Science.gov

Sample records for incremental baseado na

  1. Increment of the collective pinning energy in Na1 - xCa x Fe2As2 single crystals with random point defects introduced by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkorn, N.; Kim, Jeehoon; Maiorov, B.; Usov, I.; Chen, G. F.; Yu, W.; Civale, L.

    2014-09-01

    We study the influence of random point defects introduced by 3 MeV proton irradiation (doses 1 × 1016 and 2 × 1016 cm2) on the vortex dynamics of Na x Ca1 - xFe2As2 (x = 0.5 and x = 0.75) single crystals. Our results indicate that the irradiation produces an enhancement of the critical current density and a reduction of the creep rate in vortex relaxation. The plateau in the temperature dependence of vortex creep rate initially present in as-grown single crystals disappears after irradiation. This fact can be associated with a large increment of the collective pinning energy (from <100 to 350-400 K). On the other hand, Maley analysis indicates that after irradiation both samples present a glassy exponent μ close to the one expected in the so-called large bundle regime (μ ≈ 7/9) for random point defects.

  2. Incremental hierarchical discriminant regression.

    PubMed

    Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents incremental hierarchical discriminant regression (IHDR) which incrementally builds a decision tree or regression tree for very high-dimensional regression or decision spaces by an online, real-time learning system. Biologically motivated, it is an approximate computational model for automatic development of associative cortex, with both bottom-up sensory inputs and top-down motor projections. At each internal node of the IHDR tree, information in the output space is used to automatically derive the local subspace spanned by the most discriminating features. Embedded in the tree is a hierarchical probability distribution model used to prune very unlikely cases during the search. The number of parameters in the coarse-to-fine approximation is dynamic and data-driven, enabling the IHDR tree to automatically fit data with unknown distribution shapes (thus, it is difficult to select the number of parameters up front). The IHDR tree dynamically assigns long-term memory to avoid the loss-of-memory problem typical with a global-fitting learning algorithm for neural networks. A major challenge for an incrementally built tree is that the number of samples varies arbitrarily during the construction process. An incrementally updated probability model, called sample-size-dependent negative-log-likelihood (SDNLL) metric is used to deal with large sample-size cases, small sample-size cases, and unbalanced sample-size cases, measured among different internal nodes of the IHDR tree. We report experimental results for four types of data: synthetic data to visualize the behavior of the algorithms, large face image data, continuous video stream from robot navigation, and publicly available data sets that use human defined features. PMID:17385628

  3. Incremental geriatric assessment.

    PubMed

    Ensberg, Mark; Gerstenlauer, Cynthia

    2005-09-01

    Older adults value (1) independence and the ability to make their own decisions, (2) mobility (the ability to travel outside or simply inside the home), (3) family and friends and the time spent with those persons who are important to them, (4) ethnicity, religion, and spirituality, and (5) home, wherever that might be. The importance of recognizing each person's individuality cannot be overemphasized. The method of incremental assessment presented in this article and summarized in Box 9 is intended to provide the office-based clinician with sufficient information to make decisions regarding the preventive, therapeutic, rehabilitative, and supportive goals of care. IADL and nutritional triggers are used to identify early signs of dysfunction in the home environment. The strengths and weaknesses of cognitive, physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of function are examined in an incremental manner. Health care providers determine whether there is a match between the person's functional capabilities, the available support network, and the home environment. The approach prompts appropriate use of services needed by older adults who are either at risk for becoming, or already are, chronically ill, disabled, and functionally dependent. Use of validated assessment tools provides structure for the assessment process, helps assure consistency, and provides a mechanism for periodic re-evaluation. The assessment approaches also foster a common language for the health care team and consist of measurable parameters that can be used to monitor outcomes. The clinician should be flexible and realize that the assessment or the tools may need to be modified depending on the circumstances. PMID:16140119

  4. Incremental Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  5. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  6. Parallel incremental compilation. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gafter, N.M.

    1990-06-01

    The time it takes to compile a large program has been a bottleneck in the software development process. When an interactive programming environment with an incremental compiler is used, compilation speed becomes even more important, but existing incremental compilers are very slow for some types of program changes. We describe a set of techniques that enable incremental compilation to exploit fine-grained concurrency in a shared-memory multi-processor and achieve asymptotic improvement over sequential algorithms. Because parallel non-incremental compilation is a special case of parallel incremental compilation, the design of a parallel compiler is a corollary of our result. Instead of running the individual phases concurrently, our design specifies compiler phases that are mutually sequential. However, each phase is designed to exploit fine-grained parallelism. By allowing each phase to present its output as a complete structure rather than as a stream of data, we can apply techniques such as parallel prefix and parallel divide-and-conquer, and we can construct applicative data structures to achieve sublinear execution time. Parallel algorithms for each phase of a compiler are presented to demonstrate that a complete incremental compiler can achieve execution time that is asymptotically less than sequential algorithms.

  7. Neocognitron capable of incremental learning.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiko

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new neocognitron that accepts incremental learning, without giving a severe damage to old memories or reducing learning speed. The new neocognitron uses a competitive learning, and the learning of all stages of the hierarchical network progresses simultaneously. To increase the learning speed, conventional neocognitrons of recent versions sacrificed the ability of incremental learning, and used a technique of sequential construction of layers, by which the learning of a layer started after the learning of the preceding layers had completely finished. If the learning speed is simply set high for the conventional neocognitron, simultaneous construction of layers produces many garbage cells, which become always silent after having finished the learning. The proposed neocognitron with a new learning method can prevent the generation of such garbage cells even with a high learning speed, allowing incremental learning. PMID:14690705

  8. Incremental learning from stream data.

    PubMed

    He, Haibo; Chen, Sheng; Li, Kang; Xu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an incredibly increasing interest in the topic of incremental learning. Unlike conventional machine learning situations, data flow targeted by incremental learning becomes available continuously over time. Accordingly, it is desirable to be able to abandon the traditional assumption of the availability of representative training data during the training period to develop decision boundaries. Under scenarios of continuous data flow, the challenge is how to transform the vast amount of stream raw data into information and knowledge representation, and accumulate experience over time to support future decision-making process. In this paper, we propose a general adaptive incremental learning framework named ADAIN that is capable of learning from continuous raw data, accumulating experience over time, and using such knowledge to improve future learning and prediction performance. Detailed system level architecture and design strategies are presented in this paper. Simulation results over several real-world data sets are used to validate the effectiveness of this method. PMID:22057060

  9. Producers of Fast Incremental Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY. Center for Architectural Research.

    School districts sometimes need to add relatively small increments of high quality educational space to their existing physical facilities. For some of these situations, the portable or relocatable classroom is the answer; in other cases, the district needs different or more permanent space--quickly. This document comprises six charts that present…

  10. 12 CFR 217.208 - Incremental risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... positions at the portfolio level. If equity positions are included in the model, for modeling purposes... positions in its incremental risk measure. (b) Requirements for incremental risk modeling. For purposes...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... Agreement, as required, until it is fully funded. Any work beyond the funding limit will be at the...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260.53 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... Agreement, as required, until it is fully funded. Any work beyond the funding limit will be at the...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... Agreement, as required, until it is fully funded. Any work beyond the funding limit will be at the...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260.53 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000 (a) Only $___ of...

  16. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... Agreement, as required, until it is fully funded. Any work beyond the funding limit will be at the...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260.53 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260.53 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000...

  19. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of...

  20. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of...

  1. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of...

  2. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of...

  3. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of...

  4. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  5. Incremental Query Rewriting with Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Aragão, Marcelo A. T.

    We address the problem of semantic querying of relational databases (RDB) modulo knowledge bases using very expressive knowledge representation formalisms, such as full first-order logic or its various fragments. We propose to use a resolution-based first-order logic (FOL) reasoner for computing schematic answers to deductive queries, with the subsequent translation of these schematic answers to SQL queries which are evaluated using a conventional relational DBMS. We call our method incremental query rewriting, because an original semantic query is rewritten into a (potentially infinite) series of SQL queries. In this chapter, we outline the main idea of our technique - using abstractions of databases and constrained clauses for deriving schematic answers, and provide completeness and soundness proofs to justify the applicability of this technique to the case of resolution for FOL without equality. The proposed method can be directly used with regular RDBs, including legacy databases. Moreover, we propose it as a potential basis for an efficient Web-scale semantic search technology.

  6. 12 CFR 324.208 - Incremental risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incremental risk. 324.208 Section 324.208 Banks... ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 324.208 Incremental risk. (a) General requirement. An FDIC-supervised institution that measures the specific risk of a portfolio of...

  7. Incremental Discriminant Analysis in Tensor Space

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Liu; Weidong, Zhao; Tao, Yan; Qiang, Pu; Xiaodan, Du

    2015-01-01

    To study incremental machine learning in tensor space, this paper proposes incremental tensor discriminant analysis. The algorithm employs tensor representation to carry on discriminant analysis and combine incremental learning to alleviate the computational cost. This paper proves that the algorithm can be unified into the graph framework theoretically and analyzes the time and space complexity in detail. The experiments on facial image detection have shown that the algorithm not only achieves sound performance compared with other algorithms, but also reduces the computational issues apparently. PMID:26339229

  8. Separate and combined effects of gabapentin and [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans discriminating [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Wesley, Michael J; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine a potential mechanism of action of gabapentin to manage cannabis-use disorders by determining the interoceptive effects of gabapentin in cannabis users discriminating [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol ([INCREMENT]-THC) using a pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedure. Eight cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral [INCREMENT]-THC from placebo and then received gabapentin (600 and 1200 mg), [INCREMENT]-THC (5, 15, and 30 mg), and placebo alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance, and physiological measures were also collected. [INCREMENT]-THC served as a discriminative stimulus, produced positive subjective effects, elevated heart rate, and impaired psychomotor performance. Both doses of gabapentin substituted for the [INCREMENT]-THC discriminative stimulus and engendered subjective and performance-impairing effects that overlapped with those of [INCREMENT]-THC when administered alone. When administered concurrently, gabapentin shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of [INCREMENT]-THC leftward/upward, and combinations of [INCREMENT]-THC and gabapentin generally produced larger effects on cannabinoid-sensitive outcomes relative to [INCREMENT]-THC alone. These results suggest that one mechanism by which gabapentin might facilitate cannabis abstinence is by producing effects that overlap with those of cannabinoids. PMID:26313650

  9. Environmental Aspects Regarding The Incremental Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tera, Melania

    2015-09-01

    Future technologies should aim at reducing the consumption of raw materials and energy, avoid technical losses, to save energy and mineral resources, to minimize the emissions and waste, eliminate any irrational use of all resources and also to minimize the environmental impact. The paper present from environmental point of view both a classic forming process such as deep-drawing and incremental forming process. The paper gives an overview of the main environmental aspects regarding the incremental forming process.

  10. International Space Station Increment Operations Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Horst; Sielaff, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Industrial Operator (IO) has defined End-to-End services to perform efficiently all required operations tasks for the Manned Space Program (MSP) as agreed during the Ministerial Council in Edinburgh in November 2001. Those services are the result of a detailed task analysis based on the operations processes as derived from the Space Station Program Implementation Plans (SPIP) and defined in the Operations Processes Documents (OPD). These services are related to ISS Increment Operations and ATV Mission Operations. Each of these End-to-End services is typically characterised by the following properties: It has a clearly defined starting point, where all requirements on the end-product are fixed and associated performance metrics of the customer are well defined. It has a clearly defined ending point, when the product or service is delivered to the customer and accepted by him, according to the performance metrics defined at the start point. The implementation of the process might be restricted by external boundary conditions and constraints mutually agreed with the customer. As far as those are respected the IO has the free choice to select methods and means of implementation. The ISS Increment Operations Service (IOS) activities required for the MSP Exploitation program cover the complete increment specific cycle starting with the support to strategic planning and ending with the post increment evaluation. These activities are divided into sub-services including the following tasks: - ISS Planning Support covering the support to strategic and tactical planning up to the generation - Development &Payload Integration Support - ISS Increment Preparation - ISS Increment Execution These processes are tight together by the Increment Integration Management, which provides the planning and scheduling of all activities as well as the technical management of the overall process . The paper describes the entire End-to-End ISS Increment Operations service and the

  11. Ozone layer protection: Country incremental costs

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.; Munasinghe, M.

    1995-07-01

    The framework presented in Chapter 1 by King and Munasinghe was developed to estimate the country-level incremental cost. This framework has been applied in several developing countries in transition. The purpose of the Workshop on Country-Level Incremental Costs of Phasing Out Ozone-Depleting Substances was to gather key analysts engaged in this work to review the framework and its practical application. They present the results of their work in India, Turkey, Jordan, and Zimbabwe (Chapter 2: Mason); Egypt (Chapter 3: Catanach); Thailand (Chapter 4: Widge, Radka, and Dillon); and Tunisia and Czechoslovakia (Chapter 5; Bendtsen).

  12. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental...

  13. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental...

  14. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental...

  15. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental...

  16. 12 CFR 3.208 - Incremental risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... internal risk management methodologies for identifying, measuring, and managing risk. (c) Calculation of... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incremental risk. 3.208 Section 3.208 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS...

  17. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  18. Incremental social learning in particle swarms.

    PubMed

    de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stutzle, Thomas; Van den Enden, Ken; Dorigo, Marco

    2011-04-01

    Incremental social learning (ISL) was proposed as a way to improve the scalability of systems composed of multiple learning agents. In this paper, we show that ISL can be very useful to improve the performance of population-based optimization algorithms. Our study focuses on two particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms: a) the incremental particle swarm optimizer (IPSO), which is a PSO algorithm with a growing population size in which the initial position of new particles is biased toward the best-so-far solution, and b) the incremental particle swarm optimizer with local search (IPSOLS), in which solutions are further improved through a local search procedure. We first derive analytically the probability density function induced by the proposed initialization rule applied to new particles. Then, we compare the performance of IPSO and IPSOLS on a set of benchmark functions with that of other PSO algorithms (with and without local search) and a random restart local search algorithm. Finally, we measure the benefits of using incremental social learning on PSO algorithms by running IPSO and IPSOLS on problems with different fitness distance correlations. PMID:20875976

  19. Thermal maturation of incrementally assembled plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Coleman, D. S.; Heizler, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Cretaceous zoned intrusive suites of the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB) were each assembled over 8-11 million years through incremental amalgamation of sheeted intrusions. Emplacement as small sheet-like increments inhibits development of a voluminous zone of melt bearing rock; instead the active magma body represents only a small portion of the total volume intruded. Plutons formed incrementally will have a protracted thermal history (T-t) that can be elucidated using thermochronologic techniques yielding insights into the thermal evolution of the lithosphere at magma chamber-pluton scales. Thermal histories are derived for plutons from the dike-like John Muir Intrusive Suite (JMIS) and the laccolithic Mount Whitney Intrusive Suite (MWIS), both located in the eastern-central SNB, by correlating estimated zircon saturation and argon closure temperatures with U-Pb zircon and titanite, 40Ar/39Ar amphibole, biotite, and K-feldspar ages. Close agreement among zircon and hornblende ages indicate rapid cooling following intrusion. However, hornblende and biotite ages are separated by 6-9 million years indicating slow protracted cooling. We interpret these data to reflect the thermal maturation of an incrementally assembled magma system in which temperatures cycled between ~500-300°C for millions of years. Hornblende ages were not reset by younger intrusions, therefore maximum reheating temperatures did not exceed ~500°C for geologically significant durations. T-t cooling curves from the intrusive suites are used to calibrate finite difference numerical simulations of pluton assembly. Intrusion geometries are modeled (HEAT 3D, Wohletz, 2007) by stacking horizontal increments from the top-down and bottom-up and vertical increments are emplaced syntaxially and antitaxially and are designed to generate plutons of the approximate dimensions, depth of emplacement, and age range of the Sierran suites. Numerical simulations yield the following general observations: 1) an

  20. Specific mass increment and nonequilibrium crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, Leonid M.; Terentiev, Pavel S.

    2013-09-01

    Unsteady nonequilibrium crystallization of ammonium chloride from an aqueous solution resulting in the formation of irregular, so-called seaweed, structures is experimentally investigated. It is shown that specific increment of mass for the coexisting structures (or parts thereof) is the same and changes with time (t) according to the power law a/t-b, where the factor a=1.87±0.09 and the factor b is determined by the system relaxation time. The normalization of the power law to the total time of structure growth allows obtaining a universal law that describes the specific mass increment with time for both seaweed and dendrite structures (including the non-coexisting ones).

  1. A Fast Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rafael Coimbra; Engel, Paulo Martins

    2015-01-01

    This work builds upon previous efforts in online incremental learning, namely the Incremental Gaussian Mixture Network (IGMN). The IGMN is capable of learning from data streams in a single-pass by improving its model after analyzing each data point and discarding it thereafter. Nevertheless, it suffers from the scalability point-of-view, due to its asymptotic time complexity of O(NKD3) for N data points, K Gaussian components and D dimensions, rendering it inadequate for high-dimensional data. In this work, we manage to reduce this complexity to O(NKD2) by deriving formulas for working directly with precision matrices instead of covariance matrices. The final result is a much faster and scalable algorithm which can be applied to high dimensional tasks. This is confirmed by applying the modified algorithm to high-dimensional classification datasets. PMID:26444880

  2. Ozone layer protection: Country incremental costs

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.; Munasinghe, M.

    1997-12-31

    The report evaluates the frameworks established in various countries to finance the incremental costs of phasing out ozone-depleting substances. The Multilateral Fund and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) were established to assist developing countries in financing the incremental costs of phasing out ozone-depleting substances. Both the Fund and the GEF require a strategic framework for the activities they finance to demonstrate that overall phaseout of these substances will be accomplished. The framework, known as the `country program,` establishes a national strategy and program of proposed activities. This paper describes the country programs in general and reviews the work and results of key analysts who carried out these programs in the former Czechoslovakia, Egypt, India, Jordan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, and Zimbabwe.

  3. Some Results on Incremental Vertex Cover Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wenqiang

    In the classical k-vertex cover problem, we wish to find a minimum weight set of vertices that covers at least k edges. In the incremental version of the k-vertex cover problem, we wish to find a sequence of vertices, such that if we choose the smallest prefix of vertices in the sequence that covers at least k edges, this solution is close in value to that of the optimal k-vertex cover solution. The maximum ratio is called competitive ratio. Previously the known upper bound of competitive ratio was 4α, where α is the approximation ratio of the k-vertex cover problem. And the known lower bound was 1.36 unless P = NP, or 2 - ɛ for any constant ɛ assuming the Unique Game Conjecture. In this paper we present some new results for this problem. Firstly we prove that, without any computational complexity assumption, the lower bound of competitive ratio of incremental vertex cover problem is φ, where φ=sqrt{5}+1/2≈ 1.618 is the golden ratio. We then consider the restricted versions where k is restricted to one of two given values(Named 2-IVC problem) and one of three given values(Named 3-IVC problem). For 2-IVC problem, we give an algorithm to prove that the competitive ratio is at most φα. This incremental algorithm is also optimal for 2-IVC problem if we are permitted to use non-polynomial time. For the 3-IVC problem, we give an incremental algorithm with ratio factor (1+sqrt{2})α.

  4. Molecular energies from an incremental fragmentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The systematic molecular fragmentation method by Collins and Deev [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 104104 (2006)] has been used to calculate total energies and relative conformational energies for a number of small and extended molecular systems. In contrast to the original approach by Collins, we have tested the accuracy of the fragmentation method by utilising an incremental scheme in which the energies at the lowest level of the fragmentation are calculated on an accurate quantum chemistry level while lower-cost methods are used to correct the low-level energies through a high-level fragmentation. In this work, the fragment energies at the lowest level of fragmentation were calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA) and two recently developed extensions to the RPA while the incremental corrections at higher levels of the fragmentation were calculated using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods. The complete incremental fragmentation method has been shown to reproduce the supermolecule results with a very good accuracy, almost independent on the molecular type, size, or type of decomposition. The fragmentation method has also been used in conjunction with the DFT-SAPT (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory) method which enables a breakdown of the total nonbonding energy contributions into individual interaction energy terms. Finally, the potential problems of the method connected with the use of capping hydrogen atoms are analysed and two possible solutions are supplied.

  5. Collecting, preparing, crossdating, and measuring tree increment cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phipps, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for collecting and handling increment tree cores are described. Procedures include those for cleaning and caring for increment borers, extracting the sample from a tree, core surfacing, crossdating, and measuring. (USGS)

  6. 14 CFR § 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incremental funding. § 1260.53 Section § 1260.53 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000...

  7. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452... 3452.232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3452.771, insert the following provision in solicitations: Incremental Funding (AUG 1987) (a) Sufficient funds are not presently available to cover...

  8. 14 CFR § 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incremental funding. § 1274.918 Section Â... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding July 2002 (a) Of the award amount indicated on the cover page of this Agreement, only...

  9. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  10. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  11. Incrementality and Prediction in Human Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Gerry T. M.; Mirković, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    We identify a number of principles with respect to prediction that, we argue, underpin adult language comprehension: (a) comprehension consists in realizing a mapping between the unfolding sentence and the event representation corresponding to the real-world event being described; (b) the realization of this mapping manifests as the ability to predict both how the language will unfold, and how the real-world event would unfold if it were being experienced directly; (c) concurrent linguistic and nonlinguistic inputs, and the prior internal states of the system, each drive the predictive process; (d) the representation of prior internal states across a representational substrate common to the linguistic and nonlinguistic domains enables the predictive process to operate over variable time frames and variable levels of representational abstraction. We review empirical data exemplifying the operation of these principles and discuss the relationship between prediction, event structure, thematic role assignment, and incrementality. PMID:20396405

  12. Incremental nonlinear dimensionality reduction by manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Law, Martin H C; Jain, Anil K

    2006-03-01

    Understanding the structure of multidimensional patterns, especially in unsupervised cases, is of fundamental importance in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Several algorithms have been proposed to analyze the structure of high-dimensional data based on the notion of manifold learning. These algorithms have been used to extract the intrinsic characteristics of different types of high-dimensional data by performing nonlinear dimensionality reduction. Most of these algorithms operate in a "batch" mode and cannot be efficiently applied when data are collected sequentially. In this paper, we describe an incremental version of ISOMAP, one of the key manifold learning algorithms. Our experiments on synthetic data as well as real world images demonstrate that our modified algorithm can maintain an accurate low-dimensional representation of the data in an efficient manner. PMID:16526424

  13. Improved VSM for Incremental Text Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen; Lei, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xing; Guo, Jim

    2008-11-01

    As a simple classification method VSM has been widely applied in text information processing field. There are some problems for traditional VSM to select a refined vector model representation, which can make a good tradeoff between complexity and performance, especially for incremental text mining. To solve these problems, in this paper, several improvements, such as VSM based on improved TF, TFIDF and BM25, are discussed. And then maximum mutual information feature selection is introduced to achieve a low dimension VSM with less complexity, and at the same time keep an acceptable precision. The experimental results of spam filtering and short messages classification shows that the algorithm can achieve higher precision than existing algorithms under same conditions.

  14. Incremental mixed lognormal-Gaussian 4D VAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, J.; Fletcher, S. J.; Kliewer, A.; Jones, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    One of the advances that allowed 4DVAR to be operational for synoptic numerical weather prediction was the introduction of incremental 4DVAR. This method assumes that the errors are additive and Gaussian in nature. However, as work recently has shown, there are errors which are multiplicative. A full field version of the 4DVAR equations have been derived and tested in a toy problem for the situation where there is a mix of Gaussian and lognormal background and observational errors. It is not straight-forward, however, to extend the incremental theory to multiplicative errors. One approach which has been suggested recently involves using a transform for the increment. It is shown here that the increment that is found is not the 'incremental mode', i.e. the most likely state for the increment, but rather a median state for the increment. To overcome the multiplicative nature of the errors we present a geometric tangent linear approximation which enables us to linearize the observation operator with respect to a consistent lognormal multiplicative increment. In this paper we present an equivalent incremental version of the mixed lognormal-Gaussian which is based upon finding the most-likely state for additive increments for the Gaussian variables and lognormal for the multiplicative lognormal variables. We test this new approach with the Lorenz 1963 model under different size observational errors and observation window lengths.

  15. Validation of daily increments in otoliths of northern squawfish larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wertheimer, R.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Otoliths from laboratory-reared northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, larvae were examined to determine the periodicity of increment deposition. Increment deposition began in both sagittae and lapilli after hatching. Reader counts indicated that increment formation was daily in sagittae of 1-29-day-old larvae. However, increment counts from lapilli were significantly less than the known ages of northern squawfish larvae, possibly because some increments were not detectable. Otolith readability and age agreement among readers were greatest for young (<11 days) northern squawfish larvae. This was primarily because a transitional zone of low-contrast material began forming in otoliths of 8-11-day-old larvae and persisted until approximately 20 days after hatching. Formation of the transition zone appeared to coincide with the onset of exogenous feeding and continued through yolk sac absorption. Our results indicate that aging wild-caught northern squawfish larvae using daily otolith increment counts is possible.

  16. Detection of suspicious activity using incremental outlier detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrajac, D.; Reljin, N.; Pejcic, N.; Vance, T.; McDaniel, S.; Lazarevic, A.; Chang, H. J.; Choi, J. Y.; Miezianko, R.

    2009-08-01

    Detection of unusual trajectories of moving objects can help in identifying suspicious activity on convoy routes and thus reduce casualties caused by improvised explosive devices. In this paper, using video imagery we compare efficiency of various techniques for incremental outlier detection on detecting unusual trajectories on simulated and real-life data obtained from SENSIAC database. Incremental outlier detection algorithms that we consider in this paper include incremental Support Vector Classifier (incSVC), incremental Local Outlier Factor (incLOF) algorithm and incremental Connectivity Outlier Factor (incCOF) algorithm. Our experiments performed on ground truth trajectory data indicate that incremental LOF algorithm can provide better detection of unusual trajectories in comparison to other examined techniques.

  17. Incremental fusion of partial biometric information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Existing face recognition schemes are mostly based on extracting biometric feature vectors either from whole face images, or from a fixed facial region (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth). Extreme variation in quality conditions between biometric enrolment and verification stages badly affects the performance of face recognition systems. Such problems have partly motivated several investigations into the use of partial facial features for face recognition. Nevertheless, partial face recognition is potentially useful in several applications, for instance, it used in forensics for detectives to identify individuals after some accidents such as fire or explosion. In this paper, we propose a scheme to fuse the biometric information of partial face images incrementally based on their recognition accuracy (or discriminative power) ranks. Such fusion scheme uses the optimal ratio of full/partial face images in each different quality condition. We found that such scheme is also useful for full face images to enhance authentication accuracy significantly. Nevertheless, it reduces the required storage requirements and processing time of the biometric system. Our experiments show that the required ratio of full/partial facial images to achieve optimal performance varies from (5%) to (80%) according to the quality conditions whereas the authentication accuracy improves significantly for low quality biometric samples.

  18. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  19. Parameter incremental learning algorithm for neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Sheng; Banta, Larry E

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a novel stochastic (or online) training algorithm for neural networks, named parameter incremental learning (PIL) algorithm, is proposed and developed. The main idea of the PIL strategy is that the learning algorithm should not only adapt to the newly presented input-output training pattern by adjusting parameters, but also preserve the prior results. A general PIL algorithm for feedforward neural networks is accordingly presented as the first-order approximate solution to an optimization problem, where the performance index is the combination of proper measures of preservation and adaptation. The PIL algorithms for the multilayer perceptron (MLP) are subsequently derived. Numerical studies show that for all the three benchmark problems used in this paper the PIL algorithm for MLP is measurably superior to the standard online backpropagation (BP) algorithm and the stochastic diagonal Levenberg-Marquardt (SDLM) algorithm in terms of the convergence speed and accuracy. Other appealing features of the PIL algorithm are that it is computationally as simple as the BP algorithm, and as easy to use as the BP algorithm. It, therefore, can be applied, with better performance, to any situations where the standard online BP algorithm is applicable. PMID:17131658

  20. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.612 Minimum pricing increment. (a) No national...

  1. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.612 Minimum pricing increment. (a) No national...

  2. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.612 Minimum pricing increment. (a) No national...

  3. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.612 Minimum pricing increment. (a) No national...

  4. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.612 Minimum pricing increment. (a) No national...

  5. Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krimgold, Frederick; Hattis, David; Green, Melvyn

    Asserting that the strategy of incremental seismic rehabilitation makes it possible for schools to get started now on improving earthquake safety, this manual provides school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for…

  6. Teachers' Preferences toward Alternate Systems of Salary Increment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogie, Cheryl E.; Bogie, Donald W.

    1978-01-01

    Elementary teachers from three different urban socioeconomic neighborhoods were surveyed regarding their preferences toward uniform vs competency-based systems of salary increment; the relationship between selected characteristics of teachers and principals and teachers' attitudes toward alternate forms of salary increment were also investigated.…

  7. Power-law confusion: You say incremental, I say differential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.

    1993-01-01

    Power-law distributions are commonly used to describe the frequency of occurrences of crater diameters, stellar masses, ring particle sizes, planetesimal sizes, and meteoroid masses to name a few. The distributions are simple, and this simplicity has led to a number of misstatements in the literature about the kind of power-law that is being used: differential, cumulative, or incremental. Although differential and cumulative power-laws are mathematically trivial, it is a hybrid incremental distribution that is often used and the relationship between the incremental distribution and the differential or cumulative distributions is not trivial. In many cases the slope of an incremental power-law will be nearly identical to the slope of the cumulative power-law of the same distribution, not the differential slope. The discussion that follows argues for a consistent usage of these terms and against the oft-made implicit claim that incremental and differential distributions are indistinguishable.

  8. Determining the Optimum Number of Increments in Composite Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, John E.; Schaalje, G Bruce; Gilbert, Richard O.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2008-09-30

    Composite sampling can be more cost effective than simple random sampling. This paper considers how to determine the optimum number of increments to use in composite sampling. Composite sampling can be more cost effective than simple random sampling. This paper considers how to determine the optimum number of increments to use in composite sampling. Composite sampling terminology and theory are outlined and a method is developed which accounts for different sources of variation in compositing and data analysis. This method is used to define and understand the process of determining the optimum number of increments that should be used in forming a composite. The blending variance is shown to have a smaller range of possible values than previously reported when estimating the number of increments in a composite sample. Accounting for differing levels of the blending variance significantly affects the estimated number of increments.

  9. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  10. Viscoelastic incremental formulation using creep and relaxation differential approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazal, Claude; Mouto Pitti, Rostand

    2010-05-01

    A new incremental formulation in the time domain for linear, non-ageing viscoelastic materials undergoing mechanical deformation is presented in this work. The formulation is derived from linear differential equations based on a discrete spectrum representation for the creep and relaxation tensors. The incremental constitutive equations are then obtained by finite difference integration. Thus the difficulty of retaining the stress and strain history in computer solutions is avoided. A complete general formulation of linear viscoelastic stress analysis is developed in terms of increments of strains and stresses in order to establish the constitutive stress-strain relationship. The presented method is validated using numerical simulations and reliable results are obtained.

  11. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... funding. 3432.771 Section 3432.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 3432.771 Provision for incremental funding. The contracting officer shall insert the provision in...

  12. An Examination of an Incremental Approach to Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingele, William E.; Reed, Beverly Woods

    1984-01-01

    A study of approximately 600 University of Arkansas remedial algebra students divided into seven control and seven experimental group sections substantially confirms John Saxon's findings that mathematics achievement can be improved by using Saxon's incremental approach to mathematics instruction. (JBM)

  13. 26 CFR 1.41-8 - Alternative incremental credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....41-8T(b)(5) as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2006. Paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4)(ii) of... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit. 1.41-8 Section 1... Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8 Alternative incremental credit. (a) Determination of credit. At the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.41-8 - Alternative incremental credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....41-8T(b)(5) as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2006. Paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4)(ii) of... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit. 1.41-8 Section 1... Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8 Alternative incremental credit. (a) Determination of credit. At the...

  15. Boundary value problems with incremental plasticity in granular media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Lee, J. K.; Costes, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the critical state concept in terms of an incremental theory of plasticity in granular (soil) media, and formulation of the governing equations which are convenient for a computational scheme using the finite element method. It is shown that the critical state concept with its representation by the classical incremental theory of plasticity can provide a powerful means for solving a wide variety of boundary value problems in soil media.

  16. The NT-criterion for predicting crack growth increments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yehia, Nabil A. B.; Shephard, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach is presented to determine the crack propagation increment after the direction of crack propagation has been predicted. The maximum dilatational strain energy density (NT-criterion) is employed in the derivation for predicting both direction and increment of the propagating crack. The crack propagation path predicted by the NT-criterion is compared to the one predicted by the S-criterion and to some available experimental data.

  17. An optimized procedure for determining incremental heat rate characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyola, A.H.; Grady, W.M. ); Viviani, G.L. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes an optimized procedure for producing generator incremental heat rate curves from continually sampled unit performance data. A generalized reduced gradient algorithm is applied to optimally locate break points in incremental heat rate curves. The advantages include the ability to automatically take into consideration slow time-varying effects such as unit aging and temperature variations in combustion air and cooling water. The procedure is tested using actual fuel rate data for four generators.

  18. Incremental k-core decomposition: Algorithms and evaluation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem; Gedik, Bugra; Jacques-SIlva, Gabriela; Wu, Kun -Lung; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2016-02-01

    A k-core of a graph is a maximal connected subgraph in which every vertex is connected to at least k vertices in the subgraph. k-core decomposition is often used in large-scale network analysis, such as community detection, protein function prediction, visualization, and solving NP-hard problems on real networks efficiently, like maximal clique finding. In many real-world applications, networks change over time. As a result, it is essential to develop efficient incremental algorithms for dynamic graph data. In this paper, we propose a suite of incremental k-core decomposition algorithms for dynamic graph data. These algorithms locate a small subgraph that ismore » guaranteed to contain the list of vertices whose maximum k-core values have changed and efficiently process this subgraph to update the k-core decomposition. We present incremental algorithms for both insertion and deletion operations, and propose auxiliary vertex state maintenance techniques that can further accelerate these operations. Our results show a significant reduction in runtime compared to non-incremental alternatives. We illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms on different types of real and synthetic graphs, at varying scales. Furthermore, for a graph of 16 million vertices, we observe relative throughputs reaching a million times, relative to the non-incremental algorithms.« less

  19. Incremental communication for multilayer neural networks: error analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A A; Bhavsar, V C

    1998-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) involve a large amount of internode communications. To reduce the communication cost as well as the time of learning process in ANNs, we earlier proposed (1995) an incremental internode communication method. In the incremental communication method, instead of communicating the full magnitude of the output value of a node, only the increment or decrement to its previous value is sent to a communication link. In this paper, the effects of the limited precision incremental communication method on the convergence behavior and performance of multilayer neural networks are investigated. The nonlinear aspects of representing the incremental values with reduced (limited) precision for the commonly used error backpropagation training algorithm are analyzed. It is shown that the nonlinear effect of small perturbations in the input(s)/output of a node does not cause instability. The analysis is supported by simulation studies of two problems. The simulation results demonstrate that the limited precision errors are bounded and do not seriously affect the convergence of multilayer neural networks. PMID:18252431

  20. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Christos A; Siegling, A B

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed. PMID:25814967

  1. A heuristic approach to incremental and reactive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odubiyi, Jide B.; Zoch, David R.

    1989-01-01

    An heuristic approach to incremental and reactive scheduling is described. Incremental scheduling is the process of modifying an existing schedule if the initial schedule does not meet its stated initial goals. Reactive scheduling occurs in near real-time in response to changes in available resources or the occurrence of targets of opportunity. Only minor changes are made during both incremental and reactive scheduling because a goal of re-scheduling procedures is to minimally impact the schedule. The described heuristic search techniques, which are employed by the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE), a prototype generic scheduler, efficiently approximate the cost of reaching a goal from a given state and effective mechanisms for controlling search.

  2. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Christos A.; Siegling, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed. PMID:25814967

  3. Incremental comprehension of spoken quantifier sentences: Evidence from brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Freunberger, Dominik; Nieuwland, Mante S

    2016-09-01

    Do people incrementally incorporate the meaning of quantifier expressions to understand an unfolding sentence? Most previous studies concluded that quantifiers do not immediately influence how a sentence is understood based on the observation that online N400-effects differed from offline plausibility judgments. Those studies, however, used serial visual presentation (SVP), which involves unnatural reading. In the current ERP-experiment, we presented spoken positive and negative quantifier sentences ("Practically all/practically no postmen prefer delivering mail, when the weather is good/bad during the day"). Different from results obtained in a previously reported SVP-study (Nieuwland, 2016) sentence truth-value N400 effects occurred in positive and negative quantifier sentences alike, reflecting fully incremental quantifier comprehension. This suggests that the prosodic information available during spoken language comprehension supports the generation of online predictions for upcoming words and that, at least for quantifier sentences, comprehension of spoken language may proceed more incrementally than comprehension during SVP reading. PMID:27346365

  4. Martingales, nonstationary increments, and the efficient market hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the deep connection between nonstationary increments, martingales, and the efficient market hypothesis for stochastic processes x(t) with arbitrary diffusion coefficients D(x,t). We explain why a test for a martingale is generally a test for uncorrelated increments. We explain why martingales look Markovian at the level of both simple averages and 2-point correlations. But while a Markovian market has no memory to exploit and cannot be beaten systematically, a martingale admits memory that might be exploitable in higher order correlations. We also use the analysis of this paper to correct a misstatement of the ‘fair game’ condition in terms of serial correlations in Fama’s paper on the EMH. We emphasize that the use of the log increment as a variable in data analysis generates spurious fat tails and spurious Hurst exponents.

  5. Entropy-based incremental variational Bayes learning of Gaussian mixtures.

    PubMed

    Peñalver, Antonio; Escolano, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Variational approaches to density estimation and pattern recognition using Gaussian mixture models can be used to learn the model and optimize its complexity simultaneously. In this brief, we develop an incremental entropy-based variational learning scheme that does not require any kind of initialization. The key element of the proposal is to exploit the incremental learning approach to perform model selection through efficient iteration over the variational Bayes optimization step in a way that the number of splits is minimized. The method starts with just one component and adds new components iteratively by splitting the worst fitted kernel in terms of evaluating its entropy. Our experimental results, on synthetic and real data sets show the effectiveness of the approach outperforming other state-of-the-art incremental component learners. PMID:24808558

  6. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Brezillon, P.

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  7. Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance.

    PubMed

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-07-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine, noncreative work. Results demonstrate that willingness to take risks, resources for creativity, and career commitment are associated primarily with radical creativity; that the presence of creative coworkers and organizational identification are associated with incremental creativity; and that conformity and organizational identification are linked with routine performance. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:21319879

  8. 76 FR 73475 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I, 76 FR 53764 (Aug. 29, 2011). The final rule removed form.... Correction of Publication Accordingly, the publication on August 29, 2011 (76 FR 53764) of the final rule that was the subject of FR Doc. 2011-20990 is corrected as follows: PART 103--IMMIGRATION...

  9. Against the Odds: Academic Underdogs Benefit from Incremental Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jody L.; Burnette, Jeni L.; Allison, Scott T.; Stone, Heather

    2011-01-01

    An implicit theory of ability approach to motivation argues that students who believe traits to be malleable (incremental theorists), relative to those who believe traits to be fixed (entity theorists), cope more effectively when academic challenges arise. In the current work, we integrated the implicit theory literature with research on top dog…

  10. Incremental logistic regression for customizing automatic diagnostic models.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Salvador; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, and following the new trends in medicine, statistical learning techniques have been used for developing automatic diagnostic models for aiding the clinical experts throughout the use of Clinical Decision Support Systems. The development of these models requires a large, representative amount of data, which is commonly obtained from one hospital or a group of hospitals after an expensive and time-consuming gathering, preprocess, and validation of cases. After the model development, it has to overcome an external validation that is often carried out in a different hospital or health center. The experience is that the models show underperformed expectations. Furthermore, patient data needs ethical approval and patient consent to send and store data. For these reasons, we introduce an incremental learning algorithm base on the Bayesian inference approach that may allow us to build an initial model with a smaller number of cases and update it incrementally when new data are collected or even perform a new calibration of a model from a different center by using a reduced number of cases. The performance of our algorithm is demonstrated by employing different benchmark datasets and a real brain tumor dataset; and we compare its performance to a previous incremental algorithm and a non-incremental Bayesian model, showing that the algorithm is independent of the data model, iterative, and has a good convergence. PMID:25417079

  11. Predicting Robust Vocabulary Growth from Measures of Incremental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of incremental learning of new word meanings over multiple episodes. A new method called MESA (Markov Estimation of Semantic Association) tracked this learning through the automated assessment of learner-generated definitions. The multiple word learning episodes varied in the strength of contextual constraint provided by…

  12. Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.'s Letter to the Editor of "Cognitive Science". We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from "normal" (i.e.,…

  13. The Incremental Validity of Positive Emotions in Predicting School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ashley D.; Huebner, E. Scott; Reschly, Amy L.; Valois, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of positive psychology have argued for more comprehensive assessments incorporating positive measures (e.g., student strengths) as well as negative measures (e.g., psychological symptoms). However, few variable-centered studies have addressed the incremental validity of positive assessment data. The authors investigated the incremental…

  14. Incremental Validity in the Clinical Assessment of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Zhou, Xiaobin; Lackaff, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the increment of clinical validity in early childhood assessment of physical impairment (PI), developmental delay (DD), and autism (AUT) using multiple standardized developmental screening measures such as performance measures and parent and teacher rating scales. Hierarchical regression and sensitivity/specificity analyses…

  15. Tax Increment Financing and Education Expenditures: The Case of Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to directly examine the relationship between tax increment financing (TIF) and education expenditures, using the state of Iowa as a case study. I find that greater use of TIF is associated with reduced education expenditures. I also find little evidence to support the commonly held proposition that school spending increases…

  16. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  17. Incrementalism, Majoritarianism, and the Failures of School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.

    This paper argues that cautious and participatory desegregation efforts yield less desirable outcomes than either sweeping, authoritative desegregation policies or no imposed effort at all. The author proceeds to support these claims by identifying 10 goals of school desegregation and examining the rules and consequences of incremental and…

  18. Volatilities, Traded Volumes, and Price Increments in Derivative Securities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, Soo Yong; Scalas, Enrico

    2007-03-01

    We apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the statistics of the Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. For our case, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to the inherent higher-order correlation not detected by applying directly the DFA to logarithmic increments of the KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of futures prices and to generate the geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It is really shown from comparing the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments makes the volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes may be supported the hypothesis of price changes.

  19. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  20. Do coralline red algal growth increment widths archive paleoenvironmental information?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, J.; Winsborough, C.; Omar, A.; Hetzinger, S.; Steneck, R. S.; Lebednik, P. A.

    2009-04-01

    Over the past decade coralline red algae have received increased attention as archives of paleoclimate information. Encrusting coralline red algae, which deposit annual growth increments in a High-Mg calcite skeleton, are amongst the longest-lived marine organisms. In fact, a live-collected plant has recently been shown to have lived for at least 850 years based on radiometric dating. While a number of investigations have successfully utilized geochemical information obtained from coralline red algal skeletons to reconstruct climate, no study has yet examined the potential of using growth increment widths as a proxy for past water temperatures. Here we explore the relationship between growth and environmental parameters in Clathromorphum nereostratum from the Bering Sea. A 120-year long annual growth record shows a significant but weak correlation to regional sea surface temperature data (r=0.24), which requires much of the observed annual growth increment width variability to be explained by other factors. We therefore examined coralline red algal growth for a 20-year period in multiple specimens collected along a depth transect from 10 to 35 m water depth. Results demonstrate a significant decrease in average annual growth increment widths with increasing water depth. Due to intense wind-induced mixing in the region the upper water column exhibits near uniform temperatures and salinities, leaving the decreasing amount of light with depth as the dominant variable influencing vertical extension. This was further tested by examining specimens collected at 10 m water depth at different locations receiving distinct amounts of shading provided by 100%, 50%, and 0% kelp canopy coverage. Results indicate a negative relationship between percent kelp canopy coverage and annual growth increment width. It can therefore be concluded that the dominant factor controlling vertical growth in C. nereostratum is light, with temperature only accounting for a small portion of growth

  1. Understanding the incremental value of novel diagnostic tests for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dowdy, David

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis is a major source of global mortality caused by infection, partly because of a tremendous ongoing burden of undiagnosed disease. Improved diagnostic technology may play an increasingly crucial part in global efforts to end tuberculosis, but the ability of diagnostic tests to curb tuberculosis transmission is dependent on multiple factors, including the time taken by a patient to seek health care, the patient's symptoms, and the patterns of transmission before diagnosis. Novel diagnostic assays for tuberculosis have conventionally been evaluated on the basis of characteristics such as sensitivity and specificity, using assumptions that probably overestimate the impact of diagnostic tests on transmission. We argue for a shift in focus to the evaluation of such tests' incremental value, defining outcomes that reflect each test's purpose (for example, transmissions averted) and comparing systems with the test against those without, in terms of those outcomes. Incremental value can also be measured in units of outcome per incremental unit of resource (for example, money or human capacity). Using a novel, simplified model of tuberculosis transmission that addresses some of the limitations of earlier tuberculosis diagnostic models, we demonstrate that the incremental value of any novel test depends not just on its accuracy, but also on elements such as patient behaviour, tuberculosis natural history and health systems. By integrating these factors into a single unified framework, we advance an approach to the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis that considers the incremental value at the population level and demonstrates how additional data could inform more-effective implementation of tuberculosis diagnostic tests under various conditions. PMID:26633767

  2. Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.

    2016-04-01

    Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and

  3. Electrical-assisted double side incremental forming and processes thereof

    DOEpatents

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2014-06-03

    A process for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component is provided. The process can include providing a double side incremental forming machine, the machine operable to perform a plurality of double side incremental deformations on the sheet metal component and also apply an electric direct current to the sheet metal component during at least part of the forming. The direct current can be applied before or after the forming has started and/or be terminated before or after the forming has stopped. The direct current can be applied to any portion of the sheet metal. The electrical assistance can reduce the magnitude of force required to produce a given amount of deformation, increase the amount of deformation exhibited before failure and/or reduce any springback typically exhibited by the sheet metal component.

  4. Addressing System Reconfiguration and Incremental Integration within IMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, F.; Rodríques, A. I.

    2009-05-01

    Recently space industry is paying special attention to Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems due to the benefits that modular concepts could bring to the development of space applications, especially in terms of interoperability, flexibility and software reuse. Two important IMA goals to be highlighted are system reconfiguration, and incremental integration of new functionalities into a pre-existing system. The purpose of this paper is to show how system reconfiguration is conducted based on Allied Standard Avionics Architecture Council (ASAAC) concepts for IMA Systems. Besides, it aims to provide a proposal for addressing the incremental integration concept supported by our experience gained during European Technology Acquisition Program (ETAP) TDP1.7 programme. All these topics will be discussed taking into account safety issues and showing the blueprint as an appropriate technique to support these concepts.

  5. Incremental volume reconstruction and rendering for 3-D ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohbuchi, Ryutarou; Chen, David; Fuchs, Henry

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, we present approaches toward an interactive visualization of a real time input, applied to 3-D visualizations of 2-D ultrasound echography data. The first, 3 degrees-of- freedom (DOF) incremental system visualizes a 3-D volume acquired as a stream of 2-D slices with location and orientation with 3 DOF. As each slice arrives, the system reconstructs a regular 3-D volume and renders it. Rendering is done by an incremental image-order ray- casting algorithm which stores and reuses the results of expensive resampling along the rays for speed. The second is our first experiment toward real-time 6 DOF acquisition and visualization. Two-dimensional slices with 6 DOF are reconstructed off-line, and visualized at an interactive rate using a parallel volume rendering code running on the graphics multicomputer Pixel-Planes 5.

  6. The Space Station decision - Incremental politics and technological choice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1990-01-01

    Using primary documents and interviews with participants, this book describes the events that led up to the 1984 decision that NASA should build a permanently occupied, international space station in low earth orbit. The role that civil servants in NASA played in initiating the program is highlighted. The trail of the Space Station proposal as its advocates devised strategies to push it through the White House policy review process is followed. The critical analysis focuses on the way in which 'incrementalism' (the tendency of policy makers to introduce incremental changes once projects are under way) operated in connection with the Space Station program. The book calls for a commitment to a long-range space policy.

  7. Incremental constitutive formulation for time dependent materials: creep integral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazal, Claude; Moutou Pitti, Rostand

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with the development of a mathematical approach for the solution of linear, non-ageing viscoelastic materials undergoing mechanical deformation. The formulation is derived from integral approach based on a discrete spectrum representation for the creep tensor. Finite difference integration is used to discretize the integral operators. The resulting constitutive model contains an internal state variable which represents the influence of the whole past history of stress and strain. Thus the difficulty of retaining the strain history in computer solutions is avoided. A complete general formulation of linear viscoelastic stress-strain analysis is developed in terms of increments of stresses and strains. Numerical simulations are included in order to validate the incremental constitutive equations.

  8. International Space Station Increment-2 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data, collected aboard the International Space Station during the period of May to August 2001, the Increment-2 phase of the station. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels during activities that took place during the Increment-2 segment. However, not all of the activities were analyzed for this report due to time constraints, lack of precise information regarding some payload operations and other station activities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments, which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The International Space Station Increment-2 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: 1) The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and the vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. 2) The Space

  9. External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E-DISH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, J. W.; Introne, Steve; Bedell, Lisa; Credle, Ben; Holp, Graham; Ly, Siao; Tait, Terry

    1994-01-01

    A Mars habitat transport system was designed as part of the NASA Mars exploration program. The transport system, the External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E - DISH), will be used to transport Mars habitats from their landing sites to the colony base and will be detached after unloading. The system requirements for Mars were calculated and scaled for model purposes. Specific model materials are commonly found and recommendations for materials for the Mars design are included.

  10. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  11. Design and Performance Analysis of Incremental Networked Predictive Control Systems.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Donghua

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and performance analysis of networked control systems with network-induced delay, packet disorder, and packet dropout. Based on the incremental form of the plant input-output model and an incremental error feedback control strategy, an incremental networked predictive control (INPC) scheme is proposed to actively compensate for the round-trip time delay resulting from the above communication constraints. The output tracking performance and closed-loop stability of the resulting INPC system are considered for two cases: 1) plant-model match case and 2) plant-model mismatch case. For the former case, the INPC system can achieve the same output tracking performance and closed-loop stability as those of the corresponding local control system. For the latter case, a sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop INPC system is derived using the switched system theory. Furthermore, for both cases, the INPC system can achieve a zero steady-state output tracking error for step commands. Finally, both numerical simulations and practical experiments on an Internet-based servo motor system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26186798

  12. An incremental strategy for calculating consistent discrete CFD sensitivity derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korivi, Vamshi Mohan; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene W.; Jones, Henry E.

    1992-01-01

    In this preliminary study involving advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, an incremental formulation, also known as the 'delta' or 'correction' form, is presented for solving the very large sparse systems of linear equations which are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. For typical problems in 2D, a direct solution method can be applied to these linear equations which are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. For typical problems in 2D, a direct solution method can be applied to these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. Iterative methods appear to be needed for future 3D applications; however, because direct solver methods require much more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form result in certain difficulties, such as ill-conditioning of the coefficient matrix, which can be overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form; these and other benefits are discussed. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested in 2D using an upwind, cell-centered, finite volume formulation applied to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for two laminar sample problems: (1) transonic flow through a double-throat nozzle; and (2) flow over an isolated airfoil.

  13. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed. PMID:25603581

  14. Information bottleneck based incremental fuzzy clustering for large biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongli; Wan, Xing

    2016-08-01

    Incremental fuzzy clustering combines advantages of fuzzy clustering and incremental clustering, and therefore is important in classifying large biomedical literature. Conventional algorithms, suffering from data sparsity and high-dimensionality, often fail to produce reasonable results and may even assign all the objects to a single cluster. In this paper, we propose two incremental algorithms based on information bottleneck, Single-Pass fuzzy c-means (spFCM-IB) and Online fuzzy c-means (oFCM-IB). These two algorithms modify conventional algorithms by considering different weights for each centroid and object and scoring mutual information loss to measure the distance between centroids and objects. spFCM-IB and oFCM-IB are used to group a collection of biomedical text abstracts from Medline database. Experimental results show that clustering performances of our approaches are better than such prominent counterparts as spFCM, spHFCM, oFCM and oHFCM, in terms of accuracy. PMID:27260783

  15. Early ventilation-heart rate breakpoint during incremental cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Gravier, G; Delliaux, S; Ba, A; Delpierre, S; Guieu, R; Jammes, Y

    2014-03-01

    Previous observations having reported a transient hypoxia at the onset of incremental exercise, we investigated the existence of concomitant ventilatory and heart rate (HR) breakpoints.33 subjects executed a maximal cycling exercise with averaging for successive 5-s periods of HR, ventilation, tidal volume (VT), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/Ti), and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 (PETO2) and CO2. In 10 subjects, the transcutaneous partial pressure of O2 (PtcO2) was recorded and the venous blood lactic acid (LA) concentration measured.At the beginning of exercise, PETO2 decreased, reaching a nadir, then progressively increased until the exercise ended. PtcO2 varied in parallel. Whether or not a 0-W cycling period preceded the incremental exercise, the rate of changes in VE, VT, VT/Ti and HR significantly increased when the nadir PO2 was reached. The ventilatory/ HR breakpoint was measured at 33±4% of VO2max, whereas the ventilatory threshold (VTh) was detected at 67±4% of VO2max and LA began to increase at 45 to 50% of VO2max.During incremental cycling exercise, we identified the existence of HR and ventilatory breakpoints in advance of both lactate and ventilatory thresholds which coincided with modest hypoxia and hypercapnia. PMID:23945972

  16. Climate response among growth increments of fish and trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guyette, R.P.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Significant correlations were found among the annual growth increments of stream fish, trees, and climate variables in the Ozark region of the United States. The variation in annual growth increments of rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) from the Jacks Fork River was significantly correlated over 22 years with the ring width of four tree species: white oak (Quercus alba), post oak (Quercus stellata), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Rock bass growth and tree growth were both significantly correlated with July rainfall and stream discharge. Variations in annual growth of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from four streams were significantly correlated over 29 years (1939-1968) with mean May maximum air temperature but not with tree growth. The magnitude and significance of correlations among growth increments from fish and trees imply that conditions such as topography, stream gradient, organism age, and the distribution of a population relative to its geographic range can influence the climatic response of an organism. The timing and intensity of climatic variables may produce different responses among closely related species.

  17. Incremental learning methods with retrieving of interfered patterns.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, K; Yamaguchi, N; Ishii, N

    1999-01-01

    There are many cases that a neural-network-based system must memorize some new patterns incrementally. However, if the network learns the new patterns only by referring to them, it probably forgets old memorized patterns, since parameters in the network usually correlate not only to the old memories but also to the new patterns. A certain way to avoid the loss of memories is to learn the new patterns with all memorized patterns. It needs, however, a large computational power. To solve this problem, we propose incremental learning methods with retrieving interfered patterns (ILRI). In these methods, the system employs a modified version of a resource allocating network (RAN) which is one variation of a generalized radial basis function (GRBF). In ILRI, the RAN learns new patterns with a relearning of a few number of retrieved past patterns that are interfered with the incremental learning. In this paper, we construct ILRI in two steps. In the first step, we construct a system which searches the interfered patterns from past input patterns stored in a database. In the second step, we improve the first system in such a way that the system does not need the database. In this case, the system regenerates the input patterns approximately in a random manner. The simulation results show that these two systems have almost the same ability, and the generalization ability is higher than other similar systems using neural networks and k-nearest neighbors. PMID:18252636

  18. An Enhanced Visualization Process Model for Incremental Visualization.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hans-Jorg; Angelini, Marco; Santucci, Giuseppe; Schumann, Heidrun

    2016-07-01

    With today's technical possibilities, a stable visualization scenario can no longer be assumed as a matter of course, as underlying data and targeted display setup are much more in flux than in traditional scenarios. Incremental visualization approaches are a means to address this challenge, as they permit the user to interact with, steer, and change the visualization at intermediate time points and not just after it has been completed. In this paper, we put forward a model for incremental visualizations that is based on the established Data State Reference Model, but extends it in ways to also represent partitioned data and visualization operators to facilitate intermediate visualization updates. In combination, partitioned data and operators can be used independently and in combination to strike tailored compromises between output quality, shown data quantity, and responsiveness-i.e., frame rates. We showcase the new expressive power of this model by discussing the opportunities and challenges of incremental visualization in general and its usage in a real world scenario in particular. PMID:27244708

  19. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

  20. International Space Station Increment-2 Quick Look Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this quick look report is to disseminate the International Space Station (ISS) Increment-2 reduced gravity environment preliminary analysis in a timely manner to the microgravity scientific community. This report is a quick look at the processed acceleration data collected by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) during the period of May 3 to June 8, 2001. The report is by no means an exhaustive examination of all the relevant activities, which occurred during the time span mentioned above for two reasons. First, the time span being considered in this report is rather short since the MAMS was not active throughout the time span being considered to allow a detailed characterization. Second, as the name of the report implied, it is a quick look at the acceleration data. Consequently, a more comprehensive report, the ISS Increment-2 report, will be published following the conclusion of the Increment-2 tour of duty. NASA sponsors the MAMS and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System (SAMS) to support microgravity science experiments, which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the MAMS and the SAMS units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the ISS. The MAMS unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasisteady acceleration data measurements, while the SAMS unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration data measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The ISS reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses mostly the MAMS acceleration data measurements (the Increment-2 report will cover both systems). The MAMS has two sensors. The MAMS Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, which is a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and

  1. Evaluation of incremental reactivity and its uncertainty in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Martien, Philip T; Harley, Robert A; Milford, Jana B; Russell, Armistead G

    2003-04-15

    The incremental reactivity (IR) and relative incremental reactivity (RIR) of carbon monoxide and 30 individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were estimated for the South Coast Air Basin using two photochemical air quality models: a 3-D, grid-based model and a vertically resolved trajectory model. Both models include an extended version of the SAPRC99 chemical mechanism. For the 3-D modeling, the decoupled direct method (DDM-3D) was used to assess reactivities. The trajectory model was applied to estimate uncertainties in reactivities due to uncertainties in chemical rate parameters, deposition parameters, and emission rates using Monte Carlo analysis with Latin hypercube sampling. For most VOC, RIRs were found to be consistent in rankings with those produced by Carter using a box model. However, 3-D simulations show that coastal regions, upwind of most of the emissions, have comparatively low IR but higher RIR than predicted by box models for C4-C5 alkenes and carbonyls that initiate the production of HOx radicals. Biogenic VOC emissions were found to have a lower RIR than predicted by box model estimates, because emissions of these VOC were mostly downwind of the areas of primary ozone production. Uncertainties in RIR of individual VOC were found to be dominated by uncertainties in the rate parameters of their primary oxidation reactions. The coefficient of variation (COV) of most RIR values ranged from 20% to 30%, whereas the COV of absolute incremental reactivity ranged from about 30% to 40%. In general, uncertainty and variability both decreased when relative rather than absolute reactivity metrics were used. PMID:12731843

  2. International Space Station Increment-3 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy; Grodsinksy, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of August to December 2001. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-3. However, not all of the activities were analyzed for this report due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The International Space Station Increment-3 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: (1) The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. (2) The Space Acceleration Measurement System, which is

  3. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  4. Study of an incremental optical encoder using speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Quintián, Fernando; Lutenberg, Ariel; Rebollo, María Aurora

    2006-09-01

    We present a study of the performance of an incremental optical encoder that works using speckle pattern illumination and a phase grating. The operational principle of the encoder lies in measuring the variations of a speckle pattern passing through the phase grating that can be displaced. This study is described theoretically by a model based on the scalar diffraction theory in the Fresnel zone. The intensity correlation of the modified speckle as a function of the grating displacement is obtained and compared with experimental results. Likewise, the mounting tolerances of the proposed system are analyzed.

  5. Comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for crystalline neon.

    PubMed

    Nolan, S J; Bygrave, P J; Allan, N L; Manby, F R

    2010-02-24

    We present a critical comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for the evaluation of the static cohesive energy of crystalline neon. Both of these schemes make it possible to apply the methods of molecular electronic structure theory to crystalline solids, offering a systematically improvable alternative to density functional theory. Results from both methods are compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies of solid neon and potential sources of error are discussed. We explore the similarities of the two methods and demonstrate how they may be used in tandem to study crystalline solids. PMID:21386379

  6. High-frequency incremental methods for electromagnetic complex source points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canta, Stefano Mihai

    This dissertation advances knowledge in field-based High-Frequency (HF) incremental methods for electromagnetic Complex Source Points (CSP), and its most immediate impact is a significantly faster analysis and design of reflector antennas. HF incremental methods overcome many difficulties encountered in other ray-tracing techniques, mostly when crossing shadow boundaries in the electromagnetic (EM) field predictions. The combination of HF methods with CSPs allows to speed up EM computations. CSPs are obtained by locating real electric or magnetic dipole sources in complex space. EM field patterns are derived through analytical continuation of the geometrical quantities associated with the source position; the continuation provides an exact Maxwellian description of a Gaussian Beam. When CSPs are used as basis functions, they can represent any radiated field pattern. Then, by truncating negligible beams in the direction of observation, computations are sped up compared to a plane- or spherical-wave based expansion. Because of these facts, CSPs can be used with Physical Optics (PO) based HF methods for the efficient analysis of electrically large reflectors. However, PO does not always provide accurate field predictions, especially in regions of greatest shadowing or at grazing incidence. Therefore, I developed a HF Incremental Fringe Formulation (IFF) for CSPs to provide a correction term for PO that, when added to the total PO field, recovers an accurate estimate of the scattered field at the first asymptotic order. In addition, since PO does not have caustic problems, the new fringe asymptotic recovery is free of caustics for any geometrical configuration, too. Moreover, I also introduced a double diffraction formulation for CSPs, using the Incremental Theory of Diffraction, yielding simulation results very close to those obtained with a Method of Moments (MoM) approach. Unlike ray-based methods, no tracing in complex space is necessary, and no caustics are

  7. Spectral evolution with incremental nanocoating of long period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Villar, Ignacio; Corres, Jesus M.; Achaerandio, Miguel; Arregui, Francisco J.; Matias, Ignacio R.

    2006-12-01

    The incremental deposition of a thin overlay on the cladding of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induces important resonance wavelength shifts in the transmission spectrum. The phenomenon is proved theoretically with a vectorial method based on hybrid modes and coupled mode theory, and experimentally with electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process. The phenomenon is repeated periodically for specific overlay thickness values with the particularity that the shape of the resonance wavelength shift depends on the thickness of the overlay. The main applications are the design of wide optical filters and multiparameter sensing devices.

  8. 40 CFR 60.1590 - When must I complete each increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I complete each increment of... Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1590 When must I complete each increment of progress? Table 1 of this...

  9. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  10. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  11. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  12. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  13. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  14. Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable. PACS 65.: Thermal properties of condensed matter; 65.20.-w: Thermal properties of liquids; 65.20.Jk: Studies of thermodynamic properties of specific liquids PMID:25346648

  15. STS-102 Expedition 2 Increment and Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Merri Sanchez, Expedition 2 Increment Manager, John Uri, Increment Scientist, and Lybrease Woodard, Lead Payload Operations Director, give an overview of the upcoming activities and objectives of the Expedition 2's (E2's) mission in this prelaunch press conference. Ms. Sanchez describes the crew rotation of Expedition 1 to E2, the timeline E2 will follow during their stay on the International Space Station (ISS), and the various flights going to the ISS and what each will bring to ISS. Mr. Uri gives details on the on-board experiments that will take place on the ISS in the fields of microgravity research, commercial, earth, life, and space sciences (such as radiation characterization, H-reflex, colloids formation and interaction, protein crystal growth, plant growth, fermentation in microgravity, etc.). He also gives details on the scientific facilities to be used (laboratory racks and equipment such as the human torso facsimile or 'phantom torso'). Ms. Woodard gives an overview of Marshall Flight Center's role in the mission. Computerized simulations show the installation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) onto the ISS and the installation of the airlock using SSRMS. Live footage shows the interior of the ISS, including crew living quarters, the Progress Module, and the Destiny Laboratory. The three then answer questions from the press.

  16. Kinetics and kinematics analysis of incremental cycling to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Technique changes in cyclists are not well described during exhaustive exercise. Therefore the aim of the present study was to analyze pedaling technique during an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Eleven cyclists performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Pedal force and joint kinematics were acquired during the last three stages of the test (75%, 90% and 100% of the maximal power output). Inverse dynamics was conducted to calculate the net joint moments at the hip, knee and ankle joints. Knee joint had an increased contribution to the total net joint moments with the increase of workload (5-8% increase, p < 0.01). Total average absolute joint moment and knee joint moment increased during the test (25% and 39%, for p < 0.01, respectively). Increases in plantar flexor moment (32%, p < 0.01), knee (54%, p < 0.01) and hip flexor moments (42%, p = 0.02) were found. Higher dorsiflexion (2%, for p = 0.03) and increased range of motion (19%, for p = 0.02) were observed for the ankle joint. The hip joint had an increased flexion angle (2%, for p < 0.01) and a reduced range of motion (3%, for p = 0.04) with the increase of workload. Differences in joint kinetics and kinematics indicate that pedaling technique was affected by the combined fatigue and workload effects. PMID:21309297

  17. Incremental classification learning for anomaly detection in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giritharan, Balathasan; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis usually screens thousands of instances to find only a few positive cases that indicate probable presence of disease.The amount of patient data increases consistently all the time. In diagnosis of new instances, disagreement occurs between a CAD system and physicians, which suggests inaccurate classifiers. Intuitively, misclassified instances and the previously acquired data should be used to retrain the classifier. This, however, is very time consuming and, in some cases where dataset is too large, becomes infeasible. In addition, among the patient data, only a small percentile shows positive sign, which is known as imbalanced data.We present an incremental Support Vector Machines(SVM) as a solution for the class imbalance problem in classification of anomaly in medical images. The support vectors provide a concise representation of the distribution of the training data. Here we use bootstrapping to identify potential candidate support vectors for future iterations. Experiments were conducted using images from endoscopy videos, and the sensitivity and specificity were close to that of SVM trained using all samples available at a given incremental step with significantly improved efficiency in training the classifier.

  18. Evaluation of the dimensional accuracy in single point incremental forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, R.; Silva, M. B.; Montanari, L.; Teixeira, P.; Reis, A.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a forming process widely used to obtain small batches or prototypes. By improving forming strategies, the process can be used in a wide range of applications. However, this technology still presents some drawbacks. The dimensional accuracy between the 3D CAD model and the final product is one of the key challenges for this technique. The springback phenomenon during the incremental forming process is an important reason for the lack of accuracy. In order to study the mechanism of this phenomenon, the geometry of the sheet metal was measured in two different stages of the conventional production chain. First, the geometry of the sheet metal part was acquired after the forming stage, without be released from the blank holder. Then, the final geometry was achieved after the cutting process from the original sheet. A 3D scanning system was used to measure and inspect the springback phenomenon of each step. A reverse method is proposed to design the new tool path for compensation of the springback.

  19. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  20. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Schutte, Klamer; Azzopardi, George; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2015-10-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible with only a few training samples. Secondly, we show that novel objects can be added incrementally without retraining existing objects, which is important for fast interaction. Thirdly, we show that an unbalanced number of positive training samples leads to biased classifier scores that can be corrected by modifying weights. Fourthly, we show that the detector performance can deteriorate due to hard-negative mining for similar or closely related classes (e.g., for Barbie and dress, because the doll is wearing a dress). This can be solved by our hierarchical classification. We introduce a new dataset, which we call TOSO, and use it to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the localization and recognition of multiple objects in images.

  1. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Robert W.; Travis, William R.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    All human–environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations. PMID:22509036

  2. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Annie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

  3. Numerical simulation of high speed incremental forming of aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuseppina, Ambrogio; Teresa, Citrea; Luigino, Filice; Francesco, Gagliardi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an innovative process is analyzed with the aim to satisfy the industrial requirements, such as process flexibility, differentiation and customizing of products, cost reduction, minimization of execution time, sustainable production, etc. The attention is focused on incremental forming process, nowadays used in different fields such as: rapid prototyping, medical sector, architectural industry, aerospace and marine, in the production of molds and dies. Incremental forming consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. SPIF is the considered variant of the process, in which the punch gives local deformation without dies and molds; consequently, the final product geometry can be changed by the control of an actuator without requiring a set of different tools. The drawback of this process is its slowness. The aim of this study is to assess the IF feasibility at high speeds. An experimental campaign will be performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility and the influence on materials formability mainly on aluminum alloys. The first results show how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed IF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature field. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process substantially confirming experimental evidence.

  4. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  5. Incremental Knowledge Base Construction Using DeepDive

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeho; Wu, Sen; Wang, Feiran; De Sa, Christopher; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Populating a database with unstructured information is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of extraction, cleaning, and integration. Recent names used for this problem include dealing with dark data and knowledge base construction (KBC). In this work, we describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems, and we present techniques to make the KBC process more efficient. We observe that the KBC process is iterative, and we develop techniques to incrementally produce inference results for KBC systems. We propose two methods for incremental inference, based respectively on sampling and variational techniques. We also study the tradeoff space of these methods and develop a simple rule-based optimizer. DeepDive includes all of these contributions, and we evaluate Deep-Dive on five KBC systems, showing that it can speed up KBC inference tasks by up to two orders of magnitude with negligible impact on quality. PMID:27144081

  6. An Incremental Weighted Least Squares Approach to Surface Lights Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombe, Greg; Lastra, Anselmo

    An Image-Based Rendering (IBR) approach to appearance modelling enables the capture of a wide variety of real physical surfaces with complex reflectance behaviour. The challenges with this approach are handling the large amount of data, rendering the data efficiently, and previewing the model as it is being constructed. In this paper, we introduce the Incremental Weighted Least Squares approach to the representation and rendering of spatially and directionally varying illumination. Each surface patch consists of a set of Weighted Least Squares (WLS) node centers, which are low-degree polynomial representations of the anisotropic exitant radiance. During rendering, the representations are combined in a non-linear fashion to generate a full reconstruction of the exitant radiance. The rendering algorithm is fast, efficient, and implemented entirely on the GPU. The construction algorithm is incremental, which means that images are processed as they arrive instead of in the traditional batch fashion. This human-in-the-loop process enables the user to preview the model as it is being constructed and to adapt to over-sampling and under-sampling of the surface appearance.

  7. Incremental ECAP of thick continuous plates - machine and initial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosochowski, A.; Olejnik, L.

    2014-08-01

    Incremental ECAP (I-ECAP) can be used for SPD of continuous bars, plates and sheets. This paper describes design, construction and preliminary trials of a prototype machine capable of processing thick continuous plates. To increase productivity, a two-turn I-ECAP is used, which is equivalent to route C in conventional one-turn ECAP. The machine has a reciprocating punch inclined at 45°, a clamp holding the plate in the die during deformation and a feeder incrementally feeding the plate when it is not deformed; all these devices are driven by hydraulic actuators controlled by a PLC. The machine is capable of deforming materials at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. The die is heated with electric heaters. The machine has also an integrated cooling system and a lubrication system. The material used for the initial trials was Al 1050 plate (10×50×1000) conversion coated with calcium aluminate and lubricated with dry soap. The process was carried out at room temperature using 1.6 mm feeding stroke and a low cycle frequency of approximately 0.2 Hz. The UFG structure after the first pass of the process revealed by STEM confirms process feasibility.

  8. Optimal Curiosity-Driven Modular Incremental Slow Feature Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kompella, Varun Raj; Luciw, Matthew; Stollenga, Marijn Frederik; Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2016-08-01

    Consider a self-motivated artificial agent who is exploring a complex environment. Part of the complexity is due to the raw high-dimensional sensory input streams, which the agent needs to make sense of. Such inputs can be compactly encoded through a variety of means; one of these is slow feature analysis (SFA). Slow features encode spatiotemporal regularities, which are information-rich explanatory factors (latent variables) underlying the high-dimensional input streams. In our previous work, we have shown how slow features can be learned incrementally, while the agent explores its world, and modularly, such that different sets of features are learned for different parts of the environment (since a single set of regularities does not explain everything). In what order should the agent explore the different parts of the environment? Following Schmidhuber's theory of artificial curiosity, the agent should always concentrate on the area where it can learn the easiest-to-learn set of features that it has not already learned. We formalize this learning problem and theoretically show that, using our model, called curiosity-driven modular incremental slow feature analysis, the agent on average will learn slow feature representations in order of increasing learning difficulty, under certain mild conditions. We provide experimental results to support the theoretical analysis. PMID:27348735

  9. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir (NASA Increment 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During NASA Increment 4 (January to May 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 28 optical disks which were returned to Earth on STS-84. During this increment, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE), the Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT), Angular Liquid Bridge (ALB), Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM), Diffusion Controlled Apparatus Module (DCAM), Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS), Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFr), Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD), Protein Crystal Growth in Dewar (PCG/Dewar), Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), and Technical Evaluation of MIM (TEM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-84 operations, a Progress engine bum, Soyuz vehicle docking and undocking, and Progress vehicle docking. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  10. A New Sheet Metal Forming System Based on Incremental Punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuanxin

    Stamping is one of the most commonly used manufacturing processes. Everyday, millions of parts are formed by this process. The conventional stamping is to form a part in one or several operations with a press machine and a set/sets of dies. It is very efficient but is not cost effective for small batch production parts and prototypes as the dies are expensive and time consuming to make. Recently, with the increasing demands for low-volume and customer-made products, a die-less forming method, Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISMF), has become one of the leading R&D topics in the industry. ISMF uses a small generic tool to apply a sequence of operations along the given path to deform the sheet incrementally. These small deformations accumulate to form the final shape of the part. As a result, different parts can be made by the same setup. Despite of some 30 years of research and development, however, ISMF technology is still premature for industrial applications due to the following reasons: The accuracy of the part is limited; the surface roughness is poor; and the productivity is low. This motivates the presented research. In this research, a new incremental forming system based on incremental punching is designed and built. The system consists of a 3-axes CNC platform, a high speed hydraulic cylinder with a hemispherical forming tool, and a PC-based CNC control system. The hydraulic system provides the forming force to deform the sheet metal with constant stokes, while the CNC system positions the part. When forming a part, the forming tool punches the sheet metal along the given contour of the part punch by punch; when one layer of the part is completed, the forming tool moves down to the next layer; and the process is finished till all layers are completed. The CNC control system works with standard NC code, and hence, is easy to use. In order to ensure the desirable performance of the machine, dynamic analysis of the machine is necessary. The analysis is

  11. Real-Time Analysis of Temperature Changes in Composite Increments and Pulp Chamber during Photopolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ryan Jin-Young; Lee, In-Bog; Yoo, Jin-Young; Park, Su-Jung; Kim, Sin-Young; Yi, Young-Ah; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature change at various sites within the composite and on the pulpal side of dentin during polymerization of two composite increments. Materials and Methods. Class I cavities prepared in third molars were restored in two composite increments (n = 5). Temperatures were measured for 110 s using eight thermocouples: bottom center of cavity (BC), top center of 1st increment (MC), top center of 2nd increment (TC), bottom corner of cavity (BE), top corner of 1st increment (ME), top corner of 2nd increment (TE), pulpal side of dentin (PD), and center of curing light guide tip (CL). Results. Maximum temperature values (°C) measured during polymerization of 1st increment were MC (59.8); BC (52.8); ME (51.3); CL (50.7); BE (48.4); and PD (39.8). Maximum temperature values during polymerization of 2nd increment were TC 58.5; TE (52.6); MC (51.7); CL (50.0); ME (48.0); BC (46.7); BE (44.5); and PD (38.8). Conclusion. Temperature at the floor of the cavity was significantly higher during polymerization of 1st increment compared to 2nd increment. Temperature rise was higher at the center than at the corner and at the top surface than at the bottom surface of each increment. PMID:26557716

  12. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-17

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process.On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  13. A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrosa, Lehilton Lelis Chaves; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The automatic generation of test cases is an important issue for conformance testing of several critical systems. We present a new method for the derivation of test suites when the specification is modeled as a combined Finite State Machine (FSM). A combined FSM is obtained conjoining previously tested submachines with newly added states. This new concept is used to describe a fault model suitable for incremental testing of new systems, or for retesting modified implementations. For this fault model, only the newly added or modified states need to be tested, thereby considerably reducing the size of the test suites. The new method is a generalization of the well-known W-method and the G-method, but is scalable, and so it can be used to test FSMs with an arbitrarily large number of states.

  14. Quantifiers are incrementally interpreted in context, more than less

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Thomas P.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Language interpretation is often assumed to be incremental. However, our studies of quantifier expressions in isolated sentences found N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) evidence for partial but not full immediate quantifier interpretation (Urbach & Kutas, 2010). Here we tested similar quantifier expressions in pragmatically supporting discourse contexts (Alex was an unusual toddler. Most/Few kids prefer sweets/vegetables…) while participants made plausibility judgments (Experiment 1) or read for comprehension (Experiment 2). Control Experiments 3A (plausibility) and 3B (comprehension) removed the discourse contexts. Quantifiers always modulated typical and/or atypical word N400 amplitudes. However, only the real-time N400 effects only in Experiment 2 mirrored offline quantifier and typicality crossover interaction effects for plausibility ratings and cloze probabilities. We conclude that quantifier expressions can be interpreted fully and immediately, though pragmatic and task variables appear to impact the speed and/or depth of quantifier interpretation. PMID:26005285

  15. Low-Rank Incremental Methods for Computing Dominant Singular Subspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Christopher G; Gallivan, Dr. Kyle A; Van Dooren, Dr. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Computing the singular values and vectors of a matrix is a crucial kernel in numerous scientific and industrial applications. As such, numerous methods have been proposed to handle this problem in a computationally efficient way. This paper considers a family of methods for incrementally computing the dominant SVD of a large matrix A. Specifically, we describe a unification of a number of previously disparate methods for approximating the dominant SVD via a single pass through A. We tie the behavior of these methods to that of a class of optimization-based iterative eigensolvers on A'*A. An iterative procedure is proposed which allows the computation of an accurate dominant SVD via multiple passes through A. We present an analysis of the convergence of this iteration, and provide empirical demonstration of the proposed method on both synthetic and benchmark data.

  16. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process. On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  17. [Design of an Incremental and Open Laboratory Automation System].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanfen; Chen, Yueping; Wang, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed great development of TLA (Total Laboratory Automation) technology, however, its application hit the bottleneck of high cost and openess to other parties' instruments. Specifically speaking, the initial purchase of the medical devices requires large sum of money and the new system can hardly be compatible with existing equipment. This thesis proposes a new thought for system implementation that through incremental upgrade, the initial capital investment can be reduced and through open architecture and interfaces, the seamless connection of different devices can be achieved. This thesis elaborates on the standards that open architecture design should follow in aspect of mechanics, electro-communication and information interaction and the key technology points in system implementation. PMID:26665947

  18. Downsag calderas, ring faults, caldera sizes, and incremental caldera growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G. P. L.

    1984-09-01

    According to present concepts, a caldera is a more or less circular volcanic depression larger than a crater which is caused by subsidence. It is commonly considered that the subsided mass consists of a block or blocks encircled by a ring fracture. Caldera collapse is generally correlated with a major explosive eruption. The present investigation is concerned with six features which do not conform well with the favored caldera model. Attention is given to downsagged calderas, the distribution of postcaldera vents in calderas, vent rings, the size of calderas and cauldrons, incremental caldera growth, and caldera-forming events. It is found that no single structural or genetic model applies to all calderas. Thus, the fact of subsidence may be the only common feature. It is pointed out that most known ring dikes occur in Precambrian crust. This may mean that the subsiding piston mechanism operates best where the crust is sufficiently rigid and strong.

  19. An Incremental Map Building Approach via Static Stixel Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffert, M.; Anzt, S.; Franke, U.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a stereo-vision based incremental mapping approach for urban regions. As input, we use the 3D representation called multi-layered Stixel World which is computed from dense disparity images. More and more, researchers of Driver Assistance Systems rely on efficient and compact 3D representations like the Stixel World. The developed mapping approach takes into account the motion state of obstacles, as well as free space information obtained from the Stixel World. The presented work is based on the well known occupancy grid mapping technique and is formulated with evidential theory. A detailed sensor model is described which is used to determine the information whether a grid cell is occupied, free or has an unknown state. The map update is solved in a time recursive manner by using the Dempster`s Rule of Combination. 3D results of complex inner city regions are shown and are compared with Google Earth images.

  20. ARIES: Acquisition of Requirements and Incremental Evolution of Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a requirements/specification environment specifically designed for large-scale software systems. This environment is called ARIES (Acquisition of Requirements and Incremental Evolution of Specifications). ARIES provides assistance to requirements analysts for developing operational specifications of systems. This development begins with the acquisition of informal system requirements. The requirements are then formalized and gradually elaborated (transformed) into formal and complete specifications. ARIES provides guidance to the user in validating formal requirements by translating them into natural language representations and graphical diagrams. ARIES also provides ways of analyzing the specification to ensure that it is correct, e.g., testing the specification against a running simulation of the system to be built. Another important ARIES feature, especially when developing large systems, is the sharing and reuse of requirements knowledge. This leads to much less duplication of effort. ARIES combines all of its features in a single environment that makes the process of capturing a formal specification quicker and easier.

  1. Incremental ECAP of Tubular Components—FE Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2011-05-01

    Severe plastic deformation is a method of refining grain structure and improving properties of metallic materials. It is usually carried out on simple billets such as bars, plates and sheets, which are then converted into more complex shapes. One of those shapes, finding applications in many products, is tube. This paper presents an alternative approach to manufacturing tubes with ultrafine grained structure, which is based on direct severe plastic deformation of standard, coarse grained tubes. A new process of incremental equal channel angular pressing is proposed to be used for this purpose. Finite element simulation is used to analyse different process configurations and tool geometry, giving a valuable insight into feasibility of this new approach.

  2. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; Rugina, R; McKee, S A

    2008-01-21

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, reduces checkpoint sizes by as much as 80% and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  3. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; McKee, S; Rugina, R

    2009-02-18

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, significantly reduces checkpoint sizes and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  4. An incremental optimal routing strategy for scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    The link congestion based traffic model can more accurately reveal the traffic dynamics of many real complex networks such as the Internet, and heuristically optimizing each link's weight for the shortest path routing strategy can strongly improve the traffic capacity of network. In this work, we propose an optimal routing strategy in which the weight of each link is regulated incrementally to enhance the network traffic capacity by minimizing the maximum link betweenness of any link in the network. We also estimate more suitable value of the tunable parameter β for the efficient routing strategy under the link congestion based traffic model. The traffic load of network can be significantly balanced at the expense of increasing a bit average path length or average traffic load.

  5. Networking in the Vancouver Hospitals: An Incremental Management Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Paul A.; Morrison, J. Ian; Hardwick, David F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-site network application involving electronic transmission of video, audio and data among five teaching hospitals in Vancouver, B.C. The rationale behind a network approach is explained and the system design is outlined. The network includes both long-haul cable based network technolgies (LHN) and Local Area Network technologies (LAN) that currently integrate 2 mainframes and 11 mini computers operating in the five sites. Philosophical and strategical approaches to implementation of the network are explained. Particular attention is drawn to the notion of the incremental management of change and the role of product champions. It is suggested that the use of network technology enables a wide variety of semi-autonomous departments and computer applications to “touch without intrusion.” It is emphasized the implementation of such change requires sophisticated technical and human engineering skills.

  6. Incremental Learning with SVM for Multimodal Classification of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    García Molina, José Fernando; Zheng, Lei; Sertdemir, Metin; Dinter, Dietmar J.; Schönberg, Stefan; Rädle, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correction and intensity standardization. First- and second-order angular independent statistical approaches and rotation invariant local phase quantization (RI-LPQ) were utilized to quantify texture information. An incremental learning ensemble SVM was implemented to suit working conditions in medical applications and to improve effectiveness and robustness of the system. The probability estimation of cancer structures was calculated using SVM and the corresponding optimization was carried out with a heuristic method together with a 3-fold cross-validation methodology. We achieved an average sensitivity of 0.844±0.068 and a specificity of 0.780±0.038, which yielded superior or similar performance to current state of the art using a total database of only 41 slices from twelve patients with histological confirmed information, including cancerous, unhealthy non-cancerous and healthy prostate tissue. Our results show the feasibility of an ensemble SVM being able to learn additional information from new data while preserving previously acquired knowledge and preventing unlearning. The use of texture descriptors provides more salient discriminative patterns than the functional information used. Furthermore, the system improves selection of information, efficiency and robustness of the classification. The generated probability map enables radiologists to have a lower variability in diagnosis, decrease false negative rates and reduce the time to recognize and delineate structures in the

  7. Incremental triangulation by way of edge swapping and local optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltberger, N. Lyn

    1994-01-01

    This document is intended to serve as an installation, usage, and basic theory guide for the two dimensional triangulation software 'HARLEY' written for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation. This code consists of an incremental triangulation algorithm based on point insertion and local edge swapping. Using this basic strategy, several types of triangulations can be produced depending on user selected options. For example, local edge swapping criteria can be chosen which minimizes the maximum interior angle (a MinMax triangulation) or which maximizes the minimum interior angle (a MaxMin or Delaunay triangulation). It should be noted that the MinMax triangulation is generally only locally optical (not globally optimal) in this measure. The MaxMin triangulation, however, is both locally and globally optical. In addition, Steiner triangulations can be constructed by inserting new sites at triangle circumcenters followed by edge swapping based on the MaxMin criteria. Incremental insertion of sites also provides flexibility in choosing cell refinement criteria. A dynamic heap structure has been implemented in the code so that once a refinement measure is specified (i.e., maximum aspect ratio or some measure of a solution gradient for the solution adaptive grid generation) the cell with the largest value of this measure is continually removed from the top of the heap and refined. The heap refinement strategy allows the user to specify either the number of cells desired or refine the mesh until all cell refinement measures satisfy a user specified tolerance level. Since the dynamic heap structure is constantly updated, the algorithm always refines the particular cell in the mesh with the largest refinement criteria value. The code allows the user to: triangulate a cloud of prespecified points (sites), triangulate a set of prespecified interior points constrained by prespecified boundary curve(s), Steiner triangulate the interior/exterior of prespecified boundary curve

  8. Ventilation behavior during upper-body incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Pires, Flávio O; Hammond, John; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C M; Kiss, Maria Augusta P D M

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the ventilation (VE) behavior during upper-body incremental exercise by mathematical models that calculate 1 or 2 thresholds and compared the thresholds identified by mathematical models with V-slope, ventilatory equivalent for oxygen uptake (VE/V(O2)), and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide uptake (VE/V(CO2)). Fourteen rock climbers underwent an upper-body incremental test on a cycle ergometer with increases of approximately 20 W · min(-1) until exhaustion at a cranking frequency of approximately 90 rpm. The VE data were smoothed to 10-second averages for VE time plotting. The bisegmental and the 3-segmental linear regression models were calculated from 1 or 2 intercepts that best shared the VE curve in 2 or 3 linear segments. The ventilatory threshold(s) was determined mathematically by the intercept(s) obtained by bisegmental and 3-segmental models, by V-slope model, or visually by VE/V(O2) and VE/V(CO2). There was no difference between bisegmental (mean square error [MSE] = 35.3 ± 32.7 l · min(-1)) and 3-segmental (MSE = 44.9 ± 47.8 l · min(-1)) models in fitted data. There was no difference between ventilatory threshold identified by the bisegmental (28.2 ± 6.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and second ventilatory threshold identified by the 3-segmental (30.0 ± 5.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), VE/V(O2) (28.8 ± 5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), or V-slope (28.5 ± 5.6 ml · kg(-1) . min(-1)). However, the first ventilatory threshold identified by 3-segmental (23.1 ± 4.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) or by VE/V(O)2 (24.9 ± 4.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) was different from these 4. The VE behavior during upper-body exercise tends to show only 1 ventilatory threshold. These findings have practical implications because this point is frequently used for aerobic training prescription in healthy subjects, athletes, and in elderly or diseased populations. The ventilatory threshold identified by VE curve should be used for aerobic training prescription in

  9. Evaluation of Incremental Improvement in the NWS MPE Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Habib, E. H.

    2009-12-01

    This study focuses on assessment of incremental improvement in the multi-sensor precipitation estimates (MPE) developed by the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers (RFC). The MPE product is based upon merging of data from WSR-88D radar, surface rain gauge, and occasionally geo-stationary satellite data. The MPE algorithm produces 5 intermediate sets of products known as: RMOSAIC, BMOSAIC, MMOSAIC, LMOSAIC, and MLMOSAIC. These products have different bias-removal and optimal gauge-merging mechanisms. The final product used in operational applications is selected by the RFC forecasters. All the MPE products are provided at hourly temporal resolution and over a national Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid of a nominal size of 4 square kilometers. To help determine the incremental improvement of MPE estimates, an evaluation analysis was performed over a two-year period (2005-2006) using 13 independently operated rain gauges located within an area of ~30 km2 in south Louisiana. The close proximity of gauge sites to each other allows for multiple gauges to be located within the same HRAP pixel and thus provides reliable estimates of true surface rainfall to be used as a reference dataset. The evaluation analysis is performed over two temporal scales: hourly and event duration. Besides graphical comparisons using scatter and histogram plots, several statistical measures are also applied such as multiplicative bias, additive bias, correlation, and error standard deviation. The results indicated a mixed performance of the different products over the study site depending on which statistical metric is used. The products based on local bias adjustment have lowest error standard deviation but worst multiplicative bias. The opposite is true for products that are based on mean-filed bias adjustment. Optimal merging with gauge fields lead to a reduction in the error quantiles of the products. The results of the current study will provide insight into

  10. Incremental planning to control a blackboard-based problem solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durfee, E. H.; Lesser, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    To control problem solving activity, a planner must resolve uncertainty about which specific long-term goals (solutions) to pursue and about which sequences of actions will best achieve those goals. A planner is described that abstracts the problem solving state to recognize possible competing and compatible solutions and to roughly predict the importance and expense of developing these solutions. With this information, the planner plans sequences of problem solving activities that most efficiently resolve its uncertainty about which of the possible solutions to work toward. The planner only details actions for the near future because the results of these actions will influence how (and whether) a plan should be pursued. As problem solving proceeds, the planner adds new details to the plan incrementally, and monitors and repairs the plan to insure it achieves its goals whenever possible. Through experiments, researchers illustrate how these new mechanisms significantly improve problem solving decisions and reduce overall computation. They briefly discuss current research directions, including how these mechanisms can improve a problem solver's real-time response and can enhance cooperation in a distributed problem solving network.

  11. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  12. Incremental visual text analytics of news story development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajic, Milos; Najm-Araghi, Mohammad; Mansmann, Florian; Keim, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Online news sources produce thousands of news articles every day, reporting on local and global real-world events. New information quickly replaces the old, making it difficult for readers to put current events in the context of the past. Additionally, the stories have very complex relationships and characteristics that are difficult to model: they can be weakly or strongly connected, or they can merge or split over time. In this paper, we present a visual analytics system for exploration of news topics in dynamic information streams, which combines interactive visualization and text mining techniques to facilitate the analysis of similar topics that split and merge over time. We employ text clustering techniques to automatically extract stories from online news streams and present a visualization that: 1) shows temporal characteristics of stories in different time frames with different level of detail; 2) allows incremental updates of the display without recalculating the visual features of the past data; 3) sorts the stories by minimizing clutter and overlap from edge crossings. By using interaction, stories can be filtered based on their duration and characteristics in order to be explored in full detail with details on demand. To demonstrate the usefulness of our system, case studies with real news data are presented and show the capabilities for detailed dynamic text stream exploration.

  13. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P.; Eskew, Rhea T.

    2014-01-01

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L−M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S− thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L–M, L- and M-cone noises than were S− thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S− thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S− detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. PMID:25391300

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Single Point Incremental Sheet Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Dejardin, S.; Thibaud, S.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    As recent studies introduced Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) process as a very promising technology to manufacture sheet metal parts by the CNC controlled movement of a simple generative tool, industrial interests on ISF have increased. Indeed, due to its various advantages, such process has been demonstrated as an alternative to reduce costs resulting from stamping technology when small batches or prototypes have to be manufactured. Nevertheless, the process still needs further developments. A process analysis based on experimental and numerical investigations is required to carefully analyze the capabilities of the process and to consolidate its application in sheet metal industries. Starting from experimental results on standard components to show the interest of ISF, an application is carried out accounting flexibility of the process linked to the fact that the punches or dies are avoided and preliminary results have been obtained through experimental tests to manufacture micro parts. At the same time, a FEM analysis has been carried out in order to get the characteristics of the formed parts. In order to study the control of the process, a first study is carried out to perform an on-line sheet thickness measurement.

  15. A novel instrument for generating angular increments of 1 nanoradian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Bugnar, Alex; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal; Scott, Stewart; Hillman, Michael; Grindrod, Jamie; Johnson, Iain

    2015-12-01

    Accurate generation of small angles is of vital importance for calibrating angle-based metrology instruments used in a broad spectrum of industries including mechatronics, nano-positioning, and optic fabrication. We present a novel, piezo-driven, flexure device capable of reliably generating micro- and nanoradian angles. Unlike many such instruments, Diamond Light Source's nano-angle generator (Diamond-NANGO) does not rely on two separate actuators or rotation stages to provide coarse and fine motion. Instead, a single Physik Instrumente NEXLINE "PiezoWalk" actuator provides millimetres of travel with nanometre resolution. A cartwheel flexure efficiently converts displacement from the linear actuator into rotary motion with minimal parasitic errors. Rotation of the flexure is directly measured via a Magnescale "Laserscale" angle encoder. Closed-loop operation of the PiezoWalk actuator, using high-speed feedback from the angle encoder, ensures that the Diamond-NANGO's output drifts by only ˜0.3 nrad rms over ˜30 min. We show that the Diamond-NANGO can reliably move with unprecedented 1 nrad (˜57 ndeg) angular increments over a range of >7000 μrad. An autocollimator, interferometer, and capacitive displacement sensor are used to independently confirm the Diamond-NANGO's performance by simultaneously measuring the rotation of a reflective cube.

  16. Process Parameters Optimization in Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Vishal; Aryal, Ashmin; Katyal, Puneet; Goswami, Amitesh

    2016-04-01

    This work aims to optimize the formability and surface roughness of parts formed by the single-point incremental forming process for an Aluminium-6063 alloy. The tests are based on Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array selected on the basis of DOF. The tests have been carried out on vertical machining center (DMC70V); using CAD/CAM software (SolidWorks V5/MasterCAM). Two levels of tool radius, three levels of sheet thickness, step size, tool rotational speed, feed rate and lubrication have been considered as the input process parameters. Wall angle and surface roughness have been considered process responses. The influential process parameters for the formability and surface roughness have been identified with the help of statistical tool (response table, main effect plot and ANOVA). The parameter that has the utmost influence on formability and surface roughness is lubrication. In the case of formability, lubrication followed by the tool rotational speed, feed rate, sheet thickness, step size and tool radius have the influence in descending order. Whereas in surface roughness, lubrication followed by feed rate, step size, tool radius, sheet thickness and tool rotational speed have the influence in descending order. The predicted optimal values for the wall angle and surface roughness are found to be 88.29° and 1.03225 µm. The confirmation experiments were conducted thrice and the value of wall angle and surface roughness were found to be 85.76° and 1.15 µm respectively.

  17. Incremental refinement of a multi-user-detection algorithm (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Götze, J.

    2003-05-01

    Multi-user detection is a technique proposed for mobile radio systems based on the CDMA principle, such as the upcoming UMTS. While offering an elegant solution to problems such as intra-cell interference, it demands very significant computational resources. In this paper, we present a high-level approach for reducing the required resources for performing multi-user detection in a 3GPP TDD multi-user system. This approach is based on a displacement representation of the parameters that describe the transmission system, and a generalized Schur algorithm that works on this representation. The Schur algorithm naturally leads to a highly parallel hardware implementation using CORDIC cells. It is shown that this hardware architecture can also be used to compute the initial displacement representation. It is very beneficial to introduce incremental refinement structures into the solution process, both at the algorithmic level and in the individual cells of the hardware architecture. We detail these approximations and present simulation results that confirm their effectiveness.

  18. Incremental truncation of PHA synthases results in altered product specificity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xia, Yongzhen; Chen, Quan; Qi, Qingsheng

    2012-05-10

    PHA synthase is the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of microbial polymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). In this study, we created a hybrid library of PHA synthase gene with different crossover points by an incremental truncation method between the C-terminal fragments of the phaC(Cn) (phaC from Cupriavidus necator) and the N-terminal fragments of the phaC1(Pa) (phaC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa). As the truncation of the hybrid enzyme increased, the in vivo PHB synthesis ability of the hybrids declined gradually. PHA synthase PhaC(Cn) with a deletion on N-terminal up to 83 amino acid residues showed no synthase activity. While with the removal of up to 270 amino acids from the N-terminus, the activity of the truncated PhaC(Cn) could be complemented by the N-terminus of PhaC1(Pa). Three of the hybrid enzymes W188, W235 and W272 (named by the deleted nucleic acid number) were found to have altered product specificities. PMID:22500895

  19. An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nicholas; Sellis, Timos

    1994-01-01

    We investigated a number of design and performance issues of interoperable database management systems (DBMS's). The major results of our investigation were obtained in the areas of client-server database architectures for heterogeneous DBMS's, incremental computation models, buffer management techniques, and query optimization. We finished a prototype of an advanced client-server workstation-based DBMS which allows access to multiple heterogeneous commercial DBMS's. Experiments and simulations were then run to compare its performance with the standard client-server architectures. The focus of this research was on adaptive optimization methods of heterogeneous database systems. Adaptive buffer management accounts for the random and object-oriented access methods for which no known characterization of the access patterns exists. Adaptive query optimization means that value distributions and selectives, which play the most significant role in query plan evaluation, are continuously refined to reflect the actual values as opposed to static ones that are computed off-line. Query feedback is a concept that was first introduced to the literature by our group. We employed query feedback for both adaptive buffer management and for computing value distributions and selectivities. For adaptive buffer management, we use the page faults of prior executions to achieve more 'informed' management decisions. For the estimation of the distributions of the selectivities, we use curve-fitting techniques, such as least squares and splines, for regressing on these values.

  20. The Computerized Implicit Representation Test: Construct and incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Piers, Craig; Piers, Ryan J; Fowler, J Christopher; Perry, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies in mental representations between self-aspects and significant others are associated with depression, personality disorders, emotional reactivity, and interpersonal distress. The Computerized Implicit Representation Test (CIRT) is a novel measure developed to assess discrepancies in mental representations. Inpatient participants (N = 165) enrolled in a longitudinal study completed baseline CIRT ratings of similarity between self-aspects (actual-self, ideal-self, and ought-self) and between actual-self and significant others (mother, father, liked others, and disliked others). Based on the similarity ratings, multidimensional scaling was utilized to generate distances between key self- and other representations in three-dimensional space. Results of univariate linear regression analyses demonstrated that discrepancies (distances) between self-aspects, actual-self to others, and actual-self to mother were significantly associated with impulsive and self-destructive behaviors and/or lifetime anxiety disorders. Multivariate hierarchical linear regression models further indicated that three CIRT variables provided incremental validity above and beyond age, gender, and/or borderline personality disorder. PMID:26682830

  1. Warm Forming of Mg Sheets: From Incremental to Electromagnetic Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulacia, Ibai; Galdos, Lander; Esnaola, Jon Ander; Larrañaga, Jon; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; de Argandoña, Eneko Saenz; Hurtado, Iñaki

    2014-07-01

    Magnesium alloys are generating interest in the automotive and aeronautic industries due to their low density and potential to reduce gross vehicular weight. However, the formability of these alloys is poor and they are very difficult to be formed at room temperature due to their strong basal texture in rolled form. In this paper, the potential of magnesium alloy sheets to be processed at warm conditions is studied for four different forming technologies: incremental forming (IF), deep drawing (DD), hydroforming (HF), and electromagnetic forming (EMF). Forming mechanisms and process window are experimentally characterized by monitoring different process parameters. Special focus is made on the influence of the forming temperature and the strain rate. Thus, experiments at temperatures from room to 523 K (250 °C) and a wide range of strain rates, between 10-3 up to 103 s-1 according to each process nature and scope, are conducted. It is observed that, even the inherent forming rate range of each process vary considerably, increasing forming temperature increases formability for all of these forming processes. In the other hand, an opposing effect of the strain rate is observed between the quasi-static processes (IF, DD, and HF) and the high speed process (EMF). Thus, a detrimental effect on formability is observed when increasing strain rate for quasi-static processes, while a mild increase is observed for EMF.

  2. A novel instrument for generating angular increments of 1 nanoradian.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Simon G; Bugnar, Alex; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal; Scott, Stewart; Hillman, Michael; Grindrod, Jamie; Johnson, Iain

    2015-12-01

    Accurate generation of small angles is of vital importance for calibrating angle-based metrology instruments used in a broad spectrum of industries including mechatronics, nano-positioning, and optic fabrication. We present a novel, piezo-driven, flexure device capable of reliably generating micro- and nanoradian angles. Unlike many such instruments, Diamond Light Source's nano-angle generator (Diamond-NANGO) does not rely on two separate actuators or rotation stages to provide coarse and fine motion. Instead, a single Physik Instrumente NEXLINE "PiezoWalk" actuator provides millimetres of travel with nanometre resolution. A cartwheel flexure efficiently converts displacement from the linear actuator into rotary motion with minimal parasitic errors. Rotation of the flexure is directly measured via a Magnescale "Laserscale" angle encoder. Closed-loop operation of the PiezoWalk actuator, using high-speed feedback from the angle encoder, ensures that the Diamond-NANGO's output drifts by only ∼0.3 nrad rms over ∼30 min. We show that the Diamond-NANGO can reliably move with unprecedented 1 nrad (∼57 ndeg) angular increments over a range of >7000 μrad. An autocollimator, interferometer, and capacitive displacement sensor are used to independently confirm the Diamond-NANGO's performance by simultaneously measuring the rotation of a reflective cube. PMID:26724074

  3. Generation of referring expressions: assessing the Incremental Algorithm.

    PubMed

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-07-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ''one-shot'' referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns out that the success of the IA depends substantially on the ''preference order'' (PO) employed by the IA, particularly in complex domains. While some POs cause the IA to produce referring expressions that are very similar to expressions produced by human subjects, others cause the IA to perform worse than its main competitors; moreover, it turns out to be difficult to predict the success of a PO on the basis of existing psycholinguistic findings or frequencies in corpora. We also examine the computational complexity of the algorithms in question and argue that there are no compelling reasons for preferring the IA over some of its main competitors on these grounds. We conclude that future research on the generation of referring expressions should explore alternatives to the IA, focusing on algorithms, inspired by the Greedy Algorithm, which do not work with a fixed PO. PMID:22040610

  4. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P; Eskew, Rhea T

    2014-01-01

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L-M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S- thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L-M, L- and M-cone noises than were S- thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S- thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S- detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. PMID:25391300

  5. Incremental Value of MR Cholangiopancreatography in Diagnosis of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Siyoun; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Yoo, So-Young; Hwang, Sook Min; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Woo Sun; Choe, Yon Ho; Kim, Ji Hye

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incremental value of a combination of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and ultrasonography (US), compared to US alone, for diagnosing biliary atresia (BA) in neonates and young infants with cholestasis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. The US and MRCP studies were both performed on 64 neonates and young infants with BA (n = 41) or without BA (non-BA) (n = 23). Two observers reviewed independently the US alone set and the combined US and MRCP set, and graded them using a five-point scale. Diagnostic performance was compared using pairwise comparison of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were assessed. Results The diagnostic performance (the area under the ROC curve [Az]) for diagnosing BA improved significantly after additional review of MRCP images; Az improved from 0.688 to 0.901 (P = .015) for observer 1 and from 0.676 to 0.901 (P = .011) for observer 2. The accuracy of MRCP combined with US (observer 1, 95% [61/64]; observer 2 92% [59/64]) and PPV (observer 1, 95% [40/42]; observer 2 91% [40/44]) were significantly higher than those of US alone for both observers (accuracy: observer 1, 73% [47/64], P = 0.003; observer 2, 72% [46/64], P = 0.004; PPV: observer 1, 76% [35/46], P = 0.016; observer 2, 76% [34/45], P = 0.013). Interobserver agreement of confidence levels was good for US alone (ĸ = 0.658, P < .001) and was excellent for the combined set of US and MRCP (ĸ = 0.929, P < .001). Conclusion Better diagnostic performance was achieved with the combination of US and MRCP than with US alone for the evaluation of BA in neonates and young infants with cholestasis. PMID:27341698

  6. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    A new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya-Babuška-Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie-Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

  7. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

    2016-05-04

    In this paper, a new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie–Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov–Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes,more » and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.« less

  8. Adaptation of spatiotemporal mechanisms by increment and decrement stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkiss, Todd J.; Demarco, Paul J.

    2002-08-01

    Sawtooth modulation has been used in the past to examine visual sensitivity to luminance increments and decrements. The threshold elevation caused by adaptation depends on the spatial profile of the stimulus field and the polarities of the adaptation and test stimuli. We hypothesized that the adaptation effects reflect a change in the sensitivity of the spatiotemporal channels that detect the stimuli. We used a 2-deg disk centered in a larger surround field. Five levels of contrast between the test field and surround were investigated: equiluminant, three intermediate levels, and dark. At each contrast, observers adapted for 5 s to 2-Hz sawtooth modulation (rapid-on or rapid-off). Immediately after adaptation, thresholds were measured for detection of a single cycle of either a rapid-on or a rapid-off waveform. Varying the contrast of the surround affected observers sensitivity to the polarity of the sawtooth stimulus to the extent that the pattern of sensitivity with the equiluminant surround was the opposite of that with the dark surround. To examine temporal factors, we measured thresholds for slow (500-ms ramps) and fast (8.3-ms pulses) test stimuli. The adaptation effect was preserved with the ramp stimuli but not with the pulse stimuli. Blurring the edge between the test and surround fields in the equiluminant surround condition raised thresholds for all sawtooth test stimuli, suggesting that spatiotemporal channels sensitive to high spatial frequencies and low temporal frequencies facilitate detection in that condition. These findings suggest that adaptation to sawtooth modulation can differentially effect the sensitivity of ON and OFF pathways, but the relative desensitization of each pathway depends on an interaction with the adaptation state of spatiotemporal channels that are involved in detection. 2002 Optical Society of America

  9. 26 CFR 1.41-8T - Alternative incremental credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit (temporary). 1.41... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8T Alternative incremental credit (temporary). (a) For further..., “Credit for Increasing Research Activities,” (or successor form) relating to the election of the AIRC,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.41-8T - Alternative incremental credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit (temporary). 1.41... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8T Alternative incremental credit (temporary). (a) For further..., “Credit for Increasing Research Activities,” (or successor form) relating to the election of the AIRC,...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15045 - When must I complete each increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I complete each increment of... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.15045 When must I complete...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after.../yr.b Increment 4—Complete on-site construction 30 months after initial NMOC emission rate report or... million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters that are subject to this subpart except those with...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after.../yr.b Increment 4—Complete on-site construction 30 months after initial NMOC emission rate report or... million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters that are subject to this subpart except those with...

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after.../yr.b Increment 4—Complete on-site construction 30 months after initial NMOC emission rate report or... million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters that are subject to this subpart except those with...

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after.../yr.b Increment 4—Complete on-site construction 30 months after initial NMOC emission rate report or... million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters that are subject to this subpart except those with...

  16. Incremental soil sampling root water uptake, or be great through others

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ray Allmaras pursued several research topics in relation to residue and tillage research. He looked for new tools to help explain soil responses to tillage, including disk permeameters and image analysis. The incremental sampler developed by Pikul and Allmaras allowed small-depth increment, volumetr...

  17. Estimating the Optimum Number of Options per Item Using an Incremental Option Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevisan, Michael S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The reliabilities of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-choice tests were compared through an incremental-option model on a test taken by 154 high school seniors. Creating the test forms incrementally more closely approximates actual test construction. The nonsignificant differences among the option choices support the three-option item. (SLD)

  18. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... of San Jose, California). 71 FR 7995-96. The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the... COMMISSION Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain incremental dental...

  19. Comparison of the Incremental Validity of the Old and New MCAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.; And Others

    The predictive and incremental validity of both the Old and New Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was examined and compared with a sample of over 300 medical students. Results of zero order and incremental validity coefficients, as well as prediction models resulting from all possible subsets regression analyses using Mallow's Cp criterion,…

  20. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math…

  1. Use of incremental analysis updates in 4D-Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Banglin; Tallapragada, Vijay; Weng, Fuzhong; Sippel, Jason; Ma, Zaizhong

    2015-12-01

    The four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation systems used in most operational and research centers use initial condition increments as control variables and adjust initial increments to find optimal analysis solutions. This approach may sometimes create discontinuities in analysis fields and produce undesirable spin ups and spin downs. This study explores using incremental analysis updates (IAU) in 4D-Var to reduce the analysis discontinuities. IAU-based 4D-Var has almost the same mathematical formula as conventional 4D-Var if the initial condition increments are replaced with time-integrated increments as control variables. The IAU technique was implemented in the NASA/GSFC 4D-Var prototype and compared against a control run without IAU. The results showed that the initial precipitation spikes were removed and that other discontinuities were also reduced, especially for the analysis of surface temperature.

  2. Quasi-static response, implicit scheme and incremental problem in gradient plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Son

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of gradient plasticity at small strains. Some time-independent dissipative processes such as brittle damage can also be considered in the same framework. Our attention is focussed on the description of the constitutive equations, on the formulation of the governing equations in terms of the energy potential and the dissipation potential of the solid. A time-discretization by the implicit scheme of the evolution equation leads to the study of the incremental problem which is different from the rate problem. The increment of the response under an increment of the loads must satisfy a variational inequality and, if the energy potential is convex, an incremental minimum principle. In particular, a local minimum of the incremental minimum principle is a stable solution to the variational inequality.

  3. Summary of the Science performed onboard the International Space Station during Increments 12 and 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    2007-01-01

    By September of 2007, continuous human presence on the International Space Station will reach a milestone of eighty months. The many astronauts and cosmonauts, who live onboard the station during the last fourteen Increments over that time span, spend their time building the station as well as performing science on a daily basis. Over those eighty months, the U.S astronauts crew members logged over 2954 hours of research time. Far more research time has been accumulated by experiments controlled by investigators on the ground. The U.S astronauts conducted over one hundred and twenty six (126) science investigations. From these hundred and twenty six science investigations, many were operated across multiple Increments. The crew also installed, activated and operated nine (9) science racks that supported six science disciplines ranging from material sciences to life science. By the end of Increment 14, a total of 5083 kg of research rack mass were ferried to the station as well as 5021 kg of research mass. The objectives of this paper are three-fold. (1) To briefly review the science conducted on the International Space Station during the previous eleven Increments; (2) to discuss in detail the science investigations that were conducted on the station during Increments 12 and 13. The discussion will focus mainly on the primary objectives of each investigation and their associated hypotheses that were investigated during these two Increments. Also, some preliminary science results will be discussed for each of the investigation as science results availability permit. (3) The paper will briefly touch on what the science complement planning was and what was actually accomplished due to real time science implementation and challenges during these two Increments in question to illustrate the challenges of daily science activity while the science platform is under construction. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss the science research complements for the other two

  4. Incremental terrain processing for large digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Incremental terrain processing for large digital elevation models Zichuan Ye, Dean Djokic, Lori Armstrong Esri, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373, USA (E-mail: zye@esri.com, ddjokic@esri.com , larmstrong@esri.com) Efficient analyses of large digital elevation models (DEM) require generation of additional DEM artifacts such as flow direction, flow accumulation and other DEM derivatives. When the DEMs to analyze have a large number of grid cells (usually > 1,000,000,000) the generation of these DEM derivatives is either impractical (it takes too long) or impossible (software is incapable of processing such a large number of cells). Different strategies and algorithms can be put in place to alleviate this situation. This paper describes an approach where the overall DEM is partitioned in smaller processing units that can be efficiently processed. The processed DEM derivatives for each partition can then be either mosaicked back into a single large entity or managed on partition level. For dendritic terrain morphologies, the way in which partitions are to be derived and the order in which they are to be processed depend on the river and catchment patterns. These patterns are not available until flow pattern of the whole region is created, which in turn cannot be established upfront due to the size issues. This paper describes a procedure that solves this problem: (1) Resample the original large DEM grid so that the total number of cells is reduced to a level for which the drainage pattern can be established. (2) Run standard terrain preprocessing operations on the resampled DEM to generate the river and catchment system. (3) Define the processing units and their processing order based on the river and catchment system created in step (2). (4) Based on the processing order, apply the analysis, i.e., flow accumulation operation to each of the processing units, at the full resolution DEM. (5) As each processing unit is processed based on the processing order defined

  5. Heart rate deflection related to lactate performance curve and plasma catecholamine response during incremental cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Pokan, R; Hofmann, P; Lehmann, M; Leitner, H; Eber, B; Gasser, R; Schwaberger, G; Schmid, P; Keul, J; Klein, W

    1995-01-01

    The correlation between the behaviour of the heart rate/work performance (fc/W) curve and blood lactate ([la]b) and plasma adrenaline/noradrenaline concentrations ([A]/[NA]) during incremental cycle ergometer exercise was investigated. A group of 21 male sports students was divided into two groups: group I, with a clear deflection of the fc/W curve; group II, without or with an inverse deflection of the fc/W curve. The aerobic threshold (Thaer) and the lactate turn point (LTP) were defined. Between Thaer and maximal work performance (Wmax) the behaviour of the fc/W curve as well as the behaviour of [la-]b and [A]. [NA] were described mathematically. The fc, systolic blood pressure (BPs), W, [la-]b, [A] and [NA] at rest, Thaer, LTP, Wmax, after 3 and 6 min of recovery (Re3/Re6) were calculated. A significant difference between the two groups could only be detected for fc at LTP, Re3 and Re6 (P < 0.05). No significant correlation could be found between individual fc/W-behaviour and individual time course of [la-]b, [A] and [NA]. However, a significant correlation was visible between [la-]b/W-behaviour and individual catecholamine response. These results and the fact that the different flattening at the top of the fc/W curve was related to diminished stress-dependent myocardial function led us to the conclusion that it is possible that sympathetic drive is not directly involved in mechanisms of regulation between load dependent fc and myocardial function. In addition, individual fc/W behaviour was independent of BPs and Wmax, or individual conditions of energy supply. PMID:7768241

  6. Thermal-Aware Incremental Floorplanning for 3D ICs Based on MILP Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuchun; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Hong, Xianlong

    In 3D IC design, thermal issue is a critical challenge. To eliminate hotspots, physical layouts are always adjusted by some incremental changes, such as shifting or duplicating hot blocks. In this paper, we distinguish the thermal-aware incremental changes in three different categories: migrating computation, growing unit and moving hotspot blocks. However, these modifications may degrade the packing area as well as interconnect distribution greatly. In this paper, mixed integer linear programming (MILP) models are devised according to these different incremental changes so that multiple objectives can be optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, to avoid random incremental modification, which may be inefficient and need long runtime to converge, here potential gain is modeled for each candidate incremental change. Based on the potential gain, a novel thermal optimization flow to intelligently choose the best incremental operation is presented. Experimental results show that migrating computation, growing unit and moving hotspot can reduce max on-chip temperature by 7%, 13% and 15% respectively on MCNC/GSRC benchmarks. Still, experimental results also show that the thermal optimization flow can reduce max on-chip temperature by 14% to the initial packings generated by an existing 3D floorplanning tool CBA, and achieve better area and total wirelength improvement than individual operations do. The results with the initial packings from CBA_T (Thermal-aware CBA floorplanner) show that 13.5% temperature reduction can be obtained by our incremental optimization flow.

  7. Do otolith increments allow correct inferences about age and growth of coral reef fishes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Otolith increment structure is widely used to estimate age and growth of marine fishes. Here, I test the accuracy of the long-term otolith increment analysis of the lemon damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to describe age and growth characteristics. I compare the number of putative annual otolith increments (as a proxy for actual age) and widths of these increments (as proxies for somatic growth) with actual tagged fish-length data, based on a 6-year dataset, the longest time course for a coral reef fish. Estimated age from otoliths corresponded closely with actual age in all cases, confirming annual increment formation. However, otolith increment widths were poor proxies for actual growth in length [linear regression r 2 = 0.44-0.90, n = 6 fish] and were clearly of limited value in estimating annual growth. Up to 60 % of the annual growth variation was missed using otolith increments, suggesting the long-term back calculations of otolith growth characteristics of reef fish populations should be interpreted with caution.

  8. The Crucial Role of Error Correlation for Uncertainty Modeling of CFD-Based Aerodynamics Increments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Walker, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I ascent aerodynamics database for Design Cycle 3 (DAC-3) was built from wind-tunnel test results and CFD solutions. The wind tunnel results were used to build the baseline response surfaces for wind-tunnel Reynolds numbers at power-off conditions. The CFD solutions were used to build increments to account for Reynolds number effects. We calculate the validation errors for the primary CFD code results at wind tunnel Reynolds number power-off conditions and would like to be able to use those errors to predict the validation errors for the CFD increments. However, the validation errors are large compared to the increments. We suggest a way forward that is consistent with common practice in wind tunnel testing which is to assume that systematic errors in the measurement process and/or the environment will subtract out when increments are calculated, thus making increments more reliable with smaller uncertainty than absolute values of the aerodynamic coefficients. A similar practice has arisen for the use of CFD to generate aerodynamic database increments. The basis of this practice is the assumption of strong correlation of the systematic errors inherent in each of the results used to generate an increment. The assumption of strong correlation is the inferential link between the observed validation uncertainties at wind-tunnel Reynolds numbers and the uncertainties to be predicted for flight. In this paper, we suggest a way to estimate the correlation coefficient and demonstrate the approach using code-to-code differences that were obtained for quality control purposes during the Ares I CFD campaign. Finally, since we can expect the increments to be relatively small compared to the baseline response surface and to be typically of the order of the baseline uncertainty, we find that it is necessary to be able to show that the correlation coefficients are close to unity to avoid overinflating the overall database uncertainty with the addition of the increments.

  9. Validation of otolith daily increments in early juveniles of shanny Lipophrys pholis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M G; Moreira, A S; Moreira, C; Queiroga, H; Santos, P T; Correia, A T

    2014-04-01

    To assess the periodicity of micro-increment formation in otoliths of Lipophrys pholis, 90 early juveniles were immersed in alizarin red S or tetracycline hydrochloride for 24 h and sacrificed after 10, 20 and 30 days. The number of micro-increments viewed under light microscopy was significantly related to the duration of the experimental period, and the slopes of the linear regressions were not significantly different from 1. This study indicates that micro-increments in sagittae were deposited daily and can be used as reliable sources of age information for L. pholis. PMID:24588781

  10. Incremental learning of probabilistic rules from clinical databases based on rough set theory.

    PubMed Central

    Tsumoto, S.; Tanaka, H.

    1997-01-01

    Several rule induction methods have been introduced in order to discover meaningful knowledge from databases, including medical domain. However, most of the approaches induce rules from all the data in databases and cannot induce incrementally when new samples are derived. In this paper, a new approach to knowledge acquisition, which induce probabilistic rules incrementally by using rough set technique, is introduced and was evaluated on two clinical databases. The results show that this method induces the same rules as those induced by ordinary non-incremental learning methods, which extract rules from all the datasets, but that the former method requires more computational resources than the latter approach. PMID:9357616

  11. Increment of DNA topoisomerases in chemically and virally transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crespi, M.D.; Mladovan, A.G.; Baldi, A. )

    1988-03-01

    The activities of topoisomerases I and II were assayed in subcellular extracts obtained from nontumorigenic BALB/c 3T3 A31 and normal rat kidney (NRK) cell lines and from the same cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene (BP-A31), Moloney (M-MSV-A31) and Kirsten (K-A31) sarcoma viruses, and simian virus 40 (SV-NRK). The enzymatic activity of topoisomerase I was monitored by the relaxation of negatively supercoiled pBR322 DNA and by the formation of covalent complexes between {sup 32}P-labeled DNA and topoisomerase I. Topoisomerase II activity was determined by decatenation of kinetoplast DNA (k-DNA). It was found that nuclear and cytoplasmic type I topoisomerase specific activities were higher in every transformed cell line than in the normal counterparts. These differences cannot be attributed to an inhibitory factor present in A31 cells. When chromatin was treated at increasing ionic strengths, the 0.4 M NaCl extract showed the highest topoisomerase I specific activity. Spontaneously transformed A31 cells showed topoisomerase I activity similar to that of extracts of cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene. Topoisomerase II specific activity was also increased in SV-NRK cells, as judged by the assay for decatenation of k-DNA to yield minicircle DNA.

  12. What Oracle doesn`t tell you about CASE: An incremental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.M.

    1995-04-04

    Oracle CASE is a very large, complex software tool. The incremental-approach method described here helps developers break the analysis paralysis syndrome by using a group of rules of thumb to build more and better applications faster.

  13. Strategic Planning vs. Disjointed Incrementalism: An Institutional Research Perspective. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Paul M.; And Others

    Strategic planning in higher education is discussed from the perspective of institutional research. Attention is directed to: institutional mission, institutional assessment, institutional leadership, environmental assessment, market analysis, and competitive position. Strategic planning merges incrementalism, which focuses on flexibility,…

  14. Incremental dynamical downscaling for probabilistic analysis based on multiple GCM projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakazuki, Y.; Rasmussen, R.

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical downscaling method for probabilistic regional-scale climate change projections was developed to cover the inherent uncertainty associated with multiple general circulation model (GCM) climate simulations. The climatological increments estimated by GCM results were statistically analyzed using the singular vector decomposition. Both positive and negative perturbations from the ensemble mean with the magnitudes of their standard deviations were extracted and added to the ensemble mean of the climatological increments. The analyzed multiple modal increments were utilized to create multiple modal lateral boundary conditions for the future climate regional climate model (RCM) simulations by adding them to reanalysis data. The incremental handling of GCM simulations realized approximated probabilistic climate change projections with the smaller number of RCM simulations. For the probabilistic analysis, three values of a climatological variable simulated by RCMs for a mode were analyzed under an assumption of linear response to the multiple modal perturbations.

  15. Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.

  16. On incremental non-linearity in granular media: phenomenological and multi-scale views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Félix; Nicot, François

    2005-12-01

    On the basis of fundamental constitutive laws such as elasticity, perfect plasticity, and pure viscosity, many elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations have been developed since the 1970s through phenomenological approaches. In addition, a few more recent micro-mechanical models based on multi-scale approaches are now able to describe the main macroscopic features of the mechanical behaviour of granular media. The purpose of this paper is to compare a phenomenological constitutive relation and a micro-mechanical model with respect to a basic issue regularly raised about granular assemblies: the incrementally non-linear character of their behaviour. It is shown that both phenomenological and micro-mechanical models exhibit an incremental non-linearity. In addition, the multi-scale approach reveals that the macroscopic incremental non-linearity could stem from the change in the regime of local contacts between particles (from plastic regime to elastic regime) in terms of the incremental macroscopic loading direction. Copyright

  17. 40 CFR 60.1610 - How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan? 60.1610 Section 60.1610 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.1610 How do I comply with the increment...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14560 - How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Increments of Progress § 62.14560 How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan? 62.14560 Section 62.14560 Protection of Environment...

  19. Inheritance as an Incremental Modification Mechanism or What Like Is and Isn't Like

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Peter; Zdonik, Stanley B.

    Incremental modification is a fundamental mechanism not only in software systems, but also in physical and mathematical systems. Inheritance owes its importance in large measure to its flexibility as a discrete incremental modification mechanism. Four increasingly permissive properties of incremental modification realizable by inheritance are examined: behavior compatibility, signature compatibility. name compatibility, and cancellation. Inheritance for entities with finite sets of attributes is defined and characterized as incremental modification with deferred binding of self-reference. Types defined as predicates for type checking are contrasted with classes defined as templates for object generation. Mathematical, operational, and conceptual models of inheritance are then examined in detail, leading to a discussion of algebraic models of behavioral compatibility. horizontal and vertical signature modification, algorithmically defined name modification, additive and subtractive exceptions, abstract inheritance networks, and parametric polymorphism. Liketypes are defined as a symmetrical general form of incremental modification that provide a framework for modeling similarity. The combination of safe behaviorally compatible changes and less safe radical incremental changes in a single programming language is considered.

  20. Molecular Dipole Moments within the Incremental Scheme Using the Domain-Specific Basis-Set Approach.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Benjamin; Coriani, Sonia; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-07-12

    We present the first implementation of the fully automated incremental scheme for CCSD unrelaxed dipole moments using the domain-specific basis-set approach. Truncation parameters are varied, and the accuracy of the method is statistically analyzed for a test set of 20 molecules. The local approximations introduce small errors at second order and negligible ones at third order. For a third-order incremental CCSD expansion with a CC2 error correction, a cc-pVDZ/SV domain-specific basis set (tmain = 3.5 Bohr), and the truncation parameter f = 30 Bohr, we obtain a mean error of 0.00 mau (-0.20 mau) and a standard deviation of 1.95 mau (2.17 mau) for the total dipole moments (Cartesian components of the dipole vectors). By analyzing incremental CCSD energies, we demonstrate that the MP2 and CC2 error correction schemes are an exclusive correction for the domain-specific basis-set error. Our implementation of the incremental scheme provides fully automated computations of highly accurate dipole moments at reduced computational cost and is fully parallelized in terms of the calculation of the increments. Therefore, one can utilize the incremental scheme, on the same hardware, to extend the basis set in comparison to standard CCSD and thus obtain a better total accuracy. PMID:27300371

  1. Microcomputed tomographic comparison of posterior composite resin restorative techniques: sonicated bulk fill versus incremental fill.

    PubMed

    Jarisch, Justin; Lien, Wen; Guevara, Peter H; Greenwood, William J; Dunn, William J

    2016-01-01

    Sonication technology has recently been touted to decrease composite viscosity during delivery and may allow better cavity preparation adaptation and minimize voids. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the difference between conventional, hand-placed, incremental application of a standard hybrid resin-based composite (RBC) and sonicated application of a bulk-fill RBC in box-type and cylindrical cavity preparations. Experimental restorations were fabricated using molds of box-type or cylindrical preparations. For bulk-filled specimens, a single compule of bulk-fill composite was dispensed with a sonic handpiece. The conventional hybrid material was placed in 3 increments (2 mm, 2 mm, and 1 mm). Microfocus x-ray computed tomography was used to analyze voids for percentage and total volume porosity as well as number of actual pores. An analysis of variance indicated that RBC restorations that were applied to cylindrical cavities using a sonicated bulk-filled application method exhibited significantly less porosity (1.42%; P < 0.001) than incrementally placed cylindrical restorations (2.87%); sonicated bulk-filled, cube-shaped restorations (3.12%); and incrementally placed cube-shaped restorations (5.16%). When the groups were subcategorized into the specific characteristics of shape (cube vs cylinder) and application method (bulk vs incremental), the cylindrical group, which included both bulk-filled and incrementally placed specimens, demonstrated significantly less porosity (2.00%; P < 0.001) than other groups. Restorations that were incrementally placed into cube-shaped cavities produced the largest amount of porosity. PMID:27599276

  2. Incremental threshold loading: a standard protocol and establishment of a reference range in naive normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Cowley, A J; Kinnear, W J

    1997-12-01

    Incremental threshold loading (ITL) has been proposed as a test of inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. To date, however, there has been no standardized protocol for an ITL test, and no reference range, with different investigators using a variety of different pressure increments in small numbers of subjects. We developed an ITL test using the weighted plunger (WP) principle, which uses standard increments of pressure. In our protocol subjects inspire through the WP generating an initial threshold opening pressure of 10 cmH2O. This pressure is raised at 2 min intervals in increments of 5 cmH2O until they fail to lift the plunger on two consecutive attempted breaths. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) aged 20-80 yrs performed the ITL test. Twelve subjects (six females and six males) performed the test twice to assess reproducibility and repeatability. Using stepwise multiple linear regression, we regressed the maximum threshold pressure sustained for a full 2 min (Pmax) against age, height, weight and static maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP). Pmax was significantly related to age but not to either height or weight, the regression equation for males was Pmax (cmH2O)=103.8 - (1.0 x age in years), and for females was Pmax (cmH2O)=93.7 - (1.0 x age in years). The within-subject standard deviation for those repeating the ITL test was 5.4 cmH2O. Incremental threshold loading is a simple technique with good reproducibility, which most naive subjects can use without difficulty. By using standard pressure increments and performing the test in a large number of naive subjects, we have established a reference range that should be applicable wherever similar pressure increments are used. PMID:9493675

  3. Influence of Pedaling Cadence and Incremental Protocol on the Estimation of EMGFT.

    PubMed

    Duff, Timothy M; Fournier, Hallie; Hopp, Orie B; Ochshorn, Eli; Sanders, Eric S; Stevens, Rachel E; Malek, Moh H

    2016-08-01

    Duff, TM, Fournier, H, Hopp, OB, Ochshorn, E, Sanders, ES, Stevens, RE, and Malek, MH. Influence of pedaling cadence and incremental protocol on the estimation of EMGFT. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2206-2211, 2016-Theoretically, the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) is the highest exercise intensity that an individual can exercise at indefinitely without an increase in electromyography (EMG) amplitude. This index is estimated from a single incremental test. There are, however, factors that may influence EMG amplitude such as pedaling cadence or the incremental protocol used. The purposes of this study were to determine whether different pedaling cadences and/or incremental protocols influence the estimation of the EMGFT. Eight healthy college-aged men performed incremental cycle ergometry on three separate visits. The participants exercised using the following combinations of pedaling cadences and incremental protocols in random order: 25 W at 70 RPM; 13 W at 70 RPM; and 25 W at 100 RPM. The EMGFT value was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle of each participant for each of the three conditions. Separate 1-way repeated measures analysis of variances were performed to determine mean differences for various outcome indices. The mean maximal power output for the 13 W at 70 RPM condition was significantly lower than the two other conditions. There were, however, no significant mean differences (F (2,14) = 2.03; p = 0.169) for EMGFT between the three conditions. The findings of this study indicated that different pedaling cadences and incremental protocols did not influence the estimation of the EMGFT. PMID:26677833

  4. Incremental Reactivity Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Urban Atmospheres with and without Biogenic Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacarab, Mary; Li, Lijie; Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-04-01

    Two different surrogate mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were developed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at atmospheric reactivities similar to urban regions with varying biogenic influence levels. Environmental chamber simulations were designed to enable the study of the incremental aerosol formation from select anthropogenic (m‑Xylene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and 1-Methylnaphthalene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors under the chemical reactivity set by the two different surrogate mixtures. The surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were based on that used to develop the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors for evaluation of O3 forming potential. Multiple incremental aerosol formation experiments were performed in the University of California Riverside (UCR) College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) dual 90m3 environmental chambers. Incremental aerosol yields were determined for each of the VOCs studied and compared to yields found from single precursor studies. Aerosol physical properties of density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were monitored throughout experiments. Bulk elemental chemical composition from high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data will also be presented. Incremental yields and SOA chemical and physical characteristics will be compared with data from previous single VOC studies conducted for these aerosol precursors following traditional VOC/NOx chamber experiments. Evaluation of the incremental effects of VOCs on SOA formation and properties are paramount in evaluating how to best extrapolate environmental chamber observations to the ambient atmosphere and provides useful insights into current SOA formation models. Further, the comparison of incremental SOA from VOCs in varying surrogate urban atmospheres (with and without strong biogenic influence) allows for a unique perspective on the impacts

  5. Validation of daily increment formation in otoliths for Gymnocypris selincuoensis in the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chengzhi; Chen, Yifeng; He, Dekui; Tao, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Daily increment validation in fish otolith is fundamental to studies on fish otolith microstructure, age determination and life history traits, and thus is critical for species conservation and fishery management. However, it has never been done for Schizothoracine fish, which is the dominant component of fish fauna in the Tibetan Plateau. This study validated the daily increment formation of Gymnocypris selincuoensis, as a representative of Schizothoracine fish, by monitoring the growth of hatchery-reared larvae group and wild-caught post-yolk-sac larvae group under controlled experiments. The results from monitoring the hatchery-reared larvae group showed that sagittae and lapilli were found in yolk-sac larvae, and formed 5-7 days before hatching, but asterisci were not found until 11 days post-hatching. The first increment in sagittae and lapilli was formed in the first day after hatching. The daily periodicity of increment formation was examined and confirmed in sagittae and lapilli of both larvae groups. However, sagittae were better for age determination than lapilli for larvae at earlier days. For larval G. selincuoensis older than 50 days, lapilli were the only otolith pair suitable for larvae daily age determination. This study validated the daily increment formation in Schizothoracine fish for the first time has primary implications to other fishes from this subfamily. PMID:26380660

  6. Validation of daily increment formation in otoliths for Gymnocypris selincuoensis in the Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chengzhi; Chen, Yifeng; He, Dekui; Tao, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Daily increment validation in fish otolith is fundamental to studies on fish otolith microstructure, age determination and life history traits, and thus is critical for species conservation and fishery management. However, it has never been done for Schizothoracine fish, which is the dominant component of fish fauna in the Tibetan Plateau. This study validated the daily increment formation of Gymnocypris selincuoensis, as a representative of Schizothoracine fish, by monitoring the growth of hatchery-reared larvae group and wild-caught post-yolk-sac larvae group under controlled experiments. The results from monitoring the hatchery-reared larvae group showed that sagittae and lapilli were found in yolk-sac larvae, and formed 5–7 days before hatching, but asterisci were not found until 11 days post-hatching. The first increment in sagittae and lapilli was formed in the first day after hatching. The daily periodicity of increment formation was examined and confirmed in sagittae and lapilli of both larvae groups. However, sagittae were better for age determination than lapilli for larvae at earlier days. For larval G. selincuoensis older than 50 days, lapilli were the only otolith pair suitable for larvae daily age determination. This study validated the daily increment formation in Schizothoracine fish for the first time has primary implications to other fishes from this subfamily. PMID:26380660

  7. Evaluation of electronic correlation contributions for optical tensors of large systems using the incremental scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Dolg, Michael

    2007-08-01

    A new method is developed to calculate the optical tensors of large systems based on available wave function correlation approaches (e.g., the coupled cluster ansatz) in the framework of the incremental scheme. The convergence behaviors of static first- and second-order polarizabilities with respect to the order of the incremental expansion are examined and discussed for the model system Ga4As4H18. The many-body increments of optical tensors originate from the dipole-dipole coupling effects and the corresponding contributions to the incremental expansion are compared among local domains with different distances and orientations. The weight factors for increments of optical tensors are found to be tensorial in accordance with the structural symmetry as well as the polarization and the external electric field directions. The long-term goal of the proposed approach is to incorporate the sophisticated molecular correlation methods into the accurate wave function calculation of optical properties of large compounds or even crystals.

  8. Does Stroke Volume Increase During an Incremental Exercise? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Stella S.; Lemes, Brunno; de T. C. de Carvalho, Paulo; N. de Lima, Rafael; S. Bocalini, Danilo; A. S. Junior, José; Arsa, Gisela; A. Casarin, Cezar; L. Andrade, Erinaldo; J. Serra, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac output increases during incremental-load exercise to meet metabolic skeletal muscle demand. This response requires a fast adjustment in heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is well known to increase linearly with exercise load; however, data for stroke volume during incremental-load exercise are unclear. Our objectives were to (a) review studies that have investigated stroke volume on incremental load exercise and (b) summarize the findings for stroke volume, primarily at maximal-exercise load. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Cochrane Library’s, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Web of Sci-ence databases was carried out for the years 1985 to the present. The search was performed between February and June 2014 to find studies evaluating changes in stroke volume during incremental-load exercise. Controlled and uncontrolled trials were evaluated for a quality score. Results: The stroke volume data in maximal-exercise load are inconsistent. There is evidence to hypothesis that stroke volume increases during maximal-exercise load, but other lines of evidence indicate that stroke volume reaches a plateau under these circumstances, or even decreases. Conclusion: The stroke volume are unclear, include contradictory evidence. Additional studies with standardized reporting for subjects (e.g., age, gender, physical fitness, and body position), exercise test protocols, and left ventricular function are required to clarify the characteristics of stroke volume during incremental maximal-exercise load. PMID:27347221

  9. Analysis of release cutting effects on increment and growth in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    PubMed

    Yücesan, Zafer; Ozçelik, Sevilay; Oktan, Ercan

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of release cuttings on stand structures and increment and growth relations were investigated in afforested oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands. To maximize spatial variation in dataset, stratified random sampling was used to layout transects. 24 sampling plots were determined which reflects average characteristics of actual stand structure. 8 sampling plots were selected from unthinned stands, 8 sampling plots were selected from lightly thinned (19% of the total basal area removed) stand and 8 sampling plots were selected from heavily thinned (40% of the total basal area removed) stand. Light thinning was done in the year 2008 and heavy thinning in 2009. Stem analyses were carried out and pre- and post-treatment height, diameter, basal area and volume increments were examined according to thinning intensities. Obtained results showed that removal of 40% of the basal area does not contribute to stand increment and growth more positively than those in stands treated by removal of 19% of the basal area. Expected increase in height and diameter increment did not occurr post-treatment in 2008 and 2009. However, in only lightly thinned stands mean basal area increment increased after treatment. Release cuttings in beech stand needs to be practiced at least twice every 5 to 6 years, provided that peculiar characteristics of every habitat are considered. PMID:26521547

  10. Compression stress relaxation apparatus for the long-time monitoring of the incremental modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Roland H.; Stephens, Thomas S.; Coons, James E.; Winter, H. Henning

    2003-11-01

    A compression apparatus for aging experiments on soft rubbers and foams is presented. The sample is compressed between two parallel surfaces and held there for long-time relaxation studies. The specific purpose of the test is twofold: possible exposure of the sample to aggressive environment under compression during aging and measurement of sample modulus without unloading, i.e., while leaving the sample under constant compression at all times. To determine the restoring force in the compressed sample, the compression strain is modulated with an incremental strain while measuring the force response. The total force gives the compression modulus, and the slope of the force-strain curve allows the determination of the incremental modulus. Stress relaxation data for silicon foam, Dow Corning S-5370 RTV, with 68% void fraction are shown. The modulus of the compressed sample decays over long experimental times of several days. The decay can be described by two relaxation modes, a short mode at 1500 s and a long mode at about 105 s. The incremental modulus changes sharply in the first 1000 s (first mode) and then levels off. The apparatus consists of two self-contained components, the removable sample holder (compression jig) and the stationary test station, which performs the modulation of the strain and all measurements (restoring force and incremental modulus). This allows separation of functions. The apparatus design specifically focused on the control of the incremental strain modulation.

  11. Contrasting patterns of diameter and biomass increment across tree functional groups in Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Helen C; Baker, Timothy R; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L

    2008-12-01

    Species' functional traits may help determine rates of carbon gain, with physiological and morphological trade-offs relating to shade tolerance affecting photosynthetic capacity and carbon allocation strategies. However, few studies have examined these trade-offs from the perspective of whole-plant biomass gain of adult trees. We compared tree-level annual diameter increments and annual above-ground biomass (AGB) increments in eight long-term plots in hyper-diverse northwest Amazonia to wood density (rho; a proxy for shade tolerance), whilst also controlling for resource supply (light and soil fertility). rho and annual diameter increment were negatively related, confirming expected differences in allocation associated with shade tolerance, such that light-demanding species allocate a greater proportion of carbon to diameter gain at the expense of woody tissue density. However, contrary to expectations, we found a positive relationship between rho and annual AGB increment in more fertile sites, although AGB gain did not differ significantly with rho class on low-fertility sites. Whole-plant carbon gain may be greater in shade-tolerant species due to higher total leaf area, despite lower leaf-level carbon assimilation rates. Alternatively, rates of carbon loss may be higher in more light-demanding species: higher rates of litterfall, respiration or allocation to roots, are all plausible mechanisms. However, the relationships between rho and AGB and diameter increments were weak; resource availability always exerted a stronger influence on tree growth rates. PMID:18853192

  12. Temperature Humidity and Sea Level Pressure Increments Induced by 1DVAR Analysis of GPS Refractivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; Kursinski, Emil Robert; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) transmitted signals are affected by the atmosphere. Using the radio occultation technique, where a receiver is placed on a low-Earth-orbiting platform. it is possible to perform soundings. by measuring the bending angles of the rays. The information can be converted into atmospheric refractivity. We have developed a one dimensional variational (1DVAR) analysis that uses GPS/MET 1995 refractivity and 6-hour FVDAS (Finite Volume Data Assimilation System) forecasts as background information to constrain the retrievals. The analysis increments are defined as 1DVAR minus background temperature, humidity and sea level pressure. Before assimilating the 1DVAR profiles into the FVDAS. the increments need to be understood. First, some bias could be induced in the retrievals when confronted with actual biased data: second. bias in the back-round could create undesired bias in the retrievals. Anv bias in the analyses will ultimately change the climatology of the model the retrievals will be assimilated into. We relate the increments to the reduction of the difference between observed minus computed refractivity profiles. We also point out the difference in the mean increments using backgrounds which have assimilated either NESDIS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) operational retrievals or Data Assimilation Office (DAO) TOVS interactive retrievals. The climatology of the model in terms of refractivity is significantly different and this impacts the GPS 1DVAR increments. This testifies that changing the basic load of assimilated data has an influence on the impact the GPS data may have in a DAS.

  13. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized. PMID:25830494

  14. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25420055

  15. Linear-scaling generation of potential energy surfaces using a double incremental expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2016-08-01

    We present a combination of the incremental expansion of potential energy surfaces (PESs), known as n-mode expansion, with the incremental evaluation of the electronic energy in a many-body approach. The application of semi-local coordinates in this context allows the generation of PESs in a very cost-efficient way. For this, we employ the recently introduced flexible adaptation of local coordinates of nuclei (FALCON) coordinates. By introducing an additional transformation step, concerning only a fraction of the vibrational degrees of freedom, we can achieve linear scaling of the accumulated cost of the single point calculations required in the PES generation. Numerical examples of these double incremental approaches for oligo-phenyl examples show fast convergence with respect to the maximum number of simultaneously treated fragments and only a modest error introduced by the additional transformation step. The approach, presented here, represents a major step towards the applicability of vibrational wave function methods to sizable, covalently bound systems.

  16. Incremental expansions for the ground-state energy of the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, J.; Flach, S.; Kladko, K.

    1999-02-01

    A generalization of Faddeev{close_quote}s approach of the three-body problem to the many-body problem leads to the method of increments. This method was recently applied to account for the ground-state properties of Hubbard-Peierls chains [J. Malek, K. Kladko, and S. Flach, JETP Lett. {bold 67}, 1052 (1998)]. Here we generalize this approach to two-dimensional square lattices and explicitly treat the incremental expansion up to third order. Comparing our numerical results with various other approaches (Monte Carlo, cumulant approaches) we show that incremental expansions are very efficient because good accuracy with these approaches is achieved treating lattice segments composed of eight sites only. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Screening Strategies in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin Yu; Finkelstein, Eric A; Ng, Mor Jack; Yap, Fabian; Yeo, George S H; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Tan, Kok Hian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the payer's perspective in Singapore of 3 gestational diabetes mellitus screening strategies: universal, targeted, or no screening. A decision tree model assessed the primary outcome: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Probabilities, costs, and utilities were derived from the literature, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study, and the KK Women's and Children's Hospital's database. Relative to targeted screening using risk factors, universal screening generates an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $USD10,630/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses show that disease prevalence rates and intervention effectiveness of glycemic management have the biggest impacts on the ICERs. Based on the model and best available data, universal screening is a cost-effective approach for reducing the complications of gestational diabetes mellitus in Singapore as compared with the targeted screening approach or no screening. PMID:26512030

  18. Exact Statistics of Record Increments of Random Walks and Lévy Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    We study the statistics of increments in record values in a time series {x0=0 ,x1,x2,…,xn} generated by the positions of a random walk (discrete time, continuous space) of duration n steps. For arbitrary jump length distribution, including Lévy flights, we show that the distribution of the record increment becomes stationary, i.e., independent of n for large n , and compute it explicitly for a wide class of jump distributions. In addition, we compute exactly the probability Q (n ) that the record increments decrease monotonically up to step n . Remarkably, Q (n ) is universal (i.e., independent of the jump distribution) for each n , decaying as Q (n )˜A /√{n } for large n , with a universal amplitude A =e /√{π }=1.533 62 ….

  19. Exact Statistics of Record Increments of Random Walks and Lévy Flights.

    PubMed

    Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    We study the statistics of increments in record values in a time series {x_{0}=0,x_{1},x_{2},…,x_{n}} generated by the positions of a random walk (discrete time, continuous space) of duration n steps. For arbitrary jump length distribution, including Lévy flights, we show that the distribution of the record increment becomes stationary, i.e., independent of n for large n, and compute it explicitly for a wide class of jump distributions. In addition, we compute exactly the probability Q(n) that the record increments decrease monotonically up to step n. Remarkably, Q(n) is universal (i.e., independent of the jump distribution) for each n, decaying as Q(n)∼A/sqrt[n] for large n, with a universal amplitude A=e/sqrt[π]=1.53362…. PMID:27419552

  20. Prediction of Enzyme Mutant Activity Using Computational Mutagenesis and Incremental Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Nada; Wechsler, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Wet laboratory mutagenesis to determine enzyme activity changes is expensive and time consuming. This paper expands on standard one-shot learning by proposing an incremental transductive method (T2bRF) for the prediction of enzyme mutant activity during mutagenesis using Delaunay tessellation and 4-body statistical potentials for representation. Incremental learning is in tune with both eScience and actual experimentation, as it accounts for cumulative annotation effects of enzyme mutant activity over time. The experimental results reported, using cross-validation, show that overall the incremental transductive method proposed, using random forest as base classifier, yields better results compared to one-shot learning methods. T2bRF is shown to yield 90% on T4 and LAC (and 86% on HIV-1). This is significantly better than state-of-the-art competing methods, whose performance yield is at 80% or less using the same datasets. PMID:22007208

  1. Incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo for autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Z. H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposed a new incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo approach for robotic manipulators to capture a non-cooperative target autonomously. The target's pose and motion are estimated by a vision system using integrated photogrammetry and EKF algorithm. Based on the estimated pose and motion of the target, the instantaneous desired position of the end-effector is predicted by inverse kinematics and the robotic manipulator is moved incrementally from its current configuration subject to the joint speed limits. This approach effectively eliminates the multiple solutions in the inverse kinematics and increases the robustness of the control algorithm. The proposed approach is validated by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, where the pose and motion of the non-cooperative target is estimated by a real vision system. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed estimation approach for the target and the incremental control strategy for the robotic manipulator.

  2. Electronic effect of Na on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Dae-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Seok; Chung, Yong-Duck; Kim, Ju-Hee; Park, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Jeha

    2012-07-01

    We report the effect of Na on the electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells with a structure of grid/ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SiOx/soda-lime glass (SLG). The diffusion of Na from the SLG into the CIGS layer was systematically controlled by varying the thickness of SiOx. As the Na content increased, the hole concentration of CIGS was enhanced, while the band-gap was nearly constant, which led to a lower Fermi level in the CIGS towards its valence-band edge. The Na-induced increment in the built-in potential (Vbi) across the n-(ITO/i-ZnO/CdS)/p-CIGS junction yielded an increment of open-circuit voltage that well agreed with the calculated Vbi.

  3. Incremental value of natriuretic peptide measurement in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santaguida, Pasqualina L; Don-Wauchope, Andrew C; Ali, Usman; Oremus, Mark; Brown, Judy A; Bustamam, Amy; Hill, Stephen A; Booth, Ronald A; Sohel, Nazmul; McKelvie, Robert; Balion, Cynthia; Raina, Parminder

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) independently add incremental value for predicting mortality and morbidity in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Medline(®), Embase™, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL were searched from 1989 to June 2012. We also searched reference lists of included articles, systematic reviews, and the gray literature. Studies were screened for eligibility criteria and assessed for risk of bias. Data were extracted on study design, population demographics, assay cutpoints, prognostic risk prediction model covariates, statistical methods, outcomes, and results. From 183 citations, only seven studies (5 BNP and 2 NT-proBNP) considered incremental value in ADHF subjects admitted to acute care centers. Admission assay levels and length of follow-up varied for BNP studies (31 days to 12 months) and for NT-proBNP studies (25-82 months). All studies presented at least one estimate of incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP relative to the base prognostic model. Using discrimination or likelihood statistics, these studies consistently showed that BNP or NT-proBNP increased model performance. Three studies used reclassification and model validation computations to establish incremental value; these studies showed less consistency with respect to added value. In conclusion, the literature assessing incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP in ADHF populations is limited to seven studies evaluating only mortality outcomes and at moderate risk of bias. Although there were differences in the base risk prediction models, assay cutpoints, and lengths of follow-up, there was consistency in BNP/NT-proBNP adding incremental value in prediction models in ADHF patients. PMID:25052418

  4. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  5. Considerations on the Selection of Materials for Prosthetic Parts Obtained by Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotigă, Carmen; Bologa, Octavian; Deac, Cristian

    2014-11-01

    Incremental forming is a novel but promising procedure for the flexible manufacturing of parts starting from metal sheets. It could be very useful in the medical area and especially in orthopedic prosthetics, where each part needs to be very precisely made, but at the same time has to have a unique shape. In this context, the selection of the material that could best satisfy the manufacturing and usage requirements is very important. The current paper suggests a unified parameter that could be used for assessing the suitability of a specific material for the manufacturing, by incremental forming, of prosthetic parts that would be used in human surgery

  6. Automate generation of incremental linear networks masks by using photocomposition method with with multiple microphotographical reductions using laser microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Gheorghe I.; Dontu, Octavian

    2008-03-01

    The paper treats high precision micro technologies for automate generation of linear incremental networks masks by using the photocomposition method with multiple micro photographical reductions using laser high sensitivity microsystems, for the manufacture of micro-sensors and micro-transducers for micro displacements with endowment in industrial and metrological laboratories. These laser micro technologies allow automate generation of incremental networks masks with incremental step of 0,1 µm ensuring necessary accuracy according to European and international standards as well as realization of linear incremental photoelectric rules divisor and vernier as marks ultra precise components of micro-sensors and microtransducers for micro displacements.

  7. Equity and Entrepreneurialism: The Impact of Tax Increment Financing on School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    Describes tax increment financing (TIF), an entrepreneurial strategy with significant fiscal implications for overlapping taxing jurisdictions that provide these functions. Statistical analysis of TIF's impact on the finances of one Illinois county's school districts indicates that municipal use of TIF depletes the property tax revenues of schools…

  8. The Incremental Validity and Clinical Utility of the MMPI-2 Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Margarita B.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The incremental validity and clinical utility of the recently developed Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (Fptsd) was examined in relation to the family of MMPI-2 F scales in distinguishing feigned post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from disability claimants with PTSD.…

  9. Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W. D.

    2008-05-14

    This document summarizes findings from a literature review into the incremental costs associated with low-energy buildings. The goal of this work is to help establish as firm an analytical foundation as possible for the Building Technology Program's cost-effective net-zero energy goal in the year 2025.

  10. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employee to take more leave than is necessary to address the circumstances that precipitated the need for... for any other type of leave. For example, if an employer accounts for the use of annual leave in... in shorter increments than used for other forms of leave. For example, an employer that accounts...

  11. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Internal Structure, Convergent, Criterion, and Incremental Validity in an Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Federica; Smith, Martin M.; Surcinelli, Paola; Baldaro, Bruno; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the structure and validity of the Italian translation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Data were self-reported from 227 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the scale. Hierarchical regressions also demonstrated its incremental validity beyond demographics, the…

  12. Integrating Incremental Learning and Episodic Memory Models of the Hippocampal Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Myers, C. E.; Gluck, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    By integrating previous computational models of corticohippocampal function, the authors develop and test a unified theory of the neural substrates of familiarity, recollection, and classical conditioning. This approach integrates models from 2 traditions of hippocampal modeling, those of episodic memory and incremental learning, by drawing on an…

  13. Computer-Assisted Tutoring: Teaching Letter Sounds to Kindergarten Students Using Incremental Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Burns, Matthew K.; DuBois, Matthew; Zaslofsky, Anne Follen

    2011-01-01

    The profound consequences of early reading failure necessitate the provision of early literacy interventions to struggling readers. Many schools struggle, however, to address early reading difficulties because of insufficient human resources. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of incremental rehearsal (IR) as a Tier 3…

  14. Adding a Vocabulary Component to Incremental Rehearsal to Enhance Retention and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of adding a semantic component, in the form of vocabulary, to the incremental rehearsal (IR) procedure. Sixty-one second- and third-grade students in a suburban elementary school were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: IR or IR with vocabulary. Each participant was taught seven previously unknown…

  15. Taking the Next Step: Combining Incrementally Valid Indicators to Improve Recidivism Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of combining indicators to improve recidivism prediction was evaluated in a sample of released federal prisoners randomly divided into a derivation subsample (n = 550) and a cross-validation subsample (n = 551). Five incrementally valid indicators were selected from five domains: demographic (age), historical (prior convictions),…

  16. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  17. Quantifiers More or Less Quantify On-Line: ERP Evidence for Partial Incremental Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbach, Thomas P.; Kutas, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded during RSVP reading to test the hypothesis that quantifier expressions are incrementally interpreted fully and immediately. In sentences tapping general knowledge ("Farmers grow crops/worms as their primary source of income"), Experiment 1 found larger N400s for atypical ("worms") than typical objects…

  18. Residual Stress In Sheet Metal Parts Made By Incremental Forming Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Hideo; Motomura, Kazuo

    2007-05-17

    Incremental sheet metal forming, which uses a CNC forming stylus, is new flexible forming process not requiring the use of any expensive dies. We have applied the incremental forming process to dental prosthesis. This new process, however, posed difficult problems. After removing the outer portion of the incremental formed sheet metal part, the inner part is distorted. In this paper, the residual stress in the sheet metal part obtained by incremental forward stretch forming operations has been examined. Numerical simulations were conducted for solid elements. When small rigid ball slides on the metal sheet with a certain vertical feed, tension residual stress is produced in the upper layer of the sheet and compression stress in the lower. Then, the resultant moments throughout the sheet cause negative spring-back when the outer portion is removed. A systematic study of the behavior was conducted in this paper. Parameters considered included the tool radius and the vertical tool feed rate. The tip radius of forming stylus has a significant influence on the residual stress. The smaller radius of forming stylus, the larger bending force becomes. And new process with double forming styluses is examined to reduce the bending force.

  19. Electrophysiological Evidence for Incremental Lexical-Semantic Integration in Auditory Compound Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koester, Dirk; Holle, Henning; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the time-course of semantic integration in auditory compound word processing. Compounding is a productive mechanism of word formation that is used frequently in many languages. Specifically, we examined whether semantic integration is incremental or is delayed until the head, the last constituent in German, is…

  20. Academic Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of College Outcomes: Two Incremental Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A. Jr

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports the relationship between students' self-efficacy beliefs for academic tasks and milestones and their academic performance. Not surprisingly, some researchers have investigated the role that academic self-efficacy beliefs play in predicting college success. Two incremental validity studies were conducted to…

  1. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  2. Incremental forms of Schapery's model: convergence and inversion to simulate strain controlled ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varna, Janis; Pupure, Liva; Joffe, Roberts

    2016-04-01

    Schapery's nonlinear viscoelastic model is written in incremental form, and three different approximations of nonlinearity functions in the time increment are systematically analysed with respect to the convergence rate. It is shown that secant slope is the best approximation of the time shift factor, leading to significantly higher convergence rate. This incremental form of the viscoelastic model, Zapas' model for viscoplasticity, supplemented with terms accounting for damage effect is used to predict inelastic behaviour of material in stress controlled tests. Then the incremental formulation is inverted to simulate stress development in ramps where strain is the input parameter. A comparison with tests shows good ability of the model in inverted form to predict stress-strain response as long as the applied strain is increasing. However, in strain controlled ramps with unloading, the inverted model shows unrealistic hysteresis loops. This is believed to be a proof of the theoretically known incompatibility of the stress and strain controlled formulations for nonlinear materials. It also shows limitations of material models identified in stress controlled tests for use in strain controlled tests.

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a 3 Table 3 to Subpart GGG of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14356 - Compliance schedules and increments of progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance schedules and increments of progress. 62.14356 Section 62.14356 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  5. Incremental Validity of Thinking Styles in Predicting Academic Achievements: An Experimental Study in Hypermedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the incremental validity of thinking styles in predicting academic achievement after controlling for personality and achievement motivation in the hypermedia-based learning environment. Seventy-two Chinese college students from Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, took part in this instructional experiment. The…

  6. Incremental responses to light recorded from pigment epithelial cells and horizontal cells of the cat retina

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Roy H.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rod-dependent incremental responses were recorded intracellularly in both pigment epithelial cells and horizontal cells of the cat retina. They were elicited by test flashes which were superimposed on background flashes after a delay. 2. In pigment epithelial cells smaller test responses were produced as background intensity was raised. The incremental sensitivity function was linear for about 1·4 log units, with a slope of 0·86, and the approach of saturation occurred at about 2·5 log td scotopic. 3. The amplitude of pigment epithelial test responses could be estimated from the dark-adapted amplitude—log intensity function obtained with single flashes. Test flashes produced the voltage increment predicted by the slope of this function just above the point on the curve equal to the background intensity. The pigment epithelial response to a test flash, therefore, is the response expected if the background were presented alone and made more intense by the amount of the test flash. 4. Rod-dependent incremental sensitivity functions of horizontal cells closely resembled the ones obtained from pigment epithelial cells. 5. It was concluded that the adaptive effects observed in pigment epithelial cells originated in individual rods. These effects arose from the compressive nature of the dark-adapted amplitude—intensity function. In horizontal cell responses these effects may be modified by the failure of the background response to maintain its initial voltage. PMID:5571955

  7. The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

  8. Incremental and Predictive Utility of Formative Assessment Methods of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Amanda M.; Hintze, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Formative assessment measures are commonly used in schools to assess reading and to design instruction accordingly. The purpose of this research was to investigate the incremental and concurrent validity of formative assessment measures of reading comprehension. It was hypothesized that formative measures of reading comprehension would contribute…

  9. Examining the Use of Spacing Effect to Increase the Efficiency of Incremental Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swehla, Sarah E.; Burns, Matthew K.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Hall, Matthew S.; Varma, Sashank; Volpe, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Incremental rehearsal (IR) is a highly effective intervention that uses high repetition and a high ratio of known to unknown items with linearly spaced known items between the new items. It has been hypothesized that narrowly spaced practice would result in quick learning, whereas items that are widely spaced would result in longer-term retention.…

  10. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Final executive summary, increment `f`

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    Executive Order 12003, dated 19 July 1977, initiated the U.S. Army`s energy conservation effort. Specifically, the Executive Order led to the development of the Army Facilities Energy Plan which directs Army Staff and Major Army Commands to develop detailed implementation plans for energy conservation. As a result of these directives, the Fort Worth District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted for an Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The EEAP included Increments `A`, `B`, `E`, and `G`. To accomplish the intent of Increment `P`, namely, providing low cost/no cost energy savings recommendations in the form of specific, practical instructions for use by the Facility Engineer, the following general steps were taken: (1) Consider treasures identified in Detailed Scope of Work. (2) identify other potential Low Cost/No Cost energy Conservation Measures (ECM) through discussions with Fort Polk personnel and field surveys by Graham Associates engineers. (3) Review Increments `A`, `B`, and `G` for ECM`s within the Facility Engineer`s funding authority; $200,000 for alteration projects and $1,000,000 for maintenance and repair type work. (4) Evaluate ECM`s using relevant data for other Increments of the ESAP, and develop new data where appropriate.

  11. Evaluation of CSRA CESA Project for Incremental Improvement in Career Education, 1976-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Robert B.; Smith, Lyle R.

    Central Savannah River Area Cooperative Educational Services Agency (CSRA CESA) implemented a career education project for grades K-12 in the Columbia County School System to develop a replicable model for incremental improvements. The major emphasis was the infusion of career education activities into the teaching of basic skills. Program…

  12. Color appearance of spatial pattern: the role of increments and decrements.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2002-06-01

    In a number of recent adaptational studies evidence for a different processing of incremental and decremental cone signals has been reported. The present study examined whether such asymmetries occur in spatial pattern as well. Subjects set color matches between a uniform, 2 degrees matching box and bars within squarewave patterns. The squarewaves varied in spatial frequency, color direction, and contrast. For all three cone signals the asymmetric matches showed clear evidence for increment-decrement asymmetries: Although both incremental and decremental matches scaled roughly linearly with pattern contrast, in general, the scalings for the two types of color signals differed. This difference in scaling increased with spatial frequency, thus leading to an increase in the size of the increment-decrement asymmetry with spatial frequency. The matches were well described by means of two-stage models, consisting of a color transformation in the first stage and a pattern-dependent scaling in the second stage. Analyses based on these pattern-color separable models suggest that the asymmetries are mediated mainly through a white-black mechanism and much less, if at all, through a red-green and yellow-blue mechanism. PMID:12079791

  13. The Incremental Validity of Religious Constructs in Predicting Quality of Life, Racism, and Sexual Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csarny, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which certain religious/spiritual constructs simply reflect personality variables and to what extent they describe unique components of individual differences. It assessed the incremental validity of several recent or widely used religious measures over personality dimensions in predicting quality of life, racism,…

  14. SW Configuration Management Practises for an Incremental Space SW Development Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Reger, Florian; Bruggmann, Jorg; Dehnhardt, Erik; Bruenjes, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes software configuration management practices featuring an incremental software development approach, referred to as "robust software feedback model". A proper SW configuration process is fundamental for the correct implementation of whatever SW development approach and can guarantee its effectiveness. Special attention is given to the SW versioning rules, the SW repository structure and related usage from both the development and testing standpoint.

  15. Estimating the variance and integral scale of the transmissivity field using head residual increments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Silliman, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    A modification of previously published solutions regarding the spatial variation of hydraulic heads is discussed whereby the semivariogram of increments of head residuals (termed head residual increments HRIs) are related to the variance and integral scale of the transmissivity field. A first-order solution is developed for the case of a transmissivity field which is isotropic and whose second-order behavior can be characterized by an exponential covariance structure. The estimates of the variance ??(Y)/2 and the integral scale ?? of the log transmissivity field are then obtained via fitting a theoretical semivariogram for the HRI to its sample semivariogram. This approach is applied to head data sampled from a series of two-dimensional, simulated aquifers with isotropic, exponential covariance structures and varying degrees of heterogeneity (??(Y)/2 = 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0). The results show that this method provided reliable estimates for both ?? and ??(Y)/2 in aquifers with the value of ??(Y)/2 up to 2.0, but the errors in those estimates were higher for ??(Y)/2 equal to 5.0. It is also demonstrated through numerical experiments and theoretical arguments that the head residual increments will provide a sample semivariogram with a lower variance than will the use of the head residuals without calculation of increments.

  16. 77 FR 9653 - Comment Sought on Potential Data for Connect America Fund Phase One Incremental Support

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... released the USF/ICC Transformation Order and FNPRM, 76 FR 76623, December 8, 2011, which comprehensively... COMMISSION Comment Sought on Potential Data for Connect America Fund Phase One Incremental Support AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice; solicitation of comments. SUMMARY: In this...

  17. One Size Does Not Fit All: Managing Radical and Incremental Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Lucy L.; Lim, Hyoun Sook; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Moye, Neta

    2012-01-01

    This research extends creativity theory by re-conceptualizing creativity as a two-dimensional construct (radical and incremental) and examining the differential effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic rewards, and supportive supervision on perceptions of creativity. We hypothesize and find two distinct types of creativity that are associated…

  18. Where to Look? Creative Self-Efficacy, Knowledge Retrieval, and Incremental and Radical Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaussi, Kimberly S.; Randel, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Although incremental creativity and radical creativity have been established as two distinct types of creativity, many questions remain about the antecedents and processes that result in these two types of creativity. This field study considered the impact of a motivational factor (creative self-efficacy), as well as factors that involve…

  19. Incremental isometric embedding of high-dimensional data using connected neighborhood graphs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongfang; Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Most nonlinear data embedding methods use bottom-up approaches for capturing the underlying structure of data distributed on a manifold in high dimensional space. These methods often share the first step which defines neighbor points of every data point by building a connected neighborhood graph so that all data points can be embedded to a single coordinate system. These methods are required to work incrementally for dimensionality reduction in many applications. Because input data stream may be under-sampled or skewed from time to time, building connected neighborhood graph is crucial to the success of incremental data embedding using these methods. This paper presents algorithms for updating $k$-edge-connected and $k$-connected neighborhood graphs after a new data point is added or an old data point is deleted. It further utilizes a simple algorithm for updating all-pair shortest distances on the neighborhood graph. Together with incremental classical multidimensional scaling using iterative subspace approximation, this paper devises an incremental version of Isomap with enhancements to deal with under-sampled or unevenly distributed data. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world data sets show that the algorithm is efficient and maintains low dimensional configurations of high dimensional data under various data distributions. PMID:19029548

  20. A prediction model for Atlantic named storm frequency using a year-by-year increment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, K.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a year-by-year incremental approach to forecasting the Atlantic named storm frequency (ATSF) for the hurricane season (June 1- November 30). The year-by-year increase or decrease in the ATSF is first forecasted to yield a net ATSF prediction. Six key predictors for the year-by-year increment in the number of Atlantic named tropical storms have been identified that are available before May 1. The forecast model for the year-by-year increment of the ATSF is first established using a multi-linear regression method based on data taken from the years of 1965-1999, and the forecast model of the ATSF is then derived. The prediction model for the ATSF shows good prediction skill. Compared to the climatological average mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.1, the percentage improvement in the MAE is 29 % for the hindcast period of 2004-2009 and 46 % for the cross-validation test from 1985-2009 (26 yrs). This work demonstrates that the year-by-year incremental approach has the potential to improve operational forecasting skill for the ATSF.

  1. Enhancing Maintenance and Generalization of Incremental Rehearsal through Theory-Based Modifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna M.

    2013-01-01

    The attainment of basic early literacy skills at an early age is one way to ensure children become proficient readers as adults. Word recognition is an important basic early literacy skill that is related to reading fluency and overall reading competency. Incremental rehearsal (IR) is a flashcard technique that has produced strong outcomes for a…

  2. Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Sounds to English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer; Egan, Andrea; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Peterson, Meredith; McComas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of incremental rehearsal (IR) on letter sound expression for one kindergarten and one first grade English learner who were below district benchmark for letter sound fluency. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effect of IR on letter-sound expression…

  3. Even Highly Correlated Measures Can Add Incrementally to Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; Helmus, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (Rapid Risk Assessment for…

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  9. Statistical Properties of Line Centroid Velocity Increments in the rho Ophiuchi Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lis, D. C.; Keene, Jocelyn; Li, Y.; Phillips, T. G.; Pety, J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a comparison of histograms of CO (2-1) line centroid velocity increments in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud with those computed for spectra synthesized from a three-dimensional, compressible, but non-starforming and non-gravitating hydrodynamic simulation. Histograms of centroid velocity increments in the rho Ophiuchi cloud show clearly non-Gaussian wings, similar to those found in histograms of velocity increments and derivatives in experimental studies of laboratory and atmospheric flows, as well as numerical simulations of turbulence. The magnitude of these wings increases monotonically with decreasing separation, down to the angular resolution of the data. This behavior is consistent with that found in the phase of the simulation which has most of the properties of incompressible turbulence. The time evolution of the magnitude of the non-Gaussian wings in the histograms of centroid velocity increments in the simulation is consistent with the evolution of the vorticity in the flow. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the wings are associated with the shock interaction regions. Moreover, in an active starforming region like the rho Ophiuchi cloud, the effects of shocks may be more important than in the simulation. However, being able to identify shock interaction regions in the interstellar medium is also important, since numerical simulations show that vorticity is generated in shock interactions.

  10. Incremental layer shear bond strength of low-shrinkage resin composites under different bonding conditions.

    PubMed

    Al Musa, A H; Al Nahedh, H N A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane) repaired with silorane or a methacrylate-based composite (Filtek Z250) under various aging conditions. Also, the incremental bond strength of the silorane-based composite was compared with that of another low-shrinkage methacrylate-based composite (Aelite LS Posterior) under fresh and aged conditions, with and without the use of an adhesive resin between successive layers. The two brands of low-shrinkage composites were compared with a microhybrid, Filtek Z250, which served as the control. Substrate discs were fabricated and second layers were adhered to them immediately, after two weeks of aging, or after four weeks of aging and with and without an adhesive resin. Shear bond strengths were measured and failure modes were evaluated. The incremental bond strength of silorane to the silorane-based composite was not significantly different from that of the methacrylate-based composite. However, repairing a silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite significantly reduced the bond strength. Aelite showed a lower incremental bond strength than Z250 and silorane, but the use of an adhesive significantly improved the bond strength. The absence of an oxygen-inhibited layer did not affect the bond strength of the consecutive layers of the silorane-based composite. PMID:24807812

  11. When the Ordinary Seems Unexpected: Evidence for Incremental Physical Knowledge in Young Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Y.; Baillargeon, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent account of infants' acquisition of their physical knowledge, the incremental-knowledge account, infants form distinct event categories, such as occlusion, containment, support, and collision events. In each category, infants identify one or more vectors which correspond to distinct problems that must be solved. For each…

  12. 17 CFR 1.29 - Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds. 1.29 Section 1.29 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers'...

  13. 17 CFR 1.29 - Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds. 1.29 Section 1.29 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers'...

  14. 17 CFR 1.29 - Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds. 1.29 Section 1.29 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers'...

  15. 17 CFR 1.29 - Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds. 1.29 Section 1.29 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers'...

  16. Factorial Structure of the Career Decision Scale: Incremental Validity of the Five-Factor Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Ronald C.; Ferry, Ashley; Bullock, Melinda; Camarotti-Carvalho, Ana; Collingwood, Melinda; Eilers, Scott; Meyer, Luke; Nurre, Emily; Woelfel, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    For comparison of one-, three-, and four-factor structures of the Indecision scale of the Career Decision Scale, results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 686) indicated the best fit for the three-factor structure. Multiple regression analysis results indicated incremental validity of the five-factor model for predicting dimensions of career…

  17. 48 CFR 232.704-70 - Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-price contracts. 232.704-70 Section 232.704-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Contract Funding 232.704-70 Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. (a) Upon receipt of the contractor...'s decision and terminate for the convenience of the Government. (c) The contracting officer...

  18. 78 FR 2282 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... of San Jose, California). 71 FR 7995-96. The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the... Waheed (the ``bound officers''). 77 FR 25747 (May 1, 2012). The complaint for enforcement, as corrected... COMMISSION Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing...

  19. Career Decision-Making Profiles vs. Styles: Convergent and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Gadassi, Reuma; Mashiah-Cohen, Rona

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigated the convergent and incremental validity of the multidimensional model and questionnaire--the Career Decision-Making Profiles ("CDMP," Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Peretz-Asulin, & Gadassi, 2010)--by comparing it to two prevalent decision-making style models. Study 1 compared the "CDMP" to the Vocational Decision…

  20. Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Lara L.; Tucker, James A.; Burns, Matthew K.; Hartman, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Research has demonstrated increased retention from drill, but the data regarding drill format are inconsistent. Two commonly used models, Drill Sandwich (DS) and Incremental Rehearsal (IR), were compared to each other and to a traditional flashcard method. The IR model consistently led to significantly more words retained than the traditional or…

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjj of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  6. Residual Stress In Sheet Metal Parts Made By Incremental Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Hideo; Motomura, Kazuo

    2007-05-01

    Incremental sheet metal forming, which uses a CNC forming stylus, is new flexible forming process not requiring the use of any expensive dies. We have applied the incremental forming process to dental prosthesis. This new process, however, posed difficult problems. After removing the outer portion of the incremental formed sheet metal part, the inner part is distorted. In this paper, the residual stress in the sheet metal part obtained by incremental forward stretch forming operations has been examined. Numerical simulations were conducted for solid elements. When small rigid ball slides on the metal sheet with a certain vertical feed, tension residual stress is produced in the upper layer of the sheet and compression stress in the lower. Then, the resultant moments throughout the sheet cause negative spring-back when the outer portion is removed. A systematic study of the behavior was conducted in this paper. Parameters considered included the tool radius and the vertical tool feed rate. The tip radius of forming stylus has a significant influence on the residual stress. The smaller radius of forming stylus, the larger bending force becomes. And new process with double forming styluses is examined to reduce the bending force.

  7. Incrementality and additionality: A new dimension to North-South resource transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, A. . School of Environmental Sciences); Werksman, J. . Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development)

    1994-06-01

    In the last four years, incrementality'' and additionality'' have emerged as new terms in the evolving lexicon of international environmental diplomacy. As Parties to the Conventions on Climate Change, Biodiversity and the Ozone Layer, industrialized states undertake to provide sufficient additional resources (the principle of additionality) to meet the incremental cost (the concept of incrementality) of measures undertaken by the developing countries to tackle global environmental problems. Issues of incrementality and additionality go to the heart of a much deeper and highly contentious debate on who should pay the costs of responding to global environmental problems; on how the payment should be made; on which agency or agencies should manage the transfers; and upon which parties should be compensated. Every sign is that if the overall North to South transfer breaks down or is retarded, then the process of implementing the aforementioned agreements may be jeopardized. This paper reviews the emergency of the two terms in international environmental politics; it pinpoints the theoretical and practical difficulties of defining and implementing them; and it assesses whether these difficulties and conflicts of opinion may, in some manner, be resolved.

  8. Cross-Sectional and Incremental Changes in Working Memory and Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional and incremental age effects on cognitive processes that underlie individual differences in components of working memory (WM; phonological loop, visual-spatial sketchpad, executive processing) and mathematical problem-solving accuracy were examined in elementary school children. A battery of tests was administered that assessed…

  9. Relating annual increments of the endangered Blanding's turtle plastron growth to climate.

    PubMed

    Richard, Monik G; Laroque, Colin P; Herman, Thomas B

    2014-05-01

    This research is the first published study to report a relationship between climate variables and plastron growth increments of turtles, in this case the endangered Nova Scotia Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). We used techniques and software common to the discipline of dendrochronology to successfully cross-date our growth increment data series, to detrend and average our series of 80 immature Blanding's turtles into one common chronology, and to seek correlations between the chronology and environmental temperature and precipitation variables. Our cross-dated chronology had a series intercorrelation of 0.441 (above 99% confidence interval), an average mean sensitivity of 0.293, and an average unfiltered autocorrelation of 0.377. Our master chronology represented increments from 1975 to 2007 (33 years), with index values ranging from a low of 0.688 in 2006 to a high of 1.303 in 1977. Univariate climate response function analysis on mean monthly air temperature and precipitation values revealed a positive correlation with the previous year's May temperature and current year's August temperature; a negative correlation with the previous year's October temperature; and no significant correlation with precipitation. These techniques for determining growth increment response to environmental variables should be applicable to other turtle species and merit further exploration. PMID:24963390

  10. Relating annual increments of the endangered Blanding's turtle plastron growth to climate

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Monik G; Laroque, Colin P; Herman, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    This research is the first published study to report a relationship between climate variables and plastron growth increments of turtles, in this case the endangered Nova Scotia Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). We used techniques and software common to the discipline of dendrochronology to successfully cross-date our growth increment data series, to detrend and average our series of 80 immature Blanding's turtles into one common chronology, and to seek correlations between the chronology and environmental temperature and precipitation variables. Our cross-dated chronology had a series intercorrelation of 0.441 (above 99% confidence interval), an average mean sensitivity of 0.293, and an average unfiltered autocorrelation of 0.377. Our master chronology represented increments from 1975 to 2007 (33 years), with index values ranging from a low of 0.688 in 2006 to a high of 1.303 in 1977. Univariate climate response function analysis on mean monthly air temperature and precipitation values revealed a positive correlation with the previous year's May temperature and current year's August temperature; a negative correlation with the previous year's October temperature; and no significant correlation with precipitation. These techniques for determining growth increment response to environmental variables should be applicable to other turtle species and merit further exploration. PMID:24963390

  11. Predictive and Incremental Validity of the New MCAT Science Problems Subtest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.; And Others

    The predictive and incremental validity of the New Medical College Admission Test (New MCAT) Science Problems Subtest was examined with a sample of over 165 medical students. Criterion measures were National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I (basic science) and Part II (clinical science) performance. The Science Problems subscore is derived…

  12. Is It that Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahmer, Emiel; Koolen, Ruud; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order.…

  13. Volatilities, traded volumes, and the hypothesis of price increments in derivative securities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Scalas, Enrico; Kim, Kyungsik

    2007-08-01

    A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to the statistics of Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. In this study, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of the long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to a inherent higher-order correlation not detected by with the direct application of the DFA to logarithmic increments of KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of future prices and to generate a geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It was found from a comparison of the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments leads to volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes can be supported by the hypothesis of price changes.

  14. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy: Construct and Incremental Validity in Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…

  15. The effect of adding CO2 to hypoxic inspired gas on cerebral blood flow velocity and breathing during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Kayser, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the ventilatory response to exercise, which leads to hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia and subsequent reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF). We studied the effects of adding CO2 to a hypoxic inspired gas on CBF during heavy exercise in an altitude naïve population. We hypothesized that augmented inspired CO2 and hypoxia would exert synergistic effects on increasing CBF during exercise, which would improve exercise capacity compared to hypocapnic hypoxia. We also examined the responsiveness of CO2 and O2 chemoreception on the regulation ventilation ([Formula: see text]E) during incremental exercise. We measured middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv; index of CBF), [Formula: see text]E, end-tidal PCO2, respiratory compensation threshold (RC) and ventilatory response to exercise ([Formula: see text]E slope) in ten healthy men during incremental cycling to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.10) with and without augmenting the fraction of inspired CO2 (FICO2). During exercise in normoxia, augmenting FICO2 elevated MCAv throughout exercise and lowered both RC onset and[Formula: see text]E slope below RC (P<0.05). In hypoxia, MCAv and [Formula: see text]E slope below RC during exercise were elevated, while the onset of RC occurred at lower exercise intensity (P<0.05). Augmenting FICO2 in hypoxia increased [Formula: see text]E at RC (P<0.05) but no difference was observed in RC onset, MCAv, or [Formula: see text]E slope below RC (P>0.05). The [Formula: see text]E slope above RC was unchanged with either hypoxia or augmented FICO2 (P>0.05). We found augmenting FICO2 increased CBF during sub-maximal exercise in normoxia, but not in hypoxia, indicating that the 'normal' cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia is blunted during exercise in hypoxia, possibly due to an exhaustion of cerebral vasodilatory reserve. This finding may explain the lack of improvement of exercise capacity in hypoxia with augmented CO2. Our data further indicate that

  16. Highly accurate incremental CCSD(T) calculations on aqua- and amine-complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacker, Tony; Friedrich, Joachim

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the accuracy of the second-order incremental expansion using the domain-specific basis set approach is tested for 20 cationic metal-aqua and 25 cationic metal-amine complexes. The accuracy of the approach is analysed by the statistical measures range, arithmetic mean, mean absolute deviation, root mean square deviation and standard deviation. Using these measures we find that the error due to the local approximations decreases with increasing basis set. Next we construct a local virtual space using projected atomic orbitals (PAOs). The accuracy of the incremental series in combination with a distance-based truncation of the PAO space is analysed and compared to the convergence of the incremental series within the domain-specific basis set approach. Furthermore, we establish the recently proposed incremental CCSD(T)|MP2 method as a benchmark method to obtain highly accurate CCSD(T) energies. In combination with a basis set of quintuple-ζ quality we establish benchmarks for the binding energies of the investigated complexes. Finally, we use the inc-CCSD(T)|MP2/aV5Z' binding energies of 45 complexes and 34 dissociation reactions to compute the accuracy of several state of the art density functional theory (DFT) functionals like BP86, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, M06, PBE0 and TPSSh. With our implementation of the incremental scheme it was possible to compute the inc-CCSD(T)|MP2/aV5Z' energy for Al(H2O)3+ 25 (6106 AOs).

  17. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. PMID:26927104

  18. Incremental Reactivity Effects of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacarab, M.; Li, L.; Carter, W. P. L.; Cocker, D. R., III

    2015-12-01

    Two surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were developed to create a controlled reactivity environment simulating different urban atmospheres with varying levels of anthropogenic (e.g. Los Angeles reactivity) and biogenic (e.g. Atlanta reactivity) influences. Traditional chamber experiments focus on the oxidation of one or two volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors, allowing the reactivity of the system to be dictated by those compounds. Surrogate ROG mixtures control the overall reactivity of the system, allowing for the incremental aerosol formation from an added VOC to be observed. The surrogate ROG mixtures were developed based on that used to determine maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scales for O3 formation from VOC precursors in a Los Angeles smog environment. Environmental chamber experiments were designed to highlight the incremental aerosol formation in the simulated environment due to the addition of an added anthropogenic (aromatic) or biogenic (terpene) VOC. All experiments were conducted in the UC Riverside/CE-CERT dual 90m3 environmental chambers. It was found that the aerosol precursors behaved differently under the two altered reactivity conditions, with more incremental aerosol being formed in the anthropogenic ROG system than in the biogenic ROG system. Further, the biogenic reactivity condition inhibited the oxidation of added anthropogenic aerosol precursors, such as m-xylene. Data will be presented on aerosol properties (density, volatility, hygroscopicity) and bulk chemical composition in the gas and particle phases (from a SYFT Technologies selected ion flow tube mass spectrometer, SIFT-MS, and Aerodyne high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer, HR-ToF-AMS, respectively) comparing the two controlled reactivity systems and single precursor VOC/NOx studies. Incremental aerosol yield data at different controlled reactivities provide a novel and valuable insight in the attempt to extrapolate environmental chamber

  19. Understanding treatment effect mechanisms of the CAMBRA randomized trial in reducing caries increment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J; Chaffee, B W; Cheng, N F; Gansky, S A; Featherstone, J D B

    2015-01-01

    The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) randomized controlled trial showed that an intervention featuring combined antibacterial and fluoride therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and suggested reduced caries increment in adults with 1 to 7 baseline cavitated teeth. While trial results speak to the overall effectiveness of an intervention, insight can be gained from understanding the mechanism by which an intervention acts on putative intermediate variables (mediators) to affect outcomes. This study conducted mediation analyses on 109 participants who completed the trial to understand whether the intervention reduced caries increment through its action on potential mediators (oral bacterial load, fluoride levels, and overall caries risk based on the composite of bacterial challenge and salivary fluoride) between the intervention and dental outcomes. The primary outcome was the increment from baseline in decayed, missing, and filled permanent surfaces (ΔDMFS) 24 mo after completing restorations for baseline cavitated lesions. Analyses adjusted for baseline overall risk, bacterial challenge, and fluoride values under a potential outcome framework using generalized linear models. Overall, the CAMBRA intervention was suggestive in reducing the 24-mo DMFS increment (reduction in ΔDMFS: -0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.01 to 0.08; P = 0.07); the intervention significantly reduced the 12-mo overall risk (reduction in overall risk: -19%; 95% CI, -7 to -41%;], P = 0.005). Individual mediators, salivary log10 mutans streptococci, log10 lactobacilli, and fluoride level, did not represent statistically significant pathways alone through which the intervention effect was transmitted. However, 36% of the intervention effect on 24-mo DMFS increment was through a mediation effect on 12-mo overall risk (P = 0.03). These findings suggest a greater intervention effect carried through the combined action on multiple aspects of the caries process rather than

  20. A fast implementation of the incremental backprojection algorithms for parallel beam geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.; Wang, C.Y.; Cho, Z.H.

    1996-12-01

    Filtered-backprojection algorithms are the most widely used approaches for reconstruction of computed tomographic (CT) images, such as X-ray CT and positron emission tomographic (PET) images. The Incremental backprojection algorithm is a fast backprojection approach based on restructuring the Shepp and Logan algorithm. By exploiting interdependency (position and values) of adjacent pixels, the Incremental algorithm requires only O(N) and O(N{sup 2}) multiplications in contrast to O(N{sup 2}) and O(N{sup 3}) multiplications for the Shepp and Logan algorithm in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) backprojections, respectively, for each view, where N is the size of the image in each dimension. In addition, it may reduce the number of additions for each pixel computation. The improvement achieved by the Incremental algorithm in practice was not, however, as significant as expected. One of the main reasons is due to inevitably visiting pixels outside the beam in the searching flow scheme originally developed for the Incremental algorithm. To optimize implementation of the Incremental algorithm, an efficient scheme, namely, coded searching flow scheme, is proposed in this paper to minimize the overhead caused by searching for all pixels in a beam. The key idea of this scheme is to encode the searching flow for all pixels inside each beam. While backprojecting, all pixels may be visited without any overhead due to using the coded searching flow as the a priori information. The proposed coded searching flow scheme has been implemented on a Sun Sparc 10 and a Sun Sparc 20 workstations. The implementation results show that the proposed scheme is 1.45--2.0 times faster than the original searching flow scheme for most cases tested.

  1. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. PMID:26927104

  2. A design of LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiangyan; Xiao, Zexin; He, Shaojia

    2010-11-01

    As a new generation energy-saving lighting source, LED is applied widely in various technology and industry fields. The requirement of its adaptive lighting technology is more and more rigorous, especially in the automatic on-line detecting system. In this paper, a closed loop feedback LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller is designed, which consists of MEGA16 chip as a Micro-controller Unit (MCU), the ambient light sensor BH1750 chip with Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C), and constant-current driving circuit. A given value of light intensity required for the on-line detecting environment need to be saved to the register of MCU. The optical intensity, detected by BH1750 chip in real time, is converted to digital signal by AD converter of the BH1750 chip, and then transmitted to MEGA16 chip through I2C serial bus. Since the variation law of light intensity in the on-line detecting environment is usually not easy to be established, incremental Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) algorithm is applied in this system. Control variable obtained by the incremental PID determines duty cycle of Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). Consequently, LED's forward current is adjusted by PWM, and the luminous intensity of the detection environment is stabilized by self-adaptation. The coefficients of incremental PID are obtained respectively after experiments. Compared with the traditional LED dimming system, it has advantages of anti-interference, simple construction, fast response, and high stability by the use of incremental PID algorithm and BH1750 chip with I2C serial bus. Therefore, it is suitable for the adaptive on-line detecting applications.

  3. Skin testing and incremental challenge in the evaluation of adverse reactions to local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Schatz, M

    1984-10-01

    True allergic reactions to local anesthetics (LAs) probably make up no more than 1% of all adverse LA reactions. A diagnosis of true potential allergic reactivity is made difficult because (1) the history of the prior reaction may be vague or equivocal and (2) the lack of identification of the actual specific LA hapten-carrier complex limits the potential usefulness of immunologic tests. Nonetheless, since avoidance of LAs may be associated with substantial increased pain or increased risk and because true allergic reactions are rare, investigators and clinicians have used skin testing, incremental challenge, or both as a means of identifying a safe LA for a patient with a history of a prior adverse reaction. Review of the literature dealing with LA skin testing and incremental challenge suggests the following: (1) Skin testing with LAs may correlate with a history of an adverse reaction but may produce systemic adverse reactions, especially with undiluted drug. (2) Although false positive skin tests have been reported, most skin-tested patients who subsequently tolerate an LA have a negative skin test to that drug, and false negative skin tests have not been clearly documented. (3) Incremental challenge beginning with diluted LA is a safe and effective means of identifying a drug that a patient with a history of a prior adverse reaction can tolerate. (4) Current concepts of non-cross-reacting LA groups may be useful in the choice of a drug for use in skin testing and incremental challenge. (5) Preservatives in LAs may account for some but probably not the majority of adverse reactions to LAs. On the basis of this literature review, a practical protocol including dilutional skin testing and incremental challenge is presented for use in evaluating patients with prior adverse reactions to LAs. PMID:6491108

  4. 77 FR 20648 - Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use in Making Incremental Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use in Making Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances, the Appliances Made Therefrom, and Methods of Making the Same; Institution... of certain digital models, digital data, and treatment plans for use in making incremental...

  5. No Fear of Commitment: Children's Incremental Interpretation in English and Japanese Wh-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaki, Akira; Davidson White, Imogen; Goro, Takuya; Lidz, Jeffrey; Phillips, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Much work on child sentence processing has demonstrated that children are able to use various linguistic cues to incrementally resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities, but they fail to use syntactic or interpretability cues that arrive later in the sentence. The present study explores whether children incrementally resolve filler-gap dependencies,…

  6. Incremental Validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised with Mental Health Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Elise C.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the incremental validity of scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) in a sample of mental health inpatients originally published by Archer, Griffin, and Aiduk (1995). The incremental validity of scores from the SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions…

  7. 40 CFR 60.2600 - How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the increment of progress for submittal of a control plan? 60.2600 Section 60.2600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.2600 How do...

  8. Potential stocks and increments of woody biomass in the European Union under different management and climate scenarios

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Forests play an important role in the global carbon flow. They can store carbon and can also provide wood which can substitute other materials. In EU27 the standing biomass is steadily increasing. Increments and harvests seem to have reached a plateau between 2005 and 2010. One reason for reaching this plateau will be the circumstance that the forests are getting older. High ages have the advantage that they typical show high carbon concentration and the disadvantage that the increment rates are decreasing. It should be investigated how biomass stock, harvests and increments will develop under different climate scenarios and two management scenarios where one is forcing to store high biomass amounts in forests and the other tries to have high increment rates and much harvested wood. Results A management which is maximising standing biomass will raise the stem wood carbon stocks from 30 tC/ha to 50 tC/ha until 2100. A management which is maximising increments will lower the stock to 20 tC/ha until 2100. The estimates for the climate scenarios A1b, B1 and E1 are different but there is much more effect by the management target than by the climate scenario. By maximising increments the harvests are 0.4 tC/ha/year higher than in the management which maximises the standing biomass. The increments until 2040 are close together but around 2100 the increments when maximising standing biomass are approximately 50 % lower than those when maximising increments. Cold regions will benefit from the climate changes in the climate scenarios by showing higher increments. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that forest management should maximise increments, not stocks to be more efficient in sense of climate change mitigation. This is true especially for regions which have already high carbon stocks in forests, what is the case in many regions in Europe. During the time span 2010–2100 the forests of EU27 will absorb additional 1750 million tC if they are

  9. Job Embeddedness Demonstrates Incremental Validity When Predicting Turnover Intentions for Australian University Employees.

    PubMed

    Heritage, Brody; Gilbert, Jessica M; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Job embeddedness is a construct that describes the manner in which employees can be enmeshed in their jobs, reducing their turnover intentions. Recent questions regarding the properties of quantitative job embeddedness measures, and their predictive utility, have been raised. Our study compared two competing reflective measures of job embeddedness, examining their convergent, criterion, and incremental validity, as a means of addressing these questions. Cross-sectional quantitative data from 246 Australian university employees (146 academic; 100 professional) was gathered. Our findings indicated that the two compared measures of job embeddedness were convergent when total scale scores were examined. Additionally, job embeddedness was capable of demonstrating criterion and incremental validity, predicting unique variance in turnover intention. However, this finding was not readily apparent with one of the compared job embeddedness measures, which demonstrated comparatively weaker evidence of validity. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings, noting that job embeddedness has a complementary place among established determinants of turnover intention. PMID:27199817

  10. Dynamically Incremental K-means++ Clustering Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Rough Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Rujing; Jia, Xiufang; Jiang, Qing

    Being classic K-means++ clustering algorithm only for static data, dynamically incremental K-means++ clustering algorithm (DK-Means++) is presented based on fuzzy rough set theory in this paper. Firstly, in DK-Means++ clustering algorithm, the formula of similar degree is improved by weights computed by using of the important degree of attributes which are reduced on the basis of rough fuzzy set theory. Secondly, new data only need match granular which was clustered by K-means++ algorithm or seldom new data is clustered by classic K-means++ algorithm in global data. In this way, that all data is re-clustered each time in dynamic data set is avoided, so the efficiency of clustering is improved. Throughout our experiments showing, DK-Means++ algorithm can objectively and efficiently deal with clustering problem of dynamically incremental data.

  11. An assessment of plasticity theories for modeling the incrementally nonlinear behavior of granular soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamagnini, Claudio; Calvetti, Francesco; Viggiani, Gioacchino

    The objective of this paper is to assess the predictive capability of different classes of extended plasticity theories (bounding surface plasticity, generalized plasticity and generalized tangential plasticity) in the modeling of incremental nonlinearity, which is one of the most striking features of the mechanical behavior of granular soils, occurring as a natural consequence of the particular nature of grain interactions at the microscale. To this end, the predictions of the various constitutive models considered are compared to the results of a series of Distinct Element simulations performed ad hoc. In the comparison, extensive use is made of the concept of incremental strain-response envelope in order to assess the directional properties of the material response for a given initial state and stress history.

  12. Incremental Slip Along Dilatant Faults in Ancient Fluid-Rich Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remitti, F.; Fagereng, A.; Sibson, R. H.; Vannucchi, P.; Bettelli, G.

    2012-12-01

    At a variety of depths in subduction zones a proportion of relative plate motion is accommodated by episodic tremor and slow slip events. These events are accompanied by distinct low frequency seismic signals and/or high levels of micro-seismic activity. Based on theoretical studies and seismic attributes of the source region, fluids overpressured to near-lithostatic values seem likely to be involved in the mechanism behind episodic tremor. Ancient crust surrounding paleoseismic zones, especially if rich in overpressured fluids, should contain widespread relics of this kind of activity. Here we present microstructural observations from two ancient subduction thrust analogues where brittle deformation was accommodated by repeating micro-movements along dilatant faults. The first example is a mélange formed during Triassic-Jurassic tectonic accretion of ocean floor sediments now exposed in the Chrystalls Beach Complex, South Island, NZ. The mélange comprises competent sandstone and chert lenses set in a cleaved mudstone matrix deformed in a continuous-discontinuous style under subgreenschist conditions. Deformation is characterized by a pervasive anastomosing fault-fracture mesh of multiple shearing surfaces, subparallel to cleavage and coated with incrementally developed quartz-calcite slickenfibres. Microstructural observations reveal that slickenfibres grew by 'crack-seal' increments of 10-100 μm. Incremental slip transfer was constant over a single slickenfiber and accommodated by opening of extension fractures that link en echelon slip surfaces. The characteristic spacing of inclusion bands indicates relatively constant growth increments, possibly occurring into regular size cracks. Increments of non-constant growth and, instead, fractures significantly wider than 100 μm, are represented by local veins of euhedral quartz and carbonate. Similar structures are present in the shallow part of an ancient plate interface, now exposed in the Northern Apennines of

  13. Job Embeddedness Demonstrates Incremental Validity When Predicting Turnover Intentions for Australian University Employees

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, Brody; Gilbert, Jessica M.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    Job embeddedness is a construct that describes the manner in which employees can be enmeshed in their jobs, reducing their turnover intentions. Recent questions regarding the properties of quantitative job embeddedness measures, and their predictive utility, have been raised. Our study compared two competing reflective measures of job embeddedness, examining their convergent, criterion, and incremental validity, as a means of addressing these questions. Cross-sectional quantitative data from 246 Australian university employees (146 academic; 100 professional) was gathered. Our findings indicated that the two compared measures of job embeddedness were convergent when total scale scores were examined. Additionally, job embeddedness was capable of demonstrating criterion and incremental validity, predicting unique variance in turnover intention. However, this finding was not readily apparent with one of the compared job embeddedness measures, which demonstrated comparatively weaker evidence of validity. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings, noting that job embeddedness has a complementary place among established determinants of turnover intention. PMID:27199817

  14. Method of increments for the halogen molecular crystals: Cl, Br, and I.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Krista G; Gaston, Nicola; Müller, Carsten; Paulus, Beate

    2014-09-28

    Method of increments (MI) calculations reveal the n-body correlation contributions to binding in solid chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Secondary binding contributions as well as d-correlation energies are estimated and compared between each solid halogen. We illustrate that binding is entirely determined by two-body correlation effects, which account for >80% of the total correlation energy. One-body, three-body, and exchange contributions are repulsive. Using density-fitting (DF) local coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples for incremental calculations, we obtain excellent agreement with the experimental cohesive energies. MI results from DF local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (LMP2) yield considerably over-bound cohesive energies. Comparative calculations with density functional theory and periodic LMP2 method are also shown to be less accurate for the solid halogens. PMID:25273461

  15. Method of increments for the halogen molecular crystals: Cl, Br, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Steenbergen, Krista G.; Gaston, Nicola; Müller, Carsten; Paulus, Beate

    2014-09-28

    Method of increments (MI) calculations reveal the n-body correlation contributions to binding in solid chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Secondary binding contributions as well as d-correlation energies are estimated and compared between each solid halogen. We illustrate that binding is entirely determined by two-body correlation effects, which account for >80% of the total correlation energy. One-body, three-body, and exchange contributions are repulsive. Using density-fitting (DF) local coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples for incremental calculations, we obtain excellent agreement with the experimental cohesive energies. MI results from DF local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (LMP2) yield considerably over-bound cohesive energies. Comparative calculations with density functional theory and periodic LMP2 method are also shown to be less accurate for the solid halogens.

  16. Incremental validity of person-organization fit over the Big Five personality measures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Chi; Chen, Hao-Yi; Chen, Chien-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have provided the validity evidence of a measure of objective person-organization fit (P-O fit) as a selection tool. The present study used a concurrent validation design to examine the criterion-related validity and the incremental validity of a P-O fit measure beyond the validity of the Big Five personality test for predicting job performance (task performance and organizational citizenship behavior) and employee commitment (organizational commitment and supervisory commitment) for a group of high-tech professional employees in Taiwan. Results showed that P-O fit predicted the contextual component of overall job performance and was significantly related to two types of employee commitment. Moreover, P-O fit had an incremental validity beyond that of the personality measures for predicting some of our outcome variables. PMID:22931006

  17. Multiscale Analysis of Surface Topography from Single Point Incremental Forming using an Acetal Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, M.; Powers, B. M.; Loiselle, J.

    2014-03-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a sheet metal manufacturing process that forms a part by incrementally applying point loads to the material to achieve the desired deformations and final part geometry. This paper investigates the differences in surface topography between a carbide tool and an acetal-tipped tool. Area-scale analysis is performed on the confocal areal surface measurements per ASME B46. The objective of this paper is to determine at which scales surfaces formed by two different tool materials can be differentiated. It is found that the surfaces in contact with the acetal forming tool have greater relative areas at all scales greater than 5 × 104 μm2 than the surfaces in contact with the carbide tools. The surfaces not in contact with the tools during forming, also referred to as the free surface, are unaffected by the tool material.

  18. Comparison between the changes in muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration in finswimmers during incremental exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangde; Tian, Qingping; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-08-01

    For the purpose of comparing the response in local skeletal muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration during incremental exercise, 8 female finswimmers were recruited to take an incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. Muscle oxygenation in right vastus lateralis (VL) were monitored by continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW NIRS), respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate concentration ([La]b) were simultaneously measured by a metabolic system and a portable blood lactate analyzer respectively. NIRS measurements showed a muscle oxygenation index inflection point (OIip), from which the muscle oxygenation started to decrease dramatically. Significant correlations have been found between OIip and blood lactate threshold identified at the lowest [La]b value which was >0.5 mmol/L lower than that obtained at the following workload. These results might suggest that the CW NIRS measurement could be applied to monitor lactate threshold noninvasively.

  19. On the incrementality of pragmatic processing: An ERP investigation of informativeness and pragmatic abilities

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwland, Mante S.; Ditman, Tali; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2010-01-01

    In two event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we determined to what extent Grice’s maxim of informativeness as well as pragmatic ability contributes to the incremental build-up of sentence meaning, by examining the impact of underinformative versus informative scalar statements (e.g. “Some people have lungs/pets, and…”) on the N400 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological index of semantic processing. In Experiment 1, only pragmatically skilled participants (as indexed by the Autism Quotient Communication subscale) showed a larger N400 to underinformative statements. In Experiment 2, this effect disappeared when the critical words were unfocused so that the local underinformativeness went unnoticed (e.g., “Some people have lungs that…”). Our results suggest that, while pragmatic scalar meaning can incrementally contribute to sentence comprehension, this contribution is dependent on contextual factors, whether these are derived from individual pragmatic abilities or the overall experimental context. PMID:20936088

  20. Incremental learning of perceptual and conceptual representations and the puzzle of neural repetition suppression.

    PubMed

    Gotts, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Incremental learning models of long-term perceptual and conceptual knowledge hold that neural representations are gradually acquired over many individual experiences via Hebbian-like activity-dependent synaptic plasticity across cortical connections of the brain. In such models, variation in task relevance of information, anatomic constraints, and the statistics of sensory inputs and motor outputs lead to qualitative alterations in the nature of representations that are acquired. Here, the proposal that behavioral repetition priming and neural repetition suppression effects are empirical markers of incremental learning in the cortex is discussed, and research results that both support and challenge this position are reviewed. Discussion is focused on a recent fMRI-adaptation study from our laboratory that shows decoupling of experience-dependent changes in neural tuning, priming, and repetition suppression, with representational changes that appear to work counter to the explicit task demands. Finally, critical experiments that may help to clarify and resolve current challenges are outlined. PMID:27294423

  1. Power plant performance monitoring and improvement. Volume 2. Incremental heat rate sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, H.G.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the interim findings of the Incremental Heat Rate Sensitivity Analysis task of EPRI Project RP1681-1/2153-1, Power Plant Performance Instrumentation System. Objectives of this task were to develop the models and methods for evaluation of unit performance uncertainty, and to determine the effects of modeling, input/output, and fuel cost uncertainty on production cost and dispatch. Analyses and simulations were made to determine the sensitivity of cost and economic dispatch to modeling errors and measurement errors within realistic system constraints. The results obtained are sufficient to provide the measures necessary to evaluate on-line updates of unit performance to develop incremental heat rate information for economic dispatch.

  2. Bigger is Better, but at What Cost? Estimating the Economic Value of Incremental Data Assets.

    PubMed

    Dalessandro, Brian; Perlich, Claudia; Raeder, Troy

    2014-06-01

    Many firms depend on third-party vendors to supply data for commercial predictive modeling applications. An issue that has received very little attention in the prior research literature is the estimation of a fair price for purchased data. In this work we present a methodology for estimating the economic value of adding incremental data to predictive modeling applications and present two cases studies. The methodology starts with estimating the effect that incremental data has on model performance in terms of common classification evaluation metrics. This effect is then translated into economic units, which gives an expected economic value that the firm might realize with the acquisition of a particular data asset. With this estimate a firm can then set a data acquisition price that targets a particular return on investment. This article presents the methodology in full detail and illustrates it in the context of two marketing case studies. PMID:27442302

  3. Sensitivity derivatives for three dimensional supersonic Euler code using incremental iterative strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korivi, Vamshi Mohan; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, Perry A.; Jones, Henry E.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent work, an incremental strategy was proposed to iteratively solve the very large systems of linear equations that are required to obtain quasianalytical sensitivity derivatives from advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The technique was sucessfully demonstrated for two large two-dimensional problems: a subsonic and a transonic airfoil. The principal feature of this incremental iterative stategy is that it allows the use of the identical approximate coefficient matrix operator and algorithm to solve the nonlinear flow and the linear sensitivity equations; at convergence, the accuracy of the sensitivity derivatives is not compromised. This feature allows a comparatively straightforward extension of the methodology to three-dimensional problems; this extension is successfully demonstrated in the present study for a space-marching solution of the three-dimensional Euler equations over a Mach 2.4 blended wing-body configuration.

  4. Situation Model Updating in Young and Older Adults: Global versus Incremental Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text. Activity in narrative text is dynamic, so readers must frequently update their situation models when dimensions of the situation change. Updating can be incremental, such that a change leads to updating just the dimension that changed, or global, such that the entire model is updated. Here, we asked whether older and young adults make differential use of incremental and global updating. Participants read narratives containing changes in characters and spatial location and responded to recognition probes throughout the texts. Responses were slower when probes followed a change, suggesting that situation models were updated at changes. When either dimension changed, responses to probes for both dimensions were slowed; this provides evidence for global updating. Moreover, older adults showed stronger evidence of global updating than did young adults. One possibility is that older adults perform more global updating to offset reduced ability to manipulate information in working memory. PMID:25938248

  5. Surface Roughness Characterization of Niobium Subjected to Incremental BCP and EP Processing Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Tian; Guihem Ribeill; Charles Reece; Michael Kelley

    2008-02-12

    The surface of niobium samples polished under incremental Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) and Electro-Polishing (EP) have been characterized through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and stylus profilometry across a range of length of scales. The results were analyzed using Power Density Spectral (PSD) technique to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. This study has shown that the PSD method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales.

  6. Cross-correlation of instantaneous phase increments in pressure-flow fluctuations: Applications to cerebral autoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene; Novak, Vera; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the relationship between the blood flow velocities (BFV) in the middle cerebral arteries and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) recorded from a finger in healthy and post-stroke subjects during the quasisteady state after perturbation for four different physiologic conditions: supine rest, head-up tilt, hyperventilation, and CO2 rebreathing in upright position. To evaluate whether instantaneous BP changes in the steady state are coupled with instantaneous changes in the BFV, we compare dynamical patterns in the instantaneous phases of these signals, obtained from the Hilbert transform, as a function of time. We find that in post-stroke subjects the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV exhibit well-pronounced patterns that remain stable in time for all four physiologic conditions, while in healthy subjects these patterns are different, less pronounced, and more variable. We propose an approach based on the cross-correlation of the instantaneous phase increments to quantify the coupling between BP and BFV signals. We find that the maximum correlation strength is different for the two groups and for the different conditions. For healthy subjects the amplitude of the cross-correlation between the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV is small and attenuates within 3-5 heartbeats. In contrast, for post-stroke subjects, this amplitude is significantly larger and cross-correlations persist up to 20 heartbeats. Further, we show that the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV are cross-correlated even within a single heartbeat cycle. We compare the results of our approach with three complementary methods: direct BP-BFV cross-correlation, transfer function analysis, and phase synchronization analysis. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of cerebral vascular control in healthy subjects, suggesting that this control mechanism may involve rapid adjustments (within a heartbeat) of the cerebral vessels, so that BFV remains steady in

  7. Incrementality in Planning of Speech During Speaking and Reading Aloud: Evidence from Eye-Tracking.

    PubMed

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Chen, Yiya

    2016-01-01

    Speaking is an incremental process where planning and articulation interleave. While incrementality has been studied in reading and online speech production separately, it has not been directly compared within one investigation. This study set out to compare the extent of planning incrementality in online sentence formulation versus reading aloud and how discourse context may constrain the planning scope of utterance preparation differently in these two modes of speech planning. Two eye-tracking experiments are reported: participants either described pictures of transitive events (Experiment 1) or read aloud the written descriptions of those events (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the information status of an object character was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture or sentence. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where object character was literally mentioned (e.g., fly). In the No Mention condition, stories did not literally mention nor prime the object character depicted on the picture or written in the sentence. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (The frog catches the fly). During naming, the results showed shorter speech onset latencies in the Literal condition than in the No Mention condition. However, no significant differences in gaze durations were found. In contrast, during reading, there were no significant differences in speech onset latencies but there were significantly longer gaze durations to the target picture/word in the Literal than in the No Mention condition. Our results shot that planning is more incremental during reading than during naming and that discourse context can be helpful during speaker but may hinder during reading aloud. Taken together our results suggest that on-line planning of response is affected by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors. PMID:26858678

  8. Pre-Stressed Viscoelastic Composites: Effective Incremental Moduli and Band-Gap Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, William J.

    2010-09-30

    We study viscoelastic wave propagation along pre-stressed nonlinear elastic composite bars. In the pre-stressed state we derive explicit forms for the effective incremental storage and loss moduli with dependence on the pre-stress. We also derive a dispersion relation for the effective wavenumber in the case of arbitrary frequency, hence permitting a study of viscoelastic band-gap tuning via pre-stress.

  9. Incrementality in Planning of Speech During Speaking and Reading Aloud: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Chen, Yiya

    2016-01-01

    Speaking is an incremental process where planning and articulation interleave. While incrementality has been studied in reading and online speech production separately, it has not been directly compared within one investigation. This study set out to compare the extent of planning incrementality in online sentence formulation versus reading aloud and how discourse context may constrain the planning scope of utterance preparation differently in these two modes of speech planning. Two eye-tracking experiments are reported: participants either described pictures of transitive events (Experiment 1) or read aloud the written descriptions of those events (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the information status of an object character was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture or sentence. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where object character was literally mentioned (e.g., fly). In the No Mention condition, stories did not literally mention nor prime the object character depicted on the picture or written in the sentence. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (The frog catches the fly). During naming, the results showed shorter speech onset latencies in the Literal condition than in the No Mention condition. However, no significant differences in gaze durations were found. In contrast, during reading, there were no significant differences in speech onset latencies but there were significantly longer gaze durations to the target picture/word in the Literal than in the No Mention condition. Our results shot that planning is more incremental during reading than during naming and that discourse context can be helpful during speaker but may hinder during reading aloud. Taken together our results suggest that on-line planning of response is affected by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors. PMID:26858678

  10. Incremental Growth of Quartz Slickenfibres on Shearing Surfaces in an Ancient Subduction Complex - Record of Paleomicroearthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remitti, F.; Sibson, R. H.

    2004-12-01

    An accretionary mélange of Triassic age ocean floor sediments exposed at Chrystalls Beach in SE Otago, New Zealand is made up predominantly of competent sandstone and chert phacoids set in a cleaved mudstone matrix, all deformed in a subgreenschist environment (3 < P < 6 kbar; T ˜ 250±30 ° C). Distributed brittle fracturing within the sandstone lenses contrasts with ductile deformation involving solution transfer accompanying cleavage development in the pelites. The more pelitic portions of the mélange are also pervaded by an anastomosing cellular mesh comprising multiple shearing surfaces subparallel to cleavage coated with incrementally developed quartz (and locally calcite) slickenfibres. Sliding surfaces splay and amalgamate and are also commonly interlinked by sets of extension veins localised within dilational jogs. Microstructural observations reveal growth of the slickenfibres by `crack-seal' shearing increments of 10-100 microns, with incremental slip transfer of the same order across the dilational jogs accommodated by the opening of extension fractures that link en échelon slip surfaces. Together with widespread extension fracturing in the more competent sandstones these structures suggest that the tensile overpressure condition (Pf > σ 3) was widely achieved during brittle deformation under near-lithostatic fluid overpressures. Individual slip surfaces can be traced for metres to tens of metres so that the ratio of slip, u, to potential rupture length, L, lies within the range, 10-5 < u/L < 10-4, characteristic of microearthquakes obeying `constant stress-drop' scaling with Δ τ ˜ 3 MPa. For this scaling relationship, the slip increments are comparable to those expected for M0 to M-2 microearthquakes. The host-rock assemblage, metamorphic environment, inference of near-lithostatic fluid overpressures, and mixed continuous-discontinuous style of shearing, resemble conditions inferred for the active subduction channel shear zone associated with

  11. Frowning and Jaw Clenching Muscle Activity Reflects the Perception of Effort During Incremental Workload Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ding-Hau; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yi-Lang; Chiou, Wen-Ko

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether facial electromyography (EMG) recordings reflect the perception of effort and primary active lower limb muscle activity during incremental workload cycling. The effects of exercise intensity on EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS), masseter and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles, heart rate (HR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated, and the correlations among these parameters were determined. Eighteen males and 15 females performed continuous incremental workload cycling exercise until exhaustion. CS, masseter and VL muscle activities were continuously recorded using EMG during exercise. HR was also continuously monitored during the test. During the final 30 s of each stage of cycle ergometer exercise, participants were asked to report their feeling of exertion on the adult OMNI-Cycle RPE. HR and EMG activity of the facial muscles and the primary active lower limb muscle were strongly correlated with RPE; they increased with power output. Furthermore, facial muscle activity increased significantly during high-intensity exercise. Masseter muscle activity was strongly and positively correlated with HR, RPE and VL activity. The present investigation supports the view that facial EMG activity reflects the perception of effort. The jaw clenching facial expression can be considered an important factor for improving the reporting of perceived effort during high-intensity exercise in males and females. Key points Frowning and jaw clenching muscle activity reflects the perception of effort during incremental workload cycling. EMG activity of the masseter muscle was strongly and positively correlated with RPE, HR and lower limb EMG activity during incremental workload cycling. The jaw clenching facial expression can be considered an important factor for estimating the intensity of effort. PMID:25435786

  12. On the use of two hardening rules of plasticity in incremental and pseudo force analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsaker, B., Jr.; Haisler, W. E.; Stricklin, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The tangent stiffness and pseudo force forms of the equations of motion are first derived within the context of a total Lagrangian formulation. After a brief discussion of available incremental theory plasticity models, the small strain formulations and computational procedures of the mechanical sublayer model and combined kinematic-isotropic hardening as used in the general purpose structural analysis program AGGIE I are presented. Several sample problems are then presented along with recommended guidelines for use of the two plasticity models.

  13. Top-down attention based on object representation and incremental memory for knowledge building and inference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ban, Sang-Woo; Lee, Minho

    2013-10-01

    Humans can efficiently perceive arbitrary visual objects based on an incremental learning mechanism with selective attention. This paper proposes a new task specific top-down attention model to locate a target object based on its form and color representation along with a bottom-up saliency based on relativity of primitive visual features and some memory modules. In the proposed model top-down bias signals corresponding to the target form and color features are generated, which draw the preferential attention to the desired object by the proposed selective attention model in concomitance with the bottom-up saliency process. The object form and color representation and memory modules have an incremental learning mechanism together with a proper object feature representation scheme. The proposed model includes a Growing Fuzzy Topology Adaptive Resonance Theory (GFTART) network which plays two important roles in object color and form biased attention; one is to incrementally learn and memorize color and form features of various objects, and the other is to generate a top-down bias signal to localize a target object by focusing on the candidate local areas. Moreover, the GFTART network can be utilized for knowledge inference which enables the perception of new unknown objects on the basis of the object form and color features stored in the memory during training. Experimental results show that the proposed model is successful in focusing on the specified target objects, in addition to the incremental representation and memorization of various objects in natural scenes. In addition, the proposed model properly infers new unknown objects based on the form and color features of previously trained objects. PMID:23624577

  14. Sensitivity to gaze-contingent contrast increments in naturalistic movies: An exploratory report and model comparison

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Thomas S. A.; Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to luminance contrast is a prerequisite for all but the simplest visual systems. To examine contrast increment detection performance in a way that approximates the natural environmental input of the human visual system, we presented contrast increments gaze-contingently within naturalistic video freely viewed by observers. A band-limited contrast increment was applied to a local region of the video relative to the observer's current gaze point, and the observer made a forced-choice response to the location of the target (≈25,000 trials across five observers). We present exploratory analyses showing that performance improved as a function of the magnitude of the increment and depended on the direction of eye movements relative to the target location, the timing of eye movements relative to target presentation, and the spatiotemporal image structure at the target location. Contrast discrimination performance can be modeled by assuming that the underlying contrast response is an accelerating nonlinearity (arising from a nonlinear transducer or gain control). We implemented one such model and examined the posterior over model parameters, estimated using Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods. The parameters were poorly constrained by our data; parameters constrained using strong priors taken from previous research showed poor cross-validated prediction performance. Atheoretical logistic regression models were better constrained and provided similar prediction performance to the nonlinear transducer model. Finally, we explored the properties of an extended logistic regression that incorporates both eye movement and image content features. Models of contrast transduction may be better constrained by incorporating data from both artificial and natural contrast perception settings. PMID:26057546

  15. Incremental development and prototyping in current laboratory software development projects: Preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griesel, Martha Ann

    1988-01-01

    Several Laboratory software development projects that followed nonstandard development processes, which were hybrids of incremental development and prototyping, are being studied. Factors in the project environment leading to the decision to use a nonstandard development process and affecting its success are analyzed. A simple characterization of project environment based on this analysis is proposed, together with software development approaches which have been found effective for each category. These approaches include both documentation and review requirements.

  16. The effects of intensity on V̇O2 kinetics during incremental free swimming.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Kelly; Sousa, Ana; de Jesus, Karla; Ribeiro, João; Machado, Leandro; Rodríguez, Ferran; Keskinen, Kari; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2015-09-01

    Swimming and training are carried out with wide variability in distances and intensities. However, oxygen uptake kinetics for the intensities seen in swimming has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the oxygen uptake kinetics throughout low-moderate to severe intensities during incremental swimming exercise. We hypothesized that the oxygen uptake kinetic parameters would be affected by swimming intensity. Twenty male trained swimmers completed an incremental protocol of seven 200-m crawl swims to exhaustion (0.05 m·s(-1) increments and 30-s intervals). Oxygen uptake was continuously measured by a portable gas analyzer connected to a respiratory snorkel and valve system. Oxygen uptake kinetics was assessed using a double exponential regression model that yielded both fast and slow components of the response of oxygen uptake to exercise. From low-moderate to severe swimming intensities changes occurred for the first and second oxygen uptake amplitudes (P ≤ 0.04), time constants (P = 0.01), and time delays (P ≤ 0.02). At the heavy and severe intensities, a notable oxygen uptake slow component (>255 mL·min(-1)) occurred in all swimmers. Oxygen uptake kinetics whilst swimming at different intensities offers relevant information regarding cardiorespiratory and metabolic stress that might be useful for appropriate performance diagnosis and training prescription. PMID:26300011

  17. An application of the J-integral to an incremental analysis of blunting crack behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Merkle, J.G. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical approach to estimating the elastic-plastic stresses and strains near the tip of a blunting crack with a finite root radius. Rice's original derivation of the path independent J-integral considered the possibility of a finite crack tip root radius. For this problem Creager's elastic analysis gives the relation between the stress intensity factor K{sub I} and the near tip stresses. It can be shown that the relation K{sub I}{sup 2} = E{prime}J holds when the root radius is finite. Recognizing that elastic-plastic behavior is incrementally linear then allows a derivation to be performed for a bielastic specimen having a crack tip region of reduced modulus, and the result differentiated to estimate elastic-plastic behavior. The result is the incremental form of Neuber's equation. This result does not require the assumption of any particular stress-strain relation. However by assuming a pure power law stress-strain relation and using Ilyushin's principle, the ordinary deformation theory form of Neuber's equation, K{sub {sigma}} K{sub {var epsilon}} = K{sub t}{sup 2}, is obtained. Applications of the incremental form of Neuber's equation have already been made to fatigue and fracture analysis. This paper helps to provide a theoretical basis for these methods previously considered semiempirical. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  18. First UHF Implementation of the Incremental Scheme for Open-Shell Systems.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Tony; Tew, David P; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-01-12

    The incremental scheme makes it possible to compute CCSD(T) correlation energies to high accuracy for large systems. We present the first extension of this fully automated black-box approach to open-shell systems using an Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) wave function, extending the efficient domain-specific basis set approach to handle open-shell references. We test our approach on a set of organic and metal organic structures and molecular clusters and demonstrate standard deviations from canonical CCSD(T) values of only 1.35 kJ/mol using a triple ζ basis set. We find that the incremental scheme is significantly more cost-effective than the canonical implementation even for relatively small systems and that the ease of parallelization makes it possible to perform high-level calculations on large systems in a few hours on inexpensive computers. We show that the approximations that make our approach widely applicable are significantly smaller than both the basis set incompleteness error and the intrinsic error of the CCSD(T) method, and we further demonstrate that incremental energies can be reliably used in extrapolation schemes to obtain near complete basis set limit CCSD(T) reaction energies for large systems. PMID:26605975

  19. Contribution For Arc Temperature Affected By Current Increment Ratio At Peak Current In Pulsed Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Ryota; Mitubori, Hironori; Iwao, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding is one of the high quality welding. However, parameters of the pulsed arc welding are many and complicated. if the welding parameters are not appropriate, the welding pool shape becomes wide and shallow.the convection of driving force contributes to the welding pool shape. However, in the case of changing current waveform as the pulse high frequency TIG welding, the arc temperature does not follow the change of the current. Other result of the calculation, in particular, the arc temperature at the reaching time of peak current is based on these considerations. Thus, the accurate measurement of the temperature at the time is required. Therefore, the objective of this research is the elucidation of contribution for arc temperature affected by current increment ratio at peak current in pulsed arc. It should obtain a detail knowledge of the welding model in pulsed arc. The temperature in the case of increment of the peak current from the base current is measured by using spectroscopy. As a result, when the arc current increases from 100 A to 150 A at 120 ms, the transient response of the temperature didn't occur during increasing current. Thus, during the current rise, it has been verified by measuring. Therefore, the contribution for arc temperature affected by current increment ratio at peak current in pulsed arc was elucidated in order to obtain more knowledge of welding model of pulsed arc.

  20. Incremental benefits of a daily report card intervention over time for youth with disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Holdaway, Alex S; Zoromski, Allison K; Evans, Steven W; Himawan, Lina K; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Murphy, Caroline E

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the percentage of children who respond positively to a daily report card (DRC) intervention and the extent to which students achieve incremental benefits with each month of intervention in a general education classroom. Participants were 66 children (87% male) with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or disruptive behavior problems who were enrolled in a school-based intervention program in rural, low-income school districts in a Midwest state. The DRC was implemented by each child's teacher, who received consultation from a graduate student clinician, school district counselor, or school district social worker. A latent class analysis using growth-mixture modeling identified two classes of response patterns (i.e., significant improvement and significant decline). Results indicated that 72% of the sample had all of their target behaviors classified as improved, 8% had all of their targets classified as declining, and 20% had one target behavior in each class. To examine the monthly incremental benefit of the DRC, individual effect sizes were calculated. Results for the overall sample indicated that most children experience a benefit of large magnitude (.78) within the first month, with continued incremental benefits through Month 4. The differential pattern of effect sizes for the group of improvers and the group of decliners offer data to determine when and if the DRC should be discontinued and an alternative strategy attempted. Evidence-based guidelines for practical implementation of the DRC are discussed. PMID:23046786

  1. An Incremental Target-Adapted Strategy for Active Geometric Calibration of Projector-Camera Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Chien, Hsiang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The calibration of a projector-camera system is an essential step toward accurate 3-D measurement and environment-aware data projection applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper we present a two-stage easy-to-deploy strategy for robust calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a projector. Two key components of the system are the automatic generation of projected light patterns and the incremental calibration process. Based on the incremental strategy, the calibration process first establishes a set of initial parameters, and then it upgrades these parameters incrementally using the projection and captured images of dynamically-generated calibration patterns. The scene-driven light patterns allow the system to adapt itself to the pose of the calibration target, such that the difficulty in feature detection is greatly lowered. The strategy forms a closed-loop system that performs self-correction as more and more observations become available. Compared to the conventional method, which requires a time-consuming process for the acquisition of dense pixel correspondences, the proposed method deploys a homography-based coordinate computation, allowing the calibration time to be dramatically reduced. The experimental results indicate that an improvement of 70% in reprojection errors is achievable and 95% of the calibration time can be saved. PMID:23435056

  2. Incrementally developed slickenfibers — Geological record of repeating low stress-drop seismic events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Remitti, Francesca; Sibson, Richard H.

    2011-10-01

    An accretionary mélange of Triassic age ocean floor sediments exposed in the Chrystalls Beach Complex, South Island, New Zealand, comprises competent sandstone and chert phacoids set in a cleaved mudstone matrix, deformed in a continuous-discontinuous style at subgreenschist conditions. Deformation structures include a pervasive anastomosing fault-fracture mesh of multiple shearing surfaces, subparallel to cleavage, coated with incrementally developed quartz-calcite slickenfibers. Microstructural observations reveal slickenfiber growth by 'crack-seal' shear slip increments of 10-100 μm, with incremental slip transfer of the same order accommodated by opening of extension fractures that link en echelon slip surfaces. Individual slip surfaces can be traced for meters to tens of meters so that the ratio of average slip, u, to potential rupture length, L, predominantly lies within the range, 10 - 6 < u/ L < 10 - 5 , characteristic of microearthquakes obeying 'constant stress-drop' scaling with a low stress-drop Δτ ~ 30 kPa, typical of low frequency earthquakes. The host-rock assemblage, metamorphic environment, inference of near-lithostatic fluid overpressures, low stress-drop and mixed continuous-discontinuous shearing, resemble conditions and characteristics of low frequency earthquakes as identified within the seismic signals recorded during episodic tremor and slow slip events, at the downdip end of the seismogenic subduction thrust interface and within accretionary prisms.

  3. Pornographic image recognition and filtering using incremental learning in compressed domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chao; Zhuo, Li; Geng, Wenhao

    2015-11-01

    With the rapid development and popularity of the network, the openness, anonymity, and interactivity of networks have led to the spread and proliferation of pornographic images on the Internet, which have done great harm to adolescents' physical and mental health. With the establishment of image compression standards, pornographic images are mainly stored with compressed formats. Therefore, how to efficiently filter pornographic images is one of the challenging issues for information security. A pornographic image recognition and filtering method in the compressed domain is proposed by using incremental learning, which includes the following steps: (1) low-resolution (LR) images are first reconstructed from the compressed stream of pornographic images, (2) visual words are created from the LR image to represent the pornographic image, and (3) incremental learning is adopted to continuously adjust the classification rules to recognize the new pornographic image samples after the covering algorithm is utilized to train and recognize the visual words in order to build the initial classification model of pornographic images. The experimental results show that the proposed pornographic image recognition method using incremental learning has a higher recognition rate as well as costing less recognition time in the compressed domain.

  4. Developmental Word Acquisition through Self-Organized Incremental Neural Network with A Humanoid Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shogo; He, Xiaoyuan; Kojima, Ryo; Hasegawa, Osamu

    This paper presents an unsupervised approach of integrating speech and visual information without using any prepared data(training data). The approach enables a humanoid robot, Incremental Knowledge Robot 1 (IKR1), to learn words' meanings. The approach is different from most existing approaches in that the robot learns online from audio-visual input, rather than from stationary data provided in advance. In addition, the robot is capable of incremental learning, which is considered to be indispensable to lifelong learning. A noise-robust self-organized incremental neural network(SOINN) is developed to represent the topological structure of unsupervised online data. We are also developing an active learning mechanism, called ``desire for knowledge'', to let the robot select the object for which it possesses the least information for subsequent learning. Experimental results show that the approach raises the efficiency of the learning process. Based on audio and visual data, we construct a mental model for the robot, which forms a basis for constructing IKR1's inner world and builds a bridge connecting the learned concepts with current and past scenes.

  5. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  6. An incremental target-adapted strategy for active geometric calibration of projector-camera systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Chien, Hsiang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The calibration of a projector-camera system is an essential step toward accurate 3-D measurement and environment-aware data projection applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper we present a two-stage easy-to-deploy strategy for robust calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a projector. Two key components of the system are the automatic generation of projected light patterns and the incremental calibration process. Based on the incremental strategy, the calibration process first establishes a set of initial parameters, and then it upgrades these parameters incrementally using the projection and captured images of dynamically-generated calibration patterns. The scene-driven light patterns allow the system to adapt itself to the pose of the calibration target, such that the difficulty in feature detection is greatly lowered. The strategy forms a closed-loop system that performs self-correction as more and more observations become available. Compared to the conventional method, which requires a time-consuming process for the acquisition of dense pixel correspondences, the proposed method deploys a homography-based coordinate computation, allowing the calibration time to be dramatically reduced. The experimental results indicate that an improvement of 70% in reprojection errors is achievable and 95% of the calibration time can be saved. PMID:23435056

  7. Incremental Refinement of FAÇADE Models with Attribute Grammar from 3d Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbi, Y.; Staat, C.; Mandtler, L.; Pl¨umer, L.

    2016-06-01

    Data acquisition using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has gotten more and more attention over the last years. Especially in the field of building reconstruction the incremental interpretation of such data is a demanding task. In this context formal grammars play an important role for the top-down identification and reconstruction of building objects. Up to now, the available approaches expect offline data in order to parse an a-priori known grammar. For mapping on demand an on the fly reconstruction based on UAV data is required. An incremental interpretation of the data stream is inevitable. This paper presents an incremental parser of grammar rules for an automatic 3D building reconstruction. The parser enables a model refinement based on new observations with respect to a weighted attribute context-free grammar (WACFG). The falsification or rejection of hypotheses is supported as well. The parser can deal with and adapt available parse trees acquired from previous interpretations or predictions. Parse trees derived so far are updated in an iterative way using transformation rules. A diagnostic step searches for mismatches between current and new nodes. Prior knowledge on façades is incorporated. It is given by probability densities as well as architectural patterns. Since we cannot always assume normal distributions, the derivation of location and shape parameters of building objects is based on a kernel density estimation (KDE). While the level of detail is continuously improved, the geometrical, semantic and topological consistency is ensured.

  8. Incremental Validity of Personality Measures in Predicting Underwater Performance and Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Colodro, Joaquín; Garcés-de-Los-Fayos, Enrique J; López-García, Juan J; Colodro-Conde, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence and personality traits are currently considered effective predictors of human behavior and job performance. However, there are few studies about their relevance in the underwater environment. Data from a sample of military personnel performing scuba diving courses were analyzed with regression techniques, testing the contribution of individual differences and ascertaining the incremental validity of the personality in an environment with extreme psychophysical demands. The results confirmed the incremental validity of personality traits (ΔR 2 = .20, f 2 = .25) over the predictive contribution of general mental ability (ΔR 2 = .07, f 2 = .08) in divers' performance. Moreover, personality (R(L)2 = .34) also showed a higher validity to predict underwater adaptation than general mental ability ( R(L)2 = .09). The ROC curve indicated 86% of the maximum possible discrimination power for the prediction of underwater adaptation, AUC = .86, p < .001, 95% CI (.82-.90). These findings confirm the shift and reversal of incremental validity of dispositional traits in the underwater environment and the relevance of personality traits as predictors of an effective response to the changing circumstances of military scuba diving. They also may improve the understanding of the behavioral effects and psychophysiological complications of diving and can also provide guidance for psychological intervention and prevention of risk in this extreme environment. PMID:26055931

  9. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Hina; Javaid, Nadeem; Sher, Muhammad; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-01-01

    This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment. PMID:27420061

  10. Incremental Validity of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorder Traits With Respect to Psychosocial Impairment.

    PubMed

    Simms, Leonard J; Calabrese, William R

    2016-02-01

    Traditional personality disorders (PDs) are associated with significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 Section III includes an alternative hybrid personality disorder (PD) classification approach, with both type and trait elements, but relatively little is known about the impairments associated with Section III traits. Our objective was to study the incremental validity of Section III traits--compared to normal-range traits, traditional PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology--in predicting psychosocial impairment. To that end, 628 current/recent psychiatric patients completed measures of PD traits, normal-range traits, traditional PD criteria, psychiatric symptomatology, and psychosocial impairments. Hierarchical regressions revealed that Section III PD traits incrementally predicted psychosocial impairment over normal-range personality traits, PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology. In contrast, the incremental effects for normal-range traits, PD symptom counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology were substantially smaller than for PD traits. These findings have implications for PD classification and the impairment literature more generally. PMID:25905731

  11. Incremental training intensities increases loads on the lower back of elite female rowers.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, Erica M; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar-pelvic kinematics change in response to increasing rowing stroke rates, but little is known about the effect of incremental stroke rates on changes in joint kinetics and their implications for injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of incremental rowing intensities on lower limb and lumbar-pelvic kinetics. Twelve female rowers performed an incremental test on a rowing ergometer. Kinematic data of rowers' ankle, knee, hip and lumbar-pelvic joints, as well as external forces at the handle, seat and foot-stretchers of the rowing machine were recorded. Inter-segmental moments and forces were calculated using inverse dynamics and were compared across stroke rates using repeated measures ANOVA. Rowers exhibited increases in peak ankle and L5/S1 extensor moments, reductions in peak knee moments and no change in peak hip moments, with respect to stroke rate. Large shear and compressive forces were seen at L5/S1 and increased with stroke rate (P < 0.05). This coincided with increased levels of lumbar-pelvic flexion. High levels of lumbar-pelvic loading at higher stroke rates have implications with respect to injury and indicated that technique was declining, leading to increased lumbar-pelvic flexion. Such changes are not advantageous to performance and can potentially increase the risk of developing injuries. PMID:26090702

  12. Measurement of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Increment with Large Aperture Sub-mm Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect increment is critical for precision determination of the full spectrum of the SZ spectral distortion, which in turn is necessary for measurement of the relativistic and kinetic SZ effects that are largest shortward of the SZ null at 217 GHz. Maps of galaxy clusters at SZ increment frequencies have the added benefit of relatively high angular resolution, allowing a precise determination of the sub-mm galaxy contamination in clusters, which is a significant foreground to SZ spectral studies. Current and upcoming facilities including SPIRE, SCUBA-2, MUSIC on the CSO, and further in the future next generation instrumentation for CCAT, will provide extremely deep, high angular resolution, multi-band SZ spectrum measurements in many clusters. Such measurements will enable new types of SZ science, including detailed studies of the properties of the intra-cluster medium and line of sight velocity effects. In this talk I will review the status of measurements of the SZ increment, present new results from Herschel, and look forward to what developments we can expect over the coming years.

  13. Incremental ECAP as a novel tool for producing ultrafine grained aluminium plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejnik, L.; Chrominski, W.; Rosochowski, A.; Lipinska, M.; Lewandowska, M.

    2014-08-01

    Conventional equal channel angular pressing is an efficient technique to obtain bulk ultrafine grained materials (UFG) with extraordinary mechanical properties in the form of rods. In this work, an incremental method of ECAP process which allows to obtain thick sheets with UFG structure is presented. Using this method square plates (62 × 62 mm) were obtained. In this case, a combined route - A+ specific B - with 90 degree rotation along plate normal after each pass keeping other planes in the same positions relatively to the channel - has been applied. The efficiency of this methods was proved for technically pure 1050 aluminium. It was processed by incremental ECAP using 8 passes of A+B route. To characterize microstructure visible light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used. Mechanical properties were measured by microhardness test. The results obtained showed that the microstructure and mechanical properties of 1050 aluminium alloy processed by incremental ECAP are comparable to conventional ECAP. However, the new processing method broaden the potential applications of UFG materials.

  14. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Hina; Javaid, Nadeem; Sher, Muhammad; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-01-01

    This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment. PMID:27420061

  15. Incremental Sheet Forming with Local Heating for Lightweight Hard-To Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, R.; Yoshida, F.; Nagaishi, N.; Naka, T.

    A new incremental sheet forming technology with local heating is proposed to form lightweight hard-to-form sheet metals such as aluminum-magnesium alloy (JIS A5083) sheet or magnesium alloy (JIS AZ31) sheet. The newly designed forming tool has a built-in heater to heat the sheet metal locally and increase the material ductility around the tool-contact point. Incremental forming experiments of A5083 and AZ31 sheets are carried out at several tool-heater temperatures ranging from room temperature to 873K using the new forming method. The experimental results show that the formability of A5083 and AZ31 sheets increases remarkably with increasing local-heating temperature. In addition, springback of formed products decreases with increasing local-heating temperature. The developed incremental sheet forming method with local heating has great advantages in not only formability but also shape fixability. It is an effective forming method for lightweight hard-to-form sheet metal for small scale productions.

  16. Incremental growth of short SWNT arrays by pulsed chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Jackson, Jeremy; Pannala, Sreekanth; Eres, Gyula; Rouleau, Christopher M; More, Karren Leslie; Thonnard, Norbert; Readle, Jason D

    2012-01-01

    Very short, aligned arrays of continuous single wall carbon nanotubes were grown incrementally in steps as small as 25 nm using pulsed chemical vapor deposition. In situ optical extinction measurements indicate that over 98% of the nanotubes reinitiate growth on successive gas pulses, and HRTEM images show that the SWNTs do not exhibit segments, caps, or noticeable sidewall defects resulting from repeatedly stopping and restarting growth. Time-resolved laser reflectivity (3-ms temporal resolution) was used to record the nucleation and growth kinetics for each fast (0.2 second) gas pulse and measure the height increase of the array in situ, providing a "digital" method to incrementally grow short nanotube arrays to precise heights. Derivatives of the optical reflectivity signal reveal distinct temporal signatures for both nucleation and growth kinetics, with their amplitude ratio on the first gas pulse serving as a good predictor for aligned vs. unaligned growth. Incremental growth by pulsed CVD is interpreted in the context of autocatalytic kinetic models as a special processing window in which a sufficiently high flux of feedstock gas drives the nucleation and rapid growth phases of a catalyst nanoparticle ensemble to occur within the temporal period of the gas pulse, but without inducing growth termination.

  17. Stable isotope time series and dentin increments elucidate Pleistocene proboscidean paleobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Daniel; Rountrey, Adam; Smith, Kathlyn; Fox, David

    2010-05-01

    Investigations of stable isotope composition of mineralized tissues have added greatly to our knowledge of past climates and dietary behaviors of organisms, even when they are implemented through 'bulk sampling', in which a single assay yields a single, time-averaged value. Likewise, the practice of 'sclerochronology', which documents periodic structural increments comprising a growth record for accretionary tissues, offers insights into rates of growth and age data at a scale of temporal resolution permitted by the nature of structural increments. We combine both of these approaches to analyze dental tissues of late Pleistocene proboscideans. Tusk dentin typically preserves a record of accretionary growth consisting of histologically distinct increments on daily, approximately weekly, and yearly time scales. Working on polished transverse or longitudinal sections, we mill out a succession of temporally controlled dentin samples bounded by clear structural increments with a known position in the sequence of tusk growth. We further subject each sample (or an aliquot thereof) to multiple compositional analyses - most frequently to assess δ18O and δ13C of hydroxyapatite carbonate, and δ13C and δ15N of collagen. This yields, for each animal and each series of years investigated, a set of parallel compositional time series with a temporal resolution of 1-2 months (or finer if we need additional precision). Patterns in variation of thickness of periodic sub-annual increments yield insight into intra-annual and inter-annual variation of tusk growth rate. This is informative even by itself, but it is still more valuable when coupled with compositional time series. Further, the controls on different stable isotope systems are sufficiently different that the data ensemble yields 'much more than the sum of its parts.' By assessing how compositions and growth rates covary, we monitor with greater confidence changes in local climate, diet, behavior, and health status. We

  18. Understanding Treatment Effect Mechanisms of the CAMBRA Randomized Trial in Reducing Caries Increment

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, B.W.; Cheng, N.F.; Gansky, S.A.; Featherstone, J.D.B.

    2015-01-01

    The Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) randomized controlled trial showed that an intervention featuring combined antibacterial and fluoride therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and suggested reduced caries increment in adults with 1 to 7 baseline cavitated teeth. While trial results speak to the overall effectiveness of an intervention, insight can be gained from understanding the mechanism by which an intervention acts on putative intermediate variables (mediators) to affect outcomes. This study conducted mediation analyses on 109 participants who completed the trial to understand whether the intervention reduced caries increment through its action on potential mediators (oral bacterial load, fluoride levels, and overall caries risk based on the composite of bacterial challenge and salivary fluoride) between the intervention and dental outcomes. The primary outcome was the increment from baseline in decayed, missing, and filled permanent surfaces (ΔDMFS) 24 mo after completing restorations for baseline cavitated lesions. Analyses adjusted for baseline overall risk, bacterial challenge, and fluoride values under a potential outcome framework using generalized linear models. Overall, the CAMBRA intervention was suggestive in reducing the 24-mo DMFS increment (reduction in ΔDMFS: −0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: –2.01 to 0.08; P = 0.07); the intervention significantly reduced the 12-mo overall risk (reduction in overall risk: –19%; 95% CI, −7 to −41%;], P = 0.005). Individual mediators, salivary log10 mutans streptococci, log10 lactobacilli, and fluoride level, did not represent statistically significant pathways alone through which the intervention effect was transmitted. However, 36% of the intervention effect on 24-mo DMFS increment was through a mediation effect on 12-mo overall risk (P = 0.03). These findings suggest a greater intervention effect carried through the combined action on multiple aspects of the caries process

  19. Let's move to spheres! Why a spherical coordinate system is rewarding when analyzing particle increment statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Most, Sebastian; Nowak, Wolfgang; Bijeljic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    For understanding non-Fickian transport in porous media, thorough understanding of pore-scale processes is required. When using particle methods as research instruments, we need a detailed understanding of the dependence and memory between subsequent increments in particle motion. We are especially interested in the dependence and memory of the spatial increments (size and direction) at consecutive time steps. Understanding the increment statistics is crucial for the upscaling that always becomes essential for transport simulations at larger scales. Upscaling means averaging over a (representative elementary) volume to save limited computational resources. However, this averaging means a loss of detail and therefore dispersion models should compensate for this loss. Formulating an appropriate dispersion model requires a detailed understanding of the dependencies and memory effects in the transport process. Particle-based simulations for transport in porous media are usually conducted and analyzed in a Cartesian coordinate system. We will show that, for understanding the process physically and representing the process statistically, it is more appropriate to switch to a spherical coordinate system that moves with each particle. Increment statistics in a Cartesian coordinate system usually reveal that a large displacement in longitudinal direction triggers a large displacement in transverse direction as fast flow channels are not perfectly aligned with the Cartesian axis along the main flow direction. We can overcome this inherent link, typical for the Cartesian description by using the absolute displacements together with the direction of the particle movement, where the direction is determined by the angles azimuth and elevation. This can be understood as a Lagrangian spherical process description. The root of the dependence of the transport process is in the complex pore geometry. For some time past, high-resolution micro-CT scans of pore space geometry became the

  20. Difference in Physiological Components of VO2 Max During Incremental and Constant Exercise Protocols for the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Junshiro; Harada, Tetsuya; Okada, Akinori; Maemura, Yuko; Yamamoto, Misaki; Tabira, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] VO2 is expressed as the product of cardiac output and O2 extraction by the Fick equation. During the incremental exercise test and constant high-intensity exercise test, VO2 results in the attainment of maximal O2 uptake at exhaustion. However, the differences in the physiological components, cardiac output and muscle O2 extraction, have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that constant exercise would result in higher O2 extraction than incremental exercise at exhaustion. [Subjects] Twenty-five subjects performed incremental exercise and constant exercise at 80% of their peak work rate. [Methods] Ventilatory, cardiovascular, and muscle oxygenation responses were measured using a gas analyzer, Finapres, and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] VO2 was not significantly different between the incremental exercise and constant exercise. However, cardiac output and muscle O2 saturation were significantly lower for the constant exercise than the incremental exercise at the end of exercise. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that if both tests produce a similar VO2 value, the VO2 in incremental exercise would have a higher ratio of cardiac output than constant exercise, and VO2 in constant exercise would have a higher ratio of O2 extraction than incremental exercise at the end of exercise. PMID:25202198

  1. 40 CFR 62.15080 - How do I comply with the increment of progress for completing onsite construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62... complete onsite construction and installation of emission control equipment and complete process...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15040 - What are the requirements for meeting increments of progress and achieving final compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress § 62.... (3) Initiate onsite construction. (4) Complete onsite construction. (5) Achieve final compliance....

  3. Severe hypoxia during incremental exercise to exhaustion provokes negative post-exercise affects.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Stavrou, Nektarios A M; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2016-03-15

    The post-exercise emotional response is mainly dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed; moderate exercise causes positive feelings, whereas maximal exercise may prompt negative affects. Acute hypoxia impairs peak O2 uptake (V̇O2peak), resulting in a shift to a lower absolute intensity at the point of exhaustion. Hence, the purpose of the study was to examine whether a severe hypoxic stimulus would influence the post-exercise affective state in healthy lowlanders performing an incremental exercise to exhaustion. Thirty-six male lowlanders performed, in a counter-balanced order and separated by a 48-h interval, two incremental exercise trials to exhaustion to determine their V̇O2peak, while they were breathing either room air (AIR; FiO2: 0.21), or a hypoxic gas mixture (HYPO; FiO2: 0.12). Before and immediately after each trial, subjects were requested to complete two questionnaires, based on how they felt at that particular moment: (i) the Profile of Mood States-Short Form, and (ii) the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List. During the post-exercise phase, they also completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. V̇O2peak was significantly lower in the HYPO than the AIR trial (~15%; p<0.001). Still, after the HYPO trial, energy, calmness and motivation were markedly impaired, whereas tension, confusion, and perception of physical and general fatigue were exaggerated (p≤0.05). Accordingly, present findings suggest that an incremental exercise to exhaustion performed in severe hypoxia provokes negative post-exercise emotions, induces higher levels of perceived fatigue and decreases motivation; the affective responses coincide with the comparatively lower V̇O2peak than that achieved in normoxic conditions. PMID:26802281

  4. Systemic and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow and O2 extraction during ramp incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Murias, Juan M; Spencer, Matthew D; Keir, Daniel A; Paterson, Donald H

    2013-05-01

    During ramp incremental cycling exercise increases in pulmonary O2 uptake (Vo2p) are matched by a linear increase in systemic cardiac output (Q). However, it has been suggested that blood flow in the active muscle microvasculature does not display similar linearity in blood flow relative to metabolic demand. This study simultaneously examined both systemic and regional (microvascular) blood flow and O2 extraction during incremental cycling exercise. Ten young men (Vo2 peak = 4.2 ± 0.5 l/min) and 10 young women (Vo2 peak = 3.2 ± 0.5 l/min) were recruited to perform two maximal incremental cycling tests on separate days. The acetylene open-circuit technique and mass spectrometry and volume turbine were used to measure Q (every minute) and breath-by-breath Vo2p, respectively; systemic arterio-venous O2 difference (a-vO2diff) was calculated as Vo2p/Q on a minute-by-minute basis. Changes in near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxygenation (Δ[HHb]) were used (in combination with Vo2p data) to estimate the profiles of peripheral O2 extraction and blood flow of the active muscle microvasculature. The systemic Q-to-Vo2p relationship was linear (~5.8 l/min increase in Q for a 1 l/min increase in Vo2p) with a-vO2diff displaying a hyperbolic response as exercise intensity increased toward Vo2 peak. The peripheral blood flow response profile was described by an inverted sigmoid curve, indicating nonlinear responses relative to metabolic demand. The Δ[HHb] profile increased linearly with absolute Vo2p until high-intensity exercise, thereafter displaying a "near-plateau". Results indicate that systemic blood flow and thus O2 delivery does not reflect the profile of blood flow changes at the level of the microvasculature. PMID:23515617

  5. Stable myoelectric control of a hand prosthesis using non-linear incremental learning

    PubMed Central

    Gijsberts, Arjan; Bohra, Rashida; Sierra González, David; Werner, Alexander; Nowak, Markus; Caputo, Barbara; Roa, Maximo A.; Castellini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Stable myoelectric control of hand prostheses remains an open problem. The only successful human–machine interface is surface electromyography, typically allowing control of a few degrees of freedom. Machine learning techniques may have the potential to remove these limitations, but their performance is thus far inadequate: myoelectric signals change over time under the influence of various factors, deteriorating control performance. It is therefore necessary, in the standard approach, to regularly retrain a new model from scratch. We hereby propose a non-linear incremental learning method in which occasional updates with a modest amount of novel training data allow continual adaptation to the changes in the signals. In particular, Incremental Ridge Regression and an approximation of the Gaussian Kernel known as Random Fourier Features are combined to predict finger forces from myoelectric signals, both finger-by-finger and grouped in grasping patterns. We show that the approach is effective and practically applicable to this problem by first analyzing its performance while predicting single-finger forces. Surface electromyography and finger forces were collected from 10 intact subjects during four sessions spread over two different days; the results of the analysis show that small incremental updates are indeed effective to maintain a stable level of performance. Subsequently, we employed the same method on-line to teleoperate a humanoid robotic arm equipped with a state-of-the-art commercial prosthetic hand. The subject could reliably grasp, carry and release everyday-life objects, enforcing stable grasping irrespective of the signal changes, hand/arm movements and wrist pronation and supination. PMID:24616697

  6. Incremental Learning With Selective Memory (ILSM): Towards Fast Prostate Localization for Image Guided Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yaozong; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) requires fast and accurate localization of the prostate in 3-D treatment-guided radiotherapy, which is challenging due to low tissue contrast and large anatomical variation across patients. On the other hand, the IGRT workflow involves collecting a series of computed tomography (CT) images from the same patient under treatment. These images contain valuable patient-specific information yet are often neglected by previous works. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework, namely incremental learning with selective memory (ILSM), to effectively learn the patient-specific appearance characteristics from these patient-specific images. Specifically, starting with a population-based discriminative appearance model, ILSM aims to “personalize” the model to fit patient-specific appearance characteristics. The model is personalized with two steps: backward pruning that discards obsolete population-based knowledge and forward learning that incorporates patient-specific characteristics. By effectively combining the patient-specific characteristics with the general population statistics, the incrementally learned appearance model can localize the prostate of a specific patient much more accurately. This work has three contributions: 1) the proposed incremental learning framework can capture patient-specific characteristics more effectively, compared to traditional learning schemes, such as pure patient-specific learning, population-based learning, and mixture learning with patient-specific and population data; 2) this learning framework does not have any parametric model assumption, hence, allowing the adoption of any discriminative classifier; and 3) using ILSM, we can localize the prostate in treatment CTs accurately (DSC ∼0.89) and fast (∼4 s), which satisfies the real-world clinical requirements of IGRT. PMID:24495983

  7. Toward translational incremental similarity-based reasoning in breast cancer grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutac, Adina E.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Leow, Wee-Keng; Müller, Henning; Putti, Thomas; Cretu, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    One of the fundamental issues in bridging the gap between the proliferation of Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems in the scientific literature and the deficiency of their usage in medical community is based on the characteristic of CBIR to access information by images or/and text only. Yet, the way physicians are reasoning about patients leads intuitively to a case representation. Hence, a proper solution to overcome this gap is to consider a CBIR approach inspired by Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), which naturally introduces medical knowledge structured by cases. Moreover, in a CBR system, the knowledge is incrementally added and learned. The purpose of this study is to initiate a translational solution from CBIR algorithms to clinical practice, using a CBIR/CBR hybrid approach. Therefore, we advance the idea of a translational incremental similarity-based reasoning (TISBR), using combined CBIR and CBR characteristics: incremental learning of medical knowledge, medical case-based structure of the knowledge (CBR), image usage to retrieve similar cases (CBIR), similarity concept (central for both paradigms). For this purpose, three major axes are explored: the indexing, the cases retrieval and the search refinement, applied to Breast Cancer Grading (BCG), a powerful breast cancer prognosis exam. The effectiveness of this strategy is currently evaluated over cases provided by the Pathology Department of Singapore National University Hospital, for the indexing. With its current accuracy, TISBR launches interesting perspectives for complex reasoning in future medical research, opening the way to a better knowledge traceability and a better acceptance rate of computer-aided diagnosis assistance among practitioners.

  8. First- and second-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives via automatic differentiation with incremental iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.L.; Taylor, A.C. III; Hou, G.W.; Korivi, V.M.

    1996-12-01

    The straightforward automatic-differentiation and the hand-differentiated incremental iterative methods are interwoven to produce a hybrid scheme that captures some of the strengths of each strategy. With this compromise, discrete aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives are calculated with the efficient incremental iterative solution algorithm of the original flow code. Moreover, the principal advantage of automatic differentiation is retained. The basic equations for second-order sensitivity derivatives are presented, which results in a comparison of four different methods. Each of these four schemes for second-order derivatives requires that large systems are solved first for the first-order adjoint variables. Of these latter three schemes, two require no solutions of large systems thereafter. For the other two for which additional systems are solved, the equations and solution procedures are analogous to those for the first-order derivatives. From a practical viewpoint, implementation of the second-order methods is feasible only with software tools such as automatic differentiation, because of the extreme complexity and large number of terms. First- and second-order sensitivities are calculated accurately for two airfoil problems, including a turbulent-flow example. In each of these two sample problems, three dependent variables (coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching-moment) and six independent variables (three geometric-shape and three flow-condition design variables) are considered. Several different procedures are tested, and results are compared on the basis of accuracy, computational time, and computer memory. For first-order derivatives, the hybrid incremental iterative scheme obtained with automatic differentiation is competitive with the best hand-differentiated method. Furthermore, it is at least two to four times faster than central finite differences, without an overwhelming penalty in computer memory. 23 refs., 14 tabs.

  9. Comparison of incremental and constant load tests of inspiratory muscle endurance in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Jenkins, S C; Philippe, D L; Shepherd, K L; Hillman, D R; Eastwood, P R

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relative value of incremental and constant load tests in detecting changes in inspiratory muscle endurance following high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (H-IMT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In total, 16 subjects (11 males; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 37.4+/-12.5%) underwent H-IMT. In addition, 17 subjects (11 males; FEV(1) 36.5+/-11.5%) underwent sham inspiratory muscle training (S-IMT). Training took place three times a week for 8 weeks. Baseline and post-training measurements were obtained of maximum threshold pressure sustained during an incremental load test (P(th,max)) and time breathing against a constant load (t(lim)). Breathing pattern was unconstrained. H-IMT increased P(th,max) and t(lim) relative to baseline and to any change seen following S-IMT. The effect size for P(th,max) was greater than for t(lim). Post-training tests were accompanied by changes in breathing pattern, including decreased duty cycle, which may have served to decrease inspiratory work and thereby contribute to the increase in P(th,max) and t(lim) in both groups. When assessing inspiratory muscle function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via tests in which the pattern of breathing is unconstrained, the current authors recommend incremental load tests be used in preference to constant load tests. However, to attribute changes in these tests to improvements in inspiratory muscle endurance, breathing pattern should be controlled. PMID:17504795

  10. Development of explanation: Incremental and fundamental change in children's physics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Kathleen E.

    In contrast to predictions or actions, explanations require articulating a model that accounts for the physical phenomenon. Therefore, examination of children's explanations provides a more powerful window onto their developing understanding of causality. This study investigates children's developing causal knowledge, by analyzing changes in the content and form of the explanations they generate, across the age span of three to nine years. The study aims to examine the balance of incremental versus fundamental change and the forms each takes in children coming to understand one physical domain, the working of gears. Thirty-two subjects, ages, 3, 5, 7, and 9, participated in the study. The experimenter elicited each subject's predictions and explanations about what would happen when you turned the knob in a series of gear configurations. Age trends in the explanation type subjects generated revealed broad progress in their understanding of causality within the domain and a complex picture of fundamental and incremental changes. Parsing the sequence of explanation types at points of fundamental change, three phases of development emerged: (a) function of the object as explanation, (b) connections as explanation, and (c) mechanistic explanation. Analysis of development from one phase to the next revealed two forms of fundamental change: radical substitution (where one explanation is supplanted by the next) and transforming incorporation (where one explanation forms the basis for the next and yet is itself transformed in the context of the fundamentally new way of conceptualizing causality). Analysis of development within the individual phases revealed incremental change primarily in the forms of differentiation and decomposition.

  11. International Space Station Increment-6/8 Microgravity Environment Summary Report November 2002 to April 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; Reckart, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    This summary report presents the analysis results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of November 2002 to April 2004. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-6/8. However, not all of the activities during that period were analyzed in order to keep the size of the report manageable. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System to support microgravity science experiments that require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification as well as in support of the International Space Station support cadre. The International Space Station Increment-6/8 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: 1. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. 2. The Space Acceleration Measurement

  12. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-06-25

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  13. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    OBERHUBER, Walter; GRUBER, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  14. Increments and Duplication Events of Enzymes and Transcription Factors Influence Metabolic and Regulatory Diversity in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected. PMID:23922780

  15. Contact stresses in meshing spur gear teeth: Use of an incremental finite element procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Chih-Ming; Huston, Ronald L.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1992-01-01

    Contact stresses in meshing spur gear teeth are examined. The analysis is based upon an incremental finite element procedure that simultaneously determines the stresses in the contact region between the meshing teeth. The teeth themselves are modeled by two dimensional plain strain elements. Friction effects are included, with the friction forces assumed to obey Coulomb's law. The analysis assumes that the displacements are small and that the tooth materials are linearly elastic. The analysis procedure is validated by comparing its results with those for the classical two contacting semicylinders obtained from the Hertz method. Agreement is excellent.

  16. Effect of task load and task load increment on performance and workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.; Williams, G.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of adaptive automated task allocation is the 'seamless' transfer of work demand between human and machine. Clearly, at the present time, we are far from this objective. One of the barriers to achieving effortless human-machine symbiosis is an inadequate understanding of the way in which operators themselves seek to reallocate demand among their own personal 'resources.' The paper addresses this through an examination of workload response, which scales an individual's reaction to common levels of experienced external demand. The results indicate the primary driver of performance is the absolute level of task demand over the increment in that demand.

  17. Incremental Risks of Transporting NARM to the LLW Disposal Facility at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.F.

    1999-02-23

    This study models the incremental radiological risk of transporting NARM to the Hanford commercial LLW facility, both for incident-free transportation and for possible transportation accidents, compared with the radiological risk of transporting LLW to that facility. Transportation routes are modeled using HIGHWAY 3.1 and risks are modeled using RADTRAN 4. Both annual population doses and risks, and annual average individual doses and risks are reported. Three routes to the Hanford site were modeled from Albany, OR, from Coeur d'Alene, ID (called the Spokane route), and from Seattle, WA. Conservative estimates are used in the RADTRAN inputs, and RADTRAN itself is conservative.

  18. The effect of the model posture on the forming quality in the CNC incremental forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, W.; Bai, J. L.; Yu, C.; Xing, Y. F.

    2015-12-01

    Sheet rupture caused by a sheet metal thickness non-uniformity persists in CNC (Computer Numerical Control) incremental forming. Because the forming half cone angle is determined by the orientation of the model to be formed, so is the sheet metal's uniformity. The finite element analysis models for the two kinds of the postures of the model were established, and the digital simulation was conducted by using the ANSYS/LA-DYNA software. The effect of the model's posture on the sheet thickness distribution and the sheet thickness thinning rate were studied by comparing the simulation results of two kinds of the finite elements analyzes.

  19. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  20. A Model Based Approach to Increase the Part Accuracy in Robot Based Incremental Sheet Metal Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Horst; Laurischkat, Roman; Zhu Junhong

    2011-01-17

    One main influence on the dimensional accuracy in robot based incremental sheet metal forming results from the compliance of the involved robot structures. Compared to conventional machine tools the low stiffness of the robot's kinematic results in a significant deviation of the planned tool path and therefore in a shape of insufficient quality. To predict and compensate these deviations offline, a model based approach, consisting of a finite element approach, to simulate the sheet forming, and a multi body system, modeling the compliant robot structure, has been developed. This paper describes the implementation and experimental verification of the multi body system model and its included compensation method.

  1. The ISS Increments 3 and 4 Test Report: For the Active Rack Isolation System ISS Characterization Experiment (ARIS-ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quraishi, Naveed; Allen, Jim; Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of ARIS-ICE is to improve, optimize then operationally test and document the performance of the ARIS system on the International Space Station. The ICE program required testing across a full 3 increments (2 through 4). This paper represents the operational report summarizing our accomplishments through the third and fourth increment of testing. The main objectives and results of the increment two testing are discussed in The Increment two Operational Report. This report can be obtained from the ISS Payloads Office or from (http://iss-www.isc.nasa.gov/sslissapt/payofc/OZ3/ARIS.html). In summary these were to ensure the smooth and successful activation of the system and correct operational issues related to long term testing. Then the follow on increment 3 & 4 testing encompassed the majority of the on orbit performance assessments and improvements made to the ARIS system. The intent here is to report these preliminary results of the increment 3 & 4 ARIS-ICE testing as well as the ARIS system improvements made for our users and customers.

  2. An incremental community detection method for social tagging systems using locality-sensitive hashing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenyu; Zou, Ming

    2014-10-01

    An increasing number of users interact, collaborate, and share information through social networks. Unprecedented growth in social networks is generating a significant amount of unstructured social data. From such data, distilling communities where users have common interests and tracking variations of users' interests over time are important research tracks in fields such as opinion mining, trend prediction, and personalized services. However, these tasks are extremely difficult considering the highly dynamic characteristics of the data. Existing community detection methods are time consuming, making it difficult to process data in real time. In this paper, dynamic unstructured data is modeled as a stream. Tag assignments stream clustering (TASC), an incremental scalable community detection method, is proposed based on locality-sensitive hashing. Both tags and latent interactions among users are incorporated in the method. In our experiments, the social dynamic behaviors of users are first analyzed. The proposed TASC method is then compared with state-of-the-art clustering methods such as StreamKmeans and incremental k-clique; results indicate that TASC can detect communities more efficiently and effectively. PMID:24930583

  3. Persistent Symptoms of Dengue: Estimates of the Incremental Disease and Economic Burden in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Tiga, D. Carolina; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Ramos-Castañeda, José; Martínez-Vega, Ruth A.; Tschampl, Cynthia A.; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is mostly considered an acute illness with three phases: febrile, critical with possible hemorrhagic manifestations, and recovery. But some patients present persistent symptoms, including fatigue and depression, as acknowledged by the World Health Organization. If persistent symptoms affect a non-negligible share of patients, the burden of dengue will be underestimated. On the basis of a systematic literature review and econometric modeling, we found a significant relationship between the share of patients reporting persisting symptoms and time. We updated estimates of the economic burden of dengue in Mexico, addressing uncertainty in productivity loss and incremental expenses using Monte Carlo simulations. Persistent symptoms represent annually about US$22.6 (95% certainty level [CL]: US$13–US$29) million in incremental costs and 28.2 (95% CL: 21.6–36.2) additional disability-adjusted life years per million population, or 13% and 43% increases over previous estimates, respectively. Although our estimates have uncertainty from limited data, they show a substantial, unmeasured burden. Similar patterns likely extend to other dengue-endemic countries. PMID:26976885

  4. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir From January to May 1997 (NASA Increment 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During NASA Increment 4 (January to May 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 28 optical disks which were returned to Earth on STS-84. During this increment, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE), the Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT), Angular Liquid Bridge (ALB), Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM), Diffusion Controlled Apparatus Module (DCAM), Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS), Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFT), Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD), Protein Crystal Growth in Dewar (PCG/Dewar), Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), and Technical Evaluation of MIM (TEM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-84 operations, a Progress engine burn, Soyuz vehicle docking and undocking, and Progress vehicle docking. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  5. Analytic ultracentrifuge calibration and determination of lipoprotein-specific refractive increments

    SciTech Connect

    Talwinder, S.K.; Adamson, G.L.; Glines, L.A.; Lindgren, F.T.; Laskaris, M.A.; Shore, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the major classes and subfractions of human serum lipoproteins is an important analytical need in the characterization and evaluation of therapy of lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities. For calibrating the analytic ultracentrifuge (AnUC), the authors routinely use a Beckman calibration wedge cell with parallel scribed lines 1 cm apart. Such a cell give a rectangular pattern in the schlieren diagram, which determines magnification and also provides an area corresponding to an invariant refractive increment. Complete calibration for AnUC analysis of lipoproteins also requires accurate determination of the specific refractive increments (SRI) of the major lipoprotein classes, namely low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). These are measured in the density in which they are analyzed, i.e., 1.061 g/ml for LDL and 1.200 g/ml for HDL. Five fresh serum samples were fractionated for total LDL and total HDL and their SRI determined. Total lipoprotein mass was determined using precise CHN elemental analysis and compositional analyses. The results yielded corrected SRI of 0.00142 and 0.00135 ..delta..n/g/100 ml for LDL and HDL. Thus, their current values using 0.00154 and 0.00149 ..delta..n/g/100 ml underestimate LDL and HDL by 9% and 11%. Corrections of all previous LDL and HDL AnUC data can be made using appropriate factors of 1.087 and 1.106.

  6. Proteomic analysis of rat skeletal muscle submitted to one bout of incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Gandra, P G; Valente, R H; Perales, J; Pacheco, A G; Macedo, D V

    2012-04-01

    Exercise can alter gene transcriptional and protein translational rates leading to changes in protein abundance toward adaptation to exercise. We investigated the alterations in protein abundance in skeletal muscle after one bout of an exhaustive exercise through proteomic analysis. Gastrocnemius muscles were sampled from non-exercised control rats and from rats exercised on a treadmill with incremental increases in speed until exhaustion (approximately 30 min). Rats were sacrificed 3 and 24 h after exercise cessation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and spots with a significant alteration in relative volume were identified by mass spectrometry. Six spots presented statistically significant altered abundances after exercise. The spots identified as the metabolic related proteins triosephosphate isomerase 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the β subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase E(1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 were all more abundant after exercise. One spot identified as heat shock cognate 70 was also more abundant after exercise. One spot demonstrated a decreased abundance after exercise and was identified as α-actin. These results suggest that a single session of exhaustive incremental exercise in untrained muscle can alter thin filaments synthesis/degradation rate and enhance cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins synthesis. The identified proteins may be important to a general preconditioning of skeletal muscle for subsequent exercise sessions. PMID:20973830

  7. Tracking and recognition face in videos with incremental local sparse representation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhaoxiang

    2013-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of tracking and recognizing faces via incremental local sparse representation. First a robust face tracking algorithm is proposed via employing local sparse appearance and covariance pooling method. In the following face recognition stage, with the employment of a novel template update strategy, which combines incremental subspace learning, our recognition algorithm adapts the template to appearance changes and reduces the influence of occlusion and illumination variation. This leads to a robust video-based face tracking and recognition with desirable performance. In the experiments, we test the quality of face recognition in real-world noisy videos on YouTube database, which includes 47 celebrities. Our proposed method produces a high face recognition rate at 95% of all videos. The proposed face tracking and recognition algorithms are also tested on a set of noisy videos under heavy occlusion and illumination variation. The tracking results on challenging benchmark videos demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods. In the case of the challenging dataset in which faces undergo occlusion and illumination variation, and tracking and recognition experiments under significant pose variation on the University of California, San Diego (Honda/UCSD) database, our proposed method also consistently demonstrates a high recognition rate.

  8. Incremental prognostic value of computed tomography in stroke: rationale and design of the IMPACTS study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Won; Hur, Jin; Choi, Sang Il; Chun, Eun Ju; Kang, Joon-Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Kim, Eun Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kang, Eun-Ju; Han, Kyunghwa; Lee, Hoon-Suk; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in ischemic stroke patients and to identify any incremental risk stratification benefits of CCTA findings compared with coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and traditional Framingham risk scores (FRS) in ischemic stroke patients without chest pain. IMPACTS is a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in which at least seven centers in Korea will participate. All participants will be enrolled in this study after providing informed consent. Nine hundred total ischemic stroke patients without chest pain will be enrolled and will undergo CACS and CCTA. All participants will be followed-up for a minimum of 24 months to determine the endpoints. The primary endpoint will be occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular events requiring hospitalization and revascularization either by percutaneous coronary intervention or by coronary artery bypass graft after 90 days of index testing during the follow-up period. Patient enrollment should be completed within 2.5 years. We plan to analyze and identify the CCTA predictors of MACEs. In addition, we will compare several models used to assess independent relationships between the variables and MACEs using a shared frailty model and therefore determine the incremental prognostic value of CCTA findings compared with either the CACS or FRS. The results of IMPACTS will provide valuable information for risk stratification with CCTA in ischemic stroke patients without chest pain. PMID:26910046

  9. An innovative privacy preserving technique for incremental datasets on cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Aldeen, Yousra Abdul Alsahib S; Salleh, Mazleena; Aljeroudi, Yazan

    2016-08-01

    Cloud computing (CC) is a magnificent service-based delivery with gigantic computer processing power and data storage across connected communications channels. It imparted overwhelming technological impetus in the internet (web) mediated IT industry, where users can easily share private data for further analysis and mining. Furthermore, user affable CC services enable to deploy sundry applications economically. Meanwhile, simple data sharing impelled various phishing attacks and malware assisted security threats. Some privacy sensitive applications like health services on cloud that are built with several economic and operational benefits necessitate enhanced security. Thus, absolute cyberspace security and mitigation against phishing blitz became mandatory to protect overall data privacy. Typically, diverse applications datasets are anonymized with better privacy to owners without providing all secrecy requirements to the newly added records. Some proposed techniques emphasized this issue by re-anonymizing the datasets from the scratch. The utmost privacy protection over incremental datasets on CC is far from being achieved. Certainly, the distribution of huge datasets volume across multiple storage nodes limits the privacy preservation. In this view, we propose a new anonymization technique to attain better privacy protection with high data utility over distributed and incremental datasets on CC. The proficiency of data privacy preservation and improved confidentiality requirements is demonstrated through performance evaluation. PMID:27369566

  10. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test. PMID:25660627

  11. The effects of adaptation and masking on incremental thresholds for contrast.

    PubMed

    Ross, J; Speed, H D; Morgan, M J

    1993-10-01

    Using a temporal two-alternative forced-choice procedure, we measured thresholds for detecting increments in contrast of a 2 c/deg vertical grating at a wide range of pedestal contrasts, (1) before and after adapting to a grating of the same orientation and spatial frequency, and (2) in the presence of superimposed masks that varied in either orientation or spatial frequency. The adapting grating and all masks were of fixed 40% contrast. The results show that prior adaptation and concurrent masking have qualitatively similar effects on incremental thresholds; both raise threshold at low pedestal contrasts and leave them unaltered at higher contrasts. But masks have greater effects than adaptors, the effect of an orthogonal mask, or one two octaves higher in spatial frequency, being about the same as a parallel adaptor of the same spatial frequency as the pedestal grating. The results are explained by a model of Ross and Speed [(1991) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 246, 61-69] that assumes that masks and adaptors both reposition the transducer function of contrast sensitive mechanisms and that masks, but not adaptors, also stimulate the detecting mechanism. PMID:8266646

  12. iPGA: incremental principal geodesic analysis with applications to movement disorder classification.

    PubMed

    Salehian, Hesamoddin; Vaillancourt, David; Vemuri, Baba C

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear version of the well known PCA called the Prinicipal Geodesic Analysis (PGA) was introduced in the past decade for statistical analysis of shapes as well as diffusion tensors. PGA of diffusion tensor fields or any other manifold-valued fields can be a computationally demanding task due to the dimensionality of the problem and thus establishing motivation for an incremental PGA (iPGA) algorithm. In this paper, we present a novel iPGA algorithm that incrementally updates the current Karcher mean and the principal sub-manifolds with any newly introduced data into the pool without having to recompute the PGA from scratch. We demonstrate substantial computational and memory savings of iPGA over the batch mode PGA for diffusion tensor fields via synthetic and real data examples. Further, we use the iPGA derived representation in an NN classifier to automatically discriminate between controls, Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor patients, given their HARDI brain scans. PMID:25485449

  13. Enhancement of Incremental Sheet Metal Forming Technology by Means of Stretch Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdos, L.; Sukia, A.; Otegi, N.; Ortubay, R.; Ruiz De La Torre, A.; Forgas, A.; Rastellini, F.

    2011-01-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new flexible sheet metal forming process mainly oriented to small batches production and prototyping. The technology has been conceived to enable flexible forming of sheet metal parts based on CNC governed punch movements, being the use of conventional milling machines possible if vertical maximum force is controlled. During the process, a simple shape punch is moved against the surface of the sheet, such that a localised deformation is caused, and the use of spatial punch movements enables the forming of complex 3D shapes. However, the process has some drawbacks: high geometrical inaccuracies, an emphasised problem in complex non-axisymmetric parts, poor final surface quality due to the friction between the punch and the blank, limitations to obtain steep walls and the need of large process times due to the nature of the process. In this paper, the stretch forming is used together with the Incremental Sheet Forming in order to overcome the process limitations, aiming to optimise the material flow and minimise the thinning. Numerical, Finite Element Modelling, and experimental results are presented using a real case study.

  14. Non-Incremental Derivation of Scale and Pose from a Network of Relative Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalu, A.; Fritsch, D.

    2014-08-01

    The majority of approaches to Structure from Motion apply an incremental triangulate-and-resect strategy in order to reconstruct camera motion and scene structure in a common reference frame. The sequential addition of images may cause a drifting behaviour during the reconstruction, in some cases causing the process to fail. Over the last decade, more attention has come to non-incremental approaches, which exploit the network characteristics arising from the 2- or 3-view relations, given for a set of images through relative orientations. Most approaches employ rotation registration, followed by translation registration. The latter being carried out with or without simultaneous scene reconstruction. We suggest an approach which starts by estimation of relative scales, followed by simultaneous registration of rotation and translation. The latter is achieved by employing a path-finding algorithm based on Ant- Colony-Optimization. For scale estimation we propose a window-search adaption of Levenberg-Marquardt, which avoids unnecessary matrix inversions. We also suggest a simple method for detection of outlier orientations.

  15. An integrated approach to identify protein complex based on best neighbour and modularity increment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjun; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Yanan; Yi, Yang; He, Tingting; Yang, Jincai

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of global modularity and the deficiency of local modularity, we propose a hybrid modularity measure Local-Global Quantification (LGQ) which considers global modularity and local modularity together. LGQ adopts a suitable module feature adjustable parameter to control the balance of global detecting capability and local search capability in Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) Network. Furthermore, we develop a new protein complex mining algorithm called Best Neighbour and Local-Global Quantification (BN-LGQ) which integrates the best neighbour node and modularity increment. BN-LGQ expands the protein complex by fast searching the best neighbour node of the current cluster and by calculating the modularity increment as a metric to determine whether the best neighbour node can join the current cluster. The experimental results show BN-LGQ performs a better accuracy on predicting protein complexes and has a higher match with the reference protein complexes than MCL and MCODE algorithms. Moreover, BN-LGQ can effectively discover protein complexes with better biological significance in the PPI network. PMID:26336669

  16. Incrementally developing a cultural and regulatory infrastructure for reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simberg, Rand

    1998-01-01

    At this point in time, technology is perhaps the least significant barrier to the development of high-flight-rate, reusable launchers, necessary for low-cost space access. Much more daunting are the issues of regulatory regimes, needed markets, and public/investor perception of their feasibility. The approach currently the focus of the government (X-33) assumes that the necessary conditions will be in place to support a new reusable launch vehicle in the Shuttle class at the end of the X-33 development. For a number of reasons (market size, lack of confidence in the technology, regulations designed for expendable vehicles, difficulties in capital formation) such an approach may prove too rapid a leap for success. More incremental steps, both experimental and operational, could be a higher-probability path to achieving the goal of cheap access through reusables. Such incrementalism, via intermediate vehicles (possibly multi-stage) exploiting suborbital and smaller-payload markets, could provide the gradual acclimatization of the public, regulatory and investment communities to reusable launchers, and build the confidence necessary to go on to subsequent steps to provide truly cheap access, while providing lower-cost access much sooner.

  17. The numerical investigation of the material behavior of high strength sheet materials in incremental forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Ossama Mamdouh; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Springback is an inevitable phenomenon in sheet metal forming and has been found to reduce with an increasing number of forming steps. In this study the effect of incremental forming on springback is analyzed for DP780 steel. The cyclic hardening characteristics of the DP780 steel are determined by fitting the experimental moment curvature data of a cyclic pure bending test using Abaqus Standard. The change in elastic modulus with pre-strain is also considered in the material model. Using the developed material model a V- die forming process is numerically analyzed for single and multiple-step forming, and the effect on springback determined. The numerical results show that there is a reduction in springback with an increasing number of forming steps, and that this may be due to the plastic strain accumulated in the blank during the sequential loading steps in the bending region. A very good agreement has been achieved between the simulation and the experimental results. The present study seems to offer an effective approach to increase the accuracy of the springback prediction and provide a greater insight into the nature of the springback in the incremental forming process.

  18. Incrementally learning objects by touch: online discriminative and generative models for tactile-based recognition.

    PubMed

    Soh, Harold; Demiris, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    Human beings not only possess the remarkable ability to distinguish objects through tactile feedback but are further able to improve upon recognition competence through experience. In this work, we explore tactile-based object recognition with learners capable of incremental learning. Using the sparse online infinite Echo-State Gaussian process (OIESGP), we propose and compare two novel discriminative and generative tactile learners that produce probability distributions over objects during object grasping/palpation. To enable iterative improvement, our online methods incorporate training samples as they become available. We also describe incremental unsupervised learning mechanisms, based on novelty scores and extreme value theory, when teacher labels are not available. We present experimental results for both supervised and unsupervised learning tasks using the iCub humanoid, with tactile sensors on its five-fingered anthropomorphic hand, and 10 different object classes. Our classifiers perform comparably to state-of-the-art methods (C4.5 and SVM classifiers) and findings indicate that tactile signals are highly relevant for making accurate object classifications. We also show that accurate "early" classifications are possible using only 20-30 percent of the grasp sequence. For unsupervised learning, our methods generate high quality clusterings relative to the widely-used sequential k-means and self-organising map (SOM), and we present analyses into the differences between the approaches. PMID:25532151

  19. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Innovatory Incremental-Forming Process Dedicated to the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyndler, Joanna; Grosman, Franciszek; Tkocz, Marek; Madej, Lukasz

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this work is development of the incremental-forming (IF) process for manufacturing integral elements applicable to the aerospace industry. A description of the proposed incremental-forming concept based on division of large die into a series of small anvils pressed into the material by a moving roll is presented within this article. A unique laboratory device has been developed to investigate the effects of process parameters on the material flow and the press loads. Additionally, a developed numerical model of this process with specific boundary conditions is also presented and validated to prove its predictive capabilities. However, main attention is placed on development of the process window. Thus, detailed investigation of the process parameters that can influence material behavior during plastic deformation, namely, roll size and roll frequency, is presented. Proper understanding of the material flow to improve the IF process, as well as press prototype, and to increase its technological readiness is the goal of this article. Results in the form of, e.g., strain distribution or recorded forging loads are presented and discussed.

  20. Contribution of litter and tree diameter increment in the eastern Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, P. B.; Ferreira, M.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Alves, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests have a great importance in the global carbon cycle, especially with regard to biomass. Some models predict that these forests can be vulnerable to carbon loss due to global warming-induced drought increases, while others contradict this theory. So, it is necessary to assess changes in carbon storage over time to better understand the future trends of this scenario. In this sense, this work has as its main objective the evaluation of tree diameter increment and the amount of litter, in a region of the eastern Amazon rainforest. 1000 dendometric trees bands were installed in different taxonomic families and size classes over four transects represent 4 ha each, as well as 60 collectors (litter traps). The trees of the forest had a higher growth in November and a smaller diameter increment in the month of September. The trees of the size class 55-90 cm were the most grown up followed by class > 90 cm trees. A likely factor that drove this episode was the height of the canopy of these trees. Pearson's correlation analysis showed correlation of 55-90 cm class with temperature and precipitation. The production of litter has an average production within the range found in the literature between 200 and 1700 kg.ha.ano-1. Further studies are needed in order to understand more clearly, what are the key factors that drive or limit the growth of tree species in the Amazon.

  1. Targeted revision: A learning-based approach for incremental community detection in dynamic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jiaxing; Liu, Lianchen; Li, Xin; Xie, Feng; Wu, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Community detection is a fundamental task in network analysis. Applications on massive dynamic networks require more efficient solutions and lead to incremental community detection, which revises the community assignments of new or changed vertices during network updates. In this paper, we propose to use machine learning classifiers to predict the vertices that need to be inspected for community assignment revision. This learning-based targeted revision (LBTR) approach aims to improve community detection efficiency by filtering out the unchanged vertices from unnecessary processing. In this paper, we design features that can be used for efficient target classification and analyze the time complexity of our framework. We conduct experiments on two real-world datasets, which show our LBTR approach significantly reduces the computational time while keeping a high community detection quality. Furthermore, as compared with the benchmarks, we find our approach's performance is stable on both growing networks and networks with vertex/edge removals. Experiments suggest that one should increase the target classification precision while keeping recall at a reasonable level when implementing our proposed approach. The study provides a unique perspective in incremental community detection.

  2. Considerations for Using an Incremental Scheduler for Human Exploration Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks.

  3. Right ventricular dysfunction: an independent and incremental predictor of cardiac deaths late after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Gianluca; Siciliano, Valeria; Aquaro, Giovanni D; De Marchi, Daniele; Rovai, Daniele; Carerj, Scipione; Molinaro, Sabrina; Lombardi, Massimo; Pingitore, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    Prognostic implication of right ventricular dysfunction and infarction scar in the chronic phase of the myocardial infarction has been little analyzed. In 299 consecutive patients (age 63 ± 11 years) with >3 months old myocardial infarction, we quantified right and left ventricular volumes and ejection fractions by cine cardiac magnetic resonance, and right and left ventricular scar tissue by late gadolinium enhancement. During follow-up (median, 2.4 years) cardiac events (cardiac-related deaths or appropriate intra-cardiac defibrillator shocks) occurred in 21 patients. Right ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction lower the reference mean values-2 SD) was present in 67 patients (22 %), right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement was observed in 15 patients (5 %). After adjustment for left ventricular end-diastolic volume, wall motion score index, and global extent of late gadolinium enhancement, right ventricular dysfunction was an independent and incremental predictor of cardiac events (p = 0.0053), while right ventricular scar tissue extent was not. Right ventricular dysfunction is an independent and incremental predictor of cardiac events also in the chronic phase of the myocardial infarction. In these patients, right ventricular dysfunction does not necessarily mean right ventricular infarction scar, but likely reflects the effects of hemodynamic and biohumoral factors. PMID:25348657

  4. Tool path influence on electric pulse aided deformation during incremental sheet metal forming

    SciTech Connect

    Asgar, J.; Lingam, R. Reddy, V. N.

    2013-12-16

    Titanium and its alloys are difficult to form at room temperature due to their high flow stress. Super plastic deformation of Ti alloys involves low strain rate forming at very high temperatures which need special tooling which can withstand high temperatures. It was observed that when high current density electric pulse is applied during deformation it reduces the flow stress through electron-dislocation interaction. This phenomenon is known as electro-plasticity. In the present work, importance of tool configuration to enhance the formability without much resistive heating is demonstrated for Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISMF). Tool configuration is selected to minimize the current carrying zone in DC pulse aided incremental forming to enhance the formability due to electro plasticity and the same is demonstrated by forming two pyramid shaped components of 30° and 45° wall angles using a Titanium alloy sheet of 0.6 mm thickness. Load measurement indicated that a critical current density is essential for the electro-plasticity to be effective and the same is realized with the load and temperature measurements.

  5. Prediction of soft tissue deformations after CMF surgery with incremental kernel ridge regression.

    PubMed

    Pan, Binbin; Zhang, Guangming; Xia, James J; Yuan, Peng; Ip, Horace H S; He, Qizhen; Lee, Philip K M; Chow, Ben; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Facial soft tissue deformation following osteotomy is associated with the corresponding biomechanical characteristics of bone and soft tissues. However, none of the methods devised to predict soft tissue deformation after osteotomy incorporates population-based statistical data. The aim of this study is to establish a statistical model to describe the relationship between biomechanical characteristics and soft tissue deformation after osteotomy. We proposed an incremental kernel ridge regression (IKRR) model to accomplish this goal. The input of the model is the biomechanical information computed by the Finite Element Method (FEM). The output is the soft tissue deformation generated from the paired pre-operative and post-operative 3D images. The model is adjusted incrementally with each new patient's biomechanical information. Therefore, the IKRR model enables us to predict potential soft tissue deformations for new patient by using both biomechanical and statistical information. The integration of these two types of data is critically important for accurate simulations of soft-tissue changes after surgery. The proposed method was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation using data from 11 patients. The average prediction error of our model (0.9103mm) was lower than some state-of-the-art algorithms. This model is promising as a reliable way to prevent the risk of facial distortion after craniomaxillofacial surgery. PMID:27213920

  6. A Novel Classification Algorithm Based on Incremental Semi-Supervised Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Mei, Jingyuan; Sun, Jinping; Wang, Jun; Yang, Erfu; Hussain, Amir

    2015-01-01

    For current computational intelligence techniques, a major challenge is how to learn new concepts in changing environment. Traditional learning schemes could not adequately address this problem due to a lack of dynamic data selection mechanism. In this paper, inspired by human learning process, a novel classification algorithm based on incremental semi-supervised support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. Through the analysis of prediction confidence of samples and data distribution in a changing environment, a “soft-start” approach, a data selection mechanism and a data cleaning mechanism are designed, which complete the construction of our incremental semi-supervised learning system. Noticeably, with the ingenious design procedure of our proposed algorithm, the computation complexity is reduced effectively. In addition, for the possible appearance of some new labeled samples in the learning process, a detailed analysis is also carried out. The results show that our algorithm does not rely on the model of sample distribution, has an extremely low rate of introducing wrong semi-labeled samples and can effectively make use of the unlabeled samples to enrich the knowledge system of classifier and improve the accuracy rate. Moreover, our method also has outstanding generalization performance and the ability to overcome the concept drift in a changing environment. PMID:26275294

  7. a New Approach for AN Incremental Orientation of Micro-Uav Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, M.; Unger, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2014-03-01

    Civil applications for small size unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become quite important in recent years and so have accurate orientation and navigation of these devices in unknown terrain. In this work we focus on on-line compatible positioning in facade observation based on monocular low resolution still images acquired by a camera mounted on a UAV. Also, a 3D point cloud of the facade is generated. This allows further processing steps, e.g. navigation assistance, collision avoidance or the evaluation of the point cloud density, verifying completeness of the data. To be able to deal with the increasing amount of observations and unknown parameters we implement an incremental bundle adjustment based on automatically determined tie points and sliding image triplets. The tripletwise orientation allows for an efficient double cross-check of the detected feature points and hence guarantees reliable initial values for the nonlinear bundle adjustment. The initial values are estimated within a convex formulation delivering a sound basis for the incremental adjustment. Our algorithm is evaluated by means of imagery we took of the facade of the Welfenschloss in Hannover, captured from a manually flown Microdrones md4-200 micro-UAV.We compare the orientation results of our approach with an approach in which initial values for the unknown object coordinates are computed algebraically.

  8. Incremental Validity of Positive and Negative Valence in Predicting Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Leonard J.; Yufik, Tom; Gros, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The Big Seven model of personality includes five dimensions similar to the Big Five model as well as two evaluative dimensions—Positive Valence (PV) and Negative Valence (NV)—which reflect extremely positive and negative person descriptors, respectively. Recent theory and research have suggested that PV and NV predict significant variance in personality disorder (PD) above that predicted by the Big Five, but firm conclusions have not been possible because previous studies have been limited to only single measures of PV, NV, and the Big Five traits. In the present study, we replicated and extended previous findings using three markers of all key constructs—including PV, NV, and the Big Five—in a diverse sample of 338 undergraduates. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that PV incrementally predicted Narcissistic and Histrionic PDs above the Big Five and that NV non-specifically incremented the prediction of most PDs. Implications for dimensional models of personality pathology are discussed. PMID:20730038

  9. Persistent Symptoms of Dengue: Estimates of the Incremental Disease and Economic Burden in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tiga, D Carolina; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Ramos-Castañeda, José; Martínez-Vega, Ruth A; Tschampl, Cynthia A; Shepard, Donald S

    2016-05-01

    Dengue is mostly considered an acute illness with three phases: febrile, critical with possible hemorrhagic manifestations, and recovery. But some patients present persistent symptoms, including fatigue and depression, as acknowledged by the World Health Organization. If persistent symptoms affect a non-negligible share of patients, the burden of dengue will be underestimated. On the basis of a systematic literature review and econometric modeling, we found a significant relationship between the share of patients reporting persisting symptoms and time. We updated estimates of the economic burden of dengue in Mexico, addressing uncertainty in productivity loss and incremental expenses using Monte Carlo simulations. Persistent symptoms represent annually about US$22.6 (95% certainty level [CL]: US$13-US$29) million in incremental costs and 28.2 (95% CL: 21.6-36.2) additional disability-adjusted life years per million population, or 13% and 43% increases over previous estimates, respectively. Although our estimates have uncertainty from limited data, they show a substantial, unmeasured burden. Similar patterns likely extend to other dengue-endemic countries. PMID:26976885

  10. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on ventilation and gas exchange during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Dodd, S; Powers, S; O'Malley, N; Brooks, E; Sommers, H

    1988-08-01

    Controversy exists concerning the effects of acute beta-adrenergic blockade on ventilation during exercise. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute beta blockade on ventilation and gas exchange during incremental exercise. Nine male subjects underwent incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer (30 W.min-1) to exhaustion, with one trial being performed 60 min after the subject ingested propranolol hydrochloride (Inderal 1 mg.kg-1 BW) while the second test served as control. The treatment order was counterbalanced to preclude any ordering effect on the results, and 1 week separated the tests. Ventilation and gas exchange were monitored by open circuit techniques. No difference (p greater than 0.05) existed in VE, % Hb sat, VCO2, ventilatory threshold, and VE/VCO2 between treatments at the same exercise stage. VO2max was lowered from 3.82 to 3.26 l.min-1 (p less than 0.05) and HRmax was reduced from 190 to 150 bpm (p less than 0.05) as a result of beta blockade. These data suggested that acute beta blockade had no effect on exercise ventilation, but decreased HRmax at comparable work rates. In addition, VO2max and exercise time to exhaustion were hindered, probably due to beta blockade limitation of HRmax, and, thus, oxygen transport. PMID:3178619

  11. An approach to robot SLAM based on incremental appearance learning with omnidirectional vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hua; Qin, Shi-Yin

    2011-03-01

    Localisation and mapping with an omnidirectional camera becomes more difficult as the landmark appearances change dramatically in the omnidirectional image. With conventional techniques, it is difficult to match the features of the landmark with the template. We present a novel robot simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) algorithm with an omnidirectional camera, which uses incremental landmark appearance learning to provide posterior probability distribution for estimating the robot pose under a particle filtering framework. The major contribution of our work is to represent the posterior estimation of the robot pose by incremental probabilistic principal component analysis, which can be naturally incorporated into the particle filtering algorithm for robot SLAM. Moreover, the innovative method of this article allows the adoption of the severe distorted landmark appearances viewed with omnidirectional camera for robot SLAM. The experimental results demonstrate that the localisation error is less than 1 cm in an indoor environment using five landmarks, and the location of the landmark appearances can be estimated within 5 pixels deviation from the ground truth in the omnidirectional image at a fairly fast speed.

  12. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-06-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  13. Data Mining, Reasoning and Incremental Information Retrieval through Non Enlargeable Rectangular Relation Coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaoua, Ali; Duwairi, Rehab; Elloumi, Samir; Yahia, Sadok Ben

    Association rules extraction from a binary relation as well as reasoning and information retrieval are generally based on the initial representation of the binary relation as an adjacency matrix. This presents some inconvenience in terms of space memory and knowledge organization. A coverage of a binary relation by a minimal number of non enlargeable rectangles generally reduces memory space consumption without any loss of information. It also has the advantage of organizing objects and attributes contained in the binary relation into a conceptual representation. In this paper, we propose new algorithms to extract association rules (i.e. data mining), conclusions from initial attributes (i.e. reasoning), as well as retrieving the total objects satisfying some initial attributes, by using only the minimal coverage. Finally we propose an incremental approximate algorithm to update a binary relation organized as a set of non enlargeable rectangles. Two main operations are mostly used during the organization process: First, separation of existing rectangles when we delete some pairs. Second, join of rectangles when common properties are discovered, after addition or removal of elements from a binary context. The objective is the minimization of the number of rectangles and the maximization of their structure. The article also raises the problems of equational modeling of the minimization criteria, as well as incrementally providing equations to maintain them.

  14. Investigation of the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frames using the incremental dynamic analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheidaii, Mohammad Reza; TahamouliRoudsari, Mehrzad; Gordini, Mehrdad

    2016-03-01

    In knee braced frames, the braces are attached to the knee element rather than the intersection of beams and columns. This bracing system is widely used and preferred over the other commonly used systems for reasons such as having lateral stiffness while having adequate ductility, damage concentration on the second degree convenience of repairing and replacing of these elements after Earthquake. The lateral stiffness of this system is supplied by the bracing member and the ductility of the frame attached to the knee length is supplied through the bending or shear yield of the knee member. In this paper, the nonlinear seismic behavior of knee braced frame systems has been investigated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and the effects of the number of stories in a building, length and the moment of inertia of the knee member on the seismic behavior, elastic stiffness, ductility and the probability of failure of these systems has been determined. In the incremental dynamic analysis, after plotting the IDA diagrams of the accelerograms, the collapse diagrams in the limit states are determined. These diagrams yield that for a constant knee length with reduced moment of inertia, the probability of collapse in limit states heightens and also for a constant knee moment of inertia with increasing length, the probability of collapse in limit states increases.

  15. Incremental Learning of Cellular Automata for Parallel Recognition of Formal Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Imada, Keita

    Parallel language recognition by cellular automata (CAs) is currently an important subject in computation theory. This paper describes incremental learning of one-dimensional, bounded, one-way, cellular automata (OCAs) that recognize formal languages from positive and negative sample strings. The objectives of this work are to develop automatic synthesis of parallel systems and to contribute to the theory of real-time recognition by cellular automata. We implemented methods to learn the rules of OCAs in the Occam system, which is based on grammatical inference of context-free grammars (CFGs) implemented in Synapse. An important feature of Occam is incremental learning by a rule generation mechanism called bridging and the search for rule sets. The bridging looks for and fills gaps in incomplete space-time transition diagrams for positive samples. Another feature of our approach is that the system synthesizes minimal or semi-minimal rule sets of CAs. This paper reports experimental results on learning several OCAs for fundamental formal languages including sets of balanced parentheses and palindromes as well as the set {a n b n c n | n ≥ 1}.

  16. A Parallel and Incremental Approach for Data-Intensive Learning of Bayesian Networks.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kun; Fang, Qiyu; Wang, Xiaoling; Li, Jin; Liu, Weiyi

    2015-12-01

    Bayesian network (BN) has been adopted as the underlying model for representing and inferring uncertain knowledge. As the basis of realistic applications centered on probabilistic inferences, learning a BN from data is a critical subject of machine learning, artificial intelligence, and big data paradigms. Currently, it is necessary to extend the classical methods for learning BNs with respect to data-intensive computing or in cloud environments. In this paper, we propose a parallel and incremental approach for data-intensive learning of BNs from massive, distributed, and dynamically changing data by extending the classical scoring and search algorithm and using MapReduce. First, we adopt the minimum description length as the scoring metric and give the two-pass MapReduce-based algorithms for computing the required marginal probabilities and scoring the candidate graphical model from sample data. Then, we give the corresponding strategy for extending the classical hill-climbing algorithm to obtain the optimal structure, as well as that for storing a BN by pairs. Further, in view of the dynamic characteristics of the changing data, we give the concept of influence degree to measure the coincidence of the current BN with new data, and then propose the corresponding two-pass MapReduce-based algorithms for BNs incremental learning. Experimental results show the efficiency, scalability, and effectiveness of our methods. PMID:25622335

  17. Smart sampling and incremental function learning for very large high dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Loyola R, Diego G; Pedergnana, Mattia; Gimeno García, Sebastián

    2016-06-01

    Very large high dimensional data are common nowadays and they impose new challenges to data-driven and data-intensive algorithms. Computational Intelligence techniques have the potential to provide powerful tools for addressing these challenges, but the current literature focuses mainly on handling scalability issues related to data volume in terms of sample size for classification tasks. This work presents a systematic and comprehensive approach for optimally handling regression tasks with very large high dimensional data. The proposed approach is based on smart sampling techniques for minimizing the number of samples to be generated by using an iterative approach that creates new sample sets until the input and output space of the function to be approximated are optimally covered. Incremental function learning takes place in each sampling iteration, the new samples are used to fine tune the regression results of the function learning algorithm. The accuracy and confidence levels of the resulting approximation function are assessed using the probably approximately correct computation framework. The smart sampling and incremental function learning techniques can be easily used in practical applications and scale well in the case of extremely large data. The feasibility and good results of the proposed techniques are demonstrated using benchmark functions as well as functions from real-world problems. PMID:26476936

  18. Markovian properties of velocity increments in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredbo, Maren; Tutkun, Murat

    2010-11-01

    Statistics of velocity increments in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer are investigated using the theory of Markov processes (J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 433, pp. 383-409, 2001). The database analyzed here is a subset of data taken in the 20 m long wind tunnel of Laboratoire de M'ecanique de Lille (LML) using a hot-wire rake of 143 single wire probes. The Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ, tested in this study was 19:100. The freestream velocity of the tunnel and the boundary layer thickness at the measurement location were 10 m s-1 and 30 cm respectively. Our analysis on the increments of longitudinal velocities at different wall-normal positions show that the flow exhibits Markovian properties when the separation (δr) between different scales is on the order of the Taylor microscale, λ. Initial results indicate that smallest δr/λ, where the process can be defined as Markovian, decreases from wall to the inertial layer. As the probe moves inside the inertial layer, however, a constant δr/λ is observed. The ratio starts growing in the outer layer once the probe leaves the inertial layer.

  19. Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test*

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Daniel Machado; Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo; Pereira, Monica Corso; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. RESULTS: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity. PMID:24068265

  20. Cervical Interfacial Bonding Effectiveness of Class II Bulk Versus Incremental Fill Resin Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, F; Kaisarly, D; Michna, A; ArRejaie, A; Bader, D; El Gezawi, M

    2015-01-01

    Cervical interfacial bonding quality has been a matter of deep concern. The purpose of this study was to analyze microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and cervical interfacial gap distance (IGD) of bulk-fill vs incremental-fill Class II composite restorations. Box-only Class II cavities were prepared in 91 maxillary premolars (n = 7) with gingival margin placement 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction at one side and 1 mm below it on the other side. Eighty-four maxillary premolars were divided into self-etch and total-etch groups and further subdivided into six restorative material subgroups used incrementally and with an open-sandwich technique: group 1, Tetric Ceram HB (TC) as a control; group 2, Tetric EvoFlow (EF); group 3, SDR Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR); group 4, SonicFill (SF); group 5, Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TN); and group 6, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TE). Groups 2-6 were bulk-fill restoratives. Tetric N-Bond Self-Etch (se) and Tetric N-Bond total-etch (te) adhesive were used in subgroups 1-5, whereas AdheSE (se) and ExciTE F (te) were used in subgroup 6. In an additional group, Filtek P90 Low Shrink Restorative (P90) was used only with its corresponding self-etch bond. The materials were manipulated, light-cured (1600 mW/cm(2)), artificially aged (thermal and occlusal load-cycling), and sectioned. Two microrods/restoration (n = 14/group) were tested for MTBS at a crosshead-speed of 0.5 mm/min (Instron testing machine). Fracture loads were recorded (Newtons), and MTSBs were calculated (Megapascals). Means were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, Conover-Inman post hoc analysis for MTBS (multiple comparisons), and Mann-Whitney U test for IGD. The ends of the fractures were examined for failure mode. One microrod/restoration (n = 7/group) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (×1200) for IGD. MTBS values for SF/te, P90 in enamel, and TC+SDR/te in enamel and cementum were significantly higher compared with those for the control TC

  1. Tree Diametric Increment and Litterfall Production in an Eastern Amazonian Forest: the Role of Functional Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, P. B. D.; Ferreira, M. L.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tree growth is a biotic variable of great importance in understanding the dynamics of tree communities and may be used as a tool in studies of biological or climate modeling. Some climate models predict more recurrent climate anomalies in this century, which may alter the functioning of tropical forests with serious structural and demographic implications. The present study aimed to evaluate the profile of tree growth and litterfall production in an eastern Amazon forest, which has suffered recent climatic disturbances. We contrasted different functional groups based on wood density (stem with 0.55; 0.56-0.7; >0.7 g cm-3), light availability (crown illumination index; high illuminated crown - IIC1 until shaded crown - IIC5), and, size class (trees 10-22.5; 22.6-35; 35.1-55; 55,1-90; >90 cm dbh). Tree diameter increment was monthly measured from November 2011 to September 2013 by using dendrometer bands installed on 850 individuals from different families. Litterfall was collected in 64 circular traps, oven dried and weighed, separated into leaves, twigs, reproductive parts and miscellaneous. During the rainy season the sampled trees had the highest rates of tree diametric increment. When analyzing the data by functional groups, large trees had faster growth, but when grouped by wood density, trees with wood density up to 0.55 and between 0.56 and 0.7 g cm-3 had the fastest rates of growth. When grouped by crown illumination index, trees exposed to higher levels of light grew more in comparison to partially shaded trees. Maximum daily air temperature and precipitation were the most important environmental variables in determining the diametric increment profile of the trees. Litterfall production was estimated to be 7.1 Mg ha-1.year-1 and showed a strong seasonal pattern, with dry season production being higher than in the rainy season. Leaves formed the largest fraction of the litterfall, followed by twigs, reproductive parts, and finally miscellaneous. These

  2. Effects of two field continuous incremental tests on cardiorespiratory responses in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Fortier, J; Goachet, A G; Julliand, V; Deley, G

    2015-04-01

    In humans, cardiorespiratory responses are widely evaluated from field incremental exercise tests. On the contrary, equine exercise physiology faces a huge lack of oxygen consumption measurements (VO2) in field conditions due to technical concerns. The aim of this study was to test the effects of two incremental continuous field tests on cardiorespiratory responses in Standardbred trotters. The two protocols were realized at trot and ended when horses galloped. The tests started at 4.2 m/s (T1) and 6.4 m/s (T2), with speed increments of 1.4 m/s every 3 min for T1 and 0.8 m/s every 2 min for T2. Velocity (v), heart rate (HR) and gas exchanges were recorded continuously, and blood lactate concentration [La(-)] was measured before and after tests. Values recorded at the end of the tests were considered as peak values. The vpeak values were 10.6 ± 0.3 and 10.7 ± 0.7 m/s for T1 and T2 respectively. Horses reached higher VO2peak (T1: 116.6 ± 11.5 ml/min/kg; T2: 88.9 ± 10.2 ml/min/kg; p < 0.05) and HRpeak (T1: 217 ± 5 bpm; T2: 209 ± 3 bpm; p < 0.05) during T1 compared with T2. T1 was significantly longer than T2 (17.5 ± 1.9 vs. 12.9 ± 1.6 min respectively, p < 0.01), and the number of steps entirely ran tended to be different (T1: 5.6 ± 0.6; T2: 6.2 ± 0.8, p = 0.07). Compared to T2, the design of T1 appeared easier to implement and allowed higher cardiorespiratory responses. The relationship between HR-VO2 obtained through T1 gave a better correlation between the two variables than T2. These findings suggest that T1 might be better than T2 for evaluating cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise and for estimating aerobic energy expenditure in exercising trotters. PMID:25154293

  3. Prognostic testing in coronary artery disease: An analysis of the relationship between increments in cost and information

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    Tests analyzed include stress electrocardiography (ECG), thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, and technetium wall motion scintigraphy. The incremental value of each test was evaluated using staged survival regression and was measured as the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. This approach is preferable to one based on sensitivity and specificity derived from heterogeneous populations, or from approaches that report the most powerful predictor obtained from stepwise regression. Cost-effectiveness for each test was assessed as the increment of ROC area divided by the marginal cost. Three populations were studied. In the thallium population, a significant increment in ROC area was added at each stage of testing; more prognostic information was added by ECG than by thallium. In the technetium population, ECG added a significant increment of ROC area, but technetium did not. In the population receiving both nuclear, more incremental information was added by thallium than by technetium. Thallium was found to be more cost-effective than technetium; thus, it is preferred for assessing prognosis in patients with suspected disease.

  4. Identification of growth increments in the shell of the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica using backscattered electron imaging.

    PubMed

    Karney, G B; Butler, P G; Scourse, J D; Richardson, C A; Lau, K H; Czernuszka, J T; Grovenor, C R M

    2011-01-01

    Annually resolved growth increments in the shell of the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica have previously been used in combination with geochemical measurements to successfully construct high-resolution proxy records of past marine environmental conditions. However, to ensure the accuracy of these paleoenvironmental reconstructions it is essential that the annual growth series of increments within the examined shells are reliably identified, and can be distinguished from spurious lines caused by nonannual perturbations such as those resulting from storm disturbance. The current methods used for identifying the growth increment series are sometimes compromised because of ambiguity that results from the employed preparation methods. Here it is shown that backscattered electron imaging of polished shell cross sections may be used to clearly discriminate between the two compositionally and structurally distinct increments that comprise 1 year of outer shell growth. This method, involving minimal specimen preparation, is likely to be primarily useful as a validation technique of particular value in cases where increment identification using existing methods is difficult or ambiguous. PMID:21118202

  5. Predicting DMS-IV cluster B personality disorder criteria from MMPI-2 and Rorschach data: a test of incremental validity.

    PubMed

    Blais, M A; Hilsenroth, M J; Castlebury, F; Fowler, J C; Baity, M R

    2001-02-01

    Despite their frequent conjoint clinical use, the incremental validity of Rorschach (Rorschach, 1921/1942) and MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) data has not been adequately established, nor has any study to date explored the incremental validity of these tests for predicting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders (PDs). In a reanalysis of existing data, we used select Rorschach variables and the MMPI PD scales to predict DSM-IV antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PD criteria in a sample of treatment-seeking outpatients. The correlational findings revealed alimited relation between Rorschach and MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) variables, with only 5 of 30 correlations reaching significance (p <.05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both the MMPI and Rorschach data add incrementally in the prediction of DSM-IV borderline and narcissistic PD total criteria scores. The findings were less clear for the incremental value of Rorschach and MMPI-2 data in predicting the total number of DSM-IV histrionic PD criteria, which were best predicted by Rorschach data, and antisocial PD criteria, which were best predicted by MMPI-2 data. In addition to providing evidence of the incremental validity of Rorschach data, these findings also shed light on the psychological characteristics of the DSM-IV Cluster B PDs. PMID:11206295

  6. An incremental-secant mean-field homogenization method with second statistical moments for elasto-plastic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Doghri, I.; Noels, L.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the incremental-secant mean-field homogenization (MFH) scheme recently developed by the authors is extended to account for second statistical moments. The incremental-secant MFH method possesses several advantages compared to other MFH methods. Indeed the method can handle non-proportional and non-monotonic loadings, while the instantaneous stiffness operators used in the Eshelby tensor are naturally isotropic, avoiding the isotropization approximation required by the affine and incremental-tangent methods. Moreover, the incremental-secant MFH formalism was shown to be able to account for material softening when extended to include a non-local damage model in the matrix phase, thus enabling an accurate simulation of the onset and evolution of damage across the scales. In this work, by accounting for a second statistical moment estimation of the current yield stress in the composite phases, the plastic flow computation allows capturing with a better accuracy the plastic yield in the composite material phases, which in turn improves the accuracy of the predictions, mainly in the case of short fibre composite materials. The incremental-secant MFH can thus be used to model a wide variety of composite material systems with a good accuracy.

  7. Roles of different sources of social support on caries experience and caries increment in adolescents of East london.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Stansfeld, S A; Marcenes, W

    2011-01-01

    Evidence on the contribution of social support to oral health is scarce. We first explored the association of social support with caries experience and the relative roles of support from family, friends and a special person on caries experience in 15-16-year-old adolescents. We then explored whether social support at 11-12 years of age predicts caries increment in second permanent molars over 4 years and the relative roles of different sources of support on 4-year caries increment. Data from phases 1 and 3 of the Research with East London Adolescents Community Health Survey (RELACHS), a school-based prospective study of a representative sample of adolescents in East London, were used for cross-sectional (phase 3) and longitudinal analyses (phases 1 and 3). Data were collected by questionnaires including the same questions on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic measures and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support at phases 1 and 3. A questionnaire section on dental behaviours and an oral clinical examination were also included in phase 3. Social support was negatively related to both caries experience and increment independently of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic measures and dental behaviours. Furthermore, only support from a special person was significantly related to caries experience and increment in unadjusted and adjusted regression models. In conclusion, adolescents who perceived higher levels of social support had lower caries experience and increment. However, support from a special person was more relevant for these adolescents than support from family and peers. PMID:21846986

  8. The incremental unknowns-a multilevel scheme for the simulation of turbulent channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Choi, H.; Dubois, T.; Shen, J.; Temam, R.

    1996-01-01

    In numerical simulation of complex flows, it is important to identify different length scales of the flow and treat them differently. In this report, we introduce a new multilevel scheme for simulating turbulent channel flows. Two different versions of the scheme, namely the spectral and finite difference versions, are presented. The spectral version of the scheme is based on a spectral-Galerkin formulation which provides a natural decomposition of the flow into small and large wavelength parts, and which leads to linear systems that can be solved with quasi-optimal computational complexity. In the finite difference version, the Incremental Unknown (IU) is used to separate the length scales. Preliminary numerical results indicate that the scheme is well suited for turbulence computations and provides results which are comparable to that by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) but with significantly less CPU time.

  9. Incremental Principal Component Analysis Based Outlier Detection Methods for Spatiotemporal Data Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, A.; Sharker, M. H.; Karimi, H. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we address outliers in spatiotemporal data streams obtained from sensors placed across geographically distributed locations. Outliers may appear in such sensor data due to various reasons such as instrumental error and environmental change. Real-time detection of these outliers is essential to prevent propagation of errors in subsequent analyses and results. Incremental Principal Component Analysis (IPCA) is one possible approach for detecting outliers in such type of spatiotemporal data streams. IPCA has been widely used in many real-time applications such as credit card fraud detection, pattern recognition, and image analysis. However, the suitability of applying IPCA for outlier detection in spatiotemporal data streams is unknown and needs to be investigated. To fill this research gap, this paper contributes by presenting two new IPCA-based outlier detection methods and performing a comparative analysis with the existing IPCA-based outlier detection methods to assess their suitability for spatiotemporal sensor data streams.

  10. Oxygenation of the calf muscle during an incremental, intermittent walking exercise assessed by NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härtel, S.; Kutzner, C.; Schneider, D.; Grieger, S.; Neumaier, M.; Kohl-Bareis, M.

    2011-07-01

    We use near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the non-invasive assessment of calf oxygenation during a new walking protocol in healthy subjects of different fitness levels. The protocol increases the exercise power by an increase of the skew rather than speed, and the incremental power steps are intermitted by a 30 s rest which serves for blood sampling. The NIRS measurement parameter of tissue oxygenation are discussed, and a high correlation of the oxygen saturation (tissue oxygenation index) difference between exercise and rest period with exercise power is observed. This difference parameter can be interpreted as strongly linked to blood flow rather than oxygenation. This finding is supported by comparison with spirometry data. The effect of training is discussed. The exercise protocol is suited for testing unfit, or older subjects and the data discussed here servers as a test for a larger trial with heart clinic patients.

  11. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested-simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing costs associated with parsing noncanonical word orders and (2) these costs are incurred during the incremental integration of constituents into developing sentence representations. Experiment 2 indicated (1) that antecedents are provisionally assigned to empty subjects in Japanese control sentences before verb information becomes available and (2) that this process is guided by an object control bias. Taken together, these findings are interpreted to suggest an important role for preverbal analysis in the processing of displaced constituents and of referential properties for empty elements in head-final languages. PMID:25794495

  12. An intrinsic value system for developing multiple invariant representations with incremental slowness learning

    PubMed Central

    Luciw, Matthew; Kompella, Varun; Kazerounian, Sohrob; Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Curiosity Driven Modular Incremental Slow Feature Analysis (CD-MISFA;) is a recently introduced model of intrinsically-motivated invariance learning. Artificial curiosity enables the orderly formation of multiple stable sensory representations to simplify the agent's complex sensory input. We discuss computational properties of the CD-MISFA model itself as well as neurophysiological analogs fulfilling similar functional roles. CD-MISFA combines 1. unsupervised representation learning through the slowness principle, 2. generation of an intrinsic reward signal through learning progress of the developing features, and 3. balancing of exploration and exploitation to maximize learning progress and quickly learn multiple feature sets for perceptual simplification. Experimental results on synthetic observations and on the iCub robot show that the intrinsic value system is essential for representation learning. Representations are typically explored and learned in order from least to most costly, as predicted by the theory of curiosity. PMID:23755011

  13. Relentless Incrementalism: Shifting Front-Line Culture from Institutional to Recovery-Oriented Mental Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Corring, Deborah J; Speziale, Jennifer; Desjardins, Nina; Rudnick, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    St. Joseph's Health Care London is a publicly funded hospital that has led mental health service system transformation in south west Ontario following directives from the Health Services Restructuring Commission (HSRC). This paper documents how provincial policy, HSRC directives, organizational planning, research projects, quality initiatives and change management activities drove, shaped and accomplished a cultural shift at the front line to recovery-focused care. Simultaneous to these activities, beds and related ambulatory services were divested to four other hospitals, beds and employment services were closed and two new, state-of-the-art facilities were constructed, adding considerable complexities to achieving cultural change. This paper documents the incremental steps that were taken to achieve that change. PMID:26854543

  14. Isotopic dating of strain fringe increments: duration and rates of deformation in shear zones

    PubMed

    Muller; Aerden; Halliday

    2000-06-23

    The time scales over which deformation in the Earth's crust remains localized in shear zones are poorly known, as are the associated strain rates. We have determined the longevity and rates of deformation using rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) microsampling dating of increments of fibrous strain fringes from a Pyrenean shear zone. The fibers grew quasi-continuously through a protracted deformation history between 87 and 50 million years ago, over a period comparable to that of an orogeny. During a short interval between 66 and 62 million years, a rise in strain rate from 1.1 x 10(-15) to 7. 7 x 10(-15) seconds(-1) occurred. This acceleration correlates with an abrupt change in fiber-growth direction and a stress-field inversion from gravitational collapse to renewed horizontal crustal shortening. PMID:10864865

  15. National health insurance or incremental reform: aim high, or at our feet?

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2003-01-01

    Single-payer national health insurance could cover the uninsured and upgrade coverage for most Americans without increasing costs; savings on insurance overhead and other bureaucracy would fully offset the costs of improved care. In contrast, proposed incremental reforms are projected to cover a fraction of the uninsured, at great cost. Moreover, even these projections are suspect; reforms of the past quarter century have not stemmed the erosion of coverage. Despite incrementalists' claims of pragmatism, they have proven unable to shepherd meaningful reform through the political system. While national health insurance is often dismissed as ultra left by the policy community, it is dead center in public opinion. Polls have consistently shown that at least 40%, and perhaps 60%, of Americans favor such reform. PMID:12511395

  16. Thresholds for Shifting Visually Perceived Eye Level Due to Incremental Pitches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Donald M.; Welch, Robert; Cohen, M. M.; Hill, Cyndi

    2001-01-01

    Visually perceived eye level (VPEL) was judged by subjects as they viewed a luminous grid pattern that was pitched by 2 or 5 deg increments between -20 deg and +20 deg. Subjects were dark adapted for 20 min and indicated--VPEL by directing the beam of a laser pointer to the rear wall of a 1.25 m cubic pitch box that rotated about a horizontal axis midpoint on the rear wall. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey HSD procedure. Results showed a 10.0 deg threshold for pitches P(sub i) above the reference pitch P(sub 0), and a -10.3 deg threshold for pitches P(sub i) below-the reference-pitch P(sub 0). Threshold data for pitches P(sub i) < P(sub 0) suggest an asymmetric threshold for VPEL below and above physical eye level.

  17. Some considerations on force trends in Incremental Forming of different materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Duflou, J.; Aerens, R.

    2007-04-07

    Today, incremental Forming challenges are mainly related to formability limits and precision. High achievable strain levels, together with the possibility to form complex shapes without need for dedicated dies, probably represent the main process advantages. However the attention on material formability is always very relevant. Taking into account both the formability and the process accuracy, the knowledge of the forces generated between the punch and the clamped sheet supplies strategic information to the analyst. In fact, the force level is not only relevant for the equipment deflection but also influences the precision. In fact, in previous publications the authors demonstrated that there is a strict correlation between the force trend and the material failure approaching. In this paper, a broader analysis on AA1050-O, AA3003-O and DC04 drawing steel is carried out, highlighting the force trends depending on the process parameters and the relationship with formability limits.

  18. Three-dimensional unstructured grid generation via incremental insertion and local optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Gandhi, Amar S.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms for the generation of 3D unstructured surface and volume grids are discussed. These algorithms are based on incremental insertion and local optimization. The present algorithms are very general and permit local grid optimization based on various measures of grid quality. This is very important; unlike the 2D Delaunay triangulation, the 3D Delaunay triangulation appears not to have a lexicographic characterization of angularity. (The Delaunay triangulation is known to minimize that maximum containment sphere, but unfortunately this is not true lexicographically). Consequently, Delaunay triangulations in three-space can result in poorly shaped tetrahedral elements. Using the present algorithms, 3D meshes can be constructed which optimize a certain angle measure, albeit locally. We also discuss the combinatorial aspects of the algorithm as well as implementational details.

  19. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-based access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, N.; Sellis, Timos

    1993-01-01

    One of the biggest problems facing NASA today is to provide scientists efficient access to a large number of distributed databases. Our pointer-based incremental data base access method, VIEWCACHE, provides such an interface for accessing distributed datasets and directories. VIEWCACHE allows database browsing and search performing inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. This organization and processing is especially suitable for managing Astrophysics databases which are physically distributed all over the world. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are cached. VIEWCACHE includes spatial access methods for accessing image datasets, which provide much easier query formulation by referring directly to the image and very efficient search for objects contained within a two-dimensional window. We will develop and optimize a VIEWCACHE External Gateway Access to database management systems to facilitate database search.

  20. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-based access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, N.; Sellis, Timos

    1992-01-01

    One of biggest problems facing NASA today is to provide scientists efficient access to a large number of distributed databases. Our pointer-based incremental database access method, VIEWCACHE, provides such an interface for accessing distributed data sets and directories. VIEWCACHE allows database browsing and search performing inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. This organization and processing is especially suitable for managing Astrophysics databases which are physically distributed all over the world. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are cached. VIEWCACHE includes spatial access methods for accessing image data sets, which provide much easier query formulation by referring directly to the image and very efficient search for objects contained within a two-dimensional window. We will develop and optimize a VIEWCACHE External Gateway Access to database management systems to facilitate distributed database search.

  1. Generalized Monotone Incremental Forward Stagewise Method for Modeling Count Data: Application Predicting Micronuclei Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Mateusz; Archer, Kellie J

    2015-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay can be used to quantify micronucleus (MN) formation, the outcome measured being MN frequency. MN frequency has been shown to be both an accurate measure of chromosomal instability/DNA damage and a risk factor for cancer. Similarly, the Agilent 4×44k human oligonucleotide microarray can be used to quantify gene expression changes. Despite the existence of accepted methodologies to quantify both MN frequency and gene expression, very little is known about the association between the two. In modeling our count outcome (MN frequency) using gene expression levels from the high-throughput assay as our predictor variables, there are many more variables than observations. Hence, we extended the generalized monotone incremental forward stagewise method for predicting a count outcome for high-dimensional feature settings. PMID:25983544

  2. Incremental checking of Master Data Management model based on contextual graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamolle, Myriam; Menet, Ludovic; Le Duc, Chan

    2015-10-01

    The validation of models is a crucial step in distributed heterogeneous systems. In this paper, an incremental validation method is proposed in the scope of a Model Driven Engineering (MDE) approach, which is used to develop a Master Data Management (MDM) field represented by XML Schema models. The MDE approach presented in this paper is based on the definition of an abstraction layer using UML class diagrams. The validation method aims to minimise the model errors and to optimisethe process of model checking. Therefore, the notion of validation contexts is introduced allowing the verification of data model views. Description logics specify constraints that the models have to check. An experimentation of the approach is presented through an application developed in ArgoUML IDE.

  3. A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

  4. A CMOS detection chip for amperometric sensors with chopper stabilized incremental ΔΣ ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Chen; Yuntao, Liu; Jingbo, Xiao; Jie, Chen

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a low noise complimentary metal–oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) detection chip for amperometric electrochemical sensors. In order to effectively remove the input offset of the cascaded integrators and the low frequency noise in the modulator, a novel offset cancellation chopping scheme was proposed in the Incremental ΔΣ analog to digital converter (IADC). A novel low power potentiostat was employed in this chip to provide the biasing voltage for the sensor while mirroring the sensor current out for detection. The chip communicates with FPGA through standard built in I2C interface and SPI bus. Fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS process, this chip detects current signal with high accuracy and high linearity. A prototype microsystem was produced to verify the detection chip performance with current input as well as micro-sensors. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100).

  5. Incremental E-Mail Classification and Rule Suggestion Using Simple Term Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywicki, Alfred; Wobcke, Wayne

    In this paper, we present and use a method for e-mail categorization based on simple term statistics updated incrementally. We apply simple term statistics to two different tasks. The first task is to predict folders for classification of e-mails when large numbers of messages are required to remain unclassified. The second task is to support users who define rule bases for the same classification task, by suggesting suitable keywords for constructing Ripple Down Rule bases in this scenario. For both tasks, the results are compared with a number of standard machine learning algorithms. The comparison shows that the simple term statistics method achieves a higher level of accuracy than other machine learning methods when taking computation time into account.

  6. Assessment of Incremental Dosage Regimen of Combined Oestrogen-Progestogen Oral Contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, I. A.; Robertson, W. B.; Van Assche, F. A.

    1974-01-01

    Eighty-six women of proved fertility used an incremental dosage regimen of a combined oral contraceptive for a total of 570 cycles over one year. A daily tablet containing 50 μg of ethinyloestradiol and 50 μg D-norgestrel was taken for 11 days and a daily tablet containing 50 μg ethinyloestradiol and 125 μg D-norgestrel for the next 10 days. Withdrawal bleeding occurred during the tabletfree interval of seven days. The new preparation proved to be an efficient contraceptive, well tolerated, and with few side effects. Women who had gained weight while taking other oral contraceptives lost weight when they changed to the new preparation. The regimen allowed a significant reduction in the cycle dose of progestogen, and these results suggest that a further reduction in the cycle dose of both oestrogen and progestogen may be possible without losing contraceptive efficiency. PMID:4441832

  7. Laser transmission welding of Clearweld-coated polyethylene glycol terephthalate by incremental scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wang, A. H.; Weng, Z. K.; Xia, H. B.

    2016-06-01

    Transmission laser welding using Incremental Scanning Technique(TWIST) mode and conventional contour welding mode were adopted to investigate laser transmission welding of 0.5 mm thick PET plate. A 1064 nm fiber laser was used to weld PET at the (TWIST) mode, and an 808 nm diode laser was applied to conduct the conventional contour welding. The Clearweld coating was used as laser absorbing material. The influences of laser parameters (i.e. defocusing distance, distance between two circles) on the quality of weld seams were analyzed by optical microscopy. Moreover, geometry and shear strength of the weld zone were tested to optimize laser parameters. Additionally, the water vapor permeability (WVP) of weld seams was measured to test hermetical capacity. Results show that the shear strength and hermetic capacity of weld seam by TWIST mode are at the same level in comparison with that of the conventional contour welding.

  8. Use of the instream flow incremental methodology: a tool for negotiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavendish, Mary G.; Duncan, Margaret I.

    1986-01-01

    The resolution of conflicts arising from differing values and water uses requires technical information and negotiating skills. This article outlines the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM), developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and demonstrates that its use to quantify flows necessary to protect desired instream values aids negotiation by illustrating areas of agreement and possible compromises between conflicting water interests. Pursuant to a Section 404 permit application to the US Army Corps of Engineers made by City Utilities of Springfield, Missouri, in 1978, IFIM provided the means by which City Utilities, concerned with a secure water supply for a growing population, and those advocating instream values were satisfied that their requirements were met. In tracing the 15-month process, the authors conclude that the application of IFIM, as well as the cooperative stance adopted by the parties involved, were the key ingredients of the successful permit application.

  9. Impulse processing: A dynamical systems model of incremental eye movements in the visual world paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kukona, Anuenue; Tabor, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The visual world paradigm presents listeners with a challenging problem: they must integrate two disparate signals, the spoken language and the visual context, in support of action (e.g., complex movements of the eyes across a scene). We present Impulse Processing, a dynamical systems approach to incremental eye movements in the visual world that suggests a framework for integrating language, vision, and action generally. Our approach assumes that impulses driven by the language and the visual context impinge minutely on a dynamical landscape of attractors corresponding to the potential eye-movement behaviors of the system. We test three unique predictions of our approach in an empirical study in the visual world paradigm, and describe an implementation in an artificial neural network. We discuss the Impulse Processing framework in relation to other models of the visual world paradigm. PMID:21609355

  10. Characterization of sleep stages by correlations in the magnitude and sign of heartbeat increments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo; Penzel, Thomas; Peter, Jörg-Hermann; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2002-05-01

    We study correlation properties of the magnitude and the sign of the increments in the time intervals between successive heartbeats during light sleep, deep sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep using the detrended fluctuation analysis method. We find short-range anticorrelations in the sign time series, which are strong during deep sleep, weaker during light sleep, and even weaker during REM sleep. In contrast, we find long-range positive correlations in the magnitude time series, which are strong during REM sleep and weaker during light sleep. We observe uncorrelated behavior for the magnitude during deep sleep. Since the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties, our findings suggest that the nonlinear properties of the heartbeat dynamics are more pronounced during REM sleep. Thus, the sign and the magnitude series provide information which is useful in distinguishing between the sleep stages.

  11. Thermochronology and Cooling Histories of Intrusive Suites: Implications for Incremental Pluton Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Coleman, D.; Heizler, M.

    2007-12-01

    Debate persists about the timescales and mechanisms of pluton emplacement and batholith formation. An understanding of whether plutons accumulate as large masses of magma or as an incremental series of pulses, in which the active magma body is small relative to the final pluton, is important for understanding the relationship between volcanoes and plutons. If volcanic eruptions < 1000 km3 are the most common size and large ignimbrites are rare, it follows that most plutons should record accumulations of small volumes of melt that were emplaced over long time intervals (millions to tens of millions of years) and therefore preserve predictable, protracted thermal histories. Modeling predicts observable differences in thermal histories of plutons and their aureoles that can be tested through thermochronology. Application of multiple chronometers (zircon and titanite U-Pb TIMS; hornblende, biotite, and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar; zircon and titanite (U-Th)/He) combined with K-feldspar multiple diffusion domain (MDD) modeling were used to determine the thermal history and to calibrate thermal models of two eastern California, Sierra Nevada batholith intrusive suites; the dike-like John Muir Intrusive Suite (JMIS) and the laccolithic Mt. Whitney Intrusive Suite (MWIS), and their wall rocks. Preliminary results of (U-Th)/He zircon data from the JMIS and its wall rock (the Tinemaha granodiorite) show a tight cluster of dates ranging from 75.6 to 70.4 Ma. The JMIS is thought to be mesozonal (8 to 11 km) and these data are interpreted as resulting from exhumation and additional 40Ar/39Ar data are required to determine if the thermal history reflects incremental intrusions. In contrast to the JMIS, preliminary (U-Th)/He zircon data from the MWIS and its wall rock (the Bullfrog pluton) show a wide range in dates ranging from 91.4 to 74.6 Ma that are interpreted to reflect reheating events. Amphibole 40Ar/39Ar inverse isochron dates, K- feldspar age spectra, and (U-Th)/He zircon data

  12. Incremental Structured Dictionary Learning for Video Sensor-Based Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ming; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Shibao; Zhou, Yi; Yu, Zhenghua

    2014-01-01

    To tackle robust object tracking for video sensor-based applications, an online discriminative algorithm based on incremental discriminative structured dictionary learning (IDSDL-VT) is presented. In our framework, a discriminative dictionary combining both positive, negative and trivial patches is designed to sparsely represent the overlapped target patches. Then, a local update (LU) strategy is proposed for sparse coefficient learning. To formulate the training and classification process, a multiple linear classifier group based on a K-combined voting (KCV) function is proposed. As the dictionary evolves, the models are also trained to timely adapt the target appearance variation. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging image sequences compared with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm achieves a more favorable performance. We also illustrate its relay application in visual sensor networks. PMID:24549252

  13. A Novel Quadrature Signal Estimation Method for a Planar Capacitive Incremental Displacement Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Wen; Li, Xin; Zhou, Zhao-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel phase-shift arctangent (PSA) interpolation method to improve the measurement accuracy of a planar capacitive incremental displacement sensor. Signals of planar capacitive micro-sensors acquire waveform errors, including sensitivity differences and phase-shift errors, because of static errors and dynamic disturbances. In the proposed PSA scheme, such errors are removed completely by loading a particular arctangent function. Moreover, measuring efficiency of the proposed planar capacitive sensors is improved by combining coarse measurement and fine estimation. Experiments show unanimous results to model-based fitting. When electrode length is four times the gap distance, applying the PSA interpolation method decreases waveform errors from more than 4 % to 1.72 %.

  14. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  15. Performance-based measures of physical function as mortality predictors: Incremental value beyond self-reports

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Noreen; Glei, Dana A.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Weinstein, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although previous studies have indicated that performance assessments strongly predict future survival, few have evaluated the incremental value in the presence of controls for self-reported activity and mobility limitations. OBJECTIVE We assess and compare the added value of four tests – walking speed, chair stands, grip strength, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) – for predicting all-cause mortality. METHODS Using population-based samples of older adults in Costa Rica (n = 2290, aged 60+) and Taiwan (n = 1219, aged 53+), we estimate proportional hazards models of mortality for an approximate five-year period. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are used to assess the prognostic value of each performance assessment. RESULTS Self-reported measures of physical limitations contribute substantial gains in mortality prediction, whereas performance-based assessments yield modest incremental gains. PEF provides the greatest added value, followed by grip strength. Our results suggest that including more than two performance assessments may provide little improvement in mortality prediction. CONCLUSIONS PEF and grip strength are often simpler to administer in home interview settings, impose less of a burden on some respondents, and, in the presence of self-reported limitations, appear to be better predictors of mortality than do walking speed or chair stands. COMMENTS Being unable to perform the test is often a strong predictor of mortality, but these indicators are not well-defined. Exclusion rates vary by the specific task and are likely to depend on the underlying demographic, health, social and cultural characteristics of the sample. PMID:25866473

  16. Incremental value of hormonal therapy for deep vein thrombosis prediction: an adjusted Wells score for women.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Márcio Vinícius Lins; Arancibia, Ana Elisa Loyola; Costa, Ana Paula; Bueno, Fernando Brito; Martins, Marcela Aparecida Corrêa; Magalhães, Maria Cláudia; Silva, José Luiz Padilha; de Bastos, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) management includes prediction rule evaluation to define standard pretest DVT probabilities in symptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy to the Wells prediction rules for DVT in women. We studied women undertaking compressive ultrasound scanning for suspected DVT. We adjusted the Wells score for DVT, taking into account the β-coefficients of the logistic regression model. Data discrimination was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The adjusted score calibration was assessed graphically and by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Reclassification tables and the net reclassification index were used for the adjusted score comparison with the Wells score for DVT. We observed 461 women including 103 DVT events. The mean age was 56 years (±21 years). The adjusted logistic regression model included hormonal therapy and six Wells prediction rules for DVT. The adjusted score weights ranged from -4 to 4. Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a nonsignificant P value (0.69) and the calibration graph showed no differences between the expected and the observed values. The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-0.95] for the adjusted model and 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.91) for the Wells score for DVT (Delong test, P value < 0.01). Net reclassification index for the adjusted score was 0.22 (95% CI 0.11-0.33, P value < 0.01). Our results suggest an incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy as an independent DVT prediction rule in women compared with the Wells score for DVT. The adjusted score must be evaluated in different populations before clinical use. PMID:26757018

  17. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  18. Measuring tree-ring increments on tree bole sections with a video-based robotic positioner.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R A; Kaufmann, M R; Porth, L; Watkins, R K

    1996-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of a system that speeds measurement of radial tree-ring increments on tree stem disks; this method replaces the usual binocular microscope with a video image, and automates the measuring and recording processes. The system was used to measure bole sections cut from stems at various heights to determine volume growth of representative trees in an old-growth ponderosa pine stand. The objective of the measurement system was to speed acquisition of annual growth increments from a large number of disks. A personal computer controls the location of a video camera in a 3-axis positioning system. The operator views the sample on a video monitor and positions the camera over each ring by selecting it with a computer-driven mouse. The computer measures and records the distance that the camera moves between each ring. Task selection is facilitated by menu-driven software that also formats, checks and organizes data files. Measurements have a resolution of 0.026 mm; however, finer resolution could be obtained with a different camera lens. Tests of measurement variability (repeated measurements by individual operators on a single radius) indicated standard errors of 0.006 mm or less for the first measurement sets for four operators. Correlation coefficients among four radii per bole section were as low as 0.66 for a whole tree, suggesting that measurements on single radii may provide poor estimates of radial growth for old trees. This system also offers the potential for automatic ring detection and measurement. PMID:14871678

  19. The Capillary Flow Experiments Aboard the International Space Station: Increments 9-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan M.; Weislogel, Mark M.; Tavan, Noel T.; Chen, Yongkang; Semerjian, Ben; Bunnell, Charles T.; Collicott, Steven H.; Klatte, Jorg; dreyer, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the experimental, analytical, and numerical results of the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments were conducted in space beginning with Increment 9 through Increment 16, beginning August 2004 and ending December 2007. Both primary and extra science experiments were conducted during 19 operations performed by 7 astronauts including: M. Fincke, W. McArthur, J. Williams, S. Williams, M. Lopez-Alegria, C. Anderson, and P. Whitson. CFE consists of 6 approximately 1 to 2 kg handheld experiment units designed to investigate a selection of capillary phenomena of fundamental and applied importance, such as large length scale contact line dynamics (CFE-Contact Line), critical wetting in discontinuous structures (CFE-Vane Gap), and capillary flows and passive phase separations in complex containers (CFE-Interior Corner Flow). Highly quantitative video from the simply performed flight experiments provide data helpful in benchmarking numerical methods, confirming theoretical models, and guiding new model development. In an extensive executive summary, a brief history of the experiment is reviewed before introducing the science investigated. A selection of experimental results and comparisons with both analytic and numerical predictions is given. The subsequent chapters provide additional details of the experimental and analytical methods developed and employed. These include current presentations of the state of the data reduction which we anticipate will continue throughout the year and culminate in several more publications. An extensive appendix is used to provide support material such as an experiment history, dissemination items to date (CFE publication, etc.), detailed design drawings, and crew procedures. Despite the simple nature of the experiments and procedures, many of the experimental results may be practically employed to enhance the design of spacecraft engineering

  20. Increment in vitamin D level and bone mineral accrual in children with vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Midha, Tanu; Singh, Satyajeet; Bajpai, Anurag; Tilak, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare different regimens of vitamin D with respect to its serum increment levels and bone mineral accrual in vitamin D-deficient children. Methods Children identified as being vitamin D deficient (serum levels<20 ng/mL) were divided into 3 treatment groups by stratified block randomization (group 1, 4,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 plus 50 mg/kg/day calcium for 12 weeks; group 2, 30,000 IU/wk of vitamin D3 plus 50 mg/kg/day calcium for 12 weeks; and group 3, 300,000 IU of vitamin D3 once intramuscularly plus 50 mg/kg/day calcium). After regimen completion, each child received a maintenance dose of 400 IU/day vitamin D3 plus 50 mg/kg/day calcium. Their serum vitamin D level was measured after 3 and 12 months. Total body less head bone mineral concentration (BMC) and total body less head bone mineral density (BMD) were measured after 12 months. Results The mean increment in serum vitamin D levels from baseline to 3 months was significantly higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, but the levels from 3 to 12 months were almost similar among all 3 groups. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups with respect to percentage increase of BMD and BMC. Conclusion The injectable form of vitamin D was more efficacious than the oral forms in increasing the serum level to the normal range. All 3 regimens were equally effective in increasing the BMC and BMD. The 400 IU/day maintenance dose was sufficient to keep the serum level within the normal range. PMID:27588029

  1. Relaxed incremental variational approach for the modeling of damage-induced stress hysteresis in arterial walls.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas; Balzani, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional relaxed incremental variational damage model is proposed, which enables the description of complex softening hysteresis as observed in supra-physiologically loaded arterial tissues, and which thereby avoids a loss of convexity of the underlying formulation. The proposed model extends the relaxed formulation of Balzani and Ortiz [2012. Relaxed incremental variational formulation for damage at large strains with application to fiber-reinforced materials and materials with truss-like microstructures. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 92, 551-570], such that the typical stress-hysteresis observed in arterial tissues under cyclic loading can be described. This is mainly achieved by constructing a modified one-dimensional model accounting for cyclic loading in the individual fiber direction and numerically homogenizing the response taking into account a fiber orientation distribution function. A new solution strategy for the identification of the convexified stress potential is proposed based on an evolutionary algorithm which leads to an improved robustness compared to solely Newton-based optimization schemes. In order to enable an efficient adjustment of the new model to experimentally observed softening hysteresis, an adjustment scheme using a surrogate model is proposed. Therewith, the relaxed formulation is adjusted to experimental data in the supra-physiological domain of the media and adventitia of a human carotid artery. The performance of the model is then demonstrated in a finite element example of an overstretched artery. Although here three-dimensional thick-walled atherosclerotic arteries are considered, it is emphasized that the formulation can also directly be applied to thin-walled simulations of arteries using shell elements or other fiber-reinforced biomembranes. PMID:26341795

  2. Potassium depletion increases luminal Na+/H+ exchange and basolateral Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport in rat renal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani, M.; Bergman, J.A.; Hosford, M.A.; McKinney, T.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Most HCO3- reabsorption in proximal tubules occurs via electroneutral Na+/H+ exchange in brush border membranes (BBMS) and electrogenic Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport in basolateral membranes (BLMS). Since potassium depletion (KD) increases HCO3- reabsorption in proximal tubules, we evaluated these transport systems using BBM and BLM vesicles, respectively, from control (C) and KD rats. Feeding rats a potassium deficient diet for 3-4 wk resulted in lower plasma (K+) (2.94 mEq/liter, KD vs. 4.47 C), and higher arterial pH (7.51 KD vs. 7.39 C). KD rats gained less weight than C but had higher renal cortical weight. Influx of 1 mM 22Na+ at 5 s (pHo 7.5, pHi 6.0, 10% CO2, 90% N2) into BLM vesicles was 44% higher in the KD group compared to C with no difference in equilibrium uptake. The increment in Na+ influx in the KD group was DIDS sensitive, suggesting that Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransport accounted for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 8.2 mM in KD vs. 7.6 mM in C and Vmax of 278 nmol/min/mg protein in KD vs. 177 nmol/min/mg protein in C. Influx of 1 mM 22Na+ at 5 s (pHo 7.5, pHi 6.0) into BBM vesicles was 34% higher in the KD group compared to C with no difference in equilibrium uptake. The increment in Na+ influx in the KD group was amiloride sensitive, suggesting that Na+/H+ exchange was responsible for the observed differences. Kinetic analysis of Na+ influx showed a Km of 6.2 mM in KD vs. 7.1 mM in C and Vmax of 209 nmol/min/mg protein in KD vs. 144 nmol/min/mg protein in C. Uptakes of Na(+)-dependent (3H)glucose into BBM and (14C)succinate into BLM vesicles were not different in KD and C groups, suggesting that the Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+:CO3=:HCO3- cotransporter activities were specifically altered in KD.

  3. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiori; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Okushima, Ayaka; Miyata, Yu; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Takahashi, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP) and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (P < 0.01), and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (P < 0.01). BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring. PMID:24348688

  4. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir from May 1997 to June 1998 (NASA Increments 5, 6, and 7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1999-01-01

    During NASA Increments 5, 6, and 7 (May 1997 to June 1998), about eight gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station Mir. The data were recorded on twenty-seven optical disks which were returned to Earth on Orbiter missions STS-86, STS-89, and STS-91. During these increments, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support various microgravity experiments. This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity acceleration environment to which the experiments were exposed. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous Mir increment summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project.

  5. Incremental predictive value of natriuretic peptides for prognosis in the chronic stable heart failure population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Don-Wauchope, Andrew C; Santaguida, Pasqualina L; Oremus, Mark; McKelvie, Robert; Ali, Usman; Brown, Judy A; Bustamam, Amy; Sohel, Nazmul; Hill, Stephen A; Booth, Ronald A; Balion, Cynthia; Raina, Parminder

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether measurement of natriuretic peptides independently adds incremental predictive value for mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic stable heart failure (CSHF). We electronically searched Medline®, Embase™, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL from 1989 to June 2012. We also searched reference lists of included articles, systematic reviews, and the gray literature. Studies were screened for eligibility criteria and assessed for methodological quality. Data were extracted on study design, population demographics, assay cutpoints, prognostic risk prediction model covariates, statistical methods, outcomes, and results. One hundred and eighty-three studies were identified as prognostic in the systematic review. From these, 15 studies (all NT-proBNP) considered incremental predictive value in CSHF subjects. Follow-up varied from 12 to 37 months. All studies presented at least one estimate of incremental predictive value of NT-proBNP relative to the base prognostic model. Using discrimination or likelihood statistics, these studies consistently showed that NT-proBNP increased model performance. Three studies used re-classification and model validation computations to establish incremental predictive value; these studies showed less consistency with respect to added value. Although there were differences in the base risk prediction models, assay cutpoints, and lengths of follow-up, there was consistency in NT-proBNP adding incremental predictive value for prognostic models in chronic stable CSHF patients. The limitations in the literature suggest that studies designed to evaluate prognostic models should be undertaken to evaluate the incremental value of natriuretic peptide as a predictor of mortality and morbidity in CSHF. PMID:25120174

  6. Incremental vacuum dehydration-decarbonation experiments on a natural gibbsite (α-Al(OH 3)): CO 2 abundance and δ 13C values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, Neil J.; Yapp, Crayton J.

    2005-02-01

    Incremental vacuum dehydration-decarbonation experiments were performed at 190°C on chemically "cleaned" aliquots of a gibbsite-dominated, Eocene-age bauxite sample with evolution of CO 2 and H 2O. "Plateau" F (CO 2/H 2O ratios) and δ 13C values of the CO 2 derived from gibbsite were attained over the dehydration interval, X v(H 2) = 0.16 to 0.67 (i.e., 16 to 67% breakdown of gibbsite). The plateau value of F for gibbsite was 0.0043 ± 0.0003, while the corresponding δ 13C value of evolved CO 2 was -16.0‰±0.4‰. Additional experiments on chemically cleaned aliquots included (1) treatment with a solution of 0.3M Na-Citrate + 0.1M Na-Dithionite and (2) an exchange experiment with 0.1 bar of 13C-depleted CO 2 (-46‰) at 105°C for 64.5 h. Neither of these additional treatments resulted in a measurable perturbation of plateau values of F or δ 13C for CO 2 evolved from gibbsite during dehydroxylation. These results support published work on Holocene samples which suggested that CO 2 occluded in gibbsite may preserve information on δ 13C values of CO 2 in ancient terrestrial systems. The plateau values of F observed in the Eocene gibbsite indicate that it may be possible to experimentally calibrate a relationship between the concentration of CO 2 occluded in gibbsite and CO 2 in the environment at the time of crystallization. Such a calibration would significantly enhance the value of gibbsite as a source of information on ancient oxidized carbon systems.

  7. Language Processing in Reading and Speech Perception is Fast and Incremental: Implications for Event Related Potential Research

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An overview of language processing during reading and listening is provided. Evidence is reviewed indicating that language processing in both domains is fast and incremental. We also discuss some aspects of normal reading and listening that are often obscured in event related potential (ERP) research. We also discuss some apparent limitations of ERP techniques, as well as some recent indications that EEG measures can be used to probe how lexical knowledge and lexical or structural expectations can contribute to the incremental process of language comprehension. PMID:18565638

  8. Urban increments of gaseous and aerosol pollutants and their sources using mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-06-01

    levels (urban increments). HOA, eBC, CO2, and CO showed stronger enhancements on busy roads during the morning and evening traffic rush hours; BBOA had its maximum enhancement in the residential areas during the evening hours and RIOA was enhanced in both the city center (emissions from restaurants) and in the residential areas (emissions from residential cooking). In contrast, secondary components (OOA, sulfate (SO4), nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4), and chloride (Cl)) had very homogeneous distributions in time and space. We were able to determine a total PM2.5 urban increment in Tartu of 6.0 µg m-3 over a regional background concentration of 4.0 µg m-3 (i.e., a factor of 2.5 increase). Traffic exhaust emissions were identified as the most important source of this increase, with eBC and HOA explaining on average 53.3 and 20.5 % of the total increment, respectively.

  9. Incremental Parallelization of Non-Data-Parallel Programs Using the Charon Message-Passing Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2000-01-01

    Message passing is among the most popular techniques for parallelizing scientific programs on distributed-memory architectures. The reasons for its success are wide availability (MPI), efficiency, and full tuning control provided to the programmer. A major drawback, however, is that incremental parallelization, as offered by compiler directives, is not generally possible, because all data structures have to be changed throughout the program simultaneously. Charon remedies this situation through mappings between distributed and non-distributed data. It allows breaking up the parallelization into small steps, guaranteeing correctness at every stage. Several tools are available to help convert legacy codes into high-performance message-passing programs. They usually target data-parallel applications, whose loops carrying most of the work can be distributed among all processors without much dependency analysis. Others do a full dependency analysis and then convert the code virtually automatically. Even more toolkits are available that aid construction from scratch of message passing programs. None, however, allows piecemeal translation of codes with complex data dependencies (i.e. non-data-parallel programs) into message passing codes. The Charon library (available in both C and Fortran) provides incremental parallelization capabilities by linking legacy code arrays with distributed arrays. During the conversion process, non-distributed and distributed arrays exist side by side, and simple mapping functions allow the programmer to switch between the two in any location in the program. Charon also provides wrapper functions that leave the structure of the legacy code intact, but that allow execution on truly distributed data. Finally, the library provides a rich set of communication functions that support virtually all patterns of remote data demands in realistic structured grid scientific programs, including transposition, nearest-neighbor communication, pipelining

  10. Incremental increases in economic burden parallels cardiometabolic risk factors in the US

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, R Brett; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Olufade, Temitope; Sheehan, John J; Nair, Kavita V; Saseen, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Estimate the economic burden associated with incremental increases in the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in the US. Methods We used the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2010 to 2012 to create a retrospective cohort of people based on the number of CMRFs (one, two, and three or four), and a comparison cohort of people with zero CMRFs. CMRFs included abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, and elevated glucose and were defined using diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, and survey responses. Adjusted regression analysis was developed to compare health expenditures, utilization, and lost-productivity differences between the cohorts. Generalized linear regression was used for health care expenditures, and negative binomial regression was used for utilization and productivity, controlling for individual characteristics. Results The number of CMRFs was associated with significantly more annual utilization, health care expenditures, and reduced productivity. As compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.24), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.51), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.57) times higher expected rate of emergency room visits, respectively. Compared with people with zero CMRFs, people with one, two, and three or four CMRFs had increased incremental health care expenditures of US$417 (95% CI: $70, $763), US$2,326 (95% CI: $1,864, $2,788), and US$4,117 (95% CI: $3,428, $4,807), respectively. Those with three or four CMRFs reported employment of 60%, compared with 80% in patients with zero CMRFs. People with three or four CMFRs had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.17) times higher expected rate of days missed at work due to illness, compared with people with zero CMRFs. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a direct association between economic burden and number of CMRFs. Although this was expected, the increase in burden

  11. Mammography screening: an incremental cost effectiveness analysis of two view versus one view procedures in London.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, S; Brown, J; Warren, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To compare the costs and effects of routine mammography screening by a single mediolateral-oblique view and two views (mediolateral-oblique plus craniocaudal) of each breast. DESIGN--A cost effectiveness analysis of a prospective non-randomised trial comparing one and two view mammography screening was carried out at St Margaret's Hospital, Epping. All women in the study had two view mammography. The mediolateral-oblique view was always the first image read by the radiologist. After reading the films for a clinic session, the same radiologist then went back and read both the mediolateral-oblique and craniocaudal views together. Each set of films was read by two radiologists. The main outcome measures were recall rates, number of cancers detected, screening and assessment costs, and cost effectiveness ratios. SUBJECTS--A total of 26,430 women who attended for breast screening using both one and two view mammography participated. A sample of 132 women attending for assessment provided data on the private costs incurred in attending for assessment. RESULTS--There was a reduction in the recall rate from 9.1% (2404 of 26,430) after one view screening to 6.7% (1760 of 26,430) after two view screening. The results also suggest that for every 10,000 women screened an additional five cancers would be detected earlier with two view screening. The additional health service screening cost associated with two view screening was estimated to be 3.63 pounds: the costs associated with one and two view screening policies were estimated to be 41.49 pounds and 32.99 pounds respectively. Private costs incurred were estimated to be 0.35 pounds per woman screened and 32.75 pounds per woman assessed. Two cost effectiveness ratios were calculated: an incremental health service cost per additional cancer detected of 4129 pounds and an incremental health service plus private cost per additional cancer detected of 2742 pounds. The sensitivity analysis suggested that the

  12. Marginal Integrity of Bulk Versus Incremental Fill Class II Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, F; Kaisarly, D; Bader, D; El Gezawi, M

    2016-01-01

    Bulk-fill composites have been introduced to facilitate the placement of deep direct resin composite restorations. This study aimed at analyzing the cervical marginal integrity of bulk-fill vs incremental and open-sandwich class II resin composite restorations after thermomechanical cycling using replica scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ranking according to the World Dental Federation (FDI) criteria. Box-only class II cavities were prepared in 91 maxillary premolars with the gingival margin placed 1 mm above and below the cemento-enamel junction. Eighty-four premolars were divided into self-etch and total-etch groups, then subdivided into six restorative subgroups (n=7): 1-Tetric Ceram HB (TC) was used incrementally and in the open-sandwich technique with 2-Tetric EvoFlow (EF) and 3-Smart Dentin Replacement (SD). Bulk-fill restoratives were 4-SonicFill (SF), 5-Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TN), and 6-Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TE). In subgroups 1-5, Tetric N-Bond self-etch and Tetric N-Bond total-etch adhesives were used, whereas in subgroup 6, AdheSE self-etch and ExciTE F total etch were used. One more group (n=7) was restored with Filtek P90 Low Shrink Posterior Restorative (P9) only in combination with its self-etch P90 System Adhesive. Materials were manipulated and light cured (20 seconds, 1600 mW/cm(2)), and restorations were artificially aged by thermo-occlusal load cycling. Polyvinyl-siloxane impressions were taken and poured with epoxy resin. Resin replicas were examined by SEM (200×) for marginal sealing, and percentages of perfect margins were analyzed. Moreover, samples were examined using loupes (3.5×) and explorers and categorized according to the FDI criteria. Results were statistically analyzed (SEM by Kruskal-Wallis test and FDI by chi-square test) without significant differences in either the replica SEM groups (p=0.848) or the FDI criteria groups (p>0.05). The best SEM results at the enamel margin were in TC+EF/total-etch and SF

  13. Physiological responses to incremental exercise in the heat following internal and external precooling.

    PubMed

    James, C A; Richardson, A J; Watt, P W; Gibson, O R; Maxwell, N S

    2015-06-01

    Twelve males completed three incremental, discontinuous treadmill tests in the heat [31.9(1.0) °C, 61.9(8.9)%] to determine speed at two fixed blood lactate concentrations (2 and 3.5 mmol/L), running economy (RE), and maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x ). Trials involved 20 min of either internal cooling (ICE, 7.5 g/kg ice slurry ingestion) or mixed-methods external cooling (EXT, cold towels, forearm immersion, ice vest, and cooling shorts), alongside no intervention (CON). Following precooling, participants ran 0.3 km/h faster at 2 mmol/L and 0.2 km/h faster at 3.5 mmol/L (P = 0.04, partial η(2)  = 0.27). Statistical differences were observed vs CON for ICE (P = 0.03, d = 0.15), but not EXT (P = 0.12, d = 0.15). There was no effect of cooling on RE (P = 0.81, partial η(2)  = 0.02), nor on V ˙ O 2 m a x (P = 0.69, partial η(2)  = 0.04). An effect for cooling on physiological strain index was observed (P < 0.01, partial η(2)  = 0.41), with differences vs CON for EXT (P = 0.02, d = 0.36), but not ICE (P = 0.06, d = 0.36). Precooling reduced thermal sensation (P < 0.01, partial η(2)  = 0.66) in both cooling groups (P < 0.01). Results indicate ICE and EXT provide similar physiological responses for exercise up to 30 min duration in the heat. Differing thermoregulatory responses are suggestive of specific event characteristics determining the choice of cooling. Precooling appears to reduce blood lactate accumulation and reduce thermoregulatory and perceptual strain during incremental exercise. PMID:25943670

  14. 78 FR 46610 - Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use in Making Incremental Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use in Making Incremental Dental Appliances, the Appliances Made Therefrom, and Methods of Making Same; Notice of Commission Determination To... (``Align''), on March 1, 2012, as corrected on March 22, 2012. 77 FR 20648 (April 5, 2012). The...

  15. 78 FR 29157 - Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use, in Making Incremental Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use, in Making Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances Made Therefrom, and Methods of Making the Same Investigation No. 337-...

  16. 78 FR 46611 - Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use in Making Incremental Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Models, Digital Data, and Treatment Plans for Use in Making Incremental Dental Appliances, the Appliances Made Therefrom, and Methods of Making Same; Notice of Commission Determination To... (``Align''), on March 1, 2012, as corrected on March 22, 2012. 77 FR 20648 (April 5, 2012). The...

  17. Sociobehavioral factors associated with caries increment: a longitudinal study from 24 to 36 months old children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Satchaiyan, Gamon; Rajchagool, Sunsanee; Pimpak, Taksin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate sociobehavioral risk factors from the prenatal period until 36 months of age, and the caries increment from 24 to 36 months of the child in Thailand. The data utilized in this study come from the prospective cohort study of Thai children (PCTC) from prenatal to 36 months of the child in Mueang Nan district, Northern Thailand. The total sample size recruited was 783 infants. The sample size with dental caries data was 603 and 597, at 24 months and at 36 months, respectively. The sample size of having two assessment points with a dental examination (at 24 months and at 36 months) was 597. Results indicate that the caries increment was 52.9%, meaning from 365 caries free children at 24 months 193 had developed dental caries at 36 months. The prevalence of dental caries was 34.2% at 24 months (n = 206) and 68.5% at 36 months of age (n = 409). In bivariate analysis, higher education of the mother, lower household income, bottle feeding of the infant, frequent sweet candy consumptions, and using rain or well water as drinking water were associated with dental caries increment, while in multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis lower household income, higher education of the mother, and using rain or well water as drinking water remained associated with dental caries increment. In conclusion, a very significant increase in caries development was observed, and oral health may be influenced by sociobehavioural risk factors. PMID:25329535

  18. Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Scales in Assessing Self-Reported Personality Disorder Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wygant, Dustin B.; Sellbom, Martin; Graham, John R.; Schenk, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5) scales were developed to measure abnormal personality symptomatology. The present study examines the incremental validity of the PSY-5 scales beyond the clinical and content scales in assessing criteria associated with personality disorders. The…

  19. 40 CFR 60.1625 - How do I comply with the increment of progress for completing onsite construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on... increment of progress for completing onsite construction? You must complete onsite construction and installation of emission control equipment and complete process changes outlined in the final control plan....

  20. 40 CFR 60.1630 - How do I comply with the increment of progress for achieving final compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or... progress for achieving final compliance? For the final compliance increment of progress, you must complete two items: (a) Complete all process changes and complete retrofit construction as specified in...