracic component of computed tomographic (CT) angiogram were reviewed by an independent reviewer to determine presence of any calcification; and the severity of calcification was graded as follows: mild, single small calcifications; moderate, multiple small calcifications; or severe, one or more large calcifications. Results Aortic arch calcification was present in 120 (62.4%) of 188 patients and severity was graded as mild (n=24), moderate (n=44), and severe (n=52). Compared with patients without calcification, the mean intracranial access time (minutes ± SD) was similar among patients with aortic arch calcification (70 ± 31 versus 64 ± 31, p=0.9). The mean time intracranial access time increased with increasing severity of aortic arch calcification (61±27, 67±29, and 74±34, p=0.3). Patients with aortic arch calcification had similar rates of complete or partial recanalization [85 (71%) versus 50 (76%)], p=0.6) but lower rates of favorable outcomes [modified Rankin scale 0–2] at discharge 27 (22%) versus 26 (39%), p=0.02). Conclusions A high proportion of acute ischemic stroke patients have aortic arch calcification which is associated with lower rates of favorable outcome following endovascular treatment. Abbreviations: SDstandard deviationICHintracerebral hemorrhageNIHSSNational Institutes of Health Stroke ScaleTIAtransient ischemic attackICHintracerebral hemorrhagemRSmodified Rankin scale PMID:25132902

  17. Increasing executive and "self-soothing" capacities in the treatment of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Kissen, Morton

    2006-01-01

    Freud noted many years ago (1917/1963, 1933/1964) that the talking cure was developed due to the rather primitive nature of neuroscientific knowledge with regard to the brain and hence might eventually be made unnecessary or irrelevant by subsequent discoveries of the neuropsychological causation of neurotic symptoms. The opposite may be true, however. These discoveries may validate the potential effectiveness of therapeutic work with a wide variety of difficult personality disorders and addictive forms of pathology. The recent work of neuroscientists such as Barkley, Davidson, Goldberg, Schore and Volkow and Fowler may allow for empirical demonstrations of benign changes in brain functions following an effective course of treatment. PMID:16981836

  18. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature for excess sludge dewatering: the dewatering performance and the characteristics of products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature in two separate cells respectively is effective for the dewatering of excess sludge with low energy consumption. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dewatering performance and the characteristics of obtained products (hydrothermal sludge, hydrochar and filtrate). The results showed that harsher hydrothermal treatment (temperature from 120 to 210 °C and residence time from 10 to 90 min) led to greater water removal (from 7.44 to 96.64% reduction of total water) and mechanical pressure became less significant as it increased. The whole expression stage was completely described by the modified Terzaghi-Voigt rheological model. The role of tertiary consolidation stage in the water removal was reduced with hydrothermal treatment being stronger. The hydrothermal treatment is mainly a devolatilization process. The observed changes in H/C and O/C for hydrothermal sludge suggested dehydration was the major reaction mechanism and decarboxylation only occurred significantly at higher temperature. The higher heating value correlated well with carbon content of sludge, which was increased by 4.8% for hydrothermal sludge at 210 °C for 60 min and significantly decreased by 15.4% for hydrochar after 6.0 MPa for 20 min. The solubilization and decomposition of proteins, polysaccharides and DNA were determined to be temperature and residence time dependent. The improvement of dewaterability was closely correlated to the variation of these biopolymers. The filtrates collected above 150 °C were found to be acidic. The increase of humic substances and the melanoidins formed by Maillard reaction were largely responsible for the filtrate color. PMID:25462737

  19. Estimating the causal effect of a time-varying treatment on time-to-event using structural nested failure time models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Lok; Richard Gill; Aad van der Vaart; James Robins

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we review an approach to estimating the causal effect of a\\u000atime-varying treatment on time to some event of interest. This approach is\\u000adesigned for the situation where the treatment may have been repeatedly adapted\\u000ato patient characteristics, which themselves may also be time-dependent. In\\u000athis situation the effect of the treatment cannot simply be estimated by

  20. Genotypic Diversity Effects on the Performance of Taraxacum officinale Populations Increase with Time and Environmental Favorability

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Emily B. M.; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  1. Genotypic diversity effects on the performance of Taraxacum officinale populations increase with time and environmental favorability.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Emily B M; Vellend, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity influences many ecological processes, but few studies have examined how environmental conditions may impact these short-term diversity effects. Over four growing seasons, we followed experimental populations of a clonal, ubiquitous weed, Taraxacum officinale, with different numbers of genotypes in relatively favorable fallow field and unfavorable mowed lawn environmental treatments. Population performance (measured as total leaf area, seed production or biomass) clearly and consistently increased with diversity, and this effect became stronger over the course of the experiment. Diversity effects were stronger, and with different underlying mechanisms, in the fallow field versus the mowed lawn. Large genotypes dominated in the fallow field driving overyielding (via positive selection effects), whereas in the mowed lawn, where performance was limited by regular disturbance, there was evidence for complementarity among genotypes (with one compact genotype in particular performing better in mixture than monoculture). Hence, we predict stronger genotypic diversity effects in environments where intense intraspecific competition enhances genotypic differences. Our four-year field experiment plus seedling establishment trials indicate that genotypic diversity effects have far-reaching and context-dependent consequences across generations. PMID:22348004

  2. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    PubMed Central

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ?X174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  3. Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1989-10-01

    To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

  4. Chronic fluoxetine treatment improves ischemia-induced spatial cognitive deficits through increasing hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Lei; Cai, Hui-Hui; Wang, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhou, Qi-Gang; Luo, Chun-Xia; Liu, Na; Ding, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits, including spatial memory impairment, are very common after ischemic stroke. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to forming spatial memory in the ischemic brain. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus in physiological situations and some neurological diseases. However, whether it has effects on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairment and hippocampal neurogenesis has not been determined. Here we report that fluoxetine treatment (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) for 4 weeks promoted the survival of newborn cells in the ischemic hippocampus and, consequently, attenuated spatial memory impairment of mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Disrupting hippocampal neurogenesis blocked the beneficial effect of fluoxetine on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairment. These results suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment benefits spatial cognitive function recovery following ischemic insult, and the improved cognitive function is associated with enhanced newborn cell survival in the hippocampus. Our results raise the possibility that fluoxetine can be used as a drug to treat poststroke spatial cognitive deficits. PMID:18711744

  5. Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Melin, Vanessa E; Johnstone, David W; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Hrubec, Terry C

    2014-06-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

  6. Abstract --Real time traffic incident detection is critical for increasing safety and mobility on freeways. There have been

    E-print Network

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    Abstract -- Real time traffic incident detection is critical for increasing safety and mobility detection, spatial-temporal data mining, visualization 1 Introduction Studies on transportation congestions traffic delays and increasing safety. There are two major usages of automatic incident detection

  7. The hyperactive syndrome: Metanalysis of genetic alterations, pharmacological treatments and brain lesions which increase locomotor activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Viggiano

    2008-01-01

    The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal

  8. Glucocorticoid Treatment Increases Inhibitory M 2 Muscarinic Receptor Expression and Function in the Airways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Jacoby; Bethany L. Yost; Bharathy Kumaravel; Yee Chan-Li; Hui-Qing Xiao; Koichiro Kawashima; Allison D. Fryer

    M 2 muscarinic receptors on parasympathetic nerve endings inhibit acetylcholine release in the airways. In this study, the effects of dexamethasone on M 2 receptors in vivo and in pri- mary cultures of airway parasympathetic neurons were tested. Treating guinea pigs with dexamethasone (0.1 mg\\/kg, daily for 2 d) substantially increased inhibitory M 2 muscarinic re- ceptor function, decreasing airway

  9. L-Dopa treatment abolishes the numerical increase in striatal dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Huot; Martin Levesque; Marc Morissette; Frederic Calon

    2007-01-01

    The striatum harbors a population of dopaminergic interneurons that increases in number in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), presumably to compensate for dopamine (DA) depletion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the fate of striatal dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian monkeys in which striatal DA depletion had been alleviated by systemic administration of L-dopa. The number of

  10. Treatment of Pica Using a Pica Exchange Procedure with Increasing Response Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a pica exchange procedure were evaluated on the pica of a female with severe mental retardation. A BAB design revealed that the pica exchange procedure was effective at reducing the occurrence of pica. In addition, the pica exchange procedure was effective throughout six increasingly more difficult response effort conditions.…

  11. Beyond Poisson: Increased Spike-Time Regularity Across Primate Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, Gaby; Assad, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cortical areas differ in their patterns of connectivity, cellular composition, and functional architecture. Spike trains, on the other hand, are commonly assumed to follow similarly irregular dynamics across neocortex. We examined spike-time statistics in four parietal areas using a method that accounts for non-stationarities in firing rate. We found that, whereas neurons in visual areas fire irregularly, many cells in association and motor-like parietal regions show increasingly regular spike trains by comparison. Regularity was evident both in the shape of interspike interval distributions and in spike-count variability across trials. Thus Poisson-like randomness is not a universal feature of neocortex. Rather, many parietal cells have reduced trial-to-trial variability in spike counts that could provide for more reliable firing-rate signals. These results suggest that spiking dynamics may play different roles in different cortical areas, and should not be assumed to arise from fundamentally irreducible noise sources. PMID:19447097

  12. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Biagi; J. Vetromile; B. Teheranian

    1997-01-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many

  13. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 increases treatment efficiency of paclitaxel against hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary goal of current chemotherapy in hepatoblastoma (HB) is reduction of tumour volume and vitality to enable complete surgical resection and reduce risk of recurrence or metastatic disease. Drug resistance remains a major challenge for HB treatment. In some malignancies inhibition of anti-apoptotic pathways using small BH3 mimetic molecules like ABT-737 shows synergistic effects in combination with cystotoxic agents in vitro. Now we analysed toxicology and synergistic effects of this approach in HB cells and HB xenografts. Methods Viability was monitored in HB cells (HUH6 and HepT1) and fibroblasts treated with paclitaxel, ABT-737 and a combination of both in a MTT assay. HUH6 xenotransplants in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R?null mice (NSG) were treated accordingly. Tumour volume and body weight were monitored. Xenografted tumours were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 and TUNEL assay). Results ABT-737 reduced viability in HUH6 and HepT1 cells cultures at concentrations above 1 ?M and also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel when used in combination. Thereby paclitaxel could be reduced tenfold to achieve similar reduction of viability of tumour cells. In contrast no toxicity in fibroblasts was observed at the same regiments. Subcutaneous HB (HUH6) treated with paclitaxel (12 mg/kg body weight, n = 7) led to delayed tumour growth in the beginning of the experiment. However, tumour volume was similar to controls (n = 5) at day 25. Combination treatment with paclitaxel and ABT-737 (100 mg/kg, n = 8) revealed significantly 10 fold lower relative tumour volumes compared to control and paclitaxel groups. Paclitaxel dependent toxicity was observed in this mice strain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate enhancement of chemotherapy by using modulators of apoptosis. Further analyses should include improved pharmacological formulations of paclitaxel and BH3 mimetics in order to reduce toxicological effects. Sensitising HB to apoptosis may also render resistant HB susceptible to established chemotherapy regimens. PMID:21854558

  14. Application of residence time distributions to stormwater treatment systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Werner; Robert H. Kadlec

    1996-01-01

    Statistical measurements and qualitative assessments made by applying standard residence time distribution theory to non-steady-flow systems are of limited utility. A method is developed to enable non-steady-flow systems to be brought into the realm of steady-flow systems, so that residence time distribution (RTD) theory can be employed in a straight forward manner to characterize the non-ideal flows in these systems.

  15. In vivo treatment by diallyl disulfide increases histone acetylation in rat colonocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France)]. E-mail: Nathalie.Pecollo@jouy.inra.fr; Chaumontet, Catherine [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Pagniez, Anthony [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Vaugelade, Pierre [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Bruneau, Aurelia [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Thomas, Muriel [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Cherbuy, Claire [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Duee, Pierre-Henri [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France); Martel, Paule [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Securite Alimentaire, INRA, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex (France)

    2007-03-02

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is an organosulfur compound from garlic which exhibits various anticarcinogenic properties including inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. DADS antiproliferative effects were previously associated with an increase in histone acetylation in two human tumor colon cell lines, suggesting that DADS-induced histone hyperacetylation could be one of the mechanisms involved in its protective properties on colon carcinogenesis. The effects of DADS on histone H4 and H3 acetylation levels were investigated in vivo in colonocytes isolated from non-tumoral rat. Administrated by intracaecal perfusion or gavage, DADS increases histone H4 and H3 acetylation in colonocytes. Moreover, data generated using cDNA expression arrays suggest that DADS could modulate the expression of a subset of genes. These results suggest the involvement of histone acetylation in modulation of gene expression by DADS in normal rat colonocytes, which might play a role in its biological effects as well as in its anticarcinogenic properties in vivo.

  16. Increase of Murine Splenic Natural Antibody-Secreting Cells after Cyclophosphamide Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Leo Portiansky; Pedro Horacio González; Rubén Pedro Laguens

    1996-01-01

    Administration of a low sub-immunosuppressive dose of cyclophosphamide (CY) to naive mice induced a marked increase in the number of splenic cells forming natural antibodies against unrelated antigens such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, horseradish peroxidase, or bovine serum albumin, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay spot technique. These results suggest that in mice there exists a

  17. Increased serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and treatment response in major depressive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Tuglu; S. Hakan Kara; Okan Caliyurt; Erdal Vardar; Ercan Abay

    2003-01-01

    RationaleOver the last 15 years, an increasing body of evidence has suggested a causal relationship between depression and the immunological activation and hypersecretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). However, little is known about the probable relationship of serum TNF-a with major depressive disorder (MDD).ObjectiveTo assess whether serum TNF-a levels could be associated with

  18. Robustness and increased time resolution of JET Advanced Predictor of Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, R.; Vega, J.; Murari, A.; Dormido-Canto, S.; López, J. M.; Ramírez, J. M.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    The impact of disruptions in JET is well-known not only with the carbon fiber composite (CFC) wall, but also with the metallic ITER-like wall (ILW). A disruption predictor, called APODIS, was developed and implemented for the JET real-time data network. This predictor uses seven plasma quantities (plasma current, mode lock amplitude, plasma internal inductance, plasma density, stored diamagnetic energy time derivative, radiated power and total input power) and it has been working during the ILW campaigns in JET. It has reached good results in terms of success rate, false alarm rate and prediction anticipation time. However, it is important to note that any signal could fail during any discharge. If an incorrect signal is used by APODIS, this can be an issue for the predictions. Therefore, the first purpose of this article is to determine the robustness of APODIS. Robustness is the predictor reliability when a signal fails. To determine the robustness, anomalous signals have been simulated and the quality of the APODIS predictions has been estimated. The results show that some signals, such as the mode lock and the plasma inductance, are essential for APODIS to provide a reasonable success rate. Under the failure of other signals, APODIS performance slightly decreases but remains acceptable. On the other hand, during the ILW campaigns, APODIS has missed some disruptions due to a lack of temporal resolution in the prediction. Owing to this reason, a second analysis has been carried out in this paper. The effect of increasing the prediction temporal resolution has been analyzed. The plasma signals are digitized at the same sampling frequency (1 ksample s?1) but a sliding window mechanism has been implemented to modify the prediction period from 32 to 1 ms.

  19. Noninvasive corticosterone treatment rapidly increases activity in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).

    PubMed

    Breuner, C W; Greenberg, A L; Wingfield, J C

    1998-09-01

    Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that corticosteroids influence behavioral changes associated with stressful events. Most investigations into this relationship focus on the long-term behavioral effects of corticosterone. Because many behavioral responses to environmental perturbations occur within minutes, we determined what rapid effects corticosterone may have on behavior. With this goal in mind, we devised and evaluated a method of corticosterone delivery which allowed us to examine immediate effects of corticosterone on behavior in a noninvasive manner. White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) were allowed access to mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) injected with corticosterone. Once ingested, the corticosterone moves across the digestive epithelium into the circulation. This method was evaluated using two vehicles: dimethyl sulfoxide and peanut oil. We tested the efficiency and consistency of corticosterone transfer into the circulation for both vehicles. Dimethyl sulfoxide gave a more efficient transfer of corticosterone. Injecting mealworms with corticosterone (carried in dimethyl sulfoxide) and feeding those worms to white-crowned sparrows increased circulating corticosterone to a discrete, repeatable level which peaked within 7 min and was cleared within 60 min. Using this method, we demonstrated that intermediate levels of corticosterone caused an increase in perch hopping in white-crowned sparrows within 15 min of hormone administration. An increase in perch hopping indicated elevated locomotor activity that is consistent with behavioral responses to natural perturbations. High levels of corticosterone did not induce this behavioral change. In light of the rapid effect of corticosterone on behavior, we propose that corticosterone was acting through a nongenomic mechanism. PMID:9707484

  20. Evidence that intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone increases bone formation in adult rats by activation of bone lining cells.

    PubMed

    Dobnig, H; Turner, R T

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that intermittent treatment with PTH increases osteoblast number and bone formation in growing and adult rats. The cellular mechanism for this increase in osteoblast number was investigated in 16-month-old female rats. Continuous [3H]thymidine infusion over a 1-week intermittent PTH [human PTH-(1-34)] treatment period was performed to determine the percentage of newly formed osteoblasts that originate from progenitor cells. To verify increases in bone formation, we performed histomorphometry and Northern blot analysis of selected bone matrix proteins. PTH treatment resulted in dramatic increases in fluorochrome-labeled perimeter (727%), osteoid perimeter (735%), osteoblast number (626%), and steady state mRNA levels of osteocalcin (946%) and type 1 collagen (> 1000%). Autoradiographic analysis of metaphyseal sections revealed no difference in the percentage of [3H]thymidine-labeled osteoblasts between PTH- and vehicle-treated groups (4.3 +/- 1.3% vs. 5.7 +/- 2.7%, respectively). Similar changes were observed in PTH-treated ovariectomized rats. As the PTH-induced increase in osteoblast number did not require proliferation of progenitor cells we carried out an additional experiment in adult ovariectomized rats to determine the onset of PTH action. Incorporation of [3H]proline in the distal femoral epiphysis of PTH-treated adult ovariectomized rats was increased within 24 h. We conclude that the rapid PTH-induced rise in bone formation did not require cell proliferation and was most likely due to activation of preexisting bone lining cells to osteoblasts. PMID:7628403

  1. NTBC treatment of the pyomelanogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate PA1111 inhibits pigment production and increases sensitivity to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ketelboeter, Laura M; M Ketelboeter, Laura; Potharla, Vishwakanth Y; Y Potharla, Vishwakanth; Bardy, Sonia L; L Bardy, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Pyomelanin is a brown/black extracellular pigment with antioxidant and iron acquisition properties that is produced by a number of different bacteria. Production of pyomelanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to increased resistance to oxidative stress and persistence in chronic infections. We demonstrate that pyomelanin production can be inhibited by 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC). This treatment increases sensitivity of pyomelanogenic P. aeruginosa strains to oxidative stress, without altering the growth rate or resistance to aminoglycosides. As such, NTBC has potential to function as an anti-virulence factor in treating pyomelanogenic bacterial infections. PMID:24801336

  2. Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that a complex question on the reasons of increase of sea level. Appeared, that classical determinations of average velocity of increase of sea level on coastal observations (1.4-1.7 mm / yr) approximately for 0.8-1.0 mm / yr it is less, rather than by modern satellite determinations of satellites TOPEX - Poseidon etc. (2.5 - 2.8 mm / yr). On the basis of the data of altimetry observations of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason for the period 1993-2003 for geocentric velocity of increase of sea level (of global ocean) the value 2.8+/-0.4 mm / yr [1] has been obtained. In the given report the full answer is actually is given to a question put by leading experts on research of the sea level: "The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter missions provided a 12 year record of sea level change, which show increase of global mean sea level of 2.8+/-0.4 mm/yr, with considerable geographic variation. An important question for climate studies is to determine the cause of this change - specifically how much of the change is due to steric (heating) versus eustatic (runoff, melting ice, etc.) contribution?" [1]. There is, a big value of average velocity of increase of the sea level on the satellite data, it is possible to explain only by kinematical effect in data of observations. The motion of the satellite "is concerned" to the centre of mass of our planet, and its position is determined by a geocentric radius - vector. Therefore northern drift of the centre of mass in the Earth body [2] as though results in reduction of distances from the satellite up to the sea surface in the southern hemisphere and to their reduction in the northern hemisphere. At averaging of measurements over all ocean surface (mainly located in a southern hemisphere where it occupies about 80 % of the areas) there will be an effect of apparent additional increase of the sea level. Therefore this ("apparent") velocity of increase of the sea level accepts the greater value (about 2.4 mm / year) in comparison with coastal determinations of this velocity that is rather close to the data of satellite observations. The additional effect in increase of the sea level is brought by deformation of the ocean bottom. The both mentioned phenomena: the secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth and the secular expansion of southern hemisphere of the Earth have been predicted by author [2], [3] and have obtained confirmations by space geodesy methods. The offered explanation has the extremely - important value for studying a possible role of thermal and climatic factors which can not apply any more for a big component attributed to it in change of the sea level. The account of fictitious component of this velocity results practically in real value of variation of the average sea level about 1.3-1.6 mm / yr, that completely coordinate positions of researchers of ocean by coastal and altimetry (satellite) methods. Moreover, the given work opens a direct opportunity for an explanation of increase of the sea level as result of deformation of the ocean bottom. This deformation is a major factor of change of the average sea level. Water superseded in a southern hemisphere gives the significant contribution to observably value of velocity of sea level rise up to 0.8-1.2 mm / yr [3, 4]. The work fulfilled at financial support of Russian projects of RFBR: N 07-05-00939 and N 06-02-16665. This abstract (without what or changes) has been accepted to EGU GA 2008 Session IS48 "75th Anniversary of the PSML"(Convener: Woodworth P.) but was not included in its program. References. [1] Nerem R.S., Leuliette E.W., Chambers D.P. (2005) An Integrated Study of Sea Level Change Using Altimetry,

  3. Outliers Treatment in Support Vector Regression for Financial Time Series Prediction

    E-print Network

    King, Kuo Chin Irwin

    in the time series prediction [5], especially in the financial time series forecasting [2]. This model, usingOutliers Treatment in Support Vector Regression for Financial Time Series Prediction Haiqin Yang,kzhuang,lwchan,king,lyu}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract. Recently, the Support Vector Regression (SVR) has been applied in the financial time series

  4. Outliers Treatment in Support Vector Regression for Financial Time Series Prediction

    E-print Network

    Lyu, Michael R.

    Outliers Treatment in Support Vector Regression for Financial Time Series Prediction Haiqin Yang,kzhuang,lwchan,king,lyu}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract. Recently, the Support Vector Regression (SVR) has been applied in the financial time series in the time series prediction [5], especially in the fi- nancial time series forecasting [2]. This model

  5. In vivo morphine treatment synergistically increases LPS-induced caspase activity in immune organs

    PubMed Central

    Olin, Michael; Lee, Brian; Roy, Sabita; Molitor, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism for the elimination of infected cells, which would normally serve as hosts for further pathogen replication. Apoptosis is initiated through complex pathways involving a family of cysteine proteases known as caspases. The detection of apoptosis is essential for understanding the long-term health effects inflicted by the therapeutic use of opiate drugs such as morphine for pain treatment following major trauma or disease and abusive use of such drugs in addiction. Common practices of apoptosis detection involve the removal of tissues, which subsequently induce spontaneous apoptosis unrelated to the actual effects of the opioid drug exposure. The objective of this study was to develop an in vivo detection method for assessing morphine’s ability to directly induce apoptosis, and in the combination of morphine following an inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were administered saline, morphine, LPS, or a combination of morphine and LPS. Prior to sacrifice, mice were injected with a poly-caspase-specific apoptosis detection probe, to detect internal caspase activity in vivo. Administration of morphine alone did not directly induce apoptosis. However, morphine significantly enhanced the LPS induced apoptosis in splenocyte and bone marrow cells as well as in spleen, liver, and thymus tissues. The use of a poly-caspase detection probe methodology, to label apoptotic cells in vivo, provides a powerful quantitative tool for the in vivo analysis of caspase activity. PMID:20390371

  6. Chitosan or rosemary oil treatments, singly or combined to increase turkey meat shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Vasilatos, G C; Savvaidis, I N

    2013-08-16

    In this study fresh turkey meat was packaged under vacuum and stored at 2°C. The following lots were used: T (control); stored under vacuum packaging (VP), T-RO; stored under VP, treated with rosemary oil 0.25% v/w, T-CH; stored under VP, treated with chitosan 1.5% w/v, and T-CH-RO; stored under VP, treated with chitosan 1.5% w/v and rosemary oil 0.25% v/w. Of the microbial microflora species examined, irrespective of treatment, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constituted the most abundant group. Interestingly, total plate counts (TPCs) and LAB counts, exceeding the limit value of 7logcfu/g, in T and T-RO turkey samples coincided with low taste scores (5 and 6, respectively) on days 12 and 18 of storage. The shelf-life was approximately 10, 17-18 and >21days for the control (T), T-RO, T-CH and T-CH-RO turkey samples, respectively. Thus, a shelf-life extension of 7-8 and >11days was obtained for T-RO and T-CH, and T-CH-RO turkey samples, respectively. The presence of chitosan in T-CH and T-CH-RO samples did not negatively influence the taste of cooked turkey meat. PMID:23827808

  7. Increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment: A phenomenology study

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Parandavar, Nehle; Gholami, Morteza; Abdollahifard, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) provide the hope of pregnancy for infertile women, but do not always turn this hope into reality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of infertile women from increasing and decreasing factors of hope in infertile women with failure in infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: Using a qualitative research design (Phenomenology study), 23 subjects were selected who had experienced infertility failure visited by gynecologist (Rasekh Infertility center) in 2012. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology by Collizi's seven-stage method. Results: Totally 96 codes were identified. The data arranged in two categories. The factors decreasing and increasing hope in infertility treatments. Totally 5 themes and 20 sub themes were extracted. The increasing factors which emerged from the data contain "spiritual source", "family interaction and support" and "information through the media", and decreasing factors contain "nature of treatments" and "negatively oriented mind". PMID:24799869

  8. Reaching the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases Goals for Onchocerciasis: An Economic Evaluation of Increasing the Frequency of Ivermectin Treatment in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hugo C.; Walker, Martin; Churcher, Thomas S.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Hopkins, Adrian; Prichard, Roger K.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Recently, there has been a shift in onchocerciasis control policy, changing from prevention of morbidity toward elimination of infection. Switching from annual to biannual ivermectin distribution may accelerate progress toward the elimination goals. However, the settings where this strategy would be cost effective in Africa have not been described. Methods.?An onchocerciasis transmission framework (EpiOncho) was coupled to a disease model in order to explore the impact on disability-adjusted life years averted, program cost, and program duration of biannual ivermectin treatment in different epidemiological and programmatic scenarios in African savannah. Results.?While biannual treatment yields only small additional health gains, its benefit is pronounced in the context of the elimination goals, shortening the time frames for and increasing the feasibility of reaching the proposed operational thresholds for stopping treatment. In settings with high precontrol endemicity (and/or poor coverage and compliance), it may not be possible to reach such thresholds even within 50 years of annual ivermectin, requiring adoption of biannual treatment. Our projections highlight the crucial role played by coverage and compliance in achieving the elimination goals. Conclusions.?Biannual ivermectin treatment improves the chances of reaching the 2020/2025 elimination goals, potentially generating programmatic cost savings in settings with high precontrol endemicity. However, its benefit and cost are highly sensitive to levels of systematic noncompliance and, in many settings, it will lead to an increase in costs. Furthermore, it may not always be feasible to implement biannual treatment, particularly in hard-to-reach populations. This highlights the continued need for a macrofilaricide. PMID:24944228

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma: at times a challenge.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Nadeem Zia; Jalal-ud-Din, Mir; Zahur, Zainab; Khan, Amjad Aziz; Sheikh, Abdul Samad; Ali, Furqan; Memon, Khalid Hussain

    2013-10-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma has been traditionally defined as a hematopoietic neoplasm composed of diagnostic Reed-Sternberg cells. More than 70% of the cases involve cervical or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Isolated sub-diaphragmatic lymphadenopathy or organ involvement is rare. We present the case of Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 51 years old female, who presented with obstructive jaundice and lymphadenopathy, empirically treated previously as a case of tuberculosis. Chemotherapy with modified ABVD protocol was given with dose modification according to LFT's. Her liver functions returned to normal levels after the first cycle. The main purpose of reporting the case is to stress definitive diagnosis of the disease before initiating treatment and the modified chemotherapy regimen used in this infrequent presentation of the disease. PMID:24112267

  10. Temperature, plant species and residence time effects on nitrogen removal in model treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Allen, C R; Stein, O R; Hook, P B; Burr, M D; Parker, A E; Hafla, E C

    2013-01-01

    Total nitrogen (TN) removal in treatment wetlands (TWs) is challenging due to nitrogen cycle complexity and the variation of influent nitrogen species. Plant species, season, temperature and hydraulic loading most likely influence root zone oxygenation and appurtenant nitrogen removal, especially for ammonium-rich wastewater. Nitrogen data were collected from two experiments utilizing batch-loaded (3-, 6-, 9- and 20-day residence times), sub-surface TWs monitored for at least one year during which temperature was varied between 4 and 24 °C. Synthetic wastewater containing 17 mg/l N as NH4 and 27 mg/l amino-N, 450 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 13 mg/l SO4-S was applied to four replicates of Carex utriculata, Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha latifolia and unplanted controls. Plant presence and species had a greater effect on TN removal than temperature or residence time. Planted columns achieved approximately twice the nitrogen removal of unplanted controls (40-95% versus 20-50% removal) regardless of season and temperature. TWs planted with Carex outperformed both Typha and Schoenoplectus and demonstrated less temperature dependency. TN removal with Carex was excellent at all temperatures and residence times; Schoenoplectus and Typha TN removal improved at longer residence times. Reductions in TN were not accompanied by increases in NO3, which was consistently below 1 mg/l N. PMID:24334880

  11. Inappropriate initial treatment of secondary intra-abdominal infections leads to increased risk of clinical failure and costs

    PubMed Central

    Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Goettsch, Wim G; Picelli, Gino; in ‘t Veld, Bas; Yin, Don D; de Jong, Romy B; Go, Peter M N Y H; Herings, Ron M C

    2005-01-01

    Aims The objective of this population-based, retrospective cohort study was to investigate the incidence and initial antibiotic treatment of secondary intra-abdominal infections (sIAI) and to assess whether inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy affects patient outcomes. Methods All patients hospitalized for sIAI (1995–1998) were identified in the PHARMO Record Linkage System, a patient-centric database including pharmacy dispensing records from community pharmacies linked to hospitalization records in the Netherlands. Complementary in-hospital antibiotic drug use was obtained from the computerized inpatient pharmacy files. The patient outcomes considered were switch to second-line antibiotic treatment, re-operation, and death. In addition, a composite variable clinical failure was constructed based on the above-mentioned outcomes. Furthermore, the effect of clinical failure on length of hospital stay and costs of hospitalization was assessed. Associations between appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment and outcomes were estimated using multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Results In the source population of 228 000 persons, 175 cases were classified as sIAI (mean age 49.3 ± 24.5, 50.9% male) resulting in an incidence of 2.3/10 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0, 2.7]. Initial antibiotic treatment was appropriate for 84% of the cases. The risk of clinical failure was 17.1%. Inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment increased the risk of clinical failure 3.4-fold (95% CI 1.3, 9.1). Length of hospital stay and costs of hospitalization were significantly increased for patients with clinical failure. Conclusions Inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic therapy in sIAI patients leads to more clinical failure resulting in a longer hospital stay and higher costs of hospitalization compared with appropriate initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:16187977

  12. Timing of testing and treatment for asymptomatic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    K?rk?zlar, Eser [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Faissol, Daniel M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, Paul M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Swann, Julie L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Many papers in the medical literature analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening for diseases by comparing a limited number of a priori testing policies under estimated problem parameters. However, this may be insufficient to determine the best timing of the tests or incorporate changes over time. In this paper, we develop and solve a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model for a simple class of asymptomatic diseases in order to provide the building blocks for analysis of a more general class of diseases. We provide a computationally efficient method for determining a cost-effective dynamic intervention strategy that takes into account (i) the results of the previous test for each individual and (ii) the change in the individual’s behavior based on awareness of the disease. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by applying the results to screening decisions for Hepatitis C (HCV) using medical data, and compare our findings to current HCV screening recommendations.

  13. Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K., E-mail: Anurag.singh@roswellpark.or [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

  14. Effect of overall treatment time on outcomes after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma: Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) experience

    SciTech Connect

    Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hsu Chuanchieh [RTOG Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Swann, R. Suzanne [RTOG Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langer, Corey J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Byhardt, Roger W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether overall treatment time affects outcomes after definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed from 3 prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials (RTOG 91-06, 92-04, and 94-10) in which immediate concurrent chemoradiation (cisplatin-based) was the primary therapy for good-performance status Stage III (and selected inoperable Stage II) NSCLC. 'Short' overall treatment time (per protocol) was defined as completing treatment within 5 days of plan; other patients were considered to have had 'prolonged' treatment time (protocol violation); treatment time was also analyzed as a continuous variable in a multivariate model. Actuarial analysis was performed for overall survival, progression-free survival, freedom from local-regional progression, and toxicity. Results: A total of 474 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 6.1 years. Treatment time was delivered per protocol in 387 (82%), whereas 87 patients (18%) had a prolonged treatment time. Long treatment time was significantly associated with severe acute esophagitis. Median survival was slightly better in patients completing treatment on time (19.5 months vs. 14.8 months), but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.15) in the univariate analysis. However, in the multivariate analysis of treatment time as a continuous variable, prolonged treatment time was significantly associated with poorer survival (p = 0.02), indicating a 2% increase in the risk of death for each day of prolongation in therapy. Histology (squamous fared worse) and performance status were also significant in the multivariate model. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis demonstrates a correlation between prolonged overall radiotherapy treatment time and survival in patients with locally advanced NSCLC, even when concurrent chemotherapy is used. Further study of novel radiation-chemotherapy dose/fractionation regimens is warranted.

  15. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP. PMID:25672383

  16. Treatment with the nitric oxide donor SNP increases triiodothyronine levels in hyper- and hypothyroid Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ragginer, C; Bernecker, C; Ainoedhofer, H; Pailer, S; Kieslinger, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Gruber, H-J

    2013-10-01

    Nitric oxide pathway might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of nitric oxide (NO) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague-Dawley rats under controlled diet. Furthermore, the effects of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on thyroid dysfunctions were also assessed. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=107) were subdivided into normal diet and high-fat diet (HFD) groups and grouped into controls, hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, and SNP treated groups. Hypothyroidism was induced through propylthiouracil, whereas hyperthyroidism by triiodothyronine (T3). After 12 weeks of T3 treatment, serum nitric oxides (NOX), endogenous asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), body weight and food intake were analyzed. Hypothyroid rats showed decreased serum T3 levels, hyperthyroid rats increased T3 compared to controls. Diet had no impact on T3. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. Serum NOX was significantly reduced in normal diet hypothyroid rats. SNP administration compensated the decrease and markedly increased T3. NO synthase inhibitor ADMA levels were significantly higher in the HFD control group than in the normal diet controls. ADMA was declined in both hypothyroid groups and increased in normal diet hyperthyroid rats. An association of thyroid dysfunctions with reduced bioavailability of NO and alterations of ADMA levels could be established. Treatment with the NO donor SNP resulted in an increase of serum T3 levels. These results demonstrate that the NO pathway is implicated in thyroid dysfunctions, which may be of clinical relevance. PMID:23918691

  17. Real-time supervision of industrial waste-water treatment plants applied to the surface treatment industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konrad Szafnicki; Jacques Bourgois; Didier Graillot; Dominique Di Benedetto; Philippe Breuil; Jean-Pierre Poyet

    1998-01-01

    The project described in this paper consists of two main stages: the development of a dedicated instrument enabling continuous simultaneous measures of industrial pollutants (e.g. metal ions: Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, …) and the design of a Real-time Expert System (RTES) which would provide better information and decision support so as to improve the supervision of waste-water treatment plants in real-time,

  18. Mechanism-based combination treatment dramatically increases therapeutic efficacy in murine globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hawkins-Salsbury, Jacqueline A; Shea, Lauren; Jiang, Xuntian; Hunter, Daniel A; Guzman, A Miguel; Reddy, Adarsh S; Qin, Elizabeth Y; Li, Yedda; Gray, Steven J; Ory, Daniel S; Sands, Mark S

    2015-04-22

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD, Krabbe disease) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity. In the absence of GALC activity, the cytotoxic lipid, galactosylsphingosine (psychosine), accumulates in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are particularly sensitive to psychosine, thus leading to a demyelinating phenotype. Although hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation provides modest benefit in both presymptomatic children and the murine model (Twitcher), there is no cure for GLD. In addition, GLD has been relatively refractory to virtually every experimental therapy attempted. Here, Twitcher mice were simultaneously treated with CNS-directed gene therapy, substrate reduction therapy, and bone marrow transplantation to target the primary pathogenic mechanism (GALC deficiency) and two secondary consequences of GALC deficiency (psychosine accumulation and neuroinflammation). Simultaneously treating multiple pathogenic targets resulted in an unprecedented increase in life span with improved motor function, persistent GALC expression, nearly normal psychosine levels, and decreased neuroinflammation. Treating the primary pathogenic mechanism and secondary targets will likely improve therapeutic efficacy for other LSDs with complex pathological and clinical presentations. PMID:25904800

  19. Time-dependent micromechanical responses of breast cancer cells and adjacent fibroblasts to electric treatment.

    PubMed

    Yizraeli, Maayan Lia; Weihs, Daphne

    2011-12-01

    Direct-current, low-intensity, electric fields were suggested as a minimally invasive treatment for various cancers. The tumor microenvironment may affect treatment efficacy, albeit it has not generally been considered when evaluating novel anti-cancer treatments. We evaluate the effects of electric treatment on epithelial, breast-cancer cells, co-cultured with non-cancerous fibroblasts, a simplified model for the tumor-microenvironment. We evaluate changes in morphology, cytoskeleton, and focus on dynamic intracellular structure and mechanics. Multiple-particle tracking was used within living cells to quantify time-dependent structural and mechanical changes. Cancer cells suffer severe cell death and exhibit transient rounding and changes in internal structural and mechanics. Interestingly, treating cancer cells in co-culture with fibroblasts delays and reduces their responses to treatment. Our particle-tracking data indicates a mechanism relating the observed changes in intracellular transport to transient changes in the microtubule network and its motors. In contrast, fibroblasts are only minimally affected by treatment, separately or in co-culture. To conclude, intracellular mechanics reveal time-dependent responses after treatment, unavailable by bulk measurements. This time-dependence could provide a window of opportunity for continued treatment. We demonstrate the importance of evaluating anti-cancer treatments within their microenvironment, which can affect response magnitude and time-course. PMID:21809158

  20. Treatment with the vascular disrupting agent combretastatin is associated with impaired AQP2 trafficking and increased urine output.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Anja B; Nørregaard, Rikke; Stødkilde, Lene; Wang, Yan; Bertelsen, Lotte B; Fenton, Robert A; Matchkov, Vladimir V; Bouzinova, Elena V; Horsman, Michael R; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    2012-07-15

    Combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent known to mediate its effects primarily on tumor blood vessels. CA4P has previously been shown to induce a significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure and in hemoglobin concentration in mice. In the present study, we examined whether this is associated with a general leakage of water into certain tissues or with changes in renal water handling. Munich-Wistar rats received either CA4P (30 mg/kg body wt) or saline intraperitoneally as a bolus injection. One hour later, hemoglobin concentration and mean blood pressure increased significantly. MRI showed no significant changes in tissue water content following CA4P administration. However, urine output and salt excretion increased 1 h after CA4P treatment, without changes in urinary and medullary osmolality. Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) mRNA levels in kidney inner medulla did not change 1 h after CA4P treatment, but semiquantitative confocal laser-scanning microscopy analysis demonstrated a decrease in phosphorylated AQP2 (pS256-AQP2) apical distribution within the collecting ducts of CA4P-treated rats compared with the characteristic apical localization in control rats. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CA4P cause disruption of microtubules and a weaker apical labeling of pS256-AQP2 in collecting duct principal cells within 1 h. In conclusion, our data indicate that water escapes from the vascular system after CA4P treatment, and it may take place primarily through a renal mechanism. The CA4P-mediated increase in urine output seems to be a local effect in the collecting ducts due to reduced AQP2 trafficking to the apical plasma membrane. PMID:22621967

  1. Increased risk of ischemic bowel complications during treatment with bevacizumab after pelvic irradiation: Report of three cases

    SciTech Connect

    Lordick, Florian [Third Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology/Medical Oncology), Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: f.lordick@lrz.tum.de; Geinitz, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Theisen, Joerg [Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Sendler, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Sarbia, Mario [Department of Pathology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the rate of severe bowel complications during treatment with the antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective evaluation of bevacizumab-associated severe intestinal adverse events from our institutional database. Results: A total of 33 patients started treatment with bevacizumab at our institution during the first 6 months after its approval in Germany. Three patients (9%) presented with severe bowel complications: two with acute ischemic colitis and one with gastrointestinal perforation with a fatal outcome. All 3 patients had undergone radiotherapy directed to the pelvis before treatment with bevacizumab. None of the 30 patients without bowel complications had been pretreated with infradiaphragmatic irradiation. Histologic evaluation of bowel biopsies and resection specimens revealed severe ischemic bowel damage as the pathophysiologic background of the clinical findings. Conclusion: This report contributes to the pathophysiologic clarification of bevacizumab-induced bowel complications and points to a potentially increased risk of severe ischemic damage during treatment with bevacizumab in patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy.

  2. Evaluating principal surrogate endpoints with time-to-event data accounting for time-varying treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Erin E; Gilbert, Peter B

    2014-04-01

    Principal surrogate (PS) endpoints are relatively inexpensive and easy to measure study outcomes that can be used to reliably predict treatment effects on clinical endpoints of interest. Few statistical methods for assessing the validity of potential PSs utilize time-to-event clinical endpoint information and to our knowledge none allow for the characterization of time-varying treatment effects. We introduce the time-dependent and surrogate-dependent treatment efficacy curve, ${\\mathrm {TE}}(t|s)$, and a new augmented trial design for assessing the quality of a biomarker as a PS. We propose a novel Weibull model and an estimated maximum likelihood method for estimation of the ${\\mathrm {TE}}(t|s)$ curve. We describe the operating characteristics of our methods via simulations. We analyze data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, in which we find evidence of a biomarker with value as a PS. PMID:24337534

  3. Pulsed Electric Field inactivation of microbial cells: the use of ceramic layers to increase the efficiency of treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzichemi, M.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on bacteria and plant or animal cells has been investigated since the early 1960s. High electric fields pulses (20-70 kV/cm, 1-10 ?s) are reported to cause rupture of the cellular lipid membrane, through the mechanism of irreversible electroporation. Quantitative description of cell inactivation kinetics is based on the analysis of stability of lipid bilayers under electric fields and the thermal fluctuations associated with the production of pores. PEF has been successfully applied to inactivation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in many sorts of liquids, such as milk, fruit juices and liquid eggs. In all these media, the level of inactivation could reach the 5 Logs for an approximate range of pulses of 100-200, and an energy consumption of ˜ 10-100 kJ/kg. The advantages of PEF are the superior maintenance of functional and nutritional levels (if compared to traditional thermal treatment), continuous treatment and short processing times, while the current high costs of this technique make it more suitable for treatment of expensive media. We present a solution to the problem of volumes in PEF treatment through the use of high permittivity ceramics, while retaining the same inactivation efficiency and improving the duration of the electrodes.

  4. Enhancing the efficiency of gold nanoparticles treatment of cancer by increasing their rate of endocytosis and cell accumulation using rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Panikkanvalappil, Sajanlal R; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2014-03-26

    To minimize the toxicity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in cancer treatment, we have developed a technique, which utilizes lesser amount of AuNPs while exhibiting increased treatment efficiency. Rifampicin (RF) is known for its ability to enhance the accumulation of anticancer drugs in multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cells. In this work we have shown that RF-conjugated AuNPs can greatly enhance the rate as well as efficiency of endocytosis of NPs and hence their concentration inside the cancer cell. Cell viability results showed a remarkable enhancement in the photothermal therapeutic effect of Au nanorods in presence of RF. This is expected to decrease the demand on the overall amount of AuNPs needed for treating cancer and thus decreasing its toxicity. PMID:24467386

  5. Too sick, not sick enough? Effects of treatment type and timing on depression stigma.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Erin J

    2014-04-01

    A case vignette survey design was used to explore effects of treatment timing (early, delayed, or untreated) and depression treatment type (pharmacological or psychological) on components of depression stigma. The survey was distributed to two samples, 116 undergraduates (UGs) and 301 participants from the online service Amazon Mechanical Turk. As expected, extended untreated depression was associated with greater social distance and negative character evaluation than treated depression, and early treatment was associated with higher illness invalidity stigma (both samples) and illness responsibility stigma (UG sample only). Interaction effects suggested that pharmacotherapy, in comparison with psychotherapy, was more sensitive to the effects of treatment timing on stigma. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that separate facets of stigma are associated with early depression treatment and prolonged untreated depression. Evidence for separate stigmatization of early treatment and extended illness holds important implications for antistigma campaigns. PMID:24647215

  6. The timing of exposure in clinic-based treatment for childhood anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gryczkowski, Michelle R; Tiede, Michael S; Dammann, Julie E; Jacobsen, Amy Brown; Hale, Lisa R; Whiteside, Stephen P H

    2013-03-01

    The present study examines treatment length and timing of exposure from two child anxiety disorders clinics. Data regarding symptoms and treatment characteristics for 28 youth were prospectively obtained through self, parent, and therapist report at each session. Information regarding length of treatment, timing of exposure initiation, and drop-out rates were compared with those obtained through efficacy and effectiveness trials of manualized treatment for anxious youth. Findings from the authors' clinical data revealed significantly shorter treatment duration with exposures implemented sooner than in the previous studies. Dropout rates were significantly higher than in the efficacy trial but comparable with the effectiveness trial. Outcome data from a subset of eight patients revealed large effect sizes. These findings suggest that effective treatment can be shorter and more focused on exposure than is often outlined in manuals and have important implications for outcome research and dissemination. PMID:23548341

  7. The timing of exposure in clinic-based treatment for childhood anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gryczkowski, Michelle R; Tiede, Michael S; Dammann, Julie E; Brown Jacobsen, Amy; Hale, Lisa R; Whiteside, Stephen P H

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines treatment length and timing of exposure from two child anxiety disorders clinics. Data regarding symptoms and treatment characteristics for 28 youth were prospectively obtained through self, parent, and therapist report at each session. Information regarding length of treatment, timing of exposure initiation, and drop-out rates were compared with those obtained through efficacy and effectiveness trials of manualized treatment for anxious youth. Findings from the authors' clinical data revealed significantly shorter treatment duration with exposures implemented sooner than in the previous studies. Dropout rates were significantly higher than in the efficacy trial but comparable with the effectiveness trial. Outcome data from a subset of eight patients revealed large effect sizes. These findings suggest that effective treatment can be shorter and more focused on exposure than is often outlined in manuals and have important implications for outcome research and dissemination. PMID:23012686

  8. Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants

    E-print Network

    Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants F. Baggiani and S of an unchecked fault propagating through the plant. This paper describes the development of a real-time Fault and then ported into the LabView 8.20 (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA) platform for real-time operation

  9. Partial branching enzyme treatment increases the low glycaemic property and ?-1,6 branching ratio of maize starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Xue, Jiangchao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yaqi; Jia, Yingmin

    2014-12-01

    Partial branching enzyme treatment was used to modulate the starch fine chain structure responsible for a high content of slowly digestible starch fraction. Normal maize starch modified using branching enzyme for 4h showed a maximum slowly digestible starch content of 23.90%. The branching enzyme hydrolysis decreased the amylose content from 32.8% to 12.8%. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches showed a larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in the enzyme treated starch sample compare to native starch. The number of shorter chains (DP<13) increased from 18.71% to 28.23.1%, accompanied by a reduction of longer chains (DP>30) from 20.11% to 11.95%. (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of ?-1,6 branching ratio from 4.7% to 9.4% during enzyme treatment. The increase in the amount of shorter chains and more ?-1,6 linkages likely contribute to their slow digestion property. These results suggest that starches treated with partial branching enzyme synthesis a novel branched structure with slowly digestible character. PMID:24996363

  10. Effects of drought and warming treatments on CO2 fluxes in shrubland ecosystems across an environmental gradient: a synthesis of the INCREASE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Baarsel, Susie; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kopittke, Gillian; Tietema, Albert; Emmet, Bridgett; De Angelis, Paolo; Kappel Schmidt, Inger

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal changes of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of terrestrial ecosystems are the result of different interactions between CO2 assimilation (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) with environmental drivers. There is still debate about to which extent low soil moisture (drought) and increased temperature (warming) can affect GPP or ER depending on both functional groups and ecosystem climate types. In dynamic systems, such as shrubland ecosystems, these effects can be difficult to predict. We used the INCREASE network infrastructure "space-for-time substitution" (natural gradient and experimental approach) to quantify the effects of drought and warming on GPP, ER, SR and NEE across 6 European shrublands. The sites ranged from Denmark to Southern Italy along a precipitation and temperature gradient. In addition, INCREASE experimentally manipulates the climate in 20 m2 plots simulating the climate change: reflective curtains are drawn across plots at night preventing heat loss (warming treatment) while other plots are periodically covered by curtains during rain events thereby reducing the water input from precipitation (drought treatment). The measurements of soil CO2 efflux (SR), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and total ecosystem respiration (ER) were done according to common protocols using chamber method, while the gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GPP) was estimated by difference between NEE and ER. Preliminary results indicate large flux variability across the sites and the seasons. The drought treatment tends to limit the loss of CO2 through the respiratory processes, while the warming treatment seems to stimulate all the processes in most sites, even in the Mediterranean where the temperature has never been considered a limiting factor.

  11. Statin treatment increases formation of carbon monoxide and bilirubin in mice: a novel mechanism of in vivo antioxidant protection.

    PubMed

    Muchova, Lucie; Wong, Ronald J; Hsu, Mark; Morioka, Ichiro; Vitek, Libor; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Schröder, Henning; Stevenson, David K

    2007-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) has a central role in cellular antioxidant defences and vascular protection, and it may mediate pleiotropic actions of drugs used in cardiovascular therapy. We investigated whether long-term use of statins upregulates HO activity and increases carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin levels in vivo. Adult FvB mice were given atorvastatin or rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg) daily by i.p. injections for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. HO activity, tissue CO, bilirubin, and antioxidant levels, total plasma bilirubin, and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) were measured. Fold changes in heart HO activity significantly increased after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of atorvastatin (1.24 +/- 0.06 (p < or = 0.05); 1.29 +/- 0.26 (p < or = 0.03); 1.33 +/- 0.08 (p < 0.01), respectively) and 2 and 3 weeks of rosuvastatin (1.23 +/- 0.20 (p < or = 0.03); 1.63 +/- 0.42 (p < 0.01), respectively). Heart tissue CO and COHb levels also increased after 3 weeks with atorvastatin (1.30 +/- 0.24 (p < or = 0.05); 1.92 +/- 0.17 (p < or = 0.001), respectively) and rosuvastatin (1.47 +/- 0.13 (p < or = 0.004); 1.63 +/- 0.12 (p < or = 0.001), respectively). Significant increases in heart antioxidant levels were observed after statin treatment and corroborated by heart bilirubin content elevations. Antioxidant level increases were abolished by treatment with an HO inhibitor. These findings suggest that the induction of HO and the production of its products, CO and bilirubin, may be a mechanism by which statins exert antioxidant actions and confer cardioprotection in vivo. PMID:17901890

  12. Ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment increase brain levels of CYP2D in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R T; Miksys, S; Hoffmann, E; Tyndale, R F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE CYP2D6 metabolizes many centrally acting drugs, neurotoxins and endogenous neurochemicals, and differences in brain levels of CYP2D have been associated with brain function and drug response. Alcohol consumers and smokers have higher levels of CYP2D6 in brain, but not liver, suggesting ethanol and/or nicotine may induce human brain CYP2D6. We investigated the independent and combined effects of chronic ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment on CYP2D expression in African green monkeys. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Forty monkeys were randomized into control, ethanol-only, nicotine-only and ethanol + nicotine groups. Two groups voluntarily self-administered 10% ethanol in sucrose solution for 4 h·day?1, whereas two groups consumed sucrose solution on the same schedule. Two groups received daily s.c. injections of 0.5 mg·kg?1 nicotine in saline bid, whereas two groups were injected with saline on the same schedule. KEY RESULTS Both nicotine and ethanol dose-dependently increased CYP2D in brain; brain mRNA was unaffected, and neither drug altered hepatic CYP2D protein or mRNA. The combination of ethanol and nicotine increased brain CYP2D protein levels to a greater extent than either drug alone (1.2–2.2-fold, P < 0.05 among the eight brain regions assessed). Immunohistochemistry revealed the induction of brain CYP2D protein within specific cell types and regions in the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ethanol and nicotine increase brain CYP2D protein levels in monkeys, in a region and treatment-specific manner, suggesting that CNS drug responses, neurodegeneration and personality may be affected among people who consume alcohol and/or nicotine. PMID:24611668

  13. Increasing Time and Enriching Learning for Greater Equity in Schools: Perspective from Two Community Funders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Janet; Rivera, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Foundations across the country engage in grantmaking to eliminate the opportunity and achievement gaps in K-12 public schools. Many of the strategies and investments that funders have supported in recent years focus not only on "more time" but also on "better use of time" in schools. This better use of time centers on outcomes…

  14. 20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...benefits where time period for reopening has expired. 261.10 Section 261.10...benefits where time period for reopening has expired. If, after the time period for reopening under § 261.2(b) of this part has expired, new evidence is furnished...

  15. Evolution of treatment effects over time: Empirical insight from recursive cumulative metaanalyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. A. Ioannidis; Joseph Lau

    2001-01-01

    Evidence on how much medical interventions work may change over time. It is important to determine what fluctuations in the treatment effect reported by randomized trials and their metaanalyses may be expected and whether extreme fluctuations signal future major changes. We applied recursive cumulative metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the relative change in the pooled treatment effect (odds

  16. Interaction of ischaemia and encainide/flecainide treatment: a proposed mechanism for the increased mortality in CAST I.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, H. M.; Dwyer, E. M.; Hochman, J. S.; Steinberg, J. S.; Echt, D. S.; Peters, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an interaction between encainide or flecainide and intercurrent ischaemia could account for the observed increase in cardiac and sudden deaths in the study group in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) I. DESIGN--CAST I was a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study in which patients received the drug which suppressed at least 6 premature ventricular contractions per minute by 80% or episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia by 90%. Arrhythmic sudden death or aborted sudden death were the study end points. Measured secondary end points included recurrent myocardial infarction, new or increasing angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, and syncope. The CAST I database was analysed to determine which of three end points occurred first--cardiac death or cardiac arrest, angina pectoris, or non-fatal recurrent infarction. They were regarded as mutually exclusive end points. The triad of cardiac or sudden arrhythmic death plus congestive heart failure and syncope was similarly analysed. RESULTS--It was assumed that recurrent non-fatal infarction and new or increasing angina pectoris were ischaemic in origin. The sum of these non-fatal ischaemic end points and sudden death were nearly identical in the placebo group (N = 129) and the treatment group (N = 131). The one year event rate in each group was 21%. However, the treatment group had a much greater fatality rate (55 v 17; P < 0.0001) than the placebo group. The same relation was found when the data were examined on the basis of drug exposure rather than intention to treat. The temporal and circadian events were similar in each group and were consistent with an ischaemic pattern. No such patterns emerged from analysis of the presumed non-ischaemic end points of congestive heart failure and syncope. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that the interaction between active ischaemia and treatment with encainide or flecainide may have been responsible for the increased mortality seen in the treatment group in CAST I. This conversion of a non-fatal to a fatal event emphasises the need for future antiarrhythmic drugs to be screened in ischaemic models. PMID:8541168

  17. Age-related increases in basal ganglia glutamate are associated with TNF, reduced motivation and decreased psychomotor speed during IFN-alpha treatment: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Ebrahim; Felger, Jennifer C; Woolwine, Bobbi J; Chen, Xiangchuan; Parekh, Samir; Spivey, James R; Hu, Xiaoping P; Miller, Andrew H

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation-induced alterations in central nervous system (CNS) metabolism have focused on glutamate. At excessive concentrations, glutamate is toxic to glia and neurons, and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to influence glutamate turnover by blocking glutamate reuptake and increasing glutamate release. Increased glutamate has also been found in depression, a disorder associated with increased inflammation. Data by our group have shown increased glutamate as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in basal ganglia and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex of patients administered the inflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-alpha. Given data that increasing age is associated with an exaggerated CNS inflammatory response, we examined whether older age (>55years) would be associated with a greater IFN-alpha-induced increase in CNS glutamate. Using a longitudinal design, 31 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) underwent MRS, blood sampling for inflammatory markers, and behavioral assessments before (Visit 1) and after 4weeks (Visit 2) of either IFN-alpha (n=17) or no treatment (n=14). Older patients treated with IFN-alpha exhibited a significantly greater increase in glutamate from Visit 1 to Visit 2 as reflected by the glutamate/creatine ratio (Glu/Cr) in left basal ganglia compared to older controls and younger IFN-alpha-treated and untreated subjects. In addition, increased Glu/Cr in older but not younger IFN-alpha-treated and untreated patients was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor, reduced motivation as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and increased choice movement time on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Taken together, these preliminary data support the notion that older age may interact with inflammation to exaggerate the effects of inflammatory stimuli on CNS glutamate and behavior. PMID:25500218

  18. Starting Sick Leave on Part-Time as a Treatment Method?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Andrén; Andrén Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of starting the sick leave on part-time compared to fulltime on the probability to recover (i.e., return to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results indicate that part-time sick leave

  19. Bovine endothelial-like cells increase intercellular junctions under treatment with interferon-gamma. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ricken, A; Rahner, C; Landmann, L; Spanel-Borowski, S

    1996-08-01

    We have recently shown that a subgroup of endothelial-like cells from the bovine corpus luteum maintains cytokeratin (CK) expression in long-term culture. Treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for three days brought about an increase in the intercellular junctions in CK-positive postconfluent cultures, as shown by immunofluorescence with specific monoclonal antibodies and by electron microscopy. Desmosomes, zonulae adhaerentes and both tight and gap junctions were found. The intercellular junctions (excluding the gap junctions) had increased in amount, while permeability of the cell layer to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) had decreased. Hence, IFN-gamma has reinforced intercellular junctions in our CK-positive endothelial-like cells. PMID:8817038

  20. The effect of waiting time on youth engagement to evidence based treatments.

    PubMed

    Westin, Anna M L; Barksdale, Crystal L; Stephan, Sharon H

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged waiting times to receive mental health services are common and may have negative consequences. This study examines the relationship between waiting time and treatment engagement among 2,054 youth referred to an evidence based treatment (EBT). Findings indicate that families are more likely to refuse services if they face longer waiting times. Families exposed to a prolonged waiting time were also more likely to drop out prematurely from Functional Family Therapy, but this relationship was not significant among youth receiving Multisystemic Therapy. Implications for EBT implementation and strategies for engaging families are discussed. PMID:23283487

  1. Less is more: treatment with BTH and laminarin reduces herbivore-induced volatile emissions in maize but increases parasitoid attraction.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, Islam S; Erb, Matthias; Sarhan, Awad A; El-Husseini, Monir M; Mandour, Nasser S; Turlings, Ted C J

    2012-04-01

    Chemical plant strengtheners find increasing use in agriculture to enhance resistance against pathogens. In an earlier study, it was found that treatment with one such resistance elicitor, BTH (benzo-(1, 2, 3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester), increases the attractiveness of maize plants to a parasitic wasp. This surprising additional benefit of treating plants with BTH prompted us to conduct a series of olfactometer tests to find out if BTH and another commercially available plant strengthener, Laminarin, increase the attractiveness of maize to three important parasitic wasps, Cotesia marginventris, Campoletis sonorensis, and Microplitis rufiventris. In each case, plants that were sprayed with the plant strengtheners and subsequently induced to release volatiles by real or mimicked attack by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars became more attractive to the parasitoids than water treated plants. The elicitors alone or in combination with plants that were not induced by herbivory were not attractive to the wasps. Interestingly, plants treated with the plant strengtheners did not show any consistent increase in volatile emissions. On the contrary, treated plants released less herbivore-induced volatiles, most notably indole, which has been reported to interfere with parasitoid attraction. The emission of the sesquiterpenes (E)-?-caryophyllene, ?-bergamotene, and (E)-?-farnesene was similarly reduced by the treatment. Expression profiles of marker genes showed that BTH and Laminarin induced several pathogenesis related (PR) genes. The results support the notion that, as yet undetectable and unidentified compounds, are of major importance for parasitoid attraction, and that these attractants may be masked by some of the major compounds in the volatile blends. This study confirms that elicitors of pathogen resistance are compatible with the biological control of insect pests and may even help to improve it. PMID:22456950

  2. Combined therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin significantly increases the bleeding time through a synergistic antiplatelet action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Payne; P. D. Hayes; C. I. Jones; P. Belham; A. R. Naylor; A. H. Goodall

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Many thromboembolic events occur in patients taking aspirin. Dual therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel may prove effective at reduction of thromboembolic complications. However, the extent to which these two drugs interact may significantly increase the risk of bleeding in open surgery. Because of the increased use of combination antiplatelet therapy in populations with significant atherosclerotic disease, this risk needs

  3. It's about Time! Increasing the Length of Student Classroom Writing without Setting Length Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passman, Roger

    This paper grew out of the collaborative relationship that emerged from in-class modeling of student-centered writing approaches as participating teachers and a consultant/researcher began to explore ways to increase the length of fourth-grade writing. The paper reports on a small study in fourth-grade writing aimed at increasing the length of…

  4. Factor VIII and fibrinogen recovery in plasma after Theraflex methylene blue-treatment: effect of plasma source and treatment time

    PubMed Central

    Rapaille, André; Reichenberg, Stefan; Najdovski, Tome; Cellier, Nicolas; de Valensart, Nicolas; Deneys, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Background The quality of fresh-frozen plasma is affected by different factors. Factor VIII is sensitive to blood component storage processes and storage as well as pathogen-reduction technologies. The level of fibrinogen in plasma is not affected by the collection processes but it is affected by preparation and pathogen-reduction technologies. Materials and methods The quality of plasma from whole blood and apheresis donations harvested at different times and treated with a pathogen-reduction technique, methylene blue/light, was investigated, considering, in particular, fibrinogen and factor VIII levels and recovery. Results The mean factor VIII level after methylene blue treatment exceeded 0.5 IU/mL in all series. Factor VIII recovery varied between 78% and 89% in different series. The recovery of factor VIII was dependent on plasma source as opposed to treatment time. The interaction between the two factors was statistically significant. Mean levels of fibrinogen after methylene blue/light treatment exceeded 200 mg/dL in all arms. The level of fibrinogen after treatment correlated strongly with the level before treatment. There was a negative correlation between fibrinogen level before treatment and recovery. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between factor VIII recovery and fibrinogen recovery was 0.58. Discussion These results show a difference in recovery of factor VIII and fibrinogen correlated with plasma source. The recovery of both factor VIII and fibrinogen was higher in whole blood plasma than in apheresis plasma. Factor VIII and fibrinogen recovery did not appear to be correlated. PMID:24931842

  5. Gonadotropin treatment increases homocysteine levels in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: an indirect effect mediated by changes in body composition.

    PubMed

    Oktenli, C; Yesilova, Z; Ozata, M; Yaman, H; Tuzun, A; Dundar, S; Sanisoglu, S Y; Musabak, U; Erbil, M K; Dagalp, K

    2003-10-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the alterations in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations during a testosterone-deficient state and after gonadotropin treatment for 6 Months in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Thirty-five newly diagnosed male patients with IHH (mean age 21.34+/-1.53 years) and 29 age- and body mass index-matched healthy males (mean age 21.52+/-1.77 years) were recruited into the study. Pretreatment levels of free testosterone (1.51+/-0.66 pg/ml), estradiol (21.37+/- 4.37 pg/ml), FSH (0.91+/-0.24 IU/l) and LH (1.25+/- 0.53 IU/l) were lower than controls (25.17+/-3.06 pg/ml, 31.00+/-4.96 pg/ml, 3.14+/-1.62 IU/l and 4.83+/-1.65 IU/l respectively) (P<0.001). They increased significantly after treatment (18.18+/-1.59 pg/ml, 27.97+/- 4.25 pg/ml, 2.41+/-0.27 IU/l and 2.79+/-0.19 IU/l respectively) (P<0.001). Patients with IHH had lower tHcy levels than controls (10.14+/-1.34 and 12.58+/- 2.29 micro mol/l respectively) (P<0.001). Plasma tHcy concentrations increased significantly (12.63+/-1.44 micromol/l) after 6 months of treatment (P<0.001). As compared with the controls, pretreatment levels of serum creatinine (63.54+/-13.01 vs 82.84+/-16.69 micromol/l), hemoglobin (12.98+/-0.56 vs 13.83+/-0.71 g/dl) and hematocrit (39.29+/-2.01 vs 41.38+/-1.95%) were significantly lower (P<0.001), and they increased significantly following treatment (80.24+/-11.93 micromol/l, 13.75+/-0.49 g/dl and 41.26+/-1.78% respectively) (P<0.001). The pretreatment folic acid and vitamin B(12) levels were significantly higher in patients when compared with controls (14.87+/-5.68 vs 12.52+/-4.98 nmol/l, P=0.034 and 289.75+/-92.34 vs 237.59+/-108.17 pmol/l, P=0.002 respectively). They decreased significantly after treatment (11.29+/-3.31 nmol/l and 228.51+/-54.33 pmol/l respectively) (P<0.001). The univariate and multivariate regression analysis results showed that only changes in creatinine, creatinine clearance, vitamin B12 and folic acid were independently associated with changes in tHcy levels in patients with IHH. In conclusion, the increase in plasma tHcy concentrations following gonadotropin treatment seems to be largely independent of changes in androgen levels. PMID:14529563

  6. Treatment with growth hormone and IGF-I in growing rats increases bone mineral content but not bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Rosen, H N; Chen, V; Cittadini, A; Greenspan, S L; Douglas, P S; Moses, A C; Beamer, W G

    1995-09-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) both stimulate bone formation and have been proposed as therapeutic agents for osteoporosis. We examined the effect of hGH and IGF-I alone and in combination on bone size, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 10- to 12-week old growing female Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rats were assigned to treatment with either placebo, hGH, IGF-I, or both for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the right femurs and tibias were excised, and ex vivo BMC and the area of the tibia and femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); volume of these bones was measured by Archimedes' principle. In addition, proximal tibial bone density was measured directly by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). Bone length, area, and volume in all treated groups was greater than controls. Areal bone density by DXA (BMC/area) was higher in IGF-treated rats and lower in GH-treated rats than in controls. Volumetric bone density (BMC/volume) was lower in treated groups than in controls. Measurements by pQCT confirmed that true bone density was lower in all treated groups than in controls. We conclude that treatment with hGH or IGF-I increased bone size and mineral content but decreased bone density in growing rats. Because areal correction of BMC did not adequately correct for the increased bone volume in IGF-treated rats, results of areal bone density by DXA should be interpreted with caution when treatment causes a disparity in bone size between groups. PMID:7502707

  7. Automated compile-time and run-time techniques to increase usable memory in MMU-less embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan S. Bai; Lei Yang; Robert P. Dick

    2006-01-01

    Random access memory (RAM) is tightly-constrained in many embedded systems. This is especially true for the least expen- sive, lowest-power embedded systems, such as sensor network nodes and portable consumer electronics. The most widely- used sensor network nodes have only 4-10KB of RAM and do not contain memory management units (MMUs). It is very difficult to implement increasingly complex applications

  8. The administration of atomoxetine during alcohol deprivation induces a time-limited increase in alcohol consumption after relapse.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Serrano, Antonia; Gorriti, Miguel Ángel; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Orio, Laura; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Antón, María; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) typically used as antidepressants increases alcohol consumption after an alcohol deprivation period in rats. However, the appearance of this effect after the treatment with selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has not been studied. In the present work we examined the effects of a 15-d treatment with the SNRI atomoxetine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in male rats trained to drink alcohol solutions in a 4-bottle choice test. The treatment with atomoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) during an alcohol deprivation period increased alcohol consumption after relapse. This effect only lasted one week, disappearing thereafter. Treatment with atomoxetine did not cause a behavioral sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating the absence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. This effect is markedly different from that of SSRI antidepressants that produced both long-lasting increases in alcohol consumption and behavioral sensitization. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25025529

  9. Imipramine treatment increases the number of hippocampal synapses and neurons in a genetic animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenghua; Madsen, Torsten M; Wegener, Gregers; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to investigate treatment effects of the antidepressant imipramine on the markers of neuronal plasticity. We investigated changes in neuron and synapse numbers in a rat strain that displays a genetic susceptibility to depressive behavior, the Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Lines (FSL/FRL). All rats were treated with imipramine (15 mg/kg) or saline (i.p) once daily for 25 days. The volume, neuron and synapse numbers in the hippocampus were estimated using design-based stereological methods. Under untreated conditions, the volume and the number of neurons and synapses were significantly smaller in the FSL saline group (untreated "depressed" rats) compared with the FRL saline group (normal rats), showing correlation to the observed decreased immobility in the forced swim test. Imipramine treatment significantly increased the number of neurons in the granule cell layer (GCL) and spine synapses in the CA1 in the FSL imipramine group (treated "depressed" rats) compared with the FSL saline group. The neuron numbers in the GCL and Hilus showed no differences in the FSL imipramine group compared to the FRL saline group. In conclusion, baseline levels of the volume and the number of neurons and spine synapses in hippocampus were significantly smaller in the untreated FSL rats. Our findings indicate that chronic imipramine treatment reverses the suppression of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the hippocampus of the "depressed" FSL rats, and this occurs in correlation with behavioral effects. Our results support the neuronal plasticity hypothesis that depressive disorders may be related to impairments of structural plasticity and neuronal viability in hippocampus, furthermore, antidepressant treatment counteracts the structural impairments. PMID:19921703

  10. Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Baggiani, F; Marsili-Libelli, S

    2009-01-01

    Automatic fault detection is becoming increasingly important in wastewater treatment plant operation, given the stringent treatment standards and the need to protect the investment costs from the potential damage of an unchecked fault propagating through the plant. This paper describes the development of a real-time Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system based on an adaptive Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, used to compare the current plant operation with a correct performance model based on a reference data set and the output of three ion-specific sensors (Hach-Lange gmbh, Düsseldorf, Germany): two Nitratax NOx UV sensors, in the denitrification tank and downstream of the oxidation tanks, where an Amtax ammonium-N sensor was also installed. The algorithm was initially developed in the Matlab environment and then ported into the LabView 8.20 (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA) platform for real-time operation using a compact Field Point, a Programmable Automation Controller by National Instruments. The FDI was tested with a large set of operational data with 1 min sampling time from August 2007 through May 2008 from a full-scale plant. After describing the real-time version of the PCA algorithm, this was tested with nine months of operational data which were sequentially processes by the algorithm in order to simulate an on-line operation. The FDI performance was assessed by organizing the sequential data in two differing moving windows: a short-horizon window to test the response to single malfunctions and a longer time-horizon to simulate multiple unrepaired failures. In both cases the algorithm performance was very satisfactory, with a 100% failure detection in the short window case, which decreased to 84% in the long window setting. The short-window performance was very effective in isolating sensor failures and short duration disturbances such as spikes, whereas the long term horizon provided accurate detection of long-term drifts and proved robust enough to allow for some delay in failure recovery. The system robustness is based on the use of multiple statistics which proved instrumental in discriminating among the various causes of malfunctioning. PMID:19934517

  11. Does Global Warming Increase Establishment Rates of Invasive Alien Species? A Centurial Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dingcheng; Haack, Robert A.; Zhang, Runzhi

    2011-01-01

    Background The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the relationship between global warming and establishment rate of invasive alien species, especially for poikilothermic invaders such as insects. Methodology/Principal Findings We present data that demonstrate a significant positive relationship between the change in average annual surface air temperature and the establishment rate of invasive alien insects in mainland China during 1900–2005. This relationship was modeled by regression analysis, and indicated that a 1°C increase in average annual surface temperature in mainland China was associated with an increase in the establishment rate of invasive alien insects of about 0.5 species year?1. The relationship between rising surface air temperature and increasing establishment rate remained significant even after accounting for increases in international trade during the period 1950–2005. Moreover, similar relationships were detected using additional data from the United Kingdom and the contiguous United States. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the perceived increase in establishments of invasive alien insects can be explained only in part by an increase in introduction rate or propagule pressure. Besides increasing propagule pressure, global warming is another driver that could favor worldwide bioinvasions. Our study highlights the need to consider global warming when designing strategies and policies to deal with bioinvasions. PMID:21931837

  12. Accounting for individual differences and timing of events: estimating the effect of treatment on criminal convictions in heroin users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reduction of crime is an important outcome of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Criminal intensity and treatment regimes vary among OMT patients, but this is rarely adjusted for in statistical analyses, which tend to focus on cohort incidence rates and rate ratios. The purpose of this work was to estimate the relationship between treatment and criminal convictions among OMT patients, adjusting for individual covariate information and timing of events, fitting time-to-event regression models of increasing complexity. Methods National criminal records were cross linked with treatment data on 3221 patients starting OMT in Norway 1997–2003. In addition to calculating cohort incidence rates, criminal convictions was modelled as a recurrent event dependent variable, and treatment a time-dependent covariate, in Cox proportional hazards, Aalen’s additive hazards, and semi-parametric additive hazards regression models. Both fixed and dynamic covariates were included. Results During OMT, the number of days with criminal convictions for the cohort as a whole was 61% lower than when not in treatment. OMT was associated with reduced number of days with criminal convictions in all time-to-event regression models, but the hazard ratio (95% CI) was strongly attenuated when adjusting for covariates; from 0.40 (0.35, 0.45) in a univariate model to 0.79 (0.72, 0.87) in a fully adjusted model. The hazard was lower for females and decreasing with older age, while increasing with high numbers of criminal convictions prior to application to OMT (all p?time-varying with their effects diminishing over time. Conclusions Analyzing complex observational data regarding to fixed factors only overlooks important temporal information, and naïve cohort level incidence rates might result in biased estimates of the effect of interventions. Applying time-to-event regression models, properly adjusting for individual covariate information and timing of various events, allows for more precise and reliable effect estimates, as well as painting a more nuanced picture that can aid health care professionals and policy makers. PMID:24886472

  13. A Response to Uncertainty: The Increased Utilization of Part-Time Instructors in American Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, George R.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on the use of part-time faculty in community colleges, focusing on employment trends; impacts and concerns; economic advantages; the effects of funding uncertainty; part-time faculty members' expertise, instructional quality, socialization, and selection; standardization of process and teaching skills; and implications for…

  14. Increased Learning Time and Targeted Instruction Improve Academic Skills for At-Risk ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, April, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    Students with English as a Second Language (ESL) face two critical challenges: they need to develop English literacy while, at the same time, acquire content knowledge across subject areas. These students need a targeted ESL curriculum from elementary to high school that will allow an extended learning time and opportunities to practice as they…

  15. Increasing the Modulation Depth of the WWVB Time Code to Improve the Performance of Radio Controlled Clocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Lowe; Ken C. Allen

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology radio station WWVB has officially changed its broadcast format. As of January 1, 2006 the WWVB broadcast signal has increased the depth of the time code modulation from 10 dB to 17 dB. The increase in modulation depth has been implemented to improve the performance of commercial radio controlled clocks in areas of

  16. Decreasing the Amount of Classroom Disruptions in Order To Increase the Amount of Time on Task in Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugous, Kristi; Bendery, Shelly

    This action research project sought to increase students' time on task by decreasing the frequency of disruptive behaviors. The targeted population consisted of first- and third-grade students in two suburban communities. The types and frequency of disruptive behaviors that affected time on task were documented by means of teacher, student, and…

  17. Does increased emergency medical services prehospital time affect patient mortality in rural motor vehicle crashes? A statewide analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Gonzalez; Glenn R. Cummings; Herbert A. Phelan; Madhuri S. Mulekar; Charles B. Rodning

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundFatality rates from rural vehicular trauma are almost double those found in urban settings. It has been suggested that increased prehospital time is a factor that adversely affects fatality rates in rural vehicular trauma. By linking and analyzing Alabama's statewide prehospital data, emergency medical services (EMS) prehospital time was assessed for rural and urban vehicular crashes.

  18. Adderall ® produces increased striatal dopamine release and a prolonged time course compared to amphetamine isomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Matthew Joyce; Paul E. A. Glaser; Greg A. Gerhardt

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Adderall® is currently used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and is composed of a novel mixture\\u000a of approximately 24% l-amphetamine and 76% d-amphetamine salts. There are, however, no investigations of the pharmacological effects of this combination in vivo.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The technique of high-speed chronoamperometry using Nafion®-coated single carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to study amphetamine-evoked dopamine (DA) release produced

  19. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  20. Salivary oxytocin increases concurrently with testosterone and time away from home among returning Tsimane' hunters.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Trumble, Benjamin C; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol can have opposing effects on social behaviour, yet few studies have examined their interactions. We measured changes in salivary oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol among Tsimane' men returning home after hunting, an ancient context of male status competition, parental investment and cooperation. Contra normal diurnal rhythm, oxytocin increased relative to baseline and this increase was positively associated with duration of the hunt and change in testosterone, but not cortisol, social context, hunting outcome or physical activity. The concurrent increase in endogenous peripheral oxytocin and testosterone is unexpected given their opposing independent effects on social cognition and behaviour, and has not been observed before. We discuss the potential significance of these effects for the biology of pair-bonding, parenting and social foraging in humans and other species. PMID:25788487

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori in times of increasing antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M; O’Morain, Colm; McNamara, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Treatment is recommended in all symptomatic patients. The current treatment options for H. pylori infection are outlined in this review in light of the recent challenges in eradication success, largely due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance is a constantly evolving process and numerous studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori antibiotic resistance varies significantly from country to country, and even between regions within the same country. In addition, recent data has shown that previous antibiotic use is associated with harbouring antibiotic resistant H. pylori. Local surveillance of antibiotic resistance is warranted to guide clinicians in their choice of therapy. Antimicrobial resistance is assessed by H. pylori culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Recently developed molecular tests offer an attractive alternative to culture and allow for the rapid molecular genetic identification of H. pylori and resistance-associated mutations directly from biopsy samples or bacterial culture material. Accumulating evidence indicates that surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by susceptibility testing is feasible and necessary to inform clinicians in their choice of therapy for management of H. pylori infection. PMID:25110421

  2. Systems Biology Investigation of cAMP Modulation to Increase SMN Levels for the Treatment of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Sean G.; Cook, Daniel J.; Dhurjati, Prasad; Butchbach, Matthew E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant death worldwide, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1), which encodes the protein SMN. The loss of SMN1 causes a deficiency in SMN protein levels leading to motor neuron cell death in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMN2, however, can also produce some functional SMN to partially compensate for loss of SMN1 in SMA suggesting increasing transcription of SMN2 as a potential therapy to treat patients with SMA. A cAMP response element was identified on the SMN2 promoter, implicating cAMP activation as a step in the transcription of SMN2. Therefore, we investigated the effects of modulating the cAMP signaling cascade on SMN production in vitro and in silico. SMA patient fibroblasts were treated with the cAMP signaling modulators rolipram, salbutamol, dbcAMP, epinephrine and forskolin. All of the modulators tested were able to increase gem formation, a marker for SMN protein in the nucleus, in a dose-dependent manner. We then derived two possible mathematical models simulating the regulation of SMN2 expression by cAMP signaling. Both models fit well with our experimental data. In silico treatment of SMA fibroblasts simultaneously with two different cAMP modulators resulted in an additive increase in gem formation. This study shows how a systems biology approach can be used to develop potential therapeutic targets for treating SMA. PMID:25514431

  3. Environmental Enrichment Preceding Early Adulthood Methylphenidate Treatment Leads to Long Term Increase of Corticosterone and Testosterone in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Avi; Dolev, Talya; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) has been emerging as a world-wide psychiatric disorder. There appears to be an increasing rate of stimulant drug abuse, specifically methylphenidate (MPH) which is the most common treatment for ADHD, among individuals who do not meet the criteria for ADHD and particularly for cognitive enhancement among university students. However, the long term effects of exposure to MPH are unknown. Thus, in light of a developmental approach in humans, we aimed to test the effects of adolescence exposure to enriched environment (EE) followed by MPH administration during early adulthood, on reactions to stress in adulthood. Specifically, at approximate adolescence [post natal days (PND) 30–60] rats were reared in EE and were treated with MPH during early adulthood (PND 60–90). Adult (PND 90–92) rats were exposed to mild stress and starting at PND 110, the behavioral and endocrine effects of the combined drug and environmental conditions were assessed. Following adolescence EE, long term exposure to MPH led to decreased locomotor activity and increased sucrose preference. EE had a beneficial effect on PPI (attentive abilities), which was impaired by long term exposure to MPH. Finally, the interaction between EE and, exposure to MPH led to long-term elevated corticosterone and testosterone levels. In view of the marked increase in MPH consumption over the past decade, vigilance is crucial in order to prevent potential drug abuse and its long term detrimental consequences. PMID:21789212

  4. Preservice Teachers' Changing Perceptions of Professional Ethics as They Experience Increased Time in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Sally; Hurley, Sandra; Tinajero, Josefina; Harder, Vicki

    This study investigated changes in student teachers' attitudes concerning professional ethics as they progressed through teacher education programs. Participants were university students who moved through a series of classes that required increased hours in the classroom with children. They were at 6 levels of educational experience, ranging from…

  5. Liberalized emerging markets and the world economy: testing for increased integration with time-varying volatility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulnasser Hatemi-J; Bryan Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Due to increasing globalization and its potential benefits, many emerging markets have introduced capital liberalization policies to attract much needed foreign direct investment. The objective of this article is to empirically investigate whether the conducted deregulation policies resulted in greater integration of emerging financial markets with the world market. For this purpose, a novel method introduced by Hatemi-J and Hacker

  6. Special Spotlight: Increasing Diversity in Cancer Research: One Lab at a Time

    Cancer.gov

    As part of the feature series on “Increasing Diversity in Cancer Research,” we interviewed Dr. Stefan Ambs, an investigator at the NCI’s Center for Cancer Research, Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, who is using novel approaches to discover gene differences in the tumors of African American patients.

  7. THE IMPACT OF INCREASING ENROLLMENT ON FACULTY WORKLOAD AND STUDENT SATISFACTION OVER TIME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David DiBiase

    2004-01-01

    Detailed daily records of instructor effort in an established asynchronous online course over a three and one-half year period are analyzed. Student satisfaction data acquired from course evaluation surveys over the same period are also examined. In response to a three-fold increase in enrollment over the period, instructors realized a twelve percent gain in efficiency. Contrary to expectations, a modest

  8. Method and computer product to increase accuracy of time-based software verification for sensor networks

    DOEpatents

    Foo Kune, Denis (Saint Paul, MN); Mahadevan, Karthikeyan (Mountain View, CA)

    2011-01-25

    A recursive verification protocol to reduce the time variance due to delays in the network by putting the subject node at most one hop from the verifier node provides for an efficient manner to test wireless sensor nodes. Since the software signatures are time based, recursive testing will give a much cleaner signal for positive verification of the software running on any one node in the sensor network. In this protocol, the main verifier checks its neighbor, who in turn checks its neighbor, and continuing this process until all nodes have been verified. This ensures minimum time delays for the software verification. Should a node fail the test, the software verification downstream is halted until an alternative path (one not including the failed node) is found. Utilizing techniques well known in the art, having a node tested twice, or not at all, can be avoided.

  9. Increased lymphocyte apoptosis in mouse models of colitis upon ABT-737 treatment is dependent upon BIM expression.

    PubMed

    Lutz, C; Mozaffari, M; Tosevski, V; Caj, M; Cippà, P; McRae, B L; Graff, C L; Rogler, G; Fried, M; Hausmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Exaggerated activation of lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical therapies are linked to the BCL-2 family-mediated apoptosis. Imbalance in BCL-2 family proteins may cause failure in therapeutic responses. We investigated the role of BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-737 for lymphocyte apoptosis in mice under inflammatory conditions. B.6129P2-interleukin (IL)-10(tm1Cgn) /J (IL-10(-/-) ) weighing 25-30 g with ongoing colitis were used. Fifty mg/kg/day ABT-737 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Haematological analyses were performed with an ADVIA 2120 flow cytometer and mass cytometry with a CyTOF 2. Following i.p. administration, ABT-737 was detected in both spontaneous and acute colitis in peripheral blood (PBL) and colon tissue. Treatment led to lymphopenia. CD4(+) CD44(+) CD62L(+) central memory and CD8(+) , CD44(+) CD62L(-) central memory T cells were decreased in PBL upon ABT-737 compared to vehicle-receiving controls. Increased apoptosis upon ABT-737 was determined in blood lymphocytes, splenocytes and Peyer's patches and was accompanied by a decrease in TNF and IL-1B. ABT-737 positively altered the colonic mucosa and ameliorated inflammation, as shown by colonoscopy, histology and colon length. A decreased BIM/BCL-2 ratio or absence of BIM in both Bim(-) (/) (-) and Il10(-) (/) (-) × Bim(-) (/) (-) impeded the protective effect of ABT-737. The BIM/BCL-2 ratio decreased with age and during the course of treatment. Thus, long-term treatment resulted in adapted TNF levels and macroscopic mucosal damage. ABT-737 was efficacious in diminishing lymphocytes and ameliorating colitis in a BIM-dependent manner. Regulation of inappropriate survival of lymphocytes by ABT-737 may provide a therapeutic strategy in IBD. PMID:25845418

  10. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid–alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Himjyoti Dutta; Sanjib Kumar Paul; Dipankar Kalita; Charu Lata Mahanta

    2011-01-01

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid–alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15–30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1–15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in

  11. Treatment and technical intervention time analysis of a robotic stereotactic radiotherapy system.

    PubMed

    Crop, F; Lacornerie, T; Szymczak, H; Felin, A; Bailleux, C; Mirabel, X; Lartigau, E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a better operational knowledge of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments with CyberKnife(r). An analysis of both In-room Times (IRT) and technical interventions of 5 years of treatments was performed, during which more than 1600 patients were treated for various indications, including liver (21%), lung (29%), intracranial (13%), head and neck (11%) and prostate (7%). Technical interventions were recorded along with the time of the failure, time to the intervention, and the complexity and duration of the repair. Analyses of Time Between Failures (TBF) and Service Disrupting TBF(disr) were performed. Treatment time data and variability per indication and following different system upgrades were evaluated. Large variations of IRTs were found between indications, but also large variations for each indication. The combination of the time reduction Tool (using Iris(r)) and Improved Stop Handling was of major impact to shortening of treatment times. The first implementation of the Iris collimator alone did not lead to significantly shorter IRTs for us except during prostate treatments. This was mostly due to the addition at the same time of larger rotational compensation for prostate treatments (58 instead of 1.58). Significant differences of duration between the first fraction and following fractions of a treatment, representing the necessity of defining imaging parameters and explanation to patients, were found for liver (12 min) and lung treatments using Xsight(r) Spine (5 min). Liver and lung treatments represent the longest IRT's and involve the largest variability's in IRT. The malfunction rate of the system followed a Weibull distribution with the shape and scale parameters of 0.8 and 39.7. Mean TBF(disr) was 68 work hours. 60 to 80% of the service disrupting interventions were resolved within 30-60 min, 5% required external intervention and 30% occurred in the morning. The presented results can be applied in the evaluation of the required machine time in order to implement robotic radiosurgery for different indications. The analytical distributions of IRTs and technical interruptions can be used for simulations. PMID:23862744

  12. Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Persoon, Lucas C. G. G.; Scheib, Stefan G.; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-08-01

    Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6?MV, 10?MV, 6?MV-FFF, 10?MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3?mm, 0.5?sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

  13. Prazosin treatment suppresses increased vascular permeability in both acute and passively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the lewis rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmuntz, E.A.; Brosnan, C.F.; Norton, W.T.

    1986-12-01

    Prazosin, an antagonist of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoceptor, has been found to suppress the clinical and histologic expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. This effect appears to be specific for the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-receptor. To determine the effect of this drug on vascular permeability to serum proteins and inflammatory cells, leakage of serum proteins into the central nervous system (CNS) was measured with (/sup 125/I)albumin, and quantitation of cellular inflammation was determined by an estimation of total DNA. The results show that in both actively induced and passively transferred models of the disease, treatment with prazosin significantly suppresses leakage of serum proteins into the CNS but does not significantly suppress the increase of DNA. The results of the (/sup 125/I)albumin studies additionally support the conclusion that the extent of vascular permeability to serum proteins in the spinal cord is a significant correlate of clinical disease. The results of the DNA estimation were at variance with the histologic evidence of cellular infiltration. The authors conclude that treatment with prazosin has a significant effect on the development of vascular edema in EAE. These results additionally validate a role for the adrenergic receptor in the development of EAE, and support the hypothesis that the primary site of action of prazosin is on the vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoceptor.

  14. Estimating time-varying effects for overdispersed recurrent events data with treatment switching

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, QINGXIA; ZENG, DONGLIN; IBRAHIM, JOSEPH G.; AKACHA, MOUNA; SCHMIDLI, HEINZ

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the analysis of multivariate event times, frailty models assuming time-independent regression coefficients are often considered, mainly due to their mathematical convenience. In practice, regression coefficients are often time dependent and the temporal effects are of clinical interest. Motivated by a phase III clinical trial in multiple sclerosis, we develop a semiparametric frailty modelling approach to estimate time-varying effects for overdispersed recurrent events data with treatment switching. The proposed model incorporates the treatment switching time in the time-varying coefficients. Theoretical properties of the proposed model are established and an efficient expectation-maximization algorithm is derived to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates. Simulation studies evaluate the numerical performance of the proposed model under various temporal treatment effect curves. The ideas in this paper can also be used for time-varying coefficient frailty models without treatment switching as well as for alternative models when the proportional hazard assumption is violated. A multiple sclerosis dataset is analysed to illustrate our methodology. PMID:24465031

  15. MO-B-BRB-02: Maintain the Quality of Treatment Planning for Time-Constraint Cases.

    PubMed

    Chang, J

    2015-06-01

    The radiotherapy treatment planning process has evolved over the years with innovations in treatment planning, treatment delivery and imaging systems. Treatment modality and simulation technologies are also rapidly improving and affecting the planning process. For example, Image-guided-radiation-therapy has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body radiation therapy (SBRT) and Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the treatment plans even if the number of treatments per day remains the same. Finally, simulation, planning and treatment are traditionally sequential events. However, with emerging adaptive radiotherapy, they are becoming more tightly intertwined, leading to iterative processes. Enhanced efficiency of planning is therefore becoming more critical and poses serious challenge to the treatment planning process; Lean Six Sigma approaches are being utilized increasingly to balance the competing needs for speed and quality.In this symposium we will discuss the treatment planning process and illustrate effective techniques for managing workflow. Topics will include:1.Planning techniques: (a) beam placement, (b) dose optimization, (c) plan evaluation (d) export to RVS.2.Planning workflow: (a) import images, (b) Image fusion, (c) contouring, (d) plan approval (e) plan check (f) chart check, (g) sequential and iterative process3.Influence of upstream and downstream operations: (a) simulation, (b) immobilization, (c) motion management, (d) QA, (e) IGRT, (f) Treatment delivery, (g) SBRT/SRS (h) adaptive planning4.Reduction of delay between planning steps with Lean systems due to (a) communication, (b) limited resource, (b) contour, (c) plan approval, (d) treatment.5.Optimizing planning processes: (a) contour validation (b) consistent planning protocol, PMID:26128608

  16. Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) for treatment of parvovirus enteritis: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Otto, C M; Jackson, C B; Rogell, E J; Prior, R B; Ammons, W S

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of an antimicrobial and endotoxin-neutralizing agent, the recombinant amino terminal fragment of bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21), to decrease plasma endotoxin concentration and severity of clinical signs of canine parvovirus and to improve survival. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 40 client-owned dogs and 9 normal puppies from a closed research colony. Dogs weighing >5 kg (11 lb) with fecal antigen-confirmed parvovirus and clinical signs of vomiting and diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive placebo or rBPI21 infusion over 6 hours. Plasma endotoxin concentration was measured at 0, 3, and 6 hours of infusion. Owners chose continued medical care with either the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Internal Medicine Service or a local veterinarian. Telephone follow-up was conducted at 14 days. Surviving dogs were reevaluated at >30 days (recovered group), at which time plasma samples for measurement of endotoxin concentration were obtained. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with parvovirus than in normal or recovered dogs. Despite 90% survival, the rBPI21 treatment did not have a significant effect on outcome, duration of hospitalization, or plasma endotoxin concentrations. Treatment in a tertiary care hospital, however, significantly improved survival but resulted in a significantly increased duration of hospitalization. Endotoxemia occurs in dogs with parvovirus enteritis, but rBPI21 is not associated with improved survival. PMID:11467593

  17. Hybrid wavelength hopping\\/time spreading schemes for use in massive optical networks with increased security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tancevski; I. Andonovic

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of hybrid wavelength hopping\\/time spreading systems and their classification into symmetric and asymmetric systems (undercolored and overcolored asymmetric systems) is given. The characteristics of a hybrid system using extended quadratic congruence sequences for spreading and prime sequences and their cyclic shifts for hopping are examined. It is shown that the sequences exhibit excellent cross-correlation properties even in the case

  18. The Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools: Cultural Recognition in a Time of Increasing Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M., Ed; Townes, Faye Hicks, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The "Struggle for Identity in Today's Schools" examines cultural recognition and the struggle for identity in America's schools. In particular, the contributing authors focus on the recognition and misrecognition as antagonistic cultural forces that work to shape, and at times distort identity. What surfaces throughout the chapters are two lessons…

  19. Save Time and Increase Social Media Reach by Using IFTTT--If This, Then That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrabut, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists are finding that social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and blogs are powerful ways to disseminate educational content, announce events, and promote Extension services. The challenge to using all of these various tools is the lack of time. Tools such as IFTTT (If This, Then That) can help…

  20. INCREASING THE HOLDING TIME AT 15 C OF BOAR SPERMATOZOA BEFORE FREEZING DECREASES FERTILITY AFTER THAWING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of pre-freeze holding time and commercial extender type on boar spermatozoa viability and fertility. One ejaculate from each of six boars was held in two commercial boar semen extenders, Beltsville Thawing Solution and Androhep Plus, for either 3 o...

  1. Delays in orthopaedic trauma treatment: setting standards for the time interval between admission and operation.

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, B. J.; Paterson, M. P.; Capon, G.; Belcher, J.

    2000-01-01

    Delay in operating on trauma patients leads to increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay and overall cost. The urgency of operative intervention depends on the injury sustained. There are no published guidelines on what constitutes a reasonable delay between admission and operation. As part of the clinical governance in our unit, an audit was undertaken to examine the structure and process of trauma operating. Patients were allocated to groups defined by the Bath Orthopaedic Department, according to urgency of need for surgery. Group A: patients (for example, open fractures and dislocations) should have definitive treatment within 6 h of admission. Group B: patients (for example, hip fractures, long bone injuries and ankle fractures) should have operations on the day that they are presented to the consultant trauma meeting, or on the day that they are declared fit/ready for theatre. Group C: patients (for example, tendon injuries, simple hand fractures) should have operations within 5 days of presentation to the trauma meeting. Over 3 months, there were 401 acute orthopaedic admissions requiring surgery (61 group A, 277 group B, 63 group C). 78% of group A patients, 58% of group B patients and 86% of group C patients were operated on within the target times. In total, 137 out of 401 operations (34%) missed the targets set. 119 of these (87%) were delayed due to lack of available operating time. This was despite the fact that 59 operations (15% of total) were done on lists normally used for elective operating. Most of the other delays were due to the need for an appropriately experienced surgeon to be available. If these targets are to be achieved for the majority of patients, the trauma theatre must become more efficient, or more flexible time must be made available during evenings or weekends to clear the backlog of trauma operations. PMID:11041030

  2. Pioglitazone Treatment Increases Survival and Prevents Body Weight Loss in Tumor–Bearing Animals: Possible Anti-Cachectic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B.; Henriques, Felipe S.; Sertié, Rogério A. L.; Franco, Felipe O.; Santos, Kaltinaitis B.; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S.; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Farmer, Stephen R.; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B.; Batista Jr., Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-?, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-? from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to PGZ treatment. Taken together, the results demonstrate beneficial effects of PGZ treatment at both the early and final stages of cachexia. PMID:25807446

  3. Delay and déjà vu: timing and repetition increase the power of false evidence.

    PubMed

    Wright, Deborah S; Wade, Kimberley A; Watson, Derrick G

    2013-08-01

    False images and videos can induce people to believe in and remember events that never happened. Using a novel method, we examined whether the timing of false evidence would influence its effect (Experiment 1) and determined the relationship between timing and repetition (Experiment 2). Subjects completed a hazard perception driving test and were falsely accused of cheating. Some subjects were shown a fake video or photograph of the cheating either after a 9-min delay (Experiment 1) or more than once with or without a delay (Experiment 2). Subjects were more likely to falsely believe that they had cheated and to provide details about how the cheating happened when the false evidence was delayed or repeated-especially when repeated over time-relative to controls. The results show that even a strikingly short delay between an event and when false evidence is disclosed can distort people's beliefs and that repeating false evidence over a brief delay fosters false beliefs more so than without a delay. These findings have theoretical implications for metacognitive models of autobiographical memory and practical implications for police interrogations. PMID:23392652

  4. Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ezra, N.; Dang, K.

    2010-01-01

    It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:20978814

  5. Quantitative analysis of beam delivery parameters and treatment process time for proton beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.; Lippy, Denise [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); The Proton Therapy Center Houston, Ltd., L.L.P., 1840 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, Texas 77054 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient census, equipment clinical availability, maximum daily treatment capacity, use factor for major beam delivery parameters, and treatment process time for actual treatments delivered by proton therapy systems. Methods: The authors have been recording all beam delivery parameters, including delivered dose, energy, range, spread-out Bragg peak widths, gantry angles, and couch angles for every treatment field in an electronic medical record system. We analyzed delivery system downtimes that had been recorded for every equipment failure and associated incidents. These data were used to evaluate the use factor of beam delivery parameters, the size of the patient census, and the equipment clinical availability of the facility. The duration of each treatment session from patient walk-in and to patient walk-out of the treatment room was measured for 82 patients with cancers at various sites. Results: The yearly average equipment clinical availability in the last 3 yrs (June 2007-August 2010) was 97%, which exceeded the target of 95%. Approximately 2200 patients had been treated as of August 2010. The major disease sites were genitourinary (49%), thoracic (25%), central nervous system (22%), and gastrointestinal (2%). Beams have been delivered in approximately 8300 treatment fields. The use factor for six beam delivery parameters was also evaluated. Analysis of the treatment process times indicated that approximately 80% of this time was spent for patient and equipment setup. The other 20% was spent waiting for beam delivery and beam on. The total treatment process time can be expressed by a quadratic polynomial of the number of fields per session. The maximum daily treatment capacity of our facility using the current treatment processes was estimated to be 133 {+-} 35 patients. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the facility has operated at a high performance level and has treated a large number of patients with a variety of diseases. The use factor of beam delivery parameters varies by disease site. Further improvements in efficiency may be realized in the equipment- and patient-related processes of treatment.

  6. Time to discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in a schizophrenia cohort: influence of current treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kjelby, Eirik; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Mellesdal, Liv S.; Jørgensen, Hugo A.; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia are high and evidence is limited by selective inclusion and high attrition in randomized controlled trials. Aims To study time to discontinuation of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Method All patients with schizophrenia (n = 396) discharged between 2005 and 2011 were followed until discontinuation (clinician or patient decided) of antipsychotic treatment or other endpoints. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses (with time on antipsychotic treatment as the dependent variable) using time-dependent variables were performed. Results Clozapine displayed lower risk for all-cause (p < 0.001), clinician-decided (p = 0.012) and patient-decided (p = 0.039) discontinuation versus olanzapine oral treatment in the multivariate Cox regression. Second-generation long-acting injection antipsychotics (LAI) (p = 0.015) and first-generation long-acting injection antipsychotics (p = 0.013) showed significantly lower risks for patient-decided discontinuation than olanzapine oral. Conclusion Higher effectiveness of clozapine and LAI treatment versus oral olanzapine were identified in a clinical cohort of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25489474

  7. Evaluating principal surrogate endpoints with time-to-event data accounting for time-varying treatment efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Erin E.; Gilbert, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Principal surrogate (PS) endpoints are relatively inexpensive and easy to measure study outcomes that can be used to reliably predict treatment effects on clinical endpoints of interest. Few statistical methods for assessing the validity of potential PSs utilize time-to-event clinical endpoint information and to our knowledge none allow for the characterization of time-varying treatment effects. We introduce the time-dependent and surrogate-dependent treatment efficacy curve, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\mathrm {TE}}(t|s)$\\end{document}, and a new augmented trial design for assessing the quality of a biomarker as a PS. We propose a novel Weibull model and an estimated maximum likelihood method for estimation of the \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\mathrm {TE}}(t|s)$\\end{document} curve. We describe the operating characteristics of our methods via simulations. We analyze data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, in which we find evidence of a biomarker with value as a PS. PMID:24337534

  8. Increasing time to operation is associated with decreased survival in patients with a positive FAST exam requiring emergent laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Ronald R.; Rowell, Susan E.; Fox, Erin E.; Holcomb, John B.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Phelan, Herbert A; Alarcon, Louis H.; Myers, John G.; Brasel, Karen J.; Muskat, Peter C.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Wade, Charles E.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is commonly used to facilitate the timely diagnosis of life threatening hemorrhage in injured patients. Most patients with positive findings on FAST require laparotomy. Though it is assumed that an increasing time to operation leads to higher mortality, this relationship has not been quantified. This study sought to determine the impact of time to operation (T-OR) on survival in patients with a positive FAST that required emergent laparotomy. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients from the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) study that underwent laparotomy within 90 minutes of presentation and had a FAST performed. Cox proportional hazards models including Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, base deficit and hospital site were created to examine the impact of increasing T-OR on in-hospital survival at 24 hours and 30 days. The impact of time from the performance of the FAST exam to operation (TFAST-OR) on in-hospital mortality was also examined using the same model. Results One hundred and fifteen patients met study criteria and had complete data. Increasing T-OR was associated with increased in-hospital mortality at 24 hours (hazard ratio [HR] 1.50 for each 10 minute increase in T-OR, confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.97, p = 0.003) and 30 days (HR 1.41, CI 1.18-2.10, p = 0.002). Increasing TFAST-OR was also associated with higher in-hospital mortality at 24 hours (HR 1.34, CI 1.03-1.72, p = 0.03) and 30 days (HR 1.40, CI 1.06-1.84, p = 0.02). Conclusion In patients with a positive FAST who required emergent laparotomy, delay in operation was associated with increased early and late in-hospital mortality. Delays in time to operation in trauma patients with a positive FAST should be minimized. PMID:23778511

  9. Repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments adversely affect neural transmission time and auditory thresholds in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Church, M.W.; Adams, B.R.; Anumba, J.I.; Jackson, D.A.; Kruger, M.L.; Jen, K.-L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroid (AC) treatment is given to pregnant women at risk for preterm birth to reduce infant morbidity and mortality by enhancing lung and brain maturation. However, there is no accepted regimen on how frequently AC treatments should be given and some studies found that repeated AC treatments can cause growth retardation and brain damage. Our goal was to assess the dose-dependent effects of repeated AC treatment and estimate the critical number of AC courses to cause harmful effects on the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a sensitive measure of brain development, neural transmission and hearing loss. We hypothesized that repeated AC treatment would have harmful effects on the offspring’s ABRs and growth only if more than 3 AC treatment courses were given. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were given either a high regimen of AC (HAC), a moderate regimen (MAC), a low regimen (LAC), or saline (SAL). An untreated control (CON) group was also used. Simulating the clinical condition, the HAC dams received 0.2 mg/kg Betamethasone (IM) twice daily for 6 days during gestation days (GD) 17-22. The MAC dams received 3 days of AC treatment followed by 3 days of saline treatment on GD 17-19 and GD 20-22, respectively. The LAC dams received 1 day of AC treatment followed by 5 days of saline treatment on GD 17 and GD 18-22, respectively. The SAL dams received 6 days of saline treatment from GD 17-22 (twice daily, isovolumetric to the HAC injections, IM). The offspring were ABR-tested on postnatal day 24. Results indicated that the ABR’s P4 latencies (neural transmission time) were significantly prolonged (worse) in the HAC pups and that ABR’s thresholds were significantly elevated (worse) in the HAC and MAC pups when compared to the CON pups. The HAC and MAC pups were also growth retarded and had higher postnatal mortality than the CON pups. The SAL and LAC pups showed little or no adverse effects. In conclusion, repeated AC treatment had harmful effects on the rat offspring’s ABRs, postnatal growth and survival. The prolonged ABR latencies reflect slowed neural transmission times along the auditory nerve and brainstem auditory pathway. The elevated ABR thresholds reflect hearing deficits. We concluded that repeated AC treatment can have harmful neurological, sensory and developmental effects on the rat offspring. These effects should be considered when weighing the benefits and risks of repeated AC treatment and when monitoring and managing the prenatally exposed child for possible adverse effects. PMID:21963399

  10. Automated method for detecting increases in frequency of spontaneous adverse event reports over time.

    PubMed

    DuMouchel, William; Yuen, Nancy; Payvandi, Nassrin; Booth, Wendy; Rut, Andrew; Fram, David

    2013-01-01

    A statistical methodology--focused on temporal change detection--was developed to highlight excursions from baseline spontaneous adverse event (AE) reporting. We used regression (both smooth trend and seasonal components) to model the time course of a drug's reports containing an AE, and then compared the sum of counts in the past 2 months with the fitted trend. The signaling threshold was tuned, using retrospective analysis, to yield acceptable sensitivity and specificity. The method may enhance pharmacovigilance by providing effective automated alerting of reporting aberrations when databases are small, when drugs have established safety profiles, and/or when product quality issues are of concern. PMID:23331229

  11. Community perspective on the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial.

    PubMed

    Geffen, N; Aagaard, P; Corbelli, G M; Meulbroek, M; Peavy, D; Rappoport, C; Schwarze, S; Collins, S

    2015-04-01

    Determining when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) is vitally important for people living with HIV. Yet the optimal point at which to start to maximize clinical benefit remains unknown. In the absence of randomized studies, current guidelines rely on conflicting observational data and expert opinion, and consequently diverge on this point. In the USA, ART is recommended irrespective of CD4 cell count. The World Health Organization now recommends starting ART at a CD4 cell count of 500?cells/?L, while the threshold for the UK and South Africa remains at 350?cells/?L. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, one of the largest clinical trials on the treatment of HIV infection, will answer this question. START compares two treatment strategies: immediate treatment at a CD4 cell count of 500?cells/?L or higher versus deferring treatment until the CD4 cell count decreases to 350?cells/?L or until AIDS develops. START includes seven substudies, five of which will clarify the relative contributions of HIV and ART in common comorbidities. START is fully enrolled and expected to be completed in 2016. HIV advocates support the study's design and have been involved from inception to enrolment. The trial will produce rigorous data on the benefits and risks of earlier treatment. It will inform policy and treatment advocacy globally, benefitting the health of HIV-positive people. PMID:25711318

  12. Searching for scalable processes: addressing the challenges in times of increasing complexity.

    PubMed

    Federsel, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    The position of the pharmaceutical industry at the beginning of the 21st Century and its role in process research and development are important considerations. Based on recent figures and statistics, it is evident that new and maybe unorthodox ways of operating need to be envisaged to counteract the explosive rise in research and development costs (> US $800 million per successful launch in 2002) and the worryingly high level of attrition (approximately 90%), which, in addition to long handling times for authority approval, lead to a continued decline in the number of drugs entering the market. In addition to pointing out these harsh realities, it is essential to remember that the time taken to bring a new product forward is crucial. In this context, a front-loading model has been developed and applied in AstraZeneca's process research and development. The enormous implications of chirality in the pharmacological arena have been fully acknowledged for many years, and sales figures of chiral molecules corroborate the importance of this feature. The methodologies that are available to address the design and scale-up of production methods are also reviewed against a backdrop of recent in-house cases. PMID:14758755

  13. Long-term treatment with PP2 after spinal cord injury resulted in functional locomotor recovery and increased spared tissue.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Odrick R; Torrado, Aranza I; Santiago, Jose M; Rodriguez, Ana E; Salgado, Iris K; Miranda, Jorge D

    2014-12-15

    The spinal cord has the ability to regenerate but the microenvironment generated after trauma reduces that capacity. An increase in Src family kinase (SFK) activity has been implicated in neuropathological conditions associated with central nervous system trauma. Therefore, we hypothesized that a decrease in SFK activation by a long-term treatment with 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyramidine (PP2), a selective SFK inhibitor, after spinal cord contusion with the New York University (NYU) impactor device would generate a permissive environment that improves axonal sprouting and/or behavioral activity. Results demonstrated that long-term blockade of SFK activation with PP2 increases locomotor activity at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-injury in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan open field test, round and square beam crossing tests. In addition, an increase in white matter spared tissue and serotonin fiber density was observed in animals treated with PP2. However, blockade of SFK activity did not change the astrocytic response or infiltration of cells from the immune system at 28 days post-injury. Moreover, a reduced SFK activity with PP2 diminished Ephexin (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor) phosphorylation in the acute phase (4 days post-injury) after trauma. Together, these findings suggest a potential role of SFK in the regulation of spared tissue and/or axonal outgrowth that may result in functional locomotor recovery during the pathophysiology generated after spinal cord injury. Our study also points out that ephexin1 phosphorylation (activation) by SFK action may be involved in the repulsive microenvironment generated after spinal cord injury. PMID:25657738

  14. Prion (PrPC) expression in ovine uteroplacental tissues increases after estrogen treatment of ovariectomized ewes and during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mary Lynn; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Redmer, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    Scrapie in sheep is spread laterally by placental transmission of an infectious misfolded form (PrPSc) of a normal prion protein (PrPC) used as a template in PrPSc formation. We hypothesized that PrPC would be expressed in uterine and placental tissues and estradiol-17? (E2) would affect uterine PrPC expression. PrPC expression was evaluated in the uterus of long-term ovariectomized (OVX) ewes treated with an E2 implant for 2-24?h and in uteroplacental tissues from day 20 to day 30 of pregnancy. Expression of PrPC mRNA and PrPC protein increased in the uterus after E2 treatment of OVX ewes. In the maternal placenta, expression of PrPC mRNA and PrPC protein were unchanged, but in the fetal membranes (FM) PrPC mRNA and PrPC protein expression increased from day 20 to day 28. In the nonpregnant uterus, PrPC protein was immunolocalized at apical borders of the surface epithelium, in outer smooth muscle layers of large blood vessels, and in scattered stromal cells of the deep intercaruncular areas of the uterus. In the maternal placenta, PrPC protein was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of flattened luminal epithelial cells apposed to the FM, whereas in the FM PrPC protein was in trophoblast cells and was also in several tissues of the developing embryo during early pregnancy. These data linking estrogen stimulation to increases in PrPC expression in uteroplacental tissues suggest that PrPC has a specific function during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Future studies should determine whether or not estrogen influences PrPC expression in other tissues, such as the nervous system and brain. PMID:24664411

  15. Long-term treatment with PP2 after spinal cord injury resulted in functional locomotor recovery and increased spared tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Odrick R.; Torrado, Aranza I.; Santiago, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Ana E.; Salgado, Iris K.; Miranda, Jorge D.

    2014-01-01

    The spinal cord has the ability to regenerate but the microenvironment generated after trauma reduces that capacity. An increase in Src family kinase (SFK) activity has been implicated in neuropathological conditions associated with central nervous system trauma. Therefore, we hypothesized that a decrease in SFK activation by a long-term treatment with 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyramidine (PP2), a selective SFK inhibitor, after spinal cord contusion with the New York University (NYU) impactor device would generate a permissive environment that improves axonal sprouting and/or behavioral activity. Results demonstrated that long-term blockade of SFK activation with PP2 increases locomotor activity at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-injury in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan open field test, round and square beam crossing tests. In addition, an increase in white matter spared tissue and serotonin fiber density was observed in animals treated with PP2. However, blockade of SFK activity did not change the astrocytic response or infiltration of cells from the immune system at 28 days post-injury. Moreover, a reduced SFK activity with PP2 diminished Ephexin (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor) phosphorylation in the acute phase (4 days post-injury) after trauma. Together, these findings suggest a potential role of SFK in the regulation of spared tissue and/or axonal outgrowth that may result in functional locomotor recovery during the pathophysiology generated after spinal cord injury. Our study also points out that ephexin1 phosphorylation (activation) by SFK action may be involved in the repulsive microenvironment generated after spinal cord injury. PMID:25657738

  16. Influence of hydraulic retention time on UASB post-treatment with UF membranes.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Peláez, M L; Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2011-01-01

    A pilot UASB reactor coupled with an external ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was operated under three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) for domestic wastewater treatment. The aim was to assess the HRT influence on system performance and fouling. The highest concentrations of COD, total solids, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in UASB effluent and permeate were found when the UASB reactor was operated under the lowest HRT studied (4 hours); although the fulfillment of Mexican Standard for wastewater reclamation was not compromised. This fact could be attributed to the higher shear stress forces inside the UASB reactor when it was operated at low HRT, which promoted the release of biopolymeric substances in its effluent. Besides, the fouling propensity in the UASB effluent was worsened with HRT reduction, by increasing the fouling rate and the specific cake resistance. Based on these results, it is recommended to avoid operating the UASB reactor at low HRTs (less than 4 hours) in order to control SMP and EPS fouling potential. The results presented also suggest that HRT reduction has a detrimental effect on performance and fouling. PMID:22156136

  17. An Increasing Hybrid Morphological-Linear Perceptron with Evolutionary Learning and Phase Correction for Financial Time Series Forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo de A. Araújo; Peter Sussner

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper we present a suitable model to solve the financial time series forecasting problem, called increasing hybrid\\u000a morphological-linear perceptron (IHMP). An evolutionary training algorithm is presented to design the IHMP (learning process),\\u000a using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA). The learning process includes an automatic phase correction step that is geared\\u000a at eliminating the time phase distortions that typically

  18. Timing and duration of menopausal hormone treatment may affect cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harman, S Mitchell; Vittinghoff, Eric; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Matthew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Lobo, Rogerio A; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Frederick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S; Black, Dennis M

    2011-03-01

    Largely on the basis of the first publication of findings of net harm with menopausal hormone treatment in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials, current Food and Drug Administration recommendations limit menopausal hormone treatment to the "…shortest duration consistent with treatment goals…," with goals generally taken to mean relief of menopausal symptoms and maximal duration as approximately 5 years. The WHI finding of net harm was due largely to the absence of beneficial effects on coronary heart disease incidence rates. Published analyses of WHI data by age or time since menopause find that excess coronary heart disease risk with menopausal hormone treatment is confined to more remotely menopausal or older women, with younger women showing nonsignificant trends toward benefit (the "timing hypothesis"). Moreover, a recently published reexamination of data from the WHI Estrogen plus Progestin trial suggests that reduced coronary heart disease risk may appear only after 5 to 6 years of treatment. Consistent with this finding, risk ratios for coronary heart disease were calculated as 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.36) in years 1 to 6 and as 0.46 (confidence interval, 0.28-0.78) in years 7 to 8+ in the WHI Estrogen Alone trial. Previous studies also support the beneficial effects of menopausal hormone treatment after prolonged exposure. Thus, current analyses do not support a generalized recommendation for short duration of menopausal hormone treatment. Rather, they suggest that current Food and Drug Administration practice guidelines should be reconsidered to allow individualized care based on risk:benefit considerations. New research is urgently needed evaluating influences of timing, duration, dose, route of administration, and agents on menopausal hormone treatment-related risks and benefits to better understand how to optimize recommendations for individual patients. PMID:21396500

  19. Increased prothrombin time and platelet counts in living donor right hepatectomy: implications for epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Begliomini, Bruno; De Pietri, Lesley; Braglia, Vanessa; Gazzi, Matteo; Masetti, Michele; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Pinna, Antonio D; Miller, Charles M; Pasetto, Alberto

    2004-09-01

    The risks and benefits of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation need to be carefully evaluated. Anesthetic management includes postoperative epidural pain relief; however, even patients with a normal preoperative coagulation profile may suffer transient postoperative coagulation derangement. This study explores the possible causes of postoperative coagulation derangement after donor hepatectomy and the possible implications on epidural analgesia. Thirty donors, American Society of Anesthesiology I, with no history of liver disease were considered suitable for the study. A thoracic epidural catheter was inserted before induction and removed when laboratory values were as follows: prothrombin time (PT) > 60%, activated partial thromboplastin time < 1.24 (sec), and platelet count > 100,000 mmf pound sterling (mm3). Standard blood tests were evaluated before surgery, on admission to the recovery room, and daily until postoperative day (POD) 5. The volumes of blood loss and of intraoperative fluids administered were recorded. Coagulation abnormalities observed immediately after surgery may be related mostly to blood loss and to the diluting effect of the intraoperative infused fluids, although the extent of the resection appears to be the most important factor in the extension of the PT observed from POD 1. In conclusion, significant alterations in PT and platelet values were observed in our patients who underwent uncomplicated major liver resection for living donor liver transplantation. Because the potential benefits of epidural analgesia for liver resection are undefined according to available data, additional prospective randomized studies comparing the effectiveness and safety of intravenous versus epidural analgesia in this patient population should be performed. PMID:15350005

  20. Altered Neuronal Markers Following Treatment with Mood Stabilizer and Antipsychotic Drugs Indicate an Increased Likelihood of Neurotransmitter Release

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Given the ability of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics to promote cell proliferation, we wanted to determine the effects of these drugs on neuronal markers previously reported to be altered in subjects with psychiatric disorders. Methods Male Sprauge-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (ethanol), lithium (25.5 mg per day), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg) or a combination of lithium and either of the antipsychotic drugs for 28 days. Levels of cortical synaptic (synaptosomal associated protein-25, synaptophysin, vesicle associated protein and syntaxin) and structural (neural cell adhesion molecule and alpha-synuclein) proteins were determined in each treatment group using Western blots. Results Compared to the vehicle treated group; animals treated with haloperidol had greater levels of synaptosomal associated protein-25 (p<0.01) and neural cell adhesion molecule (p<0.05), those treated with olanzapine had greater levels of synaptophysin (p<0.01) and syntaxin (p<0.01). Treatment with lithium alone did not affect the levels of any of the proteins. Combining lithium and haloperidol resulted in greater levels of synaptophysin (p<0.01), synaptosomal associated protein-25 (p<0.01) and neural cell adhesion molecule (p<0.01). The combination of lithium and olanzapine produced greater levels of synaptophysin (p<0.01) and alpha-synuclein (p<0.05). Conclusion Lithium alone had no effect on the neuronal markers. However, haloperidol and olanzapine affected different presynaptic markers. Combining lithium with olanzapine additionally increased alpha-synuclein. These drug effects need to be taken into account by future studies examining presynaptic and neuronal markers in tissue from subjects with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23429852

  1. Tiam1 Transgenic Mice Display Increased Tumor Invasive and Metastatic Potential of Colorectal Cancer after 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Na; Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Xin; Hua, Xing; Cui, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Nian-Jie; Liao, Wen-Ting; Ding, Yan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) is a potential modifier of tumor development and progression. Our previous study in vitro and in nude mice suggested a promotion role of Tiam1 on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice to investigate the tumorigenetic, invasive and metastatic alterations in the colon and rectum of wild-type and Tiam1 transgenic mice under 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment. Methods Transgenic mice were produced by the method of pronuclear microinlectlon. Whole-body fluorescence imaging (Lighttools, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), PCR, and immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) were applied sequentially to identify the transgenic mice. The carcinogen DMH (20 mg/kg) was used to induce colorectal tumors though intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections once a week for 24 weeks from the age of 4 weeks on Tiam1 transgenic or non-transgenic mice. Results We successfully generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice and induced primary tumors in the intestine of both wild type and Tiam1 transgenic mice by DMH treatment. In addition, Tiam1 transgenic mice developed larger and more aggressive neoplasm than wild-type mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed that upregulation of Tiam1 was correlated with increased expression of ?-Catenin and Vimentin, and downregulation of E-Cadherin in these mice. Conclusions Our study has provided in vivo evidence supporting that Tiam1 promotes invasion and metastasis of CRC, most probably through activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, in a Tiam1 transgenic mouse model. PMID:24069171

  2. Time-Mean Response over the Tropical Pacific to Increased C02 in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Thomas R.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1995-09-01

    The time-mean response over the tropical Pacific region to a quadrupling Of CO2 is investigated using a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. Tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) rise by about 4°-5°C. The zonal SST gradient along the equator decreases by about 20%, although it takes about one century (with C02 increasing at 1% per year compounded) for this change to become clearly evident in the model. Over the central equatorial Pacific, the decreased SST gradient is accompanied by similar decreases in the easterly wind stress and westward ocean surface currents and by a local maximum in precipitation increase.Over the entire rising branch region of the Walker circulation, precipitation is enhanced by 15%, but the time-mean upward motion decreases slightly in intensity. The failure of the zonal overturning atmospheric circulation to intensify with a quadrupling of CO2 is surprising in light of the increased time-mean condensation heating over the `warm pool' region. Three aspects of the model response are important for interpreting this result. 1) The time-mean radiative cooling of the upper troposphere is enhanced, due to both the pronounced upper-tropospheric warming and to the large fractional increase of upper-tropospheric water vapor. 2) The dynamical cooling term, ¯¯/p, is enhanced due to increased time-mean static stability (¯/p). This is an effect of moist convection, which keeps the lapse rate close to the moist adiabatic rate, thereby making ¯/p larger in a warmer climate. The enhanced radiative cooling and increased static stability allow for the enhanced time-mean heating by moist convection and condensation to be balanced without stronger time-mean upward motions. 3) The weaker surface zonal winds and wind stress in the equatorial Pacific are consistent with the reduced zonal SST gradient. The SST gradient is damped by the west-east differential in evaporative surface cooling (with greater evaporative cooling in the west than in the east). This evaporative damping increases with increasing temperature, owing to the temperature dependence of saturation mixing ratios, which leads to a reduction in the SST gradient in the warmer climate.

  3. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature for excess sludge dewatering: influence of operating conditions and the process energetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2014-11-15

    Dewatering is very important for excess sludge treatment and disposal. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression is a novel technology, in which a conventional pressure dewatering is combined with hydrothermal effect to realize an improved liquid/solids separation with low energy consumption. In this study, the process was performed by way of that the excess sludge was hydrothermally treated first and then the mechanical expression was employed immediately at increased temperature in two separate cells respectively. The results demonstrated that the mechanical expression employed at increased temperature showed a significant advantage than that at room temperature, given a further reduction of 19-47% of the moisture content. The dewatering process at room temperature was mostly depended on the effect of mechanical expression. Hydrothermal process, more importantly than mechanical effect at increased temperatures, seemed to govern the extent to which the dewatering process occurred. The dewatering began to show a positive effect when the temperature was exceeded the threshold temperature (between 120 and 150 °C). The residence time of 30 min promoted a substantial conversion in the sludge surface properties. After dewatering at temperatures of 180-210 °C, the moisture content decreased from 52 to 20% and the corresponding total water removal as filtrate was between 81 and 93%. It was observed that the moisture content of filter cake correlated with surface charge (Rp = -0.93, p < 0.05) and relative hydrophobicity (Rp = -0.99, p < 0.05). The calculated energy balance suggested that no additional external energy input is needed to support the dewatering process for excess sludge. The dewatering process needs an obviously lower energy input compared to thermal drying and electro-dewatering to produce a higher solids content cake. PMID:25090626

  4. Increased Levels of Multiresistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes after Wastewater Treatment and Their Dissemination into Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Czekalski, Nadine; Berthold, Tom; Caucci, Serena; Egli, Andrea; Bürgmann, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    At present, very little is known about the fate and persistence of multiresistant bacteria (MRB) and their resistance genes in natural aquatic environments. Treated, but partly also untreated sewage of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland is discharged into Vidy Bay (Lake Geneva) resulting in high levels of contamination in this part of the lake. In the present work we have studied the prevalence of MRB and resistance genes in the wastewater stream of Lausanne. Samples from hospital and municipal raw sewage, treated effluent from Lausanne’s wastewater treatment plant (WTP) as well as lake water and sediment samples obtained close to the WTP outlet pipe and a remote site close to a drinking water pump were evaluated for the prevalence of MRB. Selected isolates were identified (16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing) and characterized with regards to further resistances, resistance genes, and plasmids. Mostly, studies investigating this issue have relied on cultivation-based approaches. However, the limitations of these tools are well known, in particular for environmental microbial communities, and cultivation-independent molecular tools should be applied in parallel in order to take non-culturable organisms into account. Here we directly quantified the sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 from environmental DNA extracts using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Hospital sewage contained the highest load of MRB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Wastewater treatment reduced the total bacterial load up to 78% but evidence for selection of extremely multiresistant strains and accumulation of resistance genes was observed. Our data clearly indicated pollution of sediments with ARGs in the vicinity of the WTP outlet. The potential of lakes as reservoirs of MRB and potential risks are discussed. PMID:22461783

  5. 'Mind the Gap'-The Impact of Variations in the Duration of the Treatment Gap and Overall Treatment Time in the First UK Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I)

    SciTech Connect

    Glynne-Jones, Rob, E-mail: rob.glynnejones@nhs.net [Mount Vernon Centre for Cancer Treatment, Northwood (United Kingdom); Sebag-Montefiore, David [St James's Institute of Oncology, St James's University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Adams, Richard [Cardiff University and Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff (United Kingdom); McDonald, Alec [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gollins, Simon [North Wales Cancer Treatment Centre, Rhyl (United Kingdom); James, Roger [Kent Oncology Centre, Maidstone General Hospital, Maidstone (United Kingdom); Northover, John M.A. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund Colorectal Cancer Unit, St Mark's Hospital, Harrow (United Kingdom); Meadows, Helen M.; Jitlal, Mark [Cancer Research UK and University College London Cancer Trials Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research anal cancer trial demonstrated the benefit of combined modality treatment (CMT) using radiotherapy (RT), infusional 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin C over RT alone. The present study retrospectively examines the impact of the recommended 6-week treatment gap and local RT boost on long-term outcome. Methods and Materials: A total of 577 patients were randomly assigned RT alone or CMT. After a 6-week gap responders received a boost using either additional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (15 Gy) or iridium-192 implant (25 Gy). The effect of boost, the gap between initial treatment (RT alone or CMT) and boost (Tgap), and overall treatment time (OTT) were examined for their impact on outcome. Results: Among the 490 good responders, 436 (89%) patients received a boost after initial treatment. For boosted patients, the risk of anal cancer death decreased by 38% (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62, 99% CI 0.35-1.12; p = 0.04), but there was no evidence this was mediated via a reduction in locoregional failure (LRF) (HR: 0.90, 99% CI 0.48-1.68; p = 0.66). The difference in Tgap was only 1.4 days longer for EBRT boost, compared with implant (p = 0.51). OTT was longer by 6.1 days for EBRT (p = 0.006). Tgap and OTT were not associated with LRF. Radionecrosis was reported in 8% of boosted, compared with 0% in unboosted patients (p = 0.03). Conclusions: These results question the benefit of a radiotherapy boost after a 6-week gap. The higher doses of a boost may contribute more to an increased risk of late morbidity, rather than local control.

  6. Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

    2012-12-01

    Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

  7. An Increasing Hybrid Morphological-Linear Perceptron with Evolutionary Learning and Phase Correction for Financial Time Series Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de A. Araújo, Ricardo; Sussner, Peter

    In this paper we present a suitable model to solve the financial time series forecasting problem, called increasing hybrid morphological-linear perceptron (IHMP). An evolutionary training algorithm is presented to design the IHMP (learning process), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA). The learning process includes an automatic phase correction step that is geared at eliminating the time phase distortions that typically occur in financial time series forecasting. Furthermore, we compare the proposed IHMP with other neural and statistical models using two complex nonlinear problems of financial forecasting.

  8. Clinical significance of cumulative biological effective dose and overall treatment time in the treatment of carcinoma cervix

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the radiotherapy treatment response of, and complications in, patients with cervical cancer on the basis of cumulative biologic effective dose (BED) and overall treatment time (OTT). Sixty-four (stage II - 35/64; stage III - 29/64) patients of cervical cancer were treated with combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and low dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The cumulative BED was calculated at Point A (BED10); and bladder, rectal reference points (BED2,5) using the linear-quadratic BED equations. The local control (LC) rate and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate in patients of stage II were comparable for BED10 <84.5 and BED10 >84.5 but were much higher for BED10 >84.5 than BED10 <84.5 (P< 0.01) in stage III patients. In the stage II patients, The LC rate and 5-year DFS rate were comparable for OTT <50 days and for OTT >50 days but were much higher in stage III patients with OTT < 50 than OTT >50 days (P< 0.001). It was also observed that patients who received BED2.5 <105 had lesser rectal (P< 0.001) and bladder complications than BED2.5 >105. Higher rectal complication-free survival (CFSR) rate, bladder complication-free survival (CFSB) rate and all-type late complication-free survival rate were observed in patients who received BED2.5 < 105 than BED2.5 >105. A balanced, optimal and justified radiotherapy treatment schedule to deliver higher BED10 (>84.5) and lower BED2.5 (< 105) in lesser OTT (< 50 days) is essential in carcinoma cervix to expect a better treatment outcome in all respects. PMID:21157538

  9. Characterization of a Therapeutic Model of Inhalational Anthrax Using an Increase in Body Temperature in New Zealand White Rabbits as a Trigger for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Bryan D.; Henning, Lisa N.; Stark, Gregory V.; Barnewall, Roy E.; Mott, Jason M.; Meister, Gabriel T.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an appropriate animal therapeutic model is essential to assess the potential efficacy of therapeutics for use in the event of a Bacillus anthracis exposure. We conducted a natural history study that showed New Zealand White rabbits exhibited a significant increase in body temperature (SIBT), changes in hematologic parameters, and increases in C-reactive protein and succumbed to disease with an average time to death of approximately 73 h following aerosol challenge with B. anthracis Ames spores. The SIBT was used as a trigger to treat with a fully human monoclonal antibody directed at protective antigen (PA). Ninety percent (9/10) of the treated rabbits survived the lethal inhalational challenge of B. anthracis. Further characterization investigated the protective window of opportunity for anti-PA antibody administration up to 12 h post-onset of SIBT. Eighty-three percent (5/6) of the rabbits treated at SIBT and 100% (6/6) of those treated at 6 h after SIBT survived challenge. Only 67% (4/6) of the rabbits treated at 12 h after SIBT survived. The increase in body temperature corresponded with both bacteremia and antigenemia (PA in the blood), indicating that SIBT is a suitable trigger to initiate treatment in a therapeutic model of inhalational anthrax. PMID:22837095

  10. Age Differences in Timed Accurate Stepping With Increasing Cognitive and Visual Demand: A Walking Trail Making Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil B. Alexander; James A. Ashton-Miller; Bruno Giordani; Ken Guire; Albert B. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    Background. Impaired vision, cognition, and divided attention performance predict falls. Requiring both visual and cognitive input, the ability to step accurately is necessary to safely traverse challenging terrain conditions such as uneven or slippery surfaces. We compared healthy young and older adults in the time taken to step accurately under conditions of increasing cognitive and visual demand. Methods. Healthy Young

  11. THE EFFECT OF INCREASING TIME OF DEVELOPMENT AT CONSTANT TEMPERATURE ON THE WING SIZE OF VESTIGIAL OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE CHILD

    This paper deals with the effect of nipagin (methyl parahydroxy benzoate) and poor food conditions on the wing size of the mutant vestigial in D. melanogaster. Nipagin is being used in many laboratories as an antiseptic for mold control in Drosophila culture media. It was found at this laboratory that the time of development of an isogenic stock was increased

  12. Protein denaturation and water-protein interactions as affected by low temperature long time treatment of porcine longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Line; Bertram, Hanne C; Aaslyng, Margit D; Christensen, Mette

    2011-08-01

    The relationship between water-protein interactions and heat-induced protein denaturation in low temperature long time (LTLT) treated pork Longissimus dorsi was investigated by combining low-field NMR T? relaxometry with DSC measurements and measures of shrinkage of porcine Longissimus dorsi heated to 53 °C, 55 °C, 57 °C and 59 °C for either 3 or 20 h. Water within the myofibrils, measured by NMR T?? relaxation times, was affected by both temperature and holding time during LTLT treatment between 53 °C and 59 °C. The changes in NMR T?? relaxation times were associated with decreased fiber diameter and increased cooking loss, revealing a relationship between transverse shrinkage, water-protein interactions and cooking loss. DSC measurements revealed a concomitant decrease in ?H(68 °C), which suggests impact of collagen denaturation on the retention of water within the meat during LTLT treatment. Furthermore, a decrease in ?H(75 °C) suggested that prolonged cooking (20 h) resulted in actin denaturation leading to decreased T?? relaxation times and higher cooking loss. PMID:21450413

  13. PRE-EXERCISE ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TIME TO EXHAUSTION IN ELITE MALE WRESTLERS

    PubMed Central

    Turnagol, H.; Demirel, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years) participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg-1 body weight) or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night) for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg-1 · min-1, placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg-1 · min-1) or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm) between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s) compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects. PMID:25177096

  14. Topotecan Can Compensate for Protracted Radiation Treatment Time Effects in High Grade Glioma Xenografts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Pinel; Pascal Chastagner; Jean-Louis Merlin; Christian Marchal; Alphonse Taghian; Muriel Barberi-Heyob

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Purpose:\\u000a Several studies reported that prolongation of overall treatment time of fractionated radiotherapy reduces the chance of tumor\\u000a control. In the present study, we hypothesize that combining topotecan with irradiation could compensate for this detrimental\\u000a time effect on the radioresponse. Therefore, we investigated the efficiency of different schedules of topotecan (TPT), radiotherapy\\u000a (RT) or concomitant combination TPT + RT.\\u000a \\u000a Methods

  15. How the Timing of Grade Retention Affects Outcomes: Identification and Estimation of Time-Varying Treatment Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Cooley Fruehwirth; Salvador Navarro; Yuya Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, grade retention is viewed as an important alternative to social promotion, yet evidence to date is unable to disentangle how the effect of grade retention varies by abilities and over time. The key challenge is differential selection of students into retention across grades and by abilities. Because existing quasi-experimental methods cannot address this question, we develop a new strategy

  16. How The Timing of Grade Retention Affects Outcomes: Identification and Estimation of Time-Varying Treatment Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Cooley Fruehwirth; Salvador Navarro; Yuya Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, grade retention is viewed as an important alternative to social promotion, yet evidence to date is unable to disentangle how the effect of grade retention varies by abilities and over time. The key challenge is differential selection of students into retention across grades and by abilities. Because existing quasi-experimental methods cannot address this question, we develop a new strategy

  17. Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent treatment R. Bourget1,2,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent treatment R. Bourget1,2, , L. Chaumont1 , N/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of pathogen adaptive dynamics. Here, we studied the rate of pathogen adaptation to a host population which was subjected to a multicom- ponent

  18. A Comparison of Constant Time Delay Instruction with High and Low Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin Iftar, Elif; Kurt, Onur; Cetin, Ozlem

    2011-01-01

    Time delay (TD) procedure is an effective procedure in teaching various skills to children with developmental disabilities. Moreover, research has shown that it is used with high treatment integrity (HTI). However, there are several barriers which may prevent delivery instruction with HTI. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the…

  19. Chronic Treatment with Haloperidol Induces Deficits in Working Memory and Feedback Effects of Interval Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, C.; Meck, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Normal participants (n=5) having no experience with antipsychotic drugs and medicated participants (n=5) with clinical experience with chronic low doses of haloperidol (3-10mg/day for 2-4 months) in the treatment of neuroses were evaluated for the effects of inter-trial interval (ITI) feedback on a discrete-trials peak-interval timing procedure.…

  20. Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Transit-Time Optical Stochastic Cooling of Muons A. E. Charman1

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Transit-Time Optical Stochastic Cooling of Muons A. E. Charman1 quantum mechanically, and raising doubts as to whether this weak signal even contains sufficient phase are treated quantum mechanically, indicates that fast cooling is in principle possible, with cooling rates

  1. Plasma Gelsolin Levels Decrease in Diabetic State and Increase upon Treatment with F-Actin Depolymerizing Versions of Gelsolin

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Neeraj; Sagar, Amin; Peddada, Nagesh; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Veena; Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to map plasma gelsolin (pGSN) levels in diabetic humans and mice models of type II diabetes and to evaluate the efficacy of gelsolin therapy in improvement of diabetes in mice. We report that pGSN values decrease by a factor of 0.45 to 0.5 in the blood of type II diabetic humans and mice models. Oral glucose tolerance test in mice models showed that subcutaneous administration of recombinant pGSN and its F-actin depolymerizing competent versions brought down blood sugar levels comparable to Sitagliptin, a drug used to manage hyperglycemic condition. Further, daily dose of pGSN or its truncated versions to diabetic mice for a week kept sugar levels close to normal values. Also, diabetic mice treated with Sitagliptin for 7 days, showed increase in their pGSN values with the decrease in blood glucose as compared to their levels at the start of treatment. Gelsolin helped in improving glycemic control in diabetic mice. We propose that gelsolin level monitoring and replacement of F-actin severing capable gelsolin(s) should be considered in diabetic care. PMID:25478578

  2. Thermal treatment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) increases the antioxidant content and the inhibitory effect on human neutrophil burst.

    PubMed

    Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Fibiani, Marta; Mennella, Giuseppe; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Dal Sasso, Monica; Culici, Maria; Spallino, Alessandra; Braga, Pier Carlo

    2010-03-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount and activity of phytonutrients in raw, grilled, and boiled eggplant fruit using chemical measures and a biological assay of oxidative bursts in human neutrophils. The thermally treated samples showed various changes in their chemical composition (dry matter, soluble solids, acidity, and the amount of alcohol insoluble substances) due to the cooking processes and were much richer in the main phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids, which are known to be antioxidants. Consequently, their free radical scavenging activity was significantly higher, especially that of superoxide anion. The biological assay of oxidative bursts from human neutrophils in the presence of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine confirmed the greater activity of extracts of the cooked eggplants with respect to raw eggplants. Successive extract dilutions showed a significant activity up to 1.25 microg/mL after cooking, while raw fruits resulted in an activity up to 10.00 microg/mL. These results showed that the thermal treatment commonly used before consumption can increase the content and biological activity of antioxidant compounds of eggplants. PMID:20187646

  3. Increased rate of ethanol elimination and elevated blood acetate in asthmatics on corticosteroid, beta-2-sympathicomimetic and theophylline treatment.

    PubMed

    Korri, U M; Salaspuro, M

    1988-01-01

    The rate of ethanol elimination and blood acetate concentrations after a peroral dose of alcohol were measured in eight asthmatic patients receiving high-dose corticosteroid, sustained release theophylline and beta-2-sympathicomimetic treatment and in eight nonalcoholic, healthy controls. Mean ethanol elimination rate (ER) and mean blood acetate concentration (AC) were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher in asthmatics (ER = 134.8 +/- 12.9 mg/kg/hr, AC = 1.13 +/- 0.25 mM) than in controls (ER = 100.2 +/- 12.3 mg/kg/hr, AC = 0.64 +/- 0.10 mM). In the asthmatics there was a significant negative correlation between the age and the rate of ethanol elimination (r = -0.890, P less than 0.01); in the control group, however, this correlation was of lower degree (r = -0.423) and did not achieve statistical significance. Enhanced ethanol metabolism in asthmatics is possibly due to the effect of drugs. Our results suggest that ethanol elimination rate is increased in asthmatics receiving medication and that the effect is most significant in younger age groups. PMID:2906542

  4. Aminophylline infusion for status asthmaticus in the pediatric critical care unit setting is independently associated with increased length of stay and time for symptom improvement

    PubMed Central

    Dalabih, Abdallah R; Bondi, Steven A; Harris, Zena L; Saville, Benjamin R; Wang, Wenli; Arnold, Donald H

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The role of aminophylline in the treatment of severe acute asthma in the pediatric critical care unit (PCCU) is not clear. We sought to examine the association of aminophylline treatment with PCCU length of stay and time to symptom improvement. Material and Methods Patients with severe acute asthma who were admitted to our PCCU and received aminophylline infusion were retrospectively compared with similar patients who did not receive aminophylline. The primary outcome measure was functional length of stay (i.e. time to which patients could be transferred to a general pediatric ward bed). A secondary outcome was time to symptom improvement. Results Adjusted functional length of stay was longer for subjects who received aminophylline (n=49) than for the patients who did not (n=47) (hazard ratio 0.396, p<0.001), as well as the time for symptom improvement (hazard ratio 0.359, p<0.001). In the group of subjects receiving aminophylline, those with a serum theophylline level ?10mcg/ml (therapeutic) (n=31) had longer functional length of stay (hazard ratio 0.457, p=0.0225) and time to symptom improvement (hazard ratio 0.403, p=0.0085) than those with levels <10mcg/ml (sub-therapeutic) (n=18). Conclusions The addition of aminophylline to therapy with corticosteroids and inhaled ?-agonists was associated with statistically and clinically significant increases in functional length of stay and time to symptom improvement in the PCCU. This potential morbidity supports the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guideline proscribing aminophylline use in acute asthma. PMID:23523660

  5. Increased accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles by magnetizable implant materials for the treatment of implant-associated complications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In orthopaedic surgery, accumulation of agents such as anti-infectives in the bone as target tissue is difficult. The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers principally enables their accumulation via an externally applied magnetic field. Magnetizable implants are principally able to increase the strength of an externally applied magnetic field to reach also deep-seated parts in the body. Therefore, the integration of bone-addressed therapeutics in MNPs and their accumulation at a magnetic orthopaedic implant could improve the treatment of implant related infections. In this study a martensitic steel platelet as implant placeholder was used to examine its accumulation and retention capacity of MNPs in an in vitro experimental set up considering different experimental frame conditions as magnet quantity and distance to each other, implant thickness and flow velocity. Results The magnetic field strength increased to approximately 112% when a martensitic stainless steel platelet was located between the magnet poles. Therewith a significantly higher amount of magnetic nanoparticles could be accumulated in the area of the platelet compared to the sole magnetic field. During flushing of the tube system mimicking the in vivo blood flow, the magnetized platelet was able to retain a higher amount of MNPs without an external magnetic field compared to the set up with no mounted platelet during flushing of the system. Generally, a higher flow velocity led to lower amounts of accumulated MNPs. A higher quantity of magnets and a lower distance between magnets led to a higher magnetic field strength. Albeit not significantly the magnetic field strength tended to increase with thicker platelets. Conclusion A martensitic steel platelet significantly improved the attachment of magnetic nanoparticles in an in vitro flow system and therewith indicates the potential of magnetic implant materials in orthopaedic surgery. The use of a remanent magnetic implant material could improve the efficiency of capturing MNPs especially when the external magnetic field is turned off thus facilitating and prolonging the effect. In this way higher drug levels in the target area might be attained resulting in lower inconveniences for the patient. PMID:24112871

  6. Long-Time Treatment by Low-Dose N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Enhances Proinflammatory Cytokine Expressions in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Kusuyama, Joji; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine is known to act as a reactive oxygen species scavenger and used in clinical applications. Previous reports have shown that high-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment inhibits the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages. Here, we have found that long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low-concentration increases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT, which are essential for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1? and interleukin 6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment decreases expressions of protein phosphatases, catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-2A and dual specificity phosphatase 1. On the other hand, we have found that short-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low dose increases p53 expression, which inhibits expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. These observations suggest that long-time low-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment increases expressions of proinflammatory cytokines through enhancement of kinase phosphorylation. PMID:24504121

  7. Increasing Rate of Detection of Wrong-Patient Radiographs: Use of Photographs Obtained at Time of Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Tridandapani, Srini; Ramamurthy, Senthil; Galgano, Samuel J.; Provenzale, James M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to evaluate whether facial and chest photographs obtained simultaneously with radiographs increase radiologists’ detection rate of labeling errors. MATERIALS AND METHODS We obtained simultaneous portable radiographs and photographs of 34 patients. We generated 88 pairs of chest radiographs (one recent radiograph, one prior radiograph) and compiled a set of 20 pairs for reader review. Two, three, or four mismatched pairs (i.e., pairs containing radiographs of different patients) were introduced into each list. Ten radiologist readers blinded to the presence of mismatches interpreted the 20 radiograph pairs. Readers then reviewed a second set of 20 pairs containing mismatches but photographs of the patients obtained at the time of imaging were attached to the radiographs. Readers were not instructed regarding the purpose of the photographs. The mismatch detection rate and time for interpretation was recorded for both sessions. The two-tailed Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences in mismatch detection rates between sessions, with a p value of less than 0.05 being considered significant. RESULTS The error detection rates without (3/24 = 12.5%) and with (16/25 = 64%) photographs significantly differed (p = 0.0003). The average interpretation times without and with photographs were 35.73 and 26.51 minutes, respectively (two-tailed Student t test, p = 0.1165). CONCLUSION The use of photographs increased the detection of errors without a concomitant increase in film interpretation time, which may translate into improvements in patient safety without an increase in interpretation time. PMID:23521477

  8. Tonic GABAA conductance decreases membrane time constant and increases EPSP-spike precision in hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Xu, Chun; Song, Inseon; Doronin, Maxim; Wu, Yu-Wei; Walker, Matthew C.; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Because of a complex dendritic structure, pyramidal neurons have a large membrane surface relative to other cells and so a large electrical capacitance and a large membrane time constant (?m). This results in slow depolarizations in response to excitatory synaptic inputs, and consequently increased and variable action potential latencies, which may be computationally undesirable. Tonic activation of GABAA receptors increases membrane conductance and thus regulates neuronal excitability by shunting inhibition. In addition, tonic increases in membrane conductance decrease the membrane time constant (?m), and improve the temporal fidelity of neuronal firing. Here we performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and found that bath application of 10?M GABA indeed decreases ?m in these cells. GABA also decreased first spike latency and jitter (standard deviation of the latency) produced by current injection of 2 rheobases (500 ms). However, when larger current injections (3–6 rheobases) were used, GABA produced no significant effect on spike jitter, which was low. Using mathematical modeling we demonstrate that the tonic GABAA conductance decreases rise time, decay time and half-width of EPSPs in pyramidal neurons. A similar effect was observed on EPSP/IPSP pairs produced by stimulation of Schaffer collaterals: the EPSP part of the response became shorter after application of GABA. Consistent with the current injection data, a significant decrease in spike latency and jitter was obtained in cell attached recordings only at near-threshold stimulation (50% success rate, S50). When stimulation was increased to 2- or 3- times S50, GABA significantly affected neither spike latency nor spike jitter. Our results suggest that a decrease in ?m associated with elevations in ambient GABA can improve EPSP-spike precision at near-threshold synaptic inputs. PMID:24399937

  9. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram increases fear after acute treatment but reduces fear with chronic treatment: a comparison with tianeptine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nesha S. Burghardt; Gregory M. Sullivan; Bruce S. McEwen; Jack M. Gorman; Joseph E. LeDoux

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are efficacious in the treatment of a variety of fear or anxiety disorders. Although they inhibit the reuptake of serotonin within hours of administration, therapeutic improvement only occurs after several weeks. In this study, we used fear conditioning to begin to understand how acute and chronic SSRI treatment might differentially affect well-characterized fear circuits.

  10. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of vascular damage during photodynamic therapy treatment of tumor.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Xing, Da; Gu, Huaimin; Yang, Diwu; Yang, Sihua; Zeng, Lvming; Chen, Wei R

    2007-01-01

    The optoacoustic technique is a noninvasive imaging method with high spatial resolution. It potentially can be used to monitor anatomical and physiological changes. Photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced vascular damage is one of the important mechanisms of tumor destruction, and real-time monitoring of vascular changes can have therapeutic significance. A unique optoacoustic system is developed for neovascular imaging during tumor phototherapy. In this system, a single-pulse laser beam is used as the light source for both PDT and for concurrently generating ultrasound signals for optoacoustic imaging. To demonstrate its feasibility, this system is used to observe vascular changes during PDT treatment of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) tumors. The photosensitizer used in this study is protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and the laser wavelength is 532 nm. Neovascularization in tumor angiogenesis is visualized by a series of optoacoustic images at different stages of tumor growth. Damage of the vascular structures by PDT is imaged before, during, and after treatment. Rapid, real-time determination of the size of targeted tumor blood vessels is achieved, using the time difference of positive and negative ultrasound peaks during the PDT treatment. The vascular effects of different PDT doses are also studied. The experimental results show that a pulsed laser can be conveniently used to hybridize PDT treatment and optoacoustic imaging and that this integrated system is capable of quantitatively monitoring the structural change of blood vessels during PDT. This method could be potentially used to guide PDT and other phototherapies using vascular changes during treatment to optimize treatment protocols, by choosing appropriate types and doses of photosensitizers and doses of light. PMID:17343476

  11. A simple method of independent treatment time verification in gamma knife radiosurgery using integral dose

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jianyue; Drzymala, Robert; Li Zuofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a simple independent dose calculation method to verify treatment plans for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Our approach uses the total integral dose within the skull as an end point for comparison. The total integral dose is computed using a spreadsheet and is compared to that obtained from Leksell GammaPlan registered . It is calculated as the sum of the integral doses of 201 beams, each passing through a cylindrical volume. The average length of the cylinders is estimated from the Skull-Scaler measurement data taken before treatment. Correction factors are applied to the length of the cylinder depending on the location of a shot in the skull. The radius of the cylinder corresponds to the collimator aperture of the helmet, with a correction factor for the beam penumbra and scattering. We have tested our simple spreadsheet program using treatment plans of 40 patients treated with Gamma Knife registered in our center. These patients differ in geometry, size, lesion locations, collimator helmet, and treatment complexities. Results show that differences between our calculations and treatment planning results are typically within {+-}3%, with a maximum difference of {+-}3.8%. We demonstrate that our spreadsheet program is a convenient and effective independent method to verify treatment planning irradiation times prior to implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

  12. A fast-time study on increasing the capacity of continuous descent approaches through airborne precision spacing 

    E-print Network

    Weitz, Lesley Anne

    2005-11-01

    -e?cient operations, such as Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs), can signi?cantly reduce the noise impact of landing aircraft by keeping aircraft at higher altitudes on approach to the airport and by reducing power during descent, thus alleviating some of the engine... increase terminal area capacity through precise approach spacing. Research has shown that a small increase in runway throughput 1 can have a signi?cant e?ect on mean delay time (Figure 2) [5]. In the APS concept, aircraft in terminal areas will space...

  13. Treatment with afobazole at delayed time points following ischemic stroke improves long-term functional and histological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Katnik, C; Garcia, A; Behensky, A A; Yasny, I E; Shuster, A M; Seredenin, S B; Petrov, A V; Seifu, S; McAleer, J; Willing, A; Cuevas, J

    2014-02-01

    There is currently a significant lack of therapeutic options for acute ischemic stroke, and no drug has been approved for treating patients at delayed time points (?6h post-stroke). Afobazole, an anxiolytic currently used clinically in Russia, has been shown to reduce neuronal and glial cell injury in vitro following ischemia. Experiments using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model were carried out to determine if afobazole can reduce ischemic stroke damage in vivo and expand the therapeutic window for stroke treatment. Post-stroke (24h) application of afobazole (0.3-3mg/kg) significantly decreased infarct volume at 96h post-surgery, as determined by Fluoro-Jade and NeuN staining of brain sections. Moreover, afobazole helped preserve both the levels and normal histological distribution of myelin basic protein, indicating a reduction in white matter injury. A time-dependence study showed that either pre-treatment or treatment started 6 to 48h post-stroke with the drug yields improved outcomes at 96h. The decrease in infarct volume produced by afobazole was blocked by the application of either a ?-1 (BD 1063, 30mg/kg) or a ?-2 (SM-21, 1mg/kg) antagonist, indicating that both receptor subtypes are involved in the effects of afobazole. Treatment with afobazole starting at 24h post-stroke resulted in enhanced survival one month following surgery. Behavioral testing of animals 28-32days post-surgery using the elevated body swing and forelimb grip-strength tests revealed that treatment with afobazole starting 24h post-stroke significantly reduces behavioral deficits caused by ischemic stroke. The increase in survival and improved functional outcomes are accompanied by a reduction in infarct volume, as determined by thionin staining of brain sections. Taken together, our data support the use of afobazole as a post-stroke pharmacological agent to expand the current therapeutic window. PMID:24141021

  14. [Time course of changes in gustatory function test results and subjective symptoms, and predictive factors for response in patients with taste disorder receiving 24-week zinc replacement treatment].

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Masafumi; Kurono, Yuichi; Inokuchi, Akira; Takeda, Noriaki; Aiba, Tsunemasa; Nin, Tomomi; Ikeda, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    In a taste disorder, an agreement between patients' complaints and gustatory function test results is not necessarily found both at the initial hospital visit and during the course of treatment; therefore, it is difficult to assess treatment responses and review treatment strategies based on the assessed treatment responses. The present study investigated the time course of changes in disc gustometry results and subjective symptom scores measured at 4-week intervals in 44 patients with a taste disorder who were considered eligible for zinc replacement treatment and who received polaprezinc at a dose of 150 mg/day (equivalent to a 34 mg/day dose of zinc) for up to 24 weeks. The study also examined the potential differences in treatment outcomes according to the predictive factors for response such as patient background and assessed disc gustometry results during the course of treatment. Results indicated that disc gustometry results and subjective symptom scores showed different time courses of changes. The response rate as measured by disc gustometry was 47.7% at week 12 of treatment, and showed a subsequent slow increase to 56.8% at week 24. On the other hand, subjective symptom scores showed a time-proportional improvement up to week 24. Among the patients included in the present study, a clear difference was found according to the presence or absence of an improving trend as determined by disc gustometry at week 12 of treatment, although there were no differences in ultimate treatment responses, including categories of taste disorder, according to patient background. Patients showing a trend toward improvement had significantly better treatment responses in terms of both ultimate response rates and subjective symptom scores, whereas patients showing no trend toward improvement were less likely to respond to the subsequent 12-week continued treatment. PMID:25255648

  15. Decontamination treatments can increase the prevalence of resistance to antibiotics of Escherichia coli naturally present on poultry.

    PubMed

    Capita, Rosa; Alvarez-Fernández, Elena; Fernández-Buelta, Esther; Manteca, Jennifer; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the ability of various decontaminants to increase the prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in Escherichia coli populations on poultry. Chicken legs were dipped for 15 min into aqueous solutions (wt/vol) of trisodium phosphate (TSP; 12%), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 1200 ppm), ascorbic acid (AA; 2%) or citric acid (CA; 2%), or tap water (control). Samples were analyzed immediately after treatment (day 0) and after five days of storage at 7 ± 1 °C. A total of 250 E. coli isolates (50 from each group of samples; 25 on day 0 and 25 on day 5) were tested against twelve antibiotics of clinical significance by means of a standard disc-diffusion technique. A high prevalence of resistance to antibiotics was observed for E. coli strains from control samples, with three (6.0%) isolates sensitive, three (6.0%) resistant to one antibiotic and 44 (88.0%) isolates resistant to two or more antibiotics. Isolates from control samples had a lower prevalence of resistance than those from treated samples to ampicillin-sulbactam (P < 0.01, samples treated with TSP), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (P < 0.001, ASC, AA and CA), cephotaxime (P < 0.05, TSP), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (P < 0.05, AA; P < 0.01, CA), tetracycline (P < 0.01, CA), ciprofloxacin (P < 0.001, ASC; P < 0.05, AA; P < 0.01, CA) and nitrofurantoin (P < 0.01, TSP). These results suggest that the chemical decontaminants tested could favor the emergence, selection and/or proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains in microbial populations on poultry meat. PMID:23498186

  16. Increased Metastatic Dissemination in Human Melanoma Xenografts after Subcurative Radiation Treatment: Radiation-induced Increase in Fraction of Hypoxic Cells and Hypoxia-induced Up-Regulation of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Einar K. Rofstad; Berit Mathiesen; Kanthi Galappathi

    Cancer patients showing local failure after radiation treatment have increased probability for developing metastatic disease. The mechanisms behind this observation have not been identified. In the present work, metastatic spread after inadequate radiation therapy was studied by using R-18 human melanoma xenografts as models of cancer in humans. Pi- monidazole was used as a hypoxia marker, and hypoxia and urokinase-

  17. Peculiarities of the night-time winter increase in the critical frequency of F2 layer over Irkutsk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Pirog; Gelii Zherebtsov; Nelya Polekh; Marat Deminov; Galina Deminova

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of peculiarities of the night-time winter foF2 increase (NWI) in the East Siberia. Data from ionospheric station Irkutsk (52.5 N. 104.0 E) in the periods 1958-1992, 2002-2010 and the empirical model of the F2 layer critical frequency under magnetically quiet conditions deduced from these data (model Q-F2) are used in this study. Based on the model

  18. The early non-increase of serum BDNF predicts failure of antidepressant treatment in patients with major depression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tadi?, André; Wagner, Stefanie; Schlicht, Konrad Friedrich; Peetz, Dirk; Borysenko, Liudmyla; Dreimüller, Nadine; Hiemke, Christoph; Lieb, Klaus

    2011-03-30

    In the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), early non-improvement of symptoms after initiation of antidepressant treatment is a highly sensitive and specific marker for final treatment failure. On the other hand, meta-analyses of clinical studies investigating serum BDNF (sBDNF) concentration before and after antidepressant treatment showed an increase of sBDNF during treatment, which was correlated with amelioration of depressive symptoms. No study has yet investigated the predictive value of early changes of sBDNF for final treatment outcome of the individual patient. The aim of this study was to investigate in patients with MDD, whether i) the non-increase of sBDNF in the early course of treatment is a specific and sensitive marker for final treatment failure, ii) whether the sensitivity and specificity of early non-improvement for treatment failure can be increased by combining it with the marker "early non-increase of sBDNF". For this purpose, we performed a pilot study with 41 inpatients with MDD according to DSM-IV, who were treated in a naturalistic setting. Depression severity and sBDNF were measured in weekly intervals from baseline to week six with the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-21) and ELISA, respectively. The individual markers sBDNF non-increase and HAMD-21 non-improvement from baseline to day 7 or 14 predicted later non-response and non-remission with moderate to high specificity. The combined marker sBDNF non-increase plus HAMD-21 non-improvement at day 14 increased the specificity for non-response and non-remission to 100%. Our data provide the first evidence that the absence of an early increase of sBDNF in conjunction with early non-improvement might be a highly specific peripheral marker predictive for treatment failure in patients with MDD. If replicated, this combined marker could be considered useful for prospective confirmatory trials in patients with MDD. PMID:20732374

  19. Quantification of Acute Vocal Fold Epithelial Surface Damage with Increasing Time and Magnitude Doses of Vibration Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Van Deusen, Mark; Jerome, W. Gray; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Because the vocal folds undergo repeated trauma during continuous cycles of vibration, the epithelium is routinely susceptible to damage during phonation. Excessive and prolonged vibration exposure is considered a significant predisposing factor in the development of vocal fold pathology. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent of epithelial surface damage following increased time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Forty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to nine groups and received varying phonation time-doses (30, 60, or 120 minutes) and magnitude-doses (control, modal intensity phonation, or raised intensity phonation) of vibration exposure. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify the degree of epithelial surface damage. Results revealed a significant reduction in microprojection density, microprojection height, and depth of the epithelial surface with increasing time and phonation magnitudes doses, signifying increased epithelial surface damage risk with excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. Destruction to the epithelial cell surface may provide significant insight into the disruption of cell function following prolonged vibration exposure. One important goal achieved in the present study was the quantification of epithelial surface damage using objective imaging criteria. These data provide an important foundation for future studies of long-term tissue recovery from excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. PMID:24626217

  20. GPU-accelerated ray-tracing for real-time treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, H.; Ziegenhein, P.; Kamerling, C. P.; Froening, H.; Oelfke, U.

    2014-03-01

    Dose calculation methods in radiotherapy treatment planning require the radiological depth information of the voxels that represent the patient volume to correct for tissue inhomogeneities. This information is acquired by time consuming ray-tracing-based calculations. For treatment planning scenarios with changing geometries and real-time constraints this is a severe bottleneck. We implemented an algorithm for the graphics processing unit (GPU) which implements a ray-matrix approach to reduce the number of rays to trace. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of different strategies of accessing memory in kernel implementations as well as strategies for rapid data transfers between main memory and memory of the graphics device. Our study included the overlapping of computations and memory transfers to reduce the overall runtime using Hyper-Q. We tested our approach on a prostate case (9 beams, coplanar). The measured execution times for a complete ray-tracing range from 28 msec for the computations on the GPU to 99 msec when considering data transfers to and from the graphics device. Our GPU-based algorithm performed the ray-tracing in real-time. The strategies efficiently reduce the time consumption of memory accesses and data transfer overhead. The achieved runtimes demonstrate the viability of this approach and allow improved real-time performance for dose calculation methods in clinical routine.

  1. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zucchelli, Lucia; Perrey, Stephane; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Kerr, Graham; Quaresima, Valentina; Ferrari, Marco; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and secondary somatosensory area (S2), as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI), and with reference to voluntary (VOL) wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM) analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb) in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2). However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC) activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions. PMID:26158464

  2. Time to Culture Conversion and Regimen Composition in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Dylan B.; Franke, Molly F.; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Alcántara Virú, Félix A.; Bonilla, César A.; Sánchez, Epifanio; Guerra, Dalia; Muñoz, Maribel; Llaro, Karim; Palacios, Eda; Mestanza, Lorena; Hurtado, Rocío M.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Shin, Sonya; Mitnick, Carole D.

    2014-01-01

    Sputum cultures are an important tool in monitoring the response to tuberculosis treatment, especially in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. There has, however, been little study of the effect of treatment regimen composition on culture conversion. Well-designed clinical trials of new anti-tuberculosis drugs require this information to establish optimized background regimens for comparison. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess whether the use of an aggressive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis regimen was associated with more rapid sputum culture conversion. We conducted Cox proportional-hazards analyses to examine the relationship between receipt of an aggressive regimen for the 14 prior consecutive days and sputum culture conversion. Sputum culture conversion was achieved in 519 (87.7%) of the 592 patients studied. Among patients who had sputum culture conversion, the median time to conversion was 59 days (IQR: 31–92). In 480 patients (92.5% of those with conversion), conversion occurred within the first six months of treatment. Exposure to an aggressive regimen was independently associated with sputum culture conversion during the first six months of treatment (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.69). Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HR 3.36; 95% CI: 1.47, 7.72) and receiving less exposure to tuberculosis treatment prior to the individualized multidrug-resistant tuberculosis regimen (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.95) were also independently positively associated with conversion. Tachycardia (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.98) and respiratory difficulty (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.97) were independently associated with a lower rate of conversion. This study is the first demonstrating that the composition of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment regimen influences the time to culture conversion. These results support the use of an aggressive regimen as the optimized background regimen in trials of new anti-TB drugs. PMID:25238411

  3. Behavioral flexibility is increased by optogenetic inhibition of neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell during specific time segments

    PubMed Central

    Aquili, Luca; Liu, Andrew W.; Shindou, Mayumi; Shindou, Tomomi; Wickens, Jeffery R.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is vital for survival in an environment of changing contingencies. The nucleus accumbens may play an important role in behavioral flexibility, representing learned stimulus–reward associations in neural activity during response selection and learning from results. To investigate the role of nucleus accumbens neural activity in behavioral flexibility, we used light-activated halorhodopsin to inhibit nucleus accumbens shell neurons during specific time segments of a bar-pressing task requiring a win–stay/lose–shift strategy. We found that optogenetic inhibition during action selection in the time segment preceding a lever press had no effect on performance. However, inhibition occurring in the time segment during feedback of results—whether rewards or nonrewards—reduced the errors that occurred after a change in contingency. Our results demonstrate critical time segments during which nucleus accumbens shell neurons integrate feedback into subsequent responses. Inhibiting nucleus accumbens shell neurons in these time segments, during reinforced performance or after a change in contingencies, increases lose–shift behavior. We propose that the activity of nucleus shell accumbens shell neurons in these time segments plays a key role in integrating knowledge of results into subsequent behavior, as well as in modulating lose–shift behavior when contingencies change. PMID:24639489

  4. Surgical treatment for endometrioma does not increase clinical pregnancy rate or live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate after fresh IVF/ICSI treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiyuan; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Yu; Xiong, Ting; Liao, Xiuhua; Huang, Bo; Zhang, Hanwang

    2014-01-01

    The impact of surgical treatment for endometrioma prior to assisted reproductive treatment (ART) on pregnancy outcomes remains controversy. The aim of this study is to investigate whether surgery provides benefits in subsequent ART outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 292 patients who underwent their first attempted IVF/ICSI treatment at fertility center in a university hospital, from 2011 to 2013. The primary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate (LB/OPR). Although patients with no history of surgery and with visual endometriomas during IVF/ICSI treatment had fewer antral follicles (9.3±4.9 vs. 11.0±5.3, P=0.046), and required higher dosage of gonadotropin (3122.8±1118.1 vs. 2741.7±1096.0, P=0.043) when compared to patients who underwent surgery for endometriomas and without visual endometriomas during IVF/ICSI, the CPR and LB/OPR was not significantly affected (OR=0.771, 95%CI=0.398-1.495, and OR=1.043, 95%CI=0.526-2.069, respectively). In conclusion, surgical treatment does not significantly improve pregnancy outcomes in patients who plan to take IVF/ICSI treatment. PMID:24489996

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of HDAC inhibitor Apicidin in pancreatic carcinoma cells subsequent time and dose dependent treatment.

    PubMed

    Bauden, Monika; Tassidis, Helena; Ansari, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Apicidin is a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that selectively binds to histone deacetylases (HDACs) class I and interferes with the deacetylation process, which results in modification of acetylation level of cellular proteins. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential time and dose dependent cytotoxicity of the test compound, Apicidin, in pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 as well as estimate maximal tolerable dose (MTD) of the test agent and determine EC50 using four complementary colorimetric cytotoxicity or viability assays. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Apicidin (0-5000nM) for 2, 4 and 6h (short term exposure) or 24, 48 and 72h (long term exposure) before conducting cytotoxic analyses with lactate dehydrogenase assay or viability analyses with sulforhodamine B (SRB), methyl tetrazolium (MTT) and crystal violet (CV) assays. In order to investigate whether Apicidin irreversibly affects the cells already during the short term exposure, the medium containing Apicidin was removed and replaced with fresh culturing medium after 6h of treatment. The cells were then incubated for additional 24, 48 or 72h before carrying out the analysis. The results obtained from cytotoxicity and viability assays indicated, that Apicidin was well tolerated by both cell lines at concentrations below 100nM at any given time point and at all applied concentrations during the short term (6h or less) treatment. Continuous prolonged term exposures (48h or greater) of the cells to Apicidin with concentration exceeding 100nM resulted in significantly increasing cytotoxicity and sustained significant loss of cell viability. Moreover, long term exposure of pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 to Apicidin concentrations exceeding 100nM showed an initial anti-proliferative effect before cytotoxicity onset. In summary, MTD was exposure time dependent and estimated to 100nM for long term treatment and to at least 5000nM for treatment not greater than 6h. EC50 concentration of Apicidin was established after long term treatment, however with some variation when comparing the different assays and cell lines. Results from this study may encourage reinvestigating the capacity of potent HDACI Apicidin as an attractive agent for interfering with the deacetylation process catalyzed by HDACs for potential pancreatic cancer intervention. PMID:25917448

  6. Time Course of Mild Arm Lymphedema After Breast Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bar Ad, Voichita, E-mail: barad@xrt.upenn.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cheville, Andrea [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dutta, Pinaki; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harris, Eleanor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Arm lymphedema is a potential consequence of the treatment for breast carcinoma. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the progression of mild arm lymphedema after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study cohort was drawn from 1,713 consecutive Stage I or II breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy, including axillary staging followed by radiation. Arm lymphedema was documented in 266 (16%) of 1,713 patients. One hundred nine patients, 6% of the overall group and 40% of the patients with arm lymphedema, presented with mild arm lymphedema, defined as a difference of 2 cm or less between the measured circumferences of the affected and unaffected arms. Results: Among the 109 patients with mild arm lymphedema at the time of arm lymphedema diagnosis, the rate of freedom from progression to more severe lymphedema was 79% at 1 year, 66% at 3 years, and 52% at 5 years. The patients who were morbidly obese, had positive axillary lymph nodes, or received supraclavicular irradiation at the time of breast cancer treatment were at higher risk of progression from mild arm lymphedema to more severe edema. Conclusions: Mild arm lymphedema, generally considered to be a minor complication after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer, was associated with a risk of progression to a more severe grade of arm lymphedema in a substantial fraction of patients.

  7. Microbiological monitoring of acid mine drainage treatment systems and aquatic surroundings using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Han, J S; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    In general, acid mine drainage (AMD) causes low pH and high metal concentrations in mining areas and surroundings. The aim of this research was to achieve microbiological monitoring for AMD and to assess whether mine water outflows have any ecological effects on the aqueous ecosystem receiving effluents from different types of treatment system. The water quality of aquatic sample was analyzed and the molecular biological diversity of the samples was assessed using 16S rRNA methods, which were implemented to determine which bacteria existed throughout various unit processes for different AMD treatment systems and their receiving water environments. Acidiphilium cryptum, a heterotrophic acidophile, was found at the AMD sites, and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, which can reduce iron using insoluble Fe(III) as an electron acceptor, was detected at many AMD treatment facilities and downstream of the treatment processes. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on specific genes of selected bacteria. Surprisingly, obvious trends were observed in the relative abundance of the various bacteria that corresponded to the water quality analytical results. The copy number of Desulfosporosinus orientus, a sulfate reducing bacteria, was also observed to decrease in response to decreases in metals according to the downstream flow of the AMD treatment system. PMID:19494446

  8. Ahead of its time: 40 years after the advice versus treatment family study.

    PubMed

    Orford, Jim

    2015-07-01

    Griffith Edwards' proposal for the alcohol 'treatment versus advice' study-also known as 'the family study'-illustrates how ahead of his time he was. The sample consisted of 100 married men who attended with their wives for a comprehensive assessment. Those randomized to 'advice' were told that the responsibility for attaining the goal of abstinence lay in the patient's hands, supported by his wife, that no further intervention was indicated, but that the research social worker would 'keep a watching brief' by visiting the home every 4?weeks for 12?months. Across multiple outcome measures there was no evidence that 'treatment'-considerable in amount by modern standards-was better than advice. Conversely, marital variables such as wives' alcohol-related hardship were significantly predictive of the outcome of the drinking problem. The study was arguably one of the principal sources of the whole 'brief treatments'/'brief interventions' movement which gathered momentum from then on and which, arguably, has itself become the conventional wisdom. The findings questioned the very nature of the addiction change process, suggesting that non-specific factors might be the more important, an issue that still remains unresolved. It is less clear that the study has left such a mark in terms of the development of a family and social model of addiction treatment and change. For example, it continues to be a struggle to help treatment organizations to become more family-inclusive. PMID:26042559

  9. The prospective relationship between sedentary time and cardiometabolic health in adults at increased cardiometabolic risk – the Hoorn Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary time has been identified as an important and independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adults. However, to date most studies have focused on TV time, few also included other sedentary behaviours such as computer use and reading, and most studies had a cross-sectional design. We aimed to examine the prospective relationship between time spent on sedentary behaviours in different domains with individual and clustered cardiometabolic risk in adults. Methods Longitudinal data of 622 adults aged 30-50 years (42% males) at increased cardiometabolic risk were used. Leisure time TV viewing, computer use, reading and other sedentary activities (e.g. passive transport) were assessed using a subscale of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (AQuAA), and summed into overall sedentary behaviour (min/day). Weight and blood pressure were measured, waist-to-hip ratio and BMI calculated, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides determined. T2DM risk score was estimated according to the ARIC formula and CVD mortality risk according to the SCORE formula. Results Generalized Estimating Equation analysis demonstrated that over a two-year period higher levels of overall sedentary time and TV time were weakly but negatively associated with one out of 13 studied cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. HDL cholesterol). Conclusion Overall sedentary time, as well as sedentary time in different domains, was virtually not related with cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:25027974

  10. Improved time to treatment failure with an intermittent oxaliplatin strategy: results of CONcePT

    PubMed Central

    Hochster, H. S.; Grothey, A.; Hart, L.; Rowland, K.; Ansari, R.; Alberts, S.; Chowhan, N.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Keaton, M.; Hainsworth, J. D.; Childs, B. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxaliplatin is an integral component of colorectal cancer treatment, but its use is limited by neurotoxicity. The Combined Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity Prevention Trial (CONcePT) tested intermittent oxaliplatin (IO) administration and the use of concurrent calcium and magnesium salts (Ca/Mg), two modifications intended to reduce neurotoxicity and extend the duration of treatment. Patients and methods In this trial involving double randomization, 140 patients were randomized to receive modified FOLFOX7 plus bevacizumab with IO (eight-cycle blocks of oxaliplatin treatment) versus continuous oxaliplatin (CO); and Ca/Mg versus placebo (pre- and postoxaliplatin infusion). The primary end point was time-to-treatment failure (TTF). Results One hundred thirty-nine patients were entered and treated up to the point of early study termination due to concerns by the data-monitoring committee (DMC) that Ca/Mg adversely affected tumor response. Tumor response was not a study end point. Given DMC concerns, an additional independent, blinded radiology review of all images showed no adverse effect of treatment schedule or Ca/Mg on response by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. The IO schedule was superior to CO [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.581, P = 0.0026] for both TTF and time-to-tumor progression (TTP) (HR = 0.533, P = 0.047). Conclusions An IO dosing schedule had a significant benefit on both TTF and TTP versus CO dosing in this trial despite the very attenuated sample. There was no effect of Ca/Mg on response. PMID:24608198

  11. Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  12. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Andrén; Mikael Svensson

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. However, to date only few

  13. Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism

    E-print Network

    Auyeung, B.; Lombardo, M. V.; Heinrichs, M.; Chakrabarti, B.; Sule, A.; Deakin, J. B.; Bethlehem, R. A. I.; Dickens, L.; Mooney, N.; Sipple, J. A. N.; Thiemann, P.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2015-02-10

    OPEN ORIGINAL ARTICLE Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism B Auyeung1,2, MV Lombardo2,3,4, M Heinrichs5,6, B Chakrabarti2,7, A Sule8, JB Deakin9,10, RAI Bethlehem2, L... Dickens2, N Mooney2, JAN Sipple2, P Thiemann2 and S Baron-Cohen2,10 Autism spectrum conditions (autism) affect ~1% of the population and are characterized by deficits in social communication. Oxytocin has been widely reported to affect social...

  14. Artificial Neural Network classification of operator workload with an assessment of time variation and noise-enhancement to increase performance

    PubMed Central

    Casson, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Workload classification—the determination of whether a human operator is in a high or low workload state to allow their working environment to be optimized—is an emerging application of passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems. Practical systems must not only accurately detect the current workload state, but also have good temporal performance: requiring little time to set up and train the classifier, and ensuring that the reported performance level is consistent and predictable over time. This paper investigates the temporal performance of an Artificial Neural Network based classification system. For networks trained on little EEG data good classification accuracies (86%) are achieved over very short time frames, but substantial decreases in accuracy are found as the time gap between the network training and the actual use is increased. Noise-enhanced processing, where artificially generated noise is deliberately added to the testing signals, is investigated as a potential technique to mitigate this degradation without requiring the network to be re-trained using more data. Small stochastic resonance effects are demonstrated whereby the classification process gets better in the presence of more noise. The effect is small and does not eliminate the need for re-training, but it is consistent, and this is the first demonstration of such effects for non-evoked/free-running EEG signals suitable for passive BCI. PMID:25520608

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Per-Protocol Time-to-Event Treatment Efficacy in Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Peter B; Shepherd, Bryan E; Hudgens, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Assessing per-protocol treatment effcacy on a time-to-event endpoint is a common objective of randomized clinical trials. The typical analysis uses the same method employed for the intention-to-treat analysis (e.g., standard survival analysis) applied to the subgroup meeting protocol adherence criteria. However, due to potential post-randomization selection bias, this analysis may mislead about treatment efficacy. Moreover, while there is extensive literature on methods for assessing causal treatment effects in compliers, these methods do not apply to a common class of trials where a) the primary objective compares survival curves, b) it is inconceivable to assign participants to be adherent and event-free before adherence is measured, and c) the exclusion restriction assumption fails to hold. HIV vaccine efficacy trials including the recent RV144 trial exemplify this class, because many primary endpoints (e.g., HIV infections) occur before adherence is measured, and nonadherent subjects who receive some of the planned immunizations may be partially protected. Therefore, we develop methods for assessing per-protocol treatment efficacy for this problem class, considering three causal estimands of interest. Because these estimands are not identifiable from the observable data, we develop nonparametric bounds and semiparametric sensitivity analysis methods that yield estimated ignorance and uncertainty intervals. The methods are applied to RV144. PMID:24187408

  16. [Use of timolol in treatment of increased intra-ocular pressure following surgery of congenital glaucoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Demailly, P

    1979-10-01

    In 16 patients from 9 to 34 year old, whose intraocular pressure remained elevated after a surgical procedure against congenital glaucoma, a timolol collyriam of 0.25 or 0.50 concentration was used as first topic treatment. Success was obtained only in 15% of the cuses. Better result followed systemic use of sulfonamid together with timolol. Nevertheless, medical treatment of these residual overpressures is still difficult. It showld be controlled every three months, paying much attention to the diary intraocular pressure curve. PMID:521605

  17. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Minwoo A; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKC? expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKC? were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKC? and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26168042

  18. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minwoo A.; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKC? expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKC? were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKC? and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26168042

  19. Weighted logrank tests for interval censored data when assessment times depend on treatment.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael P; Shih, Joanna H

    2012-12-10

    We consider weighted logrank tests for interval censored data when assessment times may depend on treatment, and for each individual, we only use the two assessment times that bracket the event of interest. It is known that treating finite right endpoints as observed events can substantially inflate the type I error rate under assessment-treatment dependence (ATD), but the validity of several other implementations of weighted logrank tests (score tests, permutation tests, multiple imputation tests) has not been studied in this situation. With a bounded number of unique assessment times, the score test under the grouped continuous model retains the type I error rate asymptotically under ATD; however, although the approximate permutation test based on the permutation central limit theorem is not asymptotically valid under every ATD scenario, we show through simulation that in many ATD scenarios, it retains the type I error rate better than the score test. We show a case where the approximate permutation test retains the type I error rate when the exact permutation test does not. We study and modify the multiple imputation logrank tests of Huang, Lee, and Yu (2008, Statistics in Medicine, 27: 3217-3226), showing that the distribution of the rank-like scores asymptotically does not depend on the assessment times. We show through simulations that our modifications of the multiple imputation logrank tests retain the type I error rate in all cases studied, even with ATD and a small number of individuals in each treatment group. Simulations were performed using the interval R package. PMID:22786795

  20. A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlis, A. K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.

    2012-06-01

    The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration.

  1. Increased Survivorship and Altered Cytokine Profile from Treatment of Influenza A H1N1-Infected Mice with Ekybion: A Drug Complex of Natural Extracts and Inorganic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lupfer, Christopher; Besnouin, Didier; Tepper, Samuel E.; Maselko, Maciej; Patton, Kristin M.; Pastey, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Ekybion is a drug complex of 16 natural extracts and inorganic compounds designed to treat a variety of respiratory pathogens of bacterial and viral origin. It is licensed throughout Europe for the treatment of respiratory tract infections from equine parainfluenza type 3 and equine herpes virus type 1 in equine stables. The purpose of this paper was to test the efficacy of Ekybion on a well-developed animal model of influenza A infection and determine a mode of action. Experiments were performed with Balb/c mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus and treated with nebulized Ekybion every 8?h in a time-dependant or dose-dependant fashion. These experiments showed that mice treated prior to infection with Ekybion had a higher survival rates (~46%) compared with untreated animals (~0%). Paradoxically, these mice showed no significant difference in lung virus titer or weight loss. There was, however, a decrease in the level of GM-CSF, IL-6, and G-CSF cytokines in the lungs of Ekybion-treated, infected mice. It is possible that decreases in proinflammatory cytokines may have contributed to increased survivorship in Ekybion-treated influenza-infected mice. PMID:20981272

  2. Process Improvement to Enhance Existing Stroke Team Activity Toward More Timely Thrombolytic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han-Jin; Lee, Kyung Yul; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae-Jin; Jung, Yo Han; Choi, Hye-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Process improvement (PI) is an approach for enhancing the existing quality improvement process by making changes while keeping the existing process. We have shown that implementation of a stroke code program using a computerized physician order entry system is effective in reducing the in-hospital time delay to thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. We investigated whether implementation of this PI could further reduce the time delays by continuous improvement of the existing process. Methods After determining a key indicator [time interval from emergency department (ED) arrival to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis] and conducting data analysis, the target time from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was set at 40 min. The key indicator was monitored continuously at a weekly stroke conference. The possible reasons for the delay were determined in cases for which IV thrombolysis was not administered within the target time and, where possible, the problems were corrected. The time intervals from ED arrival to the various evaluation steps and treatment before and after implementation of the PI were compared. Results The median time interval from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was significantly reduced after implementation of the PI (from 63.5 to 45 min, p=0.001). The variation in the time interval was also reduced. A reduction in the evaluation time intervals was achieved after the PI [from 23 to 17 min for computed tomography scanning (p=0.003) and from 35 to 29 min for complete blood counts (p=0.006)]. Conclusions PI is effective for continuous improvement of the existing process by reducing the time delays between ED arrival and IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. PMID:25324882

  3. Time-Dependent Predictors of Loss to Follow-Up in a Large HIV Treatment Cohort in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Seema Thakore; Chang, Charlotte; Chaplin, Beth; Rawizza, Holly; Jolayemi, Oluwatoyin; Banigbe, Bolanle; Okonkwo, Prosper; Kanki, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Background ?Most evaluations of loss to follow-up (LTFU) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment programs focus on baseline predictors, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. As risk of LTFU is a continuous issue, the aim of this evaluation was to augment existing information with further examination of time-dependent predictors of loss. Methods ?This was a retrospective evaluation of data collected between 2004 and 2012 by the Harvard School of Public Health and the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria as part of PEPFAR-funded program in Nigeria. We used multivariate modeling methods to examine associations between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and early adherence patterns with LTFU, defined as no refills collected for at least 2 months since the last scheduled appointment. Results ?Of 51 953 patients initiated on ART between 2004 and 2011, 14 626 (28%) were LTFU by 2012. Factors associated with increased risk for LTFU were young age, having nonincome-generating occupations or no education, being unmarried, World Health Organization (WHO) stage, having a detectable viral load, and lower CD4+ cell counts. In a subset analysis, adherence patterns during the first 3 months of ART were associated with risk of LTFU by month 12. Conclusions ?In settings with limited resources, early adherence patterns, as well as CD4+ cell counts and unsuppressed viral load, at any time point in treatment are predictive of loss and serve as effective markers for developing targeted interventions to reduce rates of attrition. PMID:25734125

  4. Does examination of fecal samples 24 hours after cestocide treatment increase the sensitivity of Anoplocephala spp. detection in naturally infected horses?

    PubMed Central

    Elsener, Johanne; Villeneuve, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Fecal samples were examined immediately before and 24 to 48 h after cestocide treatment for a comparative detection of tapeworm-positive horses. In early winter, 17 weanlings, 20 yearlings, 15 2-year-old horses, 24 breeding mares, and 2 stallions were treated with praziquantel in combination with a macrocyclic lactone. The horses were presumed to be naturally infected with tapeworms after pasture grazing. Fecal samples were collected before treatment (Day 0), at 24 or 48 h after treatment (Day 1–2), and 16 to 21 d after treatment (Day 16–21). A Wisconsin test was done on all fecal samples. Odds of detection of infection for all age groups increased by a factor of 2.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30 to 3.20] from Day 0 to Day 1–2 (P = 0.002). PMID:21532821

  5. Is a modified form of constraint induced movement therapy an effective treatment for increasing upper extremity function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Godt; Kip Christensen

    2006-01-01

    Clinical Scenario: Extensive research has been conducted on the efficacy of constraint induced movement therapy for increasing upper extremity function in the adult post-stroke population. Little is known regarding the efficacy of this treatment in the pediatric population. The purpose of this critically appraised topic is to determine if constraint induced movement therapy is effective in improving upper extremity function

  6. Risk-reducing surgery increases survival in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers unaffected at time of family referral.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Sarah L; Sperrin, Matthew; Baildam, Andrew; Ross, Gary L; Clayton, Richard; Lalloo, Fiona; Buchan, Iain; Howell, Anthony; Evans, D Gareth R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if risk-reducing surgery (RRS) increases survival among BRCA1/2 carriers without breast/ovarian cancer at the time of family referral. Female BRCA1/2 carriers were identified from the Manchester Genetic Medicine Database. Those patients alive and unaffected at the date of first family ascertainment were included in this study. Female first-degree relatives (FDRs) without predictive genetic testing who otherwise met eligibility criteria were also included. The effect of breast and ovarian RRS on survival was analysed. The survival experiences of RRS and non-RRS patients, stratified by BRCA status, were examined with Kaplan-Meier curves and contrasted using log-rank tests and Cox models. 691 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers without breast or ovarian cancer at time of family ascertainment were identified; 346 BRCA1 and 345 BRCA2. 105 BRCA1 carriers and 122 BRCA2 carriers developed breast cancer during follow-up. The hazard of death was statistically significantly lower (P < 0.001) following RRS versus no RRS. 10-year survival for women having RRS was 98.9 % (92.4-99.8 %) among BRCA1 and 98.0 % (92.2-99.5 %) among BRCA2 carriers. This survival benefit with RRS remained significant after FDRs were added. Women who had any form of RRS had increased survival compared to those who did not have RRS; a further increase in survival was seen among women who had both types of surgery. However, formal evidence for a survival advantage from bilateral mastectomy alone requires further research. PMID:24249359

  7. ABA treatment increases both the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis, and nonphotochemical quenching in the moss Atrichum undulatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Beckett; Zsolt Csintalan; Zoltán Tuba

    2000-01-01

    Pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence was used to investigate whether abscisic acid (ABA) pretreatment increases the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in the moss Atrichum undulatum. In unstressed plants, ABA pretreatment decreased the FV\\/Fm ratio, largely as a result of an increase in Fo. This indicated a reduction in energy transfer between LHCII and PSII, possibly hardening the moss to subsequent stress

  8. Increased peripheral T cell reactivity to microbial antigens and collagen type II in rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with soluble TNF? receptors

    PubMed Central

    Berg, L; Lampa, J; Rogberg, S; van Vollenhoven, R; Klareskog, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Peripheral T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are hyporesponsive when stimulated with antigen or mitogen in vitro, possibly owing to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?). This study sought to find out if and how RA T cell reactivity is affected during treatment with etanercept (Enbrel), a soluble TNF? receptor.?METHODS—Heparinised blood was collected from patients with RA at baseline, after four and eight weeks of etanercept treatment, and from healthy controls. After density separation spontaneous production of interferon ? (IFN?), TNF?, interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was detected by ELISPOT. For detection of T cell reactivity, PBMC were stimulated in vitro with mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)), microbial antigens (purified protein derivative (PPD), influenza), or an autoantigen, collagen type II (CII). Supernatants were analysed for IFN? and IL2 content by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).?RESULTS—In RA the number of cells spontaneously producing IFN? was significantly increased after four, but not eight weeks' treatment with etanercept. T cell reactivity, as measured by IFN? production to PPD, influenza, and CII was significantly increased after four and sustained after eight weeks' treatment, whereas IFN? production induced by PHA remained unchanged. TNF? production was significantly higher in patients with RA than in controls and did not change during etanercept treatment.?CONCLUSION—Treatment of patients with RA with etanercept may lead to increased peripheral T cell reactivity both to microbial antigens and to self antigens such as CII. These findings indicate that TNF? blockade may not only suppress but also stimulate certain aspects of antimicrobial immune defence and autoimmunity.?? PMID:11156546

  9. Dissolved organic carbon lability increases with water residence time in the alluvial aquifer of a river floodplain ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, Ashley M.; Wright, Meredith S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Cory, Rose M.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2015-04-01

    We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lability and composition throughout the alluvial aquifer of the 16 km2 Nyack Floodplain in northwest Montana, USA. Water influx to the aquifer derives almost exclusively from the Middle Fork of the Flathead River, and water residence times within the aquifer range from days to months. Across seasons and channel discharge conditions, we measured DOC concentration, lability, and optical properties of aquifer water sampled from 12 wells, both near and ~3 m below the water table. Concentrations of DOC were typically low (542 ± 22.7 µg L-1; mean ± se), and the percentage of labile DOC averaged 18 ± 12% during 3 day laboratory assays. Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices revealed two humic-like and two amino acid-like fluorescence groups. Total DOC, humic-like components, and specific UV absorbance decreased with water residence time, consistent with sorption to aquifer sediments. However, labile DOC (both concentration and fraction) increased with water residence time, suggesting a concurrent influx or production of labile DOC. Thus, although the carbon-poor, oxygen-rich aquifer is a net sink for DOC, recalcitrant DOC appears to be replaced with more labile DOC along aquifer flow paths. Our observation of DOC production in long flow paths contrasts with studies of hyporheic DOC consumption along short (centimeters to meters) flow paths and highlights the importance of understanding the role of labile organic matter production and/or influx in alluvial aquifer carbon cycling.

  10. Estrogen as a new option for prevention and treatment of breast cancer - does this need a 'time gap'?

    PubMed

    Mueck, A O; Seeger, H

    2015-08-01

    Due to experimental and clinical data, the hypothesis has been raised that a 'time gap' is necessary to achieve 'carcinoprotection' by estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women, possibly also in combination with certain ('neutral') progestogens. As the mechanism, apoptotic effects are discussed, which, however, would only work after long-term estrogen deprivation. Based on this hypothesis, in general, an early initiation of menopausal hormone therapy would increase the risk of breast cancer, in sharp contrast to the beneficial cardiovascular effects, only protective within the 'window of opportunity' directly after menopause. However, other mechanisms are possible which could work without a time gap, leading to a decreased risk of breast cancer or even being carcinoprotective compared with no treatment. For example, within estradiol metabolism, carcinoprotective enzymes can be upregulated and protective estradiol metabolites can be produced, as shown, for example, especially in women with balanced nutrition and physical activity. In addition, it has to be considered that a long time is needed to see any clinical effects based on the biological mechanisms which may start early after estrogen exposure. Thus, more research and studies are needed to prove the 'gap hypothesis', and it may be that estrogen is beneficial for a woman at any time of her life. PMID:25958921

  11. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation. PMID:23500587

  12. Increased Maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Remission after Integrated Serotonergic Treatment and Cognitive Psychotherapy Compared with Medication Alone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Biondi; Angelo Picardi

    2005-01-01

    Background: Both medication and psychotherapy are effective in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, they both have disadvantages. We aimed at studying the long-term effectiveness of integrated treatment compared with medication alone. Methods: A private practice sample of 20 consecutive patients with OCD (DSM-III-R) who achieved remission or marked improvement [Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score ?10 and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)

  13. Bilateral hippocampal volume increases after long-term lithium treatment in patients with bipolar disorder: a longitudinal MRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaan Yucel; Margaret C. McKinnon; Valerie H. Taylor; Kathryn Macdonald; Martin Alda; L. Trevor Young; Glenda M. MacQueen

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  The majority of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the hippocampus in patients with bipolar disorder (BD)\\u000a show no differences in hippocampal volume between patients and healthy controls. Significant variability, however, exists\\u000a in the medication status of patients included in these studies. In particular, treatment with lithium may exert long-term\\u000a effects on hippocampal volume, influencing cognitive outcomes in BD

  14. Gonadotropin treatment increases homocysteine levels in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: an indirect effect mediated by changes in body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Oktenli; Z Yesilova; M Ozata; H Yaman; A Tuzun; S Dundar; S Y Sanisoglu; U Musabak; M K Erbil; K Dagalp

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the alterations in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations during a testosterone-deficient state and after gonadotropin treatment for 6 months in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Thirty-five newly diagnosed male patients with IHH (mean age 21·341·53 years) and 29 age- and body mass index-matched healthy males (mean age 21·521·77 years)

  15. Strengthening of oxidation resistant materials for gas turbine applications. [treatment of silicon ceramics for increased flexural strength and impact resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics were treated to form compressive surface layers. On the silicon carbide, quenching and thermal exposure treatments were used, and on the silicon nitride, quenching, carburizing, and a combination of quenching and carburizing were used. In some cases substantial improvements in impact resistance and/or flexural strength were observed. The presence of compressive surface stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests.

  16. Increased life expectancy resulting from addition of l-deprenyl to Madopar ® treatment in Parkinson's disease: A longterm study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Birkmayer; J. Knoll; P. Riederer; M. B. H. Youdim; Vera Hars; J. Marton

    1985-01-01

    Summary In an open, uncontrolled study the longterm (9 years) effect of treatment with Madopar® alone (n=377) or in combination with l-deprenyl (selegiline, selective monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor) (n=564) have been compared in Parkinsonian patients. In patients who lost their response to conventional Madopar therapy the addition of l-deprenyl resulted in a significant recouping of levodopa effect. The survival

  17. Intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment increases osteoblast number, steady state messenger ribonucleic acid levels for osteocalcin, and bone formation in tibial metaphysis of hypophysectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, I U; Dobnig, H; Turner, R T

    1995-11-01

    The effects of GH and PTH on cancellous histomorphometry were determined in the proximal tibial metaphysis of hypophysectomized (HYPOX) sexually mature female rats. HYPOX resulted in uterine atrophy and a loss in body weight. Longitudinal bone growth ceased and bone formation was greatly reduced. There were decreases in cancellous bone area, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness. Intermittent treatment with GH did not influence uterine weight in HYPOX rats. However, GH resulted in resumption of whole body weight gain, as well as maintenance of normal longitudinal bone growth. Additionally, GH partially maintained bone formation in HY POX rats and did not have a significant effect on steady state messenger RNA levels for osteocalcin. Intermittent treatment with PTH had no effect on whole body weight gain, uterine weight, or longitudinal bone growth. In contrast, PTH increased bone formation compared with the baseline, HYPOX, and GH-treated HYPOX rats, and dramatically increased osteocalcin messenger RNA levels compared with the latter two groups. The increased bone formation was primarily due to an increase in osteoblast number; the mineral apposition rate, an index of osteoblast activity, was increased compared with control and GH-treated rats but not compared with baseline values. Interestingly, neither treatment influenced indices of bone resorption. PMID:7588250

  18. Medicare, Ethics, and Reflexive Longevity: Governing Time and Treatment in an Aging Society

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Sharon R.; Fjord, Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The clinical activities that constitute longevity making in the United States are perhaps the quintessential example of a dynamic modern temporality, characterized by the quest for risk reduction, the powerful progress narratives of science and medicine, and the personal responsibility of calculating the worth of more time in relation to medical options and age. This article explores how medicine materializes and problematizes time through a discussion of ethicality—in this case, the form of governance in which scientific evidence, Medicare policy and clinical knowledge and practice organize first, what becomes “thinkable” as the best medicine, and second, how that kind of understanding shapes a telos of living. Using liver disease and liver transplantation in the United States as my example, I explore the influence of Medicare coverage decisions on treatments, clinical standards, and ethical necessity. Reflexive longevity—a relentless future-thinking about life itself—is one feature of this ethicality. PMID:21834359

  19. Real-time treatment of dairy manure: implications of oxidation reduction potential regimes to nutrient management strategies.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, K Victor; Liao, Ping H; Mavinic, Donald S

    2008-03-01

    A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at a dairy farm to test real-time based control in winter operation conditions. A combination of high loading and low oxidation reduction potential (ORP) conditions in the aerobic stage of SBR treatment (an end value of -50 to -150 mV) inhibited nitrification while maintaining carbon removal. After a period of over-aeration over several cycles, the ORP at the end of the aerobic stage increased to values of 50-75 mV. Subsequently, nitrification was observed, accompanied by higher total cycle times. Significant increase in removal efficiencies of ammonical nitrogen (alpha<0.0001) and chemical oxygen demand (alpha<0.001) were observed for the high ORP phase. It is postulated that higher ORP regimes are needed for nitrification. In low ORP regimes, nitrification is absent or occurs at an extremely low rate. It is also noted that nitrifying systems treating high strength animal manure can possibly lead to unacceptably high levels of effluent nitrate+nitrite nitrogen (NO(x)-N). Two manure management schemes are proposed that give the farmer an option to either retain the nutrients, or remove them from the wastewater. Some advantages and disadvantages of the schemes are also discussed. PMID:17467983

  20. Time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Iain; Marmor, Meir; Caldwell, Amber; Coughlin, Richard; Gosselin, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the use of time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems. Methods Time intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge for patients with isolated femur fractures in four low- and middle-income countries were compared with the corresponding values from one German hospital, an Israeli hospital and the National Trauma Data Bank of the United States of America by means of Student’s t-tests. The correlations between the time intervals recorded in a country and that country’s expenditure on health and gross domestic product (GDP) were also evaluated using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Findings Relative to patients from high-income countries, those from low- and middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be male and to have been treated by open femoral nailing, and their intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge were significantly longer. Strong negative correlations were detected between the interval from injury to admission and government expenditure on health, and between the interval from admission to surgery and the per capita values for total expenditure on health, government expenditure on health and GDP. Strong positive correlations were detected between the interval from surgery to discharge and general government expenditure on health. Conclusion The time intervals for the treatment of femur fractures are relatively long in low- and middle-income countries, can easily be measured, and are highly correlated with accessible and quantifiable country data on health and economics. PMID:24391299

  1. [Probiotics as an items of increasing the effectiveness of treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Gonchar, N V; Kassner, L N; Korenev, P B; Il'kovich, Iu M; Mogilina, S V; Petrov, L N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the efficiency of microbial probiotics Vitaflor and metabolic probiotic Aktoflor-C in complex treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adolescents in a hospital. The observation involved 38 children aged 11 to 18 years with radiologically verified community-acquired pneumonia, including 23 boys and 15 girls. Patients were divided in 3 groups. Patients in group 1 (n = 13) simultaneously with the antibiotic therapy received per os Vitaflor probiotic containing symbiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus; patients in group 2 (n = 10) along with antibiotic therapy received per os metabolic probiotic Aktoflor-C, containing low molecular weight exometabolites bacteria; patient of the comparison group (n = 15) received antibiotic therapy only. The effectiveness of the used treatment schemes was assessed on the dynamics of the gut state microbiot acoarding to an extended bacteriological examination of faecal flora, level of saliva IgA secretory (before and after treatment), the dynamics of SF-36 quality of life 1 month after discharge from hospital. Was conducted a study of economic efficiency of different modes of therapy. Results showed that adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia during standard antibiotic therapy indicated development of dysbiotic bowel disturbances in the form of reliable oppression of the bifidobacteria and laktoflora. Dysbiosis of the microbial associations are not conducive to proper implementation of immune and nutritional functions of the intestine that shows the imperfection of rehabilitation of patients with pneumonia according to the evaluation of SF-36 quality of life. Pharmacoeconomic analysis revealed the benefits of probiotic metabolic type "Aktoflor" used in addition to standard therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in adolescents. PMID:21560395

  2. Effects of First-Time Overnight CPAP Therapy for Increasing the Complexity of the Patient's Physiological System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Chen, Hong-Ruei; Pan, Wen-Yao; Liu, Cyuan-Cin; Su, Mao-Chang; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Studies regarding the effects of short-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy are not sufficient. A total of 35 patients with moderate to severe untreated OSA were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised 22 patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) for one night, and Group 2 comprised 13 patients who received PSG combined with CPAP therapy. To evaluate the influence of receiving CPAP therapy for one night, we measured 5?min wrist pulse signals before and after the experiment to assess heart rate variability, as well as novel short time multiscale entropy (sMSE) indicator that examines complexity in physiological signals. The results show that the participants in Group 1 exhibited significant changes in normalized low-frequency power/normalized high-frequency power (nLF/nHF) (0.72 ± 0.09 versus 1.11 ± 0.11, P = 0.006) values before and after the PSG study. By contrast, the participants in Group 2 showed no significant changes in the 3 indicators. Regarding the sMSE indicator, Group 2 patients exhibited significant increases in the sMSE. CPAP therapy administered for one night can reduce the sympathovagal imbalance in patients with moderate to severe untreated OSA and increase the complexity of the patient's physiological system, thereby reflecting their overall improved health. PMID:25140195

  3. Effects of first-time overnight CPAP therapy for increasing the complexity of the patient's physiological system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Chen, Hong-Ruei; Pan, Wen-Yao; Liu, Cyuan-Cin; Su, Mao-Chang; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Studies regarding the effects of short-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy are not sufficient. A total of 35 patients with moderate to severe untreated OSA were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised 22 patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) for one night, and Group 2 comprised 13 patients who received PSG combined with CPAP therapy. To evaluate the influence of receiving CPAP therapy for one night, we measured 5?min wrist pulse signals before and after the experiment to assess heart rate variability, as well as novel short time multiscale entropy (sMSE) indicator that examines complexity in physiological signals. The results show that the participants in Group 1 exhibited significant changes in normalized low-frequency power/normalized high-frequency power (nLF/nHF) (0.72 ± 0.09 versus 1.11 ± 0.11, P = 0.006) values before and after the PSG study. By contrast, the participants in Group 2 showed no significant changes in the 3 indicators. Regarding the sMSE indicator, Group 2 patients exhibited significant increases in the sMSE. CPAP therapy administered for one night can reduce the sympathovagal imbalance in patients with moderate to severe untreated OSA and increase the complexity of the patient's physiological system, thereby reflecting their overall improved health. PMID:25140195

  4. Increase in ferric and ferrous iron in the rat hippocampus with time after kainate-induced excitotoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, X S; Ong, W Y; Connor, J R

    2002-03-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the distribution of ferric and ferrous iron in the hippocampus after kainate-induced neuronal injury. A modified Perl's or Turnbull's blue histochemical stain was used to demonstrate Fe3+ and Fe2+ respectively. Very light staining for iron was observed in the hippocampus, in normal or saline-injected rats and 1-day post-kainate-injected rats. At 1 week postinjection, a number of Fe3+-positive, but very few Fe2+-positive, cells were present, in the degenerating CA fields. At 1 month postinjection, large numbers of Fe3+-positive glial cells, and some Fe2+-positive blood vessels, were observed. At 2 months postinjection, large numbers of Fe3+- and Fe2+-positive glial cells were present. The labeled cells had light and electron microscopic features of oligodendrocytes, and were double labeled with CNPase, a marker for oligodendrocytes. The observation of an increasing number of Fe3+- and Fe2+-positive cells in the degenerating hippocampus with time is consistent with the results of a nuclear microscopic study, in which an increasing amount of iron was detected in the degenerating hippocampus after kainate injection. In addition, the present study showed a shift in the oxidation state of the accumulated iron, with more cells becoming Fe2+ at a late stage. A possible consequence of the high amounts of Fe2+ in the hippocampus after kainate injection is that it could promote free radical damage in the lesioned areas. PMID:11880890

  5. Increasing functional modularity with residence time in the co-distribution of native and introduced vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Cang; Richardson, David M.; Pyšek, Petr; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Ku?era, Tomáš; Jarošík, Vojt?ch

    2013-01-01

    Species gain membership of regional assemblages by passing through multiple ecological and environmental filters. To capture the potential trajectory of structural changes in regional meta-communities driven by biological invasions, one can categorize species pools into assemblages of different residence times. Older assemblages, having passed through more environmental filters, should become more functionally ordered and structured. Here we calculate the level of compartmentalization (modularity) for three different-aged assemblages (neophytes, introduced after 1500 AD; archaeophytes, introduced before 1500 AD, and natives), including 2,054 species of vascular plants in 302 reserves in central Europe. Older assemblages are more compartmentalized than younger ones, with species composition, phylogenetic structure and habitat characteristics of the modules becoming increasingly distinctive. This sheds light on two mechanisms of how alien species are functionally incorporated into regional species pools: the settling-down hypothesis of diminishing stochasticity with residence time, and the niche-mosaic hypothesis of inlaid neutral modules in regional meta-communities. PMID:24045305

  6. The better the story, the bigger the serving: narrative transportation increases snacking during screen time in a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Watching television and playing video games increase energy intake, likely due to distraction from satiety cues. A study comparing one hour of watching TV, playing typical video games, or playing motion-controlled video games found a difference across groups in energy intake, but the reasons for this difference are not clear. As a secondary analysis, we investigated several types of distraction to determine potential psychosocial mechanisms which may account for greater energy intake observed during sedentary screen time as compared to motion-controlled video gaming. Methods Feelings of enjoyment, engagement (mental immersion), spatial presence (the feeling of being in the game), and transportation (immersion in a narrative) were investigated in 120 young adults aged 18 – 35 (60 female). Results Only narrative transportation was associated with total caloric intake (? = .205, P = .025). Transportation was also higher in the TV group than in the gaming groups (P = .002) and higher in males than in females (P = .003). Transportation mediated the relationship between motion-controlled gaming (as compared to TV watching) and square root transformed energy intake (indirect effect = ?1.34, 95% confidence interval ?3.57, ?0.13). No other distraction-related variables were associated with intake. Conclusions These results suggest that different forms of distraction may differentially affect eating behavior during screen time, and that narrative appears to be a particularly strong distractor. Future studies should further investigate the effects of narrative on eating behavior. PMID:23680389

  7. Increased Anesthesia Time Using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-Chloral Hydrate With Low Impact On Mouse Psychoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Maheras, Kathleen J.; Gow, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine psychoacoustics in mice, we have used 2,2,2-tribromoethanol anesthesia in multiple studies. We find this drug is fast-acting and yields consistent results, providing 30 – 40 min of anesthesia. Our recent studies in binaural hearing prompted development of a regimen to anesthesia time to one hour. We tested a novel cocktail using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol coupled with low dose chloral hydrate to extend the effective anesthesia time. New Method We have established an intraperitoneal dosing regimen for 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate anesthesia. To measure efficacy of the drug cocktail, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) at 10 min intervals to determine the effects on hearing thresholds and wave amplitudes and latencies. Results This novel drug combination increases effective anesthesia to one hour. ABR Wave I amplitudes, but not latencies, are marginally suppressed. Additionally, amplitudes of the centrally-derived Waves III and V show significant inter-animal variability that is independent of stimulus intensity. These data argue against the systematic suppression of ABRs by the drug cocktail. Comparison with Existing Methods Using 2,2,2-tribromoethanol-chloral hydrate combination in psychoacoustic studies has several advantages over other drug cocktails, the most important being preservation of latencies from centrally- and peripherally-derived ABR waves. In addition, hearing thresholds are unchanged and wave amplitudes are not systematically suppressed, although they exhibit greater variability. Conclusions We demonstrate that 375 mg/kg 2,2,2-tribromoethanol followed after five min by 200 mg/kg chloral hydrate provides an anesthesia time of 60 min, has negligible effects on ABR wave latencies and thresholds and non-systematic effects on amplitudes. PMID:23856212

  8. Anthracycline treatment of the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP1 increases phosphatidylserine exposure and tissue factor activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremiah C. Boles; Julie C. Williams; Rachel M. Hollingsworth; Jian-Guo Wang; Sam L. Glover; A. Phillip Owens; David A. Barcel; Raj S. Kasthuri; Nigel S. Key; Nigel Mackman

    IntroductionCancer associated thrombosis is a well-recognized phenomenon that results in considerable patient morbidity and mortality. Malignancy conveys an increased risk for thrombosis and chemotherapy further elevates this risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly defined.

  9. Increased fluid intake and adequate dietary modification may be enough for the successful treatment of uric acid stone.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon; Oh, Mi Mi

    2013-04-01

    Uric acid stones are the most readily dissolvable of all types of urinary stones. The present paper describes two patients with uric acid stones in kidney and ureter, whom we have treated successfully only by a combination of increased fluid intake and adequate dietary modification. PMID:23503881

  10. Ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment before and after the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment: an improvement project in a national quality registry in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Öien, Rut F; Forssell, Henrik W

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment in Sweden following the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment (RUT), a national quality registry, in 2009. Design A statistical analysis of RUT data concerning the healing time and antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers in Sweden between 2009 and 2012. Setting RUT is a national web-based quality registry used to capture areas of improvement in ulcer care and to structure wound management by registering patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot and pressure ulcers. Registration includes variables such as gender, age, diagnosis, healing time, antibiotic treatment, and ulcer duration and size. Population Every patient with a hard-to-heal ulcer registered with RUT between 2009 and 2012 (n=1417) was included. Main outcome measures Statistical analyses were performed using Stata V.12.1. Healing time was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjustment was made for ulcer size. A log-rank test was used for equality of survivor functions. Results According to the adjusted registry in December 2012, patients’ median age was 80?years (mean 77.5?years, range 11–103?years). The median healing time for all ulcers, adjusted for ulcer size, was 146?days (21?weeks) in 2009 and 63?days (9?weeks) in 2012 (p=0.001). Considering all years between 2009 and 2012, antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers was reduced from 71% before registration to 29% after registration of ulcer healing (p=0.001). Conclusions Healing time and antibiotic treatment decreased significantly during 3?years after launch of RUT. PMID:23959752

  11. Decreased reticuloendothelial system clearance and increased blood half-life and immune cell labeling for nano- and micron-sized superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles upon pre-treatment with Intralipid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Ye, Qing; Wu, Yijen; Barbe, Brent; Prior, Devin E.; Li, Wendy F.; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Foley, Lesley M.; Bain, Daniel J.; Ho, Chien

    2013-01-01

    Background Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for anatomical, functional and cellular MRI, drug delivery agents, and diagnositic biosensors. Nanoparticles are generally cleared by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), in particular taken up by Kupffer cells in the liver, limiting particle bioavailability and in-vivo applications. Strategies that decrease the RES clearance and prolong the circulation residence time of particles can improve the in-vivo targeting efficiency. Methods Intralipid 20.0%, an FDA approved nutritional supplement, was intravenously administered in rats at the clinical dose (2 g/kg) one hour before intravenous injection of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO) or micron-sized paramagnetic iron-oxide (MPIO) particles. Blood half-life, monocyte labeling efficiency, and particle biodistribution were assessed by magnetic resonance relaxometry, flow cytometry, inductively-coupled plasma MS, and histology. Results Pre-treatment with Intralipid resulted in a 3.1-fold increase in USPIO blood half-life and a 2-fold increase in USPIO-labeled monocytes. A 2.5-fold increase in MPIO blood half-life and a 5-fold increase in MPIO-labeled monocytes were observed following Intralipid pre-treatment, with a 3.2-fold increase in mean iron content up to 2.60 pg Fe/monocyte. With Intralipid, there was a 49.2% and 45.1% reduction in liver uptake vs. untreated controls at 48 hrs for USPIO and MPIO, respectively. Conclusions Intralipid pre-treatment significantly decreases initial RES uptake and increases in-vivo circulation and blood monocyte labeling efficiency for nano- and micron-sized superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles. General Significance Our findings can have broad applications for imaging and drug delivery applications, increasing the bioavailability of nano- and micron-sized particles for target sites other than the liver. PMID:23396002

  12. Increase in indium diffusion by tetrafluoromethane plasma treatment and its effects on the device performance of polymer light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Su; Kim, Jong Bok; Ryu, Seung Yoon; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Kim, Youn Sang; Lee, Se-Jong

    2008-06-01

    The effects of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma treatment of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode on indium diffusion into a poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profile showed that 0.2at.% indium was present in the PEDOT:PSS layer when ITO was not plasma treated. The plasma treatment of ITO increased the indium concentration to ˜6at.%. The increase in indium can be explained by an oxygen deficiency in the CF4 plasma treated ITO. The presence of indium in the PEDOT:PSS layer showed a correlation with performance degradation of polymer light-emitting diodes.

  13. Treatment of ?-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E with Antioxidant Cocktails Results in Decreased Oxidative Stress, Increased Hemoglobin Concentration, and Improvement of the Hypercoagulable State

    PubMed Central

    Yanpanitch, Orn-uma; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Fucharoen, Suthat; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the antioxidant treatment for thalassemia have reported variable outcomes. However, treatment of thalassemia with a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidants and an iron chelator has not been studied. This study investigated the effects of antioxidant cocktails for the treatment of ?-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE), which is the most common form of ?-thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Sixty patients were divided into two groups receiving N-acetylcysteine, deferiprone, and either curcuminoids (CUR) or vitamin E (Vit-E), and their hematological parameters, iron load, oxidative stress, and blood coagulation potential were evaluated. Patients were classified as responders if they showed the improvements of the markers of iron load and oxidative stress, otherwise as nonresponders. During treatment, the responders in both groups had significantly decreased iron load, oxidative stress, and coagulation potential and significantly increased antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin concentration. The significantly maximum increase (P < 0.01) in hemoglobin concentration was 11% at month 4 in CUR group responders and 10% at month 10 in Vit-E group responders. In conclusion, the two antioxidant cocktails can improve anemia, iron overload, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulable state in ?-thalassemia/HbE.

  14. Treatment of ?-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E with Antioxidant Cocktails Results in Decreased Oxidative Stress, Increased Hemoglobin Concentration, and Improvement of the Hypercoagulable State.

    PubMed

    Yanpanitch, Orn-Uma; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Fucharoen, Suthat; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the antioxidant treatment for thalassemia have reported variable outcomes. However, treatment of thalassemia with a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidants and an iron chelator has not been studied. This study investigated the effects of antioxidant cocktails for the treatment of ?-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE), which is the most common form of ?-thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Sixty patients were divided into two groups receiving N-acetylcysteine, deferiprone, and either curcuminoids (CUR) or vitamin E (Vit-E), and their hematological parameters, iron load, oxidative stress, and blood coagulation potential were evaluated. Patients were classified as responders if they showed the improvements of the markers of iron load and oxidative stress, otherwise as nonresponders. During treatment, the responders in both groups had significantly decreased iron load, oxidative stress, and coagulation potential and significantly increased antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin concentration. The significantly maximum increase (P < 0.01) in hemoglobin concentration was 11% at month 4 in CUR group responders and 10% at month 10 in Vit-E group responders. In conclusion, the two antioxidant cocktails can improve anemia, iron overload, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulable state in ?-thalassemia/HbE. PMID:26078808

  15. Induced increase in surface work function and surface energy of indium tin oxide-doped ZnO films by (NH4)2Sx treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Lung Tsai; Yow-Jon Lin; Ping-Hsun Wu; Shu-You Chen; Day-Shan Liu; Jia-Huang Hong; Chia-Jyi Liu; Yu-Tai Shih; Jie-Min Cheng; Hsing-Cheng Chang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the surface electronic properties of the thin indium tin oxide (ITO)-doped ZnO films have been examined in this study. According to the experimental results, we found that the formation of S-metal bonds and the removal of oxygen vacancies near the (NH4)2Sx-treated ITO-doped ZnO surface could lead to an increase in the surface energy and

  16. The Effects of Increased Learning Time on Student Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: Findings from a Meta-Analytic Review. REL 2014-015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Yael; Lindsay, Jim

    2014-01-01

    REL Appalachia conducted a systematic review of the research evidence on the effects of increased learning time. After screening more than 7,000 studies, REL Appalachia identified 30 that met the most rigorous standards for research. A review of those 30 studies found that increased learning time does not always produce positive results. However,…

  17. Increased intra-individual reaction time variability in cocaine-dependent subjects: role of cocaine-related cues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shijing; Lane, Scott D.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Green, Charles E.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging data suggest that impaired performance on response inhibition and information processing tests in cocaine-dependent subjects is related to prefrontal and frontal cortical dysfunction and that dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie some aspects of cocaine addiction. In subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric disorders, the Intra-Individual Reaction Time Variability (IIRTV) has been associated with frontal cortical dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated IIRTV parameters in cocaine-dependent subjects vs. controls using a cocaine Stroop task. Fifty control and 123 cocaine-dependent subjects compiled from three studies completed a cocaine Stroop task. Standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) for reaction times (RT) were calculated for both trials with neutral and trials with cocaine-related words. The parameters mu, sigma, and tau were calculated using an ex-Gaussian analysis employed to characterize variability in RTs. The ex-Gaussian analysis divides the RTs into normal (mu, sigma) and exponential (tau) components. Using robust regression analysis, cocaine-dependent subjects showed greater SD, CV and Tau on trials with cocaine-related words compared to controls (p < 0.05). However, in trials with neutral words, there was no evidence of group differences in any IIRTV parameters (p > 0.05). The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test showed that for cocaine-dependent subjects, both SD and tau were larger in trials with cocaine-related words than in trials with neutral words (p < 0.05). The observation that only cocaine-related words increased IIRTV in cocaine-dependent subjects suggests that cocaine-related stimuli might disrupt information processing subserved by prefrontal and frontal cortical circuits. PMID:22047976

  18. pGlcNAc Nanofiber Treatment of Cutaneous Wounds Stimulate Increased Tensile Strength and Reduced Scarring via Activation of Akt1

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Haley Buff; Felmly, Lloyd McPherson; Demcheva, Marina; Seth, Arun; Norris, Russell; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Vournakis, John; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of cutaneous wounds with poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine containing nanofibers (pGlcNAc), a novel polysaccharide material derived from a marine diatom, results in increased wound closure, antibacterial activities and innate immune responses. We have shown that Akt1 plays a central role in the regulation of these activities. Here, we show that pGlcNAc treatment of cutaneous wounds results in a smaller scar that has increased tensile strength and elasticity. pGlcNAc treated wounds exhibit decreased collagen content, increased collagen organization and decreased myofibroblast content. A fibrin gel assay was used to assess the regulation of fibroblast alignment in vitro. In this assay, fibrin lattice is formed with two pins that provide focal points upon which the gel can exert force as the cells align from pole to pole. pGlcNAc stimulation of embedded fibroblasts results in cellular alignment as compared to untreated controls, by a process that is Akt1 dependent. We show that Akt1 is required in vivo for the pGlcNAc-induced increased tensile strength and elasticity. Taken together, our findings suggest that pGlcNAc nanofibers stimulate an Akt1 dependent pathway that results in the proper alignment of fibroblasts, decreased scarring, and increased tensile strength during cutaneous wound healing. PMID:25955155

  19. Timing of swallowing events after single-modality treatment of head and neck carcinomas with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kendall, K A; McKenzie, S W; Leonard, R J; Jones, C U

    2000-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study designed to evaluate swallowing function in 20 patients 1 year after successful treatment of head and neck carcinomas with radiotherapy. The timing of swallowing events was evaluated by videofluoroscopy. The mean values for each measure were compared to the normative data from 60 control subjects. The radiotherapy patients demonstrated prolonged pharyngeal bolus transit and a delay of laryngeal closure. Hyoid bone elevation began late relative to the onset of bolus movement. A strong trend toward a delay in hyoid elevation relative to bolus movement was demonstrated. The time required for the hyoid bone to reach maximal elevation did not differ from that in normals, but the hyoid was held in an elevated position for a longer period of time. As a result of changes in hyoid movement, the upper esophageal sphincter tended to open early relative to the arrival of the bolus. In conclusion, changes in deglutition occur after radiotherapy, presumably as an adaptation to changes in tissue compliance. PMID:10961811

  20. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians' responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity) explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction. PMID:25336960

  1. An IR navigation system for real-time treatment guidance of pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Chang, Chang; Sandell, Julia; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph; Glatstein, Eli; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2011-02-01

    Uniform light fluence distribution for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is critical to ensure predictable PDT outcome. However, common practice uses a point source to deliver light to the pleural cavity with the light uniformity monitored by 7 detectors placed within the pleural cavity. To improve the uniformity of light fluence rate distribution, we have used a real-time infrared (IR) tracking camera to track the movement of the light point source. The same tracking device is used to determine the surface contour of the treatment area. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered between the measurement and calculation in phantom studies. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. Light fluence rate in the pleural cavity is calculated and compared with the in-vivo calculation. Phantom studies show that the surface contour can be determined with an accuracy of 2 mm, with maximum deviation of 5 mm. We can successfully match the calculated light fluence rates with the in-vivo measurements. Preliminary results indicate that the light fluence rate can have up to 50% deviation compared to the prescription in phantom experiments. The IR camera has been used successfully in pleural PDT patient treatment to track the motion of light source in realtime. We concluded that it is feasible to develop an IR camera based system to guide the motion of the light source to improve the uniformity of light distribution.

  2. Biofeedback in the treatment of phantom limb pain: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Harden, R Norman; Houle, Timothy T; Green, Samara; Remble, Thomas A; Weinland, Stephan R; Colio, Sean; Lauzon, Jeffrey; Kuiken, Todd

    2005-03-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a noxious, painful sensation that is perceived to occur in an amputated limb. It has been reported to occur in up to 85% of amputees. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of biofeedback in the treatment of nine individuals with PLP who received up to seven thermal/autogenic biofeedback sessions over the course of 4-6 weeks. Pain was assessed daily using the visual analog scale (VAS), the sum of the sensory descriptors, and the sum of the affective descriptors of the McGill short form. Interrupted time-series analytical models were created for each of the participants, allowing biofeedback sessions to be modeled as discrete interventions. Analyses of the VAS revealed that a 20% pain reduction was seen in five of the nine patients in the weeks after session 4, and that at least a 30% pain reduction (range: 25-66%) was seen in six of the seven patients in the weeks following session 6. Sensory descriptors of pain decreased more than the affective pain descriptors. These preliminary results provide some support for the use of biofeedback in the treatment of PLP and indicate the need for further, definitive study. PMID:15889588

  3. An electromagnetic finite difference time domain analog treatment of small signal acoustic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, K.; Steich, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Lewis, K.; Landrum, C.; Barth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-25

    Hyperbolic partial differential equations encompass an extremely important set of physical phenomena including electromagnetics and acoustics. Small amplitude acoustic interactions behave much the same as electromagnetic interactions for longitudinal acoustic waves because of the similar nature of the governing hyperbolic equations. Differences appear when transverse acoustic waves are considered, nonetheless the strong analogy between the acoustic and electromagnetic phenomena prompted the development of a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) acoustic analog to the existing electromagnetic FDTD technique. The advantage of an acoustic FDTD (AFDTD) code are as follows: (1) Boundary condition-free treatment of the acoustic scatterer -- only the intrinsic properties of the scatterer`s material are needed, no shell treatment or other set of special equations describing the macroscopic behavior of a sheet of material or a junction, etc. are required; this allows completely general geometries and materials in the model. (2) Advanced outer radiation boundary condition analogs -- in the electromagnetics arena, highly absorbing outer radiation boundary conditions have been developed that can be applied with little modification to the acoustics arena with equal success. (3) A suite of preexisting capabilities related to electromagnetic modeling -- this includes automated model generation and interaction visualization as its most important components and is best exemplified by the capabilities of the LLNL generated TSAR electromagnetic FDTD code.

  4. An electromagnetic finite difference time domain analog treatment of small signal acoustic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, K.; Steich, D.; Lewis, K.; Landrum, C.; Barth, M.

    1994-03-01

    Hyperbolic partial differential equations encompass an extremely important set of physical phenomena including electromagnetics and acoustics. Small amplitude acoustic interactions behave much the same as electromagnetic interactions for longitudinal acoustic waves because of the similar nature of the governing hyperbolic equations. Differences appear when transverse acoustic waves are considered; nonetheless, the strong analogy between the acoustic and electromagnetic phenomena prompted the development of a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) acoustic analog to the existing electromagnetic FDTD technique. The advantages of an acoustic FDTD (AFDTD) code are as follows: (1) boundary condition-free treatment of the acoustic scatterer--only the intrinsic properties of the scatterer's material are needed, no shell treatment or other set of special equations describing the macroscopic behavior of a sheet of material or a junction, etc. are required; this allows completely general geometries and materials in the model. (2) Advanced outer radiation boundary condition analogs--in the electromagnetics arena, highly absorbing outer radiation boundary conditions were developed that can be applied with little modification to the acoustics arena with equal success. (3) A suite of preexisting capabilities related to electromagnetic modeling--this includes automated model generation and interaction visualization as its most important components and is best exemplified by the capabilities of the LLNL generated TSAR electromagnetic FDTD code.

  5. Structure of high-temperature nickel alloys after time heat treatment of the melt

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotukhin, E.V.; Kuleshova, E.A.; Baryshev, E.E. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The strict requirements imposed on articles made of high-temperature nickel alloys require improvement of their composition and technology in all stages of metallurgical production. However, at present the degree of their alloying has become practically maximum. The service characteristics of high-temperature alloys can hardly be improved further by correcting their chemical composition. The problem is solved most successfully by developing new technological regimes of melting and casting. It is economically expedient to use new technological approaches to the already well investigated and tested compositions. The present work is concerned with the effect of the so-called time heat treatment (THT) of liquid metal on the macro- and microstructure of high-temperature nickel alloys used in the production of equiaxial and single-crystal castings.

  6. Evidence of increased anthropogenic emissions of platinum: time-series analysis of mussels (1991-2011) of an urban beach.

    PubMed

    Neira, Patricia; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Besada, Victoria; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Bellas, Juan

    2015-05-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of Pt to the environment have increased significantly over the past decades, especially after the introduction of the catalytic converters in motor vehicles. In order to check whether this is affecting the levels of this trace metal on living organisms, time-series analysis of freeze-dried soft tissue material of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) covering the period from 1991 to 2001 and collected at an urban beach in the city of Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) was conducted. Concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 0.68 ng g(-1) with an average concentration of 0.47 ± 0.10 ng g(-1) (n=21); these concentrations were higher than those obtained for samples collected at a control location away from anthropogenic pressure (0.31 ± 0.10 ng g(-1); n=5). Platinum concentrations followed a statistically significant temporal trend (at the 0.020 level), and the excess of Pt in mussels over the 1991-2011 period compared to the control location were correlated with the European Pt autocatalyst demand (p=0.0006) and, especially, the car sales in Spain (p=0.0001). A bioaccumulation factor of ~5·10(3) was derived, which is greater than those previously calculated for Pt from exposure experiments, but 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other trace elements (e.g. Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd). PMID:25679817

  7. Use of breath hydrogen measurement to evaluate orocecal transit time in cats before and after treatment for hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, D P; Rubin, S I; Papich, M G; Hamilton, D L

    1993-01-01

    Orocecal transit time was evaluated in 13 cats diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Transit was determined by measuring the change in breath hydrogen and methane concentrations following oral administration of a nonabsorbable carbohydrate (lactulose). Transit times before and three to four weeks after treatment of the hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine were compared. There was a significant prolongation of transit time, as determined by a change in hydrogen concentration, following correction of the hyperthyroidism (p = 0.034). Average transit times and standard errors were 27.7 +/- 3.7 minutes before treatment and 56.5 +/- 12.1 minutes after treatment. Methane was not detected in any of the samples. Hyperthyroidism appears to be associated with an accelerated small intestinal transit time in cats. PMID:8490812

  8. Reduced sTWEAK and Increased sCD163 Levels in HIV-Infected Patients: Modulation by Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV Replication and HCV Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Luis M.; García Morillo, José S.; Egido, Jesús; Noval, Manuel Leal; Ferrando-Martinez, Sara; Blanco-Colio, Luis M.; Genebat, Miguel; Villar, José R.; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to increased inflammation and persistent immune activation. CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor that is involved in monocyte-macrophage activation in HIV-infected patients. CD163 interacts with TWEAK, a member of the TNF superfamily. Circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease, but no previous studies have fully analyzed their association with HIV. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 as well as other known markers of inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1 and ADMA) in 26 patients with HIV before and after 48 weeks of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 23 healthy subjects. Results Patients with HIV had reduced sTWEAK levels and increased sCD163, sVCAM-1, ADMA, hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII plasma concentrations, as well as increased sCD163/sTWEAK ratio, compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of sCD163, sVCAM-1, hsCRP and sTNFRII, although they remained elevated when compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment had no effect on the concentrations of ADMA and sTWEAK, biomarkers associated with endothelial function. The use of protease inhibitors as part of antiretroviral therapy and the presence of HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication attenuated the ART-mediated decrease in sCD163 plasma concentrations. Conclusion HIV-infected patients showed a proatherogenic profile characterized by increased inflammatory, immune-activation and endothelial-dysfunction biomarkers that partially improved after ART. HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication enhanced immune activation despite ART. PMID:24594990

  9. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet. Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate. Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls). In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight). The detected levels of glucose in RBC were lower than those of plasma, even when expressed in molal units, and were practically nil in cafeteria-diet fed rats compared with controls; there was no effect of sex. Conclusions. RBC membrane glycosylation is a sensitive indicator of developing metabolic syndrome-related hyperglycemia, more sensitive than the general measurement of plasma or RBC protein glycosylation. The extensive glycosylation of blood proteins does not seem to be markedly affected by sex; and could be hardly justified from an assumedly sustained plasma hyperglycemia. The low levels of glucose found within RBC, especially in rats under the cafeteria diet, could hardly justify the extensive glycosylation of hemoglobin and the lack of differences with controls, which contained sizeable levels of intracellular glucose. Additional studies are needed to study the dynamics of glucose in vivo in the RBC to understand how such extensive protein glycosylation could take place.

  10. Using simulated historical time series to prioritize fuel treatments on landscapes across the United States: The LANDFIRE prototype project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, R.E.; Rollins, M.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Canopy and surface fuels in many fire-prone forests of the United States have increased over the last 70 years as a result of modern fire exclusion policies, grazing, and other land management activities. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act and National Fire Plan establish a national commitment to reduce fire hazard and restore fire-adapted ecosystems across the USA. The primary index used to prioritize treatment areas across the nation is Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) computed as departures of current conditions from the historical fire and landscape conditions. This paper describes a process that uses an extensive set of ecological models to map FRCC from a departure statistic computed from simulated time series of historical landscape composition. This mapping process uses a data-driven, biophysical approach where georeferenced field data, biogeochemical simulation models, and spatial data libraries are integrated using spatial statistical modeling to map environmental gradients that are then used to predict vegetation and fuels characteristics over space. These characteristics are then fed into a landscape fire and succession simulation model to simulate a time series of historical landscape compositions that are then compared to the composition of current landscapes to compute departure, and the FRCC values. Intermediate products from this process are then used to create ancillary vegetation, fuels, and fire regime layers that are useful in the eventual planning and implementation of fuel and restoration treatments at local scales. The complex integration of varied ecological models at different scales is described and problems encountered during the implementation of this process in the LANDFIRE prototype project are addressed. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical treatment of flow in infinitely extended circular microchannels and the effect of slippage to increase flow efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Kwok, Daniel Y.

    2003-01-01

    Slippage of liquids at hydrophobic surfaces in microchannels has frequently been observed. We present here an analytical solution for oscillating flow in circular microchannels by combining the electrokinetic transport phenomena with Navier's slip condition. For pressure-driven flow, our results suggest that slippage of a typical electrolyte solution at a channel wall with a 10% slip length can improve fluid flow rate by about 20%. With respect to electro-osmotic pumping at a given flow rate, we showed that the voltage requirement for a typical electrolyte solution can be greatly reduced, by as much as 90% for a 1% slip length and 99% for a 10% slip length. Our results are useful to precisely control time-dependent microflow in microfluidic microelectromechanical system devices. They also provide design guidelines to improve the efficiency of lab-on-a-chip devices and miniature mechanical pumping/cooling systems by inducing slippage of liquids at the channel wall.

  12. Involvement of ethylene-responsive microRNAs and their targets in increased latex yield in the rubber tree in response to ethylene treatment.

    PubMed

    Pramoolkit, Porawee; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Chrestin, Hervé; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2014-11-01

    The rubber tree is an economically important plant that produces natural rubber for various industrial uses. The application of ethylene contributes to increased latex production in rubber trees; however, the molecular biology behind the effects of ethylene on latex yield remains to be elucidated. Recently, the intersection between microRNA (miRNA) regulation and phytohormone responses has been revealed. Insight into the regulation of miRNAs and their target genes should help to determine the functional importance of miRNAs as well as the role of miRNAs in signaling under ethylene stimulation in the rubber tree. In this study, hbr-miR159 and hbr-miR166 were down-regulated in bark under ethylene treatment. The ethylene also down-regulated ATHB15-like (Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper, HD-ZIP III) which have been extensively implicated in the regulation of primary and secondary vascular tissue pattern formation. The strong negative-regulation of ARF6/ARF8 caused by hbr-miR167 involved in an attenuation of vascular development and may gradually lead to bark dryness syndrome in the long term ethylene treatment. The negative correlation of hbr-miR172 and its target REF3 in the inner soft bark under ethylene treatment results in dramatic increases in latex yield in the ethylene-sensitive clone of the rubber tree. The overall results suggested that the differential expression of HD-ZIP III, miR167/ARF6, ARF8, and miR172/REF3 and related genes may play possible roles in the response to ethylene treatment, resulting in longer latex flow and increased latex yield. PMID:25289520

  13. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L.; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2–5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models.

  14. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L

    2015-01-21

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2-5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models. PMID:25549084

  15. Acute treatment with antidepressant drugs selectively increases the expression of c-fos in the rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, C H

    1995-01-01

    Rats were treated acutely, ip, with saline vehicle or an antidepressant: iprindole (15 mg/kg), nortriptyline (15 mg/kg), A75200 (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (15 mg/kg), desipramine (10 mg/kg), bupropion (20 mg/kg) or tranylcypromine (7.5 mg/kg). Mapping the neuroanatomical distribution at 64 sites of the immediate early gene, c-fos revealed several patterns: first, increased counts of Fos-like neurons were found in all but one instance; second, drugs which had dopaminergic effects (bupropion and tranylcypromine) were more likely to potentiate c-fos reactivity than were the other drugs; third, Fos-like counts were more likely to be significantly elevated in structures bordering brain ventricles; fourth, only in the central amygdala were the Fos-like counts higher in all seven drug groups relative to the saline group. It remains to be seen whether or not this shared substrate is therapeutically significant. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7865498

  16. Comparison of organ residence time estimation methods for radioimmunotherapy dosimetry and treatment planning—patient studies

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George; Du, Yong; Jacene, Heather; Kasecamp, Wayne R.; Flinn, Ian; Hammes, Richard J.; Bianco, Jay; Kahl, Brad; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of organ residence time is essential for high-dose myeloablative regimens in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Frequently, this estimation is based on a series of simple planar scans and planar processing. The authors previously performed a simulation study which demonstrated that the accuracy of this methodology is limited compared to a hybrid planar?SPECT residence time estimation method. In this work the authors applied this hybrid method to data from a clinical trial of high-dose myeloablative yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy. Image data acquired from 18 patients were comprised of planar scans at five time points ranging from 1 to 144 h postinjection and abdominal and thoracic SPECT?CT scans obtained at 24 h postinjection. The simple planar processing method used in this work was based on the geometric mean method with energy window based scatter compensation. No explicit background subtraction nor object or source thickness corrections were performed. The SPECT projections were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction with compensations for attenuation, scatter, and full collimator-detector response. Large differences were observed when residence times were estimated using the simple planar method compared to the hybrid method. The differences were not constant but varied in magnitude and sign. For the dose-limiting organ (liver), the average difference was ?18% and variation in the difference was 19%, similar to the differences observed in a previously reported simulation study. The authors also looked at the relationship between the weight of the patient and the liver residence time and found that there was no meaningful correlation for either method. This indicates that weight would not be an adequate proxy for an experimental estimate of residence time when choosing the activity to administer for therapy. The authors conclude that methods such as the simple planar method used here are inadequate for RIT treatment planning. More sophisticated methods, such as the hybrid SPECT?planar method investigated here, are likely to be better predictors of organ dose and, as a result, organ toxicities. PMID:19544775

  17. Comparison of organ residence time estimation methods for radioimmunotherapy dosimetry and treatment planning--patient studies.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Wahl, Richard L; Sgouros, George; Du, Yong; Jacene, Heather; Kasecamp, Wayne R; Flinn, Ian; Hammes, Richard J; Bianco, Jay; Kahl, Brad; Frey, Eric C

    2009-05-01

    The estimation of organ residence time is essential for high-dose myeloablative regimens in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Frequently, this estimation is based on a series of simple planar scans and planar processing. The authors previously performed a simulation study which demonstrated that the accuracy of this methodology is limited compared to a hybrid planar/SPECT residence time estimation method. In this work the authors applied this hybrid method to data from a clinical trial of high-dose myeloablative yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy. Image data acquired from 18 patients were comprised of planar scans at five time points ranging from 1 to 144 h postinjection and abdominal and thoracic SPECT/CT scans obtained at 24 h postinjection. The simple planar processing method used in this work was based on the geometric mean method with energy window based scatter compensation. No explicit background subtraction nor object or source thickness corrections were performed. The SPECT projections were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction with compensations for attenuation, scatter, and full collimator-detector response. Large differences were observed when residence times were estimated using the simple planar method compared to the hybrid method. The differences were not constant but varied in magnitude and sign. For the dose-limiting organ (liver), the average difference was -18% and variation in the difference was 19%, similar to the differences observed in a previously reported simulation study. The authors also looked at the relationship between the weight of the patient and the liver residence time and found that there was no meaningful correlation for either method. This indicates that weight would not be an adequate proxy for an experimental estimate of residence time when choosing the activity to administer for therapy. The authors conclude that methods such as the simple planar method used here are inadequate for RIT treatment planning. More sophisticated methods, such as the hybrid SPECT/planar method investigated here, are likely to be better predictors of organ dose and, as a result, organ toxicities. PMID:19544775

  18. Improvement of functional recovery by chronic metformin treatment is associated with enhanced alternative activation of microglia/macrophages and increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis following experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qin; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Yang; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Shanwen; Zhou, Xiaomei; Qin, Zhenghong; Jia, Jia; Zhen, Xuechu

    2014-08-01

    Acute AMPK activation exacerbates ischemic brain damage experimentally. Paradoxically, the clinical use of an AMPK activator metformin reduces the incidence of stroke. We investigated whether post-stroke chronic metformin treatment promotes functional recovery and tissue repair via an M2-polarization mechanism following experimental stroke. Mice were randomly divided to receive metformin or vehicle daily beginning at 24h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neurological deficits were monitored for 30days following MCAO. To characterize the polarization of the microglia and infiltrating macrophages, the expression of the M1 and M2 signature genes was analyzed with qPCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Post-MCAO angiogenesis and neurogenesis were examined immunohistochemically. An in vitro angiogenesis model was employed to examine whether metformin promoted angiogenesis in a M2 polarization-dependent manner. Post-stroke chronic metformin treatment had no impact on acute infarction but enhanced cerebral AMPK activation, promoted functional recovery and skewed the microglia/macrophages toward an M2 phenotype following MCAO. Metformin also significantly increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the ischemic brain. Consistently, metformin-induced M2 polarization of BV2 microglial cells depended on AMPK activation in vitro. Furthermore, treatment of brain endothelial cells with conditioned media collected from metformin-polarized BV2 cells promoted angiogenesis in vitro. In conclusion, post-stroke chronic metformin treatment improved functional recovery following MCAO via AMPK-dependent M2 polarization. Modulation of microglia/macrophage polarization represents a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke. PMID:24632338

  19. Delayed progesterone treatment reduces brain infarction and improves functional outcomes after ischemic stroke: a time-window study in middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Seema; Sayeed, Iqbal; Atif, Fahim; Tang, Huiling; Wang, Jun; Stein, Donald G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of delayed progesterone (PROG) treatment against ischemic stroke-induced neuronal death, inflammation, and functional deficits. We induced transient focal cerebral ischemia in male rats and administered PROG (8?mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally at 3, 6, or 24?hours post occlusion, subcutaneously 5?hours later and then every 24?hours for 7 days. Behavioral outcomes were evaluated over 22 days. Infarct size and other biomarkers of injury were evaluated by cresyl violet staining, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunofluorescence. Progesterone treatment started at 3 and 6?hours post occlusion significantly (P<0.05) improved behavioral performance at all time points (74.01%) and reduced infarction volume (61.68%) compared with vehicle. No significant difference was observed between the 3 and 6?hour PROG treatment groups. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and VEGF were upregulated in the PROG groups compared with vehicle. Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was increased in the vehicle group but markedly lower in the PROG groups. Treatment delayed for 24?hours did not significantly improve functional outcomes or reduce infarction volume. We conclude that, under the right treatment conditions, PROG treatment delayed up to 6?hours can improve functional deficits and reduce brain infarction, possibly by modulating GFAP, VEGF, and MMP-9 expression. PMID:24301297

  20. Delayed progesterone treatment reduces brain infarction and improves functional outcomes after ischemic stroke: a time-window study in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Seema; Sayeed, Iqbal; Atif, Fahim; Tang, Huiling; Wang, Jun; Stein, Donald G

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of delayed progesterone (PROG) treatment against ischemic stroke-induced neuronal death, inflammation, and functional deficits. We induced transient focal cerebral ischemia in male rats and administered PROG (8?mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally at 3, 6, or 24?hours post occlusion, subcutaneously 5?hours later and then every 24?hours for 7 days. Behavioral outcomes were evaluated over 22 days. Infarct size and other biomarkers of injury were evaluated by cresyl violet staining, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunofluorescence. Progesterone treatment started at 3 and 6?hours post occlusion significantly (P<0.05) improved behavioral performance at all time points (74.01%) and reduced infarction volume (61.68%) compared with vehicle. No significant difference was observed between the 3 and 6?hour PROG treatment groups. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and VEGF were upregulated in the PROG groups compared with vehicle. Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was increased in the vehicle group but markedly lower in the PROG groups. Treatment delayed for 24?hours did not significantly improve functional outcomes or reduce infarction volume. We conclude that, under the right treatment conditions, PROG treatment delayed up to 6?hours can improve functional deficits and reduce brain infarction, possibly by modulating GFAP, VEGF, and MMP-9 expression. PMID:24301297

  1. Increased ratio of anti-apoptotic to pro-apoptotic Bcl2 gene-family members in lithium-responders one month after treatment initiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lithium is considered by many as the gold standard medication in the management of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the clinical response to lithium is heterogeneous, and the molecular basis for this difference in response is unknown. In the present study, we sought to determine how the peripheral blood gene expression profiles of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) changed over time following intitiation of treatment with lithium, and whether differences in those profiles over time were related to the clinical response. Methods Illumina Sentrix Beadchip (Human-6v2) microarrays containing?>?48,000 transcript probes were used to measure levels of expression of gene-expression in peripheral blood from 20 depressed subjects with BD prior to and every two weeks during 8?weeks of open-label treatment with lithium. Changes in gene-expression were compared between treatment responders (defined as a decrease in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale of 50% or more) and non-responders. Pathway analysis was conducted using GeneGO Metacore software. Results 127 genes showed a differential response in responders vs. non-responders. Pathway analysis showed that regulation of apoptosis was the most significantly affected pathway among these genes. Closer examination of the time-course of changes among BCL2 related genes showed that in lithium-responders, one month after starting treatment with lithium, several anti-apoptotic genes including Bcl2 and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) were up-regulated, while pro-apoptotic genes, including BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1) and BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD), were down-regulated. In contrast, in lithium non-responders, BCL2 and IRS2 were down-regulated, while BAK1 and BAD up-regulated at the one-month time-point. Conclusions These results suggest that differential changes in the balance of pro- and anti- apoptotic gene-expression following treatment with lithium may explain some of the heterogeneity in clinical response in BD patients. PMID:22967286

  2. Extension of Kaplan-Meier Methods in Observational Studies with Time-Varying Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Xu; Susan Shetterly; David Powers; Marsha A. Raebel; Thomas T. Tsai; P. Michael Ho; David Magid

    ObjectivesInverse probability of treatment weighted Kaplan-Meier estimates have been developed to compare two treatments in the presence of confounders in observational studies. Recently, stabilized weights were developed to reduce the influence of extreme inverse probability of treatment-weighted weights in estimating treatment effects. The objective of this research was to use adjusted Kaplan-Meier estimates and modified log-rank and Wilcoxon tests to

  3. Efficacy of Timed Embryo Transfer with Fresh and Frozen In Vitro Produced Embryos to Increase Pregnancy Rates in Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Ambrose; M. Drost; R. L. Monson; J. J. Rutledge; M. L. Leibfried-Rutledge; M.-J. Thatcher; T. Kassa; M. Binelli; P. J. Hansen; P. J. Chenoweth

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen- thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchro- nized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2? and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows

  4. Spiritual Intelligence, Resiliency, and Withdrawal Time in Clients of Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shahbakhsh, Behnaz; Moallemi, Sedighe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reports show an increasing interest in spirituality. It has been revealed that people with spiritual tendencies, can better deal with a trauma, manage the stressful situations, and have greater improvement in their health condition. Objectives: Our aim was to examine the relationship between spiritual intelligence and resiliency, and the relation of these two variables with the withdrawal time of individuals treated with methadone. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted on patients referred to the addiction center of Baharan Psychiatric Hospital in Zahedan, Iran. Our sample included 100 referrals; they were provided with questionnaires and asked to answer them honestly. King’s spiritual intelligence questionnaire and resilience questionnaires were used. Results: There were significant positive correlations between resiliency and scores of spiritual intelligence as well as with subscales of spiritual intelligence. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between withdrawal time and scores of spiritual intelligence as well as with subscales of spiritual intelligence as well as with resiliency. Conclusions: Relationships between the spiritual intelligence and resiliency parameters with withdrawal time show that these parameters can have a role in relapse protection among addicted people. PMID:24971291

  5. Increased Secretion of Endogenous GH after Treatment with an Intranasal GH-releasing Peptide-2 Spray Does Not Promote Growth in Short Children with GH Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Yokoya, Susumu; Nishi, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated whether treatment with an intranasal GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2 spray, which acts as a potent GH secretagogue that stimulates endogenous GH secretion, promotes growth in patients with GH deficiency (GHD). This study involved 126 prepubertal short children (81 males, 45 females) with a height SD score of –2 SD or less, who had been diagnosed as having GHD based on GH stimulation tests, and in whom the serum GH concentrations increased up to 9 ng/ml after preliminary administration of an intranasal GHRP-2 spray. The subjects included in this study were divided into 3 groups by use of a double-blind method; that is 44 were placed into the placebo group (P group: 30 males, 14 females), 41 were placed into the GHRP-2 low dose group (L group: 25 males, 16 females), and 41 were placed into the GHRP-2 high dose group (H group: 26 males, 15 females). Those with a body wt of less than 20 kg were administered a placebo (P group), 50 ?g of GHRP-2 (L group) or 100 ?g of GHRP-2 (H group), and those with a body wt of 20 kg or more were administered a placebo (P group), 100 µg of GHRP-2 (L group) or 200 µg of GHRP-2 (H group) twice daily (morning and evening) for 48 continuous wk. Age and height SD scores at baseline were not significantly different among the three groups: 7.5 yr old and –2.26 SD in the P group, 7.3 yr old and –2.38 SD in the L group, and 7.5 yr old and –2.27 SD in the H group. Of the 126 subjects, 44, 40 and 40 subjects in the P, L and H groups, respectively, completed the 48 continuous wk of treatment. The changes in the mean height SD scores (mean growth rate) after 48 wk of treatment in the P, L and H groups were 0.07 SD, 0.03 SD, and 0.02 SD, respectively, and thus no significant differences was observed among the 3 groups. Also no significant changes in blood IGF-I levels at baseline or after 48 wk of treatment were observed among the 3 groups. This study revealed that in patients with GHD, an increase in endogenous GH secretion as a result of treatment with GHRP-2 does not promote growth. It is speculated that the area under the curve of serum GH concentration by GHRP-2 spray is too small to produce biological effects. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that growth cannot be promoted by a transient increase in endogenous GH secretion. PMID:25374440

  6. Increased Secretion of Endogenous GH after Treatment with an Intranasal GH-releasing Peptide-2 Spray Does Not Promote Growth in Short Children with GH Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Yokoya, Susumu; Nishi, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether treatment with an intranasal GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2 spray, which acts as a potent GH secretagogue that stimulates endogenous GH secretion, promotes growth in patients with GH deficiency (GHD). This study involved 126 prepubertal short children (81 males, 45 females) with a height SD score of -2 SD or less, who had been diagnosed as having GHD based on GH stimulation tests, and in whom the serum GH concentrations increased up to 9 ng/ml after preliminary administration of an intranasal GHRP-2 spray. The subjects included in this study were divided into 3 groups by use of a double-blind method; that is 44 were placed into the placebo group (P group: 30 males, 14 females), 41 were placed into the GHRP-2 low dose group (L group: 25 males, 16 females), and 41 were placed into the GHRP-2 high dose group (H group: 26 males, 15 females). Those with a body wt of less than 20 kg were administered a placebo (P group), 50 ?g of GHRP-2 (L group) or 100 ?g of GHRP-2 (H group), and those with a body wt of 20 kg or more were administered a placebo (P group), 100 µg of GHRP-2 (L group) or 200 µg of GHRP-2 (H group) twice daily (morning and evening) for 48 continuous wk. Age and height SD scores at baseline were not significantly different among the three groups: 7.5 yr old and -2.26 SD in the P group, 7.3 yr old and -2.38 SD in the L group, and 7.5 yr old and -2.27 SD in the H group. Of the 126 subjects, 44, 40 and 40 subjects in the P, L and H groups, respectively, completed the 48 continuous wk of treatment. The changes in the mean height SD scores (mean growth rate) after 48 wk of treatment in the P, L and H groups were 0.07 SD, 0.03 SD, and 0.02 SD, respectively, and thus no significant differences was observed among the 3 groups. Also no significant changes in blood IGF-I levels at baseline or after 48 wk of treatment were observed among the 3 groups. This study revealed that in patients with GHD, an increase in endogenous GH secretion as a result of treatment with GHRP-2 does not promote growth. It is speculated that the area under the curve of serum GH concentration by GHRP-2 spray is too small to produce biological effects. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that growth cannot be promoted by a transient increase in endogenous GH secretion. PMID:25374440

  7. The change in upper tract urolithiasis composition, surgical treatments and outcomes of para and quadriplegic patients over time.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Marisa M; Gettman, Matthew T; Patterson, David E; Rangel, Laureano; Krambeck, Amy E

    2014-10-01

    Stone disease in patients with spinal cord injury is a source of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have indicated a decrease in infection-based urolithiasis in recent decades. We aimed to identify changes in stone composition and surgical outcomes in patients with para and quadriplegia over time. A retrospective review of para and quadriplegic patients from 1986 to 2011 who underwent surgical intervention for urolithiasis was performed, identifying 95 patients. The Mantel-Haenszel Chi square test was used to compare change in stone composition over time. The mean patient age was 44.0 years (range 18-88) and treatment included percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) 40 (42.1 %), ureteroscopy 28 (29.5 %), shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) 26 (27.4 %), and nephrectomy 1 (1 %). Overall stone-free status was found in 47.4 % with 19.0 % requiring a repeat procedure. The median hospital stay for patients undergoing SWL was 2.5 days, ureteroscopy 5 days, and PCNL 6 days. Infection-based stone composition was identified in 23 patients (36.5 %). We evaluated the linear change in percent of each stone component over time and identified increasing components of calcium oxalate dihydrate (p = 0.002) and calcium carbonate (p = 0.009). However, over a period of 25 years, the incidence of infection-based stone did not change (p = 0.57). Para and quadriplegic patients with urolithiasis can be difficult to treat surgically with prolonged hospitalizations, low stone-free status, and often require additional procedures. Despite improvements in antibiotic agents and management of neurogenic bladders, infection-based calculi continue to be a significant source of morbidity to this patient population. PMID:25015593

  8. Fault detection using dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm and discriminant analysis for swine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Jun, B H

    2011-01-15

    This paper proposes a diagnosis system using dynamic time warping (DTW) and discriminant analysis with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values for swine wastewater treatment. A full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which has an effective volume of 20 m(3), was auto-controlled, and the reaction phase was performed by a sub-cycle operation consisting of a repeated short cycle of the anoxic-aerobic step. Using ORP and DO profiles, SBR status was divided into four categories of normal and abnormal cases; these were influent disturbance, aeration controller fault, instrument trouble and inadequate raw wastewater feeding. Through the DTW process, difference values (D) were determined and classified into seven cases. In spite of the misclassification of high loading rates, the ORP profile provided good diagnosis results. However, the DO profiles detected five misclassifications that indicated different statuses. After the DTW process, several statistical values, including maximum value, minimum value, average value, standard deviation value and three quartile values, were extracted and applied to establish the discriminant function. The discriminant analysis allows one to classify seven cases with a percentage of 100% and 92.7% for ORP and DO profiles, respectively. Consequently, the study showed that ORP profiles are more efficient than DO profiles as diagnosis parameters and DTW diagnosis algorithms and discriminants. PMID:20932638

  9. Real-time computer treatment of THz passive device images with the high image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate real-time computer code improving significantly the quality of images captured by the passive THz imaging system. The code is not only designed for a THz passive device: it can be applied to any kind of such devices and active THz imaging systems as well. We applied our code for computer processing of images captured by four passive THz imaging devices manufactured by different companies. It should be stressed that computer processing of images produced by different companies requires using the different spatial filters usually. The performance of current version of the computer code is greater than one image per second for a THz image having more than 5000 pixels and 24 bit number representation. Processing of THz single image produces about 20 images simultaneously corresponding to various spatial filters. The computer code allows increasing the number of pixels for processed images without noticeable reduction of image quality. The performance of the computer code can be increased many times using parallel algorithms for processing the image. We develop original spatial filters which allow one to see objects with sizes less than 2 cm. The imagery is produced by passive THz imaging devices which captured the images of objects hidden under opaque clothes. For images with high noise we develop an approach which results in suppression of the noise after using the computer processing and we obtain the good quality image. With the aim of illustrating the efficiency of the developed approach we demonstrate the detection of the liquid explosive, ordinary explosive, knife, pistol, metal plate, CD, ceramics, chocolate and other objects hidden under opaque clothes. The results demonstrate the high efficiency of our approach for the detection of hidden objects and they are a very promising solution for the security problem.

  10. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis but, does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P4) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for CYP11A1, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10?g/mL), pregnenolone (1?g/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P4, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17?-estradiol (E2) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E2. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P4, A, T, and E1 that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. PMID:23948739

  11. Increased permeability of the rat biliary tree by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) treatment and protection by hepatoactive agents.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M D; Fujimoto, J M

    1987-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated ip on Day 0 with 0, 20, 50, or 100 micrograms/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and biliary tree permeability was evaluated on Days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, or 20 by segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection of [3H]sucrose or [14C]mannitol. Seven days after 100 micrograms/kg TCDD, the percentage recovery in bile of both [3H]sucrose (73.9 +/- 4.2 vs 27.6 +/- 7.6, control vs TCDD, means +/- SE) and [14C]mannitol (22.7 +/- 2.2 vs 12.1 +/- 2.2) was decreased, demonstrating that the permeabilities of both the intracellular (canalicular) and paracellular pathways were increased. Seven days after 50 micrograms/kg TCDD, the recovery of [3H]sucrose was decreased (73.5 +/- 5.4 vs 39.0 +/- 2.8) but the recovery of [14C]mannitol was not (25.5 +/- 1.5 vs 22.9 +/- 1.9). Thus, an increase in paracellular permeability is obtained at a lower dose of TCDD. In rats treated with 100 micrograms/kg TCDD on Day 0, co-treatment with chlordecone (15 mg/kg/day on Days 2-6) or thyroxine (50 micrograms/kg on Day 2) had no effect. Pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (75 mg/kg/day on Days 4-6) treatment increased [14C]mannitol recovery in both TCDD and control groups; its effect must not be specific. Methimazole given in drinking water (0.5%) on Days -7 through 7 reversed the increased permeability effects of TCDD (100 micrograms/kg) without affecting the biliary tree permeability ([14C]mannitol recovery) of control animals. PMID:2432693

  12. Ketoconazole Treatment Decreases the Viability of Immortalized Pituitary Cell Lines Associated with an Increased Expression of Apoptosis-Related Genes and Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, M F; Carvalho, L R; Bronstein, M D

    2015-07-01

    Ketoconazole, which was initially developed as an antifungal agent, is a potent inhibitor of adrenal steroidogenesis and has therefore been used in the management of Cushing's disease. Surprisingly, the reduction of cortisol levels during ketoconazole treatment is not accompanied by the expected elevation in plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) at the loss of negative cortisol feedback from corticotrophic cells, suggesting a direct effect of ketoconazole on these cells. To characterize the direct effects of ketoconazole, we evaluated its in vitro effect on cell viability using the pituitary tumoural cell lines AtT-20 (which secretes ACTH), GH3 (which secretes growth hormone and prolactin) and ?T3.1 (which secretes ?-subunit) and we also determined the expression levels of genes involved in apoptosis and DNA replication by the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We also evaluated ACTH levels in AtT-20 cells during ketoconazole treatment. We observed a ketoconazole concentration-dependent decrease in pituitary cell viability and reduced ACTH levels in AtT-20 cells after removal of the drug. We also observed increased expression of cell death receptors (e.g. Fas, tumour necrosis factor receptor) and caspases (e.g., caspase-6, caspase-7, caspase-9), suggesting activation of the apoptosis pathway. In addition, we observed increased gene expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 in GH3 cells and increased expression of p21 in ?T3.1 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ketoconazole significantly reduces cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner in pituitary tumour cell lines and is associated with an increase in apoptosis- and cell cycle regulation-related gene expression. PMID:25808816

  13. Interdisciplinary orthodontic treatment for a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis: Assessment of IgG antibodies to identify type of periodontitis and correct timing of treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yoshihito; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Deguchi, Toru; Honjo, Tadashi; Suzuki, Koji; Kono, Takayuki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a great challenge to clinicians when providing orthodontic treatment because of the potential for progression of periodontal disease. In this article, we report the successful comprehensive orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion and severe crowding in an adult with generalized aggressive periodontitis. A woman, aged 22 years 7 months, with a chief complaint of incisal crowding was diagnosed with a skeletal Class I malocclusion associated with severe anterior crowding, possibly worsened by generalized aggressive periodontitis. In addition to a periodontal examination, a blood IgG antibody titer analysis and microbiologic examination for periodontal pathogens were used to diagnose the type of periodontal disease and determine the proper timing to initiate orthodontic treatment. The total active treatment period was 28 months, followed by periodontal prostheses and regeneration therapy. Consequently, satisfactory facial profile, occlusion, and periodontal health were maintained for at least 36 months. These results indicate that efficient screening is important for providing successful orthodontic treatment in patients with advanced periodontal disease. This report also demonstrates the diagnostic importance of blood IgG antibody titer assays and microbiologic examinations to detect periodontal pathogens. PMID:26038081

  14. NEUROTOXIC (+)-METHAMPHETAMINE TREATMENT INCREASES BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR AND TROPOMYOSIN RECEPTOR KINASE B (TrkB) EXPRESSION IN MULTIPLE BRAIN REGIONS

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Amanda A.; Herring, Nicole R.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Hemmerle, Ann M.; Dickerson, Jonathan W.; Seroogy, Kim B.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is an abused stimulant which can result in cognitive deficits and monoamine depletions. Animal models of neurotoxic MA exposure show reductions in dopamine, serotonin, and their associated transporters. MA abuse can result in long-term attention, working memory, and executive function deficits in humans and deficits in route-based egocentric learning, novel object recognition, and novel odor preference in rodents. MA has also been shown to affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in humans and rodents. This experiment examined the effects of a MA binge dosing regimen (10 mg/kg × 4 at 2 h intervals, s.c.) in Sprague-Dawley rats on BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression, and plasma corticosterone. Tissues were collected 1, 7, and 24 h following the last MA dose. Expression of BDNF and TrkB mRNA was analyzed using in situ hybridization with cRNA probes. Frontal, parietal, and entorhinal cortical BDNF mRNA expression were increased by MA exposure at all time-points. Increases in BDNF mRNA message were also seen in the hippocampal CA1, prefrontal cortex (PFC), piriform cortex, and locus coeruleus but only at specific times. TrkB mRNA expression was modified in several subregions of the hippocampus as well as in PFC and striatum. TH mRNA was increased at the 1 h time-point in the substantia nigra pars compacta with no differences noted at the other times. Corticosterone levels were increased at all three time-points. The findings suggest that BDNF and its receptor may be upregulated as a compensatory mechanism after MA exposure. PMID:21453757

  15. Synergistic effect of a recombinant N-terminal fragment of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and cefamandole in treatment of rabbit gram-negative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Leach, W J; Ammons, W S

    1996-01-01

    As a consequence of their bactericidal actions, many antibiotics cause the release of endotoxin, a primary mediator of gram-negative sepsis. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) has bactericidal activity and neutralizes endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. We sought to examine the effect of a recombinant N-terminal fragment of BPI (rBPI21) in conjunction with cefamandole, a cephalosporin antibiotic, in the treatment of Escherichia coli bacteremia and septic shock in rabbits. Cefamandole (100 mg/kg of body weight) was injected intravenously. This was followed by simultaneous 10-min infusions of E. coli O7:K1 (9 x 10(9) CFU/kg) and rBPI21 (10 mg/kg). rBPI21 was continuously infused for an additional 110 min at 10 mg/kg/h. The administration of rBPI21 in conjunction with the administration of cefamandole prevented the cefamandole-induced increase of free endotoxin in plasma, accelerated bacterial clearance, ameliorated cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and thereby, prevented death, whereas neither agent alone was protective in this animal model. The efficacy of the combined treatment with rBPI21 and cefamandole suggests a synergistic interaction between the two agents. The data indicate that rBPI21 may be useful in conjunction with traditional antibiotic therapy. PMID:8787881

  16. Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in the airway epithelium of asthmatic subjects and regulation by corticosteroid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Redington, A; Meng, Q; Springall, D; Evans, T; Creminon, C; Maclouf, J; Holgate, S; Howarth, P; Polak, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids are mediators of vascular and bronchial tone that are postulated to be involved in asthma. Increased levels of both are found in asthmatic subjects and are synthesised by enzymes that have cytokine inducible forms: inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. We hypothesised that the in vivo expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the airways would be increased in asthma, and that these cytokine inducible enzymes may represent targets for regulation by corticosteroid treatment.?METHODS—Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from three groups of subjects: atopic asthmatics treated with ?2 agonists alone (n=7), atopic asthmatics additionally receiving regular treatment with corticosteroids (n=8), and non-asthmatic control subjects (n=10). Expression of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and immunoreactive protein was studied using in situ hybridisation and quantitative immunohistochemistry.?RESULTS—Immunoreactivity and the hybridisation signal for iNOS and COX-2 were mainly localised in the airway epithelium. The proportion of epithelium immunostained was significantly greater in the non-steroid treated asthmatic subjects (iNOS 8.6 (1.8)%; COX-2 26.3 (4.6)%) than either the steroid treated asthmatics (iNOS 3.4 (1.0)%, p=0.009; COX-2 13.0 (0.6)%, p=0.0015) or the non-asthmatic controls (iNOS 4.2 (0.9)%, p=0.018; COX-2 11.6 (0.6)%, p=0.0003). Similarly, the hybridisation signal was stronger in the non-steroid treated group of asthmatic subjects than in the other two groups.?CONCLUSIONS—These findings highlight the potential role of the airway epithelium both as a contributor to the inflammatory process in asthma and as a target for inhaled corticosteroid treatment in this disease.?? PMID:11312402

  17. Time-Dependent Micromechanical Responses of Breast Cancer Cells and Adjacent Fibroblasts to Electric Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maayan Lia Yizraeli; Daphne Weihs

    Direct-current, low-intensity, electric fields were suggested as a minimally invasive treatment for various cancers. The tumor\\u000a microenvironment may affect treatment efficacy, albeit it has not generally been considered when evaluating novel anti-cancer\\u000a treatments. We evaluate the effects of electric treatment on epithelial, breast-cancer cells, co-cultured with non-cancerous\\u000a fibroblasts, a simplified model for the tumor-microenvironment. We evaluate changes in morphology, cytoskeleton,

  18. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  19. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Response Time in Youths with Bipolar Disorder and At-Risk Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Sodium Salicylate Administration to Laying Hens: Evidence for Time Dependent Increase in Drug Elimination from Plasma and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Po?niak, B?a?ej; Grabowski, Tomasz; Motykiewicz-Pers, Karolina; Bobrek, Kamila; Rak, Lech; Bobusia, Katarzyna; Gawe?, Andrzej; ?wita?a, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus) salicylate (SA) may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS) to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT), minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h) and elimination half-life (T1/2el) of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB) increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment. PMID:25893240

  1. Preferences for Analgesic Treatments Are Influenced by Probability of the Occurrence of Adverse Effects and the Time to Reach Maximal Therapeutic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Wu, Long-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Research on shared medical decision-making suggested that both the potency of a treatment and the probability of it being successful influence individual treatment preferences. Patients also need to consider the negative attributes of treatments, such as the occurrence of adverse effects or a slow start to the therapeutic effects. It remains unclear how these attributes influence individual treatment preferences. We investigated how the analgesic effect, the adverse effect, and the time-course effect influenced the preference of analgesic treatments. Forty-five healthy volunteers participated in three hypothetical analgesic decision-making tasks. They were instructed to imagine that they were experiencing pain and choose between two hypothetical analgesic treatments: the more potent radical treatment and the less potent conservative treatment. The potency of a treatment was countered by the following attributes: the probability of working successfully, the probability of inducing an adverse effect, and the time required for the treatment to reach its maximal effect. We found that (a) when the overall probability that a treatment would induce an adverse effect decreased, the participants changed their preference from a conservative treatment to a radical treatment; (b) when the time-course for a treatment to reach its maximal effect was shortened, the participants changed their preference from a conservative treatment to a radical treatment, and (c) individual differences in prior clinical pain and the degree of imagined pain relief were associated with preferences. The findings showed that the adverse effects and the time course of treatments guide the analgesic treatment preferences, highlighting the importance of sharing information about negative attributes of treatments in pain management. The findings imply that patients may over-emphasize the occurrence of adverse effect or a slow time-course of treatment effect. In terms of shared medical decision-making, clinicians should clarify these negative attributes related to treatment to patients. PMID:26067778

  2. Real-time water treatment process control with artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Zhang; Stephen J. Stanley

    1999-01-01

    With more stringent requirements being placed on water treatment performance, operators need a reliable tool to optimize the process control in the treatment plant. In the present paper, one such tool is presented, which is a process control system built with the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling approach. The coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes involve many complex physical and chemical

  3. Negative Treatment Effects: Is It Time for a Black Box Warning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisvert, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on Negative effects from psychological treatments: A perspective by David Barlow. The author addresses negative treatment effects in the psychotherapy field by stating that Barlow provided a historical perspective of clinical psychology's long-standing interest in studying the positive effects of psychotherapy, and he indicated that…