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1

The increasing demand for infertility treatment.  

PubMed

At present NHS services for infertile couples are under-developed compared with those available in the private sector. Health care planners should be aware that the demand for infertility treatment is likely to increase. The average age at first child birth has increased and presumably also the average age at the first attempt to conceive. The rise in divorce rates and second marriages has resulted in increasing numbers of couples wishing to start a second family at a comparatively advanced age. If, as it appears, the time taken to conceive increases with age, the higher average age of women attempting to conceive could cause an increase in the prevalence of infertility, and the demand for treatment. Divorce and remarriage of sterilised people has resulted in a demand for reversal of sterilisation and for in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The age of onset of sexual activity has fallen. This, combined with later marriage, has led to an increase in the number of sexually active single people, with an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted disease of which infertility is a possible sequel. The opportunity to adopt is now available for very few couples because of the decreasing proportion of illegitimate babies available for adoption. Recent publicity given to developments such as gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT) and IVF may have increased the demand for treatment. PMID:10302956

Page, H

1988-11-01

2

The increasing efficacy of breast cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women and although identification of this multi-system disease has increased, the survival rates have not dramatically altered over the past four decades. Optimium treatment of patients with breast cancer is a subject of great debate and traditionally may be divided into surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone manipulation.Halsted's radical mastectomy, although initially superseded by

A. Gordon

1997-01-01

3

Increasing Patient Adherence in Antifungal Infection Treatment  

PubMed Central

Adherence to treatment is an important issue in all areas of clinical medicine, including dermatology. Consequences of poor compliance include reduced treatment benefits, biased assessments of treatment efficacy, increased healthcare costs, and in some cases even death. To date, even the most effective interventions in patients' habits have not led to large improvements in either adherence or treatment outcome. New objective electronic measures permit unbiased reporting of actual adherence to therapy regimens and have revealed that nonadherence is more pervasive than had been suspected, usually occurring when patients omit or delay a dose. In dermatology, adherence to therapy for dermatomycosis is known to decrease with the duration of treatment and the number of applications required each day, particularly once symptoms have disappeared. Simpler dosing regimens are sought for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections. Sertaconazole, an imidazole antifungal, has pharmacokinetics that are considered favorable for once-daily antimycotic therapy. It is hypothesized that its prolonged dermal retention may translate into the need for less frequent application for successful treatment in clinical practice. PMID:20967180

2009-01-01

4

Timing of increased autistic disorder cumulative incidence.  

PubMed

Autistic disorder (AD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically identified in early childhood. Both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in its etiology. The number of individuals identified as having autism has increased dramatically in recent years, but whether some proportion of this increase is real is unknown. If real, susceptible populations may have exposure to controllable exogenous stressors. Using literature AD data from long-term (approximately 10-year) studies, we determined cumulative incidence of AD for each cohort within each study. These data for each study were examined for a changepoint year in which the AD cumulative incidence first increased. We used data sets from Denmark, California, Japan, and a worldwide composite of studies. In the Danish, California, and worldwide data sets, we found that an increase in AD cumulative incidence began about 1988-1989. The Japanese study (1988-1996) had AD cumulative incidence increasing continuously, and no changepoint year could be calculated. Although the debate about the nature of increasing autism continues, the potential for this increase to be real and involve exogenous environmental stressors exists. The timing of an increase in autism incidence may help in screening for potential candidate environmental stressors. PMID:20158232

McDonald, Michael E; Paul, John F

2010-03-15

5

An intervention to increase alcohol treatment engagement: a pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Previous research has documented the difficulty individuals with alcohol use disorders have initiating alcohol treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of a brief, cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase treatment initiation among individuals with alcohol use disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included one hundred and ninety six participants who screened positive for a possible alcohol use disorder on the AUDIT. Randomly assigned intervention participants were administered a brief cognitive-behaviorally-based intervention by phone designed to modify beliefs that may interfere with treatment-seeking behavior. Beliefs about treatment and treatment-seeking behavior were assessed post-intervention. Results Participants receiving the intervention had significantly improved their attitudes toward addiction treatment (p < 0.002) and increased their reported intention to seek treatment (p < 0.000) post-intervention. Further, intervention participants were almost three times more likely to attend treatment within a three-month period (OR = 2.60, p < 0.025) than participants in the control group. Conclusions A brief, cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered by phone and focused on modifying treatment interfering beliefs holds promise for increasing alcohol treatment-seeking among individuals in need. PMID:22138200

Stecker, Tracy; McGovern, Mark P.; Herr, Beverly

2011-01-01

6

Steam treatment of digested biofibers for increasing biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of steam pretreatment on the biomethane potential of biofibers from digested manure. These biofibers were treated for 15min with steam in a pressure vessel. The effect of steam treatment temperature, solids content, catalyst concentration and time of pre-soaking on the methane potential of the biofibers was determined. The highest increase

Emiliano Bruni; Anders Peter Jensen; Irini Angelidaki

2010-01-01

7

Burns treatment in ancient times.  

PubMed

Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

2013-01-01

8

Increased time resolution with multiphoton interference beating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I investigate a variation of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference where two interference filters with different central frequencies are placed in the two output-ports of a beam splitter. Taking photons as wavepackets in the time domain, we get a general analytic formula for the probability that N photons emerge in each output-port after interference. The probability is shown to oscillate as a cosine function modulated by a dip and the oscillation period is inversely proportional to N which indicates a better time resolution with multiphoton beating.

Chen, Lei

2014-11-01

9

Increasing Hydraulic Residence Time in Constructed Stormwater  

E-print Network

and biological reactors used for treating polluted wastewater and are thus governed by the same physical laws of time the material being treated spends in the reactor. Because the physical, chemical, and biological. Contaminated runoff entering wetlands is treated by physical, chemical, and biological processes. Wetlands also

Fiedler, Fritz R.

10

Marked increase in gastric acid secretory capacity after omeprazole treatment.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In contrast with the histamine2 (H2) blockers, proton pump inhibitors have not been shown to give rebound hypersecretion of acid. Taking into consideration the hyperplasia of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell provoked by hypergastrinaemia secondary to profound acid inhibition and the central role of histamine from ECL cells in the regulation of acid secretion, the lack of any rebound acid hypersecretion after treatment with proton pump inhibitors has been questioned. AIMS: To reassess the effect of treatment with omeprazole on post-treatment acid secretion. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Basal and pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion were determined in nine patients with reflux oesophagitis before and 14 days after termination of a 90 day treatment period with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (40 mg daily). Basal gastrin release were determined before and during omeprazole treatment. Furthermore, biopsy samples from the oxyntic mucosa were taken before and at the end of the treatment period for chemical (histamine and chromogranin A (CgA)) evaluation of the ECL cell mass. RESULTS: A substantial increase in meal stimulated gastrin release during omeprazole treatment resulted in an increased ECL cell mass. Furthermore, CgA in serum increased during omeprazole treatment suggesting that serum CgA may be used as a test to evaluate ECL cell hyperplasia. A significant increase in basal and a marked (50%) and significant increase in pentagastrin stimulated acid secretion were found after treatment with omeprazole. CONCLUSIONS: Increased acid secretion after a conventional treatment period with a proton pump inhibitor is probably due to ECL cell hyperplasia and may have negative consequences for acid related diseases. PMID:9026477

Waldum, H L; Arnestad, J S; Brenna, E; Eide, I; Syversen, U; Sandvik, A K

1996-01-01

11

An investigation of productivity increases from hydraulic fracturing treatments  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES FROM HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS A Thesis b7 Robert Joe Boriskie Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1963 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES FROM HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS A Thesis Robert Joe Boriskie Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee...

Boriskie, Robert Joe

2012-06-07

12

Increase of bone marrow cellularity during erythropoietin treatment in myeloma.  

PubMed

Treatment of myeloma-associated chronic anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has been shown to be successful in the majority of patients. We have morphometrically investigated bone marrow sections from the iliac crest of 20 anemic myeloma patients prior to rHuEPO therapy. The 15 responding patients were re-examined after three months and, if possible, after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Significant differences were found between responders and nonresponders prior to therapy. Nonresponders presented with a pronounced shift to the right in their erythroid bone marrow cell compartment and partly with higher serum levels of endogenous erythropoietin. During rHuEPO therapy, responders showed increases in all subsets of erythropoiesis and in the total amount of hemopoietic tissue. Response was accompanied by a marked drop of serum ferritin levels, a rise in serum levels of transferrin receptors and the emptying of bone marrow iron stores; the World Health Organization performance status improved. Responders tended to present with less advanced disease stages and better performance status and showed significantly longer survival times. Loss of responsiveness to rHuEPO was observed in one patient during the terminal stage of the disease. In conclusion, morphometric examination of bone marrow biopsies during the course of rHuEPO therapy showed that the response achieved in hemoglobin values was clearly mirrored in equivalent increments of the erythroid bone marrow cell compartment. PMID:8520516

Ludwig, H; Chott, A; Fritz, E; Krainer, M

1995-08-01

13

Reconsidering the Temporal Increase in Fathers’ Time with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 1977 Quality of Employment Survey and the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce this study showed that the temporal increase in fathers’ time with children was three times larger on non-workdays than workdays.\\u000a Multivariate analyses revealed that both work (e.g., job autonomy) and family (presence of young children, dependence on wives’\\u000a earnings) factors increased men’s time with

David J. Maume

2011-01-01

14

Therapeutic recreation treatment time during inpatient rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Objective Following spinal cord injury (SCI), certified therapeutic recreation specialists (CTRSs) work with patients during rehabilitation to re-create leisure lifestyles. Although there is much literature available to describe the benefits of recreation, little has been written about the process of inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation therapeutic recreation (TR) programs or the effectiveness of such programs. To delineate how TR time is used during inpatient rehabilitation for SCI. Methods Six rehabilitation centers enrolled 600 patients with traumatic SCI for an observational study. CTRSs documented time spent on each of a set of specific TR activities during each patient encounter. Patterns of time use are described, for all patients and by neurologic category. Ordinary least-squares stepwise regression models are used to identify patient and injury characteristics predictive of total treatment time (overall and average per week) and time spent in TR activities. Results Ninety-four percent of patients enrolled in the SCIRehab study participated in TR. Patients received a mean total of 17.5 hours of TR; significant differences were seen in the amount of time spent in each activity among and within neurologic groups. The majority (76%) of patients participated in at least one structured therapeutic outing. Patient and injury characteristics explained little of the variation in time spent within activities. Conclusion The large amount of variability seen in TR treatment time within and among injury group categories, which is not explained well by patient and injury characteristics, sets the stage for future analyses to associate treatments with outcomes. PMID:21675356

Gassaway, Julie; Dijkers, Marcel; Rider, Cecelia; Edens, Kelly; Cahow, Claire; Joyce, Joan

2011-01-01

15

Sources of increased timing variability following TMS over motor cortex  

E-print Network

Sources of increased timing variability following TMS over motor cortex Talia Konkle, Tim Verstynen-random order t 14 pacer tones14 pacer tones 47 total keypresses, 33 unpaced 7-10 TMS pulses7-10 TMS pulses - TMS over M1 selectively increases peripheral noise estimates. - The response delays are correlated

Oliva, Aude

16

Acute prenatal androgen treatment increases birth weights and growth rates in lambs.  

PubMed

One hundred seventy-four Border Leicester x Merino ewes were mated to Romney Marsh rams. The ewes were randomly allocated to either an untreated control group or to one of four treatment groups. The treated groups were defined by the time (days postcoitus) of acute prenatal androgen treatment (APAT). The selected treatment times were 30, 40, 50, and 60 d postcoitus. Acute prenatal androgen treatment involved a single 2-mL i.m. injection of 100 mg/mL testosterone propionate. The statistical analysis of all measured parameters was performed using an analysis of variance via a general linear model. Postnatal plasma testosterone concentrations were not affected by treatment (P > .05). The time of treatment affected the observed responses to APAT (P < .05). Acute prenatal androgen treatment increased birth weight, ADG, and live weight and altered wool growth, plasma insulin levels, and ano-genital distance (P < .05). PMID:8582849

Gill, J W; Hosking, B J

1995-09-01

17

Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods  

DOEpatents

Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); McMasters, O. D. (Ames, IA)

1989-07-18

18

Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods  

DOEpatents

Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

1989-07-18

19

Aggregation increases prey survival time in group chase and escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently developed chase-and-escape models have addressed a fascinating pursuit-and-evasion problem that may have both theoretical significance and potential applications. We introduce three aggregation strategies for the prey in a group chase model on a lattice. Simulation results show that aggregation dramatically increases the group survival time, even allowing immortal prey. The average survival time ? and the aggregation probability P have a power-law dependence of \\tau \\sim {{(1-P)}^{-1}} for P\\in [0.9,0.997]. With increasing numbers of predators, there is still a phase transition. When the number of predators is less than the critical point value, the prey group survival time increases significantly.

Yang, Sicong; Jiang, Shijie; Jiang, Li; Li, Geng; Han, Zhangang

2014-08-01

20

Reducing product development cycle times without increasing risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both market forces and the regulatory climate are causing companies to seek ways to accelerate the product development process.\\u000a Unfortunately, shortening development times usually increases the risk level that a company is forced to live with. Historically,\\u000a R&D has exercised the role of risk manager in corporations by testing prospective products extensively over long times and\\u000a under varied conditions to

F. Louis Floyd

1998-01-01

21

Method for Predicting Which Customers' Time Deposit Balances Will Increase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method of predicting which customers' account balances will increase by using data mining to effectively and efficiently promote sales. Prediction by mining all the data in a business is difficult because of much time required to collect, process, and calculate it. The selection of which features are used for prediction is a critical issue. We propose a method of selecting features to improve the accuracy of prediction within practical time limits. It consists of three parts: (1) converting collected features into financial behavior features that reflect customer actions, (2) extracting features affecting increases in account balances from these collected and financial behavior features, and (3) predicting customers whose account balances will increase based on the extracted features. We found the accuracy of prediction in an experiment with our method to be higher than with other conventional methods.

Ono, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Morita, Masahiro; Komoda, Norihisa

22

Increasing rates of surgical treatment and preventing comorbidities may increase breast cancer survival for Aboriginal women  

PubMed Central

Background Lower breast cancer survival has been reported for Australian Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women, however the reasons for this disparity have not been fully explored. We compared the surgical treatment and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women diagnosed with breast cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods We analysed NSW cancer registry records of breast cancers diagnosed in 2001–2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare the odds of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women receiving surgical treatment. Breast cancer-specific survival was examined using cumulative mortality curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Of the 27 850 eligible women, 288 (1.03%) identified as Aboriginal. The Aboriginal women were younger and more likely to have advanced spread of disease when diagnosed than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginal women were less likely than non-Aboriginal women to receive surgical treatment (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.86). The five-year crude breast cancer-specific mortality was 6.1% higher for Aboriginal women (17.7%, 95% CI 12.9-23.2) compared with non-Aboriginal women (11.6%, 95% CI 11.2-12.0). After accounting for differences in age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, spread of disease and surgical treatment received the risk of death from breast cancer was 39% higher in Aboriginal women (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.86). Finally after also accounting for differences in comorbidities, socioeconomic disadvantage and place of residence the hazard ratio was reduced to 1.30 (95% CI 0.94-1.75). Conclusion Preventing comorbidities and increasing rates of surgical treatment may increase breast cancer survival for NSW Aboriginal women. PMID:24606675

2014-01-01

23

Increased Constrictor Tone Induced by Ouabain-Treatment in Rats  

PubMed Central

Ouabain-induced hypertension in rodents provides a model to study cardiovascular changes associated with human hypertension. We examined vascular function in rats after long-term treatment with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ouabain (Oua, ~25 ?g·day?1) or placebo for 8 weeks. Blood pressure increased in ouabain-treated animals, reaching 30% above baseline SBP after 7 weeks. At the end of treatment, vascular responses were studied in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) by wire myography. Contraction to potassium chloride (KCl) in intact and denuded arteries showed greater sensitivity in Oua-treated animals. Contraction to phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) were similar between groups with a lower response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in Oua-treated arteries. Sensitivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1) was higher in Oua-treated arteries. Na+-K+ ATPase activity was decreased in MRA from Oua-treated animals, whereas protein expression of the Na+-K+-ATPase ?2 isoform was increased in heart and unchanged in mesenteric artery. Pre-incubation with indomethacin (10?5M) or L-NAME (10?4M) abolished the differences in KCl response and Na+-K+ ATPase activity. Changes in MRA are consistent with enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity, a contributor to the increased vascular tone observed in this model of hypertension. PMID:23615157

Pulgar, Victor M.; Jeffers, Anne B.; Rashad, Hanadi M.; Diz, Debra I.; Aileru, Azeez A.

2013-01-01

24

Increased constrictor tone induced by ouabain treatment in rats.  

PubMed

Ouabain (Oua)-induced hypertension in rodents provides a model to study cardiovascular changes associated with human hypertension. We examined vascular function in rats after a long-term treatment with Oua. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with Oua (? 25 µg/d) or placebo for 8 weeks. Blood pressure increased in Oua-treated animals, reaching 30% above baseline systolic blood pressure after 7 weeks. At the end of treatment, vascular responses were studied in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) by wire myography. Contraction to potassium chloride in intact and denuded arteries showed greater sensitivity in Oua-treated animals. Contraction to phenylephrine and relaxation to acetylcholine were similar between groups with a lower response to sodium nitroprusside in Oua-treated arteries. Sensitivity to endothelin-1 was higher in Oua-treated arteries. Na?-K? ATPase activity was decreased in MRAs from Oua-treated animals, whereas protein expression of the Na?-K? ATPase ?? isoform was increased in heart and unchanged in mesenteric artery. Preincubation with indomethacin (10?? M) or N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10?? M) abolished the differences in potassium chloride response and Na?-K? ATPase activity. Changes in MRAs are consistent with enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity, a contributor to the increased vascular tone observed in this model of hypertension. PMID:23615157

Pulgar, Victor M; Jeffers, Anne B; Rashad, Hanadi M; Diz, Debra I; Aileru, Azeez A

2013-08-01

25

False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.  

PubMed

Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed. PMID:22963741

Sherman, Susan M

2013-01-01

26

Treatment time reduction through parameter optimization in magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Resonance guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) treatments are a promising modality for cancer treatments in which a focused beam of ultrasound energy is used to kill tumor tissue. However, obstacles still exist to its widespread clinical implementation, including long treatment times. This research demonstrates reductions in treatment times through intelligent selection of the user-controllable parameters, including: the focal zone treatment path, focal zone size, focal zone spacing, and whether to treat one or several focal zone locations at any given time. Several treatments using various combinations of these parameters were simulated using a finite difference method to solve the Pennes bio-heat transfer equation for an ultrasonically heated tissue region with a wide range of acoustic, thermal, geometric, and tumor properties. The total treatment time was iteratively optimized using either a heuristic method or routines included in the Matlab software package, with constraints imposed for patient safety and treatment efficacy. The results demonstrate that large reductions in treatment time are possible through the intelligent selection of user-controllable treatment parameters. For the treatment path, treatment times are reduced by as much as an order of magnitude if the focal zones are arranged into stacks along the axial direction and a middle-front-back ordering is followed. For situations where normal tissue heating constraints are less stringent, these focal zones should have high levels of adjacency to further decrease treatment times; however, adjacency should be reduced in some cases where normal tissue constraints are more stringent. Also, the use of smaller, more concentrated focal zones produces shorter treatment times than larger, more diluted focal zones, a result verified in an agar phantom model. Further, focal zones should be packed using only a small amount of overlap in the axial direction and with a small gap in the transverse direction. These studies suggest that all treatment time reductions occur due to selection of parameters that advantageously use mechanisms of decreasing the focal zone size to concentrate the power density, increasing thermal superposition in the tumor, decreasing thermal superposition in the normal tissue, and advantageously using nonlinear rates of thermal dose deposition with increasing temperature.

Coon, Joshua

27

Increased breastfeeding rates in black women after a treatment intervention.  

PubMed

There has been a considerable increase in rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Despite these trends, black women continue to fall below medical recommendations. Impoverished and poorly educated women also have a comparatively lower rate of breastfeeding. Provider encouragement and supportive interventions increase breastfeeding initiation among women of all backgrounds. The data presented come from a three-site randomized controlled bilingual depression treatment trial from 2005 to 2011 that examined the comparative effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy and a parenting education program. Breastfeeding education and support were provided for the majority of participants in each intervention. Breastfeeding status was queried at postpartum week 4. We found higher rates of breastfeeding in black women compared with those reported in national surveys. The black breastfeeding rate did not significantly differ from that of white or Hispanic women. American-born black women were just as likely to breastfeed as American-born white women, both at significantly greater rates than American-born Hispanic women. We also found no differences in breastfeeding rate in poorly educated and impoverished women. These data must be seen against the backdrop of a significant intervention to treat depression. Because breastfeeding interventions have been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, the support provided in our study likely increased rates in groups that lag behind. PMID:23971683

Spinelli, Margaret G; Endicott, Jean; Goetz, Raymond R

2013-12-01

28

Real-time interactive treatment planning.  

PubMed

The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient's treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ~2-20?ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. 'drag' a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ~1-5?min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT. PMID:25097184

Otto, Karl

2014-09-01

29

Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells and thus to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has been attracting increasing interest in recent years. A great deal of effort has been made to better understand and predict the progression to cancer using mathematical models; these mostly consider the evolution of a well-mixed cell population, even though pre-cancerous cells often evolve in highly structured epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to assess two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other. We find that in the presence of clonal interference, spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer, leads to a patchwork structure of non-uniformly sized clones and decreases the survival probability of virtually neutral (passenger) mutations, and that genetic distance begins to increase over a characteristic length scale Lc. These characteristic features of clonal interference may help us to predict the onset of cancers with pronounced spatial structure and to interpret spatially sampled genetic data obtained from biopsies. Our estimates suggest that clonal interference likely occurs in the progression of colon cancer and possibly other cancers where spatial structure matters.

Martens, Erik A.; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C.; Hallatschek, Oskar

2011-11-01

30

Treatment of nasal polyposis in Byzantine times.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to describe the therapeutic methods and surgical techniques used during Byzantine times (AD 324-1453) for a disease that has occupied physicians since antiquity: nasal polyps. The original Greek-language texts of the Byzantine medical writers, most of which were published after the 17th century, were studied in order to identify the early knowledge of the definition, symptoms, conservative treatments, and surgical intervention in cases of this disease. A considerable number of conservative treatments, etiologic and local (with inunctions or blowing of caustic substances), with evident influence from Roman medicine, were identified even in the early Byzantine medical texts (4th century). Further, some surgical techniques were described that seem to constitute evolution of the Hippocratic tradition. From the study of the original texts of Byzantine medical writers, their interest in the rhinological diseases is evident; in the case of nasal polyps, new techniques were mentioned. The first meticulous intranasal surgical removal of polyps was described. These techniques, obviously developed during the Hellenistic period, initially influenced European medicine and later the rest of the world. PMID:11007093

Lascaratos, J G; Segas, J V; Assimakopoulos, D A

2000-09-01

31

Does Cognitive Function Increase over Time in the Healthy Elderly?  

PubMed Central

Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ? 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ? 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults. PMID:24244332

de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sebastien

2013-01-01

32

Minimising time to treatment: targeted strategies to minimise time to thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke.  

PubMed

Time to thrombolysis is a critical determinant of favourable outcomes in acute ischaemic stroke. It is not infrequent that patient outcomes are compromised due to out-of-hospital and in-hospital time delays. On the other hand, time delays could be minimised through the identification of barriers and the implementation of targeted solutions. This review outlines the different strategies in minimising treatment delays and offers recommendations. Literature search in PubMed, Medline and EBSCO Host was conducted to identify studies that are relevant to reduction of time to treatment from January 1995 to December 2012. Strategies to reduce time to thrombolysis are categorised into pre-hospital strategies, in-hospital strategies and post-treatment decision strategies. Proposed pre-hospital strategies include public education on stroke symptoms awareness, prioritising stroke by emergency medical services, increasing ease of access to medical records, pre-hospital notification, and mobile computed tomography scanning. In-hospital strategies include a streamlined code stroke system, computed tomography scanner co-location with emergency department, 24/7 availability of stroke physicians, point-of-care laboratory testing and access to expert neuroimaging interpretation. Post-decision strategies include increasing availability of intravenous thrombolysis and simplification of informed consent procurement. Time to thrombolysis delays is multifactorial. Effective reduction of time delays for acute ischaemic stroke requires the correct identification of and targeted strategies to overcome time barriers. PMID:23734983

Tai, Y J; Yan, B

2013-11-01

33

Local time and cutoff rigidity dependences of storm time increase associated with geomagnetic storms  

SciTech Connect

The cosmic ray increases due to considerable depressions of cosmic ray cutoff rigidity during large geomagnetic storms are investigated. Data from a worldwide network of cosmic ray neutron monitors are analyzed for 17 geomagnetic storms which occurred in the quiet phase of the solar activity cycle during 1966-1978. As expected from the longitudinal asymmetry of the low-altitude geomagnetic field during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray intensity is obtained. It is shown that the maximum phases of the local time dependence occur at around 1800 LT and that the amplitudes of the local time dependence are consistent with presently available theoretical estimates. The dependence of the increment on the cutoff rigidity is obtained for both the local time dependent part and the local time independent part of the storm time increase. The local time independent part, excluding the randomizing local time dependent part, shows a clear-cut dependence on cutoff rigidity which is consistent with theoretical estimates.

Kudo, S.; Wada, M. (Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)); Tanskanen, P. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)); Kodama, M. (Yamanashi Medical College (Japan))

1987-05-01

34

Time is up: increasing shadow price of time in primary-care office visits.  

PubMed

A physician's own time is a scarce resource in primary care, and the physician must constantly evaluate the gain from spending more time with the current patient against moving to address the health-care needs of the next. We formulate and test two alternative hypotheses. The first hypothesis is based on the premise that with time so scarce, physicians equalize the marginal value of time across patients. The second, alternative hypothesis states that physicians allocate the same time to each patient, regardless of how much the patient benefits from the time at the margin. For our empirical work, we examine the presence of a sharply increasing subjective shadow price of time around the 'target' time using video recordings of 385 visits by elderly patients to their primary care physician. We structure the data at the 'topic' level and find evidence consistent with the alternative hypothesis. Specifically, time elapsed within a visit is a very strong determinant of the current topic being the 'last topic'. This finding implies the physician's shadow price of time is rising during the course of a visit. We consider whether dislodging a target-time mentality from physicians (and patients) might contribute to more productive primary care practice. PMID:21442688

Tai-Seale, Ming; McGuire, Thomas

2012-04-01

35

Using wastewater for cooling: Increasing water reuse poses treatment challenges  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for control of biofouling, scale, corrosion and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems are discussed. Techniques involving water reuse and using wastewater as makeup are emphasized, and associated problems are identified. Appropriate chemical treatments, including biocides and biostats, biodispersants, sludge dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and supplementary chemical treatments, are outlined. New and developing technologies reviewed include microorganism control based on biodispersants and on enzymes.

Lutey, R.W. [Buckman Labs. International Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)

1996-04-01

36

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life time of the battery depends of many different parameters. One parameter set is the internal battery parameters which are influenced by the battery manufacturers, and the second set is the external battery parameters which are influenced by the battery users. The external parameter can have an enormous influence on the life time. By use of a battery management

A. Jossen; V. Spath; H. Doring; J. Garche

1999-01-01

37

No Time to Waste: Policy Recommendations for Increasing College Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first page of this report sets forth starkly the imperative for states to increase substantially the numbers of postsecondary education degrees and certificates earned each year by their residents: By 2018, the United States will fall far short of the number of new college degrees needed for an emerging economy that increasingly depends on…

Spence, Dave; Blanco, Cheryl D.; Root, Megan

2010-01-01

38

Increasing the resistance of vacuum treatment unit linings abroard  

Microsoft Academic Search

.and repairs is a large portion of the operating costs for these processes. In DH type units for portion vacuum treatment the service conditions of the refractories in the lining of the nozzle, which is repeatedly immersed into the ladle with the metal, and of the bottom of the chamber are the most severe. The inside of the nozzle is

A. K. Karklit; A. N. Sokolov

1984-01-01

39

Integrative exercise and lifestyle intervention increases leisure-time activity in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Background. Physical activity has been demonstrated to increase survival in breast cancer patients, but few breast cancer patients meet the general recommendations for physical activity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a supervised integrated counseling and group-based exercise program could increase leisure-time activity in women with breast cancer. Methods. This pilot project, designed as a single-arm study with pre-post testing, consisted of 24 classes of combined aerobic and strength exercise training as well as classes on dietary and health behavior. A total of 48 women with breast cancer who were undergoing or had recently completed anticancer treatment completed the study. Leisure-time physical activity, grip strength, functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), and depression were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at the 12-week follow-up after intervention. Results. The breast cancer patients increased their leisure-time physical activity (P = .004), global strength (P = .004), functional capacity (P = .001), and QoL (P = .009), and their depression score (P = .004) significantly decreased. These improvements were independent of whether the patients were in ongoing therapy or had completed their treatment. Conclusion. This integrated intervention may produce lifestyle changes in breast cancer patients and survivors using the teachable moment to increase their leisure-time physical activity and, thereby, their QoL. PMID:24997174

Casla, Soraya; Hojman, Pernille; Cubedo, Ricardo; Calvo, Isabel; Sampedro, Javier; Barakat, Ruben

2014-11-01

40

Increasing the fatigue limit of a high-strength bearing steel by a deep cryogenic treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-strength steels typically fail from inclusions. Therefore, to increase the fatigue limit of high-strength steels it is necessary to modify the inclusions and/or the surrounding matrix. The goal must be a higher threshold for crack initiation and/or crack propagation. One possibility to reach this goal seems to be a deep cryogenic treatment which is reported to completely transform the retained austenite as well as to facilitate the formation of fine carbides. Therefore, specimens were annealed before or after deep cryogenic treatment, which was carried out with different cooling and heating rates as well as different soaking times at -196° C. Hardness and retained austenite measurements and fatigue experiments were used to evaluate the different sequences of treatments mentioned above. The fatigue limit increases only after some of the sequences. The results show that the soaking times are not relevant for the fatigue limit but it is very important to temper the specimens before the deep cryogenic treatment. Also, repeated deep cryogenic treatments had a positive influence on the fatigue limit.

Kerscher, E.; Lang, K.-H.

2010-07-01

41

Risperidone Treatment Increases CB1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Body weight gain is a common side effect of treatment with antipsychotics, but the mechanisms underlying this weight gain are unknown. Several factors may be involved in antipsychotic-induced body weight gain including the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), the serotonin receptor 2C, the ghrelin receptor, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin and proopiomelanocortin. We investigated whether the expression of these factors was affected

Anna Secher; Henriette Husum; Birgitte Holst; Kristoffer Lihme Egerod; Erling Mellerup

2010-01-01

42

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and costs of an energy storage system are two very important parameters for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other battery applications. The increasing of battery life and the prediction of battery failure are therefore two important features of a battery management system (BMS). A couple of other helpful features can be implemented in a BMS. In the case of

J. Garche; A. Jossen

2000-01-01

43

School Tax Increase During Hard Times: The Birmingham Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Birmingham (Alabama) school district regressed from a model system in 1926 to a poorly equipped, underfunded one in 1975. In that year, however, in spite of recession and joblessness, the citizens voted a $3 million tax increase for schools. The success of the election may be traced to several factors. Citizens were concerned about the…

Cody, Wilmer S.

44

Does medical treatment of lymphedema act by increasing lymph flow?  

PubMed

The lymphatic origin of chronic edema of the lower limbs was identified by lymphoscintigraphic exploration. Patients underwent therapy involving 8 days of manual lymph drainage combined with elevation of the limbs during rest periods and double compression bandaging. Manual drainage increased lymph flow in 16 limbs, implying that the edema resulted from a functional lymphatic anomaly. In contrast, manual drainage did not increase lymph flow in 9 limbs, suggesting a structural anomaly of the lymphatics. Hence, the same clinical picture corresponded to two different lymphatic anomalies, distinguished by lymphoscintigraphy. However, the therapeutic results were independent of the lymphoscintigraphic results. Increased lymph flow is therefore not the only explanation for the decrease in edema during therapy. PMID:2609733

François, A; Richaud, C; Bouchet, J Y; Franco, A; Comet, M

1989-01-01

45

Providing Performance Feedback for Teachers to Increase Treatment Fidelity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviewed a method for increasing teachers' use of behavior-specific praise, which is especially important for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. The use of performance feedback has been researched fairly extensively and has yielded positive outcomes when compared with other forms of consultation. This article…

Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.

2014-01-01

46

Common Prostate Cancer Treatment May Increase Diabetes Risk  

Cancer.gov

Even for just a few months, the use of androgen deprivation therapy to treat men with prostate cancer that hasn't metastasized may significantly increase the risk of diabetes and cardiac-related effects, including heart attack, according to a study in the September 20, 2006, Journal of Clinical Oncology.

47

Increasing time-scheduling efficiency in the building process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The submitted paper deals with time scheduling. It concentrates on scheduling the building process and extends it by providing a way to set priorities. The priorities are evaluated from two points of view: the point of view of the building owner or investor and the point of view of the building contractor. These priorities are next used in the initiation of the relations among the scheduled activities. The utilization of priorities can contribute to preventing mistakes in creating the schedule. It could also facilitate schedule updates with changes. The contribution only contains the most important ideas for the exploitation of prioritization in the scheduling. A detailed description is included.

Chamulová, B.

2011-06-01

48

Increasing LARC Utilization: Any Woman, Any Place, Any Time.  

PubMed

Intrauterine contraceptive devices and the progestin implant are the most effective long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods available for preventing unintended pregnancy. LARC devices are safe, non-user-dependent methods that have the highest rates of continuation and satisfaction of all reversible contraceptives. Use of these contraceptives remains low in the United States due to several barriers including: misperceptions among both providers and patients; cost barriers; and patient access to the devices. Increasing the opportunities for women to access LARC methods in the primary care, postabortion, and postpartum setting can be achieved by addressing the system, provider, and patient barriers that exist. PMID:25314089

Hathaway, Mark; Torres, Leah; Vollett-Krech, Jennifer; Wohltjen, Hannah

2014-12-01

49

Acute mastoiditis: Increase of incidence and controversies in antibiotic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An important complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis which responds to antibiotic therapy and myringotomy. Patients with acute mastoiditis were reviewed during 1996-2005 in the tertiary University Children's Hospital in Madrid. The number of patients with acute mastoiditis increased by about 2-fold during this period. Of 205 children with mastoiditis, ranging from 0.6-17 years of age, surgical

M. Bartolomé Benito; B. Pérez Gorricho

50

Method of increasing hydrocarbon production by remedial well treatment  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for increasing the production of hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon-containing subterranean formation having impaired permeability as a result of formation invasion by aqueous fluids comprising contacting the formation with a penetrating solvent capable of disrupting at least a portion of any aqueous layer present on solid surfaces within the formation and a cationic perfluoro compound whereby the compound is absorbed onto the solid surfaces of the formation the cationic perfluoro compound being selected from the group consisting of a compound or mixtures of compounds.

Penny, G.S.; Briscoe, J.E.

1986-01-21

51

Hot-Pack and 1-MHz Ultrasound Treatments Have an Additive Effect on Muscle Temperature Increase  

PubMed Central

Objective: Therapeutic ultrasound is an effective deep heating modality commonly applied alone or after cooling or heating of the treatment area. The purpose of this study was to examine the tissue temperature rise in the human triceps surae muscle group after ultrasound with prior heating via a silicate gel hot pack. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial with repeated measures on two factors (depth and time). Independent variables were temperature of pack (hot and room temperature), depth of measurement (1 cm and 3 cm), and time (beginning, after pack application, and after ultrasound). The dependent variable was tissue temperature. Subjects were assigned to one of two treatment groups: ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute hot pack treatment or ultrasound preceded by a 15-minute application with a silicate gel pack at room temperature. Measurements were taken while subjects were treated in a university training room. Subjects: Twenty-one uninjured male and female college student volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the two pack groups. Measurements: The hot packs were stored in 75°C water. A 1-MHz ultrasound treatment was administered for 10 minutes at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm². Tissue temperature was measured every 30 seconds using 23-gauge hypodermic microprobes interfaced with a telethermometer and inserted 1 and 3 cm below the surface of anesthetized triceps surae muscle. Results: At both tissue depths, there was a 0.8°C greater increase in tissue temperature with hot packs and ultrasound. At 1 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.5°C after a 0.5°C rise during the room temperature-pack application, but only 0.6°C after a 3.8°C increase during hot-pack application. At 3 cm, ultrasound increased temperature 3.85°C following a slight (-0.26°C) decrease during the room temperature-pack application and 3.68°C after a 0.74°C increase during hot-pack application. Conclusions: Vigorous increases in deep muscle temperature (?4°C) can be reached with 2 to 3 minutes less total sonation time when preheated with a hot pack. Thus, ultrasound and hot packs have an additive effect on intramuscular temperature, but the characteristics of the additive effect are different, primarily because there appears to be a tissue temperature plateau. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558479

Draper, David O.; Harris, Shane T.; Schulthies, Shane; Durrant, Earlene; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark

1998-01-01

52

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06

53

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06

54

Neonatal glucocorticoid treatment increased depression-like behaviour in adult rats.  

PubMed

Synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) is frequently used as a therapeutic agent to lessen the morbidity of chronic lung disease in premature infants. Previous studies suggested that neonatal DEX treatment altered brain development and cognitive function. It has been recognized that the amygdala is involved in emotional processes and also a critical site of neuronal plasticity for fear conditioning. Little is known about the possible long-term adverse effect of neonatal DEX treatment on amygdala function. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible effect of neonatal DEX treatment on the synaptic function of amygdala in adult rats. Newborn Wistar rats were subjected to subcutaneous tapering-dose injections of DEX (0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 mg/kg) from post-natal day one to three, PN1-PN3. Animals were then subjected to a forced swimming test (FST) and electrophysiological recording aged eight weeks. The results of the FST showed neonatal DEX treatment increased depression-like behaviour in adulthood. After acute stress evoking, the percentage of time spent free floating is significantly increased in the DEX treated group compared with the control animals. Furthermore, neonatal DEX treatment elevated long-term potentiation (LTP) response and the phosphorylation level of MAPK in the lateral nucleus of amygdala (LA). Intracerebroventricular infusion of the MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, showed significant rescue effects including reduced depression-like behaviour and restoration of LTP to within normal range. In conclusion, our results suggested that MAPK signalling cascade in the LA plays an important role in the adverse effect of neonatal DEX treatment on amygdala function, which may result in adverse consequences in adult age, such as the enhancement of susceptibility for a depressive disorder in later life. PMID:24945924

Ko, Meng-Chang; Hung, Yu-Hui; Ho, Pei-Yin; Yang, Yi-Ling; Lu, Kwok-Tung

2014-12-01

55

Does Integrated Trauma-Informed Substance Abuse Treatment Increase Treatment Retention?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized group design study that explored whether trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment results in longer residential treatment stays and improved outcomes compared with treatment-as-usual. We used a subsample (N = 461) of participants in the Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and…

Amaro, Hortensia; Chernoff, Miriam; Brown, Vivian; Arevalo, Sandra; Gatz, Margaret

2007-01-01

56

Increasing Adherence to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment with a Group Social Cognitive Therapy Treatment Intervention: A Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine whether a social cognitive therapy (SCT) intervention increases continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use compared to equivalent social interaction (SI) time. Participants: Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) referred for CPAP therapy. Intervention: Participants received a 30-min group education session regarding OSA and CPAP. Groups of three to four participants were then randomly assigned to an SCT session or social interaction. Measurements: CPAP usage was assessed at 7 nights, then 1, 3, and 6 months. The two primary outcomes were adherence, usage ? 4 h per night at 6 months, and uptake of CPAP. Questionnaires were given pretreatment and posttreatment. Results: Two hundred six individuals were randomized to SI (n = 97) or SCT (n = 109). CPAP uptake was not different between groups (82% in SI, 88% in SCT groups, P = 0.35). There were no differences between groups in adherence: 63-66% at 1 week, and at 6 months 55-47% (P = 0.36). Higher pretreatment apnea-hypopnea index, higher baseline self-efficacy, and use of CPAP (? 4 h) at 1 week were independent predictors of CPAP adherence at 6 months. CPAP adherence increased by a factor of 1.8 (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0) for every one-unit increase in self-efficacy. There was no difference between groups postintervention in self-efficacy scores, sleepiness, mood, or sleep quality. Conclusions: In this randomized trial, a single SCT application did not increase adherence when compared with SI time. Although self-efficacy scores prior to CPAP predicted adherence, self-efficacy was not increased by the interventions. Increasing intensity and understanding of SCT interventions may be needed to improve CPAP adherence. Clinical Trials Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12607000424404. Citation: Bartlett D; Wong K; Richards D; Moy E; Espie CA; Cistulli PA; Grunstein R. Increasing adherence to obstructive sleep apnea treatment with a group social cognitive therapy treatment intervention: a randomized trial. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1647-1654. PMID:24179297

Bartlett, Delwyn; Wong, Keith; Richards, Dianne; Moy, Emma; Espie, Colin A.; Cistulli, Peter A.; Grunstein, Ronald

2013-01-01

57

Evaluation of medical treatments to increase survival of ebullism in guinea pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight carriers run a constant risk of exposure to vacuum. Above 63,000 ft (47 mmHg), the ambient pressure falls below the vapor pressure of water at 37 C, and tissue vaporization (ebullism) begins. Little is know about appropriate resuscitative protocols after such an ebullism exposure. This study identified injury patterns and mortality rates associated with ebullism while verifying effectiveness of traditional pulmonary resuscitative techniques. Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to 87,000 ft for periods of 40 to 115 sec. After descent, those animals that did not breathe spontaneously were given artificial ventilation by bag and mask for up to 15 minutes. Those animals surviving were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups--hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), ground-level oxygen (GLO2), and ground-level air (GLAIR). The HBO group was treated on a standard treatment table 6A while the GLO2 animals received O2 for an equivalent length of time. Those animals in the GLAIR group were observed only. All surviving animals were humanely sacrified at 48 hours. Inflation of the animal's lungs after the exposure was found to be difficult and, at times, impossible. This may be due to surfactant disruption at the alveolar lining. Electron microscopy identified a disruption of the surfactant layer in animals that did not survive initial exposure. Mortality was found to increase with exposure time: 40 sec--0 percent; 60 sec--6 percent; 70 sec--40 percent; 80 sec--13 percent; 100 sec--38 percent; 110 sec--40 percent; and 115 sec--100 percent. There was no difference in the delayed mortality among the treatment groups (HBO--15 percent, GLO2--11 percent, GLAIR--11 percent). However, since resuscitation was ineffective, the effectiveness of any post-exposure treatment was severely limited. Preliminary results indicate that reuscitation of guinea pigs following ebullism exposure is difficult, and that current techniques (such as traditional CPR) may not be appropriate.

Stegmann, Barbara J.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Wolf, E. G.; Derion, Toniann; Fanton, J. W.; Davis, H.; Kemper, G. B.; Scoggins, Terrell E.

1993-01-01

58

Endotoxin challenge increases xanthine oxidase activity in cattle: effect of growth hormone and vitamin E treatment.  

PubMed

In addition to its basic role in the metabolism of purine nucleotides, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is involved in the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and production and metabolic fate of nitric oxide (NO). Growth hormone (GH) and Vitamin E (E) have been shown previously to modify immune response to infection. Our objective was to determine in heifers the effect of endotoxin challenge (LPS; 3.0 microg/kg BW, i.v. bolus, Escherichia coli 055:B5) on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in plasma and liver and the modification of this response by daily treatment with recombinant GH (0.1 mg/kg BW, i.m., for 12 days) or GH+E (E: mixed tocopherol, 1000 IU/heifer, i.m., for 5 days). In experiment 1, 16 heifers ( 348.7 +/- 6.1 kg) were assigned to control (C, daily placebo injections), GH, or GH+E treatments and were challenged with two consecutive LPS injections (LPS1 and LPS2, 48 h apart). After LPS1, plasma XO activity increased 290% (P < 0.001) at 3 h, reached peak (430%) at 24 h and returned to basal level by 48 h after LPS2. XO responses (area under the time x activity curve, AUC) were greater after LPS1 than LPS2 (P< 0.001). Total plasma XO responses to LPS (AUC, LPS1+LPS2) were augmented 55% (P < 0.05) over C with GH treatment but diminished to C responses in GH+E. There was a linear relationship (r2 = 0.605, P < 0.001) between total response in plasma XO activity and plasma nitrate + nitrate concentration. In experiment 2, 24 heifers ( 346 +/- 6 kg) were assigned to C or GH treatments and liver biopsy samples were obtained at 0, 3, 6, and 24h after a single LPS challenge. Hepatic XO activities increased 63.3% (P < 0.05) 6 h after single LPS challenge and remained elevated at 24 h (100.1%, P < 0.01) but were not affected by GH treatment. Results indicate that LPS-induced increases in plasma XO activity could be amplified by previous GH treatment but attenuated by E administration. The data also suggest that E may be effective in controlling some mediators of immune response associated with increased production of NO via the effect on XO activity and its production of superoxide anion as well as uric acid. PMID:15063924

Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H

2004-05-01

59

Increase in Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase Activity of Winter Wheat by Cold Treatment and Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activity of indoleacetic acid oxidase increased 10-fold during 40 days of cold treatment of winter wheat seedlings. Puromycin and 6-methyl purine inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development in the cold. Addition of gibberellic acid stimulated indoleacetic acid oxidase development during germination at room temperature and during cold treatment. Amo-1618 inhibited indoleacetic acid oxidase development before and during cold treatment. Indoleacetic acid treatment increased indoleacetic acid oxidase activity during germination at room temperature while no significant effect on activity was observed during cold treatment. PMID:16657327

Bolduc, Reginald J.; Cherry, Joe H.; Blair, Byron O.

1970-01-01

60

Warming Rather Than Increased Precipitation Increases Soil Recalcitrant Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Grassland after 6 Years of Treatments  

PubMed Central

Improved understanding of changes in soil recalcitrant organic carbon (C) in response to global warming is critical for predicting changes in soil organic C (SOC) storage. Here, we took advantage of a long-term field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation to investigate the effects of warming, increased precipitation and their interactions on SOC fraction in a semiarid Inner Mongolian grassland of northern China since April 2005. We quantified labile SOC, recalcitrant SOC and stable SOC at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths. Results showed that neither warming nor increased precipitation affected total SOC and stable SOC at either depth. Increased precipitation significantly increased labile SOC at the 0–10 cm depth. Warming decreased labile SOC (P?=?0.038) and marginally but significantly increased recalcitrant SOC at the 10–20 cm depth (P?=?0.082). In addition, there were significant interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on labile SOC and recalcitrant SOC at the 0–10 cm depth (both P<0.05), indicating that that results from single factor experiments should be treated with caution because of multi-factor interactions. Given that the absolute increase of SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10–20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland. PMID:23341995

Zhou, Xiaoqi; Chen, Chengrong; Wang, Yanfen; Smaill, Simeon; Clinton, Peter

2013-01-01

61

Optimal treatment of an SIR epidemic model with time delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the optimal control strategies of an SIR (susceptible–infected–recovered) epidemic model with time delay are introduced. In order to do this, we consider an optimally controlled SIR epidemic model with time delay where a control means treatment for infectious hosts. We use optimal control approach to minimize the probability that the infected individuals spread and to maximize the

Gul Zaman; Yong Han Kang; Il Hyo Jung

2009-01-01

62

Potential treatment options and future research to increase hepatitis C virus treatment response rate  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a liver-tropic blood-borne pathogen that affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Although acute infections are usually asymptomatic, up to 90% of HCV infections persist with the possibility of long-term consequences such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, steatosis, insulin resistance, or hepatocellular carcinoma. As such, HCV-associated liver disease is a major public health concern. Although the currently available standard of care therapy of pegylated interferon ? plus ribavirin successfully treats infection in a subset of patients, the development of more effective, less toxic HCV antivirals is a health care imperative. This review not only discusses the limitations of the current HCV standard of care but also evaluates upcoming HCV treatment options and how current research elucidating the viral life cycle is facilitating the development of HCV-specific therapeutics that promise to greatly improve treatment response rates both before and after liver transplantation. PMID:21331152

TenCate, Veronica; Sainz, Bruno; Cotler, Scott J; Uprichard, Susan L

2010-01-01

63

Increasing Paid Work Time? A New Puzzle for Multinational Time-Diary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This explores the reasons that paid work time may be rising, at least in anglophone countries. Three explanations are discussed. (1) An historical reversal of the work/leisure gradient with respect to social position or social status. This gradient was once positive, but is now negative; evidence of this change from 11 developed countries is drawn…

Gershuny, Jonathan

2011-01-01

64

First-time patellar dislocation: surgery or conservative treatment?  

PubMed

Primary patellar dislocation injures the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), the major soft-tissue stabilizer of the patella, which may lead to recurrent patellar instability. Recurrent patellar dislocation are common and may require surgical intervention. The variation in location of injury of the MPFL and the presence of an osteochondral fracture produces challenges in clinical decision making between nonoperative and operative treatment, including the surgical modality, to repair or reconstruct the MPFL. Current evidence suggests that not all primary dislocations should undergo the same treatment. MPFL reconstruction may theoretically be more reliable than repair, but the optimal time to perform additional bony corrections is not known. A normal or minor dysplastic patellofemoral joint may be suitable for nonoperative treatment, whereas a higher grade of trochlear dysplasia or other significant abnormalities may benefit from surgical treatment. In this paper, we present a treatment algorithm for primary patellar dislocation. PMID:22878653

Sillanpää, Petri J; Mäenpää, Heikki M

2012-09-01

65

Attractiveness of periodic orbits in parametrically forced systems with time-increasing friction  

E-print Network

Attractiveness of periodic orbits in parametrically forced systems with time- increasing friction with time-increasing friction Michele Bartuccelli,1,a) Jonathan Deane,1,b) and Guido Gentile2,c) 1 oscillator in the presence of friction, and study numerically how time-varying friction affects the dynamics

Bartuccelli, Michele

66

Attractiveness of periodic orbits in parametrically forced systems with time-increasing friction  

E-print Network

Attractiveness of periodic orbits in parametrically forced systems with time-increasing friction-dimensional systems subject to a periodic force and study numer- ically how a time-varying friction affects oscillator in the presence of friction. We find that, if the damping coefficient increases in time up

67

Pancreatic cancer Increased organ sparing using shape-based treatment plan optimization for  

E-print Network

Pancreatic cancer Increased organ sparing using shape-based treatment plan optimization Available online 15 June 2011 Keywords: Pancreatic cancer Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) Treatment with pancreatic cancer was queried to find patients with less favorable PTV-OAR configuration than a new case

Kazhdan, Michael

68

Early administration of oral oseltamivir increases the benefits of influenza treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to evaluate the benefit of early treatment of influenza illness using oral oseltamivir. This open-label, multicentre international study investigated the relationship between the interval from illness onset to first dose (time-to-treatment) and illness duration in the intent-to-treat infected population using accelerated failure time (AFT) modelling. A total of 1426 patients (12-70 years) presenting within 48 h of

F. Y. Aoki; M. D. Macleod; P. Paggiaro; O. Carewicz; A. El Sawy; C. Wat; M. Griffiths; E. Waalberg; P. Ward; F. Hoffmann-La Roche

2002-01-01

69

An Increasing Prominent Disease of Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background. During the past two decades, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) had surpassed Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the predominant isolate from patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) in Asian countries, the United States, and Europe, and it tended to spread globally. Since the clinical symptom is atypical, the accurate and effective diagnosis and treatment of K. pneumoniae liver abscesses (KLAs) are very necessary. Methods. Here, we have comprehensively clarified the epidemiology and pathogenesis of KLA, put emphases on the clinical presentations especially the characteristic radiographic findings of KLA, and thoroughly elucidated the most effective antibiotic strategy of KLA. Results. K1 serotype is strongly associated with KLA especially in diabetic patients. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were two main diagnostic methods of KLA in the past. Most of KLAs have solitary, septal lobular abscesses in the right lobe of liver, and they are mainly monomicrobial. Broad-spectrum antibiotics combined with the US-guided percutaneous drainage of liver abscesses can increase their survival rates, but surgical intervention still has its irreplaceable position. Conclusion. The imaging features contribute to the early diagnosis, and the percutaneous intervention combined with an aminoglycoside plus either an extended-spectrum betalactam or a second- or third-generation cephalosporin is a timely and effective treatment of KLA. PMID:24194749

Liu, Yun; Wang, Ji-yao; Jiang, Wei

2013-01-01

70

Rhein lysinate increases the median survival time of SAMP10 mice: protective role in the kidney  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the protective effects of rhein lysinate (RHL), a major bioactive constituent of the rhizome of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum Linn or Rheum tanguticum Maxim), against kidney impairment in senescence-prone inbred strain 10 (SAMP10) mice. Methods: SAMP10 mice were orally administered RHL (25 or 50 mg/kg) daily until 50% of the mice died. Senescence-resistant inbred strain 1 (SAMR1) mice administered no drug were taken as control. The kidneys were harvested after animal death, and examined morphologically and with immunochemical assays. The levels of MAD, SOD and GSH-px in the kidneys were measured with a photometric method. The expression of inflammatory factors and related proteins in the kidneys was analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL had no effect on the body weight or phenotype. However, RHL significantly prolonged the median survival time of SAMP10 mice by approximately 25%, as compared to untreated SAMP10 mice. Compared SAMR1 mice, SAMP10 mice had a significantly lower level of SOD in the kidneys, but had no significant difference in the MDA or GSH-px levels. Treatment of SAMP10 mice with RHL significantly reduced the MAD level, and increased the SOD and GSH-px levels in the kidneys. Glomerulonephritis was observed in SAMP10 mice but not in SAMR1 mice. RHL decreased the incidence of glomerulonephritis, and significantly decreased the levels of TNF-?, IL-6, NF-?B, collagen types I and III in the kidneys. Conclusion: Accelerated senescence is associated with glomerulonephritis in SAMP10 mice, and RHL prolongs their median survival time by reducing the severity of glomerulonephritis. PMID:23474705

Hu, Gang; Liu, Jiang; Zhen, Yong-zhan; Xu, Rong; Qiao, Yu; Wei, Jie; Tu, Ping; Lin, Ya-jun

2013-01-01

71

Physical therapy treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background/objective To describe the nature and distribution of activities during physical therapy (PT) delivered in inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and discuss predictors (patient and injury characteristics) of the amount of time spent in PT for specific treatment activities. Methods Six hundred patients from six inpatient SCI centers were enrolled in the SCIRehab study. Physical therapists documented details, including time spent, of treatment provided during 37 306 PT sessions that occurred during inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Ordinary least squares regression models associated patient and injury characteristics with time spent in specific PT activities. Results SCIRehab patients received a mean total of 55.3 hours of PT over the course of their rehabilitation stay. Significant differences among four neurologic groups were seen in the amount of time spent on most activities, including the most common PT activities of strengthening exercises, stretching, transfer training, wheelchair mobility training, and gait training. Most PT work (77%) was provided in individual therapy sessions; the remaining 23% was done in group settings. Patient and injury characteristics explained only some of the variations seen in time spent on wheelchair mobility, transfer and bed mobility training, and range of motion/stretching. Conclusion Analysis yielded both expected and unexpected trends in SCI rehabilitation. Significant variation was seen in time spent on PT activities within and among injury groups. Providing therapeutic strengthening treatments consumed the greatest proportion of PT time. About one-quarter of all PT services were provided in group settings. Details about services provided, including time spent, will serve as a starting point in detailing the optimal treatment delivery for maximal outcomes. PMID:21675354

Taylor-Schroeder, Sally; LaBarbera, Jacqueline; McDowell, Shari; Zanca, Jeanne M.; Natale, Audrey; Mumma, Sherry; Gassaway, Julie; Backus, Deborah

2011-01-01

72

Coordination of Heart Attack Care Trims Time to Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coordination of Heart Attack Care Trims Time to Treatment: Study Survival rates ... 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Emergency Medical Services Heart Attack WEDNESDAY, Nov. 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Improved coordination ...

73

Time of Default in Tuberculosis Patients on Directly Observed Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Default remains an important challenge for the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, which has achieved improved cure rates. Objectives: This study describes the pattern of time of default in patients on DOTS. Settings and Design: Tuberculosis Unit in District Tuberculosis Centre, Yavatmal, India; Retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: This analysis was done among the cohort of patients of registered at the Tuberculosis Unit during the year 2004. The time of default was assessed from the tuberculosis register. The sputum smear conversion and treatment outcome were also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests. Results: Overall, the default rate amongst the 716 patients registered at the Tuberculosis Unit was 10.33%. There was a significant difference in the default rate over time between the three DOTS categories (log rank statistic= 15.49, P=0.0004). Amongst the 331 smear-positive patients, the cumulative default rates at the end of intensive phase were 4% and 16%; while by end of treatment period, the default rates were 6% and 31% in category I and category II, respectively. A majority of the smear-positive patients in category II belonged to the group ‘treatment after default’ (56/95), and 30% of them defaulted during re-treatment. The sputum smear conversion rate at the end of intensive phase was 84%. Amongst 36 patients without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase, 55% had treatment failure. Conclusions: Patients defaulting in intensive phase of treatment and without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase should be retrieved on a priority basis. Default constitutes not only a major reason for patients needing re-treatment but also a risk for repeated default. PMID:20927282

Pardeshi, Geeta S

2010-01-01

74

High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue  

PubMed Central

In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30?Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient. PMID:23585968

Pre, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.

2013-01-01

75

Psychology treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Rehabilitation psychologists are integral members of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation teams. Objective To describe specific information regarding types and intensity of treatments delivered by rehabilitation psychologists to patients with various levels of SCI. Methods Utilizing a taxonomy of psychological interventions as a framework, rehabilitation psychologists documented time spent on specific psychology interventions for each interaction they had with 600 patients with traumatic SCI at 6 inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. Associations of patient and injury characteristics with time spent on various psychological interventions were examined using ordinary least squares stepwise regression models. Results Psychologists focus the majority of the time they spend with patients with SCI on psychotherapeutic interventions of processing emotions, emotional adjustment, and family coping, while educational efforts focus mostly on coping and adjusting to the new injury. There was wide variation in the amount of time spent on psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational interventions; patient, injury, and clinician characteristics explained little of the variation in time spent. Conclusions Variations observed in psychological treatment delivery mirror real-world human complexity and clinical experience; they are not explained well by patient and injury characteristics and set the stage for future analyses to associate treatments with outcomes. PMID:21675358

Huston, Toby; Gassaway, Julie; Wilson, Catherine; Gordon, Samuel; Koval, Jill; Schwebel, Andrea

2011-01-01

76

Increased Learning Time under Stimulus-Funded School Improvement Grants: High Hopes, Varied Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has long suggested that significantly increasing quality time in school for teaching and learning can have a positive impact on student achievement. Recognizing this connection, federal guidance requires low-performing schools to increase student learning time if they are implementing two popular reform models using school improvement…

McMurrer, Jennifer

2012-01-01

77

La Country, histoire d'une renaissance Old-time time music is becoming an increasing force within mainstream country  

E-print Network

La Country, histoire d'une renaissance Abstract : Old-time time music is becoming an increasing force within mainstream country music. On the wake of the Coen Brothers' blockbuster, "O Brother", a renewed interest for traditional American music, from folk to bluegrass, is sweeping the country

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Timing light treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation.  

PubMed

Jet lag degrades performance and operational readiness of recently deployed military personnel and other travelers. The objective of the studies reported here was to determine, using a narrow bandwidth light tower (500 nm), the optimum timing of light treatment to hasten adaptive circadian phase advance and delay. Three counterbalanced treatment order, repeated measures studies were conducted to compare melatonin suppression and phase shift across multiple light treatment timings. In Experiment 1, 14 normal healthy volunteers (8 men/6 women) aged 34.9+/-8.2 yrs (mean+/-SD) underwent light treatment at the following times: A) 06:00 to 07:00 h, B) 05:30 to 07:30 h, and C) 09:00 to 10:00 h (active control). In Experiment 2, 13 normal healthy subjects (7 men/6 women) aged 35.6+/-6.9 yrs, underwent light treatment at each of the following times: A) 06:00 to 07:00 h, B) 07:00 to 08:00 h, C) 08:00 to 09:00 h, and a no-light control session (D) from 07:00 to 08:00 h. In Experiment 3, 10 normal healthy subjects (6 men/4 women) aged 37.0+/-7.7 yrs underwent light treatment at the following times: A) 02:00 to 03:00 h, B) 02:30 to 03:30 h, and C) 03:00 to 04:00 h, with a no-light control (D) from 02:30 to 03:30 h. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was established by two methods: when salivary melatonin levels exceeded a 1.0 pg/ml threshold, and when salivary melatonin levels exceeded three times the 0.9 pg/ml sensitivity of the radioimmunoasssy. Using the 1.0 pg/ml DLMO, significant phase advances were found in Experiment 1 for conditions A (p < .028) and B (p < 0.004). Experiment 2 showed significant phase advances in conditions A (p < 0.018) and B (p < 0.003) but not C (p < 0.23), relative to condition D. In Experiment 3, only condition B (p < 0.035) provided a significant phase delay relative to condition D. Similar but generally smaller phase shifts were found with the 2.7 pg/ml DLMO method. This threshold was used to analyze phase shifts against circadian time of the start of light treatment for all three experiments. The best fit curve applied to these data (R(2) = 0.94) provided a partial phase-response curve with maximum advance at approximately 9-11 h and maximum delay at approximately 5-6 h following DLMO. These data suggest largest phase advances will result when light treatment is started between 06:00 and 08:00 h, and greatest phase delays will result from light treatment started between 02:00 to 03:00 h in entrained subjects with a regular sleep wake cycle (23:00 to 07:00 h). PMID:19637048

Paul, Michel A; Miller, James C; Love, Ryan J; Lieberman, Harris; Blazeski, Sofi; Arendt, Josephine

2009-07-01

79

Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

2001-03-28

80

Optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for selective retina treatment.  

PubMed

The selective retina treatment (SRT) targets retinal diseases associated with disorders in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to the ophthalmoscopic invisibility of the laser-induced RPE effects, we investigate a noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry system. In vitro porcine RPE is irradiated with a Nd:YLF laser (527 nm, 1.7-micros pulse duration, 5 to 40 microJ, 30 pulses, 100-Hz repetition rate). Generated acoustic transients are measured with a piezoelectric transducer. During 27 patient treatments, the acoustic transients are measured with a transducer embedded in an ophthalmic contact lens. After treatment, RPE damage is visualized by fluorescein angiographic leakage. Below the RPE damage threshold, the optoacoustic transients show no pulse-to-pulse fluctuations within a laser pulse train. Above threshold, fluctuations of the individual transients among each other are observed. If optoacoustic pulse-to-pulse fluctuations are present, RPE leakage is observed in fluorescein angiography. In 96% of the irradiated areas, RPE leakage correlated with the optoacoustic defined threshold value. A noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for SRT is developed and proved in vitro and during patient treatment. It detects the ophthalmoscopically invisible laser-induced damage of RPE cells and overcomes practical limitations of SRT for use in private practice. PMID:16409087

Schuele, Georg; Elsner, Hanno; Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

2005-01-01

81

A real-time treatment guidance system for pleural PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intrapleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for mesothelioma. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light and the light dose are monitored by 7 detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an infrared (IR) camera system is used to track the motion of the light sources. A treatment planning system uses feedback from the detectors as well as the IR camera to update light fluence distribution in real-time, which is used to guide the light source motion for uniform light dose distribution. We have reported previously the success of using IR camera to passively monitor the light fluence rate distribution. In this study, the real-time feedback has been implemented in the current system prototype, by transferring data from the IR camera to a computer at a rate of 20 Hz, and by calculation/displaying using Matlab. A dual-correction method is used in the feedback system, so that fluence calculation can match detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom showed superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown using the correction method dose model.

Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Sandell, Julia; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph; Hahn, Stephen M.; Glatstein, Eli

2012-02-01

82

Optimal treatment of an SIR epidemic model with time delay.  

PubMed

In this paper the optimal control strategies of an SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) epidemic model with time delay are introduced. In order to do this, we consider an optimally controlled SIR epidemic model with time delay where a control means treatment for infectious hosts. We use optimal control approach to minimize the probability that the infected individuals spread and to maximize the total number of susceptible and recovered individuals. We first derive the basic reproduction number and investigate the dynamical behavior of the controlled SIR epidemic model. We also show the existence of an optimal control for the control system and present numerical simulations on real data regarding the course of Ebola virus in Congo. Our results indicate that a small contact rate(probability of infection) is suitable for eradication of the disease (Ebola virus) and this is one way of optimal treatment strategies for infectious hosts. PMID:19464340

Zaman, Gul; Kang, Yong Han; Jung, Il Hyo

2009-10-01

83

Increased accumulation and decreased catabolism of anthocyanins in red grape cell suspension culture following magnesium treatment.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are the largest and best studied group of plant pigments. However, not very much is known about the fate of these phenolic pigments after they have accumulated in the cell vacuoles of plant tissues. We have previously shown that magnesium treatment of ornamentals during the synthesis of anthocyanins in the flowers or foliage caused an increase in the pigment concentration. In this study, we characterized the effect of magnesium on the accumulation of anthocyanin in red cell suspension originating from Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red grapes. Magnesium treatment of the cells caused a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increase in anthocyanin concentration, with no substantial induction of the biosynthetic genes. This treatment inhibited the degradation of anthocyanins occurring in the cells, and changed the ratio between different anthocyanins determining cell color, with an increase in the relative concentration of the less stable pigment molecules. The process by which magnesium treatment affects anthocyanin accumulation is still not clear. However, the results presented suggest at least part of its effect on anthocyanin accumulation stems from inhibition of the pigments' catabolism. When anthocyanin biosynthesis was inhibited, magnesium treatments prevented the constant degradation of anthocyanins in the cell suspension. Future understanding of the catabolic processes undergone by anthocyanins in plants may enable more efficient inhibition of this process and increased accumulation of these pigments, and possibly of additional phenolic compounds. PMID:21369922

Sinilal, Bhaskaran; Ovadia, Rinat; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Perl, Avichai; Carmeli-Weissberg, Mira; Oren-Shamir, Michal

2011-07-01

84

Silver: an age-old treatment modality in modern times.  

PubMed

The use of silver as an antimicrobial for infection spans hundreds of years. The ancient Greeks and Romans used silver to disinfect their water and food supplies. Silver was also used in ancient times to treat burns and wounds as a wound dressing. Silver solutions were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the 1920s. Since that time, silver has established itself as an effective and well-known treatment modality for and in the prevention of high-risk infection in clinical wound care (http://int.hansaplast.com/med-info/wound-care-beautiful-healing/silver-tech.html). PMID:20543642

Spear, Marcia

2010-01-01

85

Importance of Baseline Prognostic Factors With Increasing Time Since Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The extent to which the prognosis for AIDS and death of patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) continues to be affected by their characteristics at the time of initiation (baseline) is unclear. Methods We analyzed data on 20,379 treatment-naive HIV-1–infected adults who started HAART in 1 of 12 cohort studies in Europe and North America (61,798 person-years of follow-up, 1844 AIDS events, and 1005 deaths). Results Although baseline CD4 cell count became less prognostic with time, individuals with a baseline CD4 count <25 cells/µL had persistently higher progression rates than individuals with a baseline CD4 count >350 cells/µL (hazard ratio for AIDS = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 2.3; mortality hazard ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5, 4 to 6 years after starting HAART). Rates of AIDS were persistently higher in individuals who had experienced an AIDS event before starting HAART. Individuals with presumed transmission by means of injection drug use experienced substantially higher rates of AIDS and death than other individuals throughout follow-up (AIDS hazard ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.8 to 3.0; mortality hazard ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.2 to 5.5, 4 to 6 years after starting HAART). Conclusions Compared with other patient groups, injection drug users and patients with advanced immunodeficiency at baseline experience substantially increased rates of AIDS and death up to 6 years after starting HAART. PMID:18043315

2012-01-01

86

Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert) as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3) at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-? by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 ?g of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP), a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO) production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases. PMID:23137350

2012-01-01

87

Phenelzine treatment increases transcription factor AP-2 levels in rat brain  

PubMed Central

Background The elevations of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in response to acute serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) exposure are not consistent with the time course for the therapeutic action of these antidepressants. Thus, neuronal adaptations are needed for the therapeutic effect to arise. Transcription factor Activating Protein –2 (AP-2) is critical for mammalian neural gene expression. Several genes involved in brainstem CNS transmitter systems, especially the monoamines, have AP-2 binding sites in their regulatory regions. We have previously shown that treatment with citalopram and imipramin resulted in a decrease in AP-2? and AP-2? levels in rat brain. We have also reported an association between a specific genotype of AP-2? to personality traits, binge-eating disorder and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Results Subchronic administration (10 days) of phenelzine (PLZ) increased the levels of AP-2?, AP-2? and the DNA binding activity of AP-2 in nuclear extracts prepared from rat whole brain when compared with sham treated animals. Conclusion These data suggest that AP-2 is not involved in the theraputic effect of antidepressants. Rather, the effects of antidepressants seen on the levels of AP-2 might be involved in the expression of side-effects during the lag-period. PMID:12943557

Damberg, Mattias; Berggard, Cecilia; Oreland, Lars

2003-01-01

88

Increased Use of Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injections with Community Treatment Orders  

PubMed Central

Background: Community treatment orders (CTOs) are increasingly being used, despite a weak evidence base, and problems continue regarding Second Opinion Appointed Doctor (SOAD) certification of medication. Aims: The aim of the current study was to describe current CTO usage regarding patient characteristics, prescribed medication and CTO conditions. Method: A 1-year prospective cohort study with consecutive sampling was conducted for all patients whose CTO was registered in a large mental health trust. Only the first CTO for each patient was included. Measures included sociodemographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, CTO date of initiation and conditions, psychotropic medication and date of SOAD certification for medication. This study was conducted in the first year of CTO legislation in England and Wales. Results: A total of195 patients were sampled (mean age 40.6 years, 65% male, 52% black ethnic origin). There was significant geographical variability in rates of CTO use (?2 = 11.3, p = 0.012). A total of 53% had their place of residence specified as a condition and 29% were required to allow access into their homes. Of those with schizophrenia, 64% were prescribed an antipsychotic long-acting injection (LAI). Of the total group, 7% received high-dose antipsychotics, 10% were prescribed two antipsychotics and only 15% received SOAD certification in time. Conclusions: There was geographical and ethnic variation in CTO use but higher rates of hospital detention in minority ethnic groups may be contributory. Most patients were prescribed antipsychotic LAIs and CTO conditions may not follow the least restrictive principle. PMID:23983926

Patel, Maxine X.; Matonhodze, Jane; Baig, Mirza K.; Gilleen, James; Boydell, Jane; Holloway, Frank; Taylor, David; Szmukler, George; Lambert, Tim; David, Anthony S.

2011-01-01

89

Increases in Serum CYFRA21-1 Concentration during Successful Treatment with Crizotinib  

PubMed Central

Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: — Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: Increases in tumor marker concentrations usually suggest disease progression. Cases Report: We here describe on 3 patients with non-small cell lung cancer whose serum concentrations of CYFRA21-1 increased in spite of successful treatment with crizotinib. Discontinuation of crizotinib resulted in a rapid decrease in serum CYFRA21-1 concentrations in all cases. In 1 patient with progressive disease, in spite of increasing the dose of crizotinib, CYFRA21-1 concentrations decreased. Conclusions: Crizotinib can induce increases in CYFRA21-1 concentration without disease progression. Pulmonologists and oncologists should be aware of this novel phenomenon, and focus on interpretation of CYFRA21-1 concentrations in monitoring tumor response to crizotinib treatment. PMID:25380070

Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Tadokoro, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Bandoh, Shuji

2014-01-01

90

Quiet-time electron increases, a measure of conditions in the outer solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible explanation for quiet-time electron increases, increases in the intensity of 3-12 MeV interplanetary electrons that have been reported by McDonald, Cline and Simnett, is discussed. It is argued that the electrons in quiet-time increases are galactic in origin, but that the observed increases are not the result of any variation in the modulation of these particles in the inner solar system. It is suggested instead that quiet-time increases may occur when more electrons than normal penetrate a modulating region that lies far beyond the orbit of earth. The number of electrons penetrating this region may increase when field lines that have experienced an unusually large random walk in the photosphere are carried by the solar wind out to the region. As evidence for this increased random walk, it is shown that five solar rotations before most of the quiet-time increases there is an extended period when the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy, as is measured by the Deep River neutron monitor, is relatively low. Five rotations delay time implies that the proposed modulating region lies at approximately 30 AU from the Sun, assuming that the average solar wind speed is constant over this distance at approximately 400 km/sec.

Fisk, L. A.; Vanhollebeke, M.

1972-01-01

91

Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process  

SciTech Connect

A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility.

Blanchard, A.

1998-10-16

92

Correcting radiation survey data to account for increased leakage during intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments require more beam-on time and produce more linac head leakage to deliver similar doses to conventional, unmodulated, radiotherapy treatments. It is necessary to take this increased leakage into account when evaluating the results of radiation surveys around bunkers that are, or will be, used for IMRT. The recommended procedure of applying a monitor-unit based workload correction factor to secondary barrier survey measurements, to account for this increased leakage when evaluating radiation survey measurements around IMRT bunkers, can lead to potentially costly overestimation of the required barrier thickness. This study aims to provide initial guidance on the validity of reducing the value of the correction factor when applied to different radiation barriers (primary barriers, doors, maze walls, and other walls) by evaluating three different bunker designs.Methods: Radiation survey measurements of primary, scattered, and leakage radiation were obtained at each of five survey points around each of three different radiotherapy bunkers and the contribution of leakage to the total measured radiation dose at each point was evaluated. Measurements at each survey point were made with the linac gantry set to 12 equidistant positions from 0° to 330°, to assess the effects of radiation beam direction on the results.Results: For all three bunker designs, less than 0.5% of dose measured at and alongside the primary barriers, less than 25% of the dose measured outside the bunker doors and up to 100% of the dose measured outside other secondary barriers was found to be caused by linac head leakage.Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that IMRT workload corrections are unnecessary, for survey measurements made at and alongside primary barriers. Use of reduced IMRT workload correction factors is recommended when evaluating survey measurements around a bunker door, provided that a subset of the measurements used in this study are repeated for the bunker in question. Reduction of the correction factor for other secondary barrier survey measurements is not recommended unless the contribution from leakage is separately evaluated.

Kairn, T. [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Premion Cancer Care, Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower Qld 4066, Australia and Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Trapp, J. V. [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)] [Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane Qld 4000 (Australia)

2013-11-15

93

Waiting for a hand: saccadic reaction time increases in proportion to hand reaction time when reaching under a visuomotor reversal  

PubMed Central

Although eye movement onset typically precedes hand movement onset when reaching to targets presented in peripheral vision, arm motor commands appear to be issued at around the same time, and possibly in advance, of eye motor commands. A fundamental question, therefore, is whether eye movement initiation is linked or yoked to hand movement. We addressed this issue by having participants reach to targets after adapting to a visuomotor reversal (or 180° rotation) between the position of the unseen hand and the position of a cursor controlled by the hand. We asked whether this reversal, which we expected to increase hand reaction time (HRT), would also increase saccadic reaction time (SRT). As predicted, when moving the cursor to targets under the reversal, HRT increased in all participants. SRT also increased in all but one participant, even though the task for the eyes—shifting gaze to the target—was unaltered by the reversal of hand position feedback. Moreover, the effects of the reversal on SRT and HRT were positively correlated across participants; those who exhibited the greatest increases in HRT also showed the greatest increases in SRT. These results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the initiation of eye and hand movements are linked. In particular, the results suggest that the initiation of an eye movement to a manual target depends, at least in part, on the specification of hand movement. PMID:23847494

Armstrong, Irene T.; Judson, Melissa; Munoz, Douglas P.; Johansson, Roland S.; Flanagan, J. Randall

2013-01-01

94

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

95

Genetic Predictors of Increase in Suicidal Ideation During Antidepressant Treatment in the GENDEP Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate genetic predictors of an increase in suicidal ideation during treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or a tricyclic antidepressant. A total of 796 adult patients with major depressive disorder who were treated with a flexible dosage of escitalopram or nortriptyline in Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) were included in the

Nader Perroud; Katherine J Aitchison; Rudolf Uher; Rebecca Smith; Patricia Huezo-Diaz; Andrej Marusic; Wolfgang Maier; Ole Mors; Anna Placentino; Neven Henigsberg; Marcella Rietschel; Joanna Hauser; Daniel Souery; Pawel Kapelski; Cristian Bonvicini; Astrid Zobel; Lisbeth Jorgensen; Ana Petrovic; Petra Kalember; Thomas G Schulze; Bhanu Gupta; Joanna Gray; Cathryn M Lewis; Anne E Farmer; Peter McGuffin; Ian Craig

2009-01-01

96

Increasing Treatment Integrity through Negative Reinforcement: Effects on Teacher and Student Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the extent to which treatment integrity was increased and maintained for 4 teachers in their regular classroom settings as a result of performance feedback and negative reinforcement. Teachers received daily written feedback about their accuracy in implementing an intervention and were able to avoid meeting with a…

DiGennaro, Florence D.; Martens, Brian K.; McIntyre, Laura Lee

2005-01-01

97

Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic

Bernadeta Szewczyk; Magdalena Sowa; Artur Czupryn; Joanna M. Wiero?ska; Piotr Bra?ski; Krystyna Sadlik; W?odzimierz Opoka; Wojciech Piekoszewski; Maria ?mia?owska; Jolanta Skangiel-Kramska; Andrzej Pilc; Gabriel Nowak

2006-01-01

98

Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2007-01-15

99

Real-time treatment feedback guidance of Pleural PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for mesothelioma with remarkable results. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light and the light dose are monitored by 7 detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an infrared (IR) camera system is used to track the motion of the light sources. A treatment planning system uses feedback from the detectors as well as the IR camera to update light fluence distribution in real-time, which is used to guide the light source motion for uniform light dose distribution. We have improved the GUI of the light dose calculation engine to provide real-time light fluence distribution suitable for guiding the surgery to delivery light more uniformly. A dual-correction method is used in the feedback system, so that fluence calculation can match detector readings using both direct and scatter light models. An improved measurement device is developed to automatically acquire laser position for the point source. Comparison of the effects of the guidance is presented in phantom study.

Zhu, Timothy C.; Kim, Michele M.; Liang, Xing; Liu, Baochang; Meo, Julia L.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph

2013-03-01

100

Increasing patient adherence in antifungal infection treatment: once-daily dosing of sertaconazole.  

PubMed

Adherence to treatment is an important issue in all areas of clinical medicine, including dermatology. Consequences of poor compliance include reduced treatment benefits, biased assessments of treatment efficacy, increased healthcare costs, and in some cases even death. To date, even the most effective interventions in patients' habits have not led to large improvements in either adherence or treatment outcome. New objective electronic measures permit unbiased reporting of actual adherence to therapy regimens and have revealed that nonadherence is more pervasive than had been suspected, usually occurring when patients omit or delay a dose. In dermatology, adherence to therapy for dermatomycosis is known to decrease with the duration of treatment and the number of applications required each day, particularly once symptoms have disappeared. Simpler dosing regimens are sought for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections. Sertaconazole, an imidazole antifungal, has pharmacokinetics that are considered favorable for once-daily antimycotic therapy. It is hypothesized that its prolonged dermal retention may translate into the need for less frequent application for successful treatment in clinical practice. PMID:20967180

Weinberg, Jeffrey M

2009-02-01

101

Elevated night-time temperatures increase growth in seedlings of two tropical pioneer tree species.  

PubMed

Increased night-time temperatures, through their influence on dark respiration, have been implicated as a reason behind decreasing growth rates in tropical trees in the face of contemporary climate change. Seedlings of two neo-tropical tree species (Ficus insipida and Ochroma pyramidale) were grown in controlled-environment chambers at a constant daytime temperature (33°C) and a range of increasing night-time temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31°C) for between 39 d and 54 d. Temperature regimes were selected to represent a realistic baseline condition for lowland Panama, and a rise in night-time temperatures far in excess of those predicted for Central America in the coming decades. Experiments were complemented by an outdoor open-top chamber study in which night-time temperatures were elevated by 2.4°C above ambient. Increasing night-time temperatures resulted in > 2-fold increase in biomass accumulation in growth-chamber studies despite an increase in leaf-level dark respiration. Similar trends were seen in open-top chambers, in which elevated night-time temperatures resulted in stimulation of growth. These findings challenge simplistic considerations of photosynthesis-directed growth, highlighting the role of temperature-dependent night-time processes, including respiration and leaf development as drivers of plant performance in the tropics. PMID:23278464

Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus

2013-03-01

102

Time Delay Embedding Increases Estimation Precision of Models of Intraindividual Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the precision of parameters estimated from local samples of time dependent functions. We find that "time delay embedding," i.e., structuring data prior to analysis by constructing a data matrix of overlapping samples, increases the precision of parameter estimates and in turn statistical power compared to standard…

von Oertzen, Timo; Boker, Steven M.

2010-01-01

103

Additional highway capacity gained by increasing travel speed affects the share of time an individual  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Additional highway capacity gained by increasing travel speed affects the share of time Transportation Surveys and Federal Highway Administration data, this paper extends previous research activities for workers and nonworkers. It also sug- gests increased highway capacity provides real gains

Levinson, David M.

104

Time of Arrival at Hospital Impacts Time to Treatment and Survival of Heart Attack Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... hospital impacts time to treatment and survival of heart attack patients American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report July 29, 2014 ... University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL. Download (1.8 MB) Heart illustration Copyright American Heart Association Download (90.3 ...

105

The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol consumption has been linked to a considerable burden of disease in the United Kingdom (UK), with most of this burden due to heavy drinking and Alcohol Dependence (AD). However, AD is undertreated in the UK, with only 8% of those individuals with AD being treated in England and only 6% of those individuals with AD being treated in Scotland. Thus, the objective of this paper is to quantify the deaths that would have been avoided in the UK in 2004 if the treatment rate for AD had been increased. Methods Data on the prevalence of AD, alcohol consumption, and mortality were obtained from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, and the 2004 Global Burden of Disease study respectively. Data on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioural Therapy were obtained from Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses. Simulations were used to model the number of deaths under different treatment scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model the effects of Brief Interventions and to examine the effect of using AD prevalence data obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Results In the UK, 320 female and 1,385 male deaths would have been avoided if treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment had been increased to 20%. This decrease in the number of deaths represents 7.9% of all alcohol-attributable deaths (7.0% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for women and 8.1% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for men). If we used lower AD prevalence rates obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, then treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment in hospitals for 20% of the population with AD would have resulted in the avoidance of 529 deaths in 2004 (99 deaths avoided for women and 430 deaths avoided for men). Conclusions Increasing AD treatment in the UK would have led to a large number of deaths being avoided in 2004. Increased AD treatment rates not only impact mortality but also impact upon the large burden of disability and morbidity attributable to AD, as well as the associated social and economic burdens. PMID:24499391

2014-01-01

106

Glioblastoma Treatment: Bypassing the Toxicity of Platinum Compounds by Using Liposomal Formulation and Increasing Treatment Efficiency With Concomitant Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatments of glioblastoma with cisplatin or oxaliplatin only marginally improve the overall survival of patients and cause important side effects. To prevent adverse effects, improve delivery, and optimize the tumor response to treatment in combination with radiotherapy, a potential approach consists of incorporating the platinum agent in a liposome. Methods and Materials: In this study, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, Lipoplatin (the liposomal formulation of cisplatin), and Lipoxal (the liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin) were tested on F98 glioma orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. The platinum compounds were administered by intracarotid infusion and were assessed for the ability to reduce toxicity, improve cancer cell uptake, and increase survival of animals when combined or not combined with radiotherapy. Results: The tumor uptake was 2.4-fold more important for Lipoxal than the liposome-free oxaliplatin. Lipoxal also improved the specificity of oxaliplatin as shown by a higher ratio of tumor to right hemisphere uptake. Surprisingly, Lipoplatin led to lower tumor uptake compared with cisplatin. However, Lipoplatin had the advantage of largely reducing the toxicity of cisplatin and allowed us to capitalize on the anticancer activity of this agent. Conclusion: Among the five platinum compounds tested, carboplatin showed the best increase in survival when combined with radiation for treatment of glioma implanted in Fischer rats.

Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Leon [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, David; Mathieu, David [Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Paquette, Benoit, E-mail: Benoit.Paquette@USherbrooke.ca [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)] [Center for Research in Radiotherapy, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

2012-09-01

107

Increased markers of thrombogenesis in chronic atrial fibrillation: effects of warfarin treatment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether chronic atrial fibrillation is associated with abnormalities in plasma fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (vWF) (a marker of endothelial disturbance), or fibrin D- dimer (a measure of fibrin turnover); and if so, whether such levels are related to haemodynamic disturbance (enlarged left atrium, poor left ventricular function) or existing treatment with warfarin or aspirin. To investigate the effects of introducing warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation on fibrinogen and D- dimer levels. DESIGN--Cross sectional population sample controlled study and longitudinal study of patients undergoing anticoagulation. SETTING--District general hospital. SUBJECTS--87 patients (44 men and 43 women of mean (SEM) age 63.0 (1.0)) with chronic atrial fibrillation. At the time of the study, 37 were taking no antithrombotic medication (group 1), 31 were taking warfarin (including two on warfarin and aspirin) (group 2) and 19 were taking aspirin alone (group 3). They were compared with 158 population controls from a random population sample (the second Glasgow monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease study). As part of clinical treatment warfarin was introduced in 20 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (14 men and six women of mean (SEM) (range) age 63.9 (2.35 (32-74) years). RESULTS--Plasma fibrinogen remained significantly increased in patients of group 1 (no antithrombotic medication) compared with that of the population controls (median difference 1.23 g/l; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.62, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant increase in plasma D-dimer levels (median difference 77 ng/ml; 95% CI 38 to 122, P < 0.01) and vWF (median difference 63 IU/dl; 95% CI 38 to 89, P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in plasma fibrinogen (median difference 0.14 g/l; 95% CI -0.44 to 0.77, P = 0.65) or vWF (median difference 3.5 IU/dl; 95% CI - 41 to 41, P = not significant in patients of group 2 (warfarin treatment) compared with that of patients in group 1. Levels of D-dimer were significantly lower in group 2 (median difference 90 ng/ml, 95% CI 39 to 150, P < 0.0001) than in group 1. There were no significant differences in plasma fibrinogen (median difference 0.08 g/l; 95% CI - 0.52 to 0.77, P = 0.73), D-dimer (median difference - 34 ng/ml; 95% CI - 114 to 21.0, P = 0.25), or vWF (median difference 2%; 95% CI - 35 to 41, P = not significant) levels between patients of groups 1 and 3. There were no significant correlations between the coagulation indices and left atrial volume or ventricular function. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma fibrin D-dimer and vWF levels in patients of groups 1 and 3 (r = 0.52, P < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in median plasma fibrin D-dimer levels at 2 months after the introduction of warfarin (181 ng/ml v 80 ng/ml, P < 0.001), but no effect on plasma fibrinogen. CONCLUSIONS--Increased median plasma fibrinogen and vWF levels were found in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Plasma D-dimer levels were also increased in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation not receiving warfarin, suggesting increased intravascular thrombogenesis in such patients. Introduction of warfarin normalised circulating fibrin D- dimer levels, suggesting that warfarin treatment was effective in preventing excessive fibrin turnover, consistent with the antithrombotic effects of warfarin. These results suggest three possible thrombotic markers to assess patients with atrial fibrillation who are at high risk of thrombogenesis; D-dimer also merits assessment as a measure of reduction in thrombotic risk in patients receiving warfarin. PMID:7626351

Lip, G. Y.; Lowe, G. D.; Rumley, A.; Dunn, F. G.

1995-01-01

108

Unraveling the mysteries of timing: women's perceptions about time to treatment for cardiac symptoms.  

PubMed

Women in the USA are at disproportionate risk of dying from a myocardial infarction (MI), of suffering disabilities following an MI, and of reinfarcting and dying within a year of their initial MI. Various explanations, including women's older age at clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease (CHD) and higher likelihood of co-morbidities, have been offered for women's heightened risk of poor outcomes. Less frequently, research has focused on examining women's prolonged time elapse between symptom onset and biomedical treatment, a phenomenon that renders women less likely to undergo lifesaving reperfusion strategies. [1] To explore factors and circumstances that may shape CHD time to treatment, 40 middle age and older women living in Kentucky, USA, half with diagnosed CHD and half with chronic conditions considered to be risk factors for CHD, participated in a series of in-depth interviews. While much of the existing CHD literature implicates individual responsibility as the determining feature in time to treatment, these women's narratives suggested that treatment decisions inextricably are linked to broader social and structural constraints. Such supra-individual forces that shape the CHD experiences of women include the social construction of "standard" cardiac symptoms based on male norms that ultimately confuse symptom detection, women's negative encounters with health care providers who discount their knowledge, the competing social demands women face when threatened by a serious illness, and structural barriers delimiting women's health care choices. PMID:12473313

Schoenberg, Nancy E; Peters, Jane C; Drew, Elaine M

2003-01-01

109

Application of Time Transfer Function to McVittie Spacetime: Gravitational Time Delay and Secular Increase in Astronomical Unit  

E-print Network

We attempt to calculate the gravitational time delay in a time-dependent gravitational field, especially in McVittie spacetime, which can be considered as the spacetime around a gravitating body such as the Sun, embedded in the FLRW (Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker) cosmological background metric. To this end, we adopt the time transfer function method proposed by Le Poncin-Lafitte {\\it et al.} (Class. Quant. Grav. 21:4463, 2004) and Teyssandier and Le Poncin-Lafitte (Class. Quant. Grav. 25:145020, 2008), which is originally related to Synge's world function $\\Omega(x_A, x_B)$ and enables to circumvent the integration of the null geodesic equation. We re-examine the global cosmological effect on light propagation in the solar system. The round-trip time of a light ray/signal is given by the functions of not only the spacial coordinates but also the emission time or reception time of light ray/signal, which characterize the time-dependency of solutions. We also apply the obtained results to the secular increase in the astronomical unit, reported by Krasinsky and Brumberg (Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 90:267, 2004), and we show that the leading order terms of the time-dependent component due to cosmological expansion is 9 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed value of $d{\\rm AU}/dt$, i.e., $15 \\pm 4$ ~[m/century]. Therefore, it is not possible to explain the secular increase in the astronomical unit in terms of cosmological expansion.

Hideyoshi Arakida

2011-03-14

110

Prompts to Disrupt Sitting Time and Increase Physical Activity at Work, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study was to assess change in sitting and physical activity behavior in response to a workplace intervention to disrupt prolonged sitting time. Methods Sixty office workers were randomized to either a Stand group (n = 29), which received hourly prompts (computer-based and wrist-worn) to stand up, or a Step group (n = 31), which received the same hourly prompts and an additional prompt to walk 100 steps or more upon standing. An ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sitting and physical activity behavior on the same 3 consecutive workdays during baseline and intervention periods. Mixed-effect models with random intercepts and random slopes for time were performed to assess change between groups and across time. Results Both groups significantly reduced duration of average sitting bouts (Stand group, by 16%; Step group, by 19%) and the number of sitting bouts of 60 minutes or more (Step group, by 36%; Stand group, by 54%). The Stand group significantly reduced total sitting time (by 6.6%), duration of the longest sitting bout (by 29%), and number of sitting bouts of 30 minutes or more (by 13%) and increased the number of sit-to-stand transitions (by 15%) and standing time (by 23%). Stepping time significantly increased in the Stand (by 14%) and Step (by 29%) groups, but only the Step group significantly increased (by 35%) the number of steps per workday. Differences in changes from baseline to intervention between groups were not significant for any outcome. Conclusion Interventions that focus on disrupting sitting time only in the workplace may result in less sitting. When sitting time disruptions are paired with a physical activity prompt, people may be more likely to increase their workday physical activity, but the effect on sitting time may be attenuated. PMID:24784909

Rote, Aubrianne E.; Welch, Whitney A.; Maeda, Hotaka; Hart, Teresa L.; Cho, Young Ik; Strath, Scott J.

2014-01-01

111

Adolescent silymarin treatment increases anxiety-like behaviors in adult mice.  

PubMed

Adolescence is one of the most important periods of brain development in mammals. There is increasing evidence that some medicines during this period can affect brain and behavioral functions in adulthood. Silymarin (SM), a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum, is known as a hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective drug. Although researchers have extensively studied the effects of SM during adulthood, to date there is no information on the effects of this drug during the stages of brain development on behavioral functions in adulthood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of adolescent SM treatment on body weight and anxiety-like behaviors in adult male and female mice. Adolescent NMRI mice (postnatal day 30-50) were treated orally with water or SM (50 and 100 mg/kg). Animals were weighed during drug treatment and were then subjected to open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box tests from postnatal day 70. The results indicated that adolescent SM treatment increased anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark box in adult mice, while not altering body weight. Collectively, these findings suggest that adolescent SM treatment may have profound effects on the development of brain and behavior in adulthood. PMID:24978280

Kosari-Nasab, Morteza; Rabiei, Afshin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

2014-08-01

112

Exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment increases glucosinolate biosynthesis and quinone reductase activity in kale leaf tissue.  

PubMed

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties 'Dwarf Blue Curled Vates' and 'Red Winter' in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar 'Red Winter' in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, P<0.001). Concentrations required to double the specific QR activity (CD values) of I3C was calculated at 230 µM, which is considerably weaker at induction than other isothiocyanates like sulforphane. To confirm relationships between GS hydrolysis products and QR activity, a range of concentrations of MeJA sprays were applied to kale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

2014-01-01

113

Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.  

PubMed

Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate. PMID:24803713

Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

2014-05-01

114

Increase in the strength of rear axles due to electrothermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The use of local heat treatment ensuring recrystallization of the transverse weld seam is sufficient to obtain high fatigue strength of axles in three-axle trucks with beams made of steel 17GS manufactured by hot stamping.2.The creation of residual compressive stresses in the zone of the highest tensile stresses occurring in operation by means of local induction heating substantially increases the

V. A. Ognevskii; A. G. Orlovskii; G. A. Ostrovkii; A. M. Ryskind; O. F. Trofimov; I. N. Shklyarov

1977-01-01

115

Increased accumulation and decreased catabolism of anthocyanins in red grape cell suspension culture following magnesium treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are the largest and best studied group of plant pigments. However, not very much is known about the fate of these\\u000a phenolic pigments after they have accumulated in the cell vacuoles of plant tissues. We have previously shown that magnesium\\u000a treatment of ornamentals during the synthesis of anthocyanins in the flowers or foliage caused an increase in the pigment

Bhaskaran Sinilal; Rinat Ovadia; Ada Nissim-Levi; Avichai Perl; Mira Carmeli-Weissberg; Michal Oren-Shamir

2011-01-01

116

Treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin before ovulation increases progestin concentration in early equine pregnancies.  

PubMed

For prevention of early conceptus loss in the horse, treatment with progestins has become common practice. In cattle, treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) during the early postovulatory phase stimulates endogenous progesterone synthesis, which is an important factor for maintenance of early pregnancy via stimulation of endometrial function and conceptus development. In the present study we have therefore investigated the influence of treatment with hCG either for induction of ovulation or during the early luteal phase on plasma progestin concentrations, size of the corpus luteum and size of the conceptus in early pregnant mares. We hypothesized that hCG treatment stimulates progestin secretion and conceptus development. In Experiment 1, induction of ovulation with hCG (1500IU i.v.; n=14) significantly increased progestin concentration between days 5 and 15 after ovulation compared to untreated controls (n=28; p<0.05; e.g. day 5 hCG i.v.: 17.2±1.9, control: 13.9±0.8ng/ml). A significant interaction (p<0.05) of hCG treatment with size of the conceptus between days 30 and 40 of pregnancy was detected. In Experiment 2, treatment of mares with hCG (5000IU) on day 5 after ovulation (n=12) did neither affect progestin secretion (e.g. day 8 hCG: 15.4±1.6, control: 17.6±1.2ng/ml) nor luteal tissue area (e.g. day 8 hCG: 9.0±0.7, control: 7.6±1.4cm(2)) compared to untreated mares (n=9). In conclusion, treatment of mares with hCG for induction of ovulation within 48h before ovulation but not on day 5 of the luteal phase stimulates progestin secretion and may enhance conceptus development via stimulation of endometrial function during early pregnancy. PMID:25096723

Köhne, Martin; Kuhl, Juliane; Ille, Natascha; Erber, Regina; Aurich, Christine

2014-10-01

117

Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic and total zinc level in the rat hippocampus. We used two methods of zinc determination: (1) zinc-selenium method, which images the pool of synaptic zinc, and (2) flame atomic absorption spectrometry, which assays the total concentration of zinc. Our results indicate that chronic (14 x 65 mg/kg), but not acute, zinc hydroaspartate administration intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the majority of rat hippocampal layers (by 72-190%), except for the stratum moleculare and stratum radiatum CA, and perforant path DG. On the other hand, no changes were found in total hippocampal zinc level, measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. These data suggest that chronic zinc treatment increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the hippocampus, and this effect is similar to that observed following chronic ECS treatment. The measurement of zinc concentration in the whole hippocampus by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method is not sensitive enough to detect such subtle alteration. PMID:16674928

Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa, Magdalena; Czupryn, Artur; Wiero?ska, Joanna M; Bra?ski, Piotr; Sadlik, Krystyna; Opoka, W?odzimierz; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Smia?owska, Maria; Skangiel-Kramska, Jolanta; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

2006-05-23

118

Stability Switches in a Host-Pathogen Model as the Length of a Time Delay Increases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destabilising effects of a time delay in mathematical models are well known. However, delays are not necessarily destabilising. In this paper, we explore an example of a biological system where a time delay can be both stabilising and destabilising. This example is a host-pathogen model, incorporating density-dependent prophylaxis (DDP). DDP describes when individual hosts invest more in immunity when population densities are high, due to the increased risk of infection in crowded conditions. In this system, as the delay length increases, there are a finite number of switches between stable and unstable behaviour. These stability switches are demonstrated and characterised using a combination of numerical methods and analysis.

Reynolds, Jennifer J. H.; Sherratt, Jonathan A.; White, Andrew

2013-12-01

119

Teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment increases peripheral hematopoietic stem cells in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Cells of the osteoblast lineage play an important role in regulating the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche and early B-cell development in animal models, perhaps via parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent mechanisms. There are few human clinical studies investigating this phenomenon. We studied the impact of long-term daily teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment on cells of the hematopoietic lineage in postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture received teriparatide 20 mcg sc daily for 24 months as part of a prospective longitudinal trial. Whole blood measurements were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Flow cytometry was performed to identify hematopoietic subpopulations, including HSCs (CD34+/CD45(moderate); ISHAGE protocol) and early transitional B cells (CD19+, CD27-, IgD+, CD24[hi], CD38[hi]). Serial measurements of spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) as well as serum P1NP, osteocalcin, and CTX were also performed. The average age of study subjects was 64?±?5 years. We found that teriparatide treatment led to an early increase in circulating HSC number of 40%?±?14% (p?=?0.004) by month 3, which persisted to month 18 before returning to near baseline by 24 months. There were no significant changes in transitional B cells or total B cells over the course of the study period. In addition, there were no differences in complete blood count profiles as quantified by standard automated flow cytometry. Interestingly, the peak increase in HSC number was inversely associated with increases in bone markers and spine BMD. Daily teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis increases circulating HSCs by 3 to 6 months in postmenopausal women. This may represent a proliferation of marrow HSCs or increased peripheral HSC mobilization. This clinical study establishes the importance of PTH in the regulation of the HSC niche within humans. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24420643

Yu, Elaine W; Kumbhani, Ruchit; Siwila-Sackman, Erica; DeLelys, Michelle; Preffer, Frederic I; Leder, Benjamin Z; Wu, Joy Y

2014-06-01

120

Work function increase of indium-tin-oxide surfaces by atmospheric air plasma treatment with steady-state airflow  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric air-plasma treatment of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surfaces has been investigated as an alternative to a conventional oxygen (O{sub 2}) vacuum plasma process. For this study, we devised an atmospheric air barrier plasma system having a dimension of 1000x600 mm{sup 2} and successfully verified a possibility to ignite and maintain an atmospheric pressure discharge only in the ambient air. In particular, we used the steady-state airflow to generate more atomic oxygen radicals as oxygen gas during the vacuum plasma process and to prevent redeposition of the removed or transformed impurities onto the indium-tin-oxide substrate. The x-ray photoemission spectroscopy examination indicated that the adoption of the atmospheric-air plasma treatment reduced the surface content of carbon from 22.1% down to 8.5% and increased that of oxygen from 43% up to 57%. According to the photoelectron spectrometer (AC-1, RIKKEN) result, we obtained a work function of 5.11 eV for the treated ITO surfaces after 1 min treatment time, which is higher than that of 4.87 eV for the untreated ITO surface. Consequently, we can effectively remove the carbon contamination and increase the work function of the ITO surface by means of the atmospheric air plasma treatment with steady-state airflow.

Choi, Jai Hyuk; Lee, Eung Suok; Choi, Sang Hun; Baik, Hong Koo; Song, Kie Moon; Lim, Yong Sik; Lee, Seong-Min [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seodaemoon-Ku, Shinchon-Dong 134, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Applied Physics, KonKuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-Dong, Nam-Ku, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-09-15

121

Increase of bulk optical damage threshold fluences of KDP crystals by laser irradiation and heat treatment  

DOEpatents

The bulk optical damage threshold fluence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is increased by irradiating the crystals with laser pulses of duration 1 to 20 nanoseconds of increasing fluence, below the optical damage threshold fluence for untreated crystals, or by baking the crystals for times of the order of 24 hours at temperatures of 110 to 165/sup 0/C, or by a combination of laser irradiation and baking.

Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.; Rainer, F.

1982-07-07

122

Psychological influences on the timing of orthodontic treatment.  

PubMed

Debates about the "ideal" timing of orthodontic treatment have focused on issues of biologic development and readiness. In this article we examine psychologic issues that should be considered in the decision to initiate orthodontics in the younger child or to wait until adolescence or later. Psychologic development during the preadolescent and adolescent stages may influence the child's motive for, understanding of, and adherence to treatment regimens. Results of a study of some personality characteristics, motives, and aesthetic values of young phase I patients are presented. Questionnaires were completed by 75 children (mean age 10.85 years, 52.1% female, 84% white) and their parents. Children's perceived reasons for treatment were consistent with their parents' reports (chi 2 = 76.08, p < .001); most were referred for crowded teeth (56%) and overbite (17.3%). Although body image and self-concept scores were within the normal range, both children and their parents expected the most improvement in self-image and oral function, with greater expectations by parents on self-image (p < .0001), oral function (p < .0001), and social life (p < .03) than children themselves. Although white and minority children were similar in their self-ratings and expectations from orthodontics, the former were more critical in their aesthetic judgments. They rated faces with crowded teeth (p < .02), overbite (p < .02), and diastema (p < .01) more negatively than did ethnic minorities. These results suggest that younger children are good candidates for Phase I orthodontics, have high self-esteem and body-image, and expect orthodontics to improve their lives. White children who have been referred for Phase I orthodontics appear to have a narrower range of aesthetic acceptability than minority children. PMID:9457017

Tung, A W; Kiyak, H A

1998-01-01

123

12 CFR 1024.34 - Timely escrow payments and treatment of escrow account balances.  

...false Timely escrow payments and treatment of escrow account balances. 1024.34 Section...34 Timely escrow payments and treatment of escrow account balances. (a) Timely...the borrower to make payments to the...

2014-01-01

124

FOXO1 Content Is Reduced in Cystic Fibrosis and Increases with IGF-I Treatment.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is to date the most frequent complication in cystic fibrosis (CF). The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood, and a possible role of insulin resistance is debated. We investigated insulin signal transduction in CF. Total insulin receptor, IRS1, p85 PI3K, and AKT contents were substantially normal in CF cells (CFBE41o-), whereas winged helix forkhead (FOX)O1 contents were reduced both in baseline conditions and after insulin stimulation. In addition, CF cells showed increased ERK1/2, and reduced ?2 arrestin contents. No significant change in SOCS2 was observed. By using a CFTR inhibitor and siRNA, changes in FOXO1 were related to CFTR loss of function. In a CF-affected mouse model, FOXO1 content was reduced in the muscle while no significant difference was observed in liver and adipose tissue compared with wild-type. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) increased FOXO1 content in vitro and in vivo in muscle and adipose tissue. In conclusion; we present the first description of reduced FOXO1 content in CF, which is compatible with reduced gluconeogenesis and increased adipogenesis, both features of insulin insensitivity. IGF-I treatment was effective in increasing FOXO1, thereby suggesting that it could be considered as a potential treatment in CF patients possibly to prevent and treat cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. PMID:25299696

Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Maiuri, Luigi; Bernasconi, Sergio; Street, Maria E

2014-01-01

125

FOXO1 Content Is Reduced in Cystic Fibrosis and Increases with IGF-I Treatment  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is to date the most frequent complication in cystic fibrosis (CF). The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood, and a possible role of insulin resistance is debated. We investigated insulin signal transduction in CF. Total insulin receptor, IRS1, p85 PI3K, and AKT contents were substantially normal in CF cells (CFBE41o-), whereas winged helix forkhead (FOX)O1 contents were reduced both in baseline conditions and after insulin stimulation. In addition, CF cells showed increased ERK1/2, and reduced ?2 arrestin contents. No significant change in SOCS2 was observed. By using a CFTR inhibitor and siRNA, changes in FOXO1 were related to CFTR loss of function. In a CF-affected mouse model, FOXO1 content was reduced in the muscle while no significant difference was observed in liver and adipose tissue compared with wild-type. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) increased FOXO1 content in vitro and in vivo in muscle and adipose tissue. In conclusion; we present the first description of reduced FOXO1 content in CF, which is compatible with reduced gluconeogenesis and increased adipogenesis, both features of insulin insensitivity. IGF-I treatment was effective in increasing FOXO1, thereby suggesting that it could be considered as a potential treatment in CF patients possibly to prevent and treat cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. PMID:25299696

Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Maiuri, Luigi; Bernasconi, Sergio; Street, Maria E.

2014-01-01

126

Appendix Tables and Data Appendices, Effects of Increased Access to Infertility Treatment on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from  

E-print Network

Appendix Tables and Data Appendices, Effects of Increased Access to Infertility Treatment on Infant cover/offer to cover infertility treatment and its interaction with the mother being 30, those in column 2 for indicators for infertility treatment mandates for insurers that exclude IVF treatment

Silver, Whendee

127

Average case analysis of disk scheduling, increasing subsequences and space-time geometry  

E-print Network

Average case analysis of disk scheduling, increasing subsequences and space-time geometry Eitan arising from the disk scheduling problem with a linear seek function and a probability distribution on the location of I/O requests. The disk scheduling algorithm of Andrews, Bender and Zhang [2] which provides

Bachmat, Eitan

128

Caribou encounters with wolves increase near roads and trails: a time-to-event approach  

E-print Network

. Caribou and reindeer Rangifer tarandus are declining across North America and Scandinavia in part from, linear features, predation risk, Rangifer tarandus, recovery, resource selection, spatial separationCaribou encounters with wolves increase near roads and trails: a time-to-event approach Jesse

Hebblewhite, Mark

129

20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

20 ? Employees' Benefits ? 1 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired. ? 261.10 ? Section 261.10 ? Employees' Benefits ? RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ? REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ? ADMINISTRATIVE FINALITY ? §...

2010-04-01

130

Static Fatigue, Time Effects, and Delayed Increase in Penetration Resistance after  

E-print Network

Static Fatigue, Time Effects, and Delayed Increase in Penetration Resistance after Dynamic for the latter is found in the micromechanics process of static fatigue (or stress corrosion cracking stress under one-dimensional strain conditions. This process is a consequence of static fatigue

Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

131

Protracted treatment with diazepam increases the turnover of putative endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine/. beta. -carboline recognition site  

SciTech Connect

DBI (diazepam-binding inhibitor) is a putative neuromodulatory peptide isolated from rat brain that acts on ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine-Cl/sup -/ ionosphore receptor complex inducing ..beta..-carboline-like effects. The authors used a cDNA probe complementary to DBI mRNA and a specific antibody for rat DBI to study in rat brain how the dynamic state of DBI can be affected after protected (three times a day for 10 days) treatment with diazepam and chlordiazepoxide by oral gavage. Both the content of DBI and DBI mRNA increased in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex but failed to change in the hippocampus and striatum of rats receiving this protracted benzodiazepine treatment. Acute treatment with diazepam did not affect the dynamic state of brain DBI. An antibody was raised against a biologically active octadecaneuropeptide derived from the tryptic digestion of DBI. The combined HPLC/RIA analysis of rat cerebellar extracts carried out with this antibody showed that multiple molecular forms of the octadecaneuropeptide-like reactivity are present and all of them are increased in rats receiving repeated daily injections of diazepam. It is inferred that tolerance to benzodiazepines in associated with an increase in the turnover rate of DBI, which may be responsible for the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid receptor desensitization that occurs after protracted benzodiazepine administration.

Miyata, M.; Mocchetti, I.; Ferrarese, C.; Guidotti, A.; Costa, E.

1987-03-01

132

Increasing Physicians' and Nurses' Compliance with Treatment Guidelines in Cancer Care Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of the use of guidelines on the care of patients with breast, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers is reported. Audits of patient records revealed an increase over time in the percentage of recommended cancer care procedures that were complied with. (Author/MLW)

Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others

1985-01-01

133

Nitrogen doping of nanoporous WO3 layers by NH3 treatment for increased visible light photoresponse.  

PubMed

Nanoporous WO(3) layers were grown by electrochemical anodization of W in a fluoride containing electrolyte. These layers were exposed to a thermal treatment in NH(3) to achieve nitrogen doping of the material. The morphology, crystal structure, composition and photoresponse of pure and nitrogen doped WO(3) were compared using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical measurements. The results clearly show that successful nitrogen doping into WO(3) layers can be achieved by controlling the temperature and time during the NH(3) treatment. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that for the nitrogen doped WO(3) layers the photocurrent is significantly enhanced in the visible light region. PMID:20154369

Nah, Yoon-Chae; Paramasivam, Indhumati; Hahn, Robert; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Schmuki, Patrik

2010-03-12

134

Nitrogen doping of nanoporous WO3 layers by NH3 treatment for increased visible light photoresponse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoporous WO3 layers were grown by electrochemical anodization of W in a fluoride containing electrolyte. These layers were exposed to a thermal treatment in NH3 to achieve nitrogen doping of the material. The morphology, crystal structure, composition and photoresponse of pure and nitrogen doped WO3 were compared using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical measurements. The results clearly show that successful nitrogen doping into WO3 layers can be achieved by controlling the temperature and time during the NH3 treatment. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that for the nitrogen doped WO3 layers the photocurrent is significantly enhanced in the visible light region.

Nah, Yoon-Chae; Paramasivam, Indhumati; Hahn, Robert; Shrestha, Nabeen K.; Schmuki, Patrik

2010-03-01

135

An investigation on sol-gel treatment to aramid yarn to increase inter-yarn friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-yarn friction helps to increase energy absorption in ballistic fabrics. This paper reports on the results of sol-gel treatment on aramid yarns to increase the inter-yarn friction. Two types of TiO2/ZnO hydrosols (submicro-sized and nano-sized) prepared using hydrolysis and peptization methods were used to treat aramid yarns with and without curing. SEM was used to characterize the change in morphology. FTIR and EDX analyses were applied to identify the coating substance. The inter-yarn friction was tested using Capstan method. Images from SEM showed that the surface of the yarn treated with TiO2/ZnO submicro-sized hydrosol was covered with lump-like coating whilst in the case of TiO2/ZnO nano-sized sol treatment, the coating on the fibres was more film-like. The substance in the coating was confirmed as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide by FTIR and EDX analyses. The test results for coefficient of friction revealed that the coefficient of friction between the yarns treated by submicro-sized hydrosol was 54% higher than the non-treated, and the nano-sized hydrosol was associated to a 10% increase. However, the curing process had little effect on the coefficient of friction between yarns. The study also showed that the tensile properties of the treated yarns and the weight add-on were not significantly affected.

Chu, Yanyan; Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Qing; Cui, Shizhong

2014-11-01

136

Increased vertical dimension of occlusion: signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and options.  

PubMed

During the planning of oral rehabilitation, the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is one of the first parameters to be measured since its improper restoration can lead to the failure of any prosthetic rehabilitation. A decreased VDO can lead to the appearance of lesions, such as angular cheilitis, facial disharmony, and temporomandibular disorders; meanwhile, an increased VDO may lead to the onset of joint and muscle pain, tension in functional speech, difficulty in swallowing, impaired chewing, tooth sensitivity due to traumatogenic forces, pathologic bone resorption, abnormal wearing of teeth, the appearance of an elongated face, and a facial expression of fatigue. Most scientific articles deal with methods and techniques for re-establishing VDO in edentulous patients or those who have lost their tooth reference due to prosthetic preparations. However, patients with increased VDO are also found in everyday practice. One treatment option for these patients is occlusal adjustment by selective tooth wear; it is still possible to perform orthodontic intrusion and/or orthognathic surgery in severe cases. The aim of this study was to discuss signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment, and to report a clinical case of a patient with increased VDO. PMID:23579908

Discacciati, José Augusto César; Lemos de Souza, Eduardo; Vasconcellos, Walison Arthuso; Costa, Sérgio Carvalho; Barros, Vinícius de Magalhães

2013-01-01

137

Robust discretizations versus increase of the time step for the Lorenz system.  

PubMed

When continuous systems are discretized, their solutions depend on the time step chosen a priori. Such solutions are not necessarily spurious in the sense that they can still correspond to a solution of the differential equations but with a displacement in the parameter space. Consequently, it is of great interest to obtain discrete equations which are robust even when the discretization time step is large. In this paper, different discretizations of the Lorenz system are discussed versus the values of the discretization time step. It is shown that the sets of difference equations proposed are more robust versus increases of the time step than conventional discretizations built with standard schemes such as the forward Euler, backward Euler, or centered finite difference schemes. The nonstandard schemes used here are Mickens' scheme and Monaco and Normand-Cyrot's scheme. PMID:15836264

Letellier, Christophe; Mendes, Eduardo M A M

2005-03-01

138

A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ?1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

Fuangrod, Todsaporn [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada) [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kuncic, Zdenka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)] [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)

2013-09-15

139

Increasing the creation yield of shallow single defects in diamond by surface plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect

Single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond close to the crystal surface are very promising magnetic field sensors with very high sensitivity. Here, we report the enhanced creation of very shallow (less than 3 nm below the diamond surface) NV centers by using fluorine and oxygen plasma treatment. We observe a four fold increase—from 0.11% to about 0.45% in the production yield when the sample surface is terminated with fluorine or oxygen atoms. This effect is explained by the stabilization of the NV's negative charge state which is influenced by the various defects present on the diamond surface.

Osterkamp, Christian; Scharpf, Jochen; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); Diemant, Thomas; Jürgen Behm, Rolf [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

2013-11-04

140

Analysis of an Anomaly: The Increase in Time Float following Consumption  

PubMed Central

One fundamental axiom for project plan and schedule relates to the notion that time float will be reduced following its consumption. However, an anomalous scenario can emerge in which an activity's time float increases following its consumption. By exploring the associations between time float and paths in activity networks, we (a) reveal the conditions under which the anomaly occurs and (b) summarize laws related to total float. An activity's total float increases in parallel with its duration prolongation within a given boundary but remains constant or decreases in parallel with a prolongation outside the boundary. Furthermore, whereas a prolongation of an activity's duration in excess of classic total float does not delay project completion time, a lag of its start time to a degree slightly greater than the total float does. This analysis reveals different types of total float that correspond to different ways of usage. From this, we offer definitions for translation total float and prolongation total float that deviate from traditional conventions regarding the uniqueness of total float. PMID:25250376

Qi, Jianxun; Su, Zhixiong

2014-01-01

141

Night-time increase of mesospheric ozone measured with ground-based microwave radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During February and March 1985 ground-based microwave observations of the 142.175 GHz ozone line were made to measure the variations of mesospheric ozone during sunset, throughout the night, and during sunrise. Data was taken from 2 h before sunset to 2 h after sunrise. The time resolution was approximately 16 min. Above 50 km a rapid ozone increase at sunset and a decrease at sunrise was observed. The time required for both changes (10-90 percent) was about 1 h. Daytime ozone concentrations in the mesosphere were found to be larger after sunrise than before sunset. After the initial sunset rise the nighttime ozone continued to increase at levels above 60 km, while decreasing below this level. The retrieved night to day ozone ratio was maximum (4.2) at 70 km, near the top of the measurement range. No diurnal changes were seen below 45 km.

Lobsiger, E.; Kuenzi, K. F.

1986-12-01

142

Steroid treatment increases the recurrence of radiation-induced organizing pneumonia after breast-conserving therapy.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an important complication of postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer. Unfortunately, conventional corticosteroid therapy is frequently associated with relapses. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of steroid treatment in patients with RIOP. In total, 26 patients diagnosed with RIOP from among 2404 women who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer were included and classified into steroid (n = 7) and nonsteroid (n = 19) groups. Serum, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage composition; subjective symptoms (cough, fever, and dyspnea); migratory progression; and RIOP relapse were compared between the groups. Treatment type did not affect the duration of the subjective symptoms, which was 1.6 and 1.7 months for the steroid and nonsteroid groups, respectively. In contrast, RIOP relapse and new pulmonary lesions developed in five patients in the steroid group and only three patients in the nonsteroid group (P = 0.014). By assessing RIOP duration as the time to resolution of symptoms and discontinuation of therapy, the median duration of RIOP was significantly longer in the steroid (17.1 months) than that in the nonsteroid group (2.3 months, P = 0.005), primarily because of frequent relapses. After remission, persistent pulmonary dysfunction did not occur in the nonsteroid group. This single-center retrospective study demonstrates that steroid therapy results in frequent relapses and significantly prolongs RIOP duration. Corticosteroid treatment is considered a critical factor in RIOP recurrence. PMID:24799363

Otani, Keisuke; Nishiyama, Kinji; Ito, Yuri; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Inaji, Hideo

2014-08-01

143

Short-term nutritional treatments grazing legumes or feeding concentrates increase prolificacy in Corriedale ewes.  

PubMed

We tested whether short periods of increased nutrition will improve ovulation rate and prolificacy, irrespective of the method used to synchronise the cycles of the ewes. In Experiment 1, we used 138 Corriedale ewes to evaluate two factors: synchronization treatment (sponges versus a single injection of prostaglandin) and type of pasture (native versus improved with Lotus corniculatus). Ewes were mated at the end of the grazing period and prolificacy was evaluated at lambing. Grazing Lotus corniculatus for 12 days tended to increase the number of twin lambs born (P=0.09). The percentage of ewes showing oestrus during a 9-day period was similar among synchronization treatments. Animals in Experiments 2 (n=282) and 3 (n=288) were allocated to a control group or a group fed a supplement of corn grain and soybean meal for 7 days. Ewes received 2 prostaglandin injections and the supplement was fed from Days 11 to 17 after the second prostaglandin. Ovulation rate was measured in 65 (Experiment 2) and 61 (Experiment 3) ewes that were confirmed to have consumed the supplement and showed oestrus in a 4-day period. The supplement increased ovulation rate by 14% in both experiments (P<0.05). We conclude that Corriedale ewes can respond with increases in prolificacy to a 12-day period grazing Lotus corniculatus and in ovulation rate to 7 days feeding with a supplement rich in energy and protein. Moreover, in these studies, prostaglandin was as effective as sponges for synchronising oestrus, an important factor in future decisions about hormonal management of fertility. PMID:18639397

Viñoles, C; Meikle, A; Martin, G B

2009-07-01

144

Genetic predictors of increase in suicidal ideation during antidepressant treatment in the GENDEP project.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate genetic predictors of an increase in suicidal ideation during treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or a tricyclic antidepressant. A total of 796 adult patients with major depressive disorder who were treated with a flexible dosage of escitalopram or nortriptyline in Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) were included in the sample and provided data on suicidal ideation. Nine candidate genes involved in neurotrophic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic pathways were selected based on previous association studies with suicidal ideation or behavior. Using a logistic regression model, 123 polymorphisms in these genes were compared between subjects with an increase in suicidal ideation and those without any increase in suicidal ideation. Polymorphisms in BDNF, the gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, were significantly associated with an increase in suicidal ideation. The strongest association was observed for rs962369 in BDNF (p=0.0015). Moreover, a significant interaction was found between variants in BDNF and NTRK2, the gene encoding the BNDF receptor (p=0.0003). Among men taking nortriptyline, suicidality was also associated with rs11195419 SNP in the alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2A) (p=0.007). The associations observed with polymorphisms in BDNF suggest the involvement of the neurotrophic system in vulnerability to suicidality. Epistasis between BDNF and NTRK2 suggests that genetic variations in the two genes are involved in the same causal mechanisms leading to suicidality during antidepressant treatment. Among men, genetic variation in noradrenergic signaling may interact with norepinephrine reuptake-inhibiting antidepressants, thereby contributing to suicidality. PMID:19641488

Perroud, Nader; Aitchison, Katherine J; Uher, Rudolf; Smith, Rebecca; Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Marusic, Andrej; Maier, Wolfgang; Mors, Ole; Placentino, Anna; Henigsberg, Neven; Rietschel, Marcella; Hauser, Joanna; Souery, Daniel; Kapelski, Pawel; Bonvicini, Cristian; Zobel, Astrid; Jorgensen, Lisbeth; Petrovic, Ana; Kalember, Petra; Schulze, Thomas G; Gupta, Bhanu; Gray, Joanna; Lewis, Cathryn M; Farmer, Anne E; McGuffin, Peter; Craig, Ian

2009-11-01

145

Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions.

Kalchenko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Meglinski, I. V.

2013-07-01

146

Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Methods The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. Results There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. Conclusion There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma, especially of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:24159918

2013-01-01

147

Increasing Hepatitis C treatment uptake among HIV-infected patients using an HIV primary care model  

PubMed Central

Background Access to Hepatitis C (HCV) care is low among HIV-infected individuals, highlighting the need for new models to deliver care for this population. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis that compared the number of HIV patients who initiated HCV therapy: hepatology (2005–2008) vs. HIV primary care model (2008–2011). Logistic-regression modeling was used to ascertain factors associated with HCV therapy initiation and achievement of sustained viral response (SVR). Results Of 196 and 163 patients that were enrolled in the HIV primary care and hepatology models, 48 and 26 were treated for HCV, respectively (p?=?0.043). The HIV/HCV-patient referral rate did not differ during the two study periods (0.10 vs. 0.12/patient-yr, p?=?0.18). In unadjusted analysis, predictors (p?treatment initiation included referral to the HIV primary care model (OR: 1.7), a CD4+ count ?400/mm3 (OR: 1.8) and alanine aminotranferase level ?63U/L (OR: 1.9). Prior psychiatric medication use correlated negatively with HCV treatment initiation (OR: 0.6, p?=?0.045). In adjusted analysis the strongest predictor of HCV treatment initiation was CD4+ count (?400/mm3, OR: 2.1, p?=?0.01). There was no significant difference in either clinic model (primary care vs. hepatology) in the rates of treatment discontinuation due to adverse events (29% vs. 16%), loss to follow-up (8 vs. 8%), or HCV SVR (44 vs. 35%). Conclusions Using a HIV primary care model increased the number of HIV patients who initiate HCV therapy with comparable outcomes to a hepatology model. PMID:23537147

2013-01-01

148

Dexamethasone treatment reverses cognitive impairment but increases brain oxidative stress in rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae. The animals received either 10??L of saline or a S. pneumoniae suspension and were randomized into different groups: sham: placebo with dexamethasone 0.7?mg/kg/1?day; placebo with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days; meningitis groups: dexamethasone 0.7?mg/kg/1?day and dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. Ten days after induction we evaluated memory and oxidative stress parameters in hippocampus and cortex. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, we observed memory impairment in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. The lipid peroxidation was increased in hippocampus in the meningitis groups with dexamethasone and in cortex only in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. The protein carbonyl was increased in hippocampus in the meningitis groups with dexamethasone and in cortex in the meningitis groups with and without dexamethasone. There was a decrease in the proteins integrity in hippocampus in all groups receiving treatment with dexamethasone and in cortex in all groups with dexamethasone (0.7?mg/kg/1?day). The mitochondrial superoxide was increased in the hippocampus and cortex in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. Our findings demonstrate that dexamethasone reverted cognitive impairment but increased brain oxidative stress in hippocampus and cortex in Wistar rats ten days after pneumococcal meningitis induction. PMID:22191010

Barichello, Tatiana; Santos, Ana Lucia B; Silvestre, Cintia; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Cipriano, Andreza L; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João

2011-01-01

149

Dexamethasone Treatment Reverses Cognitive Impairment but Increases Brain Oxidative Stress in Rats Submitted to Pneumococcal Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae. The animals received either 10??L of saline or a S. pneumoniae suspension and were randomized into different groups: sham: placebo with dexamethasone 0.7?mg/kg/1?day; placebo with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days; meningitis groups: dexamethasone 0.7?mg/kg/1?day and dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. Ten days after induction we evaluated memory and oxidative stress parameters in hippocampus and cortex. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, we observed memory impairment in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. The lipid peroxidation was increased in hippocampus in the meningitis groups with dexamethasone and in cortex only in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. The protein carbonyl was increased in hippocampus in the meningitis groups with dexamethasone and in cortex in the meningitis groups with and without dexamethasone. There was a decrease in the proteins integrity in hippocampus in all groups receiving treatment with dexamethasone and in cortex in all groups with dexamethasone (0.7?mg/kg/1?day). The mitochondrial superoxide was increased in the hippocampus and cortex in the meningitis group with dexamethasone 0.2?mg/kg/7?days. Our findings demonstrate that dexamethasone reverted cognitive impairment but increased brain oxidative stress in hippocampus and cortex in Wistar rats ten days after pneumococcal meningitis induction. PMID:22191010

Barichello, Tatiana; Santos, Ana Lucia B.; Silvestre, Cintia; Generoso, Jaqueline S.; Cipriano, Andreza L.; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Comim, Clarissa M.; Quevedo, João

2011-01-01

150

Prolonged oestrogen treatment does not correlate with a sustained increase in anterior pituitary mitotic index in ovariectomized Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Oestrogen is a powerful mitogen that is believed to exert a continuous, dose-dependent trophic stimulus at the anterior pituitary. This persistent mitotic effect contrasts with corticosterone and testosterone, changes in the levels of which induce only transient, self-limiting fluctuations in pituitary mitotic activity. To further define the putative long-term trophic effects of oestrogen, we have accurately analysed the effects of 7 and 28 days oestrogen treatment on anterior pituitary mitotic activity in ovariectomized 10-week-old Wistar rats using both bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and timed colchicine-induced mitotic arrest. An oestrogen dose-dependent increase in mitotic index was seen 7 days after the start of treatment as expected, representing an acceleration in gross mitotic activity from 1·7%/day in ovariectomized animals in the absence of any oestrogen replacement to 3·7%/day in the presence of a pharmacological dose of oestrogen (50?mcg/rat per day: ?230?mcg/kg per day). Despite continued exposure to high-dose oestrogen and persistence of the increase in pituitary wet weight, the increase in mitotic index was unexpectedly not sustained. After 28 days of high-dose oestrogen treatment, anterior pituitary mitotic index and BrdU-labelling index were not significantly different from baseline. Although a powerful pituitary mitogen in the short term, responsible, presumably, for increased trophic variability in oestrus cycling females, these data indicate that in keeping with other trophic stimuli to the pituitary and in contrast to a much established dogma, the mitotic response to longer-term high-dose oestrogen exposure is transient and is not the driver of persistent pituitary growth, at least in female Wistar rats. PMID:19106235

Nolan, L A; Levy, A

2009-01-01

151

Increased reaction times and reduced response preparation already starts at middle age  

PubMed Central

Generalized slowing characterizes aging and there is some evidence to suggest that this slowing already starts at midlife. This study aims to assess reaction time changes while performing a concurrent low-force and high-force motor task in young and middle-aged subjects. The high-force motor task is designed to induce muscle fatigue and thereby progressively increase the attentional demands. Twenty-five young (20–30 years, 12 males) and 16 middle-aged (35–55 years, 9 males) adults performed an auditory two-choice reaction time task (CRT) with and without a concurrent low- or high-force motor task. The CRT required subjects to respond to two different stimuli that occurred with a probability of 70 or 30%. The motor task consisted of index finger abduction, at either 10% (10%-dual-task) or 30% (30%-dual-task) of maximal voluntary force. Cognitive task performance was measured as percentage of correct responses and reaction times. Middle-aged subjects responded slower on the frequent but more accurately on the infrequent stimuli of CRT than young subjects. Both young and middle-aged subjects showed increased errors and reaction times while performing under dual-task conditions and both outcome measures increased further under fatiguing conditions. Only under 30%-dual-task demands, an age-effect on dual-task performance was present. Both single- and dual-task conditions showed that already at mid-life response preparation is seriously declined and that subjects implement different strategies to perform a CRT task. PMID:24808862

Wolkorte, Ria; Kamphuis, Janine; Zijdewind, Inge

2014-01-01

152

Palifermin reduces diarrhea and increases survival following irinotecan treatment in tumor-bearing DA rats.  

PubMed

Mucositis is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy for which there is currently no treatment. Irinotecan is a commonly used effective chemotherapeutic agent, causing severe gastrointestinal mucositis and diarrhea. Previous research suggests that palifermin is potentially antimucotoxic. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether palifermin was effective in ameliorating irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal mucositis. We also determined the protective effects of single large and multiple small doses of palifermin. Tumor-bearing DA rats were treated with a single large (10 mg/kg) dose of palifermin 3 days prior to, or multiple small (3 mg/kg day for 3 days) doses of palifermin or vehicle control prior to, receiving 2 doses of 150 mg/kg irinotecan. Animals were killed at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, or 144 hr after treatment. The primary endpoints were diarrhea and mortality. Gastrointestinal morphometry, histopathology and apoptosis were assessed. Tumor weights and mitoses were measured to ensure palifermin did not promote tumor growth. Data were analyzed using Peritz' F-test, Student's t-test and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. Animals pretreated with palifermin tolerated irinotecan treatment better than control animals with less severe diarrhea (5% in animals receiving 10 mg/kg palifermin, 11% in animals receiving 3 x 3 mg/kg palifermin and 28% in animals receiving irinotecan only) and reduced mortality (2% in animals receiving 10 mg/kg palifermin, 11% in animals receiving 3 x 3 mg/kg palifermin and 28% in animals receiving irinotecan only). Small and large intestinal weights were maintained. Intestinal morphometry was not maintained in palifermin-pretreated rats despite being increased prior to irinotecan treatment. Palifermin pretreatment did not prevent apoptosis that peaked at 6 hr in the jejunum or colon, but prevented apoptosis at 96 hr in the small intestine. Palifermin pretreatment in both treatment regimens significantly reduces diarrhea and mortality following irinotecan administration without adversely affecting tumor growth. This positive response warrants further investigation, particularly in humans. PMID:15800945

Gibson, Rachel J; Bowen, Joanne M; Keefe, Dorothy M K

2005-09-01

153

Antiresorptives overlapping ongoing teriparatide treatment result in additional increases in bone mineral density.  

PubMed

During teriparatide (TPTD) treatment, high levels of bone formation are accompanied by an increase in bone resorption. The aim of this work was to test if coadministration of raloxifene (RAL) or alendronate (ALN) following 9 months of ongoing TPTD therapy would reopen the anabolic window, thereby exerting additional benefit on bone mineral density (BMD). Postmenopausal women (n?=?125) with severe osteoporosis on TPTD treatment for 9 months were randomized into three open-label groups for a further 9 months: ALN (70?mg/week) in addition to TPTD; RAL (60?mg/d) in addition to TPTD; or no medication in addition to TPTD. Amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), and areal and volumetric BMD at the lumbar spine and hip were assessed. During the combination period, P1NP concentrations did not change on TPTD monotherapy (693%?±?371%, p?increase in lumbar spine BMD was 5%?±?6.3% in the ALN and 6%?±?5.2% in the RAL combination groups compared with 2.8%?±?9.3% in the TPTD monotherapy group (p?=?0.085 and p?=?0.033, respectively). The increase of trabecular lumbar spine BMD for both the ALN and RAL combination groups was superior to TPTD monotherapy. Total hip BMD changes were 4%?±?5.3% for the ALN combination group and 1.4%?±?5.1% for the TPTD monotherapy (p?=?0.032), and 1.4%?±?3.4% (p?=?0.02) for the RAL combination group. With the exception of no differences in the trabecular compartment of femoral neck, volumetric BMD changes in the ALN combination group for all other comparisons were significantly superior to the two other groups. Our data suggest that ALN when added to TPTD 9 months after initiation of TPTD monotherapy results in a more robust increase in BMD, probably due to a reopening of the anabolic window. The clinical relevance of the BMD increase is unknown. PMID:22836585

Muschitz, Christian; Kocijan, Roland; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Lung, Solveig; Resch, Heinrich

2013-01-01

154

Antiretroviral Treatment is Associated with Increased Attentional Load-Dependent Brain Activation in HIV Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this paper was to determine whether antiretroviral medications, especially the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, lead to altered brain activation due to their potential neurotoxic effects in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods Forty-two right-handed men were enrolled in three groups: seronegative controls (SN, n=18), HIV subjects treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+ ARV, n=12), or not treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+NARV, n=12). Each subject performed a set of visual attention tasks with increasing difficulty or load (tracking two, three or four balls) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results HIV subjects, both groups combined, showed greater load-dependent increases in brain activation in the right frontal regions compared to SN (p-corrected=0.006). HIV+ARV additionally showed greater load-dependent increases in activation compared to SN in bilateral superior frontal regions (p-corrected=0.032) and a lower percent accuracy on the performance of the most difficult task (tracking four balls). Region of interest analyses further demonstrated that SN showed load-dependent decreases (with repeated trials despite increasing difficulty), while HIV subjects showed load-dependent increases in activation with the more difficult tasks, especially those on ARVs. Interpretation These findings suggest that chronic ARV treatments may lead to greater requirement of the attentional network reserve and hence less efficient usage of the network and less practice effects in these HIV patients. As the brain has a limited reserve capacity, exhausting the reserve capacity in HIV+ARV would lead to declined performance with more difficult tasks that require more attention. PMID:18247124

Chang, L.; Yakupov, R.; Nakama, H.; Stokes, B.; Ernst, T.

2009-01-01

155

Subchronic treatment with fluoxetine and ketanserin increases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ?-catenin and antidepressant-like effects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve antidepressant responses when added to 5-HT-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants. Here, we have studied the involvement of neuroplasticity pathways and/or the 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of this combined treatment, given subchronically. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor (TrkB), 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and ?-catenin protein expression in different cellular fractions, as well as 5-HT1A receptor function were measured in the hippocampus of rats treated with fluoxetine, ketanserin and fluoxetine + ketanserin for 7 days, followed by a forced swimming test (FST) to analyse antidepressant efficacy. KEY RESULTS mRNA for BDNF was increased in the CA3 field and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus by combined treatment with fluoxetine + ketanserin. Expression of ?-catenin was increased in total hippocampal homogenate and in the membrane fraction, but unchanged in the nuclear fraction after combined treatment with fluoxetine + ketanserin. These effects were paralleled by a decreased immobility time in the FST. There were no changes in BrdU incorporation, TrkB expression and 5-HT1A receptor function in any of the groups studied. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The antidepressant-like effect induced by subchronic co-treatment with a SSRI and a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist may mainly be because of modifications in hippocampal neuroplasticity (BDNF and membrane-associated ?-catenin), without a significant role for other mechanisms involved in chronic antidepressant response, such as hippocampal neuroproliferation or 5-HT1A receptor desensitization in the dorsal raphe nucleus. PMID:21627639

Pilar-Cuellar, F; Vidal, R; Pazos, A

2012-01-01

156

Development of equations to determine the increase in pavement condition due to treatment and the rate of decrease in condition after treatment for a local agency pavement network.  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF EQUATIONS TO DETERMINE THE INCREASE IN PAVEMENT CONDITION DUE TO TREATMENT AND THE RATE OF DECREASE IN CONDITION AFTER TREATMENT FOR A LOCAL AGENCY PAVEMENT NETWORK A Thesis by MAITHILEE MUKUND DESHMUKH Submitted... CONDITION DUE TO TREATMENT AND THE RATE OF DECREASE IN CONDITION AFTER TREATMENT FOR A LOCAL AGENCY PAVEMENT NETWORK A Thesis by MAITHILEE MUKUND DESHMUKH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

Deshmukh, Maithilee Mukund.

2010-07-14

157

Mung Bean Nuclease Treatment Increases Capture Specificity of Microdroplet-PCR Based Targeted DNA Enrichment  

PubMed Central

Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial. PMID:25058678

Yu, Zhenming; Cao, Kajia; Tischler, Tanya; Stolle, Catherine A.; Santani, Avni B.

2014-01-01

158

Melatonin treatment prior to the normal breeding season increases fetal number in United Kingdom sheep flocks.  

PubMed

Litter size determined ultrasonographically at 45-90 days after mating in eight groups of commercial sheep (n=2609) treated with slow release melatonin implants immediately prior to the natural breeding season showed a 19% treatment effect averaged over the eight groups, from 148% to 167% (P<0.01) compared with controls (n=2499). Control groups had a litter size ranging from 124% to 194% thereby representing most commercial production systems in the UK sheep industry. This is the first large scale study of slow release melatonin implants in commercial UK flocks to demonstrate a significant positive effect on litter size when used before the natural breeding season. The data indicate that increased productivity and profitability could be achieved while maintaining desirable purebred characteristics. PMID:18783969

Scott, P R; Sargison, N D; Macrae, A I; Gough, M R

2009-11-01

159

Attractiveness of periodic orbits in parametrically forced systemswith time-increasing friction  

E-print Network

We consider dissipative one-dimensional systems subject to a periodic force and study numerically how a time-varying friction affects the dynamics. As a model system, particularly suited for numerical analysis, we investigate the driven cubic oscillator in the presence of friction. We find that, if the damping coefficient increases in time up to a final constant value, then the basins of attraction of the leading resonances are larger than they would have been if the coefficient had been fixed at that value since the beginning. From a quantitative point of view, the scenario depends both on the final value and the growth rate of the damping coefficient. The relevance of the results for the spin-orbit model are discussed in some detail.

Michele Bartuccelli; Jonathan Deane; Guido Gentile

2012-07-18

160

Effects of increasing time delays on pitch-matching accuracy in trained singers and untrained individuals.  

PubMed

Trained singers (TS) generally demonstrate accurate pitch matching, but this ability varies within the general population. Pitch-matching accuracy, given increasing silence intervals of 5, 15, and 25 seconds between target tones and vocal matches, was investigated in TS and untrained individuals. A relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was also examined. Thirty-two females (20-30 years) were grouped based on individual vocal training and performance in an immediate pitch-matching task. Participants matched target pitches following time delays, and completed a pitch discrimination task, which required the classification of two tones as same or different. TS and untrained accurate participants performed comparably on all pitch-matching tasks, while untrained inaccurate participants performed significantly less accurately than the other two groups. Performances declined across groups as intervals of silence increased, suggesting degradation of pitch matching as pitch memory was taxed. A significant relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was revealed across participants. PMID:18314306

Estis, Julie M; Coblentz, Joana K; Moore, Robert E

2009-07-01

161

Permeability Enhancers Dramatically Increase Zanamivir Absolute Bioavailability in Rats: Implications for an Orally Bioavailable Influenza Treatment  

PubMed Central

We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol) was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (tmax of 5 min) and a Cmax of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted Cmax for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results are being utilized to design prototype dosage forms for initial human pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23613954

Holmes, Eric H.; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Li, Libin; Perdue, Michael L.; Ostrander, Gary K.

2013-01-01

162

Addition of prothrombin to plasma can result in a paradoxical increase in activated partial thromboplastin time.  

PubMed

In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a variety of nonphysiological reagents is used to induce contact activation. The sensitivity of the APTT response for different thrombin inhibitors has previously been found to be dependent on the used reagent. Recently, infusion of prothrombin (FII) has been used in in-vivo coagulopathy models and its effect has been analyzed in different assays. Therefore, we investigated whether the FII plasma concentration might affect APTT using different commercial reagents, applying both turbidimetry and viscometry. We compared both plasma-derived human FII (pd-hFII) and recombinant human FII (r-hFII). Similar results were found for pd-hFII and r-hFII with different APTT reagents. As expected, no effect on APTT was found by increasing the plasma concentration of FII using APTT reagents consisting of ellagic acid (Actin FS or Actin). Although with Pathromtin SL, consisting of SiO2, only a slight increase was found, with most other commercial APTT reagents, consisting of SiO2 or kaolin, APTT dose-dependently increased by increasing concentration of FII. Therefore, both Pathromtin SL and Actin FS were used to compare r-hFII and pd-hFII by determining the KM at 37C using FII-depleted plasma, providing values of 6?±?0.3?nmol/l FII for both. Thus, at normal plasma concentrations of FII, the maximal initial thrombin generation rate should be reached and no effect on the coagulation time is expected at higher FII concentrations. To completely avoid the paradoxical effect in the APTT assay at FII concentrations higher than normal, Actin or Actin FS is the preferable reagent. PMID:25004021

Hansson, Kenny M; Björkqvist, Jenny; Deinum, Johanna

2014-12-01

163

Childhood Adversity Accelerates Intended Reproductive Timing in Adolescent Girls without Increasing Interest in Infants  

PubMed Central

Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1) childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2) childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3) intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies. PMID:24454778

Clutterbuck, Stephanie; Adams, Jean; Nettle, Daniel

2014-01-01

164

Harsh Corporal Punishment Is Associated With Increased T2 Relaxation Time in Dopamine-Rich Regions  

PubMed Central

Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:20600981

Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M.; Teicher, Martin H.

2010-01-01

165

Increased gene expression of glucose transporters in the mouse brain after treatment with fluoxetine and pergolide.  

PubMed

Glucose transporters play key roles in the homeostatic control of brain functions. In the present study, we examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and pergolide, a dopamine D receptor agonist, on the gene expression levels of glucose transporters in the mouse brain. mRNAs for 8 sodium-independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), other than GLUT4 and GLUT9, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) were confirmed to be expressed in brain tissue. Fluoxetine and pergolide significantly increased the expression levels of mRNAs for GLUT1 and GLUT10 in the brain. Furthermore, the expression of GLUT6 in tissue was increased by administering pergolide to mice. On the other hand, fluoxetine and pergolide had no effect on the expression levels of mRNAs for the other GLUTs and SGLT1. Therefore, we concluded that the gene expression of several GLUT isoforms in the mouse brain was affected by the treatment with fluoxetine and pergolide. PMID:24227476

Nagai, K; Inoue, T; Konishi, H

2014-07-01

166

Differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells increases after treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.  

PubMed

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have become an important resource in developing strategies for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, owing to their ability to renew and their potential for differentiation into cells of various types of tissues. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation has been used for several years in the treatment of fracture healing, with clinical beneficial effects, and several studies have demonstrated its capacity to increase bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, stromal cells of human bone marrow (BMSC), obtained from healthy donors, were appropriately expanded and underwent PEMF stimulation eight hours a day for fourteen days. Parameters such as proliferation and differentiation ability were evaluated on stimulated cultures. The evaluation of the marker expression was performed by RT-PCR for osteocalcin, by alkaline phosphatase quantitation and by histochemical stains. The results we obtained showed that BMSC treated with PEMF begin differentiation earlier than untreated BMSC, as shown by the markers used. The data show that PEMF is able to increase the osteogenic differentiation potential in adult mesenchymal cells isolated from young patients. PMID:22351673

Esposito, Marco; Lucariello, Angela; Riccio, Ilaria; Riccio, Vincenzo; Esposito, Vincenzo; Riccardi, Giovanni

2012-01-01

167

Effects of riparian plant diversity loss on aquatic microbial decomposers become more pronounced with increasing time.  

PubMed

We examined the potential long-term impacts of riparian plant diversity loss on diversity and activity of aquatic microbial decomposers. Microbial assemblages were obtained in a mixed-forest stream by immersion of mesh bags containing three leaf species (alder, oak and eucalyptus), commonly found in riparian corridors of Iberian streams. Simulation of species loss was done in microcosms by including a set of all leaf species, retrieved from the stream, and non-colonized leaves of three, two or one leaf species. Leaves were renewed every month throughout six months, and microbial inoculum was ensured by a set of colonized leaves from the previous month. Microbial diversity, leaf mass loss and fungal biomass were assessed at the second and sixth months after plant species loss. Molecular diversity of fungi and bacteria, as the total number of operational taxonomic units per leaf diversity treatment, decreased with leaf diversity loss. Fungal biomass tended to decrease linearly with leaf species loss on oak and eucalyptus, suggesting more pronounced effects of leaf diversity on lower quality leaves. Decomposition of alder and eucalyptus leaves was affected by leaf species identity, mainly after longer times following diversity loss. Leaf decomposition of alder decreased when mixed with eucalyptus, while decomposition of eucalyptus decreased in mixtures with oak. Results suggest that the effects of leaf diversity on microbial decomposers depended on leaf species number and also on which species were lost from the system, especially after longer times. This may have implications for the management of riparian forests to maintain stream ecosystem functioning. PMID:23963224

Fernandes, Isabel; Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia

2013-11-01

168

Deficits in reaction time due to increased motor time of peroneus longus in people with chronic ankle instability.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether neuromuscular adaptations at the site of injury or neural adaptation remote to the injury are affected in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Electromyography data were collected from the peroneus longus (PL) and tibialis anterior during an ankle joint reaction time task in 12 participants with unilateral CAI and 12 healthy control participants. Following an auditory cue, time to onset of muscle activity (pre-motor time) and time from onset of muscle activity to movement (motor time) were measured during rapid ankle eversion and dorsiflexion. Reaction time for ankle eversion on the affected side was significantly slower in the CAI group than the control group, due to significantly slower motor time for the PL. Changes in motor time for the affected PL in participants with CAI may be attributed to a combination of factors associated with local tissue changes. PMID:22177674

Kavanagh, Justin J; Bisset, Leanne M; Tsao, Henry

2012-02-01

169

Some changes in pond chemistry and photosynthetic activity following treatment with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent review by HURLBERT (1975) on secondary effects of aquatic pesticides clearly establishes that enhanced photosynthetic activity by algae in ponds is a consequence of pesticide treatment. In our work on the effects of treatment of standing ponds with Abate and chlorpyrifos (BUTCHER 1975; BUTCHER et al. 1975) we have observed in many experiments, post treatment development of green

J. E. Butcher; M. G. Boyer; C. D. Fowle

1977-01-01

170

Time to Treatment in Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether time to treatment (TTT) has an effect on overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether patient or treatment factors are associated with TTT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 237 consecutive patients with Stage III NSCLC treated at University of Michigan Hospital (UM) or the Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VA). Patients were treated with either palliative or definitive radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone (n = 106) or either sequential (n = 69) or concurrent chemoradiation (n = 62). The primary endpoint was OS. Results: Median follow-up was 69 months, and median TTT was 57 days. On univariate analysis, the risk of death did not increase significantly with longer TTT (p = 0.093). However, subset analysis showed that there was a higher risk of death with longer TTT in patients who survived {>=} 5 years (p = 0.029). Younger age (p = 0.027), male sex (p = 0.013), lower Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) (p = 0.002), and treatment at the VA (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with longer TTT. However, on multivariate analysis, only lower KPS remained significantly associated with longer TTT (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Time to treatment is significantly associated with OS in patients with Stage III NSCLC who lived longer than 5 years, although it is not a significant factor in Stage III patients as a whole. Lower KPS is associated with longer TTT.

Wang Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Correa, Candace R.; Hayman, James A.; Zhao Lujun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cease, Kemp; Brenner, Dean; Arenberg, Doug; Curtis, Jeffery; Kalemkerian, Gregory P. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

2009-07-01

171

Time trends of surgical treatment and the prognosis for Japanese patients with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The incidence of gastric cancer is much higher in Japan than in other countries even though diagnostics and treatments of such patients have improved. The objective of this study was to present an overview of the past, present and future of surgical treatment for our patients with gastric cancer. We analysed data on 2152 Japanese men and women with gastric cancer who underwent surgical resection from 1965 to 1995 at Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan, based on a univariate and the multivariate analysis. We focused on time trends of surgical treatment and the postoperative outcome. Over the years, there have been favourable changes in the numbers of patients with early gastric cancer. In all cases of gastric cancer, the rate of 18% in the first six year period (group 1) was 57% in the last 5 year period (group 6). Size of the tumour was smaller, well-differentiated tumour tissue was more common, and lymphatic involvement was less frequent. Lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination all decreased. Extensive lymph node dissection was more frequently done and the rate of curative resection (curability A and B) increased. With increases in identifying the early stage of cancer and better perioperative care, mortality rates 30 days after the surgery greatly decreased. Multivariate analysis revealed that the 10 factors of depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymph node dissection, tumour size, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, lesion in the whole stomach and lesion in the middle stomach were independent factors for determining the prognosis. Detection of the tumour in an early stage, standardized surgical treatment, including routine lymph node dissection, close follow-up schedules and better perioperative management are expected to increase survival time for patients with this malignancy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10993643

Maehara, Y; Kakeji, Y; Oda, S; Takahashi, I; Akazawa, K; Sugimachi, K

2000-01-01

172

Tumor Growth Rate Determines the Timing of Optimal Chronomodulated Treatment Schedules  

E-print Network

Tumor Growth Rate Determines the Timing of Optimal Chronomodulated Treatment Schedules Samuel the best timing of treatments. However, the influence of variations in tumor kinetics has not been kinetics of the tumor. Then, we developed a theoretical analysis of treatment outcome (TATO) to relate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Increasing chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with longer survival time.  

PubMed

Donor chimerism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is commonly used to predict overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Because chimerism is observed at 1 or more times after allo-SCT and not at baseline, if chimerism is in fact associated with OS or DFS, then the occurrence of either disease progression or death informatively censors (terminates) the observed chimerism process. This violates the assumptions underlying standard statistical regression methods for survival analysis, which may lead to biased conclusions. To assess the association between the longitudinal post-allo-SCT donor chimerism process and OS or DFS, we analyzed data from 195 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 157) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 38) who achieved complete remission after allo-SCT following a reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen of fludarabine/intravenous busulfan. Median follow-up was 31 months (range, 1.1 to 105 months). Fitted joint longitudinal-survival time models showed that a binary indicator of complete (100%) donor chimerism and increasing percent of donor T cells were significantly associated with longer OS, whereas decreasing percent of donor T cells was highly significantly associated with shorter OS. Our analyses illustrate the usefulness of modeling repeated post-allo-SCT chimerism measurements as individual longitudinal processes jointly with OS and DFS to estimate their relationships. PMID:24727332

Tang, Xiaowen; Alatrash, Gheath; Ning, Jing; Jakher, Haroon; Stafford, Patricia; Zope, Madhushree; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Jones, Roy B; Champlin, Richard E; Thall, Peter F; Andersson, Borje S

2014-08-01

174

Fivefold Confinement Time Increase in MST using Inductive Poloidal Current Drive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current profile control is employed in the MST reversed field pinch to reduce the magnetic fluctuation amplitude. Global energy confinement is observed to improve by as much as five times. The dominant transport mechanism in the RFP is magnetic flutter transport. Large amplitude magnetic fluctuations arise due to resistive tearing instabilities and lead to a stochastic magnetic field topology; parallel particle and heat transport along the stochastic field result in rapid radial losses. On MST our strategy for improving confinement is to reduce or eliminate the free energy source for the tearing modes, i.e. the gradient in the parallel current density. The current profile is flattened by application of an inductive poloidal electric field. This method of current profile control, although transient, demonstrates the expected reduction in fluctuation amplitude (as much as 40%), and improvement in global confinement; a MST record low fluctuation amplitude and record high electron temperature (600 eV) were observed simultaneously during current drive experiments. The energy confinement time improves by as much as five times with application of the poloidal current drive pulse. Plasma beta increases by as much as 50% and the Ohmic input power drops by a factor of three or more. Particle confinement improves and plasma impurity contamination is reduced. The results of the transient current drive experiments provide motivation for development of steady-state current drive schemes. Experiments are underway on MST to drive parallel current with electrostatic sources (plasma source electron guns), and experiments using RF current drive in the lower hybrid frequency range are in the development stage. Work supported by USDOE grant No. DE-FG02-96ER54345. In collaboration with J.S. Sarff, S.C. Prager, N.E. Lanier, and the MST Group.

Stoneking, Matthew R.

1996-11-01

175

Robustness and increased time resolution of JET Advanced Predictor of Disruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of disruptions in JET is well-known not only with the carbon fiber composite (CFC) wall, but also with the metallic ITER-like wall (ILW). A disruption predictor, called APODIS, was developed and implemented for the JET real-time data network. This predictor uses seven plasma quantities (plasma current, mode lock amplitude, plasma internal inductance, plasma density, stored diamagnetic energy time derivative, radiated power and total input power) and it has been working during the ILW campaigns in JET. It has reached good results in terms of success rate, false alarm rate and prediction anticipation time. However, it is important to note that any signal could fail during any discharge. If an incorrect signal is used by APODIS, this can be an issue for the predictions. Therefore, the first purpose of this article is to determine the robustness of APODIS. Robustness is the predictor reliability when a signal fails. To determine the robustness, anomalous signals have been simulated and the quality of the APODIS predictions has been estimated. The results show that some signals, such as the mode lock and the plasma inductance, are essential for APODIS to provide a reasonable success rate. Under the failure of other signals, APODIS performance slightly decreases but remains acceptable. On the other hand, during the ILW campaigns, APODIS has missed some disruptions due to a lack of temporal resolution in the prediction. Owing to this reason, a second analysis has been carried out in this paper. The effect of increasing the prediction temporal resolution has been analyzed. The plasma signals are digitized at the same sampling frequency (1 ksample s?1) but a sliding window mechanism has been implemented to modify the prediction period from 32 to 1 ms.

Moreno, R.; Vega, J.; Murari, A.; Dormido-Canto, S.; López, J. M.; Ramírez, J. M.; EFDA Contributors, JET

2014-11-01

176

Increased connective tissue attachment to silicone implants by a water vapor plasma treatment.  

PubMed

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most common type of silicone polymer for the fabrication of implantable medical devices. Because of its inherent hydrophobic nature, the PDMS surface does not readily promote cellular adhesion, which leads to diverse clinical issues. Previously, we reported a simple water vapor plasma treatment of PDMS surfaces that resulted in stable long-term wettability and excellent in vitro cell compatibility. In this work, we report investigation of the in vivo local responses to PDMS implants treated by water vapor plasma using a subcutaneous rat model. The local tissue responses were assessed after 2 and 4 weeks of implantation by means of macroscopic and histomorphometric analysis. After 2 weeks of implantation, the plasma-treated implants elicited the formation of fibrous tissue capsules that were significantly thinner, more adherent, and vascularized than the control counterparts. The improved cell adhesion was correlated with an increased amount of cells attached to the implant surface after retrieval. There was no difference in the inflammatory response between untreated and treated samples. This study provides a rational approach to optimize the long-term performance of silicone implants, which is likely to have a significant impact in clinical applications demanding enhanced tissue integration of the implants. PMID:22767530

Jensen, C; Gurevich, L; Patriciu, A; Struijk, J J; Zachar, V; Pennisi, C P

2012-12-01

177

DPP-4 inhibitor des-F-sitagliptin treatment increased insulin exocytosis from db/db mice {beta} cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Anti-diabetic new drug, DPP-4 inhibitor, can affect the insulin exocytosis. {yields} DPP-4 inhibitor treatment altered syntaxin 1 expression. {yields} Treatment of db/db mice with DPP-4 inhibitor increased insulin release. -- Abstract: Incretin promotes insulin secretion acutely. Recently, orally-administered DPP-4 inhibitors represent a new class of anti-hyperglycemic agents. Indeed, inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4), sitagliptin, has just begun to be widely used as therapeutics for type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of sitagliptin-treatment on insulin exocytosis from single {beta}-cells are yet unknown. We therefore investigated how sitagliptin-treatment in db/db mice affects insulin exocytosis by treating db/db mice with des-F-sitagliptin for 2 weeks. Perfusion studies showed that 2 weeks-sitagliptin treatment potentiated insulin secretion. We then analyzed insulin granule motion and SNARE protein, syntaxin 1, by TIRF imaging system. TIRF imaging of insulin exocytosis showed the increased number of docked insulin granules and increased fusion events from them during first-phase release. In accord with insulin exocytosis data, des-F-sitagliptin-treatment increased the number of syntaxin 1 clusters on the plasma membrane. Thus, our data demonstrated that 2-weeks des-F-sitagliptin-treatment increased the fusion events of insulin granules, probably via increased number of docked insulin granules and that of syntaxin 1 clusters.

Nagamatsu, Shinya, E-mail: shinya@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Nakamichi, Yoko; Aoyagi, Kyota; Nishiwaki, Chiyono [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)

2011-09-09

178

Postimpoundment time course of increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish in boreal reservoirs have been shown to be increased for up to 3 decades after impoundment. However, the time course of increased concentrations is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the evolution of Hg concentrations in fish in the boreal reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada, and its relationship with severity of flooding. We determined total Hg concentrations in three species of fish for up to 35 years after impoundment in 14 lakes and lake basins. Postimpoundment trends depended on fish species and reservoir. In the benthivorous lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), Hg concentrations increased after flooding to between 0.2 and 0.4 microg g(-1) wet weight compared with preimpoundment concentrations between 0.06 and 0.14 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes between 0.03 and 0.06 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in lake whitefish were usually highest within 6 years after lake impoundment and took 10 to 20 years after impoundment to decrease to background concentrations in most reservoirs. Hg concentrations in predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) were highest 2 to 8 years after flooding at 0.7 to 2.6 microg g(-1) compared with preimpoundment concentrations of 0.19 to 0.47 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes of 0.35 to 0.47 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in these predatory species decreased consistently in subsequent years and required 10 to 23 years to return to background levels. Thus, results demonstrate the effect of trophic level on Hg concentrations (biomagnification). Peak Hg concentrations depended on the amount of flooding (relative increase in lake surface area). Asymptotic concentrations of approximately 0.25 microg g(-1) for lake whitefish and 1.6 microg g(-1) for both walleye and northern pike were reached at approximately 100% flooding. Downstream effects were apparent because many reservoirs downstream of other impoundments had higher Hg concentrations in fish than would be expected on the basis of flooding amount. PMID:17728990

Bodaly, R A Drew; Jansen, W A; Majewski, A R; Fudge, R J P; Strange, N E; Derksen, A J; Green, D J

2007-10-01

179

Extended Time on Academic Assignments: Does Increased Time Lead to Improved Performance for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers examined the impact of an extended time accommodation on appropriate classroom behavior and rate of work completion for 33 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants received standard (30 min) or extended (45 min) time to complete seatwork in a within-subject, crossover design study. Appropriate…

Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Massetti, Greta M.; Hart, Katie C.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

2010-01-01

180

SLUDGE BATCH SUPPLEMENTAL SRAT RUNS EFFECTS OF YIELD STRESS AND CYCLE TIME INCREASE  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

Fernandez, A.

2010-08-10

181

Population-Based Analysis of the Impact of Expanding the Time Window for Acute Stroke Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Currently, a major focus on expanding acute ischemic stroke treatment opportunities centers on the development of drugs and devices with longer time windows for use. We sought to determine the time intervals within which stroke patients present to establish whether time window expansion will translate into more treatment. Methods—Data were derived from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus

Jennifer Juhl Majersik; Melinda A. Smith; Darin B. Zahuranec; Brisa N. Sanchez; Lewis B. Morgenstern

2009-01-01

182

Urinary JCV-DNA testing during natalizumab treatment may increase accuracy of PML risk stratification.  

PubMed

The risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious concern. The presence of anti-JC virus antibodies is a risk factor for PML development, but 2.5 % of the patients result falsely-negative, while the prognostic relevance of testing JCV-DNA in biological fluids of treated patients is debated. Aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of testing JCV-DNA, together with anti-JCV antibodies, in biological samples of treated patients as a tool for PML risk stratification. 126 subjects from 5 MS Centers in Italy were included in the study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 patients testing JCV-DNA in blood, peripheral blood cells and urine. We longitudinally assessed the presence of JCV-DNA in a cohort of 33 subjects, one of which developed PML. We could test retrospectively serum samples from another PML case occurred during natalizumab therapy. Anti-JCV antibodies and urinary JCV-DNA were both tested in 73 patients. No changes in JCV-DNA status occurred during natalizumab treatment. The subject who developed PML in the longitudinal cohort had detectable JCV-DNA in urine at all time-points while serum or blood from both PML patients were always negative before the onset of disease and, in one case, after. Four subjects with JCV-DNA in urine and undetectable anti-JCV antibodies were retested for anti-JCV antibodies and three out of four resulted positive. In conclusion, testing JCV-DNA in urine is complementary to testing anti-JCV antibodies in identifying patients at risk of PML. PMID:22585413

Laroni, A; Giacomazzi, C G; Grimaldi, L; Gallo, P; Sormani, M P; Bertolotto, A; McDermott, J L; Gandoglia, I; Martini, I; Vitello, G; Rinaldi, F; Barzon, L; Militello, V; Pizzorno, M; Bandini, F; Capello, E; Palù, G; Uccelli, A; Mancardi, G L; Varnier, O E

2012-09-01

183

Evaluation of management treatments intended to increase lamb recruitment in a bighorn sheep herd.  

PubMed

We administered a suite of treatments to a herd of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) that was experiencing poor lamb recruitment and showing signs of respiratory disease. Despite 3 yr of treatment with various combinations of anthelmentics, antibiotics, vaccines, and hyperimmune serum products, recruitment was not improved. PMID:22740546

Sirochman, Michael A; Woodruff, Kimberly J; Grigg, Jamin L; Walsh, Daniel P; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L

2012-07-01

184

Increased kidney size and glomerular filtration rate in untreated juvenile diabetes: Normalization by insulin-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and roentgenographic kidney size were measured in six newly diagnosed male diabetics with a mean age of 25 years. Glomerular filtration rate was elevated before treatment to the same extent as found previously. A significant fall in both kidney size and glomerular filtration rate was found after treatment with insulin for 3

C. E. Mogensen; M. J. F. Andersen

1975-01-01

185

Irritability Rather Than Depression During Interferon Treatment Is Linked to Increased Tryptophan Catabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Treatment with recombinant interferon is associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. We investigated the relation between catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan, being rate-limiting of peripheral and cerebral serotonin formation, and psychiatric symptoms in patients undergoing combination treatment with interferon- and ribavirin. Patients and Methods: Eighteen patients with viral hepatitis C who received interferon were included. A

SASCHA RUSSO; IDO P. KEMA; ELIZABETH B. HAAGSMA; JIM C. BOON; PAX H. B. WILLEMSE; JOHAN A. DEN BOER; ELISABETH G. E. DE VRIES

2005-01-01

186

Increased Physical Activity Not Decreased Energy Intake Is Associated with Inpatient Medical Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescent Females  

PubMed Central

There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11–19 years (14.3±1.8 years), with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall) and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire). Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability. PMID:23637854

Higgins, Janine; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul

2013-01-01

187

Increases in plasma lutein through supplementation are correlated with increases in physical activity and reductions in sedentary time in older adults.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m²; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = -0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term. PMID:24594505

Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D

2014-01-01

188

Longer treatment times with self-ligated orthodontic brackets.  

PubMed

Data sourcesThe Medline, Cochrane Library, Biomed Central, BBO including LILACS, Ind Med, Sceilo, Clinical trials.gov, Conference paper Index, Digital Dissertations, German National Library of Medicine (ZB MED), Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, OpenSIGLE and Scirus databases were searched.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in patients having fixed-appliance orthodontic treatments were considered.Data extraction and synthesisStudy assessment data extraction and risk of bias assessment was carried out independently by two reviewers. Overall quality of evidence was based on the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled.ResultsTwenty five trials (1321 patients) were included. The majority (24) compared self-ligated (SL) and conventional brackets (CL). No trials primarily investigated the effect of bracket material and no indirect comparison was possible. Two trials assessed the bracket slot size but found no consistent difference between 0.022'' and 0.018'' brackets. Four studies contributed to a meta-analysis that showed overall duration of the orthodontic treatment be significantly longer in the SL group by 2.01 months (95%CI; 0.45 to 3.57).ConclusionsBased on existing evidence, no clinical recommendation can be made regarding the bracket material or different ligation modules. For Sl brackets, no conclusive benefits could be proven, while their use was associated with longer treatment durations. PMID:25343400

O'Brien, Kevin

2014-09-01

189

Parasite infection and sand coarseness increase sand crab (Emerita analoga) burrowing time.  

PubMed

Parasites with indirect life cycles require trophic transmission from intermediate hosts to definitive (vertebrate) hosts. Transmission may be facilitated if parasite infection alters the behavior of intermediate hosts such that they are more vulnerable to predation. Vulnerability to predation may also be influenced by abiotic factors; however, rarely are the effects of parasites and abiotic factors examined simultaneously. The swash zone of sandy beaches is a particularly harsh environment. Sand crabs (Emerita analoga) burrow rapidly in the swash zone to avoid predators and dislodgment. We examined prevalence and abundance of the acanthocephalan parasite Profilicollis altmani in sand crabs, and investigated the synergistic effects of sand grain size (an important abiotic factor), parasite infection, body size and reproductive condition on burrowing speed in females, from three California sites. More heavily parasitized crabs burrowed more slowly, making them potentially more vulnerable to predation by marine bird definitive hosts. Ovigerous females harbored more parasites than non-ovigerous females, but burrowed more quickly. All crabs burrowed slowest in the coarsest sand, and burrowing times increased with repeated testing, suggesting that it is energetically costly. Abiotic and biotic factors influence burrowing, and behavioral variation across sites may reflect the response to natural variation in these factors. PMID:21959036

Kolluru, Gita R; Green, Zachary S; Vredevoe, Larisa K; Kuzma, Matthew R; Ramadan, Sera N; Zosky, Marc R

2011-11-01

190

Retrospective study of threshold time for the conventional treatment of branch retinal artery occlusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the medical backgrounds of patients and the treatment periods from the onset of branch retinal artery occlusion to obtaining improved final visual acuity. Methods This was a retrospective case series study. A total of 68 consecutive patients (69 eyes) with branch retinal artery occlusion who visited Tokyo Medical University Hospital from 2007 to 2012 were included in this study. All patients underwent ophthalmic examinations and visual acuity tests. We reviewed their medical records for systemic conditions, as well as the periods from onset of symptoms to treatment. Participants were categorized into 2 groups: group A (n=36), which received any treatment within 24 hours from onset, and group B (n=33), which visited our hospital after 24 hours from onset. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) changes from the first to final visit and the relationships between systemic condition and visiting time to BCVA were assessed. Results At the first visit, 59% of the patients had BCVA over 20/40; the ratio was increased to 74% at the final visit. BCVA improved more than 2 lines for 35% of the patients and was unchanged for 57% of those receiving conventional treatment. BCVA over 20/40 was significantly lower in hyperlipidemia patients. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and significant carotid stenosis were not correlated. The mean BCVA at baseline (0.91±1.03) significantly recovered to 0.35±0.91 after treatment in group A (P<0.001, Student’s t-test). The mean BCVA at baseline (0.30±0.64) was 0.25±0.61 at the final visit in group B (no significant change). Conclusion Conventional treatment within 24 hours from onset was acceptable for branch retinal artery occlusion.

Muramatsu, Daisuke; Minezaki, Teruumi; Tsubota, Kinya; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Goto, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

191

Hand Hygiene and Treatment Table Sanitizing in Chiropractic Teaching Institutions: Results of an Education Intervention to Increase Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to test an educational intervention designed to increase hand and treatment table sanitizing on 3 chiropractic college campuses using a theory-based intervention. The second purpose is to see if an increase in observed hand hygiene would be noted as a result of the intervention.

Marion W. Evans Jr.; Michael Ramcharan; Harrison Ndetan; Rod Floyd; Gary Globe; Mark Pfefer; James Brantingham

2009-01-01

192

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in treatment of malaria in Western Kenya: Increasing resistance and underdosing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1993 and 1999, we monitored the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 1,175 children aged <24 months receiving 2,789 treatments for falciparum malaria in western Kenya using a widely deployed age-based dose regimen: infants, 125 plus 6.25 mg (sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine); children aged 12 to 23 months; 250 plus 12.5 mg. Cumulative treatment failure by day 7, defined as early clinical

Dianne J. Terlouw; Bernard L. Nahlen; Jeanne M. Courval; Simon K. Kariuki; Oren S. Rosenberg; Aggrey J. Oloo; Margarette S. Kolczak; William A. Hawley; Altaf A. Lal; Kuile ter F. O

2003-01-01

193

Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress of the first year of a three-year research program. This program is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

2001-01-22

194

Stated Briefly: What Does the Research Say about Increased Learning Time and Student Outcomes? REL 2015-061  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REL Appalachia conducted a systematic review of the research evidence on the effects of increased learning time. After screening more than 7,000 studies, REL Appalachia identified 30 that met the most rigorous standards for research. A review of those 30 studies found that increased learning time does not always produce positive results. However,…

Kidron, Yael; Lindsay, Jim

2014-01-01

195

Short-term steroid treatment increases ? GABAA receptor subunit expression in rat CA1 hippocampus: Pharmacological and behavioral effects  

PubMed Central

In this study, 48 h administration of 3?-OH-5?-pregnan-20-one (3?,5?-THP) or 17?-estradiol (E2)+progesterone (P) to female rats increased expression of the ? subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABAR) in CA1 hippocampus. Coexpression of ?4 and ? subunits was suggested by an increased response of isolated pyramidal cells to the GABA agonist 4,5,6,7- tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), following 48 h steroid treatment, and nearly complete blockade by 300 ?M lanthanum (La3+). Because ?4?? GABAR are extrasynaptic, we also recorded pharmacologically isolated GABAergic holding current from CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells in the slice. The La3+-sensitive THIP current, representative of current gated by ?4?? GABAR, was measurable only following 48 h steroid treatment. In contrast, the bicuculline-sensitive current was not altered by steroid treatment, assessed with or without 200 nM gabazine to block synaptic current. However, 48 h steroid treatment resulted in a tonic current insensitive to the benzodiazepine agonists lorazepam (10 ?M) and zolpidem (100 nM). These results suggest that 48 h steroid treatment increases expression of ?4?? GABAR which replace the ambient receptor population. Increased anxiolytic effects of THIP were also observed following 48 h steroid treatment. The findings from the present study may be relevant for alterations in mood and benzodiazepine sensitivity reported across the menstrual cycle. PMID:15950994

Shen, Hui; Gong, Qi Hua; Yuan, Maoli; Smith, Sheryl S.

2010-01-01

196

The solids retention time—a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropollutants as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) or pharmaceuticals are of increased interest in water pollution control. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are relevant point sources for residues of these compounds in the aquatic environment. The solids retention time (SRT) is one important parameter for the design of WWTPs, relating to growth rate of microorganisms and to effluent concentrations. If a

M. Clara; N. Kreuzinger; B. Strenn; O. Gans; H. Kroiss

2005-01-01

197

Time intervals from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to treatment and factors contributing to delay.  

PubMed

In the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), aneurysm treatment as early as feasible is mandatory to minimize the risk of a rebleed and may thus improve outcome. We assessed the different time intervals from the first symptoms of aSAH to start of aneurysm treatment in an effort to identify which factors contribute mostly to a delay in time to treatment. In 278 aSAH patients, time intervals between the different steps from initial hemorrhage to aneurysm treatment were retrospectively reviewed, and delaying factors were determined. Half of the patients presented to a hospital within 115 min (IQR 60-431). The median (IQR) interval from hemorrhage to diagnosis was 169 min (96-513), and from diagnosis to treatment 1,057 min (416-1,428), or 17.6 h. Aneurysm treatment started within 24 h in 76 % of treated patients. Independent factors predicting delay to treatment were primary presentation at a referring hospital and admission to the treatment center later in the day. Delay in treatment was not independently related to poor outcome. The interval to aneurysm treatment might be improved upon by immediate and direct transport to the treatment center combined with optimization of in-hospital logistics, following the 'time-is-brain' concept so successfully adopted in the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:24366653

R Germans, Menno; Hoogmoed, Jantien; van Straaten, H A Stéphanie; Coert, Bert A; Peter Vandertop, W; Verbaan, Dagmar

2014-03-01

198

Niaspan treatment increases tumor necrosis factor-?-converting enzyme and promotes arteriogenesis after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that Niaspan (a prolonged release formulation of niacin) increases tumor necrosis factor-?-converting enzyme (TACE) expression and Notch signaling activity and promotes arteriogenesis after stroke. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and were treated with or without Niaspan. Niaspan significantly elevated local cerebral blood flow, and increased arteriogenesis as indicated by increased arterial diameter and

Jieli Chen; Xu Cui; Alex Zacharek; Guang Liang Ding; Amjad Shehadah; Quan Jiang; Mei Lu; Michael Chopp; J Chen

2009-01-01

199

Prostate and Patient Intrafraction Motion: Impact on Treatment Time-Dependent Planning Margins for Patients With Endorectal Balloon  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate intrafraction prostate and patient motion during different radiation therapy treatments as a function of treatment time; included were prostate patients with an endorectal balloon (ERB). Margins accounting for setup uncertainties and intrafraction motion were determined. Methods and Materials: The study included 17 patients undergoing prostate cancer radiation therapy. All patients received 3 fiducial gold markers implanted in the prostate and were then immobilized in the supine position with a knee support and treated with an ERB. Twelve patients with intermediate risk for pelvic lymph node metastases received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 5 patients at low risk received a 4-field box treatment. After setup based on skin marks, patients were imaged with a stereoscopic imaging system. If the marker displacement exceeded a 3-mm tolerance relative to planning computed tomography, patients were shifted and verification images were taken. All patients underwent additional imaging after treatment; IMRT patients also received additional imaging at halftime of treatment. Prostate and bone drifts were evaluated as a function of treatment time for more than 600 fractions, and margins were extracted. Results: Patient motion evaluated by bone match was strongly patient dependent but in general was smallest in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Prostate drifts were less patient dependent, showing an increase with treatment time in the SI and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In the lateral (LAT) direction, the prostate stayed rather stable. Mean treatment times were 5.5 minutes for 4-field box, 10 minutes for 5-field boost IMRT, and 15 minutes or more for 9-field boost and 9-field pelvic IMRT treatments. Margins resulted in 2.2 mm, 3.9 mm, and 4.3 mm for 4-field box; 3.7 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.6 mm for 5-field boost IMRT; 2.3 mm, 3.9 mm, and 6.2 mm for 9-field boost IMRT; and 4.2 mm, 5.1 mm, and 6.6 mm for 9-field pelvic IMRT in the LAT, SI, and AP directions, respectively. Conclusion: Intrafraction prostate and patient displacement increased with treatment time, showing different behaviors for the single directions of movement. Repositioning of the patients during long treatments or shorter treatment times will be necessary to further reduce the treatment margin.

Steiner, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.steiner@akhwien.at [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Goldner, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Stock, Markus [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria) [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2013-07-15

200

Developmental timing of first drug treatment and 10-year patterns of drug use  

PubMed Central

To examine the developmental timing of first drug treatment and its associations with 10-year drug use patterns, pooled data (N=1,318) from 4 longitudinal studies conducted in California was used to compare individuals first treated during young adulthood (26%) to those first treated at an older age. Treatment timing was associated with particular participant characteristics and experiences. Matched data showed that most people in both age groups exhibited a low level of drug use after first treatment, albeit fewer who were first treated during young adulthood maintained a low drug use level over time. Receipt of more drug treatment over ten years was associated with maintenance of low drug use levels among those first treated as young adults, but not among those first treated as older adults. Developmental timing of first drug treatment interacts with subsequent treatment experiences in ways that impact the course of drug use. PMID:22959075

Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Grella, Christine; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Hser, Yih-Ing

2012-01-01

201

Continuous treatment with nicotine increases diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) and its mRNA in the mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of chronic treatment with nicotine on DBI and its mRNA in mouse cerebral cortex were examined. Continuous treatment of mice with nicotine significantly increased DBI content and its mRNA expression, which was completely abolished by simultaneous administration of mecamylamine (1 mg\\/kg, i.p.). These results indicate that chronic functional interaction between nicotine and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors has a critical role

Masashi Katsura; Seitaro Ohkuma; Jun Xu; Yasushi Hibino; Atsushi Tsujimura; Kinya Kuriyama

1998-01-01

202

Increased Learning Time and Targeted Instruction Improve Academic Skills for At-Risk ESL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with English as a Second Language (ESL) face two critical challenges: they need to develop English literacy while, at the same time, acquire content knowledge across subject areas. These students need a targeted ESL curriculum from elementary to high school that will allow an extended learning time and opportunities to practice as they…

Nelson, April, Comp.

2005-01-01

203

Changing to Daylight Saving Time Cuts Into Sleep and Increases Workplace Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the differential influence of time changes associated with Daylight Saving Time on sleep quantity and associated workplace injuries. In Study 1, the authors used a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health database of mining injuries for the years 1983–2006, and they found that in comparison with other days, on Mondays directly following the switch to Daylight

Christopher M. Barnes; David T. Wagner

2009-01-01

204

The Social Marketing Approach: A Way to Increase Reporting and Treatment of Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…

Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya

2004-01-01

205

Increased risk of early menopausal transition and natural menopause after poor response at first IVF treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine whether women who had a low number of retrieved oocytes at their first IVF attempt reach the menopausal transition and\\/or the natural menopause earlier than women of similar ages with a high number of retrieved oocytes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among women in The Netherlands who received IVF treatment between 1983

Evelien J. de Boer; Isolde den Tonkelaar; Egbert R. te Velde; Curt W. Burger; Flora E. van Leeuwen

206

Study Finds Increased Lung Cancer Risk Following Treatment for Hodgkin's Disease  

Cancer.gov

People with Hodgkin's disease (HD) who receive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of the two treatments, are at higher risk of developing lung cancer, according to a report in the Feb. 6, 2002, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

207

Increasing Treatment Adherence in the Correctional Setting: Current Efforts to Simplify Protease Inhibitor Dosing Regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correctional system presents unique challenges that can interfere with the HIV-infected inmate's ability to adhere to antiretroviral treatment. One mechanism to facilitate adherence is twice-daily dosing. This article compares safety and efficacy data on five currently available protease inhibitors - amprenavir, indinavir, nelfmavir, saquinavir soft gel capsules, and ritonavir - and examines their adaptability to twice-daily dosing. Movements toward

Calvin J. Cohen; Peter J. Piliero; Orlando H. Pile

2000-01-01

208

Changes in plasma prolactin during SSRI treatment: evidence for a delayed increase in 5HT neurotransmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), paroxetine, on basal plasma prolactin concentrations in 11 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested before paroxetine, and after 1 and 3 weeks of treatment (20 mg daily). On each test occasion prolactin levels were sampled before and following administration of a placebo capsule, for a total of 4 h. After

P. J. Cowen; P. A. Sargent

1997-01-01

209

High-temperature strength of prealloyed-powder products increased by heat/pressure treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat treatment process involves heating products to a temperature above the solidus, and subsequently applying pressure at a temperature below the solidus. Technique can be modified to one step process involving simultaneous application if both high pressure and heat. Process is not limited to cobalt-base alloys.

Ashbrook, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.

1971-01-01

210

Increasing Teacher Treatment Integrity through Performance Feedback Provided by School Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When implementing behavioral interventions in educational settings, some implementers need support to maintain high levels of treatment integrity. Performance feedback has a large body of research supporting it as a strategy for improving teachers' implementation of classroom interventions. However, in most prior studies, performance feedback has…

Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

211

Delayed Increase in Infarct Volume After Cerebral Ischemia Correlations with Thrombolytic Treatment and Clinical Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Growing experimental evidence indicates that the development of cerebral ischemic damage is slower than previously believed. The aims of this work were (1) to study the evolution of CT hypoattenuation between 24 to 36 hours and 7 days in ischemic stroke patients; (2) to evaluate whether thrombolytic treatment given within 6 hours of stroke affects delayed infarction evolution;

Patrizia Pantano; Francesca Caramia; Luigi Bozzao; Christiane Dieler; Rudiger von Kummer

212

Does Global Warming Increase Establishment Rates of Invasive Alien Species? A Centurial Time Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the relationship between global warming and establishment rate of invasive alien species, especially for poikilothermic invaders such as insects. Methodology/Principal Findings We present data that demonstrate a significant positive relationship between the change in average annual surface air temperature and the establishment rate of invasive alien insects in mainland China during 1900–2005. This relationship was modeled by regression analysis, and indicated that a 1°C increase in average annual surface temperature in mainland China was associated with an increase in the establishment rate of invasive alien insects of about 0.5 species year?1. The relationship between rising surface air temperature and increasing establishment rate remained significant even after accounting for increases in international trade during the period 1950–2005. Moreover, similar relationships were detected using additional data from the United Kingdom and the contiguous United States. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the perceived increase in establishments of invasive alien insects can be explained only in part by an increase in introduction rate or propagule pressure. Besides increasing propagule pressure, global warming is another driver that could favor worldwide bioinvasions. Our study highlights the need to consider global warming when designing strategies and policies to deal with bioinvasions. PMID:21931837

Huang, Dingcheng; Haack, Robert A.; Zhang, Runzhi

2011-01-01

213

Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

1976-01-01

214

The Timing of Antidepressant Effects: A Comparison of Diverse Pharmacological and Somatic Treatments  

PubMed Central

Currently available antidepressants used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) unfortunately often take weeks to months to achieve their full effects, commonly resulting in considerable morbidity and increased risk for suicidal behavior. Our lack of understanding of the precise cellular underpinnings of this illness and of the mechanism of action of existing effective pharmacological treatments is a large part of the reason that therapies with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action (ROAA) have not been developed. Other issues that need to be addressed include heterogeneous clinical concepts and statistical models to measure rapid antidepressant effects. This review describes the timing of onset of antidepressant effects for various therapies used to treat MDD. While several agents produce earlier improvement of depressive symptoms (defined as occurring within one week), the response rate associated with such agents can be quite variable. These agents include both currently available antidepressants as well as other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Considerably fewer treatments are associated with ROAA, defined as occurring within several hours or one day. Treatment strategies for MDD whose sustained antidepressant effects manifest within hours or even a few days would have an enormous impact on public health.

Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Baumann, Jacqueline; Wheeler-Castillo, Cristina; Latov, David; Henter, Ioline D.; Salvadore, Giacomo; Zarate, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

215

Monocomponent endoglucanase treatment increases the reactivity of softwood sulphite dissolving pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Softwood dissolving pulp was treated with a commercial monocomponent fungal endocellulase. The reactivity of the pulp for the production of rayon and cellulose derivatives as determined with the Fock method increased drastically with relatively low amounts of enzyme, and the yield loss and decrease of viscosity were moderate. The mechanism behind the increased reactivity is discussed.

Gunnar Henriksson; Maria Christiernin; Roland Agnemo

2005-01-01

216

Doctorate Awards Increase in S&E Overall, but Computer Science Declines for First Time  

NSF Publications Database

... Time (November 7, 1997) This report highlights data on persons who earned research doctorates in S/E ... Earned Doctorates collected this data from all persons in U.S. research universities as they ...

217

Making a case for training in ethnic and cultural diversity in increasing treatment efficacy.  

PubMed

This article strives to make a case for the inclusion of ethnic and cultural diversity in professional psychology training, with specific reference to the impact of this training on treatment outcome. The empirical literature examining both the direct and indirect linkages between ethnic and cross-cultural training and outcome are reviewed. Limitations of this research are identified, and recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:7751480

Yutrzenka, B A

1995-04-01

218

HIV treatment produces economic returns through increased work and education, and warrants continued US support.  

PubMed

Federal expenditures are under scrutiny in the United States, and the merits of continuing and expanding the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to support access to antiretroviral therapy have become a topic of debate. A growing body of research on the economic benefits of treatment with antiretroviral therapy has important implications for these discussions. For example, research conducted since the inception of PEPFAR shows that HIV-infected adults who receive antiretroviral therapy often begin or resume productive work, and that children living in households with infected adults who are on treatment are more likely to attend school than those in households with untreated adults. These benefits should be considered when weighing the overall benefits of providing antiretroviral therapy against its costs, particularly in the context of discussions about the future of PEPFAR. A modest case can also be made in favor of having private companies in HIV-affected countries provide antiretroviral therapy to their employees and dependents, thus sharing some of the burden of funding HIV treatment. PMID:22778336

Thirumurthy, Harsha; Galárraga, Omar; Larson, Bruce; Rosen, Sydney

2012-07-01

219

Exercise as a Time-conditioning Effector in Chronic Disease: a Complementary Treatment Strategy  

PubMed Central

Exercise has been widely believed to be a preventive and therapeutic aid in the treatment of various pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A common problem associated with such pathologies is cachexia, characterized by progressive weight loss and depletion of lean and fat body mass, and is linked to poor prognosis. As this syndrome comprises changes in many physiological systems, it is tempting to assume that the modulation of the psychoneuroimmunoendocrine axis could attenuate or even prevent cachexia progression in cancer patients. Cancer cachexia is characterized by a disruption in the rhythmic secretion of melatonin, an important time-conditioning effector. This hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, transmits circadian and seasonal information to all organs and cells of the body, synchronizing the organism with the photoperiod. Considering that exercise modulates the immune response through at least two different mechanisms—metabolic and neuroendocrine—we propose that the adoption of a regular exercise program as a complementary strategy in the treatment of cancer patients, with the exercise bouts regularly performed at the same time of the day, will ameliorate cachexia symptoms and increase survival and quality of life. PMID:15257327

2004-01-01

220

Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.  

PubMed

The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher increases for those AA showing a high resistance to degradation in the untreated meal were also observed. The total supply of metabolisable AA was increased by 3.87 times for sulphur-containing AA, whereas that of lysine was increased by 2.5 times, mainly because of lysine losses with heat treatments. These treatments and especially that with malic acid would be useful to increase the protein value of these meals but their combined use with lysine-rich protein concentrates would improve the metabolisable protein profile. PMID:23032153

Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

2013-02-01

221

Temperature, plant species and residence time effects on nitrogen removal in model treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Total nitrogen (TN) removal in treatment wetlands (TWs) is challenging due to nitrogen cycle complexity and the variation of influent nitrogen species. Plant species, season, temperature and hydraulic loading most likely influence root zone oxygenation and appurtenant nitrogen removal, especially for ammonium-rich wastewater. Nitrogen data were collected from two experiments utilizing batch-loaded (3-, 6-, 9- and 20-day residence times), sub-surface TWs monitored for at least one year during which temperature was varied between 4 and 24 °C. Synthetic wastewater containing 17 mg/l N as NH4 and 27 mg/l amino-N, 450 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 13 mg/l SO4-S was applied to four replicates of Carex utriculata, Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha latifolia and unplanted controls. Plant presence and species had a greater effect on TN removal than temperature or residence time. Planted columns achieved approximately twice the nitrogen removal of unplanted controls (40-95% versus 20-50% removal) regardless of season and temperature. TWs planted with Carex outperformed both Typha and Schoenoplectus and demonstrated less temperature dependency. TN removal with Carex was excellent at all temperatures and residence times; Schoenoplectus and Typha TN removal improved at longer residence times. Reductions in TN were not accompanied by increases in NO3, which was consistently below 1 mg/l N. PMID:24334880

Allen, C R; Stein, O R; Hook, P B; Burr, M D; Parker, A E; Hafla, E C

2013-01-01

222

Serrated and Adenomatous Polyp Detection Increases with Longer Withdrawal Time: Results from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Detection and removal of adenomas and clinically significant serrated polyps is critical to the effectiveness of colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer. While longer withdrawal time has been found to increase polyp detection, this association, and the use of withdrawal time as a quality indicator, remains controversial. Few studies have reported on withdrawal time and serrated polyp detection. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry, we examined how an endoscopist’s withdrawal time in normal colonoscopies affects adenoma and serrated polyp detection. Methods We analyzed 7996 colonoscopies performed in 7972 patients between 2009 and 2011 by 42 endoscopists at 14 hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, and community practices. Clinically significant serrated polyps (CSSPs) were defined as sessile serrated polyps and hyperplastic polyps proximal to the sigmoid. Adenoma and CSSP detection rates were calculated based on median endoscopist withdrawal time in normal exams. Regression models were used to estimate the association of increased normal withdrawal time and polyp, adenoma, and CSSP detection. Results Polyp and adenoma detection rates were highest among endoscopists with 9 minute median normal withdrawal time, while detection of CSSPs reached its highest levels at 8 to 9 minutes. Incident rate ratios for adenoma and CSSP detection increased with each minute of normal withdrawal time above 6 minutes, with maximum benefit at 9 minutes for adenomas (1.50, 95% CI (1.21,1.85)) and CSSPs (1.77, 95% CI (1.15, 2.72)). When modeling was used to set the minimum withdrawal time at 9 minutes, we predicted that adenomas and CSSPs would be detected in 302 (3.8%) and 191 (2.4%) more patients. The increase in detection was most striking for the CSSPs, with nearly a 30% relative increase. Conclusions A withdrawal time of 9 minutes resulted in a statistically significant increase in adenoma and serrated polyp detection. Colonoscopy quality may improve with a median normal withdrawal time benchmark of 9 minutes. PMID:24394752

Robinson, Christina M.; Anderson, Joseph; Weiss, Julia E.; Goodrich, Martha; Onega, Tracy L.; Amos, Christopher I.; Beach, Michael L.

2014-01-01

223

An acute psychosocial stressor increases drinking in non-treatment-seeking alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Although studies suggest that stress is an important reason for relapse in alcoholics, few controlled studies have been conducted\\u000a to examine this assumption. Evidence of stress-potentiated drinking would substantiate this clinical observation and would\\u000a contribute to the development of a model that would be valuable to alcohol treatment research.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The hypothesis was tested that an acute psychosocial stressor, the Trier

Suzanne E. Thomas; Amy K. Bacon; Patrick K. Randall; Kathleen T. Brady; Ronald E. See

224

THE IMPACT OF INCREASING ENROLLMENT ON FACULTY WORKLOAD AND STUDENT SATISFACTION OVER TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed daily records of instructor effort in an established asynchronous online course over a three and one-half year period are analyzed. Student satisfaction data acquired from course evaluation surveys over the same period are also examined. In response to a three-fold increase in enrollment over the period, instructors realized a twelve percent gain in efficiency. Contrary to expectations, a modest

David DiBiase

2004-01-01

225

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06

226

Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed  

PubMed Central

Background In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity. To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. Results The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. Conclusion The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp. PMID:24559121

2014-01-01

227

Increased intratumoral fluorothymidine uptake levels following multikinase inhibitor sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma xenograft model  

PubMed Central

An early identification of the tumor response to sorafenib treatment is indispensable for selecting optimal personalized treatment strategies. However, at present, no reliable predictors are clinically available. 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to assess tumor proliferation, since the FLT uptake level reflects thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) activity. Thus, the present study determined whether FLT was able to evaluate the early tumor response to sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma (RCC; A498) xenograft in comparison with the tumor proliferation marker, Ki-67. Mice bearing A498 tumors were assigned to the control and sorafenib-treated groups and the tumor volume was measured every day. [Methyl-3H(N)]-3?-fluoro-3?-deoxythymidine (3H-FLT) was injected 2 h prior to the sacrifice of the mice on days three and seven following the treatment. 3H-FLT autoradiography (ARG) and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed using adjacent tumor sections. In the visual assessment, the intratumoral 3H-FLT uptake level diffusely increased following the treatment, while no significant changes were observed in Ki-67 IHC. The intratumoral 3H-FLT uptake levels significantly increased by 2.7- and 2.6-fold on days three and seven following the treatment, while the tumor volume and Ki-67 index did not significantly change. Thus, an increased FLT uptake level was demonstrated following the treatment, which may indicate the suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and the compensatory upregulation of TK-1 activity by sorafenib. PMID:24137387

MURAKAMI, MASAHIRO; ZHAO, SONGJI; ZHAO, YAN; YU, WENWEN; FATEMA, CHOWDHURY NUSRAT; NISHIJIMA, KEN-ICHI; YAMASAKI, MASAHIRO; TAKIGUCHI, MITSUYOSHI; TAMAKI, NAGARA; KUGE, YUJI

2013-01-01

228

Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice.  

PubMed

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

Melin, Vanessa E; Johnstone, David W; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Hrubec, Terry C

2014-06-01

229

Emergence of Increased Resistance and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Despite Treatment Adherence, South Africa  

PubMed Central

We investigated the emergence and evolution of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in an HIV co-infected population at a South African gold mine with a well-functioning TB control program. Of 128 patients with drug-resistant TB diagnosed during January 2003–November 2005, a total of 77 had multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, 26 had pre–extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB), and 5 had XDR TB. Genotyping suggested ongoing transmission of drug-resistant TB, and contact tracing among case-patients in the largest cluster demonstrated multiple possible points of contact. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated stepwise evolution of drug resistance, despite stringent treatment adherence. These findings suggested that existing TB control measures were inadequate to control the spread of drug-resistant TB in this HIV co-infected population. Diagnosis delay and inappropriate therapy facilitated disease transmission and drug-resistance. These data call for improved infection control measures, implementation of rapid diagnostics, enhanced active screening strategies, and pharmacokinetic studies to determine optimal dosages and treatment regimens. PMID:20113557

Calver, Alistair D.; Falmer, Alecia A.; Murray, Megan; Strauss, Odelia J.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Hanekom, Madelene; Liversage, Thelma; Masibi, Mothusi; van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Robin M.

2010-01-01

230

Physical exercise increases plasma concentrations of nicotine during treatment with a nicotine patch.  

PubMed Central

The effect of physical exercise on plasma nicotine concentrations was studied in eight healthy subjects treated with a nicotine patch releasing 14 mg 24 h-1. After 11 h of patch application, plasma nicotine concentrations were measured before and after 20 min of moderate bicycle exercise, or 20 min of rest. Mean plasma nicotine concentration increased from 9.8 to 11.0 ng ml-1 (P = 0.015) during physical exercise, and fell non-significantly from 10.5 to 10.2 ng ml-1 during rest. The increase in plasma nicotine concentration during exercise is similar to that observed for transdermal nitroglycerin, and may be related to an exercise-induced increase in blood flow in the patch area. PMID:7654487

Klemsdal, T O; Gjesdal, K; Zahlsen, K

1995-01-01

231

Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism  

SciTech Connect

To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

1989-10-01

232

Time to 12-month remission and treatment failure for generalised and unclassified epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop prognostic models for time to 12-month remission and time to treatment failure after initiating antiepileptic drug monotherapy for generalised and unclassified epilepsy. Methods We analysed data from the Standard and New Antiepileptic Drug (arm B) study, a randomised trial that compared initiating treatment with lamotrigine, topiramate and valproate in patients diagnosed with generalised or unclassified epilepsy. Multivariable regression modelling was used to investigate how clinical factors affect the probability of achieving 12-month remission and treatment failure. Results Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to 12-month remission were having a relative with epilepsy, neurological insult, total number of tonic-clonic seizures before randomisation, seizure type and treatment. Significant factors in the multivariable model for time to treatment failure were treatment history (antiepileptic drug treatment prior to randomisation), EEG result, seizure type and treatment. Conclusions The models described within this paper can be used to identify patients most likely to achieve 12-month remission and most likely to have treatment failure, aiding individual patient risk stratification and the design and analysis of future epilepsy trials. PMID:24292995

Bonnett, Laura J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Smith, David; Williamson, Paula R; Chadwick, David; Marson, Anthony G

2014-01-01

233

Increased manganese superoxide dismutase expression or treatment with a manganese porphyrin potentiates dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is exploited for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Innate and acquired resistance limits treatment efficacy; however, resistance mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, using WEHI7.2 murine thymic lymphoma cells, we found that increasing the resistance to hydrogen peroxide by catalase transfection or selection for hydrogen peroxide resistance caused glucocorticoid resistance. This suggests the possibility that increasing hydrogen peroxide sensitivity could sensitize the cells to glucocorticoids. In other cell types, increasing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) can increase intracellular hydrogen peroxide. The current study demonstrated that increased expression of MnSOD sensitized WEHI7.2 cells to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis and hydrogen peroxide. Treatment of WEHI7.2 cells with the catalytic antioxidant Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP5+), a manganoporphyrin, mimicked the effects of increased MnSOD expression. MnTE-2-PyP5+ also sensitized WEHI7.2 cells to cyclophosphamide and inhibited cell growth; it had no effect on the WEHI7.2 cell response to doxorubicin or vincristine. In primary follicular lymphoma cells, MnTE-2-PyP5+ increased cell death due to dexamethasone. Treatment of H9c2 cardiomyocytes with MnTE-2-PyP5+ inhibited doxorubicin cytotoxicity. The profile of MnTE-2-PyP5+ effects suggests MnTE-2-PyP5+ has potential for use in hematologic malignancies that are treated with glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. PMID:19549914

Jaramillo, Melba C.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Crapo, James D.; Briehl, Margaret M.; Tome, Margaret E.

2009-01-01

234

Delay and déjà vu: timing and repetition increase the power of false evidence.  

PubMed

False images and videos can induce people to believe in and remember events that never happened. Using a novel method, we examined whether the timing of false evidence would influence its effect (Experiment 1) and determined the relationship between timing and repetition (Experiment 2). Subjects completed a hazard perception driving test and were falsely accused of cheating. Some subjects were shown a fake video or photograph of the cheating either after a 9-min delay (Experiment 1) or more than once with or without a delay (Experiment 2). Subjects were more likely to falsely believe that they had cheated and to provide details about how the cheating happened when the false evidence was delayed or repeated-especially when repeated over time-relative to controls. The results show that even a strikingly short delay between an event and when false evidence is disclosed can distort people's beliefs and that repeating false evidence over a brief delay fosters false beliefs more so than without a delay. These findings have theoretical implications for metacognitive models of autobiographical memory and practical implications for police interrogations. PMID:23392652

Wright, Deborah S; Wade, Kimberley A; Watson, Derrick G

2013-08-01

235

A course-based research experience: how benefits change with increased investment in instructional time.  

PubMed

There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant investment of course time is required to enable students to show gains commensurate to a summer research experience. An alumni survey revealed that time spent on a research project is also a significant factor in the value former students assign to the experience one or more years later. We conclude: 1) implementation of a bioinformatics project within the biology curriculum provides a mechanism for successfully engaging large numbers of students in undergraduate research; 2) benefits to students are achievable at a wide variety of academic institutions; and 3) successful implementation of course-based research experiences requires significant investment of instructional time for students to gain full benefit. PMID:24591510

Shaffer, Christopher D; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Bednarski, April E; Dunbar, David; Goodman, Anya L; Reinke, Catherine; Rosenwald, Anne G; Wolyniak, Michael J; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bazinet, Christopher; Beach, Dale L; Bedard, James E J; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John; Burg, Martin; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Clase, Kari; Dejong, Randall J; Diangelo, Justin R; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T; Eisler, Heather; Emerson, Julia A; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T; Hauser, Charles; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Hoopes, Laura L M; Howell, Carina E; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Silver Key, S Catherine; Kleinschmit, Adam; Kokan, Nighat P; Kopp, Olga; Kuleck, Gary; Leatherman, Judith; Lopilato, Jane; Mackinnon, Christy; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Mistry, Hemlata; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul; Paetkau, Don W; Parrish, Susan; Peterson, Celeste N; Preuss, Mary; Reed, Laura K; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Rubin, Michael R; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D; Smith, Mary A; Smith, Sheryl T; Spana, Eric; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Stamm, Joyce; Szauter, Paul; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Wawersik, Matthew; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Mardis, Elaine R; Buhler, Jeremy; Leung, Wilson; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C R

2014-01-01

236

Randomized, Controlled Trial to Evaluate Increased Intensity of Physiotherapy Treatment of Arm Function After Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Many patients have impaired arm function after stroke, for which they receive physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to determine whether increasing the amount of physiotherapy early after stroke improved the recovery of arm function and to compare the effects of this therapy when administered by a qualified therapist or a trained, supervised assistant. The physiotherapy followed

Nadina B. Lincoln; Ruth H. Parry; Catherine D. Vass

237

UCLA study finds survival significantly increased in early breast cancer after treatment with Herceptin and chemotherapy:  

Cancer.gov

Treating women with early stage breast cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and the molecularly targeted drug Herceptin significantly increases survival in patients with a specific genetic mutation that results in very aggressive disease, a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center reported Wednesday.

238

Buffer insertion is an increasingly critical optimization for achieving timing closure, and the number of buffers required  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Buffer insertion is an increasingly critical optimization for achieving timing closure, and the number of buffers required increases significantly with technology migration. It is imperative for an automated buffer insertion algorithm to be able to efficiently optimize tens of thousands of nets. One must

Hu, Jiang

239

Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Transit-Time Optical Stochastic Cooling of Muons A. E. Charman1  

E-print Network

Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Transit-Time Optical Stochastic Cooling of Muons A. E. Charman1-fast stochastic cooling (i.e., on microsecond time-scales) would be desirable in certain appli- cations with relativistic dilation, the short particle lifetimes severely limit the total time available to reduce beam

Wurtele, Jonathan

240

The administration of atomoxetine during alcohol deprivation induces a time-limited increase in alcohol consumption after relapse.  

PubMed

The administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) typically used as antidepressants increases alcohol consumption after an alcohol deprivation period in rats. However, the appearance of this effect after the treatment with selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has not been studied. In the present work we examined the effects of a 15-d treatment with the SNRI atomoxetine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in male rats trained to drink alcohol solutions in a 4-bottle choice test. The treatment with atomoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) during an alcohol deprivation period increased alcohol consumption after relapse. This effect only lasted one week, disappearing thereafter. Treatment with atomoxetine did not cause a behavioral sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating the absence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. This effect is markedly different from that of SSRI antidepressants that produced both long-lasting increases in alcohol consumption and behavioral sensitization. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25025529

Alén, Francisco; Serrano, Antonia; Gorriti, Miguel Ángel; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Orio, Laura; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Antón, María; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

2014-11-01

241

Increased allergen production in turnip ( Brassica rapa) by treatments activating defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Practical applications to enhance the productivity of agriculture by using plants with improved resistance to pathogens are expected to increase in the near future. Defense proteins play an important role in pathogen resistance, and some defense-related proteins are significant cross-reacting allergens. For example, cross-allergies are common among patients allergic to natural rubber latex (NRL), which contains many defense-related proteins.

Anna-Riitta Hänninen; Jari H. Mikkola; Nisse Kalkkinen; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Leea Ylitalo; Timo Reunala; Timo Palosuo

1999-01-01

242

Development of a Multilevel Framework to Increase Use of Targeted Evidence-Based Practices in Addiction Treatment Clinics  

PubMed Central

Implementing specific evidence-based practices (EBPs) across a set of addiction treatment providers have been a persistent challenge. In the Advancing Recovery(AR) demonstration project, single state agencies, the entities that distribute federal funds for substance use disorder prevention and treatment services, worked in partnership with providers to increase the use of EBPs in the treatment of addiction. The project supported two cohorts of six 2-year awards. Field observations from the first year of implementation guided development of a multilevel framework (the Advancing Recovery Framework). Government entities and other payers can use the framework as a guide for implementing evidence-based clinical practices within treatment networks. The Advancing Recover Framework calls for a combination of policy and organizational changes at both the payer (government agency) and provider levels. Using the Advancing Recovery Framework, 11 of the 12 AR payer/provider partnerships increased use of clinical EPBs. This article identifies key payer policy changes applied during different phases of EBP program implementation. The public health benefit of the demonstration project was broader use of medication–assisted therapy and continuing care in addiction treatment services. PMID:24955331

Molfenter, Todd; McCarty, Dennis; Capoccia, Victor; Gustafson, David

2013-01-01

243

Noninvasive corticosterone treatment rapidly increases activity in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).  

PubMed

Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that corticosteroids influence behavioral changes associated with stressful events. Most investigations into this relationship focus on the long-term behavioral effects of corticosterone. Because many behavioral responses to environmental perturbations occur within minutes, we determined what rapid effects corticosterone may have on behavior. With this goal in mind, we devised and evaluated a method of corticosterone delivery which allowed us to examine immediate effects of corticosterone on behavior in a noninvasive manner. White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) were allowed access to mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) injected with corticosterone. Once ingested, the corticosterone moves across the digestive epithelium into the circulation. This method was evaluated using two vehicles: dimethyl sulfoxide and peanut oil. We tested the efficiency and consistency of corticosterone transfer into the circulation for both vehicles. Dimethyl sulfoxide gave a more efficient transfer of corticosterone. Injecting mealworms with corticosterone (carried in dimethyl sulfoxide) and feeding those worms to white-crowned sparrows increased circulating corticosterone to a discrete, repeatable level which peaked within 7 min and was cleared within 60 min. Using this method, we demonstrated that intermediate levels of corticosterone caused an increase in perch hopping in white-crowned sparrows within 15 min of hormone administration. An increase in perch hopping indicated elevated locomotor activity that is consistent with behavioral responses to natural perturbations. High levels of corticosterone did not induce this behavioral change. In light of the rapid effect of corticosterone on behavior, we propose that corticosterone was acting through a nongenomic mechanism. PMID:9707484

Breuner, C W; Greenberg, A L; Wingfield, J C

1998-09-01

244

Global increasing of mean sea level and erroneous treatment of a role of thermal factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite methods of studies of the ocean surface - methods of altimetry - have been obtained intensive development in the last decades (since 1993). However, altimetry studies with the help of special satellites such as TOPEX-Poseidon not only have not cleared up understanding of the phenomenon of increase of sea level (SLR), but have even more confused and without that a complex question on the reasons of increase of sea level. Appeared, that classical determinations of average velocity of increase of sea level on coastal observations (1.4-1.7 mm / yr) approximately for 0.8-1.0 mm / yr it is less, rather than by modern satellite determinations of satellites TOPEX - Poseidon etc. (2.5 - 2.8 mm / yr). On the basis of the data of altimetry observations of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason for the period 1993-2003 for geocentric velocity of increase of sea level (of global ocean) the value 2.8+/-0.4 mm / yr [1] has been obtained. In the given report the full answer is actually is given to a question put by leading experts on research of the sea level: "The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeter missions provided a 12 year record of sea level change, which show increase of global mean sea level of 2.8+/-0.4 mm/yr, with considerable geographic variation. An important question for climate studies is to determine the cause of this change - specifically how much of the change is due to steric (heating) versus eustatic (runoff, melting ice, etc.) contribution?" [1]. There is, a big value of average velocity of increase of the sea level on the satellite data, it is possible to explain only by kinematical effect in data of observations. The motion of the satellite "is concerned" to the centre of mass of our planet, and its position is determined by a geocentric radius - vector. Therefore northern drift of the centre of mass in the Earth body [2] as though results in reduction of distances from the satellite up to the sea surface in the southern hemisphere and to their reduction in the northern hemisphere. At averaging of measurements over all ocean surface (mainly located in a southern hemisphere where it occupies about 80 % of the areas) there will be an effect of apparent additional increase of the sea level. Therefore this ("apparent") velocity of increase of the sea level accepts the greater value (about 2.4 mm / year) in comparison with coastal determinations of this velocity that is rather close to the data of satellite observations. The additional effect in increase of the sea level is brought by deformation of the ocean bottom. The both mentioned phenomena: the secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth and the secular expansion of southern hemisphere of the Earth have been predicted by author [2], [3] and have obtained confirmations by space geodesy methods. The offered explanation has the extremely - important value for studying a possible role of thermal and climatic factors which can not apply any more for a big component attributed to it in change of the sea level. The account of fictitious component of this velocity results practically in real value of variation of the average sea level about 1.3-1.6 mm / yr, that completely coordinate positions of researchers of ocean by coastal and altimetry (satellite) methods. Moreover, the given work opens a direct opportunity for an explanation of increase of the sea level as result of deformation of the ocean bottom. This deformation is a major factor of change of the average sea level. Water superseded in a southern hemisphere gives the significant contribution to observably value of velocity of sea level rise up to 0.8-1.2 mm / yr [3, 4]. The work fulfilled at financial support of Russian projects of RFBR: N 07-05-00939 and N 06-02-16665. This abstract (without what or changes) has been accepted to EGU GA 2008 Session IS48 "75th Anniversary of the PSML"(Convener: Woodworth P.) but was not included in its program. References. [1] Nerem R.S., Leuliette E.W., Chambers D.P. (2005) An Integrated Study of Sea Level Change Using Altimetry,

Barkin, Yu. V.

2009-04-01

245

Accounting for heterogeneity among treatment sites and time trends in developing crash modification functions.  

PubMed

Collision modification factors (CMFs) are commonly used to quantify the impact of safety countermeasures. The CMFs obtained from observational before-after (BA) studies are usually estimated by averaging the safety impact (i.e., index of effectiveness) for a group of treatment sites. The heterogeneity among the treatment locations, in terms of their characteristics, and the effect of this heterogeneity on safety treatment effectiveness are usually ignored. This is in contrast to treatment evaluations in other fields like medical statistics where variations in the magnitude (or in the direction) of response to the same treatment given to different patients are considered. This paper introduces an approach for estimating a CMFunction from BA safety studies that account for variable treatment location characteristics (heterogeneity). The treatment sites heterogeneity was incorporated into the CMFunction using fixed-effects and random-effects regression models. In addition to heterogeneity, the paper also advocates the use of CMFunctions with a time variable to acknowledge that the safety treatment (intervention) effects do not occur instantaneously but are spread over future time. This is achieved using non-linear intervention (Koyck) models, developed within a hierarchical full Bayes (FB) context. To demonstrate the approach, a case study is presented to evaluate the safety effectiveness of the "Signal Head Upgrade Program" recently implemented in the city of Surrey (British Columbia, Canada), where signal visibility was improved at several urban signalized intersections. The results demonstrated the importance of considering treatment sites heterogeneity and time trends when developing CMFunctions. PMID:25033279

Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek

2014-11-01

246

Observation of increases in emission from modern vehicles over time in Hong Kong using remote sensing.  

PubMed

In this study on-road gaseous emissions of vehicles are investigated using remote sensing measurements collected over three different periods. The results show that a high percentage of gaseous pollutants were emitted from a small percentage of vehicles. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) vehicles generally have higher gaseous emissions compared to other vehicles, particularly among higher-emitting vehicles. Vehicles with high vehicle specific power (VSP) tend to have lower CO and HC emissions while petrol and LPG vehicles tend to have higher NO emissions when engine load is high. It can be observed that gaseous emission factors of petrol and LPG vehicles increase greatly within 2 years of being introduced to the vehicle fleet, suggesting that engine and catalyst performance deteriorate rapidly. It can be observed that LPG vehicles have higher levels of gaseous emissions than petrol vehicles, suggesting that proper maintenance of LPG vehicles is essential in reducing gaseous emissions from vehicles. PMID:22325426

Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

2012-04-01

247

Haematinic treatment of anaemia increases the risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Nutritional deficiency and malaria are 2 major causes of anaemia during pregnancy in tropical areas. The relationship between anaemia, its treatment with iron and folate, and malaria was studied in a prospective cohort of 2112 pregnant Karen women on the north-western border of Thailand between 1993 and 1997. The development of Plasmodium vivax malaria was associated with a past mean haematocrit > 30% (hazard ratio = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2, P = 0.001) and recent (< or = 30 d) iron and folate supplementation (hazard ratio = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, P = 0.01). There were no associations with P. falciparum infections. Plasmodium vivax has a predilection for young erythrocytes, and these results suggest that pregnant women with larger numbers of circulating young red cells are at greater risk of developing P. vivax malaria. In P. vivax-endemic areas, systematic iron and folate supplementation confers both benefit and risk in pregnancy. PMID:15228240

Nacher, Mathieu; McGready, Rose; Stepniewska, Kasia; Cho, Thein; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François

2003-01-01

248

Ex vivo bupivacaine treatment results in increased adipogenesis of skeletal muscle cells in the rat.  

PubMed

Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is observed in some skeletal muscle pathologies. IMAT is implicated not only in the disorders of muscle contraction, but also of metabolism and insulin sensitivity due to its nature as a secretary organ. Several studies indicate the presence of cells with adipogenic potential in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanism of fate specification that triggers these cells to enter an adipogenic program in vivo remains to be solved. In the present study, we examined whether activation of the adipogenic program of muscle-resident cells precedes their proliferation upon muscle injury. For this purpose, muscle injury was induced by injecting bupivacaine (BPVC) to excised skeletal muscle ex vivo. Cells isolated from ex vivo?BPVC-treated muscle exhibited higher adipogenic potential than those from saline-treated muscle. Pre-plating exposure of skeletal muscle cells to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mimicked the effect of ex vivo?BPVC-treatment, suggesting that bFGF released from extracellular matrix in response to muscle injury activates their adipogenic program. Interestingly, the number of myotubes were significantly reduced in the culture from BPVC-treated muscle, suggesting that adipocytes negatively regulate myogenesis. PMID:24118604

Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Takegahara, Yuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nishihara, Masugi

2013-11-01

249

Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates  

PubMed Central

With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ?X174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jonsson, Hakan; Vinneras, Bjorn

2013-01-01

250

Nanoencapsulation of olanzapine increases its efficacy in antipsychotic treatment and reduces adverse effects.  

PubMed

Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, whose chronic use has been associated with the development of potential adverse effects such as weight gain and cardio-metabolic disorders like hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. To circumvent these side effects, the controlled release of olanzapine is a promising approach to improve adhesion of schizophrenic patients to the treatment. An innovative strategy to prolong drug release consists of loading the drug into biodegradable polymeric lipid-core nanocapsules. In this study, particle size, polydispersity, pH, zeta potential and drug loading of olanzapine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules were analyzed. Weight gain, biochemical parameters and antipsychotic activity were evaluated in male Wistar rats. The lipid-core nanocapsules had a mean diameter of 156 +/- 13 nm, a polydispersity index lower than 0.1, a pH value of 6.12 +/- 0.14, zeta potential of -17 +/- 2.40 mV and encapsulation efficiency close to 100%. The animals treated with olanzapine-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed significantly lower weight gain (63.4 +/- 19.6 g) and total cholesterol levels (66.2 +/- 3.5 g x dl(-1)), compared to those administered with free olanzapine (112.6 +/- 10.3 g and 90.4 +/- 2.4 g x dl(-1)), respectively. Additionally, a more prolonged antipsychotic action was observed in the stereotyped behavior animal model induced by D,L-amphetamine, which affords to conclude that nanoencapsulation is a promising alternative to treat schizophrenic patients. PMID:24749408

Dimer, Frantiescoli A; Ortiz, Manoel; Pase, Camila S; Roversi, Katiane; Friedrich, Rossana B; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Burger, Marilise E; Guterres, Silvia S

2014-06-01

251

Protein synthesis yield increased 72 times in the cell-free PURE system.  

PubMed

Compared to cell-based protein expression, cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) offers several advantages including a greater control over system additives. This control is further enhanced with a CFPS system called the Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements (PURE) system, which consists of 108 purified transcriptional and translational elements. With the PURE system, all elements are known, nuclease and protease activities are reduced, and the concentration of each element can be optimized for maximal protein expression. However, protein expression yield with this system is relatively low due to the consumption of nutrients and energy molecules as well as the accumulation of inhibitory byproducts in the batch format. To enhance protein expression with the PURE system, we developed a feeding solution that was optimized using a miniaturized fluid array device (?FAD) in a continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) format. The device enabled (1) continuous supply of energy/nutrient molecules from the feeding solution to the reaction solution where protein synthesis occurred, and (2) simultaneous removal of inhibitory expression byproducts from the reaction solution to the feeding solution. Consequently, the synthesis yield of green fluorescent protein (GFP) increased 72.5-fold in comparison with the same reaction in the conventional batch format. PMID:25008400

Jackson, Kirsten; Kanamori, Takashi; Ueda, Takuya; Fan, Z Hugh

2014-08-01

252

Sleep Restriction Therapy for Insomnia is Associated with Reduced Objective Total Sleep Time, Increased Daytime Somnolence, and Objectively Impaired Vigilance: Implications for the Clinical Management of Insomnia Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate whether sleep restriction therapy (SRT) is associated with reduced objective total sleep time (TST), increased daytime somnolence, and impaired vigilance. Design: Within-subject, noncontrolled treatment investigation. Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Sixteen patients [10 female, mean age = 47.1 (10.8) y] with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI), reporting TST ? 6 h. Interventions: Patients were treated with single-component SRT over a 4-w protocol, sleeping in the laboratory for 2 nights prior to treatment initiation and for 3 nights (SRT night 1, 8, 22) during the acute interventional phase. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was completed at seven defined time points [day 0 (baseline), day 1,7,8,21,22 (acute treatment) and day 84 (3 mo)]. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed at baseline, w 1-4, and 3 mo. Measurement and results: Subjective sleep outcomes and global insomnia severity significantly improved before and after SRT. There was, however, a robust decrease in PSG-defined TST during acute implementation of SRT, by an average of 91 min on night 1, 78 min on night 8, and 69 min on night 22, relative to baseline (P < 0.001; effect size range = 1.60-1.80). During SRT, PVT lapses were significantly increased from baseline (at three of five assessment points, all P < 0.05; effect size range = 0.69-0.78), returning to baseline levels by 3 mo (P = 0.43). A similar pattern was observed for RT, with RTs slowing during acute treatment (at four of five assessment points, all P < 0.05; effect size range = 0.57-0.89) and returning to pretreatment levels at 3 mo (P = 0.78). ESS scores were increased at w 1, 2, and 3 (relative to baseline; all P < 0.05); by 3 mo, sleepiness had returned to baseline (normative) levels (P = 0.65). Conclusion: For the first time we show that acute sleep restriction therapy is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime sleepiness, and objective performance impairment. Our data have important implications for implementation guidelines around the safe and effective delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Citation: Kyle SD; Miller CB; Rogers Z; Siriwardena AN; MacMahon KM; Espie CA. Sleep restriction therapy for insomnia is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime somnolence, and objectively impaired vigilance: implications for the clinical management of insomnia disorder. SLEEP 2014;37(2):229-237. PMID:24497651

Kyle, Simon D.; Miller, Christopher B.; Rogers, Zoe; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan; MacMahon, Kenneth M.; Espie, Colin A.

2014-01-01

253

Time post-lung transplant correlates with increasing peripheral blood T cell granzyme B and proinflammatory cytokines.  

PubMed

Immunosuppression therapy following lung transplant fails to prevent chronic rejection/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, which we have shown is associated with lack of suppression of peripheral blood T cell granzyme B, interferon (IFN)-? and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. We hypothesized that these proinflammatory mediators may increase with time post-transplant in otherwise stable patients before clinical signs of declining lung function, and patients experiencing declining lung function would show a further increase in these mediators. Intracellular cytokine profiles and granzyme B were investigated in T cells in whole blood and airways from lung transplant patients using flow cytometry. There was a significant negative correlation between forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1) ), drug dose and time post-transplant. A significant correlation between increased granzyme B, IFN-?, interleukin (IL)-2 and TNF-? and time post-transplant was noted in peripheral blood T cells but not lung T cells from stable patients. Patients with similar drug dose but experiencing declining FEV(1) showed a further increase in peripheral blood T cell IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-?. Time post-lung transplant correlates with increasing peripheral blood T cell granzyme B and proinflammatory cytokines. Declining FEV(1) is associated with a further increase in these proinflammatory mediators. Drugs that reduce these inflammatory mediators effectively may reduce the incidence of chronic graft rejection. PMID:20528884

Hodge, G; Hodge, S; Li-Liew, C; Chambers, D; Hopkins, P; Reynolds, P N; Holmes, M

2010-09-01

254

PRE-EXERCISE ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TIME TO EXHAUSTION IN ELITE MALE WRESTLERS  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years) participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg-1 body weight) or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night) for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg-1 · min-1, placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg-1 · min-1) or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm) between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s) compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects.

Turnagol, H.; Demirel, A.H.

2014-01-01

255

Increased efficacy for in-house validation of real-time PCR GMO detection methods.  

PubMed

To improve the efficacy of the in-house validation of GMO detection methods (DNA isolation and real-time PCR, polymerase chain reaction), a study was performed to gain insight in the contribution of the different steps of the GMO detection method to the repeatability and in-house reproducibility. In the present study, 19 methods for (GM) soy, maize canola and potato were validated in-house of which 14 on the basis of an 8-day validation scheme using eight different samples and five on the basis of a more concise validation protocol. In this way, data was obtained with respect to the detection limit, accuracy and precision. Also, decision limits were calculated for declaring non-conformance (>0.9%) with 95% reliability. In order to estimate the contribution of the different steps in the GMO analysis to the total variation variance components were estimated using REML (residual maximum likelihood method). From these components, relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility (RSD(r) and RSD(R)) were calculated. The results showed that not only the PCR reaction but also the factors 'DNA isolation' and 'PCR day' are important factors for the total variance and should therefore be included in the in-house validation. It is proposed to use a statistical model to estimate these factors from a large dataset of initial validations so that for similar GMO methods in the future, only the PCR step needs to be validated. The resulting data are discussed in the light of agreed European criteria for qualified GMO detection methods. PMID:20012027

Scholtens, I M J; Kok, E J; Hougs, L; Molenaar, B; Thissen, J T N M; van der Voet, H

2010-03-01

256

Effect of overall treatment time on outcomes after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma: Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether overall treatment time affects outcomes after definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed from 3 prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials (RTOG 91-06, 92-04, and 94-10) in which immediate concurrent chemoradiation (cisplatin-based) was the primary therapy for good-performance status Stage III (and selected inoperable Stage II) NSCLC. 'Short' overall treatment time (per protocol) was defined as completing treatment within 5 days of plan; other patients were considered to have had 'prolonged' treatment time (protocol violation); treatment time was also analyzed as a continuous variable in a multivariate model. Actuarial analysis was performed for overall survival, progression-free survival, freedom from local-regional progression, and toxicity. Results: A total of 474 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 6.1 years. Treatment time was delivered per protocol in 387 (82%), whereas 87 patients (18%) had a prolonged treatment time. Long treatment time was significantly associated with severe acute esophagitis. Median survival was slightly better in patients completing treatment on time (19.5 months vs. 14.8 months), but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.15) in the univariate analysis. However, in the multivariate analysis of treatment time as a continuous variable, prolonged treatment time was significantly associated with poorer survival (p = 0.02), indicating a 2% increase in the risk of death for each day of prolongation in therapy. Histology (squamous fared worse) and performance status were also significant in the multivariate model. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis demonstrates a correlation between prolonged overall radiotherapy treatment time and survival in patients with locally advanced NSCLC, even when concurrent chemotherapy is used. Further study of novel radiation-chemotherapy dose/fractionation regimens is warranted.

Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hsu Chuanchieh [RTOG Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sause, William T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Swann, R. Suzanne [RTOG Headquarters and Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langer, Corey J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Byhardt, Roger W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2005-11-01

257

Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Automatic fault detection is becoming increasingly important in wastewater treatment plant operation, given the stringent treatment standards and the need to protect the investment costs from the potential damage of an unchecked fault propagating through the plant. This paper describes the development of a real-time Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system based on an adaptive Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, used to compare the current plant operation with a correct performance model based on a reference data set and the output of three ion-specific sensors (Hach-Lange gmbh, Düsseldorf, Germany): two Nitratax NOx UV sensors, in the denitrification tank and downstream of the oxidation tanks, where an Amtax ammonium-N sensor was also installed. The algorithm was initially developed in the Matlab environment and then ported into the LabView 8.20 (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA) platform for real-time operation using a compact Field Point, a Programmable Automation Controller by National Instruments. The FDI was tested with a large set of operational data with 1 min sampling time from August 2007 through May 2008 from a full-scale plant. After describing the real-time version of the PCA algorithm, this was tested with nine months of operational data which were sequentially processes by the algorithm in order to simulate an on-line operation. The FDI performance was assessed by organizing the sequential data in two differing moving windows: a short-horizon window to test the response to single malfunctions and a longer time-horizon to simulate multiple unrepaired failures. In both cases the algorithm performance was very satisfactory, with a 100% failure detection in the short window case, which decreased to 84% in the long window setting. The short-window performance was very effective in isolating sensor failures and short duration disturbances such as spikes, whereas the long term horizon provided accurate detection of long-term drifts and proved robust enough to allow for some delay in failure recovery. The system robustness is based on the use of multiple statistics which proved instrumental in discriminating among the various causes of malfunctioning. PMID:19934517

Baggiani, F; Marsili-Libelli, S

2009-01-01

258

Stroke treatment in rats with tail temperature increase by 40-min moxibustion.  

PubMed

The distant heat induced by suspended moxibustion (SM) for 40 min is confirmed to have a favorable effect in treating diseases such as ischemic brain injury in the clinical setting, but its precise mechanism remains to be explained. Since a similar reaction to the phenomenon of distant heat is found in some transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rats treated by a 40-min SM session with tail temperature increase (TTI), we hereby study its mechanism by comparing the neuroprotective effect of 40 min's SM with TTI to those without. The experimental results show that 40 min's SM with TTI can significantly reduce the infarct volume and neurological deficit score in tMCAO rats. Western blot demonstrates that a reduction in the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in tMCAO rats with TTI is more striking than that of the rats without TTI. The expression of caspase-3 protein is inhibited in tMCAO rats with TTI. The results suggest that the efficacy of SM for 40 min with TTI is higher than that without. Although neuroprotective effects present in tMCAO rats with and without TTI, those with TTI revealed a higher level of anti-inflammation effect and exhibited an anti-apoptosis effect. PMID:21875649

Chen, Ri-Xin; Lv, Zhi-Mai; Chen, Ming-Ren; Yi, Fan; An, Xin; Xie, Ding-Yi

2011-10-01

259

Low dose nicotine treatment during early adolescence increases subsequent cocaine reward.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of drug use, starting with tobacco and alcohol and progressing to marijuana and other illicit drugs. These findings have led to the suggestion that tobacco and alcohol are 'gateway' drugs that sensitize maturing reward pathways to the effects of illicit substances such as cocaine. To test this hypothesis, we have examined whether low-dose nicotine pretreatment alters acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adolescents more than in adults. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, aged postnatal day (P) 28 or P86, were given two daily intravenous injections of nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/0.1 ml) or saline for 4 days. At P32 and P90, rats were placed in self-administration chambers and tested for acquisition of cocaine (0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg/inj) for 5 days. Data were collapsed across cocaine dose and sex since there was no significant effect of these variables. Adolescent rats pretreated with nicotine exhibited significantly greater cocaine-reinforced responding as compared to saline controls or adults (p<0.01). This drug pretreatment effect did not generalize to all rewards, since nicotine did not increase responding for sucrose pellets in adolescents. These findings provide evidence that the adolescent brain is uniquely vulnerable to the effects of nicotine on subsequent drug reward. PMID:17174067

McQuown, Susan C; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

2007-01-01

260

Chronic Treatment with the GLP1 Analogue Liraglutide Increases Cell Proliferation and Differentiation into Neurons in an AD Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Neurogenesis is a life long process, but the rate of cell proliferation and differentiation decreases with age. In Alzheimer's patients, along with age, the presence of A? in the brain inhibits this process by reducing stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation. GLP-1 is a growth factor that has neuroprotective properties. GLP1 receptors are present on neuronal progenitor cells, and the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide has been shown to increase cell proliferation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. Here we investigated acute and chronic effects of liraglutide on progenitor cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and their subsequent differentiation into neurons in wild type and APP/PS-1 mice at different ages. APP/PS1 and their littermate controls, aged 3, 6, 12, 15 months were injected acutely or chronically with 25 nmol/kg liraglutide. Acute treatment with liraglutide showed an increase in cell proliferation in APP/PS1 mice, but not in controls whereas chronic treatment increased cell proliferation at all ages (BrdU and Ki67 markers). Moreover, numbers of immature neurons (DCX) were increased in both acute and chronic treated animals at all ages. Most newly generated cells differentiated into mature neurons (NeuN marker). A significant increase was observed with chronically treated 6, 12, 15 month APP/PS1 and WT groups. These results demonstrate that liraglutide, which is currently on the market as a treatment for type 2 diabetes (VictozaTM), increases neurogenesis, which may have beneficial effects in neurodegenerative disorders like AD. PMID:23536825

Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hölscher, Christian

2013-01-01

261

Environmental Enrichment Preceding Early Adulthood Methylphenidate Treatment Leads to Long Term Increase of Corticosterone and Testosterone in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADD\\/ADHD) has been emerging as a world-wide psychiatric disorder. There appears to be an increasing rate of stimulant drug abuse, specifically methylphenidate (MPH) which is the most common treatment for ADHD, among individuals who do not meet the criteria for ADHD and particularly for cognitive enhancement among university students. However, the long term effects of exposure to MPH

Avi Avital; Talya Dolev; Shlomit Aga-Mizrachi; Salman Zubedat

2011-01-01

262

A Hybrid Geometric Phase II/III Clinical Trial Design based on Treatment Failure Time and Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The problem of comparing several experimental treatments to a standard arises frequently in medical research. Various multi-stage randomized phase II/III designs have been proposed that select one or more promising experimental treatments and compare them to the standard while controlling overall Type I and Type II error rates. This paper addresses phase II/III settings where the joint goals are to increase the average time to treatment failure and control the probability of toxicity while accounting for patient heterogeneity. We are motivated by the desire to construct a feasible design for a trial of four chemotherapy combinations for treating a family of rare pediatric brain tumors. We present a hybrid two-stage design based on two-dimensional treatment effect parameters. A targeted parameter set is constructed from elicited parameter pairs considered to be equally desirable. Bayesian regression models for failure time and the probability of toxicity as functions of treatment and prognostic covariates are used to define two-dimensional covariate-adjusted treatment effect parameter sets. Decisions at each stage of the trial are based on the ratio of posterior probabilities of the alternative and null covariate-adjusted parameter sets. Design parameters are chosen to minimize expected sample size subject to frequentist error constraints. The design is illustrated by application to the brain tumor trial design. PMID:22228921

Thall, Peter F.; Nguyen, Hoang Q.; Wang, Xuemei; Wolff, Johannes E.

2011-01-01

263

Time to fatigue is increased in mouse muscle at 37?C; the role of iron and reactive oxygen species  

PubMed Central

Studies exploring the rate of fatigue in isolated muscle at 37°C have produced mixed results. In the present study, muscle fibre bundles from the mouse foot were used to study the effect of temperature on the rate of muscle fatigue. Provided iron was excluded from the solutions, time to fatigue at 37°C was increased compared to 22°C (125 ± 8% of 22°C fatigue time). In contrast, when iron was present (?1 ?m), fatigue was accelerated (68 ± 10%). Iron can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are believed to accelerate fatigue. The addition of 25–100 ?m H2O2 at 22°C reduced time to fatigue to 80–20% of the control, respectively. Iron was added to cultured primary skeletal muscle cells to determine if iron could increase ROS production. Neither iron entry nor ROS production were detected in non-contracting muscle cells. The addition of 8-hydroxyquinoline, which facilitates iron entry, to iron–ascorbic acid solutions caused a rapid rise in intracellular iron and ROS. Our results indicate that time to fatigue in vitro is increased at 37°C relative to 22°C, but the addition of ROS can accelerate fatigue. An increase in muscle iron can accelerate ROS production, which may be important during or following exercise and in haemochromatosis, disuse atrophy and sarcopenia. PMID:19470779

Reardon, Trent F; Allen, David G

2009-01-01

264

An Increasing Hybrid Morphological-Linear Perceptron with Evolutionary Learning and Phase Correction for Financial Time Series Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a suitable model to solve the financial time series forecasting problem, called increasing hybrid morphological-linear perceptron (IHMP). An evolutionary training algorithm is presented to design the IHMP (learning process), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA). The learning process includes an automatic phase correction step that is geared at eliminating the time phase distortions that typically occur in financial time series forecasting. Furthermore, we compare the proposed IHMP with other neural and statistical models using two complex nonlinear problems of financial forecasting.

de A. Araújo, Ricardo; Sussner, Peter

265

Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

Singh, Anurag K., E-mail: Anurag.singh@roswellpark.or [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States)

2010-11-15

266

Long-Term Valproate Treatment Increases Brain Neuropeptide Y Expression and Decreases Seizure Expression in a Genetic Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which valproate, one of the most widely prescribed anti-epileptic drugs, suppresses seizures have not been fully elucidated but may involve up-regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We investigated the effects of valproate treatment in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) on brain NPY mRNA expression and seizure control. GAERS were administered either valproate (42 mg.kg?1 hr?1) or saline continuously for 5 days. Electroencephalograms were recorded for 24 hrs on treatment days 1, 3 and 5 and the percentage of time spent in seizure activity was analysed. NPY mRNA expression was measured in different brain regions using qPCR. Valproate treatment suppressed seizures by 80% in GAERS (p<0.05) and increased NPY mRNA expression in the thalamus (p<0.05) compared to saline treatment. These results demonstrate that long-term valproate treatment results in an upregulation of thalamic expression of NPY implicating this as a potential contributor to the mechanism by which valproate suppresses absence seizures. PMID:24039965

van Raay, Leena; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; O'Brien, Terence J.; Morris, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

267

Accelerated increase in mercury contamination in north Atlantic mesopelagic food chains as indicated by time series of seabird feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of mercury in the environment have increased manyfold since preindustrial times as a result of anthropogenic emissions of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere. However, most records of historical change are affected by regional inputs and evidence of global impact of human activities at pristine oceanic sites is scanty. Seabird feathers contain a valuable record showing historical trends in methylmercury

Luís R. Monteiro; Robert W. Furness

1997-01-01

268

Treatment and technical intervention time analysis of a robotic stereotactic radiotherapy system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to obtain a better operational knowledge of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments with CyberKnife(r). An analysis of both In-room Times (IRT) and technical interventions of 5 years of treatments was performed, during which more than 1600 patients were treated for various indications, including liver (21%), lung (29%), intracranial (13%), head and neck (11%) and prostate (7%). Technical interventions were recorded along with the time of the failure, time to the intervention, and the complexity and duration of the repair. Analyses of Time Between Failures (TBF) and Service Disrupting TBF(disr) were performed. Treatment time data and variability per indication and following different system upgrades were evaluated. Large variations of IRTs were found between indications, but also large variations for each indication. The combination of the time reduction Tool (using Iris(r)) and Improved Stop Handling was of major impact to shortening of treatment times. The first implementation of the Iris collimator alone did not lead to significantly shorter IRTs for us except during prostate treatments. This was mostly due to the addition at the same time of larger rotational compensation for prostate treatments (58 instead of 1.58). Significant differences of duration between the first fraction and following fractions of a treatment, representing the necessity of defining imaging parameters and explanation to patients, were found for liver (12 min) and lung treatments using Xsight(r) Spine (5 min). Liver and lung treatments represent the longest IRT's and involve the largest variability's in IRT. The malfunction rate of the system followed a Weibull distribution with the shape and scale parameters of 0.8 and 39.7. Mean TBF(disr) was 68 work hours. 60 to 80% of the service disrupting interventions were resolved within 30-60 min, 5% required external intervention and 30% occurred in the morning. The presented results can be applied in the evaluation of the required machine time in order to implement robotic radiosurgery for different indications. The analytical distributions of IRTs and technical interruptions can be used for simulations. PMID:23862744

Crop, F; Lacornerie, T; Szymczak, H; Felin, A; Bailleux, C; Mirabel, X; Lartigau, E

2014-02-01

269

Neonatal (+)-methamphetamine increases brain derived neurotrophic factor, but not nerve growth factor, during treatment and results in long-term spatial learning deficits  

PubMed Central

Summary In this study, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were examined at five time points [postnatal day (P)11, 15, 20, 21, and 68 (the latter with or without behavioral testing)] during and after P11–20 (+)-methamphetamine (MA) (10 mg/ kg 4 × day) treatment. BDNF in MA-treated animals was elevated on P15 and P20 in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus and was unchanged on P11 and P21. On P68 (1 h after Morris water maze testing) MA-treated offspring showed a trend toward higher levels of BDNF in the hippocampus than saline-treated animals. MA treatment increased NGF levels in the hippocampus but only on P20. No effect of MA treatment was observed in the elevated zero maze. MA-treated offspring had increased latencies, cumulative distances, path lengths, and first bearings in the Morris water maze. The findings indicate that early MA exposure induces hippocampal BDNF increases that precede the later emergence of spatial learning deficits. PMID:17606327

Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Vorhees, Charles V.

2009-01-01

270

Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6?MV, 10?MV, 6?MV-FFF, 10?MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3?mm, 0.5?sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Persoon, Lucas C. G. G.; Scheib, Stefan G.; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

2014-08-01

271

Increased risk of ischemic bowel complications during treatment with bevacizumab after pelvic irradiation: Report of three cases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the rate of severe bowel complications during treatment with the antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective evaluation of bevacizumab-associated severe intestinal adverse events from our institutional database. Results: A total of 33 patients started treatment with bevacizumab at our institution during the first 6 months after its approval in Germany. Three patients (9%) presented with severe bowel complications: two with acute ischemic colitis and one with gastrointestinal perforation with a fatal outcome. All 3 patients had undergone radiotherapy directed to the pelvis before treatment with bevacizumab. None of the 30 patients without bowel complications had been pretreated with infradiaphragmatic irradiation. Histologic evaluation of bowel biopsies and resection specimens revealed severe ischemic bowel damage as the pathophysiologic background of the clinical findings. Conclusion: This report contributes to the pathophysiologic clarification of bevacizumab-induced bowel complications and points to a potentially increased risk of severe ischemic damage during treatment with bevacizumab in patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy.

Lordick, Florian [Third Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology/Medical Oncology), Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: f.lordick@lrz.tum.de; Geinitz, Hans [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Theisen, Joerg [Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Sendler, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Sarbia, Mario [Department of Pathology, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

2006-04-01

272

Chronic antidepressant treatments induce a time-dependent up-regulation of AMPA receptor subunit protein levels.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder and in the action of antidepressants. The main aim of this study was to elucidate the temporal profile of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors expression and their functional regulation in prefrontal/frontal cortex (P/FC) and hippocampus (HC) of rats chronically treated with two different antidepressants: fluoxetine (FLX) and reboxetine (RBX). Rat groups were treated for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with the two drugs and, in additional groups, the treatments were followed by 1 week of drug washout (3+1). We found that both drugs induced strong increases in AMPAR subunit protein expression that were time dependent and subunit specific. Especially in P/FC, FLX had the main effect on GluA2 and GluA4 subunits, reaching a 5-fold increase after the drug washout; RBX mostly affected GluA1 and GluA3, reaching a 4-fold increase at the end of the treatment. Furthermore, in HC, the two drugs induced a time specific increase in subunit protein levels, with GluA3 and GluA4 presenting the main changes, albeit with different kinetics. In addition, our data indicate that antidepressants might alter, though by small changes, the R/G editing levels for GluA2, mostly in P/FC, and in turn may induce fine-tuning of glutamate neurotransmission. Overall, we showed that antidepressant treatments induced marked changes in AMPA receptor subunits expression, with time-dependent effects that are consistent with the onset of therapeutic effect of these drugs. These data confirm the involvement of glutamate neurotransmission in the effects of these drugs and further suggest the targeting of AMPA receptors as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression. PMID:21839792

Barbon, Alessandro; Caracciolo, Luca; Orlandi, Cesare; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; La Via, Luca; Bonini, Daniela; Mora, Cristina; Tardito, Daniela; Gennarelli, Massimo; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio; Barlati, Sergio

2011-11-01

273

Differential expression of benzodiazepine anticonvulsant cross-tolerance according to time following flurazepam or diazepam treatment.  

PubMed

In previous studies in which the anti-pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) effect of benzodiazepines was used to measure tolerance, the results depended on the benzodiazepine used for chronic treatment as well as the benzodiazepine given acutely to test for tolerance. In this study, the time course of tolerance reversal was studied in rats given two treatments known to cause anticonvulsant tolerance, 1-week flurazepam (FZP), and 3-week diazepam (DZP). Neither treatment altered convulsive threshold for IV PTZ, but both treatments decreased the convulsive threshold for bicuculline. Withdrawing DZP, but not FZP, treatment resulted in a loss of body weight. Twelve hours after 1-week FZP treatment, all benzodiazepines were significantly less effective, showing tolerance. Forty-eight hours after the 1-week FZP treatment, tolerance was still observed with DZP, FZP, and zolpidem, but was no longer present with clonazepam or bretazenil. After the 3-week DZP treatment, rats were tolerant to all benzodiazepines tested at 12 h of withdrawal, but had lost tolerance to all the drugs except bretazenil by 48 h. The results suggest differences in the way these benzodiazepines interact with their receptors, allowing differential expression of tolerance, and that chronic DZP and FZP treatments affected interactions of the benzodiazepines with their receptors, but not in the same fashion. PMID:7667354

Rosenberg, H C

1995-01-01

274

Conjugated linoleic acid synthesis-related protein proteasome subunit ? 5 (PSMA5) is increased by vaccenic acid treatment in goat mammary tissue.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify proteins associated with the endogenous synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from trans-vaccenic acid (TVA; trans-11 C18:1, a precursor for CLA endogenous synthesis) in mammary tissues. Six lactating goats were divided into 2 groups. One group was given an intravenous bolus injection of TVA (150mg) twice daily over 4 d; the other group received saline injections. Treatment with TVA increased the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA in goat milk. Additionally, TVA treatment increased the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in mammary tissue. Using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 3 proteins affected by infusions of TVA were identified. Proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit ? type 5 (PSMA5) was upregulated, whereas peroxiredoxin-1 and translationally controlled tumor protein 1 were downregulated in TVA-treated animals compared with the vehicle-injected controls. Only the effect of TVA on PSMA5 could be confirmed by Western blot analysis. To further explore the regulation of PSMA5 in mammary epithelial cells when TVA is converted into CLA, we used a differentiated bovine mammary epithelial cell line treated with TVA for 6h. Changes in cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and mRNA expression patterns of both SCD and PSMA5 were monitored. The concentration of cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased after TVA treatment. The mRNA expression level of PSMA5 was significantly elevated to 6h, but SCD mRNA expression only increased in 2h after TVA treatment. These results indicate that PSMA5 is highly expressed in goat mammary tissue and bovine mammary epithelial cells when TVA is converted into CLA. Our data suggest that PSMA5 protein is associated with CLA biosynthesis in mammary tissue. PMID:22818443

Jin, Y C; Li, Z H; Hong, Z S; Xu, C X; Han, J A; Choi, S H; Yin, J L; Zhang, Q K; Lee, K B; Kang, S K; Song, M K; Kim, Y J; Kang, H S; Choi, Y J; Lee, H G

2012-08-01

275

Increased Ras GTPase activity is regulated by miRNAs that can be attenuated by CDF treatment in pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Ras gene is frequently mutated, and also associated with increased Ras expression and its GTPase activity (activity) in pancreatic cancer (PC), which could in part be due to deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributing to tumor aggressiveness. Here we report, for the first time, that Ras expression and its activity were significantly higher in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cell lines, which was correlated with loss of let-7 family and miR-143 expression in MIAPaCa-2 cells compared to COLO-357 and BxPC-3 cells. Whereas the expression of miR-21, a frequently up-regulated miRNA in solid tumors was up-regulated in MIAPaCa-2 cells and it was correlated with increased Ras expression and its activity. The miRNAs, let-7i and miR-143 was found to target Ras, and forced re-expression of let-7i and miR-143 inhibited Ras activity, cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. We also found that the treatment of cells in vitro or treatment of MIAPaCa-2 induced tumors in vivo with CDF, a novel synthetic analog of curcumin, led to the re-expression of let-7 and miR-143, and down-regulated miR-21 expression, which was consistent with attenuation of Ras expression and its activity. Moreover, re-expression of let-7iin vivo resulted in decreased tumor growth and Ras activity. These results suggest that the loss of expression of let-7 and miR-143, and increased expression of miR-21 leads to increased expression of Ras and its GTPase activity, which could be attenuated by CDF treatment and, thus CDF could become a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of PC. PMID:22261338

Ali, Shadan; Ahmad, Aamir; Aboukameel, Amro; Bao, Bin; Padhye, Subhash; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

2012-01-01

276

Increase in pyrolytic carbon optical anisotropy and density during processing of coated particle fuel due to heat treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of pyrolytic carbon optical anisotropy and density have been made on a series of tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles prepared for the United States Department of Energy's Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. These measurements show the effect of varying the deposition conditions, especially the deposition temperature, on the density and optical anisotropy of the carbon layers. Additional heat treatment studies of the coated particles at various stages illustrate the strong effect of post-deposition thermal processing on these two pyrolytic carbon properties. Such post-deposition heat treatment occurs during SiC deposition and fuel compact firing, resulting in increased anisotropy and density of the pyrolytic carbon layers.

Hunn, J. D.; Jellison, G. E., Jr.; Lowden, R. A.

2008-03-01

277

Increase in pyrolytic carbon optical anisotropy and density during processing of coated particle fuel due to heat treatment  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of pyrolytic carbon optical anisotropy and density have been made on a series of tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated particles prepared for the United States Department of Energy's Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. These measurements show the effect of varying the deposition conditions, especially the deposition temperature, on the density and optical anisotropy of the carbon layers. Additional heat treatment studies of the coated particles at various stages illustrate the strong effect of post-deposition thermal processing on these two pyrolytic carbon properties. Such post-deposition heat treatment occurs during SiC deposition and fuel compact firing, resulting in a microstructural modification of the pyrolytic carbon which increases the anisotropy and density of these layers.

Hunn, John D [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Lowden, Richard Andrew [ORNL

2008-01-01

278

Quantitative analysis of beam delivery parameters and treatment process time for proton beam therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate patient census, equipment clinical availability, maximum daily treatment capacity, use factor for major beam delivery parameters, and treatment process time for actual treatments delivered by proton therapy systems. Methods: The authors have been recording all beam delivery parameters, including delivered dose, energy, range, spread-out Bragg peak widths, gantry angles, and couch angles for every treatment field in an electronic medical record system. We analyzed delivery system downtimes that had been recorded for every equipment failure and associated incidents. These data were used to evaluate the use factor of beam delivery parameters, the size of the patient census, and the equipment clinical availability of the facility. The duration of each treatment session from patient walk-in and to patient walk-out of the treatment room was measured for 82 patients with cancers at various sites. Results: The yearly average equipment clinical availability in the last 3 yrs (June 2007-August 2010) was 97%, which exceeded the target of 95%. Approximately 2200 patients had been treated as of August 2010. The major disease sites were genitourinary (49%), thoracic (25%), central nervous system (22%), and gastrointestinal (2%). Beams have been delivered in approximately 8300 treatment fields. The use factor for six beam delivery parameters was also evaluated. Analysis of the treatment process times indicated that approximately 80% of this time was spent for patient and equipment setup. The other 20% was spent waiting for beam delivery and beam on. The total treatment process time can be expressed by a quadratic polynomial of the number of fields per session. The maximum daily treatment capacity of our facility using the current treatment processes was estimated to be 133 {+-} 35 patients. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the facility has operated at a high performance level and has treated a large number of patients with a variety of diseases. The use factor of beam delivery parameters varies by disease site. Further improvements in efficiency may be realized in the equipment- and patient-related processes of treatment.

Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.; Lippy, Denise [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); The Proton Therapy Center Houston, Ltd., L.L.P., 1840 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, Texas 77054 (United States)

2011-07-15

279

Rate and time of GA 4\\/7 treatment affect vegetative growth and flowering in a genetic line of Aquilegia × hybrida Sims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquilegia `Rose-White' flowered from seed in about five months without vernalization. GA4\\/7 treatment increased stem height, induced earlier flowering, and increased the number of flowers\\/plant. Each of these responses, however, was dependent upon both rate (10, 25, or 50ppm) and timing of application (4-, 8-, or 12-leaf stage). Treatment at the 4-leaf stage resulted in earlier flowering at all rates,

T. J Gianfagna; R. H Merritt

2000-01-01

280

Treatment of GnRHa-implanted Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) with 11-ketoandrostenedione stimulates spermatogenesis and increases sperm motility.  

PubMed

The effect of 11-ketoandrostenedione (OA) on plasma concentrations of sexual steroids and spermatogenesis of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) implanted with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) was investigated. Males were treated with saline (control) or with GnRHa implants (50 mug kg(-1)) in the presence or absence of OA (2 or 7 mg kg(-1)) during twenty eight days. Treatment with GnRHa alone slightly stimulated spermatogenesis and milt production with respect to controls, and this was associated with a transient elevation of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) at day seven and an increase of 5beta-reduced metabolite(s) of 17,20beta-dihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one (17,20betaP) at day twenty eight. However, treatment with GnRHa+OA increased plasma concentrations of 11-KT and free+sulphated 5beta-reduced metabolites of 17,20betaP at days seven, fourteen and twenty one. After twenty eight days, the testis of GnRHa+OA-treated fish showed a lower number of spermatogonia B and spermatocytes I, and a higher number of spermatids, than fish treated with GnRHa alone. In addition, the motility of spermatozoa produced by GnRHa+OA males was enhanced by 2-fold with respect to controls or GnRHa males. These results suggest that treatment of Senegalese sole with GnRHa+OA stimulates spermatogenesis resulting in more motile sperm. Such effects could be mediated by an increased synthesis of 11-KT and/or 17,20betaP in the testis but further studies will be required to elucidate the specific mechanism involved. PMID:17360211

Agulleiro, Maria J; Scott, Alexander P; Duncan, Neil; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Cerdà, Joan

2007-08-01

281

Tonic GABAA conductance decreases membrane time constant and increases EPSP-spike precision in hippocampal pyramidal neurons  

PubMed Central

Because of a complex dendritic structure, pyramidal neurons have a large membrane surface relative to other cells and so a large electrical capacitance and a large membrane time constant (?m). This results in slow depolarizations in response to excitatory synaptic inputs, and consequently increased and variable action potential latencies, which may be computationally undesirable. Tonic activation of GABAA receptors increases membrane conductance and thus regulates neuronal excitability by shunting inhibition. In addition, tonic increases in membrane conductance decrease the membrane time constant (?m), and improve the temporal fidelity of neuronal firing. Here we performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and found that bath application of 10?M GABA indeed decreases ?m in these cells. GABA also decreased first spike latency and jitter (standard deviation of the latency) produced by current injection of 2 rheobases (500 ms). However, when larger current injections (3–6 rheobases) were used, GABA produced no significant effect on spike jitter, which was low. Using mathematical modeling we demonstrate that the tonic GABAA conductance decreases rise time, decay time and half-width of EPSPs in pyramidal neurons. A similar effect was observed on EPSP/IPSP pairs produced by stimulation of Schaffer collaterals: the EPSP part of the response became shorter after application of GABA. Consistent with the current injection data, a significant decrease in spike latency and jitter was obtained in cell attached recordings only at near-threshold stimulation (50% success rate, S50). When stimulation was increased to 2- or 3- times S50, GABA significantly affected neither spike latency nor spike jitter. Our results suggest that a decrease in ?m associated with elevations in ambient GABA can improve EPSP-spike precision at near-threshold synaptic inputs. PMID:24399937

Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Xu, Chun; Song, Inseon; Doronin, Maxim; Wu, Yu-Wei; Walker, Matthew C.; Semyanov, Alexey

2013-01-01

282

Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

1997-02-01

283

Plasma treatment increased shear bond strength between heat cured acrylic resin and self-curing acrylic resin.  

PubMed

Self-curing acrylic resin is generally used for the repair of a fractured denture base. However, re-fracture of the repaired denture base resin often occurs because of poor bonding strength between the base resin and self-curing repair resin. The effect of plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between heat cured acrylic resin and the self-cured acrylic was examined. It was revealed that plasma irradiation is effective in increasing the shear bond strength. Plasma irradiation does not cause environmental pollution, as it does not require chemicals. It is a useful method to increase adhesive strength between heat cured acrylic resin and self-curing acrylic resin. PMID:14641672

Nishigawa, G; Maruo, Y; Oka, M; Oki, K; Minagi, S; Okamoto, M

2003-11-01

284

High pressure thermal hydrolysis as pre-treatment to increase the methane yield during anaerobic digestion of microalgae.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of algal biomass will be an essential component of algal biofuel production systems, yet the methane yield from digestion of algae is typically much lower than the theoretical potential. In this work, high pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) is shown to enhance methane yield during algae digestion. HPTH pre-treatment was applied to both raw algae and algal residue resulting from lipid extraction. HPTH and even the lipid extraction process itself increased methane yield, by 81% and 33% respectively; in combination they increased yield by 110% over that of the raw algae (18L CH4 gVS(-1) substrate). HPTH had little effect on the rate of anaerobic digestion, however lipid extraction enhanced it by 33% over that for raw algae (0.21day(-1)). Digestion resulted in solubilisation of nitrogen (and phosphorous to a lesser degree) in all cases, showing that there is potential for nutrient recycling for algal growth. PMID:23347920

Keymer, Philip; Ruffell, Ian; Pratt, Steven; Lant, Paul

2013-03-01

285

Increased Nek1 expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma cells is associated with decreased sensitivity to DNA-damaging treatment  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease with resistance to systemic chemotherapy. Elevated expression of multiple drug resistance (MDR) has been suggested to be one of the mechanisms for this resistance. Here, we provide an alternative mechanism to explain RCC's resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Never-in mitosis A-related protein kinase 1 (Nek1) plays an important role in DNA damage response and proper checkpoint activation. The association of Nek1 with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) is a critical determinant of cell survival following DNA-damaging treatment. We report here that Nek1 is highly expressed in RCC tumor and cultured RCC cells compared to that of normal renal tubular epithelial cells (RTE). The association between Nek1 and VDAC1 is genotoxic dependent: prolonged Nek1/VDAC1 dissociation will lead to VDAC1 dephosphorylation and initiate apoptosis. Down-regulation of Nek1 expression in RCC cells enhanced their sensitivity to DNA-damaging treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that the increased Nek1 expression in RCC cells maintain persistent VDAC1 phosphorylation, closing its channel and preventing the onset of apoptosis under genotoxic insults. Based on these results, we believe that Nek1 can serve as a potential therapeutic target for drug development in the treatment of RCC. PMID:24970796

Chen, Yumay; Chen, Chi-Fen; Polci, Rosaria; Wei, Randy; Riley, Daniel J.; Chen, Phang-Lang

2014-01-01

286

Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.  

PubMed

The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-?, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP. PMID:24671717

Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Fukuda, Taku; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Nagasato, Kunihiko; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Kenji; Niwa, Masami; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hideki; Nishida, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Atsushi

2014-06-01

287

Effects of drought and warming treatments on CO2 fluxes in shrubland ecosystems across an environmental gradient: a synthesis of the INCREASE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal changes of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of terrestrial ecosystems are the result of different interactions between CO2 assimilation (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) with environmental drivers. There is still debate about to which extent low soil moisture (drought) and increased temperature (warming) can affect GPP or ER depending on both functional groups and ecosystem climate types. In dynamic systems, such as shrubland ecosystems, these effects can be difficult to predict. We used the INCREASE network infrastructure "space-for-time substitution" (natural gradient and experimental approach) to quantify the effects of drought and warming on GPP, ER, SR and NEE across 6 European shrublands. The sites ranged from Denmark to Southern Italy along a precipitation and temperature gradient. In addition, INCREASE experimentally manipulates the climate in 20 m2 plots simulating the climate change: reflective curtains are drawn across plots at night preventing heat loss (warming treatment) while other plots are periodically covered by curtains during rain events thereby reducing the water input from precipitation (drought treatment). The measurements of soil CO2 efflux (SR), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and total ecosystem respiration (ER) were done according to common protocols using chamber method, while the gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GPP) was estimated by difference between NEE and ER. Preliminary results indicate large flux variability across the sites and the seasons. The drought treatment tends to limit the loss of CO2 through the respiratory processes, while the warming treatment seems to stimulate all the processes in most sites, even in the Mediterranean where the temperature has never been considered a limiting factor.

Guidolotti, Gabriele; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Baarsel, Susie; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kopittke, Gillian; Tietema, Albert; Emmet, Bridgett; De Angelis, Paolo; Kappel Schmidt, Inger

2013-04-01

288

Surgical treatment for hydrosalpinx increases the expression of integrin ?v?3 in the endometrium during the implantation window.  

PubMed

To investigate the clinical importance of increased integrin ?v?3 expression in the endometrium following the surgical treatment for hydrosalpinx, a total of 60 patients with hydrosalpinx and 30 patients with fallopian tube obstruction were recruited. In the implantation window, immunohistochemistry was performed to detect integrin ?v?3 expression in the endometrium of the hydrosalpinx patients before and after surgery and of patients with fallopian tube obstruction. In the implantation window, integrin ?v?3 expression levels in the endometrium of hydrosalpinx patients before surgery were significantly lower compared to those in patients with fallopian tube obstruction (P<0.05). However, there were no marked differences in integrin ?v?3 expression in the implantation window between hydrosalpinx patients after surgical intervention and patients with fallopian tube obstruction (P>0.05). Furthermore, for patients with hydrosalpinx, integrin ?v?3 expression levels in the implantation window were dramatically increased after surgery (P<0.05). Hydrosalpinx decreases integrin ?v?3 expression in the endometrium in the implantation window, and integrin ?v?3 may be an important factor influencing the endometrial receptivity of hydrosalpinx patients. Surgical treatment for hydrosalpinx can improve integrin ?v?3 expression in the endometrium during implantation. PMID:23181110

Zhong, Yiping; Li, Jin; Wu, Haitao; Ying, Ying; Liu, Yafeng; Zhou, Canquan; Xu, Yanwen; Shen, Xiaoting; Qi, Quan

2012-09-01

289

Behavioral flexibility is increased by optogenetic inhibition of neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell during specific time segments  

PubMed Central

Behavioral flexibility is vital for survival in an environment of changing contingencies. The nucleus accumbens may play an important role in behavioral flexibility, representing learned stimulus–reward associations in neural activity during response selection and learning from results. To investigate the role of nucleus accumbens neural activity in behavioral flexibility, we used light-activated halorhodopsin to inhibit nucleus accumbens shell neurons during specific time segments of a bar-pressing task requiring a win–stay/lose–shift strategy. We found that optogenetic inhibition during action selection in the time segment preceding a lever press had no effect on performance. However, inhibition occurring in the time segment during feedback of results—whether rewards or nonrewards—reduced the errors that occurred after a change in contingency. Our results demonstrate critical time segments during which nucleus accumbens shell neurons integrate feedback into subsequent responses. Inhibiting nucleus accumbens shell neurons in these time segments, during reinforced performance or after a change in contingencies, increases lose–shift behavior. We propose that the activity of nucleus shell accumbens shell neurons in these time segments plays a key role in integrating knowledge of results into subsequent behavior, as well as in modulating lose–shift behavior when contingencies change. PMID:24639489

Aquili, Luca; Liu, Andrew W.; Shindou, Mayumi; Shindou, Tomomi; Wickens, Jeffery R.

2014-01-01

290

Catheter ablation of canine ventricular myocardium. The use of repetitive short time constant capacitive shocks to increase lesion volume.  

PubMed

Arching and barotrauma, seen with high energy DC catheter ablation, are responsible for diffuse cardiac damage and coronary sinus rupture. In six anesthetized dogs, we investigated the effects of an increasing number of short time-constant capacitive shocks on the volume of myocardial damage. Each dog received capacitive shocks of 2 J/kg at 3 sites in the left ventricle. One shock was delivered in 2 dogs, 2 shocks were delivered in 2 dogs and 3 shocks were delivered in 2 dogs. Shock delivery was not accompanied by hemodynamic collapse, sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. The dogs were sacrificed at 60 minutes. Mean (SEM) lesion volumes were 195 (39) mm3, 480 (41) mm3, and 595 (110) mm3, respectively. Despite variability in individual volume of damage, there was a significant increase in lesion volume with an increasing number of shocks. There was no evidence of perforation or tamponade. Increasing myocardial damage can be produced using repetitive capacitive shocks. Delivery of 2 shocks produces clinically useful lesions without the adverse effects associated with single high energy shocks. Repetitive capacitive shocks offer a method of increasing lesion volume without increasing energy and thereby without compromising safety. PMID:9186286

Watanabe, I; Nakai, T; Yanagawa, S; Watanabe, H; Kojima, T; Kondo, K; Takahashi, Y; Saito, S; Ozawa, Y; Kanmatsuse, K

1997-01-01

291

Computational Modeling and Real-Time Control of Patient-Specific Laser Treatment of Cancer  

PubMed Central

An adaptive feedback control system is presented which employs a computational model of bioheat transfer in living tissue to guide, in real-time, laser treatments of prostate cancer monitored by magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI). The system is built on what can be referred to as cyberinfrastructure - a complex structure of high-speed network, large-scale parallel computing devices, laser optics, imaging, visualizations, inverse-analysis algorithms, mesh generation, and control systems that guide laser therapy to optimally control the ablation of cancerous tissue. The computational system has been successfully tested on in-vivo, canine prostate. Over the course of an 18 minute laser induced thermal therapy (LITT) performed at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in Houston, Texas, the computational models were calibrated to intra-operative real time thermal imaging treatment data and the calibrated models controlled the bioheat transfer to within 5°C of the predetermined treatment plan. The computational arena is in Austin, Texas and managed at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES). The system is designed to control the bioheat transfer remotely while simultaneously providing real-time remote visualization of the on-going treatment. Post operative histology of the canine prostate reveal that the damage region was within the targeted 1.2cm diameter treatment objective. PMID:19148754

Fuentes, D.; Oden, J. T.; Diller, K. R.; Hazle, J. D.; Elliott, A.; Shetty, A.; Stafford, R. J.

2014-01-01

292

Time variation of adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment: in vitro study using OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time variation of the adipose tissue refractive index under photodynamic treatment was studied using OCT. Fat tissue slices 200-500 ?m thick were used in in vitro experiments. To stain the fat tissue we used water-ethanol solutions of indocyanine green (ICG) and brilliant green (BG) with the concentration 1 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml, respectively. The CW laser diode (VD-VII DPSS, 808 nm) and the dental diode irradiator Ultra Lume Led 5 (442 and 597 nm) were used for irradiation of tissue slices. The irradiation time was 5 min for the laser and 15 min for the diode lamp. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. It was discovered the immersion optical clearing of fat tissue slices due to fat cell lipolysis under photodynamic treatment. Released cell content works as an immersion agent, thus the relative refractive index of tissue scatterers decreasing with the time elapsed after the treatment. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic treatment induces fat cell lipolysis for some period after treatment.

Yanina, Irina Yu.; Trunina, Natalia A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2012-03-01

293

Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Methods Taiwan’s extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan’s crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. Results The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan’s crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan’s and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan’s trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Conclusions Significant social events, such as a well-known person’s successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:24592981

2014-01-01

294

Global Demethylation of Rat Chondrosarcoma Cells after Treatment with 5-Aza-2?-Deoxycytidine Results in Increased Tumorigenicity  

PubMed Central

Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells. PMID:20019818

Hamm, Christopher A.; Xie, Hehuang; Costa, Fabricio F.; Vanin, Elio F.; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Sredni, Simone T.; Bischof, Jared; Wang, Deli; Bonaldo, Maria F.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Soares, Marcelo B.

2009-01-01

295

Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects.  

PubMed

Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic treatment, as well as the influence of a preceding chronic treatment on the acute effects of olanzapine on glucose metabolism. The effect of chronic olanzapine treatment (±6.5 mg/kg/day, administered via drinking water) on body weight, locomotor activity, body temperature, fat distribution and energy expenditure was investigated in male rats. After 5 weeks, the animals received an acute olanzapine challenge (intragastric, IG) at 3 mg/kg/h during 160 min to investigate the acute effects of olanzapine on glucose metabolism. Chronic olanzapine-treated animals showed a slight decrease in nocturnal body temperature, and increased perirenal fat pad weights as well as plasma leptin. In addition, chronic olanzapine-treated animals showed hyperinsulinaemia with unchanged blood glucose concentrations. The acute challenge with IG olanzapine elevated blood glucose levels and endogenous glucose production in control animals, but not in chronic olanzapine-pre-treated rats. Chronic olanzapine-treated animals also showed reduced locomotor activity and a higher respiratory exchange ratio. Thus, chronic treatment with olanzapine in rats causes desensitization to its acute effects on glucose metabolism but promotes adiposity probably due to a shift from lipids to carbohydrates as an energy source. Chronic exposure to olanzapine changes body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in an unfavourable direction, but it is still unclear what the primary mechanism is. PMID:24190543

Girault, Elodie M; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

2014-02-01

296

Treatment with glucokinase activator, YH-GKA, increases cell proliferation and decreases glucotoxic apoptosis in INS-1 cells.  

PubMed

Glucokinase (GK), an enzyme that phosphorylates glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate, has a role in regulating insulin secretion and proliferation in beta cells. GK activators (GKAs) have been developed as new therapies for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the proliferation and anti-apoptotic actions of YH-GKA, a novel and potent GKA, in INS-1 pancreatic ?-cells. YH-GKA treatment increased cell numbers at 3 mM glucose via upregulation of insulin receptor substrate-2 and subsequent activation of AKT/protein kinase B phosphorylation. YH-GKA also increased beta-catenin and cyclin D2 mRNA expression and inactivated GSK3? by increasing phosphorylation. These proliferative effects of YH-GKA were attenuated by IRS-2 downregulation. Moreover, YH-GKA reduced annexin-V-stained cells and expression levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3 induced by glucotoxicity. YH-GKA inhibited apoptotic signaling via induction of ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and citrate synthase activity and was correlated with changes of the mitochondrial function-related genes. YH-GKA also increased interaction between GK and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein. Our results suggest that the novel GKA, YH-GKA, promotes beta cell growth and prevents glucotoxic beta cell apoptosis. Therefore, YH-GKA may provide a therapy that compensates for beta cell loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24056026

Oh, Yoon Sin; Lee, Youn-Jung; Park, Kaapjoo; Choi, Hyun Ho; Yoo, Sangjong; Jun, Hee-Sook

2014-01-23

297

Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

2012-01-01

298

Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

2006-01-01

299

The Right Treatment for the Right Patient (at the Right Time)  

E-print Network

The Right Treatment for the Right Patient (at the Right Time): Personalized Medicine and Statistics.ncsu.edu/~davidian 1/41 Personalized Medicine and Statistics #12;"Personalized Medicine " Source of graphic: http://www.personalizedmedicine.com/ 2/41 Personalized Medicine and Statistics #12;Why is a statistician talking to you about

Davidian, Marie

300

The prospective relationship between sedentary time and cardiometabolic health in adults at increased cardiometabolic risk - the Hoorn Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sedentary time has been identified as an important and independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adults. However, to date most studies have focused on TV time, few also included other sedentary behaviours such as computer use and reading, and most studies had a cross-sectional design. We aimed to examine the prospective relationship between time spent on sedentary behaviours in different domains with individual and clustered cardiometabolic risk in adults. Methods Longitudinal data of 622 adults aged 30-50 years (42% males) at increased cardiometabolic risk were used. Leisure time TV viewing, computer use, reading and other sedentary activities (e.g. passive transport) were assessed using a subscale of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (AQuAA), and summed into overall sedentary behaviour (min/day). Weight and blood pressure were measured, waist-to-hip ratio and BMI calculated, and fasting plasma levels of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides determined. T2DM risk score was estimated according to the ARIC formula and CVD mortality risk according to the SCORE formula. Results Generalized Estimating Equation analysis demonstrated that over a two-year period higher levels of overall sedentary time and TV time were weakly but negatively associated with one out of 13 studied cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e. HDL cholesterol). Conclusion Overall sedentary time, as well as sedentary time in different domains, was virtually not related with cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:25027974

2014-01-01

301

Determinants of the Timing of Symptomatic Treatment in Early Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the predictive value of baseline measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life for the timing of initiation of symptomatic treatment in early Parkinson disease (PD). Design Inception cohort analysis. Setting Ambulatory population from multiple sites in the United States and Canada. Participants Four hundred thirteen patients with early, untreated PD who participated in 2 double-blind trials that assessed the potential of experimental drugs to serve as disease-modifying agents in PD. Intervention Participants were randomized into treatment groups: creatine (n=67), minocycline (n=66), coenzyme Q10(n=71), GPI-1485(n=71), and placebo(n=138). Main Outcome Measure Time between baseline assessment and need for the initiation of symptomatic treatment for PD. The following baseline variables were assessed for their relation to the main outcome measure, while adjusting for possible treatment effect: sex; age; level of education; race/ethnicity; disease duration; occupational status; and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey, Modified Rankin Scale, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale, Total Functional Capacity Scale, 39-item Parkinson Disease Questionnaire, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores. Variables reaching statistical threshold in univariate analyses (?=.15) were entered into a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model using time to symptomatic treatment as the dependent variable. Results Approximately half (48.5%) of the participants reached end point within 12 months. Higher baseline impairment and disability, as determined by UPDRS III (motor section), UPDRS II (activities of daily living section, participant rating), and Modified Rankin Scale scores and level of education were independently associated with an earlier need for symptomatic treatment. Conclusions In early PD, greater impairment and disability and higher level of education are independently associated with an earlier need for symptomatic treatment. PMID:19597081

Parashos, Sotirios A.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Biglan, Kevin M.; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan; Liang, Grace S.; Ross, G. Webster; Tilley, Barbara C.; Shulman, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

302

Digoxin treatment is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Laboratory and epidemiologic studies have suggested a modifying effect of cardiac glycosides (for example, digoxin and digitoxin) on cancer risk. We explored the association between digoxin treatment and invasive breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal Danish women. Methods We used Danish registries to identify 5,565 postmenopausal women diagnosed with incident invasive breast carcinoma between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2007, and 55,650 matched population controls. Cardiac glycoside prescriptions were ascertained from county prescription registries. All subjects had at least 2 years of recorded prescription drug and medical history data. We estimated the odds ratio associating digoxin use with breast cancer in conditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, county of residence, and use of anticoagulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin, and hormone replacement therapy. We also explored the impact of confounding by indication and detection bias. Results Digoxin was the sole cardiac glycoside prescribed to subjects during the study period. There were 324 breast cancer cases (5.8%) and 2,546 controls (4.6%) with a history of digoxin use at least 1 year before their index date (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 1.14 to 1.48). The breast cancer OR increased modestly with increasing duration of digoxin exposure (adjusted OR for 7 to 18 years of digoxin use: 1.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 1.74). The association was robust to adjustment for age, receipt of hormone replacement therapy, coprescribed drugs, and confounding by indication. A comparison of screening mammography rates between cases and controls showed no evidence of detection bias. Conclusions Our results suggest that digoxin treatment increases the risk of invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women. PMID:19055760

Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; S?rensen, Henrik T; Pedersen, Lars

2008-01-01

303

Narrative exposure therapy for PTSD increases top-down processing of aversive stimuli - evidence from a randomized controlled treatment trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Little is known about the neurobiological foundations of psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Prior studies have shown that PTSD is associated with altered processing of threatening and aversive stimuli. It remains unclear whether this functional abnormality can be changed by psychotherapy. This is the first randomized controlled treatment trial that examines whether narrative exposure therapy (NET) causes changes in affective stimulus processing in patients with chronic PTSD. Methods 34 refugees with PTSD were randomly assigned to a NET group or to a waitlist control (WLC) group. At pre-test and at four-months follow-up, the diagnostics included the assessment of clinical variables and measurements of neuromagnetic oscillatory brain activity (steady-state visual evoked fields, ssVEF) resulting from exposure to aversive pictures compared to neutral pictures. Results PTSD as well as depressive symptom severity scores declined in the NET group, whereas symptoms persisted in the WLC group. Only in the NET group, parietal and occipital activity towards threatening pictures increased significantly after therapy. Conclusions Our results indicate that NET causes an increase of activity associated with cortical top-down regulation of attention towards aversive pictures. The increase of attention allocation to potential threat cues might allow treated patients to re-appraise the actual danger of the current situation and, thereby, reducing PTSD symptoms. Registration of the clinical trial Number: NCT00563888 Name: "Change of Neural Network Indicators Through Narrative Treatment of PTSD in Torture Victims" ULR: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00563888 PMID:22182346

2011-01-01

304

Predictors of time to requiring dopaminergic treatment in 2 Parkinson's disease cohorts.  

PubMed

The rate of progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable. Knowledge of factors associated with disease milestones and commonly used research outcome measures helps with patient counseling and guides the design and interpretation of clinical studies. The objective of the study was to identify prognostic factors for time to acquiring disability requiring dopaminergic therapy that are reproducible within 2 large prospectively followed cohorts. Potential prognostic factors were identified using data from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) trial, and their reproducibility was examined using data from the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 trial (PRECEPT). In multivariable analyses of the DATATOP cohort, higher baseline Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, full-time employment, a lesser smoking history, and onset on the left side were associated with a shorter time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy. PRECEPT data confirmed the associations of higher baseline UPDRS scores and full-time employment with shorter time to requiring treatment. Any clinical trial using the end point of time to disability requiring dopaminergic therapy should ensure that groups are well balanced with respect to baseline UPDRS scores and the proportion of subjects employed full time and should consider including these variables as covariates in the statistical model for primary analysis of treatment effects. We suspect that individuals employed full time may have a lower threshold for requiring dopaminergic therapy because of occupational demands. PMID:21287602

Marras, Connie; McDermott, Michael P; Marek, Ken; Rochon, Paula; Naglie, Gary; Tanner, Caroline M; Rudolph, Alice; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E

2011-03-01

305

Effects of chronic treatment with fluoxetine on receptor-stimulated increase of [Ca2+]i in astrocytes mimic those of acute inhibition of TRPC1 channel activity.  

PubMed

Primary cultures of mouse astrocytes were used to investigate effects by chronic treatment (3-21 days) with fluoxetine (0.5-10 ?M) on capacitative Ca(2+) influx after treatment with the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin and on receptor agonist-induced increases in free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i), determined with Fura-2. The agonists were the 5-HT(2B) agonist fluoxetine, the ?(2)-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine, and ryanodine receptor (RyR) and IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) agonists. In untreated sister cultures each agonist distinctly increased [Ca(2+)](i), but in cultures treated for sufficient length of time or with sufficiently high doses of fluoxetine, acute administration of fluoxetine, dexmedetomidine, or RyR or IP(3)R agonists elicited reduced, in some cases abolished, effects. Capacitative Ca(2+) entry, meditated by TRPC1 channels, was sufficiently inhibited to cause a depletion of Ca(2+) stores, which could explain the reduced agonist effects. All effects of chronic fluoxetine administration could be replicated by TRPC1 channel antibody or siRNA. Since increases in astrocytic [Ca(2+)](i) regulate release of gliotransmitters, these effects may have profound effects on brain function. They may be important for therapeutic effects of all 5 conventional 'serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors' (SSRIs), which at concentrations used therapeutically (?1 ?M) share other of fluoxetine's chronic effects (Zhang et al., Neuron Glia Biol. 16 (2010) 1-13). PMID:21640379

Li, Baoman; Dong, Lu; Fu, Hui; Wang, Bing; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

2011-07-01

306

Lack of increase in time to blood culture positivity in a patient with persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia predicts failure of antimicrobial therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time to positivity is an available parameter in automated blood culture systems. We report a patient with persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who received various regimens for treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and demonstrate that monitoring of the time to positive blood culture might be helpful in the early recognition of treatment failure.

Chun-Hsing Liao; Yu-Tsung Huang; Fang-Yeh Chu; Tsui-Hsien Lin; Po-Ren Hsueh

307

A Real-Time Tool to Display the Predicted Disease Course and Treatment Response for Children with Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Immunomodulators and biologics are effective treatments for children with Crohn’s disease (CD). The challenge of communicating the anticipated disease course with and without therapy to patients and parents is a barrier to the timely use of these agents. The aim of this project was to develop a tool to graphically display the predicted risks of CD and expected benefits of therapy. METHODS Using prospectively collected data from 796 pediatric CD patients we developed a model using system dynamics analysis (SDA). The primary model outcome is the probability of developing a CD related complication. Input variables include patient and disease characteristics, magnitude of serologic immune responses expressed as the quartile sum score (QSS), and exposure to medical treatments. RESULTS Multivariate Cox proportional analyses show variables contributing a significant increase in the hazard ratio (HR) for a disease complication include female gender, older age at diagnosis, small bowel or perianal disease, and a higher QSS. As QSS increases, the HR for early use of corticosteroids increases, in contrast to a decreasing HR with early use of immunomodulators, early or late biologics, and early combination therapy. The concordance index for the model is 0.81. Using SDA, results of the Cox analyses are transformed into a simple graph displaying a real-time individualized probability of disease complication and treatment response. CONCLUSIONS We have developed a tool to predict and communicate individualized risks of CD complications and how this is modified by treatment. Once validated, it can be used at the bedside to facilitate patient decision making. PMID:20812335

Siegel, Corey A.; Siegel, Lori S.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Kugathasan, Subra; Markowitz, James; Rosh, Joel R.; Leleiko, Neal; Mack, David R.; Crandall, Wallace; Evans, Jonathan; Keljo, David J.; Otley, Anthony R.; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Farrior, Sharmayne; Langton, Christine R.; Wrobel, Iwona T.; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Quiros, J. Antonio; Silber, Gary; Bahar, Ron J.; Sands, Bruce E.; Dubinsky, Marla C.

2010-01-01

308

Half-century nitrogen deposition increase across China: A gridded time-series data set for regional environmental assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of studies have revealed a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) deposition in China, but the lack of spatially-explicit time-series N deposition data set has long hindered us from assessing the impacts of atmospheric N input on ecosystem services. In this study, we combined site-level monitoring, gridded precipitation data and atmospheric transport modeling results to generate annual N bulk deposition data in China with a spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km and a time span from 1961 to 2008. It shows that national average N deposition rate had large interannual variation, and it increased by 59%, from 12.64 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the 1960s to 20.07 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the recent decade, with the most rapid increase centered in the southeastern China that is already N-enriched. Large spatial variation as well as dry deposition input has to be taken into account when estimating the amount of N deposited onto land surface of China. The spatial and temporal information on N deposition derived from this study could be used by ecosystem, hydrological, and climate modeling as well as by policy makers for assessing the impacts of nitrogen enrichment on regional climate, water resources, and biogeochemical cycles.

Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin

2014-11-01

309

Analysis of Injury Rates and Treatment Patterns for Time-Loss and Non–Time-Loss Injuries Among Collegiate Student-Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the injury rates for time-loss and non–time-loss injuries among selected intercollegiate athletic programs and to describe the number of treatments associated with these injuries. Design and Setting: A volunteer, cross-sectional cohort study of 50 collegiate athletic programs representing the 3 National Collegiate Athletic Association divisions, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, and the National Junior College Athletic Association during the 2000–2002 academic years. Subjects: Individuals listed on the team rosters for the participating institutions and representing the sports associated with the institution's athletic programs. Measurements: The athletic training staff and students recorded the injury and treatment data for the participating institutions. The data included information for time-loss and non– time-loss injuries, daily treatments, and daily athlete-exposures. Results: Non–time-loss injury rates were 3.5 (confidence interval = 3.4, 3.6) times the time-loss rate for men and 5.1 (confidence interval = 4.9, 5.2) times the time-loss rate for women. Non–time-loss injuries required more treatments over the course of the year than did time-loss injuries. For men's sports, 22% of the injuries resulted in loss of participation time, with 47% of the treatments associated with these injuries. For women's sports, 16% of the injuries and 34% of the treatments were associated with time-loss injuries. Conclusions: Throughout the sports medicine year, athletic training staff and students spent more time delivering treatments to athletes who were not missing participation time than to athletes who were missing time. A noteworthy difference in the workforce available to provide health care among the various levels of intercollegiate athletics may contribute to the frequency of injury and treatments reported. PMID:15085213

Dompier, Thomas P.

2004-01-01

310

Climate Response to the Increase in Tropospheric Ozone since Preindustrial Times: A Comparison between Ozone and Equivalent CO2 Forcings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the characteristics of the climate response to anthropogenic changes in tropospheric ozone. Using a general circulation model, we have carried out a pair of equilibrium climate simulations with realistic present-day and preindustrial ozone distributions. We find that the instantaneous radiative forcing of 0.49 W m(sup -2) due to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times results in an increase in global mean surface temperature of 0.28 C. The increase is nearly 0.4 C in the Northern Hemisphere and about 0.2 C in the Southern Hemisphere. The largest increases (greater than 0.8 C) are downwind of Europe and Asia and over the North American interior in summer. In the lower stratosphere, global mean temperatures decrease by about 0.2 C due to the diminished upward flux of radiation at 9.6 micrometers. The largest stratospheric cooling, up to 1.0 C, occurs over high northern latitudes in winter, with possibly important implications for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. To identify the characteristics of climate forcing unique to tropospheric ozone, we have conducted two additional climate equilibrium simulations: one in which preindustrial tropospheric ozone concentrations were increased everywhere by 18 ppb, producing the same global radiative forcing as present-day ozone but without the heterogeneity; and one in which CO2 was decreased by 25 ppm relative to present day, with ozone at present-day values, to again produce the same global radiative forcing but with the spectral signature of CO2 rather than ozone. In the first simulation (uniform increase of ozone), the global mean surface temperature increases by 0.25 C, with an interhemispheric difference of only 0.03 C, as compared with nearly 0.2 C for the heterogeneous ozone increase. In the second simulation (equivalent CO2), the global mean surface temperature increases by 0.36 C, 30% higher than the increase from tropospheric ozone. The stronger surface warming from CO2 is in part because CO2 forcing (obscured by water vapor) is shifted relatively poleward where the positive ice-albedo feedback amplifies the climate response and in part because the magnitude of the CO2 forcing in the mid-troposphere is double that of ozone. However, we find that CO2 is far less effective than tropospheric ozone in driving lower stratospheric cooling at high northern latitudes in winter.

Mickley L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Field, B. D.; Rind, D.

2004-01-01

311

Influence of gas and treatment time on the surface modification of EPDM rubber treated at afterglow microwave plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber possesses excellent physical/chemical bulk properties, is cost-effective, and has been used in the mechanical and aerospace industry. However, it has an inert surface and needs a surface treatment in order to improve its adhesion properties. Plasma modification is the most accepted technique for surface modification of polymers without affecting the properties of the bulk. In this study, an afterglow microwave plasma reactor was used to generate the plasma species responsible for the EPDM surface modification. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, adhesion tests, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Two experimental variables were analyzed: type of the plasma gases and exposure time were considered. The predominant failure mode was adhesive, for long treatment times a mixture of adhesive and cohesive failure can be observed and the best conditions tested there was an increase of the rupture strength of about 27%, that can be associated mainly with the creation of oxygen containing functional groups on the rubber surface (CO, COC and CO) identified by spectroscopic methods. The predominant failure mode was adhesive, for long treatment times a mixture of adhesive and cohesive failure can be observed. In various conditions tested the contact angles easily decreased more than 500%. What can be concluded that high wettability is a necessary condition to obtain good adhesion, but this is not a sufficient condition.

da Maia, J. V.; Pereira, F. P.; Dutra, J. C. N.; Mello, S. A. C.; Becerra, E. A. O.; Massi, M.; Sobrinho, A. S. da Silva

2013-11-01

312

Prazosin treatment suppresses increased vascular permeability in both acute and passively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the lewis rat  

SciTech Connect

Prazosin, an antagonist of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoceptor, has been found to suppress the clinical and histologic expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. This effect appears to be specific for the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-receptor. To determine the effect of this drug on vascular permeability to serum proteins and inflammatory cells, leakage of serum proteins into the central nervous system (CNS) was measured with (/sup 125/I)albumin, and quantitation of cellular inflammation was determined by an estimation of total DNA. The results show that in both actively induced and passively transferred models of the disease, treatment with prazosin significantly suppresses leakage of serum proteins into the CNS but does not significantly suppress the increase of DNA. The results of the (/sup 125/I)albumin studies additionally support the conclusion that the extent of vascular permeability to serum proteins in the spinal cord is a significant correlate of clinical disease. The results of the DNA estimation were at variance with the histologic evidence of cellular infiltration. The authors conclude that treatment with prazosin has a significant effect on the development of vascular edema in EAE. These results additionally validate a role for the adrenergic receptor in the development of EAE, and support the hypothesis that the primary site of action of prazosin is on the vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenoceptor.

Goldmuntz, E.A.; Brosnan, C.F.; Norton, W.T.

1986-12-01

313

A simple method of independent treatment time verification in gamma knife radiosurgery using integral dose.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop a simple independent dose calculation method to verify treatment plans for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Our approach uses the total integral dose within the skull as an end point for comparison. The total integral dose is computed using a spreadsheet and is compared to that obtained from Leksell GammaPlan. It is calculated as the sum of the integral doses of 201 beams, each passing through a cylindrical volume. The average length of the cylinders is estimated from the Skull-Scaler measurement data taken before treatment. Correction factors are applied to the length of the cylinder depending on the location of a shot in the skull. The radius of the cylinder corresponds to the collimator aperture of the helmet, with a correction factor for the beam penumbra and scattering. We have tested our simple spreadsheet program using treatment plans of 40 patients treated with Gamma Knife in our center. These patients differ in geometry, size, lesion locations, collimator helmet, and treatment complexities. Results show that differences between our calculations and treatment planning results are typically within +/-3%, with a maximum difference of +/-3.8%. We demonstrate that our spreadsheet program is a convenient and effective independent method to verify treatment planning irradiation times prior to implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. PMID:15651617

Jin, Jian-Yue; Drzymala, Robert; Li, Zuofeng

2004-12-01

314

A simple method of independent treatment time verification in gamma knife radiosurgery using integral dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop a simple independent dose calculation method to verify treatment plans for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Our approach uses the total integral dose within the skull as an end point for comparison. The total integral dose is computed using a spreadsheet and is compared to that obtained from Leksell GammaPlan registered . It is calculated as the sum of the integral doses of 201 beams, each passing through a cylindrical volume. The average length of the cylinders is estimated from the Skull-Scaler measurement data taken before treatment. Correction factors are applied to the length of the cylinder depending on the location of a shot in the skull. The radius of the cylinder corresponds to the collimator aperture of the helmet, with a correction factor for the beam penumbra and scattering. We have tested our simple spreadsheet program using treatment plans of 40 patients treated with Gamma Knife registered in our center. These patients differ in geometry, size, lesion locations, collimator helmet, and treatment complexities. Results show that differences between our calculations and treatment planning results are typically within {+-}3%, with a maximum difference of {+-}3.8%. We demonstrate that our spreadsheet program is a convenient and effective independent method to verify treatment planning irradiation times prior to implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

Jin Jianyue; Drzymala, Robert; Li Zuofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2004-12-01

315

Non-local time-dependent treatments of convection in A-G type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-Dependent Convection (TDC) models obtained by combining the local treatment of Gabriel (1996) and Grigahcene et al. (2005) and the non-local prescriptions of Spiegel (1963) are presented. We show that in the stationary unperturbed case, these non-local treatments can be constrained by the results of 3D hydrodynamic simulations (Stein & Nordlund 1998). We consider here the case of solar-type stars with a large convective envelope and A-F type stars with two very thin surface convection zones.

Dupret, M.-A.; Samadi, R.; Grigahcene, A.; Goupil, M.-J.; Gabriel, M.

2006-01-01

316

Differences in lead tolerance between Kandelia obovata and Acanthus ilicifolius seedlings under varying treatment times.  

PubMed

The effects of short-term (1 day) and long-term (49 days) of lead (Pb) stress on growth and physiological responses in the leaves and roots of two mangrove plants, Kandelia obovata and Acanthus ilicifolius, were compared. The growth of both species was affected by Pb at Day 49, whereas the root to shoot ratio of K. obovata remained unchanged. Compared with A. ilicifolius, less Pb accumulated in leaves of K. obovata, which indicates that this species is a typical Pb-excluder. Significant linear relationships were observed between the Pb concentrations in the roots and leaves and the Pb treatment concentrations in the sediments in A. ilicifolius but not in K. obovata. The proline concentration increased in both mangrove species at Day 49, especially in A. ilicifolius, but no changes were observed at Day 1. The tolerant species K. obovata tended to acclimate to metal stress by restricting the translocation of toxic metals and by increasing and/or maintaining high superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, minimizing lipid peroxidation, and exhibiting prolonged unaltered growth (49 days) under Pb treatment. The non-tolerant species, A. ilicifolius, did not acclimate to metal stress, its leaves were seriously damaged with significant increased MDA content, and its SOD activity was decreased. An increase of endogenous jasmonic acid concentration was observed only in K. obovata, both at Day 1 and at Day 49, which suggests that this hormone plays an important role in metal tolerance under short-term and long-term metal treatment. PMID:23202134

Yan, Zhongzheng; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

2013-01-15

317

GPU-accelerated ray-tracing for real-time treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dose calculation methods in radiotherapy treatment planning require the radiological depth information of the voxels that represent the patient volume to correct for tissue inhomogeneities. This information is acquired by time consuming ray-tracing-based calculations. For treatment planning scenarios with changing geometries and real-time constraints this is a severe bottleneck. We implemented an algorithm for the graphics processing unit (GPU) which implements a ray-matrix approach to reduce the number of rays to trace. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of different strategies of accessing memory in kernel implementations as well as strategies for rapid data transfers between main memory and memory of the graphics device. Our study included the overlapping of computations and memory transfers to reduce the overall runtime using Hyper-Q. We tested our approach on a prostate case (9 beams, coplanar). The measured execution times for a complete ray-tracing range from 28 msec for the computations on the GPU to 99 msec when considering data transfers to and from the graphics device. Our GPU-based algorithm performed the ray-tracing in real-time. The strategies efficiently reduce the time consumption of memory accesses and data transfer overhead. The achieved runtimes demonstrate the viability of this approach and allow improved real-time performance for dose calculation methods in clinical routine.

Heinrich, H.; Ziegenhein, P.; Kamerling, C. P.; Froening, H.; Oelfke, U.

2014-03-01

318

The Effect of Seed and Rosette Cold Treatment on Germination and Flowering Time in Some Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) Ecotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination and flowering responses to cold treatment were investigated in 32 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. A month-long cold treatment at the seed stage decreased the time until flowering in all but one strain, whereas a 3-d cold treatment had little, or the opposing effect. A month-long cold treatment at the rosette stage also decreased the time until flowering, but

Magnus Nordborg; Joy Bergelson

1999-01-01

319

Avidity and positive allosteric modulation/cooperativity act hand in hand to increase the residence time of bivalent receptor ligands.  

PubMed

Bivalent ligands bear two target-binding pharmacophores. Their simultaneous binding increases their affinity (avidity) and residence time. They become 'bitopic' when the binding sites at the target permit the pharmacophores the exert allosteric modulation of each other's affinity and/or activity. Present simulations reveal that positive cooperativity exacerbates these phenomena, whereas negative cooperativity curtails them, irrespective of whether the association or dissociation rates of the individual pharmacophores are affected. Positive cooperativity delays the attainment of equilibrium binding, yielding 'hemi-equilibrium' conditions and only apparent affinity constants under usual experimental conditions. Monovalent ligands that bind to one of the target sites decrease the bitopic ligand's residence time concentration-wise; their potency depends on their association rate and thereon acting cooperativity rather than on affinity. This stems from the repetitive, very fast reformation of fully bound bitopic ligand-target complexes by rebinding of freshly dissociated pharmacophores. These studies deal with kinetic binding properties (of increasing interest in pharmacology) of bitopic ligands (a promising avenue in medicinal chemistry). PMID:24118041

Vauquelin, Georges; Bricca, Giampiero; Van Liefde, Isabelle

2014-10-01

320

Neurogenesis and Increase in Differentiated Neural Cell Survival via Phosphorylation of Akt1 after Fluoxetine Treatment of Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Fluoxetine (FLX) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase) plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and ?-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten ?M of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology. PMID:24024202

Rahmani, Anahita; Kheradmand, Danial; Keyhanvar, Peyman; Darbandi-Azar, Amir

2013-01-01

321

Neurogenesis and increase in differentiated neural cell survival via phosphorylation of Akt1 after fluoxetine treatment of stem cells.  

PubMed

Fluoxetine (FLX) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase) plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and ?-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten ? M of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology. PMID:24024202

Rahmani, Anahita; Kheradmand, Danial; Keyhanvar, Peyman; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Darbandi-Azar, Amir

2013-01-01

322

Time Delay to Treatment and Mortality in Primary Angioplasty for Acute Myocardial Infarction Every Minute of Delay Counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although the relationship between mortality and time delay to treatment has been demonstrated in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by thrombolysis, the impact of time delay on prognosis in patients undergoing primary angioplasty has yet to be clarified. The aim of this report was to address the relationship between time to treatment and mortality as a

Giuseppe De Luca; Harry Suryapranata; Jan Paul Ottervanger; Elliott M. Antman

2011-01-01

323

Time to failure after definitive therapy for prostate cancer: implications for importance of aggressive local treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To explore patterns of time to failure in men receiving high doses of permanent seed brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation therapy as a function of risk status. Material and methods Two thousand two hundred and thirty four patients were treated with prostate brachytherapy with median follow up of 8.0 years. The population was 35% low risk, 49% intermediate risk, and 16% high risk (NCCN). Median day 0 implant D90 was 119% and V100 was 98%. Treatment failure was defined as PSA > 0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Rates of biochemical failure, distant metastases, and prostate cancer death were determined with non-prostate death as a competing risk. Results For all patients, the 10-year biochemical failure, distant metastases, and cause-specific mortality were 4.4%, 1.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The biochemical failure rates were 1.3%, 4.8%, and 10.0% for men with low, intermediate, and high risk disease, respectively. Median time to failure was 2.8 years. In men who died from prostate cancer, the median time from treatment failure to death was 4.2 years. Overall, 83% of biochemical failures and 97% of metastases occurred within the first 4 years after treatment. Conclusions With the dose escalation achieved by high quality brachytherapy dosimetry, even high-risk prostate cancer patients have excellent long term biochemical outcomes. Treatment failures occur early, and one third become metastatic and progress rapidly to prostate cancer death. The low frequency and pattern of failures suggest the presence of micrometastatic disease prior to treatment is rare, even in high risk patients. PMID:24474970

Taira, Al V.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Fiano, Ryan; Wallner, Kent E.; Adamovich, Edward

2013-01-01

324

Hybridization and genome size evolution: timing and magnitude of nuclear DNA content increases in Helianthus homoploid hybrid species  

PubMed Central

Summary Hybridization and polyploidy can induce rapid genomic changes, including the gain or loss of DNA, but the magnitude and timing of such changes are not well understood. The homoploid hybrid system in Helianthus (three hybrid-derived species and their two parents) provides an opportunity to examine the link between hybridization and genome size changes in a replicated fashion. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the nuclear DNA content in multiple populations of three homoploid hybrid Helianthus species (Helianthus anomalus, Helianthus deserticola, and Helianthus paradoxus), the parental species (Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris), synthetic hybrids, and natural hybrid-zone populations. Results confirm that hybrid-derived species have 50% more nuclear DNA than the parental species. Despite multiple origins, hybrid species were largely consistent in their DNA content across populations, although H. deserticola showed significant interpopulation differences. First- and sixth-generation synthetic hybrids and hybrid-zone plants did not show an increase from parental DNA content. First-generation hybrids differed in DNA content according to the maternal parent. In summary, hybridization by itself does not lead to increased nuclear DNA content in Helianthus, and the evolutionary forces responsible for the repeated increases in DNA content seen in the hybrid-derived species remain mysterious. PMID:15998412

Baack, Eric J.; Whitney, Kenneth D.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

2008-01-01

325

Impaired hippocampal neuroligin-2 function by chronic stress or synthetic peptide treatment is linked to social deficits and increased aggression.  

PubMed

Neuroligins (NLGNs) are cell adhesion molecules that are important for proper synaptic formation and functioning, and are critical regulators of the balance between neural excitation/inhibition (E/I). Mutations in NLGNs have been linked to psychiatric disorders in humans involving social dysfunction and are related to similar abnormalities in animal models. Chronic stress increases the likelihood for affective disorders and has been shown to induce changes in neural structure and function in different brain regions, with the hippocampus being highly vulnerable to stress. Previous studies have shown evidence of chronic stress-induced changes in the neural E/I balance in the hippocampus. Therefore, we hypothesized that chronic restraint stress would lead to reduced hippocampal NLGN-2 levels, in association with alterations in social behavior. We found that rats submitted to chronic restraint stress in adulthood display reduced sociability and increased aggression. This occurs along with a reduction of NLGN-2, but not NLGN-1 expression (as shown with western blot, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses), throughout the hippocampus and detectable in different layers of the CA1, CA3, and DG subfields. Furthermore, using synthetic peptides that comprise sequences in either NLGN-1 (neurolide-1) or NLGN-2 (neurolide-2) involved in the interaction with their presynaptic partner neurexin (NRXN)-1, intra-hippocampal administration of neurolide-2 led also to reduced sociability and increased aggression. These results highlight hippocampal NLGN-2 as a key molecular substrate regulating social behaviors and underscore NLGNs as promising targets for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of dysfunctional social behaviors. PMID:24213355

van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor; Korshunova, Irina; Grosse, Jocelyn; Zanoletti, Olivia; Guirado, Ramon; Garcia-Mompó, Clara; Nacher, Juan; Stewart, Michael G; Berezin, Vladimir; Sandi, Carmen

2014-04-01

326

Improving Combined Sewer Overflow and Treatment Plant Performance by Real-Time Control Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time control (RTC) of sewer systems has been proven to be a cost-effective solution for reducing the qualitative impacts\\u000a of both combined sewer overflow discharges into the receiving water bodies and shock loads to the treatment plant. In this\\u000a paper the improvement of the performance of a quality-oriented CSO device by the application of RTC techniques to moveable\\u000a gates

A. P. Campisano; E. Creaco; C. Modica

327

Treatment with afobazole at delayed time points following ischemic stroke improves long-term functional and histological outcomes.  

PubMed

There is currently a significant lack of therapeutic options for acute ischemic stroke, and no drug has been approved for treating patients at delayed time points (?6h post-stroke). Afobazole, an anxiolytic currently used clinically in Russia, has been shown to reduce neuronal and glial cell injury in vitro following ischemia. Experiments using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model were carried out to determine if afobazole can reduce ischemic stroke damage in vivo and expand the therapeutic window for stroke treatment. Post-stroke (24h) application of afobazole (0.3-3mg/kg) significantly decreased infarct volume at 96h post-surgery, as determined by Fluoro-Jade and NeuN staining of brain sections. Moreover, afobazole helped preserve both the levels and normal histological distribution of myelin basic protein, indicating a reduction in white matter injury. A time-dependence study showed that either pre-treatment or treatment started 6 to 48h post-stroke with the drug yields improved outcomes at 96h. The decrease in infarct volume produced by afobazole was blocked by the application of either a ?-1 (BD 1063, 30mg/kg) or a ?-2 (SM-21, 1mg/kg) antagonist, indicating that both receptor subtypes are involved in the effects of afobazole. Treatment with afobazole starting at 24h post-stroke resulted in enhanced survival one month following surgery. Behavioral testing of animals 28-32days post-surgery using the elevated body swing and forelimb grip-strength tests revealed that treatment with afobazole starting 24h post-stroke significantly reduces behavioral deficits caused by ischemic stroke. The increase in survival and improved functional outcomes are accompanied by a reduction in infarct volume, as determined by thionin staining of brain sections. Taken together, our data support the use of afobazole as a post-stroke pharmacological agent to expand the current therapeutic window. PMID:24141021

Katnik, C; Garcia, A; Behensky, A A; Yasny, I E; Shuster, A M; Seredenin, S B; Petrov, A V; Seifu, S; McAleer, J; Willing, A; Cuevas, J

2014-02-01

328

Use of high-concentration-short-time chlorine dioxide gas treatments for the inactivation of Salmonella enterica spp. inoculated onto Roma tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella outbreaks have been recently linked to the consumption of fresh tomatoes. Thus, there is a need to develop systems that reduce the risk of microbial contamination to increase product shelf-life and keep fresh fruit attributes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate high-concentration-short-time chlorine dioxide gas treatments effects on Salmonella-inoculated Roma tomatoes and determine the optimal treatment conditions

V. Trinetta; M. T. Morgan; R. H. Linton

2010-01-01

329

Increased Levels of Multiresistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes after Wastewater Treatment and Their Dissemination into Lake Geneva, Switzerland  

PubMed Central

At present, very little is known about the fate and persistence of multiresistant bacteria (MRB) and their resistance genes in natural aquatic environments. Treated, but partly also untreated sewage of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland is discharged into Vidy Bay (Lake Geneva) resulting in high levels of contamination in this part of the lake. In the present work we have studied the prevalence of MRB and resistance genes in the wastewater stream of Lausanne. Samples from hospital and municipal raw sewage, treated effluent from Lausanne’s wastewater treatment plant (WTP) as well as lake water and sediment samples obtained close to the WTP outlet pipe and a remote site close to a drinking water pump were evaluated for the prevalence of MRB. Selected isolates were identified (16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing) and characterized with regards to further resistances, resistance genes, and plasmids. Mostly, studies investigating this issue have relied on cultivation-based approaches. However, the limitations of these tools are well known, in particular for environmental microbial communities, and cultivation-independent molecular tools should be applied in parallel in order to take non-culturable organisms into account. Here we directly quantified the sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 from environmental DNA extracts using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Hospital sewage contained the highest load of MRB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Wastewater treatment reduced the total bacterial load up to 78% but evidence for selection of extremely multiresistant strains and accumulation of resistance genes was observed. Our data clearly indicated pollution of sediments with ARGs in the vicinity of the WTP outlet. The potential of lakes as reservoirs of MRB and potential risks are discussed. PMID:22461783

Czekalski, Nadine; Berthold, Tom; Caucci, Serena; Egli, Andrea; Burgmann, Helmut

2012-01-01

330

Treatment of pregnant women with a betamimetic and verapamil increases the micronuclei frequency in umbilical cord blood lymphocytes.  

PubMed

In prevention of preterm labor, betamimetics are used in gynecological practice mostly combined with antiarrhythmic verapamil because of their therapeutic cardiovascular side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a betamimetic (ritodrine hydrochloride, fenoterol or hexoprenaline) and verapamil (administered to mothers) on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in umbilical cord blood lymphocytes of neonates, using cytokinesis-block micronucleus test. The analyzed sample included 23 babies whose mothers received the therapy and 30 control babies whose mothers received no therapy. The average MN frequency was significantly higher in the neonates whose mothers received the therapy (8.13 +/- 2.69 MN/1000 BN cells), in comparison with the baseline frequency in untreated controls (3.30 +/- 2.63 MN/1000 BN cells), with probability p < 0.05. The highest MN frequency was found in neonates whose mothers received fenoterol and verapamil (2.8-fold i.e. 9.10 +/- 3.00 MN/1000 BN cells), while ritodrine hydrochloride and hexoprenaline combined with verapamil induced 2.3-fold and 2.2-fold higher MN values than in controls (7.50 +/- 3.33 MN/1000 BN cells and 7.29 +/- 0.95 MN/1000 BN cells). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that MN frequency was affected only by the maternal therapeutic treatment, while the neonates' sex, maternal age, cigarette smoking, and therapeutic doses did not affect the MN frequency in umbilical lymphocytes of neonates. We conclude that the treatment of pregnant women with a betamimetic and verapamil significantly increases the MN frequency in umbilical cord blood lymphocytes of neonates, regardless to therapeutic doses. PMID:18679011

Grujici?, Darko; Milosevi?-Djordjevi?, Olivera; Arsenijevi?, Slobodan; Marinkovi?, Dragoslav

2008-08-01

331

Altered Neuronal Markers Following Treatment with Mood Stabilizer and Antipsychotic Drugs Indicate an Increased Likelihood of Neurotransmitter Release  

PubMed Central

Objective Given the ability of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics to promote cell proliferation, we wanted to determine the effects of these drugs on neuronal markers previously reported to be altered in subjects with psychiatric disorders. Methods Male Sprauge-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (ethanol), lithium (25.5 mg per day), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg) or a combination of lithium and either of the antipsychotic drugs for 28 days. Levels of cortical synaptic (synaptosomal associated protein-25, synaptophysin, vesicle associated protein and syntaxin) and structural (neural cell adhesion molecule and alpha-synuclein) proteins were determined in each treatment group using Western blots. Results Compared to the vehicle treated group; animals treated with haloperidol had greater levels of synaptosomal associated protein-25 (p<0.01) and neural cell adhesion molecule (p<0.05), those treated with olanzapine had greater levels of synaptophysin (p<0.01) and syntaxin (p<0.01). Treatment with lithium alone did not affect the levels of any of the proteins. Combining lithium and haloperidol resulted in greater levels of synaptophysin (p<0.01), synaptosomal associated protein-25 (p<0.01) and neural cell adhesion molecule (p<0.01). The combination of lithium and olanzapine produced greater levels of synaptophysin (p<0.01) and alpha-synuclein (p<0.05). Conclusion Lithium alone had no effect on the neuronal markers. However, haloperidol and olanzapine affected different presynaptic markers. Combining lithium with olanzapine additionally increased alpha-synuclein. These drug effects need to be taken into account by future studies examining presynaptic and neuronal markers in tissue from subjects with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23429852

Dean, Brian

2012-01-01

332

Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.  

PubMed

Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

2012-12-01

333

Inhibition of muscle carbonic anhydrase increases rise and relaxation times of twitches in rat skeletal muscle fibres.  

PubMed

Muscle carbonic anhydrase (CA) was inhibited in fibre bundles of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from rats. Isometric single twitches were recorded in the absence or presence of the CA inhibitors. The highly membrane-permeable inhibitors L-645,151, chlorzolamide (CLZ) and ethoxzolamide (ETZ) prolonged significantly the values of time-to-peak (ttp) by 5-40 ms (10-40%) in both muscles and the values of the 75% decay time (t(75%)) by 30-400 ms (13-110%) in SOL and by 9-17 ms (15-30%) in EDL and increased peak force by 20--55% in SOL and EDL. The poorly membrane-permeable inhibitors benzolamide (BZ) and acetazolamide (ACTZ) had no effects on single twitches. In CO(2)-free solution, the effects of L-645,151 on ttp, t(75%) and peak force of SOL were reduced drastically. Removal of CO(2) prolonged ttp and t(75%). In skinned fibres, ETZ and CLZ did not increase force production. Intracellular pH (pH(i)) in SOL and EDL fibres was not affected by 30-60 min exposure to CLZ, ETZ or BZ. The results of L-645,151, CLZ and ETZ on ttp, t(75%) and peak force of twitches are consistent with our hypothesis on the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) CA. The SR-CA may mediate sufficiently fast buffering and production of H(+) in the SR that is exchanged for Ca(2+) across the SR membrane. We propose that a H(+) buffering and delivery impaired by CA inhibition slows the kinetics of Ca(2+) release and reuptake and, as a result, slows twitch ttp and t(75%). Aspects of this hypothesis await further validation. PMID:11889574

Wetzel, Petra; Papadopoulos, Simon; Gros, Gerolf

2002-03-01

334

Long-Time Treatment by Low-Dose N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Enhances Proinflammatory Cytokine Expressions in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages  

PubMed Central

N-acetyl-L-cysteine is known to act as a reactive oxygen species scavenger and used in clinical applications. Previous reports have shown that high-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment inhibits the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages. Here, we have found that long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low-concentration increases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT, which are essential for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1? and interleukin 6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, long-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment decreases expressions of protein phosphatases, catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-2A and dual specificity phosphatase 1. On the other hand, we have found that short-time N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment at low dose increases p53 expression, which inhibits expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. These observations suggest that long-time low-dose N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment increases expressions of proinflammatory cytokines through enhancement of kinase phosphorylation. PMID:24504121

Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Kusuyama, Joji; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

335

The better the story, the bigger the serving: narrative transportation increases snacking during screen time in a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Watching television and playing video games increase energy intake, likely due to distraction from satiety cues. A study comparing one hour of watching TV, playing typical video games, or playing motion-controlled video games found a difference across groups in energy intake, but the reasons for this difference are not clear. As a secondary analysis, we investigated several types of distraction to determine potential psychosocial mechanisms which may account for greater energy intake observed during sedentary screen time as compared to motion-controlled video gaming. Methods Feelings of enjoyment, engagement (mental immersion), spatial presence (the feeling of being in the game), and transportation (immersion in a narrative) were investigated in 120 young adults aged 18 – 35 (60 female). Results Only narrative transportation was associated with total caloric intake (? = .205, P = .025). Transportation was also higher in the TV group than in the gaming groups (P = .002) and higher in males than in females (P = .003). Transportation mediated the relationship between motion-controlled gaming (as compared to TV watching) and square root transformed energy intake (indirect effect = ?1.34, 95% confidence interval ?3.57, ?0.13). No other distraction-related variables were associated with intake. Conclusions These results suggest that different forms of distraction may differentially affect eating behavior during screen time, and that narrative appears to be a particularly strong distractor. Future studies should further investigate the effects of narrative on eating behavior. PMID:23680389

2013-01-01

336

Increasing functional modularity with residence time in the co-distribution of native and introduced vascular plants  

PubMed Central

Species gain membership of regional assemblages by passing through multiple ecological and environmental filters. To capture the potential trajectory of structural changes in regional meta-communities driven by biological invasions, one can categorize species pools into assemblages of different residence times. Older assemblages, having passed through more environmental filters, should become more functionally ordered and structured. Here we calculate the level of compartmentalization (modularity) for three different-aged assemblages (neophytes, introduced after 1500 AD; archaeophytes, introduced before 1500 AD, and natives), including 2,054 species of vascular plants in 302 reserves in central Europe. Older assemblages are more compartmentalized than younger ones, with species composition, phylogenetic structure and habitat characteristics of the modules becoming increasingly distinctive. This sheds light on two mechanisms of how alien species are functionally incorporated into regional species pools: the settling-down hypothesis of diminishing stochasticity with residence time, and the niche-mosaic hypothesis of inlaid neutral modules in regional meta-communities. PMID:24045305

Hui, Cang; Richardson, David M.; Pysek, Petr; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Kucera, Tomas; Jarosik, Vojtech

2013-01-01

337

Process Improvement to Enhance Existing Stroke Team Activity Toward More Timely Thrombolytic Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Process improvement (PI) is an approach for enhancing the existing quality improvement process by making changes while keeping the existing process. We have shown that implementation of a stroke code program using a computerized physician order entry system is effective in reducing the in-hospital time delay to thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. We investigated whether implementation of this PI could further reduce the time delays by continuous improvement of the existing process. Methods After determining a key indicator [time interval from emergency department (ED) arrival to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis] and conducting data analysis, the target time from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was set at 40 min. The key indicator was monitored continuously at a weekly stroke conference. The possible reasons for the delay were determined in cases for which IV thrombolysis was not administered within the target time and, where possible, the problems were corrected. The time intervals from ED arrival to the various evaluation steps and treatment before and after implementation of the PI were compared. Results The median time interval from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was significantly reduced after implementation of the PI (from 63.5 to 45 min, p=0.001). The variation in the time interval was also reduced. A reduction in the evaluation time intervals was achieved after the PI [from 23 to 17 min for computed tomography scanning (p=0.003) and from 35 to 29 min for complete blood counts (p=0.006)]. Conclusions PI is effective for continuous improvement of the existing process by reducing the time delays between ED arrival and IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients.

Cho, Han-Jin; Lee, Kyung Yul; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae-Jin; Jung, Yo Han; Choi, Hye-Yeon

2014-01-01

338

Weighted Logrank Tests for Interval Censored Data when Assessment Times Depend on Treatment  

PubMed Central

We consider weighted logrank tests for interval censored data when assessment times may depend on treatment, and for each individual we only use the two assessment times that bracket the event of interest. It is known that treating finite right endpoints as observed events can substantially inflate the type I error rate under assessment-treatment dependence (ATD), but the validity of several other implementations of weighted logrank tests (score tests, permutation tests, multiple imputation tests) has not been studied in this situation. With a bounded number of unique assessment times, the score test under the grouped continuous model retains the type I error rate asymptotically under ATD; however, although the approximate permutation test based on the permutation central limit theorem is not asymptotically valid under every ATD scenario, we show through simulation that in many ATD scenarios it retains the type I error rate better than the score test. We show a case where the approximate permutation test retains the type I error rate when the exact permutation test does not. We study and modify the multiple imputation logrank tests of Huang, Lee and Yu (2008, Statistics in Medicine, 27: 3217–3226), showing that the distribution of the rank-like scores asymptotically does not depend on the assessment times. We show through simulations that our modifications of the multiple imputation logrank tests retain the type I error rate in all cases studied, even with ATD and a small number of individuals in each treatment group. Simulations were performed using the interval R package. US Government work, in the Public Domain PMID:22786795

Fay, Michael P.; Shih, Joanna H.

2013-01-01

339

Real-time retinal tracking for laser treatment planning and administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a computerized system to accurately point laser to the diseased areas within the retina based on predetermined treatment planning. The proposed system consists of a fundus camera using red-free illumination mode interfaced to a computer that allows real-time capturing of video input. The first image acquired is used as the reference image for treatment planning. A new segmentation technique was developed to accurately discern the image features using deformable models. A grid of seed contours over the whole image is initiated and allowed to deform by splitting and/or merging according to preset criteria until the whole vessel tree is extracted. This procedure extracts the whole area of small vessels but only the boundaries of the large vessels. Correlating the image with a one-dimensional Gaussian filter in two perpendicular directions is used to extract the core areas of such vessels. Faster segmentation can be obtained for subsequent images by automatic registration to compensate for eye movement and saccades. Comparing the two sets of landmark points using a least-squares error provide an optimal transformation between the two point sets. This allows for real-time location determination and tracking of treatment positions.

Solouma, Nahed; Youssef, Abou-Bakr M.; Badr, Yehia; Kadah, Yasser M.

2001-07-01

340

Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression at increased temperature for excess sludge dewatering: influence of operating conditions and the process energetics.  

PubMed

Dewatering is very important for excess sludge treatment and disposal. Hydrothermal treatment coupled with mechanical expression is a novel technology, in which a conventional pressure dewatering is combined with hydrothermal effect to realize an improved liquid/solids separation with low energy consumption. In this study, the process was performed by way of that the excess sludge was hydrothermally treated first and then the mechanical expression was employed immediately at increased temperature in two separate cells respectively. The results demonstrated that the mechanical expression employed at increased temperature showed a significant advantage than that at room temperature, given a further reduction of 19-47% of the moisture content. The dewatering process at room temperature was mostly depended on the effect of mechanical expression. Hydrothermal process, more importantly than mechanical effect at increased temperatures, seemed to govern the extent to which the dewatering process occurred. The dewatering began to show a positive effect when the temperature was exceeded the threshold temperature (between 120 and 150 °C). The residence time of 30 min promoted a substantial conversion in the sludge surface properties. After dewatering at temperatures of 180-210 °C, the moisture content decreased from 52 to 20% and the corresponding total water removal as filtrate was between 81 and 93%. It was observed that the moisture content of filter cake correlated with surface charge (Rp = -0.93, p < 0.05) and relative hydrophobicity (Rp = -0.99, p < 0.05). The calculated energy balance suggested that no additional external energy input is needed to support the dewatering process for excess sludge. The dewatering process needs an obviously lower energy input compared to thermal drying and electro-dewatering to produce a higher solids content cake. PMID:25090626

Wang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

2014-11-15

341

Increased accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles by magnetizable implant materials for the treatment of implant-associated complications  

PubMed Central

Background In orthopaedic surgery, accumulation of agents such as anti-infectives in the bone as target tissue is difficult. The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers principally enables their accumulation via an externally applied magnetic field. Magnetizable implants are principally able to increase the strength of an externally applied magnetic field to reach also deep-seated parts in the body. Therefore, the integration of bone-addressed therapeutics in MNPs and their accumulation at a magnetic orthopaedic implant could improve the treatment of implant related infections. In this study a martensitic steel platelet as implant placeholder was used to examine its accumulation and retention capacity of MNPs in an in vitro experimental set up considering different experimental frame conditions as magnet quantity and distance to each other, implant thickness and flow velocity. Results The magnetic field strength increased to approximately 112% when a martensitic stainless steel platelet was located between the magnet poles. Therewith a significantly higher amount of magnetic nanoparticles could be accumulated in the area of the platelet compared to the sole magnetic field. During flushing of the tube system mimicking the in vivo blood flow, the magnetized platelet was able to retain a higher amount of MNPs without an external magnetic field compared to the set up with no mounted platelet during flushing of the system. Generally, a higher flow velocity led to lower amounts of accumulated MNPs. A higher quantity of magnets and a lower distance between magnets led to a higher magnetic field strength. Albeit not significantly the magnetic field strength tended to increase with thicker platelets. Conclusion A martensitic steel platelet significantly improved the attachment of magnetic nanoparticles in an in vitro flow system and therewith indicates the potential of magnetic implant materials in orthopaedic surgery. The use of a remanent magnetic implant material could improve the efficiency of capturing MNPs especially when the external magnetic field is turned off thus facilitating and prolonging the effect. In this way higher drug levels in the target area might be attained resulting in lower inconveniences for the patient. PMID:24112871

2013-01-01

342

[Time course of changes in gustatory function test results and subjective symptoms, and predictive factors for response in patients with taste disorder receiving 24-week zinc replacement treatment].  

PubMed

In a taste disorder, an agreement between patients' complaints and gustatory function test results is not necessarily found both at the initial hospital visit and during the course of treatment; therefore, it is difficult to assess treatment responses and review treatment strategies based on the assessed treatment responses. The present study investigated the time course of changes in disc gustometry results and subjective symptom scores measured at 4-week intervals in 44 patients with a taste disorder who were considered eligible for zinc replacement treatment and who received polaprezinc at a dose of 150 mg/day (equivalent to a 34 mg/day dose of zinc) for up to 24 weeks. The study also examined the potential differences in treatment outcomes according to the predictive factors for response such as patient background and assessed disc gustometry results during the course of treatment. Results indicated that disc gustometry results and subjective symptom scores showed different time courses of changes. The response rate as measured by disc gustometry was 47.7% at week 12 of treatment, and showed a subsequent slow increase to 56.8% at week 24. On the other hand, subjective symptom scores showed a time-proportional improvement up to week 24. Among the patients included in the present study, a clear difference was found according to the presence or absence of an improving trend as determined by disc gustometry at week 12 of treatment, although there were no differences in ultimate treatment responses, including categories of taste disorder, according to patient background. Patients showing a trend toward improvement had significantly better treatment responses in terms of both ultimate response rates and subjective symptom scores, whereas patients showing no trend toward improvement were less likely to respond to the subsequent 12-week continued treatment. PMID:25255648

Sakagami, Masafumi; Kurono, Yuichi; Inokuchi, Akira; Takeda, Noriaki; Aiba, Tsunemasa; Nin, Tomomi; Ikeda, Minoru

2014-08-01

343

Microstructural evolution of near-{gamma} TiAl alloys during long-time heat treatments  

SciTech Connect

Near-{gamma} titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys have potential as lightweight high temperature structural materials for the automotive and aerospace industries. This can be attributed to the material`s low density, good oxidation, resistance, high elastic modulus, and good elevated-temperature strength retention. However, the microstructural evolution of near-{gamma} TiAl alloys during extended heat treatment periods has not been studied in detail and therefore, a comprehensive understanding of these microstructures is not available. This paper focuses on the microstructural response of three powder metallurgy (P/M) near-{gamma} TiAl alloys to long-time heat treatments at temperatures near the {alpha}transus temperature (T{sub {alpha}}). Relevant microstructural features are characterized and T{sub {alpha}} for each alloy is determined.

Dudzinski, D.; Beddoes, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering] [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Zhao, L.; Wallace, W. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Research] [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Research

1996-08-01

344

Eletriptan in the early treatment of acute migraine: influence of pain intensity and time of dosing.  

PubMed

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of early treatment of a single migraine attack, when headache pain was mild, with two doses (20 mg and 40 mg) of eletriptan. Patients (N = 613; female 79%; mean age 39 years) meeting International Headache Society criteria for migraine were encouraged, but not required, to utilize early treatment, thus providing an opportunity to assess the relative contribution to efficacy of pain severity and timing of dose. For the total patient sample (mild-to-severe headaches), 2-h pain-free rates were significantly higher than placebo (22%) on both eletriptan 20 mg (35%; P < 0.01) and eletriptan 40 mg (47%; P < 0.0001). For the cohort of patients who treated their headache when the pain intensity was mild, the 2-h pain-free rate on eletriptan 40 mg was 68% compared with 25% on placebo (P < 0.0001). Pain intensity at the time of taking eletriptan appeared to influence outcome more than the timing of the dose relative to headache onset. Eletriptan was well-tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to placebo when mild headaches were treated. PMID:16109056

Brandes, J L; Kudrow, D; Cady, R; Tiseo, P J; Sun, W; Sikes, C R

2005-09-01

345

Methadone maintenance treatment can be provided in a primary care setting without increasing methadone-related mortality: the Sheffield experience 1997-2000.  

PubMed

Methadone maintenance treatment has been shown in many studies to reduce mortality and morbidity among heroin users. However, there has been concern that widespread methadone prescribing will lead conversely to an increase in methadone-related deaths. This study in Sheffield shows no increase in methadone-related mortality over a two-year period, during which 400 untreated patients were recruited into primary care methadone treatment in the city. PMID:12014536

Keen, Jenny; Oliver, Phillip; Mathers, Nigel

2002-05-01

346

Perineural Invasion Predicts Increased Recurrence, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer Following Treatment With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of perineural invasion (PNI) for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 651 men treated for prostate cancer with EBRT to a minimum dose {>=}75 Gy. We assessed the impact of PNI as well as pretreatment and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival. Results: PNI was present in 34% of specimens at biopsy and was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (GS), T stage, and prostate-specific antigen level. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the presence of PNI was associated with worse FFBF (hazard ratio = 1.7, p <0.006), FFM (hazard ratio = 1.8, p <0.03), and CSS (HR = 1.4, p <0.05) compared with absence of PNI; there was no difference in overall survival. Seven-year rates of FFBF, FFM, and CCS were 64% vs. 80%, 84% vs. 92%, and 91% vs. 95% for those patients with and without PNI, respectively. On recursive partitioning analysis, PNI predicted for worse FFM and CSS in patients with GS 8-10, with FFM of 67% vs. 89% (p <0.02), and CSS of 69% vs. 91%, (p <0.04) at 7 years for those with and without PNI, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of PNI in the prostate biopsy predicts worse clinical outcome for patients treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy. Particularly in patients with GS 8-10 disease, the presence of PNI suggests an increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer death.

Feng, Felix Y. [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ann Arbor Veteran Affairs Medical System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Qian Yushen; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Vance, Sean [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Cedars Sinai Medical System, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2011-11-15

347

Potential role of pectate lyase and Ca(2+) in the increase in strawberry fruit firmness induced by short-term treatment with high-pressure CO2.  

PubMed

Postharvest treatment with high-pressure CO2 helps to control decay and increase firmness in strawberries. Increases in firmness occurred through modification of calcium binding to cell wall. However, the mechanism(s) involved in Ca(2+) migration to pectic polymers and other physiological events associated with the maintenance of increased firmness are not clearly understood. The focus of this study was to find potential mechanism(s) that are associated with calcium movement, increases in firmness, or maintenance of firmness in strawberry fruit after high-pressure CO2 treatment. An increase in firmness was induced by high-pressure CO2 treatment, but not by high-pressure N2 treatment. This indicates that CO2 stimulates a change in firmness. The increase in firmness induced by high-pressure CO2 seems to involve calcium efflux. Using membrane Ca(2+) -dependent ATPase inhibitors sodium vanadate (250 ?M) and erythrosin B (100 ?M) delayed both the increase in firmness and calcium binding to wall polymers. Exogenous application of CaCl2 (10 mM) enhanced the firmness increase of fruit slices only when they were exposed to high-pressure CO2 . The activity of pectate lyase was downregulated by CO2 treatment, but ?-galactosidase activity was not affected. The increase in strawberry firmness induced by high-pressure CO2 treatment primarily involves the efflux of calcium ions and their binding to wall polymers. These physiological changes are not induced by an anaerobic environment. The downregulation of wall-modifying enzymes, such as pectate lyase, appeared to contribute to the maintenance of firmness that was induced by high-pressure CO2 treatment. PMID:24592970

Wang, Mao Hua; Kim, Jin Gook; Ahn, Sun Eun; Lee, Ah Youn; Bae, Tae Min; Kim, Deu Re; Hwang, Yong Soo

2014-04-01

348

Power and sample size calculation for log-rank test with a time lag in treatment effect.  

PubMed

The log-rank test is the most powerful non-parametric test for detecting a proportional hazards alternative and thus is the most commonly used testing procedure for comparing time-to-event distributions between different treatments in clinical trials. When the log-rank test is used for the primary data analysis, the sample size calculation should also be based on the test to ensure the desired power for the study. In some clinical trials, the treatment effect may not manifest itself right after patients receive the treatment. Therefore, the proportional hazards assumption may not hold. Furthermore, patients may discontinue the study treatment prematurely and thus may have diluted treatment effect after treatment discontinuation. If a patient's treatment termination time is independent of his/her time-to-event of interest, the termination time can be treated as a censoring time in the final data analysis. Alternatively, we may keep collecting time-to-event data until study termination from those patients who discontinued the treatment and conduct an intent-to-treat analysis by including them in the original treatment groups. We derive formulas necessary to calculate the asymptotic power of the log-rank test under this non-proportional hazards alternative for the two data analysis strategies. Simulation studies indicate that the formulas provide accurate power for a variety of trial settings. A clinical trial example is used to illustrate the application of the proposed methods. PMID:19152230

Zhang, Daowen; Quan, Hui

2009-02-28

349

Chimeric ?-Lactamases: Global Conservation of Parental Function and Fast Time-Scale Dynamics with Increased Slow Motions  

PubMed Central

Enzyme engineering has been facilitated by recombination of close homologues, followed by functional screening. In one such effort, chimeras of two class-A ?-lactamases – TEM-1 and PSE-4 – were created according to structure-guided protein recombination and selected for their capacity to promote bacterial proliferation in the presence of ampicillin (Voigt et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002 9:553). To provide a more detailed assessment of the effects of protein recombination on the structure and function of the resulting chimeric enzymes, we characterized a series of functional TEM-1/PSE-4 chimeras possessing between 17 and 92 substitutions relative to TEM-1 ?-lactamase. Circular dichroism and thermal scanning fluorimetry revealed that the chimeras were generally well folded. Despite harbouring important sequence variation relative to either of the two ‘parental’ ?-lactamases, the chimeric ?-lactamases displayed substrate recognition spectra and reactivity similar to their most closely-related parent. To gain further insight into the changes induced by chimerization, the chimera with 17 substitutions was investigated by NMR spin relaxation. While high order was conserved on the ps-ns timescale, a hallmark of class A ?-lactamases, evidence of additional slow motions on the µs-ms timescale was extracted from model-free calculations. This is consistent with the greater number of resonances that could not be assigned in this chimera relative to the parental ?-lactamases, and is consistent with this well-folded and functional chimeric ?-lactamase displaying increased slow time-scale motions. PMID:23284969

Clouthier, Christopher M.; Morin, Sebastien; Gobeil, Sophie M. C.; Doucet, Nicolas; Blanchet, Jonathan; Nguyen, Elisabeth; Gagne, Stephane M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

2012-01-01

350

Considerations in the rationale, design and methods of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study  

PubMed Central

Background Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) count leading to the development of opportunistic diseases (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)), and more recent data suggest that HIV is also associated with an increased risk of serious non-AIDS (SNA) diseases including cardiovascular, renal, and liver diseases and non-AIDS-defining cancers. Although combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) has resulted in a substantial decrease in morbidity and mortality in persons with HIV infection, viral eradication is not feasible with currently available drugs. The optimal time to start ART for asymptomatic HIV infection is controversial and remains one of the key unanswered questions in the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. Purpose In this article, we outline the rationale and methods of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, an ongoing multicenter international trial designed to assess the risks and benefits of initiating ART earlier than is currently practiced. We also describe some of the challenges encountered in the design and implementation of the study and how these challenges were addressed. Methods A total of 4000 study participants who are HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infected, ART naïve with CD4 count > 500 cells/?L are to be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to start ART immediately (early ART) or defer treatment until CD4 count is <350 cells/ ?L (deferred ART) and followed for a minimum of 3 years. The primary outcome is time to AIDS, SNA, or death. The study had a pilot phase to establish feasibility of accrual, which was set as the enrollment of at least 900 participants in the first year. Results Challenges encountered in the design and implementation of the study included the limited amount of data on the risk of a major component of the primary endpoint (SNA) in the study population, changes in treatment guidelines when the pilot phase was well underway, and the complexities of conducting the trial in a geographically wide population with diverse regulatory requirements. With the successful completion of the pilot phase, more than 1000 participants from 100 sites in 23 countries have been enrolled. The study will expand to include 237 sites in 36 countries to reach the target accrual of 4000 participants. Conclusions START is addressing one of the most important questions in the clinical management of ART. The randomization provided a platform for the conduct of several substudies aimed at increasing our understanding of HIV disease and the effects of antiretroviral therapy beyond the primary question of the trial. The lessons learned from its design and implementation will hopefully be of use to future publicly funded international trials. PMID:22547421

Babiker, Abdel G; Emery, Sean; Fatkenheuer, Gerd; Gordin, Fred M; Grund, Birgit; Lundgren, Jens D; Neaton, James D; Pett, Sarah L; Phillips, Andrew; Touloumi, Giota; Vjecha, Michael J

2012-01-01

351

Circadian timing in cancer treatment: the biological foundation for an integrative approach.  

PubMed

Despite the many innovations that have occurred in cancer treatment, the age-specific mortality for most adult tumors has remained stable during the past 30 years. There have been clinically significant improvements in the outcomes of young and middle-aged patients, yet the vast majority of cancer patients are more than 50 years of age, among whom we observe few improvements in clinical outcomes. Clearly, many of today's cytotoxic agents have been shown to be effective in-vitro and in animal model systems; however, few have proved efficacious in dramatically improving survival outcomes in adult cancer. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that the administration of cytotoxic agents, at the appropriate circadian phase, can significantly increase the therapeutic index of current cancer therapies. PMID:15035897

Lis, Christopher G; Grutsch, James F; Wood, Patricia; You, Mark; Rich, Ivan; Hrushesky, William J M

2003-06-01

352

Time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate the use of time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems. Methods Time intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge for patients with isolated femur fractures in four low- and middle-income countries were compared with the corresponding values from one German hospital, an Israeli hospital and the National Trauma Data Bank of the United States of America by means of Student’s t-tests. The correlations between the time intervals recorded in a country and that country’s expenditure on health and gross domestic product (GDP) were also evaluated using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Findings Relative to patients from high-income countries, those from low- and middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be male and to have been treated by open femoral nailing, and their intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge were significantly longer. Strong negative correlations were detected between the interval from injury to admission and government expenditure on health, and between the interval from admission to surgery and the per capita values for total expenditure on health, government expenditure on health and GDP. Strong positive correlations were detected between the interval from surgery to discharge and general government expenditure on health. Conclusion The time intervals for the treatment of femur fractures are relatively long in low- and middle-income countries, can easily be measured, and are highly correlated with accessible and quantifiable country data on health and economics. PMID:24391299

Elliott, Iain; Marmor, Meir; Caldwell, Amber; Coughlin, Richard; Gosselin, Richard A

2014-01-01

353

Hazard of recurrence and adjuvant treatment effects over time in lymph node-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background For patients with axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer, benefits from adjuvant therapy are smaller than in node-positive disease and thus more selective use is warranted, prompting development of risk profiling to identify those most likely to benefit. Examination of the magnitude and changes in the hazard of failure over time in node-negative breast cancer may also be informative in this regard. Methods Among 9,444 participants from five randomized trials (accrual 1982–1998) investigating chemotherapy and tamoxifen for node-negative breast cancer, we estimated recurrence hazards over time by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status and adjuvant treatment. Results In patients treated by surgery only, we observed the previously noted larger hazard peak followed by a rapid decrease in ER-negative patients and smaller but more persistent hazard in ER-positive patients. After approximately 48 months, the ER-positive hazard is greater. For adjuvant treatment, while tamoxifen decreases the early hazard in ER-positive patients to that of the chemotherapy-treated ER-negative group, in later follow-up (beyond 5 years) the hazard for ER-positive patients again exceeds that of ER-negative patients. Adding chemotherapy to tamoxifen in ER-positive patients results in large early hazard reduction, but in later follow-up the hazard converges with those of patients treated by surgery only or tamoxifen. Conclusions Recurrence hazards over time reveal changes in risk that may have biologic and therapeutic strategy relevance. In ER-negative tumors, a large early chemotherapy benefit is followed by a consistently low recurrence hazard over time. In ER-positive patients, the chemotherapy benefit appears concentrated mostly in earlier follow-up, and a greater recurrence risk remains. PMID:18830816

Dukic, Vanja M.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Wolmark, Norman

2008-01-01

354

A survey of orthodontists’ perspectives on the timing of treatment: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to outline orthodontists’ perspectives at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment and also sought to assess the relationship between orthodontists’ views and their genders, types of practice, and experience levels. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent electronically to 165 practicing orthodontists at different regions in Saudi Arabia. The orthodontists were asked to consider at what stage they would initiate orthodontic treatment for a child with one of 29 different types of occlusal deviations, functional problems, and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) listed in the questionnaire as their main orthodontic problem. Frequency distributions of all the variables were derived, and comparisons were made using the Chi-square tests. Results: Fifty-two electronically completed questionnaires were returned (31.5% response rate). The majority of the respondents were males (63.5%). The majority of respondents (90%) reported that they would treat most of the occlusal deviations in the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross-bite was the most frequent indication for treatment during the early mixed dentition stage (73.7%). Conditions rated as best treated during the late mixed, or the permanent dentition stages were; overjet > 6 mm with interdental spacing, maxillary midline diastema >2 mm and deep bite >5 mm without palatal impingement. The majority of respondents (86.6%) preferred to treat most of the functional problems in the deciduous or early mixed dentition stage. Orthodontists with more than 15 years of experience preferred to treat patients with TMDs, whereas those with <15 years of experience opted to refer such patients to TMD specialists. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that orthodontists should consider many factors, such as the risks, benefits, duration, and costs of early and late intervention, when deciding the best timing to begin orthodontic treatment.

Al-Shayea, Eman I

2014-01-01

355

Increasing Retention without Increasing Study Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that provide long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is most efficiently achieved. Here we examine how retention is affected by two variables: the duration of a study session and the temporal distribution…

Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Hal

2007-01-01

356

Psychopathy moderates the relationship between time in treatment and levels of empathy in incarcerated male sexual offenders.  

PubMed

This study examined whether psychopathy moderated the relationship between time in treatment and forms of empathy in a sample of incarcerated male sexual offenders (N = 58). Empathy was assessed as a general personality trait as well as in attitudes toward specific victim groups (children, women).The three empathy measures were submitted to principal components analysis with oblique rotation, revealing a 3-component solution: general empathy, hostility toward women, and empathy for children. Hierarchical linear regression analyses demonstrated that level of psychopathy significantly moderated the effects of time in treatment on levels of general and victim-specific empathy, such that offenders with higher levels of psychopathy did not exhibit greater empathy with longer reported time in treatment. In contrast, offenders with lower levels of psychopathy exhibited greater empathy with longer time in treatment. Implications for treatment planning for sexual offenders are discussed. PMID:21540362

Roche, Michael J; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L; Ménard, Kim S

2011-06-01

357

Treatment crossovers in time-to-event non-inferiority randomised trials of radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In non-inferiority trials of radiotherapy in patients with early stage breast cancer, it is inevitable that some patients will cross over from the experimental arm to the standard arm prior to initiation of any treatment due to complexities in treatment planning or subject preference. Although the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis is the preferred approach for superiority trials, its role in non-inferiority trials is still under debate. This has led to the use of alternative approaches such as the per-protocol (PP) analysis or the as-treated (AT) analysis, despite the inherent biases of such approaches. Methods Using simulations, we investigate the effect of 2%, 5% and 10% random and non-random crossovers prior to radiotherapy initiation on the ITT, PP, AT and the combination of ITT and PP analyses with respect to type I error in trials with time-to-event outcomes. We also evaluate bias and SE of the estimates from the ITT, PP and AT approaches. Results The AT approach had the best performance in terms of type I error, but was anticonservative as non-random crossover increased. The ITT and PP approaches were anticonservative under all percentages of random and non-random crossover. Similarly, lowest bias was seen with the AT approach; however, bias increased as the percentage of non-random crossover increased. The ITT and PP had poor performance in terms of bias as crossovers increased. Conclusions If minimal crossovers were to occur, we have shown that the AT approach has the lowest type I error rates and smallest opportunity for bias. Results of trials with a high number of crossovers should be interpreted with caution, especially when crossover is non-random. Attempts to prevent crossovers should be maximised. PMID:25344487

Parpia, Sameer; Julian, Jim A; Thabane, Lehana; Gu, Chushu; Whelan, Timothy J; Levine, Mark N

2014-01-01

358

What motivates an ever increasing number of students to enroll in part-time taught postgraduate awards?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a substantial rise in the number of students enrolling in part-time taught postgraduate awards. This study investigates the reasons or motivation for students to spend significant amounts on tutorial fees and find time alongside work, family and social commitments to take a taught postgraduate award. Data were gathered through interviews with 21 part-time students in taught postgraduate

Amaly Ho; David Kember; Celina Hong

2012-01-01

359

The Effects of Increased Learning Time on Student Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: Findings from a Meta-Analytic Review. REL 2014-015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REL Appalachia conducted a systematic review of the research evidence on the effects of increased learning time. After screening more than 7,000 studies, REL Appalachia identified 30 that met the most rigorous standards for research. A review of those 30 studies found that increased learning time does not always produce positive results. However,…

Kidron, Yael; Lindsay, Jim

2014-01-01

360

Local treatment of cancellous bone grafts with BMP-7 and zoledronate increases both the bone formation rate and bone density  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The remodeling of morselized bone grafts in revision surgery can be enhanced by an anabolic substance such as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). On the other hand, BMPs boost catabolism and might cause a premature resorption, both of the graft and of the new-formed bone. Bisphosphonates inactivate osteoclasts and can be used to control the resorption. We studied a combination of both drugs as a local admix to a cancellous allograft. Methods Cancellous bone allografts were harvested and freeze-dried. Either saline, BMP-7, the bisphosphonate zoledronate, or a combination of BMP-7 and zoledronate were added in solution. The grafts were placed in bone conduction chambers and implanted in the proximal tibia of 34 rats. The grafts were harvested after 6 weeks and evaluated by histomorphometry. Results Bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) was 50% in the grafts treated with the combination of BMP-7 and zoledronate and 16% in the saline controls (p < 0.001). In the zoledronate group BV/TV was 56%, and in the BMP group it was 14%. The ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft was 3.5 mm for the combination of BMP-7 and zoledronate and 2.6 mm in the saline control (p = 0.002). The net amount of retained remodeled bone was more than 4 times higher when BMP-7 and zoledronate were combined than in the controls. Interpretation An anabolic drug like BMP-7 can be combined with an anti-catabolic bisphosphonate as local bone graft adjunct, and the combination increases the amount of remaining bone after remodeling is complete. PMID:21434769

2011-01-01

361

Relapse after Treatment with Miltefosine for Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Associated with Increased Infectivity of the Infecting Leishmania donovani Strain  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Leishmania donovani is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes leishmaniasis, which can range from a self-healing cutaneous disease to a fatal visceral disease depending on the infecting species. Miltefosine is currently the latest and only oral antileishmanial that came out of drug discovery pipelines in the past few decades, but recent reports indicate a significant decline in its efficacy against visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) in the Indian subcontinent. This relapse rate of up to 20% within 12 months after treatment was shown not to be related to reinfection, drug quality, drug exposure, or drug-resistant parasites. We therefore aimed to assess other phenotypes of the parasite that may affect treatment outcome and found a significant association between the number of metacyclic parasites, parasite infectivity, and patient treatment outcome in the Indian subcontinent. Together with previous studies on resistance of L. donovani against pentavalent antimonials, these data suggest that the infectivity of the parasite, or related phenotypes, might be a more determinant factor for treatment failure in visceral leishmaniasis than drug susceptibility, warranting a reassessment of our current view on treatment failure and drug resistance in leishmaniasis and beyond. PMID:24105765

Rai, Keshav; Cuypers, Bart; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Uranw, Surendra; Berg, Maya; Ostyn, Bart; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Rijal, Suman; Vanaerschot, Manu

2013-01-01

362

Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters  

PubMed Central

This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians’ responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity) explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction. PMID:25336960

Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D

2014-01-01

363

76 FR 6553 - Time and Manner for Electing Capital Asset Treatment for Certain Self-Created Musical Works  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1 [TD 9514] RIN 1545-BG34 Time and Manner for Electing Capital Asset Treatment for...regulation that provides the time and manner rules for electing to treat the sale or...73 FR 7464) that provided the time and manner rules for electing capital asset...

2011-02-07

364

Improving on-time counseling attendance in a methadone treatment program: a contingency management approach.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of contingency management techniques in promoting punctual counseling attendance among methadone maintenance patients. In Study 1, 50 participants were recruited from an inner-city methadone maintenance program. Study 1 used an A-B-A design with baseline, intervention, and return-to-baseline phases. On-time attendance was reinforced during the intervention phase with a voucher that was redeemable for a draw out of a box containing 100 tokens with values varying from 0.00 dollars to 100.00 dollars. Methadone maintenance patients who exhibited poor attendance during baseline showed a significant positive response during the contingency management intervention phase. Study 2 used the same design as Study 1 except that the 52 participants were randomized into reinforcement groups that received either the variable rate of reinforcement as in Study 1 or a fixed value reinforcer of 3.25 dollars. As in Study 1, Poor Attenders significantly improved counseling attendance during the intervention. There were no differences between the variable and fixed reinforcement groups. Overall, results suggest that targeting Poor Attenders with contingency management techniques may be a cost-effective method of improving counseling attendance. Targeting Poor Attenders early in treatment may be especially important for improving treatment outcomes. PMID:14713138

Rhodes, Gary L; Saules, Karen K; Helmus, Todd C; Roll, John; Beshears, Renee S; Ledgerwood, David M; Schuster, Charles R

2003-01-01

365

Time-dose relationships for locomotor activity effects of morphine after acute or repeated treatment  

PubMed Central

1. Effects of morphine sulphate (1·25, 2·5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p.) on locomotor activity of male rats were observed for 8 h after single doses in non-tolerant rats. The lower three doses had only an excitatory effect, whereas the higher three doses caused initial depression followed by a delayed excitatory effect. 2. The same doses of morphine were administered daily for 30 days. No tolerance developed within this time to the excitatory effect. The locomotor excitatory effect of the higher three doses of morphine became progressively more pronounced over treatment periods of 30 days (and 48 days for 20 mg/kg), while the latency to peak activity decreased. 3. An explanation of these results is suggested on the basis of two different central drug-receptor interactions affecting motility. PMID:4651770

Babbini, M.; Davis, W. M.

1972-01-01

366

Latent Variable Assessment of Outcomes in a Nurse-Managed Intervention to Increase Latent Tuberculosis Treatment Completion in Homeless Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess predictors of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) completion by using structural equation modeling (SEM) among homeless adults, a group at great risk for LTBI and active tuberculosis (TB). LTBI therapy is effective in stemming the progression to active TB, yet treatment adherence among homeless persons is difficult to attain. Design: By using SEM, the authors assessed predictors of

Adeline Nyamathi; Judith A. Stein; Anja Schumann; Darlene Tyler

2007-01-01

367

Comment on 'Mechanism for the increase of indium-tin-oxide work function by O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma treatment' [J. Appl. Phys. 95, 586 (2004)  

SciTech Connect

A high work function on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment was obtained in the paper: 'Mechanism for the increase of indium tin oxide work function by O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma treatment' [Lee et al., J. Appl. Phys. 95, 586 (2004)]. They attributed this to the higher work function of the larger upward band bending and the larger electron affinity of the ITO near the surface by the ICP treatment. In this Comment, we indicate the mistake in their analysis of the observed result by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy.

Lin, Yow-Jon [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

2007-02-01

368

Weekly Intra-Amniotic IGF-1 Treatment Increases Growth of Growth-Restricted Ovine Fetuses and Up-Regulates Placental Amino Acid Transporters  

PubMed Central

Frequent treatment of the growth-restricted (IUGR) ovine fetus with intra-amniotic IGF-1 increases fetal growth. We aimed to determine whether increased growth was maintained with an extended dosing interval and to examine possible mechanisms. Pregnant ewes were allocated to three groups: Control, and two IUGR groups (induced by placental embolization) treated with weekly intra-amniotic injections of either saline (IUGR) or 360 µg IGF-1 (IGF1). IUGR fetuses were hypoxic, hyperuremic, hypoglycemic, and grew more slowly than controls. Placental glucose uptake and SLC2A1 (GLUT2) mRNA levels decreased in IUGR fetuses, but SLC2A3 (GLUT3) and SLC2A4 (GLUT4) levels were unaffected. IGF-1 treatment increased fetal growth rate, did not alter uterine blood flow or placental glucose uptake, and increased placental SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 (but not SLC2A3) mRNA levels compared with saline-treated IUGR animals. Following IGF-1 treatment, placental mRNA levels of isoforms of the system A, y+, and L amino acid transporters increased 1.3 to 5.0 fold, while the ratio of phosphorylated-mTOR to total mTOR also tended to increase. Weekly intra-amniotic IGF-1 treatment provides a promising avenue for intra-uterine treatment of IUGR babies, and may act via increased fetal substrate supply, up-regulating placental transporters for neutral, cationic, and branched-chain amino acids, possibly via increased activation of the mTOR pathway. PMID:22629469

Wali, Jibran A.; de Boo, Hendrina A.; Derraik, Jose G. B.; Phua, Hui Hui; Oliver, Mark H.; Bloomfield, Frank H.; Harding, Jane E.

2012-01-01

369

The Impact of Duration of Treatment on Reported Time-to-Onset in Spontaneous Reporting Systems for Pharmacovigilance  

PubMed Central

Within pharmacovigilance, knowledge of time-to-onset (time from start of drug administration to onset of reaction) is important in causality assessment of drugs and suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and may indicate pharmacological mechanisms involved. It has been suggested that time-to-onset from individual case reports can be used for detection of safety signals. However, some ADRs only occur during treatment, while those that do occur later are less likely to be reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of treatment duration on the reported time-to-onset. Case reports from the WHO Global ICSR database, VigiBase, up until February 5th 2010 were the basis of this study. To examine the effect of duration of treatment on reported time-to-onset, angioedema and hepatitis were selected to represent short and long latency ADRs, respectively. The reported time-to-onset for each of these ADRs was contrasted for a set of drugs expected to be used short- or long-term, respectively. The study included 2,980 unique reports for angioedema and 1,159 for hepatitis. Median reported time-to-onset for angioedema in short-term treatments ranged 0-1 days (median 0.5), for angioedema in long-term treatments 0-26 days (median 8), for hepatitis in short-term treatments 4-12 days (median 7.5) and for hepatitis in long term treatments 19-73 days (median 28). Short-term treatments presented significantly shorter reported time-to-onset than long-term treatments. Of note is that reported time-to-onset for angioedema for long-term treatments (median value of medians being 8 days) was very similar to that of hepatitis for short-term treatments (median value of medians equal 7.5 days). The expected duration of treatment needs to be considered in the interpretation of reported time-to-onset and should be accounted for in signal detection method development and case evaluation. PMID:23869234

Karimi, Ghazaleh; Star, Kristina; Noren, G. Niklas; Hagg, Staffan

2013-01-01

370

Can prescribed fire be used to maintain fuel treatment effectiveness over time in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the time frame after initial fuel treatment when prescribed fire will be likely to produce high enough mortality rates in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum Dougl. ex Laws.) regeneration to be successful in maintaining treatment effectiveness in the Black Hills of South Dakota. We measured pine regeneration in disturbed stands and young pine growth rates to estimate

Mike A. Battaglia; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

2008-01-01

371

A fast-time study on increasing the capacity of continuous descent approaches through airborne precision spacing  

E-print Network

Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, Virginia, two parallel research efforts have focusedon terminal area research: one is Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), and the other is the Quiet Aircraft Technologies (QAT) project. The APS objective is to increase...

Weitz, Lesley Anne

2005-11-01

372

Increased toxicity of high-dose furosemide versus low-dose dopamine in the treatment of refractory congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose dopamine, high-dose furosemide, and their combination in the treatment of refractory congestive heart failure.Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with refractory congestive heart failure were randomized to receive intravenous low-dose (4 ?g\\/kg\\/min) dopamine combined with low-dose (80 mg\\/day) oral furosemide (group A; n = 7), intravenous low-dose dopamine with medium-dose furosemide (5 mg\\/kg\\/day

Gad Cotter; Jeoshua Weissgarten; Einat Metzkor; Yaron Moshkovitz; Irena Litinski; Uri Tavori; Chava Perry; Ronit Zaidenstein; Ahuva Golik

1997-01-01

373

Strengthening of oxidation resistant materials for gas turbine applications. [treatment of silicon ceramics for increased flexural strength and impact resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics were treated to form compressive surface layers. On the silicon carbide, quenching and thermal exposure treatments were used, and on the silicon nitride, quenching, carburizing, and a combination of quenching and carburizing were used. In some cases substantial improvements in impact resistance and/or flexural strength were observed. The presence of compressive surface stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests.

Kirchner, H. P.

1974-01-01

374

A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Integrated Care Intervention to Increase Eligibility for Chronic Hepatitis C Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Mental health and substance abuse (MH\\/SA) comorbidities are the most oft-cited reasons for deferral from peginterferon (PegIFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We sought to determine whether an integrated care intervention (INT) for patients deferred from PegIFN owing to MH\\/SA could improve subsequent treatment eligibility rates.METHODS:In this randomized controlled trial, 101 HCV patients who were evaluated at two

Donna M Evon; Kelly Simpson; Scott Kixmiller; Joseph Galanko; Karen Dougherty; Carol Golin; Michael W Fried

2011-01-01

375

Bilateral hippocampal volume increases after long-term lithium treatment in patients with bipolar disorder: a longitudinal MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The majority of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the hippocampus in patients with bipolar disorder (BD)\\u000a show no differences in hippocampal volume between patients and healthy controls. Significant variability, however, exists\\u000a in the medication status of patients included in these studies. In particular, treatment with lithium may exert long-term\\u000a effects on hippocampal volume, influencing cognitive outcomes in BD

Kaan Yucel; Margaret C. McKinnon; Valerie H. Taylor; Kathryn Macdonald; Martin Alda; L. Trevor Young; Glenda M. MacQueen

2007-01-01

376

Ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment before and after the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment: an improvement project in a national quality registry in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate changes in ulcer healing time and antibiotic treatment in Sweden following the introduction of the Registry of Ulcer Treatment (RUT), a national quality registry, in 2009. Design A statistical analysis of RUT data concerning the healing time and antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers in Sweden between 2009 and 2012. Setting RUT is a national web-based quality registry used to capture areas of improvement in ulcer care and to structure wound management by registering patients with hard-to-heal leg, foot and pressure ulcers. Registration includes variables such as gender, age, diagnosis, healing time, antibiotic treatment, and ulcer duration and size. Population Every patient with a hard-to-heal ulcer registered with RUT between 2009 and 2012 (n=1417) was included. Main outcome measures Statistical analyses were performed using Stata V.12.1. Healing time was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjustment was made for ulcer size. A log-rank test was used for equality of survivor functions. Results According to the adjusted registry in December 2012, patients’ median age was 80?years (mean 77.5?years, range 11–103?years). The median healing time for all ulcers, adjusted for ulcer size, was 146?days (21?weeks) in 2009 and 63?days (9?weeks) in 2012 (p=0.001). Considering all years between 2009 and 2012, antibiotic treatment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers was reduced from 71% before registration to 29% after registration of ulcer healing (p=0.001). Conclusions Healing time and antibiotic treatment decreased significantly during 3?years after launch of RUT. PMID:23959752

Oien, Rut F; Forssell, Henrik W

2013-01-01

377