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Sample records for indarch eh4 chondrite

  1. Evolution of Indarch (EH4 Chondrite) at 1 GPa and High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthet, S.; Malavergne, V.; Righter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The chondritic meteorites are materials that are as old as the solar system itself characterized by variations in bulk chemical and oxidation state, and have long been considered possible building blocks that accreted to form the terrestrial inner planets. Enstatite chondrites contain nearly FeO free enstatite, silicon-rich kamacite and various sulfides indicating formation under highly reducing conditions. These materials could have participated in the formation of the Earth. However, "fingerprinting" of meteoritic materials has shown that no known meteoritic class corresponds to a hypothetical bulk Earth composition in every aspect. To derive constraints on early accretion and differentiation processes and possibly resolve the debate on the formation of the Earth, it is required to study experimentally a variety of chondritic materials and investigate their melting relations and elemental partitioning behavior at variable pressure (P), temperature (T) and oxygen fugacities (fO2). Variations in fO2 can indeed change chemical features and phase equilibria dramatically. The P-T phase diagrams of peridotites and carbonaceous chondrites have been extensively studied experimentally up to pressures and temperatures corresponding to the transition zone and lower mantle. Even though partial melting experiments have been conducted at ambient pressure on the enstatite chondrite Indarch, enstatite meteorites have never been experimentally investigated at high PT. The following investigation focuses on the effect of the fO2 on the phase relations of Indarch, an EH4 chondrite.

  2. The Evolution of the EH4 Chondrite Indarch at High Pressure and Temperature: The First Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthet, S.; Malavergne, V.; Righter, K.; Corgne, A.; Combes, R.

    2006-01-01

    Chondrite groups are characterized by variations in bulk composition and oxidation state, illustrating in part heterogeneity in the early solar nebula. Planetary accretion could be explained by at least two different scenarios: the homogeneous [1] and heterogeneous accretion models [2, 3]. In particular, for the formation of the Earth, some studies (e.g. [2, 3]) assume that one component is highly reduced material comparable to enstatite chondrites, devoid of volatile elements but containing all other elements in C1 abundance ratios. To derive constraints on the understanding of early differentiation processes, studies of the silicate phase relations and their interactions with metal, at relevant P-T-fO2, are required. Melting relations and equilibrium partitioning behaviour have been studied on peridotitic and chondritic starting compositions at pressures and temperatures corresponding to the transition zone and lower mantle [4, 5, 6]. However, enstatite chondrites, which are highly reduced primitive meteorites, have not yet been studied experimentally under such conditions. Thus, multianvil experiments have been performed at 20-25 GPa and 2000-2400 C on the EH4 chondrite Indarch.

  3. Partial Melting of the Indarch (EH4) Meteorite : A Textural, Chemical and Phase Relations View of Melting and Melt Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCoy, Timothy J.; Dickinson, Tamara L.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    To Test whether Aubrites can be formed by melting of enstatite Chondrites and to understand igneous processes at very low oxygen fugacities, we have conducted partial melting experiments on the Indarch (EH4) chondrite at 1000-1500 C. Silicate melting begins at 1000 C. Substantial melt migration occurs at 1300-1400 C and metal migrates out of the silicate change at 1450 C and approx. 50% silicate partial melting. As a group, our experiments contain three immiscible metallic melts 9Si-, and C-rich), two immiscible sulfide melts(Fe-and FeMgMnCa-rich) and Silicate melt. Our partial melting experiments on the Indarch (EH4) enstatite Chondrite suggest that igneous processes at low fO2 exhibit serveral unique features. The complete melting of sulfides at 1000 C suggest that aubritic sulfides are not relicts. Aubritic oldhamite may have crystallized from Ca and S complexed in the silicate melt. Significant metal-sulfide melt migration might occur at relatively low degrees of silicate partial melting. Substantial elemental exchange occurred between different melts (e.g., between sulfide and silicate, Si between silicate and metal), a feature not observed during experiments at higher fO2. This exchange may help explain the formation of aubrites from known enstatite chondrites.

  4. A Comparison Between Silicon Carbide from Indarch (EH4) and CM2 Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S. S.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Ott, U.; Zinner, E. K.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-07-01

    A light-element stepped-combustion, noble-gas, ion-probe, and SEM study of interstellar SiC from Indarch has been undertaken in order to compare SiC isolated from enstatite chondrites with SiC from the more extensively studied CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. Eighty-five grams of Indarch were etched in HF/HCl, crushed and treated with 9MHF/1MHCl + 1M HCl, Cr(sub)2O(sub)7^2- in H(sub)2SO(sub)4, and then HClO(sub)4, leaving an acid-resistant residue equivalent to 42 ppm of the whole rock. Carbon, nitrogen, and noble-gas data were acquired by stepped combustion and pyrolysis after precombusting the samples to 600 degrees C to oxidize nanometer-sized diamond. The presence of isotopically anomalous SiC in the Indarch residue is indicated by the isotopically heavy CO2 released at high temperature during stepped combustion, with a maximum delta ^13C value of +1420 per mil (^12C/^13C = 36.2), identical to results obtained for typical CM2 samples [1]. In contrast to CM meteorites, however, the peak release of heavy carbon occurs at 1200 degrees C, some 200 degrees C higher than the peak release temperatures of Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld. A similarly high release temperature was seen in the stepped-combustion analysis of the noble gas in the Indarch residue. This suggests a morphological and/or size difference between the SiC present in the two types of meteorites. The nitrogen stepped-combustion profile of the Indarch residue is dominated by the presence of Si(sub)3N(sub)4 of unremarkable isotopic composition (delta ^15N = -56 per mil) that could not be resolved from nitrogen released from SiC. The abundance of SiC in Indarch is estimated, from the stepped combustion data, to be about 1.4 ppm (or 14 ppm SiC in the matrix, not dissimilar to values obtained for CM2 meteorites). A comparison of the noble-gas data from grain-size fractions of Murchison [2] and the bulk Indarch residue data, particularly the Ne-E/Xe-s ratio, suggests that Indarch is enriched in fine-grained Si

  5. Presolar Grains in Indarch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Nittler, L. R.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1995-09-01

    We report results for the EH(4) Indarch. Earlier work [1] found 20 micrometers clumps of sub-micron SiC whose presolar nature was inferred from step-wise combustion, noble gas [2], and ion probe isotopic measurements. Our results indicate that the clumps were an artifact of sample preparation. Our sample was first cleaned using 6N HCl, and water and isopropanol rinses, then powdered and reacted with HCl-HF/HCl, KOH, and H3BO3-HCl/HCl giving a C-rich residue 1.14 wt.% of the original. X-ray mapping showed SiC grains and 5x as many Si3N4 grains, but no fine-grained clumps. Large (6 micrometers to 20 micrometers) C-rich spheroids were also present. The sample was further treated with KOH/HNO3 and NH3H2O; attempts to do density-separates were unsuccessful. An aliquot was treated with perchloric acid and separated into <1 micrometers and >1 micrometer fractions. SEM-EDS measurements of 73 (<1 micrometer) grains showed 44 SiC, 19 Si3N4, 4 C only, and 6 C with minor Si (both the C and Si in these particles are isotopically normal). A similar distribution of species was found for 37 (>1 micrometer) grains with the addition of 2 spinel and one Al2O3 grains. The whole rock concentration of SiC was 5.8 ppm, higher than previous determinations [1,3,9]. Confirming earlier suggestions [1,2], we find that SiC in Indarch is much finer-grained than in Murchison; about 2/3 of the mass is in grains <=0.3 micrometers compared to only about 4% for Murchison. This may represent size-sorting in the nebula or selective destruction of fine-grained material. Ion probe measurements of 22 (1-3 micrometers) grains gave isotopic results in the range previously measured for Murchison SiCs [4]. Several normal Si3N4 grains (>1 micron) were measured; probably exsolution products similar to those in Qingzhen [7]. Ion mapping was used to search for presolar oxide grains using previously developed techniques [5]. Seven candidate grains out of ~1000 were found. Multiple imaging confirmed an ^(16)O/^(18

  6. Nonporphyritic chondrules and chondrule fragments in enstatite chondrites: Insights into their origin and secondary processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, M. E.; Sylvester, P.; BrandstäTter, F.; Engler, A.

    2015-08-01

    Sixteen nonporphyritic chondrules and chondrule fragments were studied in polished thin and thick sections in two enstatite chondrites (ECs): twelve objects from unequilibrated EH3 Sahara 97158 and four objects from equilibrated EH4 Indarch. Bulk major element analyses, obtained with electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and analytical scanning electron microscopy (ASEM), as well as bulk lithophile trace element analyses, determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), show that volatile components (K2O + Na2O versus Al2O3) scatter roughly around the CI line, indicating equilibration with the chondritic reservoir. All lithophile trace element abundances in the chondrules from Sahara 97158 and Indarch are within the range of previous analyses of nonporphyritic chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). The unfractionated (solar-like) Yb/Ce ratio of the studied objects and the mostly unfractionated refractory lithophile trace element (RLTE) abundance patterns indicate an origin by direct condensation. However, the objects possess subchondritic CaO/Al2O3 ratios; superchondritic (Sahara 97158) and subchondritic (Indarch) Yb/Sc ratios; and chondritic-normalized deficits in Nb, Ti, V, and Mn relative to RLTEs. This suggests a unique nebular process for the origin of these ECs, involving elemental fractionation of the solar gas by the removal of oldhamite, niningerite, and/or another phase prior to chondrule condensation. A layered chondrule in Sahara 97158 is strongly depleted in Nb in the core compared to the rim, suggesting that the solar gas was heterogeneous on the time scales of chondrule formation. Late stage metasomatic events produced the compositional diversity of the studied objects by addition of moderately volatile and volatile elements. In the equilibrated Indarch chondrules, this late process has been further disturbed, possibly by a postaccretional process (diffusion?) that preferentially mobilized Rb with

  7. I-Xe ages of enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Jens; Trieloff, Mario; Ott, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    In order to elucidate the early thermal history of enstatite chondrite parent bodies we determined 129I-129Xe whole rock ages of enstatite chondrites (5 EH, 2 EL, one EH impact melt) relative to the Shallowater reference meteorite (4562.3 ± 0.4 Ma, all errors are 1σ). I-Xe ages of both EL6 chondrites (LON 94100: -4.38 ± 0.60 Ma and Neuschwanstein: -3.87 ± 0.73 Ma - negative sign indicates ages younger than Shallowater) agree well with data of other EL6 chondrites. LON 94100 displayed a second isochron at lower temperatures equivalent to a younger age of -5.25 ± 1.17 Ma, perhaps reflecting different retention temperatures of respective carrier phases during sequential cooling. The enstatite chondrites Abee (EH4), Indarch (EH4), EET 96135 (EH4/5) and St. Marks (EH5) encompass a I-Xe age range of +0.57 ± 1.05 Ma (EET 96135 #1) to -0.45 ± 0.72 Ma (Abee), again in agreement with previously reported ages of EH chondrites. Only the age of St. Marks differs strongly from previously reported younger ages, now being more in accordance with other members of the EH clan. The EH3 chondrite Sahara 97096 showed the youngest I-Xe age of -7.87 ± 0.46 Ma distinctly younger than other I-Xe ages of EH chondrites, including other EH3s. Due to the apparent high retention temperature of the I-Xe system in enstatite (estimated >800 °C) this young age implies a later resetting of the I-Xe system by a severe thermal, likely impact-induced, event. The EH impact melt LAP 02225 records a similarly young thermal event. Though no isochron relationship could be established, the data fall within an apparent I-Xe age range of +5 to +15 Ma, similar to Sahara 97096. Overall, EH chondrite parent body experienced a thermal history determined by a complex interplay between impact disturbances and parent body metamorphism.

  8. Occurence and implications of silicon nitride in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Swan, P.; Prombo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride Si3N4, has previously been observed to be a common constituent of acid residues of Qingzhen (EH3) and Indarch (EH4). Ion probe analysis of the Si, N and C isotopic compositions of individual Si3N4 grains from Qingzhen and Indarch acid residues suggest most, if not all, grains are Solar System in origin. A few grains have isotopically anomalous C but this is probably due to small presolar SiC grains adhering to them. In situ observations of the Si3N4 in Qingzhen show that it is only present within, and probably exsolved from, host phases which contain elemental Si in solid solution. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the Si3N4 probably formed during metamorphism and not in the nebula. Thermodynamic calculations also show that sinoite (Si2N2O) and not Si3N4 should be the stable phase during metamorphism. It appears that kinetic factors must have inhibited the formation if sinoite in Qimgzhen and Indarch.

  9. Occurence and implications of silicon nitride in enstatic chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Swan, P.; Prombo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride Si3N4, has previously been observed to be a common constituent of acid residues of Qingzhen (EH3) and Indarch (EH4). Ion probe analysis of the Si, N and C isotopic compositions of individual Si3N4 grains from Qingzhen and Indarch acid residues suggest most, if not all, grains are Solar System in origin. A few grains have isotopically anomalous C but this is probably due to small presolar SiC grains adhering to them. In situ observations of the Si3N4 in Qingzhen show that it is only present within, and probably exsolved from, host phases which contain elemental Si in solid solution. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the Si3N4 probably formed during metamorphism and not in the nebula. Thermodynamic calculations also show that sinoite (Si2N2O) and not Si3N4 should be the stable phase during metamorphism. It appears that kinetic factors must have inhibited the formation if sinoite in Qimgzhen and Indarch.

  10. NanoSIMS Isotopic Analysis of Small Presolar SiC Grains from the Murchisonand Indarch Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amari, S.; Jennings, C.; Nguyen, A.; Stadermann, F. J.; Zinner, E.; Lewis, R. S.

    2002-03-01

    Carbon and N isotopic measurements were made with the NanoSIMS ion microprobe on small (0.25-0.6 µm) presolar SiC grains from the Murchison and Indarch meteorites. Indarch also contains silicon nitride grains with the isotopic signature of mainstream SiC.

  11. Mechanical aggregation of enstatite chondrites from an inhomogeneous debris cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitch, C. A.; Smith, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Enstatite chondrites have oxygen isotope ratios closer to those of the earth and moon than other meteorites. Their minerals are chemically reduced; metal contains Si, and some Ca, Ti, Mg and Mn are incorporated in sulphides rather than silicates. Clinoenstatite and olivine are virtually Fe-free. Two types of clinoenstatite in the Indarch enstatite chondrite have been reported, one luminescing blue and one red. Similar clinoenstatites in the Kota-Kota enstatite chondrite are associated with two distinct types of forsteritic olivine, one luminescing orange and the other blue. The textural relations and differences in chemical composition cannot be explained by progressive condensation from the solar nebula and require the mechanical mixing of material from at least two sources. It is suggested here that enstatite chondrites result from mechanical and chemical processes during aerodynamic sorting and gravitational settling of debris from a hot cloud of dust, liquid and gas produced during collision of planetesimals.

  12. Petrography, mineral chemistry and origin of Type I enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitch, C. A.; Smith, J. V.

    1982-01-01

    The petrography and mineralogy of four Type I enstatite chondrites were examined by optical and cathololuminescent and electron microprobe means to discern particular chemical and mechanical processes present during solar system condensation. The specimens examined included sections of the Indarch, Abee, Kota-Kota, and Adhi-Kot chondrites. Textural interpretations were performed, as well as chemical analyses of the degree of similarity of the clinoenstatite, olivine, accessory silicates, metal, schreibersite, troilite, oldhamite, and niningerite grains in each sample. Simple models of progressive condensation either at equilibrium or with mechanical removal of early condensates were ruled out due to the occurrence of both blue and red enstatite crystals in metal clasts. A need for sequential processes of mixing, melting, crystallization, condensation, fracturing, and mechanical aggregation are suggested as necessary to model the formation mechanisms of the mineral aggregates.

  13. The Linum chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthes, J.; Adam, K.

    1988-12-01

    Based on optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis, the Linum (East Germany) chondrite is classified as an L6b chondrite that contains olivine (Fa24), orthopyroxene (Fs20), clinopyroxene (Wo45En47Fs8), plagioclase (An10Ab84Or6), nickel-iron, troilite, chromite and accessory amounts of chlorapatite and whitlockite.

  14. Separation of spallation and terrestrial C-14 in chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cresswell, R. G.; Beukens, R. P.; Rucklidge, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Weathering products and contamination severely hamper our ability to accurately measure the C-14 spallation component in meteorites, but can give insights into a sample's terrestrial history. A procedure was developed to measure the C-14 in these components using CO and CO2 separations from temperature extractions from 200-500 mg of material. The Bruderheim (L6) chondrite was chosen as a standard following the practice of previous researchers, crosschecked against Peace River (L6), Abee (EH4), and Juvinas (EUC). Low temperature fractions (less than 900 C) give C-14 signatures consistent with a modern terrestrial C-14 source; melt fractions show elevated levels attesting to a spallogenic origin. Higher yields of CO in the melt fraction are less affected by the low levels of experimental contamination than the CO2. This fraction gave a mean CO:CO2 ratio in Bruderheim of 81.6 +/- 7.7; the ratio of the spallation component is 79.8 +/- 8.1. These values suggest equilibrium release of gases on the olivine-silica-pyroxene-iron buffer. This is corroborated by approximately equal release of the two components at 900 C. The chondrites gave an average saturation level of 54.3 +/- 2.9 dpm/kg; the achondrite gave 49.6 +/- 2.0 dpm/kg. No clear correlation with oxygen content is apparent, though shielding effects have yet to be evaluated. A further evaluation of this subject matter is given.

  15. Chondrites and Their Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.

    Chondrites are extraordinary mixtures of materials with diverse origins that formed around other stars, in the solar nebula, and in their parent asteroids. Most chondrites were so severely altered by aqueous fluids, thermal metamorphism, and impacts that the original characteristics of their components have been largely erased. But a few pristine chondrites have preserved an exquisite mineralogical, chemical, isotopic, and chronological record of the first few million years of solar system history. The properties of diverse types of carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites focusing on the most pristine samples are reviewed to establish the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical properties and origins of their components and to elucidate the asteroidal processes that modified them. Refractory inclusions - amoeboid olivine aggregates and Ca-Al-rich inclusions - were the first solids to form in the solar nebula near to the protosun. Chondrules and associated metallic Fe-Ni grains were still forming several million years later when the earliest planetesimals, which melted due to heat from 26Al decay, were colliding. In the least-altered chondrites, matrix material, which coats chondrules and other components, is largely composed of micrometer-sized silicates and amorphous materials, which formed at high temperatures, plus small amounts (up to 200 ppm) of presolar oxides and silicates.

  16. Halogens in CM Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. M.; Caron, B.; Jambon, A.; Michel, A.; Villemant, B.

    2013-09-01

    We set up an extraction line of halogens (fluorine, chlorine) by pyrohydrolysis with 50 mg of rock. We analyzed 7 CM2 chondrites found in Antarctica and found that the Cl content of meteorites with an intact fusion crust is higher than those without.

  17. Nitrogen in chondritic metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.; Kim, Y.

    2005-02-01

    We report new nitrogen isotopic data in metals of H-, L- and one LL -chondrites, with N abundances in the range of ˜0.3 to 3.3 ppm and half of these <1 ppm. Nitrogen isotopic signatures in metals with low indigenous N concentrations are modified by cosmic ray spallation components; corrections are required to determine the indigenous N signatures. The metals of type 4 and 5 show uniform indigenous nitrogen (δ 15N = -6.8 ± 0.5 ‰) and confirm a reported possible genetic association of chondritic metal with metal in IIE and IVA iron meteorites. Distinct isotopic signatures are observed in two metal samples of the Portales Valley (H6) meteorite which both are inconsistent with signatures in H4 and H5 chondrites, but possibly reveal a record of impact-induced melting and metamorphism on the parent asteroid. Anomalous nitrogen signatures in metals of type 3 chondrites, on the other hand, may reflect residues of surviving presolar isotopic signatures.

  18. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Stoeffler, Dieter

    1992-01-01

    Shock effects were studied in 69 carbonaceous chondrites, including CM2, CO3, CV3, ungrouped C2-C4, and CK4-6 chondrites, using optical microscopy of thin sections. It is shown that the classification scheme of Stoeffler et al. (1991) for the progressive stages of shock metamorphism in ordinary chondrites is also applicable to carbonaceous chondrites. On the basis of shock effects in olivine, the 69 carbonaceous chondrites could be assigned to four shock stage, S1 to S4. The CM2 and CO3 groups were found to be the least shocked chondrite groups, whereas the CK4-6 and CV3 were the most strongly shocked groups.

  19. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. The Bencubbin chondrite breccia and its relationship to CR chondrites and the ALH85085 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Nehru, Cherukupalli E.; Prinz, Martin

    1990-12-01

    Bencubbin is an unclassified meteorite breccia which consists mainly of host silicate (˜40 vol.%) and host metal (˜60%) components. Rare (<1%) ordinary chondrite clasts and a dark xenolith (formerly called a carbonaceous chondrite clast) are also found. A petrologic study of the host silicates shows that they have textures, modes, mineralogy and bulk compositions that are essentially the same as that of barred olivine (BO) chondrules, and they are considered to be BO chondritic material. Bulk compositions of individual host silicate clasts are identical and differ only in their textures which are a continuum from coarsely barred, to finely barred, to feathery microcrystalline; these result from differing cooling rates. The host silicates differ from average BO chondrules only in being angular clasts rather than fluid droplet-shaped objects, and in being larger in size (up to 1 cm) than most chondrules; but large angular to droplet-shaped chondrules occur in many chondrites. Bencubbin host metallic FeNi clasts have a positive Ni-Co trend, which coincides with that of a calculated equilibrium nebular condensation path. This appears to indicate a chondritic, rather than impact, origin for this component as well. The rare ordinary chondrite clast and dark xenolith also contain FeNi metal with compositions similar to that of the host metal. Two scenarios are offered for the origin of the Bencubbin breccia. One is that the Bencubbin components are chondritic and were produced in the solar nebula. Later brecciation, reaggregation and minor melting of the chondritic material resulted in it becoming a monomict chondritic breccia. The alternative scenario is that the Bencubbin components formed as a result of major impact melting on a chondritic parent body; the silicate fragments were formed from an impact-induced lava flow and are analogous to the spinifex-textured rocks characteristic of terrestrial . Both scenarios have difficulties, but the petrologic, chemical and

  1. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  2. Micro-X-ray diffraction assessment of shock stage in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Banerjee, Neil R.; McCausland, Philip J. A.

    2011-05-01

    A new method for assessing the shock stage of enstatite chondrites has been developed, using in situ micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) to measure the full width at half maximum (FWHMχ) of peak intensity distributed along the direction of the Debye rings, or chi angle (χ), corresponding to individual lattice reflections in two-dimensional XRD patterns. This μXRD technique differs from previous XRD shock characterization methods: it does not require single crystals or powders. In situ μXRD has been applied to polished thin sections and whole-rock meteorite samples. Three frequently observed orthoenstatite reflections were measured: (020), (610), and (131); these were selected as they did not overlap with diffraction lines from other phases. Enstatite chondrites are commonly fine grained, stained or darkened by weathering, shock-induced oxidation, and metal/sulfide inclusions; furthermore, most E chondrites have little olivine or plagioclase. These characteristics inhibit transmitted-light petrography, nevertheless, shock stages have been assigned MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02837 (EL3) S3, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91020 (EL3) S5, MAC 02747 (EL4) S4, Thiel Mountains (TIL) 91714 (EL5) S2, Allan Hills (ALHA) 81021 (EL6) S2, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87746 (EH3) S3, Meteorite Hills (MET) 00783 (EH4) S4, EET 96135 (EH4-5) S2, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88180 (EH5) S2, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94204 (EH7) S2, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02225 (EH impact melt) S1; for the six with published shock stages, there is agreement with the published classification. FWHMχ plotted against petrographic shock stage demonstrates positive linear correlation. FWHMχ ranges corresponding to shock stages were assigned as follows: S1 < 0.7°, S2 = 0.7-1.2°, S3 = 1.2-2.3°, S4 = 2.3-3.5°, S5 > 3.5°, S6—not measured. Slabs of Abee (EH impact-melt breccia), and Northwest Africa (NWA) 2212 (EL6) were examined using μXRD alone; FWHMχ values place both in the S2 range, consistent with literature values. Micro

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) A Quantitative NMR Analysis of Phosphorus in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 2) An Infrared Study of the Matrices of CI1 and CM2 Chondrites; 3) A Study of the Morphology, Composition and Mineral Associations of Fe-Ni Sulphides in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites; 4) Aqueous Alteration Mineralogy in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites; 5) In Situ Location and Characterization of Carbon-bearing Phases in Carbonaceous; 6) Chondrites: Insights from Yamato 791198, a Weakly-altered CM2 Chondrite; 7) Unique Texture in EET 83389: Clues to Formation of Fine Grained Rims in CM Chondrites; 8) Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates in the NWA 760 CV3 Chondrite; 9) Petrologic Type of CV3 Chondrites as Revealed by Raman Spectroscopy of Organic Matter; 10) A First Look at Acfer 324: Evidence for Another CR 3 Chondrite? 11) Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of the Bencubbin Meteorite; 12) The Fountain Hills Meteorite: A New CBa Chondrite from Arizona; 13) Shock Effects in the Metal-rich Chondrites QUE 94411, Hammadah al Hamra 237 and Bencubbin; 14) Mineralogy and Petrology of Al-rich Objects in the CH Carbonaceous Chondrite North West Africa 739.

  4. C Chondrite Clasts in H Chondrite Regolith Breccias: Something Different

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Utas, J.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; Ito, M.; Nakashima, D.; Greenwood, R.; Rahman, Z.; Le, L.; Ross, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Zag (H3-6) and Monahans (1998) (H5) are regolith breccias that contain 4.5 GY old halite crystals which in turn contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics [1-4]. We have previously proposed that these halites originated on a hydro-volcanically-active C-class asteroid, probably Ceres [3-7]. We have begun a detailed analysis of the included solids and organics and are re-examining the related carbonaceous (C)) chondrite clast we previously reported in Zag [5-7]. These new investigations will potentially reveal the mineralogy of asteroid Ceres. We report here on potentially identical C chondrite clasts in the H chondrite regolith breccias Tsukuba (H5-6) and Carancas (H4-5). The clast in Tsukuba was known before [8], but the Carancas clast is newly recognized.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV session entitled "Concerning Chondrites" includes the following topics: 1) Petrology and Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Phases in the Gujba CB Chondrite and the Shock History of the CB Parent Body; 2) The Relationship Between CK and CV Chondrites: A Single Parent Body Source? 3) Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites; 4) Composition and Origin of SiO2-rich Objects in Carbonaceous and Ordinary Chondrites; 5) Re-Os Systematics and HSE distribution in Tieschitz (H3.6); Two Isochrons for One Meteorite; 6) Loss of Chromium from Olivine During the Metamorphism of Chondrites; 7) Very Short Delivery Times of Meteorites After the L-Chondrite Parent Body Break-Up 480 Myr Ago; and 8) The Complex Exposure History of a Very Large L/LL5 Chondrite Shower: Queen Alexandra Range 90201.

  6. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  7. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.

    2013-05-01

    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 μm electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  8. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  9. Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The CM chondrites are primitive meteorites that formed during the early solar system. Although they retain much of their original physical character, their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained aqueous alteration early in their histories [1- 3]. Serpentine-group minerals are abundant products of such alteration, and information regarding their structures, compositions, and spatial relationships is important for determining the reactions that produced them and the conditions under which they formed. Our recent work on FGRs and matrices of the CM chondrites has revealed new information on the structures and compositions of serpentine-group minerals [4,5] and has provided insights into the evolution of these primitive meteorites. Here we report on serpentine nanotubes from the Mighei and Murchison CM chondrites [6].

  10. Metamorphism of CO3 Chondrites: A Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    . There is about 26 times as much of this component in Kainsaz as there is in Lance, and an unresolvable amount in Colony. A precombusted HF/HCl residue of Acfer 094 has demonstrated a SiC content of around 7 ppm, equivalent to values expected for CM2's and further questioning the legitimacy of assigning Acfer 094 to the CO3 group. The data acquired so far shows that these meteorites contain diamond with nitrogen concentrations which range between CV3 and CM2 averages. Only the 3.0 subtypes contain silicon carbide. There seems to be a hiatus between subtypes 3.0 and 3.1, where silicon carbide is completely destroyed, and the diamond content is halved. This is analagous to the discontinuity between ordinary chondrite subtypes 3.4 and 3.5 (4), although at a higher metamorphic grade and suggests that silicon carbide is more susceptible to metamorphic destruction under the oxidizing conditions of the CO3 group than diamond. The effect is still not yet understood, but is likely to be an important parameter in distinguishing nebular and parent body effects. The fact that Indarch, a highly reduced enstatite chondrite, shows the opposite effect, i.e. a high SiC-to-diamond ratio clearly has implications for understanding the destruction of presolar grains by metamorphism under different conditions. References 1. Newton, J. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII 985-986. 2. Scott, E.R.D. & Jones, R.H. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54 2485-2502. 3. Russell, S.S. et al. (1990) Science 254 1188-1191. 4. Huss, G.R. (1990) Nature 347 159-162. 5. Russell, S.S. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII 1187-1188.

  11. Aqueous Alteration of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ziegler, K.; Weisberg, M. K.; Gounelle, M.; Berger, E. L.; Le, L.; Ivanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kaidun meteorite is different from all other meteorites [1], consisting largely of a mixture of “incompatible” types of meteoritic material – carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, i.e. corre-sponding to the most oxidized and the most reduced samples of meteorite materials, including CI1, CM1-2, CV3, EH3-5, and EL3. In addition to these, minor amounts of ordinary and R chondrites are present. In addition, approximately half of the Kaidun lithologies are new materials not known as separate meteorites. Among these are aqueously altered enstatite chondrites [1], which are of considerable interest because they testify that not all reduced asteroids escaped late-stage oxidation, and hydrolysis, and also because hydrated poorly crystalline Si-Fe phase, which in turn is re-placed by serpentine (Figs 3-5). In the end the only indication of the original presence of metal is the re-sidual carbides. In other enstatite chondrite lithogies (of uncertain type) original silicates and metal have been thoroughly replaced by an assemblage of authi-genic plagioclase laths, calcite boxwork, and occasion-al residual grains of silica, Cr-rich troilite, ilmenite, and rare sulfides including heideite (Fig. 6). Fe and S have been largely leached from the rock (Fig. 4). Again the accessory phases are the first clue to the original character of the rock, which can be verified by O isotopes. It is fortunate that Kaidun displays every step of the alteration process.

  12. Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.

    2010-01-22

    We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

  13. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, Dieter; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.

    1991-01-01

    This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of shock metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of shock (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of shock effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic shock effects of each shock stage are described. It is concluded that shock effects and the sequence of progressively increasing degrees of shock metamorphosis are very similar in H, L, and LL groups. Differences in the frequency distribution of shock stages are relatively minor. It is suggested that the collisional histories of the H, L, and LL parent bodies were similar. Petrologic type-3 chondrites are deficient in stages S4 and S6 and, with increasing petrologic type, the frequency of stages S4 to S6 increases. It is suggested that the more porous and volatile-rich Type-3 chondrites are subject to melting at a lower shock pressure than the nonporous chondrites of higher petrologic type. Stage S3 is the most abundant in nearly all petrologic types.

  14. Igneous Graphite in Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Igneous graphite. a rare constituent in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks. occurs in three EH and one EL enstatite chondrite impact-melt breccias as 2-150 Ilm long euhedrallaths. some with pyramidal terminations. In contrast. graphite in most enstatite chondrites exsolved from metallic Fe-Ni as polygonal. rounded or irregular aggregates. Literature data for five EH chondrites on C combusting at high temperatures show that Abee contains the most homogeneous C isotopes (i.e. delta(sup 13)C = -8.1+/-2.1%); in addition. Abee's mean delta(sup l3)C value is the same as the average high-temperature C value for the set of five EH chondrites. This suggests that Abee scavenged C from a plurality of sources on its parent body and homogenized the C during a large-scale melting event. Whereas igneous graphite in terrestrial rocks typically forms at relatively high pressure and only moderately low oxygen fugacity (e.g., approx. 5 kbar. logfO2, approx. -10 at 1200 C ). igneous graphite in asteroidal meteorites formed at much lower pressures and oxygen fugacities.

  15. Carbonates in the Kaidun chondrite. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Prinz, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    Kaidun is a remarkable chondrite breccia fall containing lithic clasts that span a wide range of chondrite groups including C and E chondrites, as well as having clasts with characteristics not yet found in existing chondrite samples. The dominant lithology in Kaidun appears to be CR chondritic, consonant with recent O isotope data. The carbonates in Kaidun are presented as one mineralogical basis for comparing it to the other hydrated chondrites and to better understand its relative alteration history. The four polished thin sections of Kaidun studied contained a variety of lithologies that we classified into four groups -- CR, E, CM-like, and dark inclusions (DIs). DIs contain sulfide and magnetite morphologies that superficially resemble CI chondrites, and some of the previously reported CI lithologies in Kaidun may be what we term DIs. Carbonates were found in all lithologies studied. Carbonates in Kaidun are similar in composition to those in CR chondrites. Some of the DIs in Kaidun, previously characterized as CI, have carbonates similar to those in CR chondrites and are unlike those in CI or CM chondrites. Most carbonates in Kaidun and CR chondrites are calcites, some of which formed at temperatures above 250 C. Dolomite is less common and some may be metastable. Alteration temperatures in the Renazzo CR chondrite were estimated to be approximately 300 C, based on O isotope fractionation between phyllosilicates and magnetite. Temperatures of up to 450 C were proposed for the alteration of a CR-like dark inclusion in Kaidun, based on the presence of hydrothermal pentlandite veins. The alteration temperatures for Kaidun and the other CR chondrites are considerably higher than those suggested for CI or CM parent bodies.

  16. The Steingarden Nunataks L6 Chondrites STG 07002, 07003, 07004: Relationship to Type 7 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstätter, F.; Koeberl, C.; Topa, D.

    2014-09-01

    Steingarden Nunataks L6 chondrites STG 07002, 07003 and 07004 have several features in common with some recently described L7 chondrites. The similarities comprise microscopic textures as well as the mineral chemistry of major silicates and opaques.

  17. Zn Isotopes in Chondrites, Chondrules, and Matrix: Origin of the Volatile Element Depletion in Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynier, F.; Pringle, E.; Hezel, D.

    2015-07-01

    The variations of Zn isotope ratios among carbonaceous chondrites show that the volatile element depletion in solar system material occurred in the solar nebula. We will also present the Zn isotopic composition of chondrules and matrix from carbonaceous chondrites.

  18. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  19. Chemical and petrographic correlations among carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Schmus, W. R.; Hayes, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed study of the petrographic and chemical properties of carbonaceous chondrites shows that the four distinct petrographic subtypes may be related to one of two distinct chemical subdivisions. These subdivisions are recognized primarily by the relative abundances of the nonvolatile elements Si, Ca, Al, Ti, Cu and Fe. C1, C2 and C3(O) chondrites form one subdivision. Vigarano subtype chondrites form the other subdivision and include chondrites previously referred to as C2, C3 and C4. Normalized to silicon, the abundances of Ca, Al and Ti are relatively enriched in Vigarano subtype chondrites, whereas Fe and Cu are relatively more abundant in C1, C2 and C3(O) chondrites. Volatile elements tend to correlate with petrographic subtypes rather than with chemical subdivisions.

  20. High-temperature condensates in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, L.

    1977-01-01

    Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations of the sequence of condensation of minerals from a cooling gas of solar composition play an important role in explaining the mineralogy and trace element content of different types of inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Group IV B iron meteorites and enstatite chondrites may also be direct condensates from the solar nebula. Condensation theory provides a framework within which chemical fractionations between different classes of chondrites may be understood.

  1. Oxidation during metamorphism of the ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Labotka, Theodore C.

    1993-01-01

    It is suggested that some current concepts about the conditions of metamorphism in ordinary chondrites may be flawed. These meteorites display small systematic variations in the oxidation state of Fe. Evidence is presented that oxidation of Fe is linked to metamorphic grade in types 4-6 ordinary chondrites. This conclusion is at variance with a commonly accepted model for chondrite metamorphism that assumes Fe reduction by graphite.

  2. The formation of FeO-rich pyroxene and enstatite in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: A petrologic-trace element (SIMS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Prinz, M.; Fogel, R. A.; Shimizu, N.

    1993-01-01

    Enstatite (En) chondrites record the most reducing conditions known in the early solar system. Their oxidation state may be the result of condensation in a nebular region having an enhanced C/O ratio, reduction of more oxidized materials in a reducing nebula, reduction during metamorphic reheating in a parent body, or a combination of these events. The presence of more oxidized Fe-rich silicates, two types of En (distinguished by red and blue CL), and the juxtaposition of FeO-rich pyroxenes (Fe-pyx) surrounded by blue En (enstatite) in the UEC's (unequilibrated enstatite chondrites) is intriguing and led to the examination of the question of enstatite chondrite formation. Previously, data was presented on the petrologic-geochemical characteristics of the Fe-pyx and coexisting red and blue En. Here minor and trace element abundances (determined by ion probe-SIMS) on these three types of pyroxenes are reported on in the following meteorites: Kota Kota and LEW87223 (EH3), MAC88136 (EL3), St. Marks (EH4), and Hvittis (EL6). More data are currently being collected.

  3. LEW 88180, LEW 87119, and ALH 85119: New EH6, EL7, and EL4 Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-07-01

    % Ni and alabandite with 22% FeS, confirming its classification as the first EL4 chondrite. The LEW87119 meteorite has kamacite with 1.5% Si and 9.1% Ni, troilite with 2.9% Cr and 0.64% Ti, and alabandite with the highest FeS (49%) recorded for EL chondrites. Since the meteorite does not appear to be shocked or impact melted (it has medium-grained texture with the slightest indication of chondrules and normal metal and sulfide distribution) and the phase chemistry clearly indicates a higher equilibration temperature than the EL6 chondrites, for the time being we propose to call LEW87119 an EL7 chondrite. With the discovery in the last decade or so of a number of low-petrologic-type EH chondrites and the present discovery of EH6 and EL7 chondrites, the EH class and the EL class now appear to be comparable in their range of mineral compositions and thereby equilibration temperatures. The highest equilibration temperature for the EL chondrites is now ~700 degrees C, which is close to that of EH6 chondrite (Fig. 2). Equilibration temperatures for the EL6 chondrites are similar to those of EH4 chondrites. It may be that EH and EL classes have more similar thermal histories than previously supposed and that it is purely the textures of the two classes that are widely different and in need of further research. References: [1] Keil K. (1968) JGR, 73, 6945-6976. [2] Sears D. W. G. and Weeks K. S. (1984) Nature, 308, 257-259. [3] Skinner B. J. and Luce F. D. (1971) Amer. Min., 56, 1269-1296. [4] Zhang Y. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 310-311. [5] Weeks K. S.and Sears D. W. G. (1985) GCA, 49, 1525-1536. [6] Mason in Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter (1986, 1987, 1989, and 1990) 9(3), 10(2), 12(1,3), and 13(2,3). [7] Lin Y. T. et al. (1991) LPSC XXII, 811-812. [8] Chang Y. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 217-218.

  4. Solar gases in meteorites - The origin of chondrites and C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that chondritic meteorites broke off from parent bodies in earth-crossing orbits is considered. It is suggested that ordinary chondrites have an asteroidal origin, and the possibility that C1 chondrites have a cometary origin is examined. Indications of heavy shock and reheating among L and H chondrites provides support for an asteroidal origin, while the Apollo and Amor objects are too small to be unfragmented asteroids, as proposed in the Anders theory of the origin of gas-rich meteorites. Events associated with the megaregolith are discussed in the framework of the proposed cometary origin of C1 chondrites.

  5. Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Cosmochemical fractionations, Chondritic meteorites and their components, Jet flows: Formation and thermal processing of solids in protoplanetary disks, A Search for Solar-System processing signatures in presolar grains, Experimental study of iron metal condensation, The chondrite types and their origins, Spinel-rich spherules from murchison, etc.

  6. Porosity and Permeability of Chondritic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; Dahl, Jason; Long, Michael

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the porosity of a large number of chondritic interplanetary dust particles and meteorites by three techniques: standard liquid/gas flow techniques, a new, non-invasive ultrasonic technique, and image processing of backscattered images . The latter technique is obviously best suited to sub-kg sized samples. We have also measured the gas and liquid permeabilities of some chondrites by two techniques: standard liquid/gas flow techniques, and a new, non-destructive pressure release technique. We find that chondritic IDP's have a somewhat bimodal porosity distribution. Peaks are present at 0 and 4% porosity; a tail then extends to 53%. These values suggest IDP bulk densities of 1.1 to 3.3 g/cc. Type 1-3 chondrite matrix porosities range up to 30%, with a peak at 2%. The bulk porosities for type 1-3 chondrites have the same approximate range as exhibited by matrix, indicating that other components of the bulk meteorites (including chondrules and aggregates) have the same average porosity as matrix. These results reveal that the porosity of primitive materials at scales ranging from nanogram to kilogram are similar, implying similar accretion dynamics operated through 12 orders of size magnitude. Permeabilities of the investigated chondrites vary by several orders of magnitude, and there appears to be no simple dependence of permeability with degree of aqueous alteration, or chondrite type.

  7. Thermal metamorphism. [of chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Dodd, Robert T.

    1988-01-01

    Most chondrites have experienced thermal metamorphism, resulting in changes in texture, mineralogy and possibly chemical composition. The physical conditions for metamorphism range from approximately 400 to 1000 C at low lithostatic pressure. Metamorphism may have resulted from decay of short-lived radionuclides, electromagnetic induction or accretion of hot materials. Several thermal models for chondrite parent bodies have been proposed. The least metamorphosed type-3 chondrites probably carry the most information about the early solar system, but even these have been affected to some degree by thermal processing.

  8. Carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the Kapoeta howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and mineralogical study of a number of carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the Kapoeta howardite has been carried out. Most of the clasts have mineralogical and chemical properties which link them to the CM carbonaceous chondrites. Some clasts contain chondrules which often have well-developed fine-grained rims, but many have been extensively brecciated. PCP-rich objects are common and pentlandite and pyrrhotite also occur. Calcite has also been found. The remainder of the clasts are extremely fine-grained and appear to be closely related to CI carbonaceous chondrites. In these clasts magnetite framboids are common and finegrained sulfides and magnetite occur disseminated throughout the matrix.

  9. I-Xe systematics in LL chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Honda, M.

    1988-01-01

    A stepwise heating analysis of Ar and Xe data from five neutron-irradiated whole rock LL chondrites (Soko Banja, Alta Ameen, Tuxtuac, Guidder, and Olivenza) is presented, emphasizing the complicated thermal history of ordinary chondrites. None of the present meteorites show a well-defined (Ar-40)-(Ar-39) apparent age plateau comprised of more than two release fractions. Most of the samples are found to yield well-defined high-temperature correlations between Xe-129/Xe-130 and Xe-128/Xe-130, and thus determinations of I-129/I-127 and Xe-129/Xe-130 at the time of isotopic closure for Xe. As in the case of other ordinary chondrites, the I-Xe systematics for LL chondrites correlate neither with a metamorphic grade nor with chronologies based opon other methods.

  10. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1989-03-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  11. Alkali differentiation in LL-chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlotzka, F.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wanke, H.; Fredriksson, K.; Noonan, A. F.

    1983-04-01

    The Kraehenberg and Bhola LL-group chondrites are heterogeneous agglomerates which contain a variety of lithic fragments and chondrules as well as crystal fragments. Both meteorites contain large, cm-sized fragments with high K enrichments. The K-rich inclusions are fragments of larger rock bodies which crystallized from melts of chondritic parent material that had previously been enriched in K and in heavier alkalies,while also being depleted in Na and metal. It is suggested that the K enrichment occurred as an exchange for Na in feldspars via a vapor phase, whose presence on the chondrite parent body (or bodies) is supported by the recent finding of fluid inclusions in chondritic silicates. Cooling rate considerations indicate that the K-rich rock units could not have been very large, implying that the K-rich materials were locally molten by, for example, impact.

  12. Impact melt products of chondritic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data concerning impact melting processes in chondritic material are reviewed. It is shown that a large variety of objects in chondritic meteorites could have formed as a result of impact melting, including: shock veins; metal-troilite mixtures; metal and sulfide nodules; melt pockets and vugs. The type of object produced in an impact melt is related to the interaction of the shock waves with the particular target rock. It is suggested that various iron meteorites (including groups IAB, IIICD, and IIE, as well as several ungrouped irons) were formed from individual melt pools in chondritic regoliths. The small-scale structure of impact-melted metallic Fe,Ni and troilite in Weston (H chondrite regolith breccia) is illustrated in a photograph.

  13. Carbonaceous Chondrite Clasts in HED Achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Buchanan, P. C.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    1996-01-01

    Since carbonaceous chondrite planetesimals are attractive candidates for the progenitors of HED asteroid(s), we have performed a survey of HED meteorites in order to locate and characterize the mineralogy, chemistry, and petrography of the oft-reported carbonaceous chondrite clasts by microprobe, SEM-EDX. and TEM techniques. We examined samples of all HEDs we could lay our gloved hands on, and found carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the howardites Kapoeta, Jodzie, EET 87513, Y 793497, LEW 85441, LEW 87015, and G'Day, the polymict eucrites LEW 97295 and LEW 95300, and the diogenite Ellemeet. We verified previous suggestions that the majority (about 80%) of these clasts are CM2 material, but we discovered that a significant proportion are CR2 (about 20%) and other rare types are present. We conclude that chondritic compounds of mixed CM2 and CR2 materials should be investigated in future geochemical modeling of the origin of the HED asteroid(s).

  14. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  15. Classification of eight ordinary chondrites from Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, A. J.; Keil, K.

    1985-06-01

    Based on optical microscopy and electron microprobe analyses, eight previously undescribed or poorly known chondrites were classified into compositional groups, petrologic types, and degree of shock alteration. These chondrites are: Leander, L4b; Nazareth(a), L6d; La Villa, H4b; Mereta, H4c; Gail, H4d; Shafter Lake, H5a; Uvalde, H5d; and Howe, H5d.

  16. Chondritic Earth: comparisons, guidelines and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of the Earth is rationally understood within the context of the chondritic reference frame, without recourse to hidden reservoirs, collision erosion, or strict interpretation of an enstatite chondrite model. Challenges to interpreting the array of recent and disparate chemical and isotopic observations from meteorites need to be understood as rich data harvests that inform us of the compositional heterogeneity in the early solar system. Our ability to resolve small, significant compositional differences between chondrite families provide critical insights into integrated compositional signatures at differing annuli distances from the Sun (i.e., 1-6 AU). Rigorous evaluation of chondritic models for planets requires treatment of both statistical and systematic uncertainties - to date these efforts are uncommonly practiced. Planetary olivine to pyroxene ratio reflects fO2 and temperature potentials in the nebular, given possible ISM compositional conditions; thus this ratio is a non-unique parameter of terrestrial bodies. Consequently the Mg/Si value of a planet (ie., olivine to pyroxene ratio) is a free variable; there is no singular chondritic Mg/Si value. For the Earth, there is an absence of physical and chemical evidence requiring a major element, chemical distinction between the upper and lower mantle, within uncertainties. Early Earth differentiation likely occurred, but there is an absence of chemical and isotopic evidence of its imprint. Chondrites, peridotites, komatiites, and basalts (ancient and modern) reveal a coherent picture of a chondritic compositional Earth, with compositionally affinities to enstatite chondrites. At present results from geoneutrino studies non-uniquely support these conclusions. Future experiments can provide true transformative insights into the Earth's thermal budget, define compositional BSE models, and will restrict discussions on Earth dynamics and its thermal evolution.

  17. Igneous rock from Severnyi Kolchim (H3) chondrite: Nebular origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, M. A.; Brandstaetter, F.; Kurat, G.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of lithic fragments with compositions and textures similar to igneous differentiates in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's) and carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) has been interpreted as to suggest that planetary bodies existed before chondrites were formed. As a consequence, chondrites (except, perhaps CI chondrites) cannot be considered primitive assemblages of unprocessed nebular matter. We report about our study of an igneous clast from the Severnyi Kolchim (H3) chondrite. The results of the study are incompatible with an igneous origin of the clast but are in favor of a nebular origin similar to that of chondrules.

  18. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. VIII - Thermoluminescence and metamorphism in the CO chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keck, Bradly D.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1987-01-01

    A possible relationship between the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of CO chondrites and their metamorphic history was investigated by measuring the TL properties of seven normal CO chondrites and of the Colony and the Allan Hills A77307 (ALHA 77307) CO-related chondrites. With the exception of Colony and ALHA 77307, whose maximum induced TL emission is at approximately 350 C, the CO chondrites were found to exhibit two TL peaks: a 130 C and a 250 C peaks. Among the CO chondrites, the 130 C peak showed a 100-fold range in TL sensitivity and was found to correlate with various metamorphism-related phenomena, such as silicate heterogeneity, metal composition, and McSween's metamorphic subtypes. The peak at 250 did not show these correlations and, with exception of Colony, showed little variation.

  19. Petrology of Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates in Antarctic CR Chondrites: Comparison With Other Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Yasutake, M.

    2016-01-01

    Amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) are important refractory components of carbonaceous chondrites and have been interpreted to represent solar nebular condensates that experienced high-temperature annealing, but largely escaped melting. In addition, because AOAs in primitive chondrites are composed of fine-grained minerals (forsterite, anorthite, spinel) that are easily modified during post crystallization alteration, the mineralogy of AOAs can be used as a sensitive indicator of metamorphic or alteration processes. AOAs in CR chondrites are particularly important because they show little evidence for secondary alteration. In addition, some CR AOAs contain Mn-enriched forsterite (aka low-iron, Mn-enriched or LIME olivine), which is an indicator of nebular formation conditions. Here we report preliminary results of the mineralogy and petrology of AOAs in Antarctic CR chondrites, and compare them to those in other carbonaceous chondrites.

  20. A hydrogen isotope study of CO3 type carbonaceous chondrites; comparison with type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, A. D.; Newton, J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorites of the Ornans type 3 carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a range in degree of equilibration, attributed to differing amounts of thermal metamorphism. These differences have been used to split the CO3 chondrites into petrologic sub-types from 3.0, least equilibrated, to 3.7, being most equilibrated. This is similar to the system of assigning the type 3 ordinary chondrites into petrologic sub-types 3.0 to 3.9 based upon thermoluminescence (TL) and other properties; however, the actual range of thermal metamorphism experienced by CO3 chondrites is much less than that of the type 3 ordinary chondrites. The least equilibrated ordinary chondrites show evidence of aqueous alteration and have high D/H ratios possibly due to a deuterium-rich organic carrier. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CO3 chondrites, which have experienced similar secondary conditions to the type 3 ordinary chondrites, also contain a similar deuterium-rich carrier. To date a total of 5 CO3 meteorites, out of a set of 11 for which carbon and nitrogen isotopic data are available, have been analyzed. Ornans has not been analyzed yet, because it does not appear to fit in with the metamorphic sequence exhibited by the other CO3 chondrites; it also has an extremely high delta-D value of +2150 percent, unusual for such a comparatively equilibrated meteorite (type 3.4). Initial results indicate that the more equilibrated CO3's tend to have lower delta-D values, analogous to the higher petrologic type ordinary chondrites. However this is complicated by the effects of terrestrial weathering and the small data-set.

  1. Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The papers discussed the following: The Formation Process of Adhering and Consorting Compound Chondrules Inferred Their Petrology and Major-Element Composition. The Prospect of High-Precision Pb Isotopic Dating of Meteorites. Evolution of UV-Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks. A Model for the Formation of E Chondrites. Oxygen Isotopic Diffusion and Exchange Experiments on Olivine and Chondrule Melts: Preliminary Results. Shock Heating: Origin of Shock Waves in the Protoplanetary Disk. Thermal Structures of Protoplanetary Disks. Meteoritical Astrophysics: A New Subdiscipline. Origin and Thermal History of FeNi-Metal in Primitive Chondrites. The Collisions of Chondrules Behind Shock Waves. Primary Signatures of the Nebular Dust Preserved in Accretionary Rims and Matrices of CV Chondrites. History of Thermally Processed Solids in the Protoplanetary Disk: Reconciling Theoretical Models and Meteoritical. Evidence Evaporation and Condensation During CAI and Chondrule Formation. Shock Heating: Effects on Chondritic Material. Rhounite-bearing Inclusions E201 and E202 from Efremovka: Constraints from Trace. Element Measurements Element Mapping in Anhydrous IDPs: Identification of the Host Phases of Major/Minor Elements as a Test of Nebula Condensation Models. Theoretical Studies of Disk Evolution Around Solar Mass Stars. Chemical Effects of High-Temperature Processing of Silicates. I-Xe and the Chronology of the Early Solar System. The Effects of X-Rays on the Gas and Dust in Young Stellar Objects. Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides in the Early Solar System. On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides. The Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides and Early Solar System Irradiation. Disequilibrium Melting and Oxygen Isotope Exchange of CAIs and Chondrules in the Solar Nebula. Mineralogy and Chemistry of Fine-grained Matrices, Rims, and Dark Inclusions in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites Acfer/El Djouf 001 and

  2. The classification and complex thermal history of the enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out instrumental neutron activation analysis of 11 enstatite chondrites and electron microprobe analyses of 17 enstatite chondrites, most of which were previously little described. We report here the third known EH5 chondrite (LEW 88180) and an unusual EL6 chondrite (LEW 87119), new data on four EL3 chondrites (ALH 85119, EET 90299, PCA 91020, and MAC 88136, which is paired with MAC 88180 and MAC 88184), the second EL5 chondrite (TIL 91714), and an unusual metal-rich and sulfide-poor EL3 chondrite (LEW 87223). The often discussed differences in mineral composition displayed by the EH and EL chondrites are not as marked after the inclusion of the new samples in the database, and the two classes apparently experienced a similar range of equilibrium temperatures. However, texturally the EL chondrites appear to have experienced much higher levels of metamorphic alteration than EH chondrites of similar equilibration temperatures. Most of the petrologic type criteria are not applicable to enstatite chondrites and, unlike the ordinary chondrites, texture and mineralogy reflect different aspects of the meteorite history. We therefore propose that the existing petrologic type scheme not be used for enstatite chondrites. We suggest that while 'textural type' reflects peak metamorphic temperatures, the 'mineralogical type' reflects equilibration during postmetamorphic (probably regolith) processes. Unlike the ordinary chondrites and EH chondrites, EL chondrites experienced an extensive low-temperature metamorphic episode. There are now a large number of enstatite meteorite breccias and impact melts, and apparently surface processes were important in determining the present nature of the enstatite chondrites.

  3. Oxygen isotope studies of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Olsen, Edward J.; Goswami, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    Several stages in the evolution of ordinary chondritic meteorites are recorded in the oxygen isotopic composition of the meteorites and their separable components (chondrules, fragments, clasts, and matrix). The whole-rock isotopic compositions reflect the iron-group of the meteorite (H, L, or LL). Isotopic uniformity of H3 to H6 and L3 to L6 are consistent with closed-system metamorphism within each parent body. LL3 chondrites differ slightly from LL4 to LL6, implying a small degree of open-system aqueous alteration and carbon reduction. On the scale of individual chondrules, the meteorites are isotopically heterogeneous, allowing recognition of the solar-nebular processes of chondrule formation. Chondrules for all classes of ordinary chondrites are derived from a common population, which was separate from the population of chondrules in carbonaceous or enstatite chondrites. Chondrules define an isotopic mixing line dominated by exchange between (O - 16)-rich and (O - 16)-poor reservoirs. The oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites serve as 'fingerprints' for identification of genetic association with other meteorite types (achondrites and iron) and for recognition of source materials in meteoritic breccias.

  4. Reclassification and thermal history of Trenzano chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, A. M.; Domeneghetti, M. C.; Molin, G.; Cámara, F.; Alvaro, M.; Agostini, L.

    We present a new single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study performed on a suite of six orthopyroxene grains from the low-shocked H6 Trenzano meteorite. The quenched intracrystalline Fe2+-Mg ordering state in orthopyroxene preserves the memory of the cooling rate near closure temperature Tc, thus yielding useful constraints on the last thermal event undergone by the host rock. The orthopyroxene Tc of 522 ± 13 °C, calculated using a new calibration equation obtained by Stimpfl (2005b), is higher than in previously published H chondrite data. The orthopyroxene cooling rate at this Tc is about 100 °C/kyr. This fast rate is inconsistent with the much slower cooling rate expected for H6 in the onion shell structural and thermal model of chondrite parent bodies. A petrographic study carried out at the same time indicated that the Trenzano meteorite is an H5 chondrite and not an H6 chondrite, as it is officially classified. Furthermore, the two-pyroxene equilibrium temperature of Trenzano (824 ± 24 °C), calculated with QUILF95, is similar to the two-pyroxene temperature of 750-840 °C obtained for the Carcote (H5) chondrite (Kleinschrot and Okrusch 1999).

  5. Multiple parent bodies of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yomogida, K.; Matsui, T.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal histories of chondrite parent bodies are calculated from an initial state with material in a powder-like form, taking into account the effect of consolidation state on thermal conductivity. The very low thermal conductivity of the starting materials makes it possible for a small body with a radius of less than 100 km to be heated by several hundred degrees even if long-lived radioactive elements in chondritic abundances are the only source of heat. The maximum temperature is determined primarily by the temperature at which sintering of the constituent materials occurs. The thermal state of the interior of a chondrite parent body after sintering has begun is nearly isothermal. Near the surface, however, where the material is unconsolidated and the thermal conductivity is much lower, the thermal gradient is quite large. This result contradicts the conventional 'onion-shell' model of chondrite parent bodies. But because the internal temperature is almost constant through the whole body, it supports a 'multiple-parent bodies' model, according to which each petrologic type of chondrite comes from a different parent body.

  6. Exposure ages of carbonaceous chondrites, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J. R.; Nagai, H.; Honda, M.; Sharma, P.; Imamura, M.; Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The recent exposure histories of carbonaceous chondrites have been investigated using cosmogenic radionuclides. Our results may indicate a clustering of exposure ages of C1 and C2 chondrites into two peaks, 0.2 My and 0.6 My, perhaps implying two collisional events of Earth-crossing parent bodies. Among carbonaceous chondrites are some having short exposure ages which Mazor et al. hypothesized cluster into a small number of families. This hypothesis is based on spallogenic Ne-21 exposure ages, which in some instances are difficult to determine owing to the large amounts of trapped noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, since Ne-21 is stable, it integrates a sample's entire exposure history, so meteorites with complex exposure histories are difficult to understand using exclusively Ne-21. Cosmogenic radionuclides provide an alternative means of determining the recent cosmic ray exposure duration. To test the hypothesis of Mazor et al. we have begun a systematic investigation of exposure histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites especially C2s.

  7. Ubiquitous brecciation after metamorphism in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Lusby, D.; Keil, K.

    1985-01-01

    Ten objects with aberrant Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios have been found in apparently unbrecciated types 4-6 H and L chondrites. Since the Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios of these objects are incompatible with the metamorphic history of the host chondrites, it is concluded that a high proportion of ordinary chondrites are breccias that were lithified after peak metamorphism. This is consistent with the results of Scott (1984), who concluded that most type three ordinary chondrites are breccias of materials with diverse thermal histories, even though they do not show prominent brecciation. It is found that the classification scheme of Van Schmus and Wood (1967) does not identify chondrites with similar thermal histories; the petrologic type of a chondrite is only a measure of the average thermal history of its ingredients. Chondrite and achondrite breccias are also compared in order to understand how brecciation of chondrites after metamorphism is so well camouflaged.

  8. Mean Atomic Weight of Chelyabinsk and Olivenza LL5 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurgot, M.

    2015-07-01

    Mean atomic weights (Amean) of Chelyabinsk and Olivenza LL5 chondrites have been determined and analysed. Relationship between Fe/Si atomic ratio and mean atomic weight of ordinary chondrites has been established which enables one to predict Amean values.

  9. Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites Z. Martins (1), O. Botta (2), M. L. Fogel (3), M. A. Sephton (4), D. P. Glavin (2), J. S. Watson (5), J. P. Dworkin (2), A. W. Schwartz (6) and P. Ehrenfreund (1,6). (1) Astrobiology Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands, (2) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Greenbelt, MD, USA, (3) GL, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC, USA, (4) Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College, London, UK, (5) Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK, (6) Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E-mail: z.martins@chem.leidenuniv.nl/Phone:+31715274440 Nucleobases are crucial compounds in terrestrial biochemistry, because they are key components of DNA and RNA. Carbonaceous meteorites have been analyzed for nucleobases by different research groups [1-5]. However, significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed, leading to the controversial about the origin of these nucleobases. In order to establish the origin of these compounds in carbonaceous chondrites and to assess the plausibility of their exogenous delivery to the early Earth, we have performed formic acid extraction of samples of the Murchison meteorite [6], followed by an extensive purification procedure, analysis and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorption detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results were qualitatively consistent with previous results [3, 4], but showed significant quantitative differences. Compound specific carbon isotope values were obtained, using gas chromatography-combustion- isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A soil sample collected in the proximity of the Murchison meteorite fall site was subjected to the same extraction, purification and analysis procedure

  10. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, B. B.; Tilton, G. R.

    1985-07-01

    The record of early events in the solar system is presently sought, together with information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead, in the lead isotope relations of whole rock and separated phases of Mezo-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites; the respective ages of 4.48 and 4.47 billion years are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. The 4.48 billion year age, which is younger than the well established 4.54-4.56 billion years of the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites.

  11. Experimental vaporization of the Holbrook chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Muenow, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor phase composition obtained by heating samples of the Holbrook L6 chondrite to 1300 C was determined quantitatively by Knudsen cell-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Maximum observed vapor pressures, produced at 1200 C, are reported for Na, K, Fe, and Ni, and the implications of the Na/K ratio are considered. The Fe and Ni data are discussed with attention to their migration in individual equilibrated chondrites. S2 (with minor SO2), H2O, and CO2 were also present in the high-temperature gas phase. Vesicles formed by the release of intrinsically derived volatiles are compared with vesicles in the Ibitira eucrite. Chondrite evolution is briefly discussed.

  12. Primitive material surviving in chondrites - Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Barber, D. J.; Alexander, C. M.; Hutchinson, R.; Peck, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A logical place to search for surviving pristine nebular material is in the fine-grained matrices of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic type 3. Unfortunately, many of these chondrites have experienced brecciation, thermal metamorphism, and aqueous alteration, so that interpreting individual features in terms of specific nebular conditions and/or processes is difficult. It follows that the origin and evolutionary history of such matrix phases are controversial, and a consensus is difficult to define. In this chapter, therefore, after summarizing the salient mineralogical, petrographic, chemical, and isotopic features of matrix in apparently primitive chondrites, an attempt is made to provide an overview both of areas of agreement and of topics that are currently in dispute.

  13. The matrices of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites - Implications for the origin and history of chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    The matrices of 16 unequilibrated chondrites were examined by optical microscopy, an electron microprobe, and a scanning electron microscope. The fine-grained, opaque, silicate matrix of type 3 unequilibrated chondrites was compositionally, mineralogically, and texturally different from the chondrules and their fragments; it may be the low temperature condensate proposed by Larimer and Anders (1967, 1970). Each meteorite has been metamorphosed by a combination of processes including thermal metamorphism and the passage of shock waves; the appearance of each chondrite results from the temperature and pressure conditions which formed it, and subsequent metamorphic alterations.

  14. Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: On the Dynamical Evolution of a Nebula and Its Effect on Dust Coagulation and the Formation of Centimeter-sized Particles. The Mineralogy and Grain Properties of the Disk Surfaces in Three Herbig Ae/Be Stars. Astrophysical Observations of Disk Evolution Around Solar Mass Stars. The Systematic Petrology of Chondrites: A Consistent Approach to Assist Classification and Interpretation. Understanding Our Origins: Formation of Sun-like Stars in H II Region Environments. Chondrule Crystallization Experiments. Formation of SiO2-rich Chondrules by Fractional Condensation. Refractory Forsterites from Murchison (CM2) and Yamato 81020 (CO3.0) Chondrites: Cathodoluminescence, Chemical Compositions and Oxygen Isotopes. Apparent I-Xe Cooling Rates of Chondrules Compared with Silicates from the Colomera Iron Meteorite. Chondrule Formation in Planetesimal Bow Shocks: Physical Processes in the Near Vicinity of the Planetesimal. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix. Chondrite Fractionation was Cosmochemical; Chondrule Fractionation was Geochemical. Chondrule Formation and Accretion of Chondrite Parent Bodies: Environmental Constraints. Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates from the Semarkona LL3.0 Chondrite. The Evolution of Solids in Proto-Planetary Disks. New Nickel Vapor Pressure Measurements: Possible Implications for Nebular Condensates. Chemical, Mineralogical and Isotopic Properties of Chondrules: Clues to Their Origin. Maximal Size of Chondrules in Shock-Wave Heating Model: Stripping of Liquid Surface in Hypersonic Rarefied Gas Flow. The Nature and Origin of Interplanetary Dust: High Temperature Components. Refractory Relic Components in Chondrules from Ordinary Chondrites. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-lived and Long-lived Radionuclides. The Genetic Relationship Between Refractory Inclusions and Chondrules. Contemporaneous Chondrule Formation Between Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites. Chondrules and

  15. A simple chondritic model of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanloup, C.; Jambon, A.; Gillet, P.

    1999-03-01

    SNC meteorites (Shergottites, Nakhlites and Chassigny) define a fractionation line in a δ 17O/δ 18O diagram as expected for rocks differentiated from a formerly homogenized parent body, which is intermediate between H ordinary chondrites and EH enstatite chondrites. The planet Mars is located between the Earth and the asteroid belts, the potential source of ordinary chondrites. Since oxygen is a major component of the terrestrial planets, our model assumes that Mars composition is a mixture of two chondritic sources whose proportions are calculated by mass balance based on oxygen isotopes only. Two possible model compositions can be derived: if the average isotopic composition of SNC is relaxed along its fractionation line (Model 1) and if the end members are average H and EH chondrites, one obtains a 30:70 H:EH mixture. If the average isotopic composition of SNC is a robust feature, then an extreme composition of H chondrites must be selected which yields the proportion, 55:45 for the H:EH components. This composition carries the same oxygen isotopic composition as the iron inclusions in the IIE of the conjectured end member of the ordinary chondrite group. The proportions obtained this way enable to calculate two model compositions for all the refractory elements and oxygen. Model 1 can be discarded as it does not permit to fit reasonably the physical properties of the planet. Mass and composition of the core (Model 2) is easily derived (23% of Mars mass, containing 16% S); the remainder forming the bulk mantle composition. Comparison with recent estimates based on the composition of SNC meteorites reveals only minor differences, essentially for Si, Mg and Fe; this is because of our choice of non-CI chondritic composition, unlike previous models. Discussion of the assumptions made in previous models confirms that the new composition is in agreement with the SNC compositions. The model also permits to calculate adequate physical properties of the planet like its

  16. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, I. D. R.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of current investigations on the mineralogy of chondritic micrometeorites obtained from the lower stratosphere using flat-plate collection surfaces attached to high-flying aircraft. A compilation of detailed mineralogical analyses for 30 documented chondritic interplanetary dust particles indicates a wide variety of minerals present in assemblages which, as yet, are poorly defined. Two possible assemblages are: (1) carbonaceous phases and layer silicates and (2) carbonaceous and chain silicates or nesosilicates. Particles with both types of silicate assemblages are also observed.

  17. Chondrites as samples of differentiated planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2010-05-01

    Chondritic meteorites are unmelted, variably metamorphosed samples of the earliest solids of the solar system. A recent paleomagnetic study of CV chondrites suggests that their parent body was internally differentiated and produced a core magnetic dynamo (Carporzen et al., submitted, and this session). Here we show that a parent body that accreted to >250 km in radius by ~1.7 Ma after the formation of CAIs could retain a solid undifferentiated crust overlying a differentiated interior, and would be consistent with formational and evolutionary constraints on the CV parent body. Further, this body could have produced a magnetic field lasting more than 10 Ma. CV chondritic meteorites contain the oldest known solids: calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The variety of metamorphic textures in ordinary chondrites motivated the "onion shell" model in which chondrites originated at varying depths within a parent body heated primarily by the short-lived radioisotope 26Al, with the highest metamorphic grade originating nearest the center. The large abundances and sizes of CAIs in CV chondrites have long suggested an early parent body accretion age. New Pb-Pb and Al-Mg ages of chondrules in CVs are consistent with the CV parent body having largely completed accretion by the youngest chondrule age of ~1.7-3 Ma. The CV chondrite parent body likely reached peak metamorphic temperatures around 7 to 10 Ma after CAIs, based on I-Xe chronometry for Allende and Mn-Cr chronometry for Mokoia. Bodies that accreted to more than >~20 km radius before ~1.3 to 3 Ma after the formation of CAIs likely contained sufficient 26Al to melt internally from the insulated cumulative effects of radiogenic heating. These early-accreting bodies will melt from the interior out, sometimes forming an interior magma ocean under a solid, conductive, undifferentiated shell. This shell would consist of the same chondritic material that made up the bulk accreting body before melting began. The presence of

  18. Metallic Fractions of Ordinary Chondrites: Implications to the Structure of Chondritic Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, M.; Kong, P.

    1995-09-01

    Bulk metal and taenite fractions separated by a chemical method [1] from 23 ordinary chondrites were studied by INAA and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The elemental distributions demonstrate that siderophile elements, except Co and possibly As and Mo, are more enriched in taenite than kamacite but with different abundance ratios between them. Apparently, kamacite and taenite are not produced by redox reactions, condensation fractionation and melt-solid fractionation. Instead, kamacite and taenite can only be the equilibrated products by low temperature diffusion following the Fe-Ni phase diagram. Positive correlation of Co and Ni in carbonaceous chondritic metals and the existence of a high Co and low Ni metal phase in some LL chondrites suggest that chondritic kamacite and taenite can not be developed in the nebula. Rather, kamacite and taenite are produced through solid diffusion in the chondritic parent bodies. There is a large difference in the development of kamacite and taenite between the equilibrated and the unequilibrated L chondrites: the taenite phase of the unequilibrated L chondrites is mostly or totally developed into tetrataenite while low-Ni paramagnetic taenite is still present abundantly in the equilibrated L chondrites. The low-Ni paramagnetic taenite is believed to be an unequilibrated phase of either an incompletely transformed phase during fast cooling [2] or a metastable taenite located out of the miscibility gap on the Fe-Ni phase diagram [3]. In either case, the arrangement of the EOCs and the UOCs in the parent body was the same; the EOCs located near the surface of the parent body, with the UOCs being near the center, if they derived from the common parent body. An intrinsic thermal activity in the parent body would produce a temperature gradient decreasing from the center to the surface, whereas an external heating would exhibit the inverse trend. If a "reverse" onion shell structure is invoked, the generally accepted metamorphic temperatures

  19. Nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Brearley, A. J.; Keil, K.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1988-01-01

    The abundance and the isotopic compositions of C, O, and noble gases were investigated together with the petrologic characteristics of four carbon-rich ordinary chondrites (Sharps and Allan Hills A77011, A78119, and A81024) and three C-rich chondritic clasts. The results of the analyses suggest that all of the chondrites and clasts analyzed belong to petrologic type 3 and contain abundant carbon-rich aggregates, which, in at least two of these samples, consist of poorly graphitized carbon commonly associated with metallic Fe,Ni. The data also suggest that the four C-rich chondrites originated on the H, L, and LL parental bodies, but that clasts in Dimmitt and Plainview and other regolith breccias may come from different bodies. The results obtained are consistent with the view that graphite is not a common nebular phase.

  20. Petrology of types 4-6 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative mineralogic study has been made of Coolidge, Karoonda, and new C4 chondrites in order to clarify the origin of C4-6 chondrites. It is shown that the properties of all C4-6 chondrites are consistent with an origin by metamorphism of C3-like precursors by processes analogous to those operating in ordinary chondrite parent bodies or planetesimals. However, type 4-6 material was not well mixed with type 3 material in the CV3 parent body. It is concluded that C4-6 chondrites may come from one or more separate parent bodies.

  1. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 8. “Other” carbonaceous chondrites: CH, ungrouped, polymict, xenolithic inclusions, and R chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Hudon, P.; Hiroi, T.; Gaffey, M. J.; Mann, P.

    2012-11-01

    We have analyzed reflectance spectra (0.3-2.5 μm) of a number of ungrouped or tentatively grouped carbonaceous chondrites (CCs), possible CC-type xenoliths in an aubrite (Cumberland Falls) and a howardite (PRA 04401), a CH chondrite (PCA 91467), a CC polymict breccia (Kaidun), and some R chondrites. The best approach to analysis relies largely on characterizing spectrally active phases - i.e., those phases that contribute diagnostic absorption features, involving absorption band wavelength position, band depth, shape of absorption features, combined with albedo and spectral slope. Mafic silicate (hydrous and/or anhydrous) absorption features are ubiquitous in the CCs and R chondrites we have examined. Combining information on these features along with albedo and spectral slopes allows reasonable inferences to be made concerning their uniqueness. Reflectance spectra of Coolidge show contributions from both olivine and Fe oxyhydroxides (from terrestrial weathering), and its high reflectance and mafic silicate band depths are consistent with a petrologic grade >3 and inconsistent with CVs. The CC nature of the Cumberland Falls inclusions from spectral analysis is inconclusive, but they do exhibit spectral features consistent with their overall mineralogy. DaG 430, which has petrologic characteristics of both CV and CK chondrites, has a spectrum that is not fully consistent with either group. The spectrum of EET 96029 is consistent with some, but not all CM2 chondrites. GRO 95566, a meteorite with some affinities to CM2s, most resembles the Renazzo CR2 chondrite, consistent with their similar mineralogies, and its spectral properties can be related to its major mineralogic characteristics. Spectra of Kaidun are most consistent with CR chondrites, which form the bulk of this meteorite. The reflectance spectrum of MCY 92005 is consistent with its recent classification as a CM2 chondrite. The R3 chondrite MET 01149 shares many characteristics with CKs, but differs in

  2. Collisional records in LL-chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Thomas; Marti, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    One third of all the LL-chondrites have exposure ages of approx. 15 Ma and were exposed to cosmic rays following a collisional break-up. The probability that the 15-Ma peak represents a random signal is calculated to be less than 2%. Considerably lower probabilities are obtained if only LL5s or subgroups of high Ar-40 retention are used. Furthermore, we show that the peak shape agrees with statistical constraints obtained from multiple analyses of samples from the St. Severin LL6-chondrites. The frequency in and out of the 15-Ma peak varies significantly for different petrographic LL-types. The radiogenic Ar-40 retention systematics (most LL-chondrites retained Ar-40(sub rad) shows that no substantial heat pulse resulted in the 15-Ma collisional event. Interestingly, smaller exposure age clusters at approx. 28 Ma and approx. 40 Ma match up well with clusters in the histogram of L-chondrites. The distribution of LL-exposure ages is not consistent with that expected for a quasi-continuous injection of LL material into a resonance zone of the asteroid belt. The near absence of exposure ages shorter than 8 Ma either indicates a lack of recent collisional events or considerably longer transfer times than inferred from dynamical considerations.

  3. Spectrum of carbonaceous-chondrite fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    Estimations of the fission spectrum in xenon isotopes from the progenitor of the strange carbonaceous-chondrite xenon must take account of p-process nucleosynthesis if the latter is the source of anomalous Xe-124, 126. Sample calculations of the p-process yields illustrate the magnitude of the effect, which can greatly increase the estimated Xe-132 fission yield.

  4. Intensive parameters of enstatite chondrite metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, Robert A.; Hess, Paul C.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    1989-01-01

    A geothermometer based on the assemblage kamacite-quartz-enstatite-oldhamite-troilite found in enstatite chondrites is described. Data obtained with the geothermometer reveal that the EL6 meteorites experienced temperatures exceeding 1000 C. These temperatures imply a metal-sulfide melting event that may have fractionated the melt from the source region.

  5. Evidence of Microfossils in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Zhmur, S. I.; Gorlenko, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on freshly broken, internal surfaces of the Murchison, Efremovka and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites using Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) in Russia and the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) in the United States. These independent studies on different samples of the meteorites have resulted in the detection of numerous spherical and ellipsoidal bodies (some with spikes) similar to the forms of uncertain biogenicity that were designated "organized elements" by prior researchers. We have also encountered numerous complex biomorphic microstructures in these carbonaceous chondrites. Many of these complex bodies exhibit diverse characteristics reminiscent of microfossils of cyanobacteria such as we have investigated in ancient phosphorites and high carbon rocks (e.g. oil shales). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and 2D elemental maps shows enhanced carbon content in the bodies superimposed upon the elemental distributions characteristic of the chondritic matrix. The size, distribution, composition, and indications of cell walls, reproductive and life cycle developmental stages of these bodies are strongly suggestive of biology' These bodies appear to be mineralized and embedded within the meteorite matrix, and can not be attributed to recent surface contamination effects. Consequently, we have interpreted these in-situ microstructures to represent the lithified remains of prokaryotes and filamentous cyanobacteria. We also detected in Orgueil microstructures morphologically similar to fibrous kerite crystals. We present images of many biomorphic microstructures and possible microfossils found in the Murchison, Efremovka, and Orgueil chondrites and compare these forms with known microfossils from the Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) of Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  6. Intensive parameters of enstatite chondrite metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, R. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1989-10-01

    A geothermometer based on the assemblage kamacite-quartz-enstatite-oldhamite-troilite found in enstatite chondrites is described. Data obtained with the geothermometer reveal that the EL6 meteorites experienced temperatures exceeding 1000 C. These temperatures imply a metal-sulfide melting event that may have fractionated the melt from the source region.

  7. Classification of four ordinary chondrites from Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, Klaus; Casanova, I.; Wieler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on optical microsocpy and electron microprobe analysis of mafic minerals, four previously poorly described ordinary chondrites from Spain are classified. The classifications of Guarena (H6), Olmedilla de Alarcon (H5) and Reliegos (L5) are confirmed. Molina is reclassified as H5, based on new data.

  8. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. XI - Metamorphism, pairing, and brecciation of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hasan, F. A.; Batchelor, J. D.; Lu, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports recent measurements of the induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 69 type-3 ordinary chondrites, bringing to 125 the number of type-3 ordinary chondrites for which TL data are available. The samples include several of the particularly low petrographic type and many breccias, some of them gas-rich. The significance of the data with respect to the physical conditions affecting metamorphism is discussed. The TL data, olivine heterogeneity, carbon content, and inert-gas content were used to assign the samples to petrologic types. Twelve meteorites were identified as being type 3.0-3.2, and 10 of the breccias were found to contain material that may also be of this type. The temperature and width of the induced TL peak are also related to thermal history, with type 3.2-3.4 chondrites tending to have narrower peaks at lower glow curve temperatures than the type 3.6-3.9 chondrites. Type 3 H chondrites were found to be a higher petrographic type than the type 3 L and LL chondrites.

  9. Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Ca-, Al-Rich Inclusions and Ameoboid Olivine Aggregates: What We Know and Don t Know About Their Origin. Aluminium-26 and Oxygen Isotopic Distributions of Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from Acfer 214 CH Chondrite. The Trapping Efficiency of Helium in Fullerene and Its Implicatiion to the Planetary Science. Constraints on the Origin of Chondritic Components from Oxygen Isotopic Compositions. Role of Planetary Impacts in Thermal Processing of Chondrite Materials. Formation of the Melilite Mantle of the Type B1 CAIs: Flash Heating or Transport? The Iodine-Xenon System in Outer and Inner Portions of Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic LL3 Chondrite. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars. The Two-Fluid Analysis of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the Dust Layer of a Protoplanetary Disk: A Possible Path to the Planetesimal Formation Through the Gravitational Instability. Shock-Wave Heating Model for Chonodrule Formation: Heating Rate and Cooling Rate Constraints. Glycine Amide Hydrolysis with Water and OH Radical: A Comparative DFT Study. Micron-sized Sample Preparation for AFM and SEM. AFM, FE-SEM and Optical Imaging of a Shocked L/LL Chondrite: Implications for Martensite Formation and Wave Propagation. Infrared Spectroscopy of Chondrites and Their Components: A Link Between Meteoritics and Astronomy? Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of CAI and Their Mineral Components. The Origin of Iron Isotope Fractionation in Chondrules, CAIs and Matrix from Allende (CV3) and Chainpur (LL3) Chondrites. Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: Early Results from Spitzer. Kinetics of Evaporation-Condensation in a Melt-Solid System and Its Role on the Chemical Composition and Evolution of Chondrules. Oxygen Isotope Exchange Recorded Within Anorthite Single Crystal in Vigarano CAI: Evidence for Remelting by High Temperature Process in the Solar Nebula. Chondrule Forming Shock Waves in Solar Nebula by X-Ray Flares. Organic Globules with Anormalous

  10. Correlated Alteration Effects in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine, and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production, and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that-relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison less than or equal to Bells less than Pollen less than or equal to Murray less than Mighei less than Nogoya less than Cold Bokkeveld. Bulk delta18O values generally increase with progressive alteration, providing additional support for this sequence. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values of the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. For example, a positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. Furthermore, the abundance of trapped planetary Ar-36 decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase(s) by aqueous reactions. Multiple

  11. Compositions of three low-FeO ordinary chondrites: Indications of a common origin with the H chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Troiano, Julianne; Rumble III, Douglas; Rivers, Mark L.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2011-11-17

    Burnwell, EET 96031, and LAP 04575 are ordinary chondrites (OC) that possess lower than typical olivine Fa content than has been established for the H chondrites (< 17 mol%). Mean low-Ca pyroxene Fs contents are typically lower than mean Fa content, with generally 16 mol% Fs. We have investigated these three low-FeO chondrites by measuring their trace element abundances, oxygen isotopic compositions, and examining their three-dimensional (3D) petrography with synchrotron X-ray microtomography. We compare our results with those established for more common OC. The low FeO chondrites studied here have bulk trace element abundances that are identical to the H chondrites. From bulk oxygen isotopic analysis, we show that Burnwell, EET 96010, and LAP 04757 sampled oxygen reservoirs identical to the H chondrites. Burnwell, EET 96031, and LAP 04575 possess common 3D opaque mineral structures that could be distinct from the H chondrites, as evidenced by X-ray microtomographic analysis, but our comparison suite of H chondrites is small and unrepresentative. Overall, our data suggest a common origin for the low-FeO chondrites Burnwell, EET 96010, and LAP 04757 and the H chondrites. These three samples are simply extreme members of a redox process where a limiting nebular oxidizing agent, probably ice, reacted with material containing slightly higher amounts of metal than typically seen in the H chondrites.

  12. Nucleosynthetic strontium isotope anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Fukami, Yusuke; Okui, Wataru; Ito, Nobuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Precise Sr isotopic compositions in samples from sequential acid leaching experiments have been determined for three carbonaceous chondrites, Allende, Murchison, and Tagish Lake, together with those in the bulk aliquots of these meteorites. The chondritic acid leachates and residues were characterized by Sr isotope anomalies with variable μ84Sr values (106 relative deviation from a standard material) ranging from +120 to - 4700 ppm, documenting multiple nucleosynthetic sources within a single meteorite. In addition, the μ84Sr patterns across leaching samples for individual chondrites differed from one another. The highest μ84Sr values were observed for leaching Step 3 (HCl+H2O, 75 °C) for Allende and Murchison likely because of the incorporation of calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). In contrast, extremely low μ84Sr values were observed in the later fractions (Steps 6 and 7) for Murchison and Tagish Lake, suggesting the existence of s-process-enriched presolar SiC grains derived from AGB stars. A μ84Sr-ɛ54Cr diagram was prepared with the CAIs and bulk aliquots of carbonaceous chondrites and other meteorites (noncarbonaceous) that were plotted separately; however, they still formed a global positive correlation. CAIs presented the highest μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values, whereas carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites had intermediate and the lowest μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values, respectively. The positive trend was interpreted as resulting from global thermal processing in which sublimation of high μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr carriers generated the excess μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr signatures in CAIs, while noncarbonaceous planetesimals accreted from materials that underwent significant thermal processing and thus had relatively low μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values. Apart from the global trend, the carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites both exhibited intrinsic variations that highlight an isotopic dichotomy similar to that observed in other isotope

  13. Thermal evolution and sintering of chondritic planetesimals. III. Modelling the heat conductivity of porous chondrite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Stephan; Gail, Hans-Peter; Trieloff, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Context. The construction of models for the internal constitution and temporal evolution of large planetesimals, which are the parent bodies of chondrites, requires as accurate as possible information on the heat conductivity of the complex mixture of minerals and iron metal found in chondrites. The few empirical data points on the heat conductivity of chondritic material are severely disturbed by impact-induced microcracks modifying the thermal conductivity. Aims: We attempt to evaluate the heat conductivity of chondritic material with theoretical methods. Methods: We derived the average heat conductivity of a multi-component mineral mixture and granular medium from the heat conductivities of its mixture components. We numerically generated random mixtures of solids with chondritic composition and packings of spheres. We solved the heat conduction equation in high spatial resolution for a test cube filled with such matter. We derived the heat conductivity of the mixture from the calculated heat flux through the cube. Results: For H and L chondrites, our results are in accord with empirical thermal conductivity at zero porosity. However, the porosity dependence of heat conductivity of granular material built from chondrules and matrix is at odds with measurements for chondrites, while our calculations are consistent with data for compacted sandstone. The discrepancy is traced back to subsequent shock modification of the currently available meteoritic material resulting from impacts on the parent body over the last 4.5 Ga. This causes a structure of void space made of fractures/cracks, which lowers the thermal conductivity of the medium and acts as a barrier to heat transfer. This structure is different from the structure that probably exists in the pristine material where voids are represented by pores rather than fractures. The results obtained for the heat conductivity of the pristine material are used for calculating models for the evolution of the H chondrite

  14. Thermal evolution and sintering of chondritic planetesimals. III. Modelling the heat conductivity of porous chondrite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Stephan; Gail, Hans-Peter; Trieloff, Mario

    2016-05-01

    Context. The construction of models for the internal constitution and temporal evolution of large planetesimals, which are the parent bodies of chondrites, requires as accurate as possible information on the heat conductivity of the complex mixture of minerals and iron metal found in chondrites. The few empirical data points on the heat conductivity of chondritic material are severely disturbed by impact-induced microcracks modifying the thermal conductivity. Aims: We attempt to evaluate the heat conductivity of chondritic material with theoretical methods. Methods: We derived the average heat conductivity of a multi-component mineral mixture and granular medium from the heat conductivities of its mixture components. We numerically generated random mixtures of solids with chondritic composition and packings of spheres. We solved the heat conduction equation in high spatial resolution for a test cube filled with such matter. We derived the heat conductivity of the mixture from the calculated heat flux through the cube. Results: For H and L chondrites, our results are in accord with empirical thermal conductivity at zero porosity. However, the porosity dependence of heat conductivity of granular material built from chondrules and matrix is at odds with measurements for chondrites, while our calculations are consistent with data for compacted sandstone. The discrepancy is traced back to subsequent shock modification of the currently available meteoritic material resulting from impacts on the parent body over the last 4.5 Ga. This causes a structure of void space made of fractures/cracks, which lowers the thermal conductivity of the medium and acts as a barrier to heat transfer. This structure is different from the structure that probably exists in the pristine material where voids are represented by pores rather than fractures. The results obtained for the heat conductivity of the pristine material are used for calculating models for the evolution of the H chondrite

  15. The asteroidal source region of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    The final, Earth-impacting orbits of ordinary chondritic meteorites have a very special distribution. By use of visual radiant and time of fall data, as well as photographic fireball orbits (1) it is inferred that chondrite perihelia are concentrated near 1 A.U., eccentricities are usually rather high (approximately 0.5), and inclinations are low (approximately 10 deg). Velocity selection resulting from atmospheric ablation plays a significant role in determining this orbital distribution, but by no means suffices to explain it. The observed distribution is a fragile one, and can easily be destroyed by Earth and Venus perturbations. This places severe constraints on the location of the original source bodies, of which these meteorites are fragments. New calculations were made of the expected distribution of final orbits from a range of initial sources, taking into consideration close encounter planetary perturbations, secular resonance, destruction by collision in space, and atmospheric ablation.

  16. Carbon isotopes in bulk carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbout, J.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of the solar system are examined. Primitive matter has been found on a microscopic scale in a variety of meteorites: fragments of small solar system bodies that were never part of a large planet. This primitive matter has, in most cases, been identified by the presence of anomalous abundances of some isotopes of the chemical elements. Of particular interest for carbon isotope studies are the primitive meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. Using a selective oxidation technique to sort out the carbon contained in different chemical forms (graphite, carbonates, and organic matter), four carbonaceous chondrites are analyzed. The presence of the (13) C-rich component was confirmed and additional carbon components with different, but characteristic, isotopic signatures were resolved.

  17. Collescipoli - An unusual fusion crust glass. [chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.

    1979-01-01

    An electron microprobe study was conducted on glass fragments taken from the fusion crust and an internal glass-lined vein in the H-5 chondrite Collescipoli. Microprobe analyses of the glasses revealed an unusual fusion crust composition, and analyses of glass from inside the meteorite showed compositions expected for a melt of an H-group chondrite. Studies of fusion crusts by previous workers, e.g., Krinov and Ramdohr, showed that fusion crusts contain large amounts of magnetite and other oxidized minerals. The Collescipoli fusion crusts do contain these minerals, but they also contain relatively large amounts of reduced metal, sulphide, and a sodium-rich glass. This study seems to indicate that Collescipoli preserved an early type of fusion crust. Oxidation was incomplete in the fusion crust melt that drained into a crack. From this study it is concluded that fusion crust formation does not invariably result in complete oxidation of metal and sulphide phases.

  18. On the chemical composition of L-chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl, and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 subgroups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe rich subgroup support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe poor subgroup seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock induced loss from L chondrites. However, contrasting chemical trends in several L chondrite sample sets indicate that these meteorites constitute a more irregular sampling of, or more heterogeneous parent material than do carbonaceous or enstatite chondrites. Data for 15 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  19. Chemical characteristics and origin of H chondrite regolith breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Biswas, S.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Petrologic data and contents of Ag, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Se, Te, Tl and Zn-trace elements spanning the volatility/mobility range-in light and dark portions of H chondrite regolith breccias and L chondrite fragmental breccias are reported. The chemical/petrologic characteristics of H chondrite regolith breccias differ from those of nonbrecciated chondrites or fragmental breccias. Petrologic characteristics and at least some trace element contents of H chondrite regolith breccias reflect primary processes; contents of the most volatile/mobile elements may reflect either primary or secondary processing, possibly within layered H chondrite parent object(s). Chemical/petrologic differences existed in different regions of the parent(s). Regoligh formation and gardening and meteoroid compaction were not so severe as to alter compositions markedly.

  20. The D/H Ratio in Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, François

    2003-04-01

    The statistical distribution of all available published D/H ratios of carbonaceous chondrites is presented. The possible interpretations of this distribution are reviewed at the global scale of the solar system planetary objects and at the scale defined by the carbonaceous meteorites. New issues concerning the chemical origin of the deuterium enrichment in solar system water and organic molecules are put into light by this exercise. This distribution is a robust constraint on the origin of water on Earth.

  1. The meteorite Moss - a rare carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilet, M.; Roaldset, E.

    2014-07-01

    On July 14, 2006, at about 10:20 a.m. local daylight time (UTC+2), a bright fireball travelling SSE-NNV was witnessed from the Baltic Sea to SE Norway. On the east side of the Oslo fiord, around Moss, an explosion and a rumbling sound was heard, and pieces were observed falling. Rapid recovery of meteorite stones gave an opportunity for detailed petrological and geochemical investigations, including analyses of indigenous organic species, and short lived isotopes. The meteorite is a chondritic stone meteorite, with some carbon (0.21-0.25 wt% C). The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age is 14 Ma, i.e. when Moss was ejected from its parent body. Gas retention ages are approximately 3.95x10^9 yr (U/Th/He) and 4.43x10^9 yr (K/Ar), respectively. The meteorite has the official name Moss, and is classified as carbonaceous chondrite type CO3.6. It was the first witnessed fall of a CO3 chondrite since Kainsaz in Russia in 1937.

  2. Size distributions in two porous chondritic micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative size measurements of granular units (GUs), and nm-sized minerals in these units, in two porous chondritic micrometeorites are investigated. The matrix of these micrometeorites consist of loosely packed, 0.1 micron-sized, GUs. These objects were a major component of the solar nebula dust that accreted into protoplanets. The matrix in micrometeorite W7010*A2 has a fractal dimension with a small coefficient that supports efficient sticking of carbon-rich GUs during accretion. The fractal nature of the matrix provides a way to calculate the density using the aggregate size. The resulting very low density for porous chondritic micrometeorites is 0.08-0.14 g/cu cm, which supports the view that they are the solid debris from unconsolidated solar system bodies. Chondritic GUs contain ultrafine olivines, pyroxenes, and sulfides, embedded in hydrocarbons and amorphous carbons. Nanocrystals in the micrometeorites W7010*A2 and U2015*B show log normal size distributions. The high incidence of disk-shaped grains, a changeover from disk-shaped to euhedral grains, the unevolved nature of the size distributions, and multiple populations for grains less than 127 nm in size, are consistent with continuous postaccretion nucleation and growth in amorphous GUs, including coarsening via Ostwald ripening.

  3. Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Dodony, Istvan; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    CM chondrites are primitive rocks that experienced aqueous alteration in the early solar system. Their matrices and fine-grained rims (FGRs) sustained the effects of alteration, and the minerals within them hold clues to the aqueous reactions. Sheet silicates are an important product of alteration, and those of the serpentine group are abundant in the CM2 chondrites. Here we expand on our previous efforts to characterize the structure and chemistry of serpentines in CM chondrites and report results on a polyhedral form that is structurally similar to polygonal serpentine. Polygonal serpentine consists of tetrahedral (T) sheets joined to M(2+)-centered octahedral (O) sheets (where (M2+) is primarily Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)), which give rise to a 1:1 (TO) layered structure with a 0.7-nm layer periodicity. The structure is similar to chrysotile in that it consists of concentric lizardite layers wrapped around the fiber axis. However, unlike the rolled-up chrysotile, the tetrahedral sheets of the lizardite layers are periodically inverted and kinked, producing sectors. The relative angles between sectors result in 15- and 30-sided polygons in terrestrial samples.

  4. Are carbonaceous chondrites primitive or processed - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    According to the results of the present analysis, carbonaceous chondrites are obviously not pristine samples of proto-solar-system condensates. In terms of chemistry, however, these chondrites may represent the most primitive solar system materials known. It appears that the alterations experienced by carbonaceous chondrites were isochemical, or nearly so, so that their bulk compositions have remained practically unchanged, provided that the analyses are representative of large portions of the meteorites.

  5. The Cerro LOS Calvos and La Banderia chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Randall; Lewis, Charles F.; Clark, James C.; Moore, Carleton B.

    1991-06-01

    The Cerro los Calvos meteorite is a single stone of 68.5 g found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field of Zacatecas, (Mexico). It is an unusual H4 chondrite. Its olivine (Fa12.5) and orthopyroxene (Fs 11.7, Wo 0.8) are reduced relative to typical H chondrites. The La Banderia meteorite of 54.3 g from the same vicinity is an LL5 chondrite of shock classification e.

  6. Penecontemporaneous metamorphism, fragmentation, and reassembly of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal histories of ordinary chondrites and the canonical internal heating or onion shell models, which predict an inverse relation between the petrologic type of chondrites and the metallographic cooling rate, are reviewed. The thermal and accretional requirements of the 'metamorphosed planetesimal' model proposed by Scott and Rajan (1981) are analyzed, and an alternative model consistent with the metallographic cooling rate constraints is suggested in which ordinary chondrite parent bodies are collisionally fragmented and then rapidly reassembled before metamorphic heat has been dissipated.

  7. Amino acids of the Nogoya and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Moore, C. B.

    1976-01-01

    Amino acids were found in acid hydrolyzed, hot water extracts of the Nogoya (C2) and Mokoia (C3V) chondrites. About 40 n moles/g of amino acids were found in the Nogoya extract while Mokoia contained less than 1 n mole/g. The amino acid composition of Nogoya differs from that of other C2 chondrites studied earlier. The results from Mokoia are similar to previous data obtained from the C3V chondrite Allende.

  8. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. V - The enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, K. S.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1985-07-01

    The results of instrumental neutron activation analysis of 19 major, minor, and trace elements in three unequilibrated, or type 3, enstatite chondrites (ECs) are reported. Based on these and the literature data, the relationship between the type 3 ECs and the other ECs is discussed. The abundance of siderophile elements in type 3 ECs places them with the EH, rather than EL chondrites. The chalcophile elements are at the low end of EH range. Cr is intermediate between EH and EL. It is suggested that the type 3 ECs are EH chondrites which have suffered small depletions of certain chalcophile elements through the loss of shock-produced removal of these chalcophiles by the formation of sulfurous veins, and not by weathering. The processes responsible for formation of these and other types of ECs are discussed.

  9. Chemistry and oxygen isotopic composition of cluster chondrite clasts and their components in LL3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Knut; Pack, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Cluster chondrites are characterized by close-fit textures of deformed and indented chondrules, taken as evidence for hot chondrule accretion (Metzler). We investigated seven cluster chondrite clasts from six brecciated LL3 chondrites and measured their bulk oxygen isotopic and chemical composition, including REE, Zr, and Hf. The same parameters were measured in situ on 93 chondrules and 4 interchondrule matrix areas. The CI-normalized REE patterns of the clasts are flat, showing LL-chondritic concentrations. The mean chemical compositions of chondrules in clasts and other LL chondrites are indistinguishable and we conclude that cluster chondrite chondrules are representative of the normal LL chondrule population. Type II chondrules are depleted in MgO, Al2O3 and refractory lithophiles (REE, Zr, Hf) by factors between 0.65 and 0.79 compared to type I chondrules. The chondrule REE patterns are basically flat with slight LREE < HREE fractionations. Many chondrules exhibit negative Eu anomalies while matrix shows a complementary pattern. Chondrules scatter along a correlation line with a slope of 0.63 in the oxygen 3-isotope diagram, interpreted as the result of O-isotope exchange between chondrule melts and 18O-rich nebular components. In one clast, a distinct anticorrelation between chondrule size and δ18O is found, which may indicate a more intense oxygen isotope exchange by smaller chondrules. In some clasts the δ18O values of type I chondrules are correlated with concentrations of SiO2 and MnO and anticorrelated with MgO, possibly due to the admixture of a SiO2- and MnO-rich component to chondrule melts during oxygen isotope exchange. Two chondrules with negative anomalies in Sm, Eu, and Yb were found and may relate their precursors to refractory material known from group III CAIs. Furthermore, three chondrules with strong LREE > HREE and Zr/Hf fractionations were detected, whose formation history remains to be explained.

  10. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites - VIII: Thermoluminescence and metamorphism in the CO chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, B.D.; Sears, D.W.G. )

    1987-11-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of nine CO chondrites have been measured. With the exception of Colony and Allan Hills A77307 (ALHA 77307), whose maximum induced TL emission is at approximately 350{degree}C, CO chondrites exhibit two TL peaks, one at 124 {plus minus} 7{degree}C (130{degree}C peak) and one at 252 {plus minus} 7{degree}C (250{degree}C peak). The 130{degree}C peak shows a 100-fold range in TL sensitivity and correlates with various metamorphism-related phenomena, such as silicate heterogeneity, metal composition and McSween's metamorphic subtypes. The peak at 250{degree}C does not show these correlations and, Colony excepted, varies little throughout the class. Mineral separation experiments, and a series of annealing experiments on Isna, suggest that the TL properties for CO chondrites reflect the presence of feldspar in two forms, (1) a form produced during metamorphism, and analogous to the dominant form of feldspar in type 3 ordinary chondrites, and (2) a primary, metamorphism-independent form, perhaps associated with the amoeboid inclusions. If this interpretation is correct, then the CO chondrites have not experienced temperatures above the order/disorder temperature for feldspar (500-600{degree}C) and they cooled more slowly than comparable type 3 ordinary chondrites. Colony and ALHA 77307 have atypical TL properties, including very low TL sensitivity, suggesting that phosphors other than feldspar are important. They have apparently experienced less metamorphism than the others, and may have also been aqueously altered.

  11. The Loop chondrite - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and opaque mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, N. Z.; Kullerud, G.

    1981-03-01

    The petrography, mineral chemistry, and opaque mineralogy of the Loop chondrite, a meteorite found in Gaines County (Texas) in 1962, are discussed. The investigation confirms Mason's (1975) classification of the meteorite as olivine hypersthene chondrite (L6) and proves that the Loop and the Ashmore are distinct chondrites. Tables setting forth representative analyses of silicates and chromite and of metal and troilite are included. It is found that in comparison with the chromite composition of L6 chondrites given by Bunch et al. (1967), the Loop is slightly more enriched in A12O3 and MgO and slightly depleted in Cr2O3.

  12. The distribution of trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knab, H.-J.

    1981-09-01

    Twelve carbonaceous chondrites, among them representatives of nearly all known petrologic types, were analyzed for twenty trace elements by spark source mass spectrography combined with the isotope dilution method. Data on different element groups (refractory, moderately volatile and volatile) show that the distribution of the trace elements in the carbonaceous chondrites, with the exception of Renazzo, can be well explained by Anders' two-component model. This is also valid for the highly metamorphosed CV5 chondrite Karoonda. Furthermore, it is observed that the Zr/Hf-ratios in the carbonaceous chondrites increase with increasing petrologic type, which is interpreted as the result of mixing two components with different Zr/Hf-ratios.

  13. Graphite-magnetite aggregates in ordinary chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.; Okada, A.

    1981-01-01

    The graphite-magnetite component has been found (1) as abundant isolated inclusions in eight ordinary-chondritic, regolith breccias; (2) as the sole matrix in a new kind of unequilibrated chondrite that forms clasts in these regolith breccias; and (3) together with a Huss matrix in six unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. It is suggested that the component was formed by low-temperature, gas-solid reactions before the accretion of the meteorite, and that the isolated inclusions of graphite-magnetite in regolith breccias were derived from bodies composed of the new kind of chondrite that has graphite-magnetite as its sole matrix.

  14. Graphite-magnetite aggregates in ordinary chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Rubin, A. E.; Okada, A.; Keil, K.

    1981-06-01

    The graphite-magnetite component has been found (1) as abundant isolated inclusions in eight ordinary-chondritic, regolith breccias; (2) as the sole matrix in a new kind of unequilibrated chondrite that forms clasts in these regolith breccias; and (3) together with a Huss matrix in six unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. It is suggested that the component was formed by low-temperature, gas-solid reactions before the accretion of the meteorite, and that the isolated inclusions of graphite-magnetite in regolith breccias were derived from bodies composed of the new kind of chondrite that has graphite-magnetite as its sole matrix.

  15. Aqueous alteration in the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results from TEM and SEM examinations of the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite are presented, showing that the chondrules and the matrix of Kaba have undergone pervasive low-temperature aqueous alteration, resulting in the formation of Fe-bearing saponite from glass and enstatite in chondrules, and from anhydrous silicates in matrix. The alteration products in Kaba were found to resemble those in other aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites such as the Mokoia CV3 and in Orgueil CI chondrites and Y-82162 chondrites. However, Kaba lacks the abundant high-Al phyllosilicates, reported for CAIs from Mokoia, and the serpentine and ferrihydrite, found in Orgueil.

  16. Correlated alteration effects in CM carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1996-07-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison ≤ Bells < Pollen ≤ Murray < Mighei < Nogoya < Cold Bokkeveld. The relative degree of aqueous processing Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values for the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. A positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. The abundance of trapped planetary 36Ar decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase (s) by aqueous reactions. Because low temperature fluid-rock reactions are generally associated with large isotopic mass fractionation factors, we also compared our model predictions with δ18O values for bulk CM samples. Although some of these data are

  17. The lithophile trace elements in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Jambon, A.; Bollinger, C.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the abundances of a selected set of lithophile trace elements (namely REEs, Y, Rb, Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, Nb, Th, U) in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC-13 EH and 11 EL). EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is observed and suggests a mobility of many of the elements studied during the history of these rocks. For example, EL6 chondrites exhibit light-REE and Nb depletions, negative Eu anomalies, and positive Y anomalies. More important trace element fractionations are observed in metamorphosed EH like St Marks (Rb depletion), LAP 02225 (Rb, Nb, Zr, Eu, light REE depletions) and Galim (b), which displays large Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb and light REE depletions. Leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the contributions of sulfides in the whole rock budgets. These phases control not only the REE budget, but also important fractions of the other elements we studied. These fractions strongly depend on the type of the rock (EH or EL, and metamorphic grade). For many elements, the sulfide contributions increase with the metamorphic grades. The trace element abundances of silicate residues are extremely variable. Negative Sm and Yb anomalies are observed in EL3 and EH3 residues, and are certainly the results of early nebular processes. Such anomalies are lacking in residues obtained with most metamorphosed EC, underlining the importance of trace element redistributions during metamorphism. In addition, EL6 residues display distinctive positive Y anomalies that could be potentially ascribed to a less chalcophile behavior than Ho in the conditions that prevailed during EL metamorphism. EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is obtained and indicates undeniably a mobility of many of the elements studied during the complex thermal history

  18. Sulfur and Selenium in Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreibus, G.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wanke, H.

    1993-07-01

    Selenium is the only truly chalcophile element in chondritic meteorites. It has no other host phases except sulfides. Since Se-volatility is similar to S-volatility one may expect constant S/Se ratios. To test this hypothesis chondritic meteorites were analyzed for Se and S. To avoid problems from inhomogeneous distribution of sulfides the same samples that had been analyzed for Se by INAA were analyzed for S (see Table 1) using a Leybold Heraeus Carbon and Sulfur Analyser (CSA 2002). Solar System Abundances of S and Se: The average S-content of CI- meteorites is with 5.41% in agreement with an earlier average of 5.25% for Orgueil [1], but not with higher S-contents for Ivuna, Alais, and Tonk. Inclusion of these data led to an average CI- content of 6.25% in the Anders and Grevesse compilation [2]. The essentially constant average S/Se ratio in all groups of carbonaceous chondrites of 2563 +- 190 suggests that our Orgueil S-content provides a reliable estimate for the average solar system. The new solar S/Se ratio and the CI-value of Se of 21.3 ppm [3] yield an atomic S/Se ratio of 6200 +- 170, 24% below that calculated from [2]. Weathering Effects: Some of the carbonaceous chondrite finds have similar S/Se ratios as falls (see Table 1). However the badly- weathered Arch (CVR) and Colony (CO) and the two C4-chondrites Mulga West and Maralinga have much lower S and somewhat lower Se contents compared to unweathered meteorites. Their S/Se ratios of 1000-230 indicate higher losses of S--probably by oxidation--as of Se. The low Na-contents in Arch and Colony rel. to CV3 and CO3 may also reflect weathering. Low S/Se ratios in the Sahara meteorites are also indicative of weathering processes. The depletion factors for the CV3- chondrite Acfer086 are, relative to average CV, 10 (S), 5 (Se), 6 (Na), and 4 (Ni). Lower absolute depletions, but the same depletion sequence are found for the CO-meteorite Acfer 202. In the CO/CM Acfer 094 only S and Na are depleted. The

  19. Carbonate abundances and isotopic compositions in chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Howard, K. T.

    2015-04-01

    We report the bulk C abundances, and C and O isotopic compositions of carbonates in 64 CM chondrites, 14 CR chondrites, 2 CI chondrites, LEW 85332 (C2), Kaba (CV3), and Semarkona (LL3.0). For the unheated CMs, the total ranges of carbonate isotopic compositions are δ13C ≈ 25-75‰ and δ18O ≈ 15-35‰, and bulk carbonate C contents range from 0.03 to 0.60 wt%. There is no simple correlation between carbonate abundance and isotopic composition, or between either of these parameters and the extent of alteration. Unless accretion was very heterogeneous, the uncorrelated variations in extent of alteration and carbonate abundance suggests that there was a period of open system behavior in the CM parent body, probably prior to or at the start of aqueous alteration. Most of the ranges in CM carbonate isotopic compositions can be explained by their formation at different temperatures (0-130 °C) from a single fluid in which the carbonate O isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with water (δ18O ≈ 5‰) and the C isotopes were controlled by equilibrium with CO and/or CH4 (δ13C ≈ -33‰ or -20‰ for CO- or CH4-dominated systems, respectively). However, carbonate formation would have to have been inefficient, otherwise carbonate compositions would have resembled those of the starting fluid. A quite similar fluid composition (δ18O ≈ -5.5‰, and δ13C ≈ -31‰ or -17‰ for CO- or CH4-dominated systems, respectively) can explain the carbonate compositions of the CIs, although the formation temperatures would have been lower (~10-40 °C) and the relative abundances of calcite and dolomite may play a more important role in determining bulk carbonate compositions than in the CMs. The CR carbonates exhibit a similar range of O isotopes, but an almost bimodal distribution of C isotopes between more (δ13C ≈ 65-80‰) and less altered samples (δ13C ≈ 30-40‰). This bimodality can still be explained by precipitation from fluids with the same isotopic

  20. Petrology and Cosmochemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrano, Z. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    Chondrites are among the most primitive surviving materials from the early solar system. They are divided into groups based on chemical types defined by mineralogy, bulk composition, and oxygen isotope compositions. Chondrites range in petrographic grade from type 1 to type 7. Type 3 chondrites are the most primitive and are little changed from the nebular solids accreted to form asteroids. They are composed of chondrules, fine-grained matrix, metal and sulfide, plus or minus Ca-Al-rich inclusions. With increasing aqueous alteration at low temperatures, members of some chondrite classes transformed from type 3 towards type 1. With increasing thermal metamorphism and low fluid content, members of other classes changed from type 3 towards type 7. Rumuruti (R) chondrites are a rare group (0.1% of falls) similar to ordinary chondrites in some properties but different in others. They are characterized by low chondrule/matrix modal abundance ratios, high oxidation state, small mean chondrule size, abundant sulfides and low metal contents. R chondrites vary in petrologic type from 3 to 6. They are important objects to study because some of them have undergone metamorphism at high temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids. In contrast, CM and CI chondrites were heated to low temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids leading to alteration; they contain low-T hydrous phases (phyllosilicates) and little or no remaining metal. Ordinary chondrites were heated to high temperatures in a low-fluid environment resulting in anhydrous metamorphic rocks. R6 chondrites are highly metamorphosed and some contain the high-T hydrous phases mica and amphibole. R chondrites are thus unique and give us an opportunity to examine whether there are compositional effects caused by high-T, highfluid metamorphism of nebular materials.

  1. R Raman Spectroscopy and Petrology of Antarctic CR Chondrites: Comparison with Other Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Yasutake, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites, abundant original Fe,Ni-metal is preserved in chrondules, but the matrix is characterized by fine-grained magnetite with phyllosilicate. This combination of reduced Fe in chrodrules with oxidized Fe and phyllosilicate in the matrix has been attributed to aqueous alteration of matrix at relatively low temperatures.

  2. Experimental Impacts into Chondritic Targets. Part 1; Disruption of an L6 Chondrite by Multiple Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Horz, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    A fragment of an L6 chondrite (ALH 85017,13) with an initial mass (M(sub 0)) of 464.1 g was the target in a series of experimental impacts in which the largest remaining fragment (M(sub R)) after each shot was impacted by a 3.18-mm ceramic sphere at a nominal speed of 2 km/s. This continued until the mass of the largest remaining piece was less than half the mass of the target presented to that shot (M(sub S)). Two chunks of Bushveldt gabbro with similar initial masses were also impacted under the same conditions until M(sub R) was less than half M(sub 0). The two gabbro targets required a total of 1.51x10(exp 7) and 1.75x10(exp 7) erg/g to attain 0.27 and 0.33 M(sub R)/M(sub 0), respectively; the chondrite, however, was considerably tougher, reaching 0.40 and 0.21 M(sub R)/M(sub 0) only after receiving 2.37x10(exp 7) and 3.10x10(exp 7) erg g-1, respectively. The combined ejecta and spallation products from the gabbro impacts were coarser than those from the chondrite and in sufficient quantities that the new surface areas exceeded those from the meteorite until the fifth shot in the chondrite series, which was the number of impacts required to disrupt each gabbro target (i.e., MR/M0 = 0.5). Unlike the behavior shown in previous regolith-evolution series, neither gabbro target produced an enhancement in the size fraction reflecting the mean size of the crystals composing the rock (about 3 mm), an effect possibly related to the width of the shock pulse. The original chondrite was so fine-grained and fractured, and the variance in its grain-size distribution so large, that effects related to grain-size were relegated to the <63- m fraction. Impacts into ALH 85017 produced abundant, fine-grained debris, but otherwise the slopes of its size distributions were comparable to those from other experiments involving natural and fabricated terrestrial targets. The characteristic slopes of the chondrite's size distributions, however, were notably more constant over the entire

  3. Fe-Ni metal in primitive chondrites: Indicators of classification and metamorphic conditions for ordinary and CO chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of our petrological and mineralogical study of Fe-Ni metal in type 3 ordinary and CO chondrites, and the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Fe-Ni metal in ordinary and CO chondrites occurs in chondrule interiors, on chondrule surfaces, and as isolated grains in the matrix. Isolated Ni-rich metal in chondrites of petrologic type lower than type 3.10 is enriched in Co relative to the kamacite in chondrules. However, Ni-rich metal in type 3.15-3.9 chondrites always contains less Co than does kamacite. Fe-Ni metal grains in chondrules in Semarkona typically show plessitic intergrowths consisting of submicrometer kamacite and Ni-rich regions. Metal in other type 3 chondrites is composed of fine- to coarse-grained aggregates of kamacite and Ni-rich metal, resulting from metamorphism in the parent body. We found that the number density of Ni-rich grains in metal (number of Ni-rich grains per unit area of metal) in chondrules systematically decreases with increasing petrologic type. Thus, Fe-Ni metal is a highly sensitive recorder of metamorphism in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, and can be used to distinguish petrologic type and identify the least thermally metamorphosed chondrites. Among the known ordinary and CO chondrites, Semarkona is the most primitive. The range of metamorphic temperatures were similar for type 3 ordinary and CO chondrites, despite them having different parent bodies. Most Fe-Ni metal in Acfer 094 is martensite, and it preserves primary features. The degree of metamorphism is lower in Acfer 094, a true type 3.00 chondrite, than in Semarkona, which should be reclassified as type 3.01. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2008.

  4. Magnesium Isotopic Composition of CAIs and Chondrules from CBb Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounelle, M.; Young, E. D.; Shahar, A.; Kearsley, A.

    2006-03-01

    We measured magnesium isotope ratios in 17 chondrules and 3 CAIs from the CBb chondrites HH 237 and QUE 94411 by LA-MC-ICPMS. We find no detectable 26Al excesses in the three CAIs and approximately normal (chondritic) d25Mg in CAIs and chondrules.

  5. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airieau, S.; Piceno, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Good extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are SNC meteorites as Mars analogs, and chondrites as early planet analogs. Chondrites and SNCs are used to trace processes in the early solar system and on Mars. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites of groups CR, CV, CK, CO from ANSMET, CI and CM Falls, and 8 SNCs. Studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biology [1]-[6], and during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [7], visible biofilms grew in the meteorite solutions in days. To assess biological isotopic and chemical impacts, cultures were incubated 11 months and analyzed by PCR. The sequences for 2 isolates from EET 87770 and Leoville were of a good quality with long sequence reads. In EET 87770, the closest matches were in the genus Microbacterium. Soil and plant isolates were close relatives by sequence comparison. Bacillus, a common soil bacterial genus, grew in a Leoville culture. All SNCs exhibited biological activity measured independently by LAL but only 1 colony was successfully cultured from grains of the SNC Los Angeles. Isotopic analyses of samples with various amounts of microbial contamination could help quantified isotopic impact of microbes on protoplanetary chemistry in these rocks. References: [1] Gounelle, M.& Zolensky M. (2001) LPS XXXII, Abstract #999. [2] Fries, M. et al. (2005) Meteoritical Society Meeting 68, Abstract # 5201. [3] Burckle, L. H. & Delaney, J. S (1999) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 32, 475. [4] Whitby, C. et al. (2000) LPS XXXI, Abstract #1732. [5] Tyra M. et al., (2007) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 782 [6] Toporski, J. & Steele A., (2007) Astrobiology, 7, 389 [7]Airieau, S. et al (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 4166.

  6. Evolutionary history of CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, J. F.; Macdougall, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is now clear that several different processes have acted upon various components of carbonaceous chondrites, and that at least some of those processes occurred very early in solar system history. Because these meteorites are breccias, petrographic relationships are seldom informative about the order in which those processes took place. Nonetheless, information about such an evolutionary sequence would be of potential value in defining the nature of the source region for these meteorites. Implantation of solar wind derived noble gases into CI magnetite apparently postdated the period of aqueous activity believed to be responsible for magnetite production. Carbonate crystallization roughly coincided with one or more episodes of impact driven brecciation.

  7. Reanalysis of porous chondritic cosmic dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapisinsky, I.; Figusch, V.; Ivan, J.; Izdinsky, K.; Zemankova, M.

    2001-10-01

    The particles reanalysed in this study were obtained from the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Cosmic Dust Collection. The reanalysis of the particle L2008 P9 indicates typical assemblage of olivine - pyroxene. This sample can be classified as a chondritic porous IDP with the metallic phase grain containing essential amount of nickel and copper (the latter element is most probably due to instrumental artefact). The chemical composition of the particle L2011 S5 corresponds mostly to an assemblage of pyroxene phase - (Mg,Fe,Ni)SiO_3 roughly 75 wt.% and a sulphide phase - probably pyrrhotite (Fe,Ni)S about 25 wt.%.

  8. Accretionary dark rims in unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. V. V.; King, E. A.

    1981-12-01

    Textural and qualitative EDX investigations of dark-rimmed particles in six low petrologic type chondrites indicate that the rims accreted on host particles over a wide range of temperatures prior to initial accumulation and lithification of the meteorites in which the rimmed particles are now contained. Many dark rims are enriched in moderately volatile trace elements such as Na, Cl, P, and K, relative to the host particles and matrix. The range of physical/chemical environments associated with hypervelocity impacts may have offered the setting for the formation of dark-rimmed particles early in solar system history.

  9. Chromium on Eros: Further Evidence of Ordinary Chondrite Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, C. N.; Nittler, L. R.; Brown, M. R. M.; McCoy, T. J.; Lim, L. F.

    2005-01-01

    The surface major element composition of the near-earth asteroid 433-Eros has been determined by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRS) on the NEAR-Shoemaker spacecraft [1]. The abundances of Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe match those of ordinary chondrites [1]. However, the observation that Eros appears to have a sulfur abundance at least a factor of two lower than ordinary chondrites, suggests either sulfur loss from the surface of Eros by impact and/or radiation processes (space weathering) or that its surface is comprised of a somewhat more differentiated type of material than an ordinary chondrite [1]. A definitive match for an ordinary chondrite parent body has very rarely been made, despite the conundrum that ordinary chondrites are the most prevalent type of meteorite found on Earth. Furthermore, Eros is classified as an S(IV) type asteroid [2] and being an S, it is the second most prevalent type of asteroid in the asteroid belt [3].

  10. Olivine and Pyroxene Compositions in Fine-Grained Chondritic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Frank, D.

    2011-01-01

    Our analyses of the Wild-2 samples returned by the Stardust Mission have illuminated critical gaps in our understanding of related astromaterials. There is a very large database of olivine and low-calcium pyroxene compositions for coarse-grained components of chondrites, but a sparse database for anhydrous silicate matrix phases. In an accompanying figure, we present comparisons of Wild-2 olivine with the available chondrite matrix olivine major element data. We thus have begun a long-term project measuring minor as well as major element compositions for chondrite matrix and chondritic IDPs, and Wild 2 grains. Finally, we wish to re-investigate the changes to fine-grained olivine and low-Ca pyroxene composition with progressive thermal metamorphism. We have examined the LL3-4 chondrites which because of the Hayabusa Mission have become very interesting.

  11. Chondritic meteorites and the lunar surface.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Scott, R F

    1967-12-01

    The landing dynamics of and soil penetration by Surveyor I indicated that the lunar soil has a porosity in the range 0.35 to 0.45. Experiments with Surveyor III's surface sampler for soil mechanics show that the lunar soil is approximately incompressible (as the word is used in soil mechanics) and that it has an angle of internal friction of 35 to 37 degrees; these results likewise point to a porosity of 0.35 to 0.45 for the lunar soil. Combination of these porosity measurements with the already-determined radar reflectivity fixes limits to the dielectric constant of the grains of the lunar soil. The highest possible value is about 5.9, relative to vacuum; a more plausible value is near 4.3. Either figure is inconsistent with the idea that the lunar surface is covered by chondritic meteorites or other ultrabasic rocks. The data point to acid rocks, or possibly vesicular basalts; carbonaceous chondrites are not excluded. PMID:17734304

  12. Manganese chromium isotope systematics of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukolyukov, A.; Lugmair, G. W.

    2006-10-01

    In this article we present the results of Cr isotope investigations of different types of carbonaceous chondrites and of the pallasite Eagle Station. The 53Cr/ 52Cr ratios in the bulk samples of carbonaceous chondrites are correlated with 55Mn/ 52Cr ratios. The slope of the correlation line yields a 53Mn/ 55Mn ratio of (8.5 ± 1.5) × 10 - 6 at the time of Mn/Cr fractionation. Mapping this ratio onto an absolute time scale yields a time for this event of 4568.1 + 0.8/- 1.1 Ma ago. This time is very similar to the formation age of Efremovka CAIs of 4567.2 ± 0.6 Ma [Y. Amelin, A. N. Krot, I. D. Hutcheon, A. A. Ulyanov, Lead isotopic ages of chondrules and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, Science 297 (2002) 1678-1683], to a time of the chondrule formation of 4568 ± 1 Ma ago [L.E. Nyquist, D. Lindstrom, D. Mittlefehldt, C.-Y. Shih, H. Wiesmann, S. Wentworth, R. Martinez, Manganese-chromium formation intervals for chondrules from the Bishunpur and Chainpur meteorites, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 36 (2001) 911-938], which, most likely, constrains early global high-temperature Mn/Cr fractionation in a nebular setting. The bulk samples of carbonaceous chondrites exhibit clear 54Cr excesses ( 54Cr *) that are correlated with the 53Cr excesses ( 53Cr *) and also with Mn/Cr ratios. One possible explanation of this correlation is that 54Cr * is also radiogenic, like 53Cr *, and was formed by the decay of the short-lived parent radionuclide 54Mn. The very short half-life of 54Mn of 312 days would require that both short-lived radionuclides 53Mn and 54Mn were generated locally in spallation reactions during the early period of an active sun. The alternative and possibly more plausible explanation is the heterogeneous addition of presolar material. The presolar component, enriched in 54Cr, is mostly contained in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites. The relative amount of matrix decreases in the sequence CI > CM > CO,CV. A large proportion of Mn is associated with the matrix while

  13. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  14. Anomalous REE patterns in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: Evidence and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Hsu, Weibiao

    1993-01-01

    We present here a study of Rare Earth Element (REE) microdistributions in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites (EOC's). Although the whole rock REE contents are similar in both unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites, the host minerals of these refractory elements are different. In the least equilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's), the REE reside mainly in glass whereas, in their more equilibrated counterparts, the bulk of the REE is in calcium phosphate, a metamorphic mineral that formed by oxidation of phosphorous originally contained in metal. In the smaller group of enstatite (E) chondrites, calcium phosphate is absent and the phase that contains the highest REE concentrations is a minor mineral, CaS (oldhamite), which contains approximately 50 percent of the total Ca present. In E chondrites, elements typically considered to be lithophiles (such as Ca and Mn) occur in sulfides rather than silicates. This indicates formation under extremely reducing conditions, thus in a region of the solar nebula distinct from those that supplied the more abundant ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. Previously, we observed a variety of REE patterns in the oldhamite of UEC's; they range from almost flat to some with pronounced positive Eu and Yb anomalies. Here, we searched for complementary REE patterns in other minerals from E chondrites and found them in the major mineral, enstatite. Whenever Eu and Yb anomalies are present in this mineral, they are always negative.

  15. Origins and Distribution of Chondritic Olivine Inferred from Wild 2 and Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    To date, only 180 particle impact tracks from Wild 2 have been extracted from the Stardust aerogel collector and even fewer have been thoroughly characterized. In order to provide a cohesive compositional dataset that can be compared to the meteorite record, we have made both major and minor element analyses (TEM/EDXS) of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene for 39 particles harvested from 26 tracks. However, the dearth of equivalent analyses for these phases in chondrite matrix hinders their comparison to the Wild 2 samples. To properly permit comparison of chondritic olivine and pyroxene to the Wild 2 samples, we have also provided a large, comprehensive EPMA dataset (greater than10(exp 3) analyses) of analogous grains (5-30 micrometers) isolated in L/LL3.0-4, CI, CM, CR, CH, CO, CV, Acfer 094, EH3, EL6, and Kakangari matrix

  16. Lea County 001, an H5 chondrite, and Lea County 002, an ungrouped type 3 chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Zolensky, M.E.; Score, R.; Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K.; Schutt, J.W. Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Houston, TX Chicago Univ., IL )

    1989-12-01

    A search of active deflation basins near Jal, Lea County, New Mexico resulted in the discovery of two meteorites, Lea County 001 and 002. Lea County 001 has mean olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions of Fa(19) and Fs(17), respectively. These and all other mineralogical and petrological data collected indicate a classification of H5 for this stone. Lea County 002 has mean olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions of Fa(2) and Fs(4), and is unequilibrated. Although it is mineralogically most similar to Kakangari and chondritic clasts within Cumberland Falls, the high modal amount of forsterite makes Lea County a unique type 3 chondrite. Oxygen isotope data for Lea County 002 fall on an 0-16-mixing line through those of the enstatite meteorites and IAB irons, a feature shared by Kakangari. 28 refs.

  17. Compositions, geochemistry, and shock histories of recrystallized LL chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Perrotta, Grace C.; Kimura, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    To examine compositional changes associated with high degrees of apparent thermal metamorphism among the LL chondrites, we have examined seven LL chondrites originally classified as being petrographic type 7. For comparison, we also analyzed the L6/7 chondrite Y-790124. We found that A-880933 is actually an LL4-6 genomict breccia and Y-790124 is best described as an L6 (S3) chondrite. The remaining six chondrites (EET 92013, Uden, Y-74160, Y-790144, Y-791067, Y-82067) are clearly of LL provenance, and each experienced temperatures high enough for them to have been recrystallized. In four of these samples (EET 92013, Uden, Y-74160, Y-790144) we find elemental patterns suggesting Fe(Ni)-FeS mobilization. Others (Y-791067, Y-82067) have compositions identical to average equilibrated LL chondrites. From our compositional data, we infer that EET 92013, Uden, Y-74160, Y-790144 experienced very low degrees of partial melting prior to recrystallization, but Y-791067 and Y-82067 experienced isochemical solid state recrystallization. The heat source responsible for the high degrees of thermal alteration of these meteorites is limited to either the decay of now extinct radionuclides (26Al) or impact-related heating. To evaluate the nature of the heat source, we use 40Ar-39Ar literature data and petrographic examinations to infer the cooling history and shock history of these chondrites. We find that heating due to impact is the most likely heat source for the heating of the recrystallized chondrites. The potential impacts occurred well after the initial stages of LL chondrite thermal metamorphism, but still early in the LL parent body’s history, probably ∼4.2-4.3 Ga ago. These rocks experienced mild shock histories following their recrystallization.

  18. The compositions of incipient shock melts in L6 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.

    1982-07-01

    Microprobe analyses of 33 melt pocket glasses in five L6d and L6e chondrites show them to be chemically varied but typically enriched in the constituents of plagioclase relative to the host meteorites. This enrichment appears to increase with the degree of melting, but other chemical variations among the glasses appear to be unrelated to shock intensity and melt abundance. Chemical trends for melt pocket glasses differ sharply from those reported for chondrules in ordinary chondrites. Thus partial shock melting of chondritic material is an inadequate explanation for the chemical properties of chondrules.

  19. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is important to identify features in chondrites that formed as a result of parent-body modification in order to disentangle nebular and asteroidal processes. However, this task is difficult because unmetamorphosed chondritic meteorites are mixtures of diverse components including various types of chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, metal-sulfide grains and fine-grained matrix material. Shocked chondrites can contain melt pockets, silicate-darkened material, metal veins, silicate melt veins, and impact-melt-rock clasts. This grant paid for several studies that went far in helping to distinguish primitive nebular features from those produced during asteroidal modification processes.

  20. Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

  1. Thermal history modelling of the H chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, S.; Gail, H.-P.; Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Kleine, T.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The cooling histories of individual meteorites can be empirically reconstructed by using ages obtained from different radioisotopic chronometers having distinct closure temperatures. For a given group of meteorites derived from a single parent body such data permit the detailed reconstruction of the cooling history of that body. Particularly suited for this purpose are H chondrites because (i) all of them are thought to derive from a single parent body (possibly asteroid (6) Hebe) and (ii) for several specimens precise radiometric ages over a wide range of closure temperatures are available. Aims: A thermal evolution model for the H chondrite parent body is constructed by using the cooling histories of all H chondrites for which at least three different precise radiometric ages are available. The thermal model thus obtained is then used to constrain some important basic properties of the H chondrite parent body. Methods: Thermal evolution models are calculated using our previously developed code, which incorporates the effects of sintering and uses new thermal conductivity data for porous materials. Several key parameters determining the thermal evolution of the H chondrite parent body are varied together with the unknown original location of the H chondrites within their parent body until an optimal fit between the radiometric age data and the properties of the model is obtained. The fit is performed in an automated way based on an "evolution algorithm" to allow for a simultaneous fit of a large number of data, which depend in a complex way on several parameters. Empirical data for the cooling history of H chondrites are taken from the literature and the thermal model is optimised for eight samples for which radiometric ages are available for at least three different closure temperatures. Results: A set of parameters for the H chondrite parent body is found that yields excellent agreement (within error bounds) between the thermal evolution model and

  2. Behavior of Chromium in Chondritic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nogami, K.; Imamura, M.

    1996-03-01

    To survey the existence forms and existence patterns of Cr and Ru in high-temperature condensate, we have continued to carry out elemental analyses of primitive meteorites particularly acid insoluble fractions and metal phases from them. In addition, condensation calculation, which assume ideal solid solution in the multicomponent alloy, by using thermodynamic data have been performed. Noting that acid residues would contain the high-temperature condensate component, we considerd chemical compositions of acid residues by relating to the condensation process from the solar nebula. In this paper, we present the representative elemental compositions of some chondritic meteorites and discuss the implications of these data to consider the behavior of Cr in meteoritical samples.

  3. Carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Hyman; Sweeney, Michael A.; Kropp, Michael A.; Lewis, John S.

    1993-01-01

    Organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites can be separated into three fractions. The first component, the fraction that is insoluble in chloroform and methanol, has a part which is of interstellar origin. The other two fractions (chloroform-soluble hydrocarbons and methanol-soluble polar organics) are hypothesized to have been synthesized on a planetoid body. We propose that the polar organics, i.e., amino acids, were synthesized close to its surface by the radiolysis of hydrocarbons and ammonium carbonate in a liquid water environment. Some hydrocarbons may have been synthesized by a Fischer-Tropsch mechanism in the interior of the body. Ferrous ion acted as a protection against back reactions. The simultaneous synthesis of iron-rich clays with the polar organics may be indicative of events related to the origin of life on Earth.

  4. Diamond thermoluminescence properties of different chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Kashkarov, L. L.; Semjonova, L. F.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    It was found that thermoluminescence (TL) glows of diamonds depend on the origin of diamonds and the chondrite metamorphism degree. The investigation of TL of diamonds was continued and the results for diamonds from Murchison CM2, Krymka LL3.0, Kainsaz CO3, and Abee E4 were considered. The diamonds synthesized by CVD-process (samples 133, 159) and by detonation from soot (DDS-B14-89) were also analyzed for comparison. Before the TL measuring samples were annealed at approximately 350 C for a few seconds and then irradiated by gamma-rays of Cs-137 up to dose approximately 200 krad. TL-measurements were performed in the air atmosphere on the standard equipment. TL data for samples are shown. TL glow for some diamonds are also presented.

  5. The thermoluminescence carrier in the Dhajala chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, M. H.; Mckimmey, P. M.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the type 3 (unequilibrated) ordinary chondrites provide a major source of information on the early solar system. However, the interpretation of the data is difficult because all but a few display signs of metamorphic alteration. The present investigation is concerned with the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity measurements on 58 chondrules separated from the Dhajala meteorites. The data were discussed briefly by Sparks and Sears (1982). In the current investigation particular attention is given to the constraints placed by these data on the mechanism by which metamorphism is related to TL sensitivity. Dhajala-normalized TL sensitivity of the separated chondrules is plotted against chondrule mass, and a histogram of the CaO contents of 15 chondrules is presented. Histograms showing the TL sensitivity of chondrules separated from the Dhajala meteorite are also provided.

  6. Organic analysis of the Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotra, R. K.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Hare, P. E.; Yanai, K.

    1981-01-01

    Thus far, organic analysis of carbonaceous chondrites has proven the only fruitful means of examining complex organic matter of extraterrestrial origin. The present paper presents the results of organic analysis of two Antarctic meteorites, Allan Hills (77306) and Yamato (74662), which may be considered free from terrestrial contamination. Ion-exchange chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometery of meteorite samples reveal the presence in Yamato of 15 and in Allan Hills of 20 protein and nonprotein amino acids, the most abundant of which are glycine and alanine. Abundances of the D and L enantiomers of each amino acid are also found to be nearly equal. Data thus indicate an abiotic extraterrestrial origin for the matter, and confirm a lack of terrestrial contamination.

  7. Rare Earth Element Complementarity in CO and CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Ebel, D. S.

    2014-09-01

    LREE/HREE ratios in each component of CO and CV chondrites combine to produce complementary, flat bulk REE pattern, while individually yielding insight into mineral controls and precursor characteristics.

  8. Origin of plagioclase-olivine inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-02-01

    The origin of plagioclase-olivine inclusions (POIs) from three CV chondrites and one ungrouped chondrite was investigated by examining the chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic characteristics of a group of POIs from these chondrites. Results of these analyses demonstrate that the mixing and the partial melting processes in these inclusions were superimposed on more ancient isotopically heterogeneous material. A comparison of the essential characteristics of POIs and CAIs suggests that the major processes leading to the formation of POIs (such as condensation, dust/gas fractionation, aggregation of chemically and isotopically disparate materials, and partial melting) are common to most CAIs and chondrules. A scenario for the origin of POIs is proposed, showing that the homogeneity of the final assemblage (whether a POI, a CAI, or a chondrite) is primarily a reflection of the thermal history rather than the nature of precursor materials.

  9. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  10. Ruthenium Isotopic Composition of Terrestrial Materials, Iron Meteorites and Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, H.; Walker, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Ru isotopic compositions of magmatic iron meteorites and chondrites overlap with terrestrial Ru at the 0.3 to 0.9 (epsilon) level. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. A Common Parent for IIE Iron Meteorite and H Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplyakova, S. N.; Humayun, M.; Lorenz, C. A.; Ivanova, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    We report new siderophile element abundances for the metal in the IIE irons — Watson, Tobychan, Elga, Verkhne Dnieprovsk, and Miles — to examine the possible genetic relations between IIE metal and H chondritic precursors.

  12. Characterization of Luminescent Minerals in CM2 Chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiku, Y. K.; Ohgo, S. O.; Nishido, H. N.

    2014-09-01

    We have characterized luminescent minerals of forsterite, diopside and spinel in the CM2 chondrite (Jbilet Winselwan) using SEM-CL and to discuss the formation of the luminescent minerals under aqueous conditions.

  13. Ordinary chondrites - Multivariate statistical analysis of trace element contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Samuels, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The contents of mobile trace elements (Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Se, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn, and Cd) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic populations of H4-6 and L4-6 chondrites, were compared using standard multivariate discriminant functions borrowed from linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression. A nonstandard randomization-simulation method was developed, making it possible to carry out probability assignments on a distribution-free basis. Compositional differences were found both between the Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrite populations and between two L4-6 chondrite populations. It is shown that, for various types of meteorites (in particular, for the H4-6 chondrites), the Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional difference is due to preterrestrial differences in the genesis of their parent materials.

  14. Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 2. C2 chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, D.E.; Larson, E.E.; Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of all eighteen of the known C2 chondrites have been analyzed thermomagnetically. For eleven of these, initial Fe3O4 content is low (generally <1%) and theJs-T curves are irreversible. The heating curves show variable greater (up to 10 times) than it is initially. This behavior is attributed to the production of magnetite from a thermally unstable phase - apparently FeS. Four of the remaining seven C2 chondrites contain Fe3O4 as the only significant magnetic phase: initial magnetite contents range from 4 to 13%. The remaining three C2 chondrites contain iron or nickel-iron in addition to Fe3O4. These seven C2 chondrites show little evidence of the breakdown of a thermally unstable phase. ?? 1975.

  15. Microstructure and Thermal History of Metal Particles in CH Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Jones, R. H.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides detailed microstructural and microchemical information at the nm to µm scale (SEM, EPMA, TEM, EBSD) for a select suite of metal particles in four CH chondrites, ALH 85085, PAT 91546, Acfer 214, NWA 739.

  16. Petrology and Bulk Chemistry of R Chondrites: New Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, J.; Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

    2010-03-01

    New INAA data show that R chondrites of all petrologic types are isochemical. R3 PRE 95411 contains numerous awaruite grains; R6 Y 980702 has a fine-grained granoblastic matrix; MET 01149 is reclassified as R3.

  17. Crystallinity of Fe-Ni Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ohsumi, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Le, L.

    2008-03-01

    We examine the crystallinity and crystal structures of Fe-Ni sulfides in five carbonaceous chondrites - Acfer 094 (CM2), Tagish Lake (C2 ungrouped), Kaidun C1, Bali (CV2/3 oxidized), and Efremovka (CV3 reduced).

  18. Evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies: Insights into cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is thought that cometary samples will comprise the most primitive materials that are able to be sampled. Although parent body alteration of such samples would not necessarily detract from scientists' interest in them, the possibility exists that modification processes may have affected cometary nuclei. Inferences about the kinds of modifications that might be encountered can be drawn from data on the evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Observations suggest that, of all the classes of chondrites, these meteorites are most applicable to the study of comets. If the proportion of possible internal heat sources such as Al-26 in cometary materials are similar to those in chondrites, and if the time scale of comet accretion was fast enough to permit incorporation of live radionuclides, comets might have had early thermal histories somewhat like those of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies.

  19. Partial Melting of Ordinary Chondrite Under Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R.; Rushmer, T.; Benedix, G.; McCoy, T.

    2004-12-01

    A critical parameter in determining the nature and processes of differentiation of planetary materials in the early solar system is oxygen fugacity. Chondrites record a range of oxygen fugacities from approximately 5 log units below the iron-wustite (Fe-FeO) buffer (enstatite chondrites) to close to QFM (some carbonaceous chondrites). Among the equilibrated chondrites, an "oxidation gap" appears to exist between ordinary chondrites and enstatite chondrites, although several groups of unequilibrated carbonaceous chondrites appear to occupy this "gap". Some primitive achondrites fill this gap (e.g. pallasites, acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites, and silicate-bearing IAB and IIE irons), although the precursors to these groups are poorly known. In this experimental study, we have determined the modification in mineral compositions during partial melting under reducing conditions and explore the idea that the primitive achondrites may be formed through differentiation under reducing conditions of a more oxidized precursor. Partial melting experiments were conducted on an H6 chondrite (Kernouve) under reducing conditions at 1 atm and at 1.3 GPa pressure in a solid media deformation apparatus. In the 1 atm experiments, fO2 was buffered by gas mixing and sealed silica tube techniques to values determined from thermodynamic calculations of primitive achondrites; in the deformation experiments, aluminum jackets were used. The experiments suggest that partial melting of an oxidized precursor under reducing conditions can produce some of the reduced features observed in primitive achondrites such as magnesian olivine, pyroxene and chromite compositions typical of primitive achondrites at temperatures of 1200-1300 ° C, as well as chalcophilic behavior of previously lithophillic ions (e.g., Cr in sulfide) at temperatures at 1000° C. Some features of primitive achondrites (e.g. oxygen isotopic compositions and Cr/(Cr+Al) ratios of chromites) appear to be intrinsic to the

  20. Crustal structure and igneous processes in a chondritic Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid sulfur can form when metal-free C1 or C2 chondrites are heated. It may be obtained either by direct melting of native sulfur in disequilibrated C1 or C2 chondrites or by incongruent melting of pyrite and other sulfides in thermodynamically equilibrated rocks of the same composition. Hence, Lewis considered C2 chondrites to be the best meteoritic analog for Io's bulk composition. Metal-bearing C3 and ordinary chondrites are too chemically reduced to yield liquid sulfur and are not thought to represent plausible analogs of Io's bulk composition. An important aspect of Lewis' work is that CaSO4 and MgSO4 are predicted to be important in Io. Real C1 and C2 chondrites contain averages of, respectively, 11 percent and 3 percent by mass of salts (plus water of hydration). The most abundant chondritic salts are magnesium and calcium sulfates, but other important components include sulfates of sodium, potassium, and nickel and carbonates of magnesium, calcium, and iron. It is widely accepted that chondritic salts are formed by low-temperature aqueous alteration. Even if Io originally did not contain salts, it is likely that aqueous alteration would have yielded several percent sulfates and carbonates. In any event, Io probably contains sulfates and carbonates. This report presents the results of a model of differentiation of a simplified C2 chondrite-like composition that includes 1.92 percent MgSO4, 0.56 percent CaSO4, 0.53 percent CaCO3, and 0.094 percent elemental sulfur. The temperature of the model is gradually increased; ensuing fractional melting results in these components extruding or intruding at gravitationally stable levels in Io's crust. Relevant phase equilibria were reviewed. A deficiency of high-pressure phase equilibria renders the present model qualitative.

  1. The Bloomington (LL6) chondrite and its shock melt glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, R.; Olsen, E. J.; Clarke, R. S., Jr.

    1985-09-01

    The shock melt glasses of the Bloomington LL-group chondrite were examined using electron-beam microscopy and compared with data from studies of other shock melt glasses. Petrologic and mineralogic characterizations were also performed of the samples. The metal contents of the meteorite were almost wholly Ni-rich martensite. The glasses resembled shock melt glasses in L-group chondrites, and were indicative of isochemical melting during one melt phase, i.e., a very simple history.

  2. Thorium and uranium abundances in the Jilin H5 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernicka, E.

    1985-02-01

    Thorium and uranium abundances have been measured in the Jilin H5 chondrite by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Although the abundances of (35.8 + or - 1.5) ppb Th and (14.9 + or - 0.9) ppb U are within the range of literature values, the ratio Th/U is about 25 percent lower than the average value for H chondrites. Terrestrial addition of uranium appears to be the most likely explanation.

  3. Origin of magnetite and pyrrhotite in carbonaceous chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Larson, E.E.; Watson, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    CARBONACEOUS chondrites, although comprising only about 2% of known meteorites, are extremely interesting for scientific investigation. Their mineral constitution, and the correspondence between their bulk chemical composition and the solar abundance of condensable elements, indicate that minimum chemical fractionation and thermal alteration have occurred. The mineral phases observed in these primitive chondrites are sufficiently unique, with respect to other meteorite classes, to have elicited considerable speculation about the physical environment in which they formed1-7. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of carbonaceous chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and Os isotopic compositions of eight carbonaceous chondrites, one LL3 ordinary chondrite, and two iron meteorites were determined by resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Iron meteorite 187Re/186Os and 187OS/186Os ratios plot on the previously determined iron meteorite isochron, but most chondrite data plot 1 to 2 percent above this meteorite isochron. This suggests either that irons have significantly younger Re-Os closure ages than chondrites or that chondrites were formed from precursor materials with different chemical histories from the precursors of irons. Some samples of Semarkona (LL3) and Murray (C2M) meteorites plot 4 to 6 percent above the iron meteorite isochron, well above the field delineated by other chondrites. Murray may have lost Re by aqueous leaching during its preterrestrial history. Semarkona could have experienced a similar loss of Re, but only slight aqueous alteration is evident in the meteorite. Therefore, the isotopic composition of Semarkona could reflect assembly of isotopically heterogeneous components subsequent to 4.55 billion years ago or Os isotopic heterogeneities in the primordial solar nebula.

  5. Sulfide-rich metallic impact melts from chondritic parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold C. _jr., Jr.; Goreva, Yulia S.; Hill, Dolores H.; Domanik, Ken J.; Berger, Eve L.; Yang, Hexiong; Downs, Robert T.

    2010-05-01

    Sacramento Wash 005 (SaW) 005, Meteorite Hills 00428 (MET) 00428, and Mount Howe 88403 (HOW) 88403 are S-rich Fe,Ni-rich metal meteorites with fine metal structures and homogeneous troilite. We compare them with the H-metal meteorite, Lewis Cliff 88432. Phase diagram analyses suggest that SaW 005, MET 00428, and HOW 88403 were liquids at temperatures above 1350°C. Tridymite in HOW 88403 constrains formation to a high-temperature and low-pressure environment. The morphology of their metal-troilite structures may suggest that MET 00428 cooled the slowest, SaW 005 cooled faster, and HOW 88403 cooled the quickest. SaW 005 and MET 00428 contain H-chondrite like silicates, and SaW 005 contains a chondrule-bearing inclusion that is texturally and compositionally similar to H4 chondrites. The compositional and morphological similarities of SaW 005 and MET 00428 suggest that they are likely the result of impact processing on the H-chondrite parent body. SaW 005 and MET 00428 are the first recognized iron- and sulfide-rich meteorites, which formed by impact on the H-chondrite parent body, which are distinct from the IIE-iron meteorite group. The morphological and chemical differences of HOW 88403 suggest that it is not from the H-chondrite body, although it likely formed during an impact on a chondritic parent body.

  6. Petrologic study of the Belgica 7904 carbonaceous chondrite - Hydrous alteration, oxygen isotopes, and relationship to CM and CI chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Prinz, M.

    1993-01-01

    The genetic relationships between the petrology, hydration reactions, and isotopic oxygen composition in the Belgica 7904 (B7904) carbonaceous chondrite, and the relationship between B7904 and the CM and CI chondrites were investigated by characterizing seven components separated from B7904. The seven specimens included two partially altered chondrules, two phylosilicate clasts, two olivine fragments, and one matrix sample. The results of the analyses and thermodynamic calculations suggest that CI chondrites may have been produced in a two-stage alteration process from materials similar to that of the B7904 matrix, by reactions with liquid water in their parent body. The common CM chondrites may have undergone aqueous alteration in the parent body, in addition to hydration in the nebula, resulting in two-stage alterations; the parent body may have been different from that of B7904.

  7. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: The best extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are meteorites. The chemistry and mineralogy of Asteroid Belt and martian (SNC) meteorites are used as tracers of processes that took place in the early solar system. Meteoritic falls, in particular those of carbonaceous chondrites, are regarded as pristine samples of planetesimal evolution as these rocks are primitive and mostly unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the meteoritic isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. Meteorites are hosts to biological activity as soon as they are in contact with the terrestrial biosphere, like all rocks. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites and 8 martian stones, and was investigated with cell culture, microscopy techniques, PCR, and LAL photoluminetry. Some preliminary results are presented here. The sample suite included carbonaceous chondrites of types CR, CV, CK, CO, CI, and CM, from ANSMET and Falls. Past studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biological activity [1]-[4]. Unpublished observations during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [5], noted the formation of biofilms in water in a matter of days. In order to address the potential modification of meteoritic isotopic and chemical signatures, the culture of microbial contaminating species was initiated in 2005, and after a prolonged incubation, some of the species obtained from cell culture were analyzed in 2006. The results are preliminary, and a systematic catalog of microbial contaminants is developing very slowly due to lack of funding. Methods: The primary method was cell culture and PCR. Chondrites. Chondritic meteorite fragments were obtained by breaking stones of approximately one gram in sterile mortars. The core of the rocks, presumably less contaminated than the surface, was used for the present microbial study, and the

  8. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  9. Amoeboid olivine aggregates from CH carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide

    2014-08-01

    Amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in CH carbonaceous chondrites are texturally and mineralogically similar to those in other carbonaceous chondrite groups. They show no evidence for alteration and thermal metamorphism in an asteroidal setting and consist of nearly pure forsterite (Fa<3; in wt%, CaO = 0.1-0.8, Cr2O3 = 0.04-0.48; MnO < 0.5), anorthite, Al-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 = 0.7-8.1; TiO2 < 1), Fe,Ni-metal, spinel, and, occasionally, low-Ca pyroxene (Fs1Wo2-3), and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAIs inside AOAs are composed of hibonite, grossite, melilite (Åk13-44), spinel, perovskite, Al,Ti-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 up to 19.6; TiO2 up to 13.9), and anorthite. The CH AOAs, including CAIs within AOAs, have isotopically uniform 16O-rich compositions (average Δ17O = -23.4 ± 2.3‰, 2SD) and on a three-isotope oxygen diagram plot along ∼slope-1 line. The only exception is a low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 that shows a range of Δ17O values, from -24‰ to -13‰. Melilite, grossite, and hibonite in four CAIs within AOAs show no evidence for radiogenic 26Mg excess (δ26Mg). In contrast, anorthite in five out of six AOAs measured has δ26Mg corresponding to the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio of (4.3 ± 0.7) × 10-5, (4.2 ± 0.6) × 10-5, (4.0 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10-5, and (3.0 ± 2.6) × 10-6. Anorthite in another AOA shows no resolvable δ26Mg excess; an upper limit on the initial 26Al/27Al ratio is 5 × 10-6. We infer that CH AOAs formed by gas-solid condensation and aggregation of the solar nebula condensates (forsterite and Fe,Ni-metal) mixed with the previously formed CAIs. Subsequently they experienced thermal annealing and possibly melting to a small degree in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir during a brief epoch of CAI formation. The low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 may have experienced incomplete melting and isotope exchange in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. The lack of resolvable δ26Mg excess in melilite, grossite, and

  10. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  11. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from enstatite chondrites: indigenous or foreign?

    PubMed

    Guan; Huss; MacPherson; Wasserburg

    2000-08-25

    The primary mineral assemblages and initial (26)Al/(27)Al ratios of rare calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from enstatite (E) chondrites are similar to those of CAIs from other chondrite classes. CAIs from all chondrite classes formed under oxidizing conditions that are much different from the reducing conditions under which the E chondrites formed. Either CAIs formed at an earlier, more oxidizing epoch in the region where E chondrites ultimately formed, or they formed at a different place in the solar nebula and were transported into the E chondrite formation region. PMID:10958775

  12. Establishment of redox conditions during planetary collisions as an origin of chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Kitamura, M.

    1994-01-01

    Collisions between a 'cometlike' body (mixtures of chondritic materials and ice) and a slightly differentiated body were proposed for shock origin of ordinary chondrites. In this model, chondrules were formed with shock melting, and matrices were formed both by fracturing of materials and by recondensation of evaporated materials. This model can explain different redox conditions of chondrite formations by ice evaporation. Although this model was originally proposed for ordinary chondrites, we assume here that the model can be extended to chondrite formation in general. In this paper, redox conditions during chondrite formation by collisions will be discussed in the light of phase diagrams for solid-vapor equilibria.

  13. Mineralogy of Carbonaceous Chondrites and ACFER 217 from the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, T.; Bischoff, A.

    1992-07-01

    Among the approximately 400 meteorites recovered in the past three years in the Sahara at least 19 carbonaceous chondrites exist. Ten paired samples belong to the CR- chondrite Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 which has been recently described (Bischoff et al., 1992a). Three samples (Acfer 182, 207, 214) represent a unique (carbonaceous) chondrite (Bischoff et al., 1992b) that has similarities to ALH 85085 (e.g. Scott, 1988). Here, we describe six unpaired carbonaceous chondrites and Acfer 217, an unusual chondritic breccia. Three chondrites probably belong to the CV- chondrites (Acfer 082, 086, 272) and two to the CO- chondrites (Acfer 202, 243). Acfer 094 has trace element characteristics of a CM-chondrite, but has oxygen isotope ratios different from CM-chondrites (Bischoff et al., 1991). CV-chondrites: Based on the petrography and mineral chemistry Acfer 082 and 086 are typical CV3 chondrites. Large coarse-grained CAIs (especially in Acfer 082), fine- grained spinel-rich and large olivine-rich aggregates, chondrules and fragments are embedded in a fine-grained groundmass mainly consisting of small Fe-rich olivine laths. In Acfer 082 and Acfer 086 the average compositions of matrix olivine are Fa 55 and Fa 40, respectively. Acfer 082 is quite fresh concerning the degree of weathering, whereas Acfer 086 is severely weathered as indicated by the occurrence of abundant calcite filling fractures and pores between the olivine laths of the matrix. Acfer 272 has a mineral chemistry similar to Acfer 082, but is in texture, trace element chemistry (Spettel et al., 1992), and oxygen isotopes (Mayeda and Clayton, pers. communication) different to Acfer 082. Acfer 272 has a densely compacted matrix without individual euhedral to subhedral olivine laths. CO-chondrites: Acfer 202 and 243 consist of abundant porphyritic chondrules, CAIs, olivine-rich inclusions, and fragments embedded in abundant fine-grained matrix. The main component of the matrix is Fe-rich olivine. Matrix olivines

  14. Extinct I-129 in C3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabb, J.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1982-01-01

    Eight C3 chondrites were examined by the I-129 to Xe-129 dating method to determine whether their initial I-129/I-127 ratios, or R(0), correlate with any other properties. The R(0)'s range from 1.60 x 10 to the -4th to 1.09 x 10 to the -4th, corresponding to I to Xe ages from 2.0 Myr before to 6.7 Myr after the Murchison magnetite. Three C30's have essentially indistinguishable R(0)'s, while a fourth is undatable. Four C3V's show a distinct spread, ranging from 1.60 + or 0.07 x 10 to the -4th to 1.09 + or - 0.10 x 10 to the -4th. These R(0)'s correlate inversely with four other properties: I, Br, and Cd content, olivine composition, both percent mean deviation, and proportion of iron-poor olivine grains. The simplest model that accounts for the correlations with R(0) involves mixing of two iodine components in the solar nebula, associated with gas and grains, respectively. The second, of lower I-129/I-127 ratio, predominated at later times and thus became enriched in late-formed meteorites.

  15. Aqueous Alteration Mineralogy in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chokai, J.; Zolensky, M.; Le, L.; Nakamura, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Monkawa, A.; Koizumi, E.; Miyamoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iron-nickel sulfides are found in most or all solar system environments, and are probably the only minerals found in all extraterrestrial materials on hand. Despite the ubiquity, they have not received the attention they deserve. The most common Fe-Ni sulfides in chondrites are troilite (FeS), pyrrhotite (Fe1- XS) and pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8. Troilite is believed to have resulted from sulfidation of metal (Fe-Ni) grains in an H2Scontaining environment. Pyrrhotite is produced when friable troilite grains, which are exfoliated from the metal nucleus, are submitted to continued sulfidation [1]. Some asteroids are known to have experienced aqueous alteration, forming products including new generations of sulfides (pyrrhotite and pentlandite). Pentlandite in particular is known to form during such alteration [1]. However, experimental work by Lauretta has indicated that pentlandite may also have been formed during the initial sulfidation process [2], due to the faster diffusion rate of nickel into the forming sulfide, as compared to iron. Finally, there is considerable evidence [1,3&4] for a family of phases intermediate between pyrrhotite and pentlandite, following the trend of the high temperature monosulfide solid solution [5], something not encountered in terrestrial rocks.

  16. CARBONACEOUS MATTER PRECURSORS AND METAMORPHIC CONDITIONS IN THERMALLY PROCESSED CHONDRITES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.; Rouzaud, J.; Bonal, L.; Bourot-Denise, M.; Duber, S.; Reynard, B.

    2009-12-01

    Unravelling the origin of carbonaceous matter in pristine chondrites requires the understanding of the effect of post-accretion processes. In chondrites of petrologic type 3, thermal metamorphism modified to various extents the composition and structure of carbonaceous matter. Interestingly, this process controls the degree of structural order of carbonaceous matter, and clues on the thermal history of the parent body may be recovered from the physico-chemical study of carbonaceous matter. Following this framework, geothermometers based on Raman spectrometry of carbonaceous matter and covering a wide range of temperatures (100-650 °C) have been developed over recent years, both on terrestrial rocks and chondrites. While Raman data have been largely interpreted in terms of temperature, they are also the fingerprint of certain metamorphic conditions, especially in the low temperature range relevant to poorly ordered carbonaceous matter. This study investigates the Raman spectra of two series of chondritic carbonaceous matter and coal samples formed from different precursors and under different metamorphic conditions. The Raman spectra of Polyaromatic Carbonaceous Matter (PCM) from 42 chondrites and 27 coal samples, measured with visible (514 nm) and ultra-violet (244 nm) excitation wavelengths, are analyzed. The Raman spectra of low rank coals and chondrites of petrologic types 1 and 2, which contain the more disordered PCM, reflect the distinct carbon structures of their precursors. The 514 nm Raman spectra of high rank coals and chondrites of petrologic type 3 exhibit continuous and systematic spectral differences reflecting different carbon structures present during the metamorphism event. They result from differences in the chemical structures of the precursors concerning for instance the reticulation of polyaromatic units or an abundance of ether functional groups, or possibly from a lack of carbonization processes to efficiently expel oxygen heteroatoms, due

  17. Primitive Fine-Grained Matrix in the Unequilbrated Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kimura, M.; Ebel, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Enstatite chondrites (EC) have important implications for constraining conditions in the early solar system and for understanding the evolution of the Earth and other inner planets. They are among the most reduced solar system materials as reflected in their mineral compositions and assemblage. They are the only chondrites with oxygen as well as Cr, Ti, Ni and Zn stable isotope compositions similar to the earth and moon and most are completely dry, lacking any evidence of hydrous alteration; the only exception are EC clasts in the Kaidun breccia which have hydrous minerals. Thus, ECs likely formed within the snow line and are good candidates to be building blocks of the inner planets. Our goals are to provide a more detailed characterization the fine-grained matrix in E3 chondrites, understand its origin and relationship to chondrules, decipher the relationship between EH and EL chondrites and compare E3 matrix to matrices in C and O chondrites as well as other fine-grained solar system materials. Is E3 matrix the dust remaining from chondrule formation or a product of parent body processing or both?

  18. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. XI - C2 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, R.; Richter, G. R.; Woodrow, A. B.; Anders, E.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the compositions of 20 trace elements in the representative C2 chondrites Boriskino, Cold Bokkeveld, Erakot, Essebi, Haripura, Santa Cruz and Al Rais are reported. The contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, U, and Zn were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The siderophile abundances of the C2 chondrites are found to be less uniform than those of other carbonaceous chondrites, while the C2R chondrite Al Rais is systematically lower in 12 volatiles than the C2M chondrites. Enrichment of Bi and Tl found in Erakot and Haripura indicate the possible presence of the late condensate mysterite. Volatile abundances are shown to agree with matrix contents for meteorites that have suffered little aqueous alteration, however to be 20-30% lower for the more altered meteorites. Finally, the decline of element abundance with volatility is shown to be consistent with the sigmoid curve explained by the two-component model.

  19. A collisional origin to Earth's non-chondritic composition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, Amy; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Carter, Philip J.; Elliott, Tim; Walter, Michael J.; Stewart, Sarah T.

    2015-02-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate a non-chondritic composition for bulk Earth. If Earth formed from the accretion of chondritic material, its non-chondritic composition, in particular the super-chondritic 142Nd /144Nd and low Mg/Fe ratios, might be explained by the collisional erosion of differentiated planetesimals during its formation. In this work we use an N-body code, that includes a state-of-the-art collision model, to follow the formation of protoplanets, similar to proto-Earth, from differentiated planetesimals (>100 km) up to isolation mass (>0.16 M⊕). Collisions between differentiated bodies have the potential to change the core-mantle ratio of the accreted protoplanets. We show that sufficient mantle material can be stripped from the colliding bodies during runaway and oligarchic growth, such that the final protoplanets could have Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios similar to that of bulk Earth, but only if Earth is an extreme case and the core is assumed to contain 10% silicon by mass. This may indicate an important role for collisional differentiation during the giant impact phase if Earth formed from chondritic material.

  20. Paired Renazzo-type (CR) carbonaceous chondrites from the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, A.; Palme, H.; Ash, R. D.; Clayton, R. N.; Schultz, L.; Herpers, U.; Stoffler, D.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.; Spettel, B.; Weber, H.; Grund, T.; Endress, M.; Weber, D.

    1993-04-01

    Data on the chemical composition, mineralogy, abundance, and isotopic composition of recently found Sahara meteorites are presented. The nine Acfer samples and the El Djouf 001 meteorite are considered to belong to the same parent meteoroid and are classified as a CR chondrite. The Acfer-El Djouf meteorite has a CI-chondritic composition of nonvolatile elements, in particular CI ratios of refractory elements to Mg. The presence of metal with chondritic Fe/Ni ratios, olivine with relatively low FeO contents and with high Cr is attributed to the primitive, unequilibrated nature of Acfer-El Djouf and other CR chondrites. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotropic composition of the Acfer-El Djouf chondrite lies within the range of other members of the CR group. Rare gases of the Acfer-El Djouf meteorite contain a comparatively large solar wind component, in excess of that in Renazzo. The cosmic-ray exposure age of the Acfer-El Djouf meteorite is about 6 million years.

  1. Microstructure and thermal history of metal particles in CH chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Jones, R. H.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    We have studied metal microstructures in four CH chondrites, Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546, Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, Acfer 214, and Northwest Africa (NWA) 739, to examine details of the thermal histories of individual particles. Four types of metal particles are common in all of these chondrites. Zoned and unzoned particles probably formed as condensates from a gas of chondritic composition in a monotonic cooling regime, as has been shown previously. We have demonstrated that these particles were cooled rapidly to temperatures below 500 K after they formed, and that condensation effectively closed around 700 K. Zoned and unzoned particles with exsolution precipitates, predominantly high-Ni taenite, have considerably more complex thermal histories. Precipitates grew in reheating episodes, but the details of the heating events vary among individual grains. Reheating temperatures are typically in the range 800-1000 K. Reheating could have been the result of impact events on the CH parent body. Some particles with precipitates may have been incorporated into chondrules, with further brief heating episodes taking place during chondrule formation. In addition to the four dominant types of metal particles, rare Ni-rich metal particles and Si-rich metal particles indicate that the metal assemblage in CH chondrites was a mixture of material that formed at different redox conditions. Metal in CH chondrites consists of a mechanical mixture of particles that underwent a variety of thermal histories prior to being assembled into the existing brecciated meteorites.

  2. Consortium study of the unusual H chondrite regolith breccia, Noblesville

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Vogt, Stephan; Michlovich, Edward; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Satterwhite, Cecilia; Schultz, Ludolf; Loeken, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The Noblesville meteorite is a genomict, regolith breccia (H6 clasts in H4 matrix). Moessbauer analysis confirms that Noblesville is unusually fresh, not surprising in view of its recovery immediately after its fall. It resembles 'normal' H4-6 chondrites in its chemical composition and induced thermoluminescence (TL) levels. Thus, at least in its contents of volatile trace elements, Noblesville differs from other H chondrite, class A regolith breccias. Noblesville's small pre-atmospheric mass and fall near solar maximum and/or its peculiar orbit (with perihelion less than 0.8 AU as shown by natural TL intensity) may partly explain its levels of cosmogenic radionuclides. Its cosmic ray exposure age of about 44 Ma is long, is equalled or exceeded by less than 3 percent of all H chondrites, and also differs from the 33 +/- 3 Ma mean exposure age peak of other H chondrite regolith breccias. While Noblesville is now among the chondritic regolithic breccias richest in solar gases, elemental ratios indicate some loss, especially of He, perhaps by impacts in the regolith that heated individual grains. While general shock-loading levels in Noblesville did not exceed 4 GPa, individual clasts record shock levels of 5-10 GPa, doubtless acquired prior to lithification of the whole-rock meteoroid.

  3. Screening and classification of ordinary chondrites by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Baert, Kitty; Debaille, Vinciane; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Classification of ordinary chondrite meteorites generally implies (1) determining the chemical group by the composition in endmembers of olivine and pyroxene, and (2) identifying the petrologic group by microstructural features. The composition of olivine and pyroxene is commonly obtained by microprobe analyses or oil immersion of mineral separates. We propose Raman spectroscopy as an alternative technique to determine the endmember content of olivine and pyroxene in ordinary chondrites, by using the link between the wavelength shift of selected characteristic peaks in the spectra of olivine and pyroxene and the Mg/Fe ratio in these phases. The existing correlation curve has been recalculated from the Raman spectrum of reference minerals of known composition and further refined for the range of chondritic compositions. Although the technique is not as accurate as the microprobe for determining the composition of olivine and pyroxene, for most of the samples the chemical group can be easily determined by Raman spectroscopy. Blind tests with ordinary chondrites of different provenance, weathering, and shock stages have confirmed the potential of the method. Therefore, we suggest that a preliminary screening and the classification of most of the equilibrated ordinary chondrites can be carried out using an optical microscope equipped with a Raman spectrometer.

  4. Evidence for Extended Aqueous Alteration in CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigo-Rodriquez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Mestres, N.; Fraxedas, J.; Zolensky, M.; Nakamura, T.; Martins, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We are currently studying the chemical interrelationships between the main rockforming components of carbonaceous chondrites (hereafter CC), e.g. silicate chondrules, refractory inclusions and metal grains, and the surrounding meteorite matrices. It is thought that the fine-grained materials that form CC matrices are representing samples of relatively unprocessed protoplanetary disk materials [1-3]. In fact, modern non-destructive analytical techniques have shown that CC matrices host a large diversity of stellar grains from many distinguishable stellar sources [4]. Aqueous alteration has played a role in homogeneizing the isotopic content that allows the identification of presolar grains [5]. On the other hand, detailed analytical techniques have found that the aqueously-altered CR, CM and CI chondrite groups contain matrices in which the organic matter has experienced significant processing concomitant to the formation of clays and other minerals. In this sense, clays have been found to be directly associated with complex organics [6, 7]. CR chondrites are particularly relevant in this context as this chondrite group contains abundant metal grains in the interstitial matrix, and inside glassy silicate chondrules. It is important because CR are known for exhibiting a large complexity of organic compounds [8-10], and only metallic Fe is considered essential in Fischer-Tropsch catalysis of organics [11-13]. Therefore, CR chondrites can be considered primitive materials capable to provide clues on the role played by aqueous alteration in the chemical evolution of their parent asteroids.

  5. Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body

    PubMed Central

    Carporzen, Laurent; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Shuster, David L.; Ebel, Denton; Gattacceca, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The textures of chondritic meteorites demonstrate that they are not the products of planetary melting processes. This has long been interpreted as evidence that chondrite parent bodies never experienced large-scale melting. As a result, the paleomagnetism of the CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende, most of which was acquired after accretion of the parent body, has been a long-standing mystery. The possibility of a core dynamo like that known for achondrite parent bodies has been discounted because chondrite parent bodies are assumed to be undifferentiated. Resolution of this conundrum requires a determination of the age and timescale over which Allende acquired its magnetization. Here, we report that Allende’s magnetization was acquired over several million years (Ma) during metasomatism on the parent planetesimal in a >  ∼ 20 μT field up to approximately 9—10 Ma after solar system formation. This field was present too recently and directionally stable for too long to have been generated by the protoplanetary disk or young Sun. The field intensity is in the range expected for planetesimal core dynamos, suggesting that CV chondrites are derived from the outer, unmelted layer of a partially differentiated body with a convecting metallic core.

  6. Carbonaceous chondrite clasts in the howardites Bholghati and EET87513

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, P. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Reid, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two carbonaceous chondrite clasts from the two howardites Bholghati and EET87513 were analyzed. Clast N from EET87513 is a fragment classified as CM2 material on the basis of texture, bulk composition, mineralogy, and bulk O isotopic composition. Carbonaceous chondrite clasts from Bholghati, for which less data are available because of their small size, can be divided into two petrologic types: C1 and C2. C1 clasts are composed of opaque matrix with rare coarse-grained silicates as individual mineral fragments; textures resemble CI meteorites and some dark inclusions from CR meteorites. Opaque matrix is predominantly composed of flaky saponite; unlike typical CI and CR meteorites, serpentine is absent in the samples we analyzed. C2 clasts contain chondrules, aggregates, and individual fragments of coarse-grained silicates in an opaque matrix principally composed of saponite and anhydrous ferromagnesian silicates with flaky textures similar to phyllosilicates. These anhydrous ferromagnesian silicates are interpreted as the product of heating of pre-existing serpentine. The carbonaceous chondrite clasts we have studied from these two howardites are, with one notable exception (clast N from EET87513), mineralogically distinct from typical carbonaceous chondrites. However, these clasts have very close affinities to carbonaceous chondrites and have also experienced thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration, but to different degrees.

  7. Petrology and In Situ Trace Element Chemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Torrano, Z. A.

    2015-07-01

    Your eyes are not deceiving you: Duck has submitted an abstract to a chondrite session. We will present the results of our petrological and compositional studies of R chondrites of diverse petrological type.

  8. Do We Already have Samples of Ceres? H Chondrite Halites and the Ceres-Hebe Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, M.; Messenger, S.; Steele, A.; Zolensky, M.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that halites in the H chondrites Zag and Monahans originate from Ceres. Evidence includes mineralogy of the halites and orbital simularities between 1 Ceres and the purported H chondrite parent body 6 Hebe.

  9. Chondritic xenon in the Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Burnard, Peter G; Füri, Evelyn; Marty, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Noble gas isotopes are powerful tracers of the origins of planetary volatiles, and the accretion and evolution of the Earth. The compositions of magmatic gases provide insights into the evolution of the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. Despite recent analytical progress in the study of planetary materials and mantle-derived gases, the possible dual origin of the planetary gases in the mantle and the atmosphere remains unconstrained. Evidence relating to the relationship between the volatiles within our planet and the potential cosmochemical end-members is scarce. Here we show, using high-precision analysis of magmatic gas from the Eifel volcanic area (in Germany), that the light xenon isotopes identify a chondritic primordial component that differs from the precursor of atmospheric xenon. This is consistent with an asteroidal origin for the volatiles in the Earth's mantle, and indicates that the volatiles in the atmosphere and mantle originated from distinct cosmochemical sources. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the origin of Eifel magmatism being a deep mantle plume. The corresponding mantle source has been isolated from the convective mantle since about 4.45 billion years ago, in agreement with models that predict the early isolation of mantle domains. Xenon isotope systematics support a clear distinction between mid-ocean-ridge and continental or oceanic plume sources, with chemical heterogeneities dating back to the Earth's accretion. The deep reservoir now sampled by the Eifel gas had a lower volatile/refractory (iodine/plutonium) composition than the shallower mantle sampled by mid-ocean-ridge volcanism, highlighting the increasing contribution of volatile-rich material during the first tens of millions of years of terrestrial accretion. PMID:27111512

  10. Microchondrules in three unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigolski, John N.; Weisberg, Michael K.; Connolly, Harold C.; Ebel, Denton S.

    2016-02-01

    We report on a suite of microchondrules from three unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). Microchondrules, a subset of chondrules that are ubiquitous components of UOCs, commonly occur in fine-grained chondrule rims, although may also occur within matrix. Microchondrules have a variety of textures: cryptocrystalline, microporphyritic, radial, glassy. In some cases, their textures, and in many cases, their compositions, are similar to their larger host chondrules. Bulk compositions for both chondrule populations frequently overlap. The primary material that composes many of the microchondrules has compositions that are pyroxene-normative and is similar to low-Ca-pyroxene phenocrysts from host chondrules; primary material rarely resembles olivine or plagioclase. Some microchondrules are composed of FeO-rich material that has compositions similar to the bulk submicron fine-grained rim material. These microchondrules, however, are not a common compositional type and probably represent secondary FeO-enrichment. Microchondrules may also be porous, suggestive of degasing to form vesicles. Our work shows that the occurrence of microchondrules in chondrule rims is an important constraint that needs to be considered when evaluating chondrule-forming mechanisms. We propose that microchondrules represent melted portions of the chondrule surfaces and/or the melt products of coagulated dust in the immediate vicinity of the larger chondrules. We suggest that, through recycling events, the outer surfaces of chondrules were heated enough to allow microchondrules to bud off as protuberances and become entrained in the surrounding dusty environment as chondrules were accreting fine-grained rims. Microchondrules are thus byproducts of cyclic processing of chondrules in localized environments. Their occurrence in fine-grained rims represents a snapshot of the chondrule-forming environment. We evaluate mechanisms for microchondrule formation and hypothesize a potential link between

  11. New L Chondrites from Antofagasta, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez de Los Rios, E.

    1992-07-01

    Desert regions can be productive meteorite recovery locations because of low humidity, minimal ground cover and, in favorable situations, high prevailing winds to deflate surfaces. For these reasons we have made reconnaissance searches of a particularly arid Atacama Desert tract between Antofagasta and Mejillones, Chile (approx. 23 degrees 15'S, 70 degrees 30'W). One of us (EMR) had previously collected new ordinary chondrites from this same area, which has been named Pampa (a), (b), (c), and (e). The Pampa de Agua Blanca (PAB) chondrite is also apparently from this same area. In our brief 1991 reconnaissance we found additional specimens of (a) and (c). All of these meteorites have been found as multiple stones, necessitating pairing studies. Consequently, we examined our finds (a, b, c, and e), borrowed specimens from the Field Museum (a, b, PAB) and Robert Haag (c), and have performed the first detailed studies of the Pampa meteorites. Here we summarize results of these studies. Shock levels refer to the classification developed by Stoffler et al. (1991). PAMPA (a): This weathered meteorite is represented by several partially fusion-crusted fragments with a combined mass of approximately 380 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section, although some chondrule fragments are present; considerable recrystallization is evident and plagioclase (Ab(sub)80Or5-Ab(sub)83Or(sub)5) is present as clear grains. Diopside and hydroxylapatite are also present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.4% mean deviation-PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (a) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA (b): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with a combined weight of approximately 10 kg. We examined thin sections from four individual stones of (b). A few distinct barred chondrules are evident in thin section, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)74.8 mean, 0.9 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures

  12. Multiple impact events recorded in the NWA 7298 H chondrite breccia and the dynamical evolution of an ordinary chondrite asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2014-05-01

    The major geologic process that has shaped the asteroids and led to development of their regoliths is impact. Petrofabrics in ordinary chondrites are undoubtedly the result of impact events on their asteroidal parent bodies and the foliation present in a chondrite serves as an enduring record of the magnitude of the most intense compacting event experienced by the material. An overwhelming majority of chondrites have an internally consistent petrofabric contained within the spatial dimensions of the entire rock, including across clasts or different petrographic domains. This indicates that the magnitude of the most recent impact to have affected the assembled chondrite was significant enough to impart a foliation across all lithologies. Information of any previous impacts is largely lost because of the consistent, realigned foliations. We present X-ray microtomography derived 3D petrofabric intensity and orientation data for three lithologies in the NWA 7298 breccia. The internally inconsistent petrofabrics among differing lithologies indicate that the magnitude of the final impact event was smaller than previous ones. This latter case preserves fabric information recorded during previous impacts and allows a more complete interpretation of the impact history of a local region of the asteroidal parent. We used our data to infer the sequence and intensity of distinct impact events affecting the NWA 7298 parent asteroid. We suggest a near-surface impact debris zone on the H chondrite parent asteroid as an origin for NWA 7298. These observations yield new opportunities for investigating and interpreting the dynamic collisional evolution of asteroids.

  13. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites are the products of condensation, agglomeration and accretion of material in the solar nebula; these objects are the best sources of information regarding processes occurring during the early history of the solar system. We obtain large amounts of high-quality chemical and petrographic data and use them to infer chemical fractionation processes that occurred in the solar nebula and on meteorite parent bodies during thermal metamorphism, shock metamorphism and aqueous alteration. We compare diverse groups of chondrites and model their different properties in terms of processes that differed at different nebular locations or on different parent-bodies. In order to expand our set of geochemically important elements (particularly Si, C, P and S) and to distinguish the different oxidation states of Fe, Greg Kallemeyn spent three months (1 Sept. - 30 Nov. 1995) at the Smithsonian Institution to learn Eugene Jarosewich's wet chemical techniques. Key specimens from the recently established CK, CR and R chondrite groups were analyzed.

  14. Noble-gas-rich separates from ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moniot, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Acid-resistant residues were prepared by HCl-HF demineralization of three H-type ordinary chondrites: Brownfield 1937 (H3), Dimmitt (H3, 4), and Estacado (H6). These residues were found to contain a large proportion of the planetary-type trapped Ar, Kr, and Xe in the meteorites. The similarity of these acid residues to those from carbonaceous chondrites and LL-type ordinary chondrites suggests that the same phase carries the trapped noble gases in all these diverse meteorite types. Because the H group represents a large fraction of all meteorites, this result indicates that the gas-rich carrier phase is as universal as the trapped noble-gas component itself. When treated with an oxidizing etchant, the acid residues lost almost all their complement of noble gases.

  15. Plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites - Liquid condensates?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wark, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics and formation of coarse-grained, plagioclase-rich inclusions are investigated. The textures, mineralogical compositions, and initial Al-26/Al-27 ratios for the plagioclase-rich inclusions are described. It is observed that plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites are either Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) composed of 30-60 vol pct anorthite, and less than 35 vol pct Ti-Al-pyroxene and melilite, or CA chondrites composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, spinel, and melilite. It is observed that CA chondrules are chemically and mineralogically the most similar components shared by carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. The textural changes observed in the inclusions are examined. The data reveal that the CAIs have three textural groups: coarse anorthite laths, equigranular anorthite and Ti-Al-pyroxene, and lacy Ti-Al-pyroxene and fine-grained anorthite.

  16. Thermal history of chondrites - Hot accretion vs. metamorphic reheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haack, Henning; Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.; Keil, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    The thermal evolution of chondrules is investigated for the stages including primary heating through accretion to parent-body processing to determine whether the chondrules could be hot during accretion. Theoretical attention is given to whether chondrites of different petrologic types could have originated by means of hot accretion or metamorphic reheating. Data are presented from cooling-rate experiments and from calculations of heat retention required for the hot-accretion scenario. The accretion of chondrules hotter than 800 C is shown to be inconsistent with constraints on chondrule thermal evolution, in particular the slow cooling environment of chondrules vs the apparent cooling of chondrites in cold environments. It is argued that petrologic chondrites are formed by cold accretion and subsequently by metamorphic heating.

  17. Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

    2014-01-01

    Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

  18. Noble-gas-rich separates from ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniot, R. K.

    1980-02-01

    Acid-resistant residues were prepared by HCl-HF demineralization of three H-type ordinary chondrites: Brownfield 1937 (H3), Dimmitt (H3, 4), and Estacado (H6). These residues were found to contain a large proportion of the planetary-type trapped Ar, Kr, and Xe in the meteorites. The similarity of these acid residues to those from carbonaceous chondrites and LL-type ordinary chondrites suggests that the same phase carries the trapped noble gases in all these diverse meteorite types. Because the H group represents a large fraction of all meteorites, this result indicates that the gas-rich carrier phase is as universal as the trapped noble-gas component itself. When treated with an oxidizing etchant, the acid residues lost almost all their complement of noble gases.

  19. Optical properties of carbonaceous chondrites and their relationship to asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Fanale, F. P.

    1973-01-01

    Results of diffuse reflectance measurements of nine samples of carbonaceous chondrites (one C1, three C2, four C3, and one C4) and one iron meteorite, Odessa. Measurements were also made of mineral mixtures in an attempt to understand the cause of some features of the meteorite reflectances. The C1 and C2 carbonaceous chondrites have reflectances low enough to match the anomalously low albedos of some asteroids. Some asteroids have spectral reflectances similar to carbonaceous chondrites, whereas others with flat or F-type curves appear to match simulated mineral mixtures with slightly greater amounts of the carbonaceous component than those found in the meteorites. This observation suggests either that surface physical processes such as melting may be enhancing the optical effect of opaque carbonaceous material on some asteroid surfaces and/or that these asteroids contain even more carbonaceous material than the C1 meteorites.

  20. Plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites - Liquid condensates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, D. A.

    1987-02-01

    The characteristics and formation of coarse-grained, plagioclase-rich inclusions are investigated. The textures, mineralogical compositions, and initial Al-26/Al-27 ratios for the plagioclase-rich inclusions are described. It is observed that plagioclase-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites are either Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) composed of 30-60 vol pct anorthite, and less than 35 vol pct Ti-Al-pyroxene and melilite, or CA chondrites composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, spinel, and melilite. It is observed that CA chondrules are chemically and mineralogically the most similar components shared by carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. The textural changes observed in the inclusions are examined. The data reveal that the CAIs have three textural groups: coarse anorthite laths, equigranular anorthite and Ti-Al-pyroxene, and lacy Ti-Al-pyroxene and fine-grained anorthite.

  1. Shock Classication of Ordinary Chondrites: New Data and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffler, D.; Keil, K.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1992-07-01

    Introduction. The recently proposed classification system for shocked chondrites (1) is based on a microscopic survey of 76 non-Antarctic H, L, and LL chondrites. Obviously, a larger database is highly desirable in order to confirm earlier conclusions and to allow for a statistically relevant interpretation of the data. Here, we report the shock classification of an additional 54 ordinary chondrites and summarize implications based on a total of 130 samples. New observations on shock effects. Continued studies of those shock effects in olivine and plagioclase that are indicative of the shock stages S1 - S6 as defined in (1) revealed the following: Planar deformation features in olivine, considered typical of stage S5, occur occasionally in stage S3 and are common in stage S4. In some S4 chondrites plagioclase is not partially isotropic but still birefringent coexisting with a small fraction of S3 olivines. Opaque shock veins occur not only in shock stage S3 and above (1) but have now been found in a few chondrites of shock stage S2. Thermal annealing of shock effects. Planar fractures and planar deformation features in olivine persist up to the temperatures required for recrystallization of olivine (> ca. 900 degrees C). Shock history of breccias. In a number of petrologic types 3 and 4 chondrites without recognizable (polymict) breccia texture, we found chondrules and olivine fragments with different shock histories ranging from S1 to S3. Regolith and fragmental breccias are polymict with regard to lithology and shock. The intensity of the latest shock typically varies from S1 to S4 in the breccias studied so far. Frequency distribution of shock stages. A significant difference between H and L chondrites is emerging in contrast to our previous statistics (1), whereas the conspicuous lack of shock stages S5 and S6 in type 3 and 4 chondrites is clearly confirmed (Fig. 1). Correlation between shock and noble gas content. The concentration of radiogenic argon and of

  2. A Weathering Index for CK and R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Huber, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    We present a new weathering index (wi) for the metallic-Fe-Ni-poor chondrite groups (CK and R) based mainly on transmitted light observations of the modal abundance of crystalline material that is stained brown in thin sections: wi-0, <5 vol%; wi-1, 5-25 vol%; wi-2,25-50 vol%; wi-3,50- 75 vol%; wi-4, 75-95 vol%; wi-5, >95 vol%, wi-6, significant replacement of mafic silicates by phyllosilicates. Brown staining reflects mobilization of oxidized iron derived mainly from terrestrial weathering of Ni-bearing sulfide. With increasing degrees of terrestrial weathering of CK and R chondrites, the sulfide modal abundance decreases, and S, Se, and Ni become increasingly depleted. In addition, bulk Cl increases in Antarctic CK chondrites, probably due to contamination from airborne sea mist.

  3. Chondrite chronology by initial Sr-87/Sr-86 in phosphates?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Brannon, Joyce C.

    1991-01-01

    New data are presented on Rb-Sr isotope analyses of phosphates from nine ordinary chondrites, including accurate identification of initial Sr-87/Sr-86. The initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios found in this study were generally significantly higher than the more primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios inferred for carbonaceous chondrite refractory inclusions, basaltic achondrites, or bulk ordinary chondrites. Such elevation of initial Sr-87/Sr-86 is generally considered to reflect isotopic redistribution during metamorphism. However, in this study, no evident correlation was found between the phosphate initial Sr-87/Sr-86 compositions and the metamorphic grade. Two possible alternative hypotheses for high initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios are considered.

  4. Mn-53-Cr-53 Systematics of R-Chondrite NWA 753

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jogo, K.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Chondrules and chondrites are interpreted as objects formed in the early solar system, and it is important to study them in order to elucidate its evolution. Here, we report the study of the Mn-Cr systematics of the R-Chondrite NWA753 and compare the results to other chondrite data. The goal was to determine Cr isotopic and age variations among chondrite groups with different O-isotope signatures. The Mn-53-Cr-53 method as applied to individual chondrules [1] or bulk chondrites [2] is based on the assumption that 53Mn was initially homogeneously distributed in that portion the solar nebula where the chondrules and/or chondrites formed. However, different groups of chondrites formed from regions of different O-isotope compositions. So, different types of chondrites also may have had different initial Mn-53 abundances and/or Cr isotopic compositions. Thus, it is important to determine the Cr isotopic systematics among chondrites from various chondrite groups. We are studying CO-chondrite ALH83108 and Tagish Lake in addition to R-Chondrite NWA753. These meteorites have very distinct O-isotope compositions (Figure 1).

  5. Osmium Isotopic Compositions of Chondrites and Earth's Primitive Upper Mantle: Constraints on the Late Veneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Meisel, T.

    2001-01-01

    The 187 Os/188 Os of carbonaceous chondrites averages approximately 2% lower than for enstatite and ordinary chondrites. The primitive upper mantle ratio for the Earth best matches that of ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Post-metamorphic brecciation in type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1993-01-01

    Type 3.1-3.9 ordinary chondrites can be divided into two kinds: those in which the compositions of chondrule silicates are entirely consistent with metamorphism of type 3.0 material, and those in which the computational heterogeneity appears to be too extreme for in situ metamorphism. We present petrologic data for three LL3 chondrites of the second kind--Ngawi, ALH A77278 (both type 3.6), and Hamlet (type 3.9)--and compare these data with results for the first kind of LL3-4 chondrites. Given that chondrules form in the nebula and that metamorphic equilibration occurs in asteroids, our new data imply that Ngawi, A77278, Hamlet, and many other type 3 ordinary chondrites are post-metamorphic breccias containing materials with diverse metamorphic histories; they are not metamorphic rocks or special kinds of 'primitive breccias.' We infer also that metamorphism to type 3.1-3.9 levels produces very friable material that is easily remixed into breccias and lithified by mild shock. Thus, petrologic types and subtypes of chondrites indicate the mean metamorphic history of the ingredients, not the thermal history of the rock. The metamorphic history of individual type 1 or 2 porphyritic chondrules in type 3 breccias is best derived from olivine and pyroxene analyses and the data of McCoy et al. for unbrecciated chondrites. The new chondrule classification schemes of Sears, DeHart et al., appears to provide less information about the original state and metamorphic history of individual porphyritic chondrules and should not replace existing classification schemes.

  7. U-Pb systematics of phosphates from equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopel, C.; Manhes, G.; Allegre, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    U-Pb systematics were determined from fifteen phosphate separates from equilibrated ordinary chondrites and from small bulk fragments of the same meteorites. The high U-238/Pb-204 ratios of thirteen of these phosphate separates lead to extremely radiogenic Pb whose Pb-206/Pb-204 ratios range from 250 up to 3500. The Pb/Pb model ages for these phosphates range from 4.563 to 4.502 Ga, with an analytical precision of 106y and the U-Pb system is apparently concordant. The time interval observed 60 x 106y, reflects the thermal processing of the equilibrated chondrites and is consistent with that previously derived from the Rb/Sr, K/Ar and Pu chronologies. The Pb/Pb ages of the phosphates from the seven H chondrites show a negative correlation versus their metamorphic grade. This is the first clear relationship ever observed between a long-lived chronometer and the intensity of metamorphism as reflected by metamorphic grade. Assuming that the Pb/Pb age indicates the accurate U-Pb closure time in phosphates, the Pb/Pb chronology is compatible with the model of a layered H chondrite parent body. However, this interpretation of the U/Pb systematics is not unique; it postulates a slow cooling of the equilibrated materials at high temperature, in apparent conflict with petrological observations. Except for the H chondrites, which agree rather well with Pu systematics, comparison of the Pb/Pb chronology with published radiochronometric data does not reveal simple correlations. In the present debate concerning the thermal history of chondrites, the chronometric information derived from each isotope system is interpreted as the time of its thermal closure. However, this basic assumption may not be correct for all the radio-chronologies and must be evaluated before the radiochronometric data can be applied as compelling time constraints for the period of 4.56 - 4.4 Ga of proto-planetary history.

  8. Petrologic and oxygen isotopic study of ALH 85085-like chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Ebihara, M.

    1994-07-01

    Four meteorites (PAT 91546, PCA 91328, PCA 91452, PCA 91467) petrologically similar to ALH 85085 chondrite have now been found. Previous studies of ALH 85085 showed it be a new kind of CR-related microchondrule-bearing chondrite, although one called it a sub-chondrite. The purpose of this study is to learn more about ALH 85085-like meteorites and their relationship to CR and CR-related (LEW 85332, Acfer 182, Bencubbin) chondrites. The methods used included petrology, INA bulk chemical analysis (PAT 91546, PCA 91467), and O isotopic analyses of the whole rocks and separated chondrules and dark inclusions (DIs) from PAT 91546. Since microchondrules and fragments are approximately 20 microns it was necessary to analyze composite samples for O; one was of approximately 100 chondrules, and another was of 5 DIs. Petrologically, the four meteorites are similar to ALH 85085, and there is no basis for determining if all of them, or any combinations, are paired. Mineralogically, olivine and pyroxene are highly magnesian FeNi metal generally has 3-10% Ni, and has a positive Ni-Co correlation similar to that in CR and CR-related chondrites. Refractory inclusions are similar in size to the chondrules and have the following assemblages: (1) hibonite-perovskite, (2) melilite-fassaite-forsterite, (3) grossite (Ca-dialuminate)-melilite-perovskite, (4) spinel-melilite, and (5) spinel-pyroxene aggregates. Chemically, INA analyses indicate that PAT 91546 and PCA 91467 are generally similar to ALH 85085. Oxygen isotopic analyses of the four whole-rock compositions fall along the CR mixing line as does ALH 85085; they are also close to LEW 85332, Acfer 182, and Bencubbin. This supports the concept that these are all CR-related chondrites. Even stronger support is found in the compositions of the chondrules and DIs in PAT 91546, which also plot on or near the CR line.

  9. Post-metamorphic brecciation in type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1993-03-01

    Type 3.1-3.9 ordinary chondrites can be divided into two kinds: those in which the compositions of chondrule silicates are entirely consistent with metamorphism of type 3.0 material, and those in which the computational heterogeneity appears to be too extreme for in situ metamorphism. We present petrologic data for three LL3 chondrites of the second kind--Ngawi, ALH A77278 (both type 3.6), and Hamlet (type 3.9)--and compare these data with results for the first kind of LL3-4 chondrites. Given that chondrules form in the nebula and that metamorphic equilibration occurs in asteroids, our new data imply that Ngawi, A77278, Hamlet, and many other type 3 ordinary chondrites are post-metamorphic breccias containing materials with diverse metamorphic histories; they are not metamorphic rocks or special kinds of 'primitive breccias.' We infer also that metamorphism to type 3.1-3.9 levels produces very friable material that is easily remixed into breccias and lithified by mild shock. Thus, petrologic types and subtypes of chondrites indicate the mean metamorphic history of the ingredients, not the thermal history of the rock. The metamorphic history of individual type 1 or 2 porphyritic chondrules in type 3 breccias is best derived from olivine and pyroxene analyses and the data of McCoy et al. for unbrecciated chondrites. The new chondrule classification schemes of Sears, DeHart et al., appears to provide less information about the original state and metamorphic history of individual porphyritic chondrules and should not replace existing classification schemes.

  10. Invited review: Evidence for the insignificance of ordinary chondritic material in the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Clark, Beth E.

    1999-01-01

    We review the meteoritical and astronomical literature to answer the question: What is the evidence for the importance of ordinary chondritic material to the composition of the asteroid belt? From the meteoritical literature we find that currently: 1) our meteorite collections sample at least 135 different asteroids; 2) out of 25+ chondritic meteorite parent bodies, 3 are (by definition) ordinary chondritic; 3) out of 14 chondritic grouplets and unique chondrites, 11 are affiliated with a carbonaceous group/clan of chondrites; 4) out of 24 differentiated groups of meteorites, only the IIE iron meteorites clearly formed from ordinary chondritic precursor material; 5) out of 12 differentiated grouplets and unique differentiated meteorites, 8 seem to have had carbonaceous chondritic precursors; 6) a high frequency of carbonaceous clasts in ordinary chondritic breccias suggests that ordinary chondrites have been embedded in a swarm of carbonaceous material. The rare occurrence (only one example) of ordinary chondritic clasts in carbonaceous chondritic breccias indicates that ordinary chondritic material has not been widespread in the asteroid belt; 7) cosmic spherules, micrometeorites, and stratospheric interplanetary dust particles, believed to represent a less biased sampling of asteroidal material, show that only a very small fraction (< ?1%) of asteroidal dust has an ordinary chondritic composition. From the astronomical literature we find that currently: 8) spectroscopic surveys of the main asteroid belt are finding more and more non-ordinary chondritic primitive material in the inner main belt; 9) the increase in spectroscopic data has increased the inferred mineralogical diversity of main belt asteroids; 10) no ordinary chondritic asteroids have been directly observed in the main belt. These lines of evidence strongly suggest a scenario in which ordinary chondritic asteroids were never abundant in the main belt. The S-type asteroids may currently be primarily

  11. Magnesium isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Wang-Ye; Ke, Shan; Marty, Bernard; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Pourmand, Ali

    2010-07-01

    To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites, and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during planetary formation and magmatic processes, we report high-precision (±0.06‰ on δ 25Mg and ±0.07‰ on δ 26Mg, 2SD) analyses of Mg isotopes for (1) 47 mid-ocean ridge basalts covering global major ridge segments and spanning a broad range in latitudes, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions; (2) 63 ocean island basalts from Hawaii (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and French Polynesia (Society Island and Cook-Austral chain); (3) 29 peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA; and (4) 38 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites including 9 chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CV, L, LL, H, EH and EL). Oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have similar Mg isotopic compositions, with average values of δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.05 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.07 (2SD) for global oceanic basalts ( n = 110) and δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.03 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.04 (2SD) for global peridotite xenoliths ( n = 29). The identical Mg isotopic compositions in oceanic basalts and peridotites suggest that equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation during partial melting of peridotite mantle and magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma is negligible. Thirty-eight chondrites have indistinguishable Mg isotopic compositions, with δ 25Mg = -0.15 ± 0.04 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06 (2SD). The constancy of Mg isotopic compositions in all major types of chondrites suggest that primary and secondary processes that affected the chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites did not significantly fractionate Mg isotopes. Collectively, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle, based on oceanic basalts and peridotites, is estimated to be -0.13 ± 0.04 for δ 25Mg and -0.25 ± 0.07 for δ 26Mg (2SD, n = 139). The Mg isotopic composition of the Earth, as represented by the mantle, is similar to chondrites

  12. Petrology and classification of the Garraf, Spain chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Conrad, G. H.; King, E. A.; San Miguel, A.

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies indicate that the Garraf meteorite is a highly-recrystallized chondrite of petrologic type 6. Olivine (Fa24.7; PMD 1.1) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs20.9; PMD 1.1) compositions indicate that it belongs to the L-group. Based on contents of noble gases, pervasive fracturing of silicates, common undulose extinction of olivine and plagioclase, and the lack of melt pockets and maskelynite, Garraf is placed into shock facies b. It is concluded that Garraf is a highly recrystallized L6b chondrite that, after recrystallization, was cataclased and comminuted by shock.

  13. Ca-Al-rich chondrules and inclusions in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, A.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich objects, hitherto mostly found in carbonaceous chondrites, are shown to be widespread, albeit rare, constituents of type 3 ordinary chondrites. Widespread occurrence and textural similarities of Ca-Al-rich chondrules to common, Mg-Fe-rich chondrules suggest that they formed by related processes. It is suggested in this article that Ca-Al-rich chondrules were formed by total melting and crystallization of heterogeneous, submillimeter- to submillimeter-sized dustballs made up of mixtures of high-temperature, Ca-Al-rich and lower-temperature, Na-K-rich components.

  14. Petrology of Two Itokawa Particles: Comparison with Equilibrated LL Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Arai, T.; Fagan, T. J.; Zolensky, M.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Karouji, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A strong link between Itokawa particles and LL chondrites was confirmed by preliminary examinations of Hayabusa particles [e.g., 1, 2]. Both poorly equilibrated and highly equilibrated particles have been found among the grains returned from Itokawa [1], and it is suggested that they correspond to LL4 and LL5-6, respectively. Here we report the petrography of two Itokawa particles and TEM study of one, and compare them to Antarctic LL chondrites with variable petrologic types (LL4-LL7) in order to understand the metamorphic history of asteroid Itokawa.

  15. The metallic microstructures and thermal histories of severely reheated chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. A.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The metallographic structures of eight severely reheated chondrites - Farmington, Ramsdorf, Orvinio, Wickenburg, Lubbock, Rose City, Arapahoe, and Tadjera - were studied using optical, SEM and electron microprobe techniques. The following metallographic criteria were used to estimate the post-shock residual temperature of the chondrites: melted metal-troilite appearance, presence of martensite, phosphorus enrichment of metal and averaging of central metal grain compositions. The presence of phosphides and secondary kamacite are due to slow post-shock cooling rates. Ni rim gradients indicate both extensive remelting of metal grains and relatively fast cooling.

  16. The Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites: Experiments and Geochemical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Berger, G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Toplis, M. J.; Kolb, V. M.; Bajagic, M.

    2007-01-01

    CR carbonaceous chondrites are of major interest since they contain some of the most primitive organic matter known. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needs to be assessed. This study was initiated by comparing the mineralogy and modal abundances of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2. Calculated element distributions imply that GRO 95577 may result from aqueous alteration of Renazzo by an isochemical process on their parent asteroid, whose mineralogical composition was estimated ( Unaltered CR shown included table).

  17. Refractory inclusions in the Ornans C30 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several types of metedorites contain unusual objects 10 micrometers to 2 centimeters across that are enriched in refractory elements such as calcium, aluminum and titanium. These objects, commonly known as refractory inclusions, are most abundant in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. The refractory inclusions that have been found in the Ornans metedorite, a member of a little-studied group of carbonaceous chondrites are described. Some refractory inclusions in Ornans resemble those found in other meteorites, while others are unlike any seen before. The unusual inclusions in Ornans contain minerals with extraordinary enrichments in highly refractory elements.

  18. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture.

  19. Hydrated interplanetary dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1985-03-01

    The results of transmission electron microscope observations of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP) containing Fe-, Mg-rich smectite or mica as a major phase are reported. The sheet silicate appears to have formed by alteration of anhydrous silicates. Fassaite, a Ca, Al clinopyroxene, also occurs in this particle, and one of the crystals exhibits solar-flare tracks, clearly indicating that it is extraterrestrial. Fassaite is a major constituent of the Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions found in the carbonaceous chondrites, so its presence in this particle suggests that there may be a link between hydrated IDPs and carbonaceous chondrites in the early history of the solar system.

  20. Petrology and classification of the Garraf, Spain chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, K.; Conrad, G. H.; King, E. A.; San Miguel, A.

    1986-03-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies indicate that the Garraf meteorite is a highly-recrystallized chondrite of petrologic type 6. Olivine (Fa24.7; PMD 1.1) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs20.9; PMD 1.1) compositions indicate that it belongs to the L-group. Based on contents of noble gases, pervasive fracturing of silicates, common undulose extinction of olivine and plagioclase, and the lack of melt pockets and maskelynite, Garraf is placed into shock facies b. It is concluded that Garraf is a highly recrystallized L6b chondrite that, after recrystallization, was cataclased and comminuted by shock.

  1. Hydrated interplanetary dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of transmission electron microscope observations of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP) containing Fe-, Mg-rich smectite or mica as a major phase are reported. The sheet silicate appears to have formed by alteration of anhydrous silicates. Fassaite, a Ca, Al clinopyroxene, also occurs in this particle, and one of the crystals exhibits solar-flare tracks, clearly indicating that it is extraterrestrial. Fassaite is a major constituent of the Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions found in the carbonaceous chondrites, so its presence in this particle suggests that there may be a link between hydrated IDPs and carbonaceous chondrites in the early history of the solar system.

  2. Timescales and conditions for the aqueous alteration of chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilly, Christine E.

    It has become well-recognized that water played a critical role in the early geological evolution of materials through observation of hydrated phases in chondritic meteorites. However, details about the mechanism, timing, and conditions of aqueous alteration are poorly constrained. This dissertation investigates water-driven processes in Renazzo-like (CR) carbonaceous chondrites, with some comparison to the heavily altered and Mighei-like (CM) chondrites. CR chondrites were chosen as the focus of this study, as they are the only chondrite group to range from practically anhydrous to completely hydrated, providing petrographic context for the aqueous alteration process. The central goal of the thesis is to elucidate the complete mechanism of aqueous alteration, from primary anhydrous components to secondary minerals. This research uses a variety of micro-analytical techniques to address three main objectives: 1) to detail the petrographic context, 2) to quantify the onset and duration of alteration using radiometric dating, and 3) to constrain the fluid chemistry and conditions for aqueous alteration. On a microscopic scale, fine-grained matrices and glassy mesostases were the first phases to become altered, allowing for elemental transport over short distances (< 100 microns). As alteration progressed, the iron-metal was oxidized, and silicate phenocrysts were pseudomorphically replaced. 53Mn-53 Cr radiometric dating of secondary carbonates in CR chondrites show that aqueous alteration began quickly after accretion of the parent body, ~4 Myr after the beginning of the Solar System. This is contemporaneous with dolomite formation in the CM chondrite Sutter's Mill and with carbonate formation in other CM chondrites. However, the calcite age from a heavily hydrated CR lithology indicates that late-stage alteration occurred ~12 Myr after the beginning of the Solar System. The oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite and carbonate minerals reveal that altering fluid

  3. Matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Buseck, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of petrographic, SEM, and TEM studies of the matrix minerals in Orgueil. It was found that the matrix consists mainly of Fe-bearing Mg-rich serpentine and saponite, and a poorly crystallized Fe-rich ferrihydrite containing small and varying amounts of S and Ni. The serpentine and saponite, which occur in roughly equal molar proportions, are coherently intergrown and occur mainly in fine phyllosilicates in intimate association with the ferrihydrite. Coarse phylosilicates occur in clusters relatively free of ferrihydrite. The matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil chondrite suggests that Orgueil experienced considerably different alteration conditions than did the CM chondrites.

  4. Breakup and structure of an H-chondrite parent body - The H-chondrite flux over the last million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-02-01

    Two distinct groups of H chondrites are identified which have respectively induced thermoluminescence peak temperatures above 190 C (AC) and below 190 C (BC). Metallographic cooling rate determinations confirm that the AC group cools at very high rates relative to the latter group. The AC group members have cosmic ray exposure ages of about 8 Myr. Antarctic meteorite of the BC group have cosmic ray exposure ages greater than 20 Myr. Modern H-chondrite falls, which are all of the BC group, have cosmic ray exposure ages of 8 and above 20 Myr. The data show that the abundance of the AC group is directly related to terrestrial age. It is suggested that both the AC group and part of BC group were produced by an impact event at approximately 8 Myr and that the small sizes of the AC group made them prone to destruction, allowing the BC group to dominate the modern H-chondrite flux.

  5. Breakup and structure of an H-chondrite parent body - The H-chondrite flux over the last million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Two distinct groups of H chondrites are identified which have respectively induced thermoluminescence peak temperatures above 190 C (AC) and below 190 C (BC). Metallographic cooling rate determinations confirm that the AC group cools at very high rates relative to the latter group. The AC group members have cosmic ray exposure ages of about 8 Myr. Antarctic meteorite of the BC group have cosmic ray exposure ages greater than 20 Myr. Modern H-chondrite falls, which are all of the BC group, have cosmic ray exposure ages of 8 and above 20 Myr. The data show that the abundance of the AC group is directly related to terrestrial age. It is suggested that both the AC group and part of BC group were produced by an impact event at approximately 8 Myr and that the small sizes of the AC group made them prone to destruction, allowing the BC group to dominate the modern H-chondrite flux.

  6. CI chondrite-like clasts in the Nilpena polymict ureilite - Implications for aqueous alteration processes in CI chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Prinz, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Petrographic studies of Nilpena polymict ureilite have revealed the presence of small quantities of carbonaceous chondrite matrix clasts. Detailed electron microprobe and TEM studies show that the chemistry and fine-scale mineralogy of one of these clasts is consistent with CI carbonaceous chondrite matrix. Compared to Orgeuil, the phyllosilicate, sulfide, and oxide mineralogy suggests that the Nilpena clasts may represent a less altered type of CI matrix. It is suggested that increased oxidation and aqueous alteration of Nilpena-type materials could result in the formation of the type of mineral assemblage observed in Orgueil. Increased alteration produces progressive more Mg-rich phyllosilicates and more Fe(3+)-rich iron oxides, such as ferrihydrite. As a function of increased alteration, Ca is also progressively leached from the matrix material to form carbonate veins. The depletion of Ca in CI chondrite matrices suggests the Ivuna and Alais may be intermediate in their degree of alteration to Nilpena and Orgueil.

  7. Pyroxene structures, cathodoluminescence and the thermal history of the enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Shaoxiong; Schneider, Diann; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; DeHart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to explore the thermal history of enstatite chondrites, we examined the cathodoluminescence (CL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 15 EH chondrites and 21 EL chondrites, including all available petrographic types, both textural types 3-6 and mineralogical types alpha-delta. The CL properties of EL3(alpha) and EH3(alpha) chondrites are similar. Enstatite grains high in Mn and other transition metals display red CL, while enstatite with low concentrations of these elements show blue CL. A few enstatite grains with greater than 5 wt% FeO display no CL. In contrast, the luminescent properties of the metamorphosed EH chondrites are very different from those of metamorphosed EL chondrites. While the enstatites in metamorphosed EH chondrites display predominantly blue CL, the enstatites in metamorphosed EL chondrites display a distinctive magenta CL with blue and red peaks of approximately equal intensity in their spectra. The TL sensitivities of the enstatite chondrites correlate with the intensity of the blue CL and, unlike other meteorite classes, are not simply related to metamorphism. The different luminescent properties of metamorphosed EH and EL chondrites cannot readily be attributed to compositional differences. But x-ray diffraction data suggests that the enstatite in EH5(gamma),(delta) chondrites is predominantly disordered orthopyroxene, while enstatite in EL6(beta) chondrites is predominantly ordered orthopyroxene. The difference in thermal history of metamorphosed EL and EH chondrites is so marked that the use of single 'petrographic' types is misleading, and separate textural and mineralogical types are preferable. Our data confirm earlier suggestions that metamorphosed EH chondrites underwent relatively rapid cooling, and the metamorphosed EL chondrites cooled more slowly and experienced prolonged heating in the orthopyroxene field.

  8. Correlations and zoning patterns of phosphorus and chromium in olivine from H chondrites and the LL chondrite Semarkona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCanta, M. C.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorus zoning is observed in olivines in high-FeO (type IIA) chondrules in H chondrites over the entire range of petrologic grades: H3.1-H6. Features in P concentrations such as oscillatory and sector zoning, and high P cores are present in olivines that are otherwise unzoned in the divalent cations. Aluminum concentrations are low and not significantly associated with P zoning in chondrule olivines. In highly unequilibrated H chondrites, phosphorus zoning is generally positively correlated with Cr. Atomic Cr:P in olivine is roughly 1:1 (3:1 for one zone in one olivine in RC 075), consistent with Cr3+ charge-balancing P5+ substituting for Si4+. Normal igneous zonation involving the dominant chrome species Cr2+ was observed only in the LL3.0 chondrite Semarkona. In more equilibrated chondrites (H3.5-H3.8), Cr spatially correlated with P is occasionally observed but it is diffuse relative to the P zones. In H4-H6 chondrites, P-correlated Cr is absent. One signature of higher metamorphic grades (≥H3.8) is the presence of near matrix olivines that are devoid of P oscillatory zoning. The restriction to relatively high metamorphic grade and to grains near the chondrule-matrix interface suggests that this is a response to metasomatic processes. We also observed P-enriched halos near the chondrule-matrix interface in H3.3-H3.8 chondrites, likely reflecting the loss of P and Ca from mesostasis and precipitation of Ca phosphate near the chondrule surface. These halos are absent in equilibrated chondrites due to coarsening of the phosphate and in unequilibrated chondrites due to low degrees of metasomatism. Olivines in type IA chondrules show none of the P-zoning ubiquitous in type IIA chondrules or terrestrial igneous olivines, likely reflecting sequestration of P in reduced form within metallic alloys and sulfides during melting of type IA chondrules.

  9. Petrology and bulk chemistry of Yamato-82094, a new type of carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Barrat, J. A.; Weisberg, M. K.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kojima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are classified into several groups. However, some are ungrouped. We studied one such ungrouped chondrite, Y-82094, previously classified as a CO. In this chondrite, chondrules occupy 78 vol%, and the matrix is distinctly poor in abundance (11 vol%), compared with CO and other C chondrites. The average chondrule size is 0.33 mm, different from that in C chondrites. Although these features are similar to those in ordinary chondrites, Y-82094 contains 3 vol% Ca-Al-rich inclusions and 5% amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs). Also, the bulk composition resembles that of CO chondrites, except for the volatile elements, which are highly depleted. The oxygen isotopic composition of Y-82094 is within the range of CO and CV chondrites. Therefore, Y-82094 is an ungrouped C chondrite, not similar to any other C chondrite previously reported. Thin FeO-rich rims on AOA olivine and the mode of occurrence of Ni-rich metal in the chondrules indicate that Y-82094 is petrologic type 3.2. The extremely low abundance of type II chondrules and high abundance of Fe-Ni metal in the chondrules suggest reducing condition during chondrule formation. The depletion of volatile elements indicates that the components formed under high-temperature conditions, and accreted to the parent body of Y-82094. Our study suggests a wider range of formation conditions than currently recorded by the major C chondrite groups. Additionally, Y-82094 may represent a new, previously unsampled, asteroidal body.

  10. Regolith breccia consisting of H and LL chondrite mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Kojima, Hideyasu

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite Yamato-8424 (Y-8424) is a regolith breccia that is homogenized mixture of H and LL chondrite components. The breccia consists mainly of a fine-grained material with mineral fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and Fe-Ni metal with traces of plagioclase.

  11. The chemical composition of the Earth: Enstatite chondrite models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javoy, M.; Kaminski, E.; Guyot, F.; Andrault, D.; Sanloup, C.; Moreira, M.; Labrosse, S.; Jambon, A.; Agrinier, P.; Davaille, A.; Jaupart, C.

    2010-05-01

    We propose a new model of Earth's bulk composition based on enstatite chondrites (E-chondrites), the only chondrite group isotopically identical to the Earth. This model allows a quantitative study of accretion and differentiation processes in the early Earth. Conditions for core formation are evaluated using data on silica-iron equilibrium at high pressure and temperature and the exchange budget equation SiO2 + 2Fe = Si + 2FeO, which is the result of IW and Si-SiO2 oxygen buffers' interaction and controls the evolution of mantle fO2. Based on that equation, ranges for the compositions of the Bulk Silicate Earth, the lower mantle and the core are deduced from the compositions of E-chondrites and their constituents. For these ranges of compositions, we show that during core differentiation, the mantle fO2 evolves naturally from ≈ IW-3.2 to IW-1.4 ± 0.1. The model compositions are tightened using geophysical constraints on (1) the amount of light elements in the core, (2) the petrology of the upper and lower mantle and (3) the thermal and convective structure of the lower mantle. Our results indicate that the lower mantle is enriched in Si and Fe, which is consistent with recent geophysical studies, and depleted in highly refractory elements, notably in Uranium and Thorium.

  12. Organic Carbon Inclusions in CR2 Chondrite Graves Nunataks 95229

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Z.; Changela, H.; Stroud, R. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Nittler, L. R.

    2012-09-01

    We report coordinated XANES, TEM, and nanoSIMS analysis of two large, carbon-rich veins in CR2 chondrite GRA 95229. The variability in morphological, isotopic, and chemical properties is compared to previous results on C-rich veins in CR3 QUE 99177.

  13. Kinetics of volatile extraction from carbonaceous chondrites: Dehydration of talc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    1991-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Deimos, and are potential resources of fuels that may be exploited for future planetary missions. Calculations of equilibrium phase relations suggest that talc (Ta) and antigorite (Ant) are likely to be the major hydrous phases in the C1 and C2 meteorites (Ganguly and Saxena, 1989), which constitute the most volatile rich classes of carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics of talc are studied as a function of temperature, grain size, composition and fluid fugacity, as part of a systematic study of the reaction kinetics of the volatile bearing phases that are either known or likely to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. The dehydration kinetics were investigated at 1 bar, 775 to 875 C by monitoring the in-situ weight loss as a function of time of a natural talc. The talc platelets had a dimension of 0.8 to 1 micron. The run durations varied from 233.3 hours at 775 C (48 percent dehydration) to 20.8 hours at 875 C (80 pct. dehydration). The results can be adequately represented by a given rate equation. Theoretical analysis suggests that the reduction in the concentration of H2O in the environment of dehydrating talc, as would be encountered in processing chondritic materials, will have negligible effect on the rate of dehydration, unless there is a change of reaction mechanism owing to the presence of other volatile species.

  14. Establishing a molecular relationship between chondritic and cometary organic solids

    PubMed Central

    Cody, George D.; Heying, Emily; Alexander, Conel M. O.; Nittler, Larry R.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Sandford, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy is used to refine the identification and abundance determination of functional groups in insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from a carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison, CM2). It is shown that IOM is composed primarily of highly substituted single ring aromatics, substituted furan/pyran moieties, highly branched oxygenated aliphatics, and carbonyl groups. A pathway for producing an IOM-like molecular structure through formaldehyde polymerization is proposed and tested experimentally. Solid-state 13C NMR analysis of aqueously altered formaldehyde polymer reveals considerable similarity with chondritic IOM. Carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy of formaldehyde polymer reveals the presence of similar functional groups across certain Comet 81P/Wild 2 organic solids, interplanetary dust particles, and primitive IOM. Variation in functional group concentration amongst these extraterrestrial materials is understood to be a result of various degrees of processing in the parent bodies, in space, during atmospheric entry, etc. These results support the hypothesis that chondritic IOM and cometary refractory organic solids are related chemically and likely were derived from formaldehyde polymer. The fine-scale morphology of formaldehyde polymer produced in the experiment reveals abundant nanospherules that are similar in size and shape to organic nanoglobules that are ubiquitous in primitive chondrites. PMID:21464292

  15. Exposure Histories of Seven Ordinary Chondrites with Helium-3 Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, P.; Herzog, G. F.; Faestermann, T.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Rugel, G.; Wallner, A.; Schultz, L.; Johnson, J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Fink, D.

    2003-03-01

    Among 7 chondrites with He losses and 21Ne<1E-8 cm3 STP/g, simple cosmic-ray exposure histories are likely for 3 (Daraj 115, Staelldalen, and Ybbsitz) but ambiguous for 4 (ALH 88004, Indio Rico, Markovka, and HaH 002). Daraj 115 may show SCR effects.

  16. Chondritic Asteroids--When Did Aqueous Alteration Happen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Using a synthesized fayalite (Fe2SiO4) standard for improved 53Mn-53Cr radiometric age dating, Patricia Doyle (previously at the University of Hawaii and now at the University of Cape Town, South Africa) and coauthors from Hawaii, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, University of Chicago, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, analyzed aqueously formed fayalite in the ordinary chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 (L3.05) and in the carbonaceous chondrites Asuka 881317 (CV3) and MacAlpine Hills 88107 (CO3-like) from Antarctica. The data obtained indicate that liquid water existed - and aqueous alteration started - on the chondritic parent bodies about three million years earlier than previously determined. This discovery has implications for understanding when and where the asteroids accreted. The 53Mn-53Cr chronology of chondrite aqueous alteration, combined with thermodynamic calculations and physical modeling, signifies that hydrated asteroids, at least those sampled by meteorites, accreted in the inner Solar System (2-4 AU) near the main asteroid belt 2-4 million years after the beginning of the Solar System, rather than migrating inward after forming in the Solar System's colder, outer regions beyond Jupiter's present orbit (5-15 AU).

  17. Highly Siderophile Elements in Shocked and Unshocked Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, M. F.; Walker, R. J.; Rubin, A. E.

    2001-01-01

    High precision abundances of Re, Os, Pt, Ir, Ru, and Pd are combined with Re-Os isotopic data to demonstrate that HSE provide a distinctive fingerprint for each of the chondrite groups. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Can the ordinary chondrites have condensed from a gas phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. M.; Suess, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which ordinary chondrites containing iron in three different chemical states can form in thermodynamic equilibrium with a gas phase are calculated. Hydrogen depletion factors of 100-1000 are obtained and the formation of liquid condensates from residual gases occurs at pressures (prior to hydrogen depletion) of roughly equal to or greater than 1 atm.

  19. Microscale Distribution of Hydrogen Isotopes in Two Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. F.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes are highly variable among primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) [1, 2]. In particular, many primitive objects exhibit D (and N-15) enrichments, relative to terrestrial values, thought to represent partial preservation of presolar material fractionated in molecular clouds. However, the diversity of D/H ratios among IDPs and chondrites indicates a complex history of processing in the solar nebula and on meteorite parent bodies. Deconvolving this record requires identification and characterization of the carriers of D enrichments in different objects. Isotopic imaging has proven to be a powerful method to quantitatively explore the distribution of D/H ratios on a one to several m scale in IDPs [2-4] and the CR chondrite Renazzo [5, 6]. In this study, we have used ion imaging to explore the microscale D/H distribution of two carbonaceous chondrites, Tagish Lake (unique) and Al Rais (CR2). Previous D/H measurements (on a tens of microns scale) of Tagish Lake matrix fragments by Messenger [7] and Engrand et al. [8] have found different results, most likely related to the analytical techniques used. Previous work has also shown a large range of D/H ratios in CR chondrites, including very large variations on a scale of a few microns [5, 6, 9].

  20. The Olton, Texas, H chondrite regolith breccia - Paired with Dimmitt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Klaus; Ehlmann, A. J.; Wieler, Rainer

    1990-01-01

    The Olton ordinary chondrites (two stones found in 1948) are H group, solar wind-bearing regolith breccias. The proximity of the recovery site to the Dimmitt strewnfield, and the similarity in texture, composition, noble gas contents and isotopic ratios to Dimmitt indicate that Olton is paired with Dimmitt.

  1. Shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Joseph I.

    1994-01-01

    This research grant included a study of the shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites. The important research findings are to be found in the 20 publications that were published as a result of the research support. A complete bibliographic reference to all these papers is given.

  2. CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Lithologies and Their Space Exposure Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Gregory, Timothy; Takenouchi, Atsushi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Trieman, Alan; Berger, Eve; Le, Loan; Fagan, Amy; Velbel, Michael; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The CMs are the most commonly falling C chondrites, and therefore may be a major component of C-class asteroids, the targets of several current and future space missions. Previous work [1] has concluded that CM chondrites fall into at least four distinct cosmic ray space exposure (CRE) age groups (0.1 million years, 0.2 million years, 0.6 million years and greater than 2.0 million years), an unusually large number, but the meaning of these groupings is unclear. It is possible that these meteorites came from different parent bodies which broke up at different times, or instead came from the same parent body which underwent multiple break-up events, or a combination of these scenarios, or something else entirely. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of lithologies which make up CM chondrites, in order to determine whether the different exposure ages correspond to specific, different CM lithologies, which permit us to constrain the history of the CM parent body(ies). We have already reported significant petrographic differences among CM chondrites [2-4]. We report here our new results.

  3. Amino acids in a carbonaceous chondrite from Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotra, R. K.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Hare, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A carbonaceous chondrite from the Antarctic, referred to as the Allan Hills meteorite 77306, appears to be free from terrestrial organic contamination. The presence of both protein and non-protein amino acids and an equal abundance of D- and L-enantiomers of amino acids, is testimony to the extraterrestrial nature of these compounds.

  4. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An understanding of carbonaceous matter in primitive extraterrestrial materials is an essential component of studies on dust evolution in the interstellar medium and the early history of the Solar System. Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) on carbonaceous material in two Chondritic Porous (CP) aggregrates is presented. The study suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may also be preserved in these materials.

  5. Comets, carbonaceous chondrites, and interstellar clouds: Condensation of carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Comets, carbonaceous chondrites, and interstellar clouds are discussed in relation to information on interstellar dust. The formation and presence of carbon in stars, comets, and meteorites is investigated. The existence of graphite in the interstellar medium, though it is predicted from thermodynamic calculations, is questioned and the form of carbon contained in comets is considered.

  6. Matrix mineralogy of the orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P.R. )

    1988-06-01

    A petrographic and transmission electron microscopic study of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite shows that the matrix consists mainly of Fe-bearing, Mg-rich serpentine and smectite (saponite) as well as a poorly crystallized Fe-rich material that contains minor, variable S and Ni; the Fe-rich material is probably ferrihydrite. The ferrihydrite occurs in small particles, and the S and Ni are probably adsorbed on its surfaces. The serpentine and saponite occur in poorly crystallized, fine crystallites that are intimately associated with the ferrihydrite. Coarsely crystallized phyllosilicates occur in clusters relatively free of ferrihydrite. The ferrihydrite is a major matrix constitutent and probably accounts for most of the Fe{sub 3+} as well as the superparamagnetic fraction in the Orgueil matrix. The textures suggest that the fine phyllosilicates resulted from alteration of the coarse phyllosilicates. The alteration probably involved a substantial amount of water and coincided with the period of sulfate vein formation. During the aqueous alteration magnetite grains, disaggregated from framboids, and Fe-(Ni) sulfides were replaces by ferrihydrite. The matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil chondrite suggests that Orgueil experienced considerably different alteration conditions from the CM chondrites. The mineralogical and petrological differences between CI and CM chondrites can not simply be explained as the result of different degrees of aqueous alteration.

  7. An interplanetary dust particle with links to CI chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Thomas, Kathie L.; Mckay, David S.

    1992-01-01

    W7013F5 is a chondritic, hydrated interplanetary dust particle whose composition and mineralogy is nearly identical to that found in the CI chondrites. Transmission electron microscope observations show that the phyllosilicates in W7013F5 consist largely of a coherent undergrowth of Mg-Fe serpentine and Fe-bearing saponite on the unitcell scale. This distinctive intergrowth of phyllosilicates has only been observed previously in the CI chondrites. Other secondary minerals in W7013F5 include Mg-Fe carbonates, magnetite, and pentlandite. The mineral assemblage in W7013F5 is generally not as oxidized as that in the CI chondrites. The presence of kamacite in W7013F5 indicates that the particle is extraterrestrial, and a thin amorphous rim surrounding the particle provides evidence that it is not a piece of a meteorite that fragmented during transit through the atmosphere. The apparent lack of hydrated IDPs with CI mineralogy and chemistry may indicate that CI-type dust-producing asteroids are uncommon in the asteroid belt.

  8. Amino acid analyses of R and CK chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; McLain, Hannah; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Davidson, Jemma; Miller, Kelly E.; Andronikov, Alexander V.; Lauretta, Dante; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous delivery of amino acids and other organic molecules to planetary surfaces may have played an important role in the origins of life on Earth and other solar system bodies. Previous studies have revealed the presence of indigenous amino acids in a wide range of carbon-rich meteorites, with the abundances and structural distributions differing significantly depending on parent body mineralogy and alteration conditions. Here we report on the amino acid abundances of seven type 3-6 CK chondrites and two Rumuruti (R) chondrites. Amino acid measurements were made on hot water extracts from these meteorites by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the nine meteorites analyzed, four were depleted in amino acids, and one had experienced significant amino acid contamination by terrestrial biology. The remaining four, comprised of two R and two CK chondrites, contained low levels of amino acids that were predominantly the straight chain, amino-terminal (n-ω-amino) acids β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid. This amino acid distribution is similar to what we reported previously for thermally altered ureilites and CV and CO chondrites, and these n-ω-amino acids appear to be indigenous to the meteorites and not the result of terrestrial contamination. The amino acids may have been formed by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, although this hypothesis needs further testing.

  9. Cosmic-ray exposure history of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Graf, T.

    1992-01-01

    The exposure age histograms for H-, L-, and LL-chondrites are discussed. None of these histograms is consistent with a continuous delivery of asteroidal material to the earth, as the observed T(e) histograms clearly disagree with expected exponential distributions for a variety of orbital lifetimes. It is concluded that T(e) histograms are dominated by stochastic events and that the continuous supply of asteroidal material can account only for a minor background of the T(e) histograms. An attempt is made to identify major collisional levels among the major classes of ordinary chondrites in order to estimate the frequency of stochastic events. Orbital maturity in the inner solar system is documented by the p.m./total fall ratio among observed meteorite falls. All chondrite classes exhibit a uniform ratio of 2/3 except type H5 chondrites, which reveal a 0.5 or lower p.m./total fall ratio. This shift in the time of fall statistics suggests a strongly evolved orbit for the H5 parent at the time of collision about 7 Ma ago.

  10. Chondrules and Opaque Phases in Unequilibrated R Chondrites: A Comprehensive Assessment of Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. E.; Lauretta, D. S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Berger, E. L.; Domanik, K.

    2016-01-01

    Equilibrated Rumuruti (R) chondrites record an oxygen fugacity between 0 and 3.5 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer, and a sulfur fugacity (fS2) 2 log units above the iron-troilite buffer. They are more than an order of magnitude more oxidized than the ordinary chondrites [1], and orders of magnitude more sulfidized than solar values. Although the R chondrites have the highest (delta)O-17 value of any meteorites, analyses of unequilibrated R chondrites indicate chondrule formation in an oxygen isotope reservoir similar to that of the ordinary chondrite chondrules. We present the relationship of the R chondrite parent body to pre-accretionary volatiles O and S based on our analyses of unequilibrated R chondrite material in two thin sections from the meteorite Mount Prestrud (PRE) 95404.

  11. Petrology of enstatite chondrites and anomalous enstatite achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Niekerk, Deon

    2012-01-01

    Chondrites are meteorites that represent unmelted portions of asteroids. The enstatite chondrites are one class of chondrites. They consist of reduced mineral assemblages that formed under low oxygen fugacity in the solar nebula, prior to accretion into asteroids. There are two groups of enstatite chondrites---EH and EL. I studied EL3 meteorites, which are understood to be unmetamorphosed and thus to only preserve primitive nebular products. I show in a petrographic study that the EL3s are in fact melt--breccias in which impact-melting produced new mineral assemblages and textures in portions of the host chondrites, after accretion. I document meta- land sulfide assemblages that are intergrown with silicate minerals (which are often euhedral), and occur outside chondrules; these assemblages probably represent impact-melting products, and are different from those in EH3 chondrites that probably represent nebular products. In situ siderophile trace element compositions of the metal in EL3s, obtained by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are consistent with an impact-melting hypothesis. The trace element concentrations show no clear volatility trend, and are thus probably not the result of volatile-driven petrogenetic processes that operated in the solar nebula. Trace element modeling suggests that the character of the trace element patterns together with deviations from the mean bulk EL metal pattern is consistent with metal that crystallized in a coexisting liquid-solid metal system in which dissolved carbon influenced element partitioning. I also conducted a petrographic and mineral-chemistry study of several anomalous enstatite meteorites. These have igneous textures, but unfractionated mineralogy similar to unmelted chondrites. I show that with the exception of one, the meteorites are related to each other, and probably formed by crystallization from an impact melt instead of metamorphism through the decay of short lived radionuclides

  12. High-precision Mg isotopic systematics of bulk chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Martin; Handler, Monica R.; Baker, Joel A.

    2010-08-01

    Variations of the mass-independent abundance of 26Mg ( δ26Mg*) and stable Mg ( δ25Mg) isotope composition of chondrites are important because they constrain the homogeneity of 26Al and Mg isotopes in the proto-planetary disc and the validity of the short-lived 26Al-to- 26Mg chronometer applied to meteorites. We present high-precision Mg isotope data and Al/Mg ratios of chondrites representing nearly all major chondrite classes, including a step-leaching experiment on the CM2 chondrite Murchison. δ26Mg* variations in leachates of Murchison representing acid soluble material are ≤ 30 times smaller than reported for neutron-rich isotopes of Ti and Cr and do not reveal resolvable deficits in δ26Mg* (-0.002 to + 0.118‰). Very small variations in δ26Mg* anomalies in bulk chondrites (-0.006 to + 0.019‰) correlate with increasing 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and δ50Ti, reflecting the variable presence of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) in some types of carbonaceous chondrites. Similarly, release of radiogenic 26Mg produced by 26Al decay from CAI material in the step-leaching of Murchison best explains the high δ26Mg* observed in the last, aggressive, leaching steps of this experiment. Overall, the observed variations in δ26Mg* are small and potential differences beyond that which result from the presence of CAI-like material cannot be detected within the analytical uncertainties of this study (± 0.004‰). The results do not allow radical heterogeneity of 26Al (≥±30%) or measurable Mg nucleosynthetic heterogeneity (≥±0.005‰) to have existed on a planetesimal scale in the proto-planetary disc. Combined with published δ26Mg* data for CAIs, the bulk chondrite data yield a precise initial ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (5.21 ± 0.06) × 10 -5 and δ26Mg* = -0.0340 ± 0.0016‰ for the Solar System. However, it is not possible with the currently available data to determine with certainty whether CAIs and the material from which planetesimals accreted including

  13. Hydrogen isotope evidence for the origin and evolution of the carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiler, John M.; Kitchen, Nami

    2004-03-01

    We present new hydrogen isotope data for separated matrix, hydrated chondrules, and other hydrated coarse silicate fragments from nine carbonaceous chondrites. These data were generated using a micro-analytical method involving stepped combustion of tens to hundreds of micrograms of hydrous solids. We also re-evaluate hydrogen isotope data from previous conventional stepped combustion experiments on these and other carbonaceous chondrites. Hydrogen isotope compositions of matrix and whole-rock samples of CM chondrites are correlated with oxygen isotope indices, major and minor-element abundances, and abundance and isotope ratios of other highly volatile elements. These correlations include a monotonic decrease in δD with increasing extent of aqueous alteration and decreasing abundances of highly volatile elements (including C, N and Ar), between extremes of ˜0‰ (least altered, most volatile rich) and -200‰ (most altered, least volatile rich). In plots involving only abundances and/or isotope ratios of highly volatile elements, CI chondrites fall on the high-δD, volatile rich end of the trends defined by CM chondrites; i.e., CI chondrites resemble the least altered CM chondrites in these respects. These trends suggest the protoliths of the CM chondrites (i.e., before aqueous alteration) contained an assemblage of volatiles having many things in common with those in the CI chondrites. If so, then the volatile-element inventory of the CI chondrites was a more widespread component of early solar system objects than suggested by the scarcity of recognized CI meteorites. Differences in volatile-element chemistry between the CI and average CM chondrites can be attributed to aqueous alteration of the latter. Previous models of carbonaceous chondrite aqueous alteration have suggested: (1) the protoliths of the CM chondrites are volatile poor objects like the CO or CV chondrites; and (2) the CI chondrites are more altered products of the same process producing the CM

  14. Surviving High-temperature Components in CI Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M.; Frank, D.

    2014-01-01

    The CI1 chondrites, while having the most solar-like compo-sition of any astromaterial available for laboratory analysis, have also been considerably altered by asteroidal processes including aqueous alteration. It is of fundamental importance to determine their pre-alteration mineralogy, so that the state of matter in the early Solar System can be better determined. In the course of a re-examination of the compositional range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in CI chondrites Orgueil, Ivuna and Alais [1] we found the first reported complete CAI, as already reported [2], with at-tached rock consisting mainly of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. The range of residual olivine major element compositions we have determined in the CIs (Fig. 1) may now be directly com-pared with those of other astromaterials, including Wild 2 grains. The abundance of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in CIs is higher than is generally appreciated, and in fact much higher than for some CMs [1]. We also noted numerous rounded objects varying in shape from spheres to oblate spheroids, and ranging up to 100µm in size (Fig. 2), which have been previously noted [3] but have not been well documented or appreciated. We characterized the mineralogy by transmission electron microscopy and found that they consist mainly of rather fine-grained, flaky single phase to intergrown serpentine and saponite. These two materials in fact dominate the bulk of the host CI1 chondrites. With the exception of sparse spinels, the rounded phyllosilicate objects are remarka-bly free of other minerals, suggesting that the precursor from which the phyllosilicates were derived was a homogeneous mate-rial. We suggest that these round phyllosilicates aggregates in CI1 chondrites were cryptocrystalline to glassy microchondrules. If so then CI chondrites cannot be considered chondrule-free. Small though they are, the abundance of these putative microchondrules is the same as that of chondrules in the Tagish Lake meteorite.

  15. Multiple and Fast: The Accretion of Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Zanda, B.; Binzel, R. P.; Hiroi, T.; DeMeo, F. E.; Birlan, M.; Hewins, R.; Ricci, L.; Barge, P.; Lockhart, M.

    2014-08-01

    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ~200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ~105 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

  16. Multiple and fast: The accretion of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Vernazza, P.; Barge, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Lockhart, M.; Hiroi, T.; Birlan, M.; Ricci, L.

    2014-08-20

    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ∼200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ∼10{sup 5} yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

  17. The chondrite Senboku: Is this the same fall as Shiraiwa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, M.; Honda, M.; Okada, A.; Miura, Y. N.; Ebihara, M.

    1994-07-01

    A stone has been kept in a household altar of the Suda family in Takanashi, Senboku-machi, Senboku-gun, Akita-ken, Japan. The stone came from the sky into the chestnut grove in the dry Maruko river bed. The chondrite Shiraiwa was found in 1920 at approximately 60 cm depth under the field behind a Gosha shrine, at Shiraiwa, Kakunodate-machi, Senboku-gun, Akita-ken, Japan. We have checked the two chondrites to see whether they are from the same fall or not because Senboku and Shiraiwa are the only meteorites found in Akita-ken, and were found only 17 km apart; the time of fall of both are unknown; and both chondrites belong to the H group. Because both chondrites fell more than 70 years ago, cosmogenic radioactive nuclides other than Al-26 were not detected. Aluminum-26 data in both chondrites were compared with a gamma ray standard in respective samples. Obtained results are as follows: Shiraiwa 41.5 +/- 5.3 and Senboku 51.4 +/- 2.6. The concentration and isotopic composition of noble gases of Senboku were determined and compared with that of Shiraiwa. Production rates for He-3 and Ne-21 by Eugster and that for Ar-38 by Schultz et al. were used for age calculation. Although Shiraiwa has data by M. Watanabe as well as by Saga and Kano, who classified it as H4, we are now looking at their data for comparison. For Senboku, we have determined 30 grains of olivine and 40 grains of orthopyroxene and obtained mean Fa and Fs ratios by atomic percent as 18.4 +/- 0.5 and 16.3 +/- 0.6 respectively. From the presence of colorless clear plagioclase in matrix, Senboku was classified as H6. From the results, we have concluded that Shiraiwa and Senboku are completely different falls.

  18. Isotopically Anomalous Nitrogen in Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, K.; Sugiura, N.; Hashizume, K.

    1993-07-01

    Introduction: Presolar grains such as diamond, SiC, and graphite have been reported to have isotopically anomalous nitrogen [1-3]. Because of their stability to chemical treatment, they are relatively easily concentrated in laboratories. There are probably other, less-durable presolar materials in primitive meteorites. We have therefore been searching for such presolar grains in UOCs, using the nitrogen isotope ratio as an indicator. In fact, isotopically heavy nitrogen in Yamato 74191 (LL3.7) and light nitrogen in ALHA 77214 (L3.4), which are not those of diamond, SiC, or graphite, have been reported [4]. Here, we report some other nitrogen isotope anomalies, especially light nitrogen found in many UOCs. Results and Discussion: Nitrogen and argon extracted by the stepped combustion method from 200 degrees C to 1200 degrees C every 100 degrees C are measured with a static QMS. ALHA 77278 (LL3.7), LEW 86018 (L3.1), and ALHA 77216 (H3.7/3.9) have isotopically heavy nitrogen. There is a possibility that these chondrites have solar nitrogen, because ALHA 77216 has a large amount of solar neon and ALHA 77278 has a small amount of solar neon. ALHA 78119 (L3.5) shows a similar degassing profile to ALHA 77214 [4]. Therefore, it may have the same carriers of anomalous nitrogen as ALHA 77214. Since Chainpur also has a similar degassing profile to ALHA 77214, although its light nitrogen abundance is smaller, it has probably the same nitrogen carrier. ALHA 78084 (H4), Grady (H3.7), and Yamato 74024 (L3.8) have very small amounts of nitrogen, probably because of metamorphic loss, and their delta ^15N values are nearly 0 per mil. ALHA 81251 (H3.2/3.4) degasses isotopically light nitrogen and primordial ^36Ar around 1100 degrees C (see Fig. 1), and delta ^15N goes down to -60 per mil at this temperature. Nearly the same degassing profiles have been found in ALH 83007 (L3.2/3.5), ALH 83010 (L3.3), EET 83399 (L3.3), LEW 86022 (L3.2), Yamato 791500, Yamato 82038, and Mezo Madaras

  19. Young Pb-Isotopic Ages of Chondrules in CB Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.

    2005-01-01

    CB (Bencubbin-type) carbonaceous chondrites differ in many ways from more familiar CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites and from ordinary chondrites. CB chondrites are very rich in Fe-Ni metal (50-70 vol%) and contain magnesian silicates mainly as angular to sub-rounded clasts (or chondrules) with barred olivine (BO) or cryptocrystalline (CC) textures. Both metal and silicates appear to have formed by condensation. The sizes of silicate clasts vary greatly between the two subgroups of CB chondrites: large (up to one cm) in CB(sub a) chondrites, and typically to much much less than 1 mm in CB(sub b) chondrites. The compositional and mineralogical differences between these subgroups and between the CB(sub s) and other types of chondrites suggest different environment and possibly different timing of chondrule formation. In order to constrain the timing of chondrule forming processes in CB(sub s) and understand genetic relationship between their subgroups, we have determined Pb-isotopic ages of silicate material from the CB(sub a) chondrite Gujba and CB(sub b) chondrite Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237 hereafter).

  20. Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 3. C3 and C4 chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Larson, E.E.; Watson, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Thermomagnetic analysis was made on samples of all known C3 and C4 chondrites in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. Considerable variation was noted in the occurrence of magnetic minerals, comparable to the variation observed earlier in the C2 chondrites. Magnetite was found as the only major magnetic phase in samples of only three C3 chondrites (2-4 wt.%) and the Karoonda C4 chondrite (7.7 wt.%). The magnetite content of these three C3 chondrites is only about one-third that observed in the C1 and C2 chondrites which were found to contain magnetite as the only magnetic phase. Five C3 chondrites were observed to undergo chemical change during heating, producing magnetite: this behavior is characteristic of troilite oxidation. Upper limits on initial magnetite content of about 1-9% were established for these meteorites. Samples of the remaining five C3 chondrites and the Coolidge C4 chondrite were found to contain both magnetite and metallic iron. In two samples, iron containing ???2% Ni was observed, while in the other four, the iron contained 6-8 wt.% Ni. In addition to containing both magnetite and iron metal, three of these samples reacted during heating to form additional magnetite. Variations in the magnetic mineralogy and, hence by inference bulk mineralogy, of C3 and C4 chondrites indicate a more complex genesis than is evident from whole-rock elemental abundance patterns. ?? 1976.

  1. Disentangling nebular and asteroidal features of CO3 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Jones, Rhian H.

    1990-01-01

    Ten carbonaceous CO3 chondrites (including four chondrites from Antarctica and the Colony, Isna, Kainsaz, Lance , Ornans, and Warrenton chondrites) were analyzed with respect to mean compositions of olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes in order to distinguish the primary nebular features of these chondrites from the secondary (asteroidal or nebular) features. In three of the Antarctic chondrites, matrices and metal grains were analyzed in order to investigate the origin of mineralogical trends in the CO3 sequence. Based on these results, the CO3 chondrites were classified into subtypes 3.0-3.7. In the silicates of chondrites ALH A77307 and Colony, classified as type 3.0, metamorphic effects appear to be absent. Chemical and mineralogical studies suggest that the type 3.1 to 3.7 CO chondrites represent a metamorphic sequence that formed from material closely resembling type 3.0 CO chondrites by metamorphism in one or more planetesimals or asteroids, not by interactions between chondritic ingredients in the solar nebula.

  2. Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions: III. Consortium study of relationship to inclusions in Allan Hills 78113 aubrite

    SciTech Connect

    Lipschutz, M.E.; Verkouteren, R.M. ); Sears, D.W.G.; Hasan, F.A. ); Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M.K.; Nehru, C.E.; Delaney, J.S. ); Grossman, L.; Boily, M. )

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe the mineralogy and report contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U and Zn determined by RNAA in three primitive chondritic inclusions from the ALH A78113 aubrite. Comparison of these data with those for large, petrologic type 3 chondritic clasts from the Cumberland Falls aubrite and the discovery of small clasts in it like those in ALH A78113 indicate that all constitute a single chondritic suite. They report thermoluminescence data for Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions and achondritic host. These results, together with mineralogic, major, minor and trace element information, demonstrate that aubrite inclusions represent a different sort of type 3 chondrite, not an LL3 chondrite altered during equilibration with aubrite host. Instead, the aubrite inclusions represent a distinct chondrite class. These inclusions reflect nebular condensation/accretion over a broad redox range and at temperatures relatively high compared with those at which other type 3 chondrites formed. Limited metamorphism and reduction occurred during condensation/accretion, prior to incorporation into aubrite host. During the impact of the chondritic parent body with the aubrite parent body, chondrite fragments were strongly shocked and cooled rapidly. They then mixed with aubrite host, possibly in a regolith, so that these aubrites now represent impact breccias.

  3. The onset of metamorphism in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Brearley, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites of the lowest petrologic types were surveyed by X-ray mapping techniques. A variety of metamorphic effects were noted and subjected to detailed analysis using electron microprobe, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cathodoluminescence (CL) methods. The distribution of Cr in FeO-rich olivine systematically changes as metamorphism increases between type 3.0 and type 3.2. Igneous zoning patterns are replaced by complex ones and Cr-rich coatings develop on all grains. Cr distributions in olivine are controlled by the exsolution of a Cr-rich phase, probably chromite. Cr in olivine may have been partly present as tetrahedrally coordinated Cr3+. Separation of chromite is nearly complete by petrologic type 3.2. The abundance of chondrules showing an inhomogeneous distribution of alkalis in mesostasis also increases with petrologic type. TEM shows this to be the result of crystallization of albite. Residual glass compositions systematically change during metamorphism, becoming increasingly rich in K. Glass in type I chondrules also gains alkalis during metamorphism. Both types of chondrules were open to an exchange of alkalis with opaque matrix and other chondrules. The matrix in the least metamorphosed chondrites is rich in S and Na. The S is lost from the matrix at the earliest stages of metamorphism due to coalescence of minute grains. Progressive heating also results in the loss of sulfides from chondrule rims and increases sulfide abundances in coarse matrix assemblages as well as inside chondrules. Alkalis initially leave the matrix and enter chondrules during early metamorphism. Feldspar subsequently nucleates in the matrix and Na re-enters from chondrules. These metamorphic trends can be used to refine classification schemes for chondrites. Cr distributions in olivine are a highly effective tool for assigning petrologic types to the most primitive meteorites and can be used to

  4. Silica-rich orthopyroxenite in the Bovedy chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Kring, David A.; Hill, Dolores H.; Boynton, William V.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1995-01-01

    A large (greater than 4.5 x 7 x 4 mm), igneous-textured clast in the Bovedy (L3) chondrite is notable for its high bulk SiO2 content (is approximately equal to 57.5 wt%). The clast consists of normally zoned orthopyroxene (83.8 vol%), tridymite (6.2%), an intergrowth of feldspar (5.8%) and sodic glass (3.1%), pigeonite (1.0%), and small amounts of chromite (0.2%), augite, and Fe,Ni-metal; it is best described as a silica-rich orthopyroxenite. The oxygen-isotopic composition of the clast is similar, but not identical, to Bovedy and other ordinary chondrites. The clast has a superchondritic Si/Mg ratio, but has Mg/(Mg + Fe) and Fe/Mn ratios that are similar to ordinary chondrite silicate. The closest chemical analogues to the clast are radial-pyroxene chondrules, diogenites, pyroxene-silica objects in ordinary chondrites, and silicates in the IIE iron meteorite Weekeroo Station. The clast crystallized from a siliceous melt that cooled fast enough to prevent complete attainment of equilibrium but slow enough to allow nearly complete crystallization. The texture, form, size and composition of the clast suggestion that it is an igneous differentiate from an asteroid or planetesimal that formed in the vicinity of ordinary chondrites. The melt probably cooled in the near-surface region of the parent object. It appears that in the source region of the clast, metallic and silicate partial melt were largely-to-completely lost during a relatively low degree of melting, and that during a higher degree of melting, olivine and low-Ca pyroxene separated from the remaining liquid, which ultimately solidified to form the clast. While these fractionation steps could not have all occurred at the same temperature, they could have been accomplished in a single melting episode, possibly as a result of heating by radionuclides or by electromagnetic induction. Fractionated magmas can also account for other Si-rich objects in chondrites.

  5. Metallographic cooling rates of L-group ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Marvin E.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    Shock metamorphism appears to be a ubiquitous feature in L-group ordinary chondrites. Brecciation and heterogeneous melting obscure much of the early history of this meteorite group and have caused confusion as to whether L chondrites have undergone thermal metamorphism within onion-shell or rubble-pile parent bodies. Employing the most recent shock criteria, we have examined 55 Antarctic and 24 non-Antarctic L chondrites in order to identify those which have been least affected by post-accretional shock. Six low-shock samples (those with shock grade less than S4) of petrographic types L3-L5 were selected from both populations and metallographic cooling rates were obtained following the technique of Willis and Goldstein. All non-Antarctic L6 chondrites inspected were too heavily shocked to be included in this group. However, 4 shocked L6 chondrites were analyzed in order to determine what effects shock may impose on metallographic cooling rates. Metallographic cooling rates were derived by analyzing the cores of taenite grains and then measuring the distance to the nearest grain edge. Taenites were identified using backscatter imaging on a Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe. Using backscatter we were able to locate homogeneous, rust-free, nearly spherical grains. M-shaped profiles taken from grain traverses were also used to help locate the central portions of selected grains. All points which contained phosphorus above detection limits were discarded. Plots of cooling-rate data are summarized and data from the high-shock samples are presented. The lack of coherency of cooling rates for individual samples is indicative of heterogeneous cooling following shock. The data confirms the statement expressed by numerous workers that extreme care must be taken when selecting samples of L chondrites for cooling-rate studies. Data for the 6 non-Antarctic low-shock samples are also presented. The samples display a general trend in cooling rates. The lowest metamorphic grade

  6. Metallographic cooling rates of L-group ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Marvin E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Shock metamorphism appears to be a ubiquitous feature in L-group ordinary chondrites. Brecciation and heterogeneous melting obscure much of the early history of this meteorite group and have caused confusion as to whether L chondrites have undergone thermal metamorphism within onion-shell or rubble-pile parent bodies. Employing the most recent shock criteria, we have examined 55 Antarctic and 24 non-Antarctic L chondrites in order to identify those which have been least affected by post-accretional shock. Six low-shock samples (those with shock grade less than S4) of petrographic types L3-L5 were selected from both populations and metallographic cooling rates were obtained following the technique of Willis and Goldstein. All non-Antarctic L6 chondrites inspected were too heavily shocked to be included in this group. However, 4 shocked L6 chondrites were analyzed in order to determine what effects shock may impose on metallographic cooling rates. Metallographic cooling rates were derived by analyzing the cores of taenite grains and then measuring the distance to the nearest grain edge. Taenites were identified using backscatter imaging on a Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe. Using backscatter we were able to locate homogeneous, rust-free, nearly spherical grains. M-shaped profiles taken from grain traverses were also used to help locate the central portions of selected grains. All points which contained phosphorus above detection limits were discarded. Plots of cooling-rate data are summarized and data from the high-shock samples are presented. The lack of coherency of cooling rates for individual samples is indicative of heterogeneous cooling following shock. The data confirms the statement expressed by numerous workers that extreme care must be taken when selecting samples of L chondrites for cooling-rate studies. Data for the 6 non-Antarctic low-shock samples are also presented. The samples display a general trend in cooling rates. The lowest metamorphic grade

  7. The implications of the magnetism of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morden, Simon James

    Eleven ordinary chondrites (including ALHA77278 (LL3), ALH84086 (LL3), Appley Bridge (LL6), Crumlin (L5), Dalgety Downs (L4), Khanpur (LL5), Oberline (LL5), and Parnallee (LL3)) were studied in order to determine (1) the magnetic mineralogy, (2) the shape of the metal grains, and (3) the nature of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM). Response to alternating field demagnetization, high-field isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), magnetic hysteresis, and thermal demagnetization were all measured. It was found that the magnetic mineralogy of the chondrites was dominated by the FeNi alloy system. Alpha-kamacite, gamma-taenite, and gamma"-tetrataenite were all found in varying quantities. It was shown that tetrataenite was the dominant magnetic carrier, possessing a high coercivity (greater than 500 mT) and high remanence. On heating, tetrataenite became magnetically soft taenite. Since tetrataenite can only form as the result of very slow cooling, the transition was irreversible. No tetrataenite was found in the type 3 chondrites studied. The orientation of the stable NRM in the samples was shown to be random. The stable remanence was held by tetrataenite, where present. A magnetic fabric was found in all the samples. In all but two, the fabric was a distinct foliation; Tuxtuac and Wold Cottage showed lineations. It was concluded that the magnetic carriers were magnetized before emplacement in the rock, and that the rock was not a fine-scale breccia. Planetary magnetic fields were discounted as the source of the magnetizing field. Thermal demagnetizations of NRM showed a definite trend towards higher blocking temperatures for type 6 chondrites over types 3-5, and a tentative trend for lower blocking temperatures of type 3 against 4-5. Hot accretion of chondrites was favored and it is possible that this accretion occurred after a catastrophic impact between two large bodies. The plasma cloud thus formed might enhance any magnetic field present, and may have been

  8. The record of cosmogenic, radiogenic, fissiogenic, and trapped noble gases in recently recovered Chinese and other chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, O.; Michel, Th.; Niedermann, S.; Wang, D.; Yi, W.

    1993-03-01

    Noble-gas isotopic abundances were determined in 36 recently recovered chondrites including 27 chondrites recovered in China. The comparison of the release patterns of trapped noble gases from ordinary and from carbonaceous chondrites showed that the planetary trapped noble gases in ordinary chondrites were released mainly above 1200 C, whereas more than 85 percent of noble gases trapped in carbonaceous chondrites were released at or below 1200 C, indicating that the carrier phases of the trapped noble gases in ordinary and in carbonaceous chondrites may not be the same. It is suggested that the ordinary chondrites started to retain fission Xe about 48 +/- 30 Ma earlier than Angra dos Reis. No systematic differences were observed between H, L, and LL or type 5 and 6 chondrites with respect to the time of fission Xe retention. Eight chondrites displayed neutron capture effects due to secondary cosmic-ray-produced neutrons.

  9. Kamacite and olivine in ordinary chondrites - Intergroup and intragroup relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1990-05-01

    Results are presented from high-precision electron microprobe analyses of olivine and kamacite in a suite of 134 ordinary chondrites (OCs). The compositional ranges of these phases are defined for each OC group (high total Fe, low total Fe, and low total Fe/low metallic Fe). Anomalous OCs that have olivine and/or kamacite compositions that lie outside the established ranges are identified. The phases in the chondritic clasts of the Netschaevo iron meteorite are characterized to determine the relationship between Netschaevo and OCs. Intragroup variations of olivine and kamacite compositions with petrologic type are examined and OCs that contain olivine and/or kamacite grains with aberrant compositions are identified as fragmental breccias. Also, a search for new metallic Fe-Ni phases with extreme compositions is conducted. As a result of these analyses, several meteorites are reclassified.

  10. Chemical studies of H chondrites. 5: Temporal variations of sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michlovich, Edward S.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Vogt, Stephan; Elmore, David; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    We report Cl-36 (301-kyr half-life) data obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry allowing nominal terrestrial ages to be determined for 39 Antarctic H4-6 chondrites for which contents of volatile trace elements are known. The compositional difference between these Antarctic meteorites and 58 non-Antarctic falls increases with terrestrial age and, using multivariate statistical techniques, becomes highly significant for Antarctic samples with ages greater than 50 kyr. The compositional difference is inconsistent with trivial causes such as weathering and seems to reflect differences in thermal histories of parent sources. Temporal source variations for the H chondrite flux on Earth thus exist not only on a short-term, 40 years, basis (Dodd et al., 1993) but also on a long-term, greater than 50 kyr, basis.

  11. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  12. Photometric and polarimetric properties of the Bruderheim chondritic meteorite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Hilgeman, T.; Veverka, J.; Noland, M.

    1973-01-01

    Study of the spectral, photometric, and polarimetric properties of the Bruderheim olivine-hypersthene chondritic meteorite. This meteorite is representative of the most common meteoritic material recovered on earth, and, hence, could also be the most common in interplanetary space. Yet, comparison with astronomical data indicates that none of the asteroids in the main belt for which adequate observations exist can be matched with Bruderheim properties. Only the surface of the Apollo asteroid Icarus does, in light of polarization and photometry data, appear to be consistent with an ordinary chondrite composition. This suggests the possibility that this material, although common in earth-crossing orbits, is rare as a surface constituent in the main asteroid belt.

  13. New Titanium Monosulfide Mineral Phase in Yamato 691 Enstatite Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K; Clemett, S. J.; Rubin, A. E.; Choi, B.-G.; Zhang, S.; Rahman, Z.; Oikawa, K.; Keller, L. P.

    2011-01-01

    Yamato 691, an EH3 enstatite chondrite, was among the first meteorites discovered by chance in Antarctica by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) team in 1969. This discovery led to follow-up searches for meteorites in Antarctica [1]. These international searches have been very successful recovering over 40,000 total specimens (and still counting), including martian and lunar meteorites. Titanium is partly chalcophile in enstatite-rich meteorites. Previous occurrences of Ti-bearing sulfides include troilite, daubrelite and ferroan alabandite in enstatite chondrites and aubrites [2], and heideite with 28.5 wt% Ti in the Bustee aubrite [3]. Here we report a new mineral from Yamato 691, ideally stoichiometric TiS, titanium monosulfide, a simple two-element mineral phase, yet with a very unique crystal structure that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously in nature.

  14. The Tuxtuac, Mexico, meteorite, an LL5 chondrite fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, A. L.; Michel-Levy, M. Christophe; Danon, J.; Easton, A. J.

    1988-12-01

    The Tuxtuac meteorite fell in Zacatecas state, Mexico, on October 16, 1975, at 1820 hours. Two partly crusted masses, weighing 1924 g and 2340 g, were recovered. The stone is an ordinary chondrite, LL5, with olivine Fa30 and 19.22 wt pct total iron. The silicates contain numerous voids and a froth-like mesostasis is present within some chondrules. Metal phases present are kamacite (5.7-6.4 pct Ni, 6-7 pct Co) and high nickel metal (taenite 37-41 pct Ni, 1.7 + or - 0.3 pct Co; tetrataenite 47-52 pct Ni, 0.8-1.4 pct Co). The stone is unusual for an LL-group chondrite in that it exhibits neither large-scale brecciation features nor dark veins.

  15. Neodymium isotope evidence for a chondritic composition of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Rankenburg, K; Brandon, A D; Neal, C R

    2006-06-01

    Samarium-neodymium isotope data for six lunar basalts show that the bulk Moon has a 142Nd/144Nd ratio that is indistinguishable from that of chondritic meteorites but is 20 parts per million less than most samples from Earth. The Sm/Nd formation interval of the lunar mantle from these data is 215(-21)(+23) million years after the onset of solar system condensation. Because both Earth and the Moon likely formed in the same region of the solar nebula, Earth should also have a chondritic bulk composition. In order to mass balance the Nd budget, these constraints require that a complementary reservoir with a lower 142Nd/144Nd value resides in Earth's mantle. PMID:16741118

  16. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  17. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  18. Nuclear track records in the Abee enstatite chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    A determination of preatmospheric mass and a delineation of cosmic ray exposure history are made, through the study of nuclear track records in 14 samples taken from different locations of an Abee enstatite chondrite cut slab. Measured track densities in different samples range from 10,000 to 1,000,000/sq cm. Excess tracks of fissiogenic origin were found near the grain edges and across cleavage planes in eight enstatite grains out of the 300 analyzed. The track data rule out preirradiation of any of the analyzed samples with shielding of less than a few tens of cm. The isotrack density contours on the plane of the slab imply an asymmetric ablation of the Abee chondrite during its atmospheric transit. A sphere of about 30 cm radius approximates the preatmospheric shape and size of the Abee meteorite, which underwent a 70% mass loss during ablation.

  19. Quantitative methods for three-dimensional comparison and petrographic description of chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, J.M.

    2008-10-20

    X-ray computed tomography can be used to generate three-dimensional (3D) volumetric representations of chondritic meteorites. One of the challenges of using collected X-ray tomographic data is the extraction of useful data for 3D petrographic analysis or description. Here, I examine computer-aided quantitative 3D texture metrics that can be used for the classification of chondritic meteorites. These quantitative techniques are extremely useful for discriminating between chondritic materials, but yield little information on the 3D morphology of chondrite components. To investigate the morphology of chondrite minerals such as Fe(Ni) metal and related sulfides, the homology descriptors known as Betti numbers, are examined. Both methodologies are illustrated with theoretical discussion and examples. Betti numbers may be valuable for examining the nature of metal-silicate structural changes within chondrites with increasing degrees of metamorphism.

  20. Chemical studies of H chondrites. I - Mobile trace elements and gas retention ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingner, David W.; Huston, Ted J.; Hutson, Melinda; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    Trends for 16 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, K, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn), chosen to span a broad geochemical and thermal response range, in 44 H4-6 chondrites, differ widely from those in L4-6 chondrites. In particular, H chondrites classified as heavily shocked petrologically do not necessarily exhibit Ar-40 loss and vice versa. The clear-cut causal relationship between siderophile and mobile element loss with increasing late shock seen in L chondrites is not generally evident in the H group. H chondrite parent material experienced an early high temperature genetic episode that mobilized a substantial proportion of these trace elements so that later thermal episodes resulted in more subtle, collateral fractionations. Mildly shocked L chondrites escaped this early high temperature event, indicating that the two most numerous meteorite groups differ fundamentally in genetic history.

  1. Vein formation in the C1 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Veins in the C1 chondrites Orgueil, Alais, and Ivuna have been deposited during an extended period of impact brecciation and leaching. At least three generations of mineralization, dominated successively by carbonates, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate, can be recognized. Vein minerals are derived locally by closed-system reactions between matrix phyllosilicates and an aqueous fluid, with the result that few, if any, primitive mineral phases still exist in the C1s.

  2. An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe

    2005-06-01

    With a diameter of ˜100 km, Popigai in Northern Siberia is the largest crater known in the Cenozoic. The concentrations in platinum group elements (PGE) were analyzed in twenty samples of homogeneous impact melt collected in the northwestern flank of the crater to identify the composition of the projectile. The method selected was preconcentration by NiS fire assay followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique measures all the PGE (except Os) and by using aliquots >10g, the results are highly reproducible. The major and trace element composition of the impact melt resembles that of gneissic lithologies of the Anabar shield, which are representative of the target rock. The PGE are enriched in the melt by factors of 3 to 14 compared to the main target lithology, but the meteoritic contamination is only around 0.2 wt.%. Using plots of elemental ratios such as Ru/Rh vs. Pt/Pd or Ru/Rh vs. Pd/Ir, the Popigai impactor is clearly identified as an ordinary chondrite and most likely L-chondrite. This study indicates that PGE elemental ratios allow discrimination of the type of impactor, even in the case of low meteoritic contamination. This study confirms that a significant fraction of the crater-forming projectiles presently documented could have an ordinary chondrite composition. Their probable source, the S-type asteroids, appears to form the majority of the bodies in the main asteroid belt and among Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The ordinary chondrite origin of the Popigai projectile supports an asteroidal origin for the late Eocene impacts as a plausible alternative to the comet shower scenario proposed by Farley et al. (1998).

  3. Compositions and taxonomy of 15 unusual carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Won Hie; Huber, Heinz; Rubin, Alan E.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Wasson, John T.

    2010-04-01

    We used instrumental neutron activation analysis and petrography to determine bulk and phase compositions and textural characteristics of 15 carbonaceous chondrites of uncertain classification: Acfer 094 (type 3.0, ungrouped CM-related); Belgica-7904 (mildly metamorphosed, anomalous, CM-like chondrite, possibly a member of a new grouplet that includes Wisconsin Range (WIS) 91600, Dhofar 225, and Yamato-86720); Dar al Gani (DaG) 055 and its paired specimen DaG 056 (anomalous, reduced CV3-like); DaG 978 (type 3 ungrouped); Dominion Range 03238 (anomalous, magnetite-rich CO3.1); Elephant Moraine 90043 (anomalous, magnetite-bearing CO3); Graves Nunataks 98025 (type 2 or type 3 ungrouped); Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95566 (anomalous CM2 with a low degree of aqueous alteration); Hammadah al Hamra (HaH) 073 (type 4 ungrouped, possibly related to the Coolidge-Loongana [C-L] 001 grouplet); Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85311 (anomalous CM2 with a low degree of aqueous alteration); Northwest Africa 1152 (anomalous CV3); Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91008 (anomalous, metamorphosed CM); Queen Alexandra Range 99038 (type 2 ungrouped); Sahara 00182 (type 3 ungrouped, possibly related to HaH 073 and/or to C-L 001); and WIS 91600 (mildly metamorphosed, anomalous, CM-like chondrite, possibly a member of a new grouplet that includes Belgica-7904, Dhofar 225, and Y-86720). Many of these meteorites show fractionated abundance patterns, especially among the volatile elements. Impact volatilization and dehydration as well as elemental transport caused by terrestrial weathering are probably responsible for most of these compositional anomalies. The metamorphosed CM chondrites comprise two distinct clusters on the basis of their Δ17O values: approximately -4‰ for PCA 91008, GRO 95566, DaG 978, and LEW 85311, and approximately 0‰ for Belgica-7904 and WIS 91600. These six meteorites must have been derived from different asteroidal regions.

  4. Comparing Wild 2 Particles to Chondrites and IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Rietmeijer, Frans; Leroux, Hugues; Mikouchi, Takashi; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Simon, Steven; Grossman, Lawrence; Stephan, Thomas; Weisberg, Michael; Velbel, Michael; Zega, Thomas; Stroud, Rhonda; Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro; Tomioka, Naotaka; Nakamura, Tomoki; Matrajt, Graciela; Joswiak, David; Brownlee, Don; Langenhorst, Falko; Krot, Alexander; Kearsley, Anton; Ishii, Hope; Graham, Giles

    2008-01-01

    We compare the observed composition ranges of olivine, pyroxene and Fe-Ni sulfides in Wild 2 grains, comparing these with chondritic IDPs and chondrite classes to explore whether these data suggest affinities to known hydrous materials in particular. Wild 2 olivine has an extremely wide composition range, from Fo4-100 with a pronounced frequency peak at Fo99. The composition range displayed by the low-calcium pyroxene is also very extensive, from En52 to En100, with a significant frequency peak centered at En95. These ranges are as broad or broader than those reported for any other extraterrestrial material. Wild 2 Fe-Ni sulfides mainly have compositions close to that of FeS, with less than 2 atom % Ni - to date, only two pentlandite grains have been found among the Wild-grains suggesting that this mineral is not abundant. The complete lack of compositions between FeS and pentlandite (with intermediate solid solution compositions) suggests (but does not require) that FeS and pentlandite condensed as crystalline species, i.e. did not form as amorphous phases, which later became annealed. While we have not yet observed any direct evidence of water-bearing minerals, the presence of Ni-bearing sulfides, and magnesium-dominated olivine and low-Ca pyroxene does not rule out their presence at low abundance. We do conclude that modern major and minor element compositions of chondrite matrix and IDPs are needed.

  5. Forming Chondrites in a Solar Nebula with Magnetically Induced Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Turner, Neal J.; Masiero, Joseph; Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi

    2016-03-01

    Chondritic meteorites provide valuable opportunities to investigate the origins of the solar system. We explore impact jetting as a mechanism of chondrule formation and subsequent pebble accretion as a mechanism of accreting chondrules onto parent bodies of chondrites, and investigate how these two processes can account for the currently available meteoritic data. We find that when the solar nebula is ≤5 times more massive than the minimum-mass solar nebula at a ≃ 2-3 au and parent bodies of chondrites are ≤1024 g (≤500 km in radius) in the solar nebula, impact jetting and subsequent pebble accretion can reproduce a number of properties of the meteoritic data. The properties include the present asteroid belt mass, the formation timescale of chondrules, and the magnetic field strength of the nebula derived from chondrules in Semarkona. Since this scenario requires a first generation of planetesimals that trigger impact jetting and serve as parent bodies to accrete chondrules, the upper limit of parent bodies’ masses leads to the following implications: primordial asteroids that were originally ≥1024 g in mass were unlikely to contain chondrules, while less massive primordial asteroids likely had a chondrule-rich surface layer. The scenario developed from impact jetting and pebble accretion can therefore provide new insights into the origins of the solar system.

  6. Carbon in weathered ordinary chondrites from Roosevelt County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    A suite of Roosevelt County ordinary chondrites of known terrestrial age have been analyzed for carbon content and isotopic composition. Initial results indicate that significant carbon contamination is evident only in samples with a terrestrial age greater than 40 ka. These samples are of weathering grade D and E and contain three times more carbon than the less weathered samples. The soil in which they were preserved has a carbon content of ca. 1.5 percent. Over 200 meteorites have been recovered from a series of soil depleted areas of New Mexico and West Texas. Most have been recovered from blowouts near Clovis in Roosevelt County (RC) on the high plains of New Mexico. The mineralogical and petrologic Al effects of weathering upon these samples have been studied previously and show that the degree of weathering is largely depend ant upon the terrestrial residence time. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to the soil and climate of Roosevelt County upon ordinary chondrites in the hope that this will enable a better understanding of the problems associated with the collection of meteoritic falls. A suite of ten grade 4 to 6 H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites were analyzed for carbon content and isotopic composition.

  7. Analysis of laser extracted volatiles in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, George E.

    1987-01-01

    It is scientifically important to understand the composition of volatile compounds from interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) because they may be related to the primordial inventory of planetary materials which were necessary to provide environments conducive to the formation of life. The use of a laser microprobe to measure volatiles in IDPs was evaluated. Because primitive meteorites are thought to be closely related to IDPs, carbonaceous chondrites were used for the evaluation. Three sets of experiments were performed to determine the volatiles released from potential substrate materials, to analyze the volatiles released from matrices of bulk samples of carbonaceous chondrites, and to analyze volatiles released from approx. 100 to 200 micron meteorite particles to simulate IDPs. Aluminum appeared to be the best choice of substrate material. Mass ratios between carbonaceous chondrite matrices of Allende and Murchison show fair reproducibility with somewhat high uncertainties. Particles from the Orgueil, Murchison, and Allende meteorites produced measurable quantities of volatiles that appear to have mass spectra comparable to the bulk matrices.

  8. Magnetic classification of stony meteorites: 2. Non-ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Bonal, Lydie; Bourot-Denise, MichèLe; Chevrier, Vincent; Clerc, Jean-Pierre; Consolmagno, Guy; Folco, Luigi; Gounelle, Matthieu; Kohout, Tomas; Pesonen, Lauri; Quirico, Eric; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Skripnik, Anna

    2008-05-01

    A database of magnetic susceptibility (χ) measurements on different non-ordinary chondrites (C, E, R, and ungrouped) populations is presented and compared to our previous similar work on ordinary chondrites. It provides an exhaustive study of the amount of iron-nickel magnetic phases (essentially metal and magnetite) in these meteorites. In contrast with all the other classes, CM and CV show a wide range of magnetic mineral content, with a two orders of magnitude variation of χ. Whether this is due to primary parent body differences, metamorphism or alteration, remains unclear. C3-4 and C2 yield similar χ values to the ones shown by CK and CM, respectively. By order of increasing χ, the classes with well-grouped χ are: R << CO < CK ≈ CI < Kak < CR < E ≈ CH < CB. Based on magnetism, EH and EL classes have indistinguishable metal content. Outliers that we suggest may need to have their classifications reconsidered are Acfer 202 (CO), Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026 (C4-5), Meteorite Hills (MET) 01149, and Northwest Africa (NWA) 521 (CK), Asuka (A)-88198, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 031156, and Sahara 98248 (R). χ values can also be used to define affinities of ungrouped chondrites, and propose pairing, particularly in the case of CM and CV meteorites.

  9. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  10. Determining the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael

    1993-03-01

    The aqueous alteration of CM chondrites provides a record of the processes attending the earliest stages of parent body evolution. However, resolving the alteration pathways of chondritic evolution requires a means for distinguishing the relative extent of alteration that individual samples have experienced. Three new indices for gauging the relative degree of alteration in CM chondrites based on modal and compositional analyses of 7 CM falls were proposed. The proposed alteration parameters are consistent with the basic tenets of several previous models and correlate with additional indices to produce an integrated method for determining the relative extent of alteration. The model predicts the following order of progressive alteration: Murchison (MC) is less than or equal to Bells (BL) is less than Murray (MY) is less than Cochabamba (CC) is less than Mighei (MI) is less than Nogoya (NG) is less than or equal to Cold Bokkeveld (CB). The broad range of CM phyllosilicate compositions observed within individual meteorites is fundamental to the characterization of the aqueous alteration process. Chemical analyses of CM phyllosilicates suggest that these phases became systematically enriched in Mg and depleted in Fe with increasing alteration.

  11. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  12. Chemical characteristic of R chondrites in the light of P, REEs, Th and U abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rahat; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U and P were determined in 15 Rumuruti (R)-type chondrites and the Allende CV chondrite. Repeated analyses of Allende for REEs, Th and U by ICP-MS and P by ICP-AES, and comparisons of these data with literature values ensure high reproducibility (precision) and reliability (accuracy) of acquired data. CI-normalized REE abundances in R chondrites are slightly enriched in heavy REEs with a small, positive Ce anomaly, in contrast to Allende. CI-normalized Pr/Tm and Nd/Yb ratios show a positive correlation, suggesting the heterogeneous mixing of two components (CI-like and refractory-rich materials) during the accretion of the R chondrite parent body. A Ce anomaly, however, was likely homogeneously present in the nebula. A mean Th/U ratio of R chondrites is 3.81 ± 0.13 (1 σ), which is 5.1% higher than the CI ratio. Probably, the Th-U fractionation was inherited from the nebula from which the R chondrite parent body formed. Besides the Th-U fractionation, REEs and Th-U are heterogeneously fractionated in R chondrites, for which parent body processing is assumed to be the cause. A mean P content of R chondrites (1254 μg/g) is higher than for any ordinary chondrite and is close to the EL mean. There appears to be a negative correlation between P and REEs contents in R chondrites. It is probable that REEs were diluted by extraneously supplied, REEs-depleted and P-containing materials (schreibersite or metal). This process must have occurred heterogeneously during accretion so that the heterogeneity of P-containing materials was preserved in the R chondrite parent body and individual R chondrites.

  13. Characterising the CI and CI-like carbonaceous chondrites using thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley J.; Solomon, Jake R.; Schofield, Paul F.; Russell, Sara S.

    2015-12-01

    The CI and CI-like chondrites provide a record of aqueous alteration in the early solar system. However, the CI-like chondrites differ in having also experienced a late stage period of thermal metamorphism. In order to constrain the nature and extent of the aqueous and thermal alteration, we have investigated the bulk mineralogy and abundance of H2O in the CI and CI-like chondrites using thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Composition of the metal phases in ordinary chondrites - Implications regarding classification and metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiattalab, F.; Wasson, J. T.

    1980-03-01

    The paper examines the composition of metal phases and metamorphism in ordinary chondrites. It is shown that below 550 C increasing Co decreases the equilibrium kamacite Ni concentration of an alpha to gamma system, and that the equilibrated L chondrites have kamacite and taenite Co concentrations in the L-group range. Metal-phase studies of petrologic type-3 ordinary chondrites with highly unequilibrated silicates showed a wide range in the degree of matrix kamacite equilibration; in the three most unequilibrated chondrites most taenite is clear, and the high Ni content shows that metamorphic temperatures were lower than 400 C in these meteorites.

  15. Pyroxene thermobarometry in LL-group chondrites and implications for parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Patchen, Allan D.

    1989-01-01

    Geothermometry based on the compositions of clinopyroxenes in type 6 and 7 LL chondrites gives coherent results, but the estimated temperatures from coexisting orthopyroxenes are consistently lower than for clinopyroxenes. Orthopyroxene thermometry is suspect because of compositional effects of polymorphic inversions and/or unknown kinetic factors. Lack of clinopyroxene equilibration precludes accurate estimation of peak metamorphic temperatures for type 4 and 5 chondrites. There is no apparent correlation between Al content (a pressure-dependent variable) and equilibration temperature in chondritic pyroxenes. This finding, which is at variance with a previously published conclusion that temperature and pressure are correlated in metamorphosed chondrites, may have important implications for asteroid thermal models.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud" included the following reports:Organics on Fe-Silicate Grains: Potential Mimicry of Meteoritic Processes?; Molecular and Compound-Specific Isotopic Study of Monocarboxylic Acids in Murchison and Antarctic Meteorites; Nanoglobules, Macromolecular Materials, and Carbon Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites; Evidence for Terrestrial Organic Contamination of the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Nitrogen Isotopic Imaging of Tagish Lake Carbon Globules; Microscale Distribution of Hydrogen Isotopes in Two Carbonaceous Chondrites; The Nature and Origin of Aromatic Organic Matter in the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Terrestrial Alteration of CM Chondritic Carbonate; Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites; Experimental Study of Serpentinization Reactions; Chondrule Glass Alteration in Type IIA Chondrules in the CR2 Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105: Insights into Elemental Exchange Between Chondrules and Matrices; Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002 ;and A Unique Style of Alteration of Iron-Nickel Metal in WIS91600, an Unusual C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite.

  17. Porphyritic Olivine-Pyroxene Clast in Kaidun: First Discovery of an Ordinary Chondrite Clast?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Makishima, J.; Koizumi, E.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Kaidun is an enigmatic meteorite showing a micro-brecciated texture composed of variable kinds of lithic clasts and mineral fragments. The constituent components range from primitive chondritic materials to differentiated achondritic materials, and thus believed to have originated from a large parent body accumulating materials from many different bodies in the asteroid belt. One of the interesting observations is that no ordinary chondrite component has been found yet, although C and E chondrites components are abundant. In this abstract, we report mineralogy of the clast (Kaidun #15415- 01.3.13a) showing a porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrule-like texture similar to those found in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites.

  18. Ion microprobe magnesium isotope analysis of plagioclase and hibonite from ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, R. W.; Bischoff, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ion and electron microprobes were used to examine Mg-26 excesses from Al-26 decay in four Al-rich objects from the type 3 ordinary hibonite clast in the Dhajala chondrite. The initial Al-26/Al-27 ratio was actually significantly lower than Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, no Mg-26 excesses were found in three plagioclase-bearing chondrules that were also examined. The Mg-26 excesses in the hibonite chondrites indicated a common origin for chondrites with the excesses. The implied Al-26 content in a proposed parent body could not, however, be confirmed as a widespread heat source in the early solar system.

  19. Composition of the metal phases in ordinary chondrites - Implications regarding classification and metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afiattalab, F.; Wasson, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the composition of metal phases and metamorphism in ordinary chondrites. It is shown that below 550 C increasing Co decreases the equilibrium kamacite Ni concentration of an alpha to gamma system, and that the equilibrated L chondrites have kamacite and taenite Co concentrations in the L-group range. Metal-phase studies of petrologic type-3 ordinary chondrites with highly unequilibrated silicates showed a wide range in the degree of matrix kamacite equilibration; in the three most unequilibrated chondrites most taenite is clear, and the high Ni content shows that metamorphic temperatures were lower than 400 C in these meteorites.

  20. Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites. 3: C3 and C4 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.; Larson, E. E.; Watson, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermomagnetic analysis on all of the C3 and C4 chondrites, conducted under conditions of controlled oxygen fugacity, indicates the presence of a thermally unstable component in at least 5 of the C3 chondrites which upon heating results in magnetite production. This unstable component is most likely troilite (FeS). The presence of the unstable substance may affect the estimation of paleointensities in meteorites which contain it. Our results indicate that Grosnaja, Ornans, Kainsaz, Felix, and Warrenton are likely to be less complicated for paleointensity determinations than the other C3 chondrites. Both C4 chondrites should lead to reliable results.

  1. Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

  2. Physical propoerties of incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites: Implications for asteroidal structure and impact processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Britt, D.T.; Rivers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.

    2009-03-19

    Aside from robotic exploration, meteorites are our primary source of information about the asteroids that they sample. Although there are some discrepancies, there are dynamical, spectral, and compositional evidence for an S-type asteroid connection to the ordinary chondrite meteorites. Reconciling the measured bulk density of chondrites with that of asteroids can yield important inferences about the internal structure of asteroids. For example, the bulk density of S-type asteroids is typically much less than the bulk density of chondrites, leading to the inference that asteroids contain a significant quantity of macroporosity. We have identified several unusual ordinary chondrites that have been incompletely compacted relative to petrologically similar but much less porous chondrites. Although these are equilibrated chondrites, they have extreme amounts of pore spaces between mineral grains. Here, we detail our efforts quantifying the nature of the pore spaces in these chondrites and we examine the implications for the structure and mechanical processing of the asteroids from which these chondrites originate. Our pore size distribution data may also provide constraints for the modeling of heat flow and shock waves within primordial chondritic parent bodies.

  3. Transmission electron microscopy of an interplanetary dust particle with links to CI chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Thomas, Kathie L.; Mckay, David S.

    1991-01-01

    The majority of hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) have compositions that resemble CI and CM chondrites, however, their mineralogies are most similar to the fine grained material in certain altered type-3 carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. During the transmission electron microscope studies of hydrated IDPs, a unique particle was discovered whose mineralogy is very similar to that reported from CI chondrites. W7013F5 is the first IDP whose mineralogy and chemistry approximates that of CI chondrites. The similarity in mineralogy and mineral chemistry suggests that W7013F5 was altered under conditions similar to those that existed on the CI parent bodies.

  4. Phase relations of a carbonaceous chondrite at lower mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahara, Y.; Ohtani, E.; Kondo, T.; Kubo, T.

    2002-12-01

    The refractory element ratios of Earth's mantle are close to carbonaceous chondrite values. One of the ideas on Earth's bulk composition is that the Earth is made of carbonaceous chondrite-like materials, but the redox state of Earth is closer to that of Enstatite chondrite than carbonaceous chondrite. We do not know exactly when and how the reduction event was occurred at proto Earth. Therefore, it is important to considering differentiation process of early earth that the phase relations of mantle composition are investigated under variable Fe/FeO conditions at high pressures. Allende meteorite (CV chondrite) is applicable to one of the oxidized model of the proto earth, whereas the most reduced model is Peridotite and Metal. We report the phase relations of Allende meteorite in the pressure range from 22 to 30 GPa, at 1600-2300 °C. We use natural Allende meteorite as starting material. The Kawai type multianvil apparatus was used for the present experiments. The truncated edge length of the anvil was 2 mm. We use two kinds of heating element, LaCrO3 and Re. LaCrO3 heater was used for subsolidus experiments, and Re heater was used for melting experiments. Pressure calibrations were made at high temperatures using il-pv phase transition, Al2 O3 content of Pv determined by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements with the Jamieson's Gold scale [1]. The micro-area X-ray diffractometer and EPMA were used for phase identification and compositional analysis of run products. The liquidus phase changed from garnet to Mg-perovskite at about 24.5 GPa, and magnesiowustite remained second liquidus phase. The solubility of mafic components in Ca-perovskite in Allende composition is higher than that reported on Peridotite bulk composition. The Ca/(Ca+Mg+Fe) ratio of Ca-perovskite is 0.6 in Allende experiments, whereas that is 0.9 in Peridotite experiments [2]. Our result suggests that chemical differentiation process could change with FeO contents of magma ocean. References [1

  5. Non-chondritic sulphur isotope composition of the terrestrial mantle.

    PubMed

    Labidi, J; Cartigny, P; Moreira, M

    2013-09-12

    Core-mantle differentiation is the largest event experienced by a growing planet during its early history. Terrestrial core segregation imprinted the residual mantle composition by scavenging siderophile (iron-loving) elements such as tungsten, cobalt and sulphur. Cosmochemical constraints suggest that about 97% of Earth's sulphur should at present reside in the core, which implies that the residual silicate mantle should exhibit fractionated (34)S/(32)S ratios according to the relevant metal-silicate partition coefficients, together with fractionated siderophile element abundances. However, Earth's mantle has long been thought to be both homogeneous and chondritic for (34)S/(32)S, similar to Canyon Diablo troilite, as it is for most siderophile elements. This belief was consistent with a mantle sulphur budget dominated by late-accreted chondritic components. Here we show that the mantle, as sampled by mid-ocean ridge basalts from the south Atlantic ridge, displays heterogeneous (34)S/(32)S ratios, directly correlated to the strontium and neodymium isotope ratios (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd. These isotope trends are compatible with binary mixing between a low-(34)S/(32)S ambient mantle and a high-(34)S/(32)S recycled component that we infer to be subducted sediments. The depleted end-member is characterized by a significantly negative δ(34)S of -1.28 ± 0.33‰ that cannot reach a chondritic value even when surface sulphur (from continents, altered oceanic crust, sediments and oceans) is added. Such a non-chondritic (34)S/(32)S ratio for the silicate Earth could be accounted for by a core-mantle differentiation record in which the core has a (34)S/(32)S ratio slightly higher than that of chondrites (δ(34)S = +0.07‰). Despite evidence for late-veneer addition of siderophile elements (and therefore sulphur) after core formation, our results imply that the mantle sulphur budget retains fingerprints of core-mantle differentiation. PMID:24005324

  6. A search for H-chondritic chromite grains in sediments that formed immediately after the breakup of the L-chondrite parent body 470 Ma ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Philipp R.; Schmitz, Birger; Rout, Surya S.; Tenner, Travis; Villalon, Krysten; Cronholm, Anders; Terfelt, Fredrik; Kita, Noriko T.

    2016-03-01

    A large abundance of L-chondritic material, mainly in the form of fossil meteorites and chromite grains from micrometeorites, has been found in mid-Ordovician 470 Ma old sediments globally. The material has been determined to be ejecta from the L chondrite parent body breakup event, a major collision in the asteroid belt 470 Ma ago. In this study we search the same sediments for H-chondritic chromite grains in order to improve our understanding of the extraterrestrial flux to Earth after the asteroid breakup event. We have used SIMS in conjunction with quantitative SEM/EDS to determine the three oxygen isotopic and elemental compositions, respectively, of a total of 120 randomly selected, sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite grains mainly representing micrometeorites from 470 Ma old post-breakup limestone from the Thorsberg quarry in Sweden and the Lynna River site in Russia. We show that 99% or more of the grains are L-chondritic, whereas the H-chondritic fraction is 1% or less. The L-/H-chondrite ratio after the breakup thus was >99 compared to 1.1 in today's meteoritic flux. This represents independent evidence, in agreement with previous estimates based on sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite grain abundances and sedimentation rates, of a two orders of magnitude higher post-breakup flux of L-chondritic material in the micrometeorite fraction. Finally, we confirm the usefulness of three oxygen isotopic SIMS analyses of individual extraterrestrial chromite grains for classification of equilibrated ordinary chondrites. The H- and L-chondritic chromites differ both in their three oxygen isotopic and elemental compositions, but there is some overlap between the groups. In chromite, TiO2 is the oxide most resistant to diagenesis, and the combined application of TiO2 and oxygen three-isotope analysis can resolve uncertainties arising from the compositional overlaps.

  7. Petrofabric of Zag and Pułtusk Meteorites: Implications for Impact Conditions on the H Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesińska, A.; Gattacceca, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Rochette, P.

    2014-09-01

    Petrofabric of H chondrites is characterized by combining tomographic reconstruction of metal grains, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and petrographic observations. The chondrites possess foliation but also well defined lineation.

  8. A Survey of Large Silicate Objects in Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, R.; Bridges, J. C.

    1995-09-01

    We present the results of a survey of large silicate objects in ordinary chondrites (OCs) from the collection of the Natural History Museum, London; 390 H-group, 386 L-group and 57 LL-group meteorites were examined. A total of 61 objects were identified (Table 1). Meteorites with light and dark, brecciated fabrics were excluded from our survey. Following Weisberg et al. [1], large silicate objects are taken to be >= 5mm in size. Macrochondrules have rounded outlines and textures - porphyritic, barred olivine, radiating pyroxene - that are indistinguishable from normal chondrules in OCs [1]. In addition, we also recognise igneous clasts and chondritic clasts. The largest macrochondrule in the collection is 4cm diameter, with a microporphyritic texture [2]. Igneous clasts are those objects whose properties indicate that they originated through melting and differentiation on a planetary body. Examples include a 2cm diameter clast, in Ness County (L6), which contains large (2mm) olivine and enstatite grains set in a plagioclase + olivine groundmass, cristobalite- and tridymite-rich clasts [3] and the FELINE feldspar-nepheline clast [4]. Chondritic clasts comprise a diverse group including a 1cm clast from Barwell (L6) which contains apparently remelted chondrules, microporphyritic clasts with K-rich mesostasis e.g. in Quenggouk (H4) and a 1cm single olivine grain with minor inclusions of anorthite and enstatite, in Julesburg (L3). The K-rich objects are similar to others described from a survey of LL-chondrites and may have an impact origin or have undergone exchange with a K-rich vapor [5]. Abundances of the three types of large silicate objects (Table 1) reflect the relative numbers of H, L and LL meteorite samples in the collection, although LL-group hosted clasts are over-represented as our work concentrated on sections of LL-chondrites. In total, 46% of the objects are macrochondrules, 18% are igneous clasts and 36% are in the indeterminate chondritic clast group

  9. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained

  10. CR chondrites: Shock, aqueous alteration and terrestrial weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    CR chondrite are a group asteroidal meteorites, whose importance lies in the exotic organic and presolar material [1] found in its most pristine members and in the broad range of alteration features represented in the remaining specimens in this group [2]. This FE-SEM, EMPA, FIB/TEM study takes advantage of the CR's mineralogical diversity to define different trends of secondary alteration, by comparing the CR3s to the Antarctic CRs: MIL 07525, MIL 07513, GRA 06100, LAP 04516, GRO 03116, GRO 95577, and EET 96259. Collisions and subsequent annealing have affected MIL 07513, GRA 06100, and GRO 03116. Shock stages are often assigned based on progressive changes in the textures of olivines and feldspars. However, the large olivines in shocked CRs do not appear to record these process. Opaques, on the other hand, preserve hallmark signatures of impacts, such as crystalline metal/sulfide veins. Opaque nodules in MIL 07513, GRA 06100, GRO 03116 consist of intergrowths of μm-sub μm FeNi-rich metal, kamacite, Fe-sulfides, Fe-oxides, nm-sized metallic Cu and CuFe (~85 wt.% Cu, 14 wt.% Fe ± < 1wt.% Co, Ni, S) alloys. MIL 07525, GRO 03116, EET 96259, LAP 04516, and GRO 95577 show increasing signs of aqueous alteration, such as increasing amounts of ordered phyllosilicates. Although most phyllosilicates are intergrowths of Fe-rich serpentine and saponite, LAP 04516 also contains large (μm-sized), interpenetrating, Fe-rich (cronstedtite-like) phyllosilicates packages with 14Å basal spacings, similar to those observed in CI chondrites by [3]. Heterogeneously interspersed within phyllosilicates are amorphous Fe-rich silicates and small grains (<50nm) of Fe-rich sulfides, partly oxidized sulfides, and in LAP 04516, tochilinite. Tochilinite shows consistent enrichments in Si (~5 wt.%), suggesting that this meteorite has undergone similar pathways of aqueous alteration as CM chondrites [e.g., 4-5]. Despite the myriad of mineralogical changes triggered by secondary and tertiary

  11. Chemical Characteristic of CK Chondrites in the Light of P, REEs, Th, and U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, M.; Shirai, N.; Takahashi, H.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 16 Antarctic CK chondrites were analyzed by ICP-AES for P and by ICP-MS for rare earth elements, Th and U. Based on the data for these elements, the formation process and the structure of CK chondrite parent body are discussed.

  12. Structural and Functional Micro-Infrared Survey of Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites Insoluble Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitt, B.

    2010-03-01

    We present a mid-infrared study of C2 and C1 chondrites IOM. All have similar aliphatic structure at 50°C under 10-7 mbar. Oxidized functions are depleted in less altered chondrites. 300°C heating in ambient air turns aliphatic chains to esters.

  13. Group IIE Iron Meteorites; Metal Composition, Formation, Relationship to Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2011-03-01

    INAA data for metal in 8 new and 12 known IIE irons show they crystallized from various silicate-rich Fe-Ni melts with diverse S contents after impacts melted an ordinary chondrite asteroid that was probably more reduced than H chondrites.

  14. Trace element content of chondritic cosmic dust: Volatile enrichments, thermal alterations, and the possibility of contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element abundances in 51 chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDP's) were measured by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). The data allow us to determine an average composition of chondritic IDP's and to examine the questions of volatile loss during the heating pulse experienced on atmospheric entry and possible element addition due to contamination during atmospheric entry, stratospheric residence, and curation.

  15. Theoretical predictions of volatile bearing phases and volatile resources in some carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra; Saxena, Surendra K.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from theoretical calculations to predict the modal abundances and compositions of the major mineral phases and the vapor phase that could develop in the bulk compositions of carbonaceous chondrites. The abundances and compositions are obtained as functions of temperature and pressure. The calculations are used to evaluate the volatile and mineralogical resource potential of C1 and C2 carbonaceous chondrites.

  16. Carbonate compositions in CM and CI chondrites, and implications for aqueous alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1993-01-01

    Carbonate minerals in fourteen CM chondrites and two CI chondrites have been analyzed by electron microprobe to provide a better understanding of the aqueous processes that affected carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Calcites in CM chondrites and dolomites and magnesites in CI chondrites display the compositions expected of stable phases formed at low temperatures. Dolomites in CM chondrites, identified here for the first time in five members of the group, have small amounts of excess Ca which may reflect metastable growth. The distribution of Fe between dolomite and coexisting serpentine differs in the two chondrite groups. If the distributions reflect an approach to chemical equilibrium, then the difference implies higher alteration temperatures for the CI group than the CM group in agreement with the results of previously published oxygen isotope thermometry and mineral solubility modeling of the alteration process. Dolomite Fe contents are relatively uniform in the two chondrite groups. Dolomite Mn contents, by contrast, vary widely. The variations may reflect transport-controlled coprecipitation of Mn resulting from a heterogeneous distribution of the element in the anhydrous precursor material. If this interpretation is correct, then the altering fluids were essentially immobile white hydration reactions proceeded on the meteorite parent bodies. The near closed-system character of the alteration process, long known from bulk chemical analyses of the meteorites, is a direct consequence of the limited mobility of dissolved species.

  17. Mineralogy and Petrology of Yamato 86029: A New Type of Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonui, E.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Y-86029 resembles CI chondrites. Its matrix is very fine-grained. Olivine shows evidence of shock, which has rarely been observed in carbonaceous chondrites. Y-86029 experienced aqueous and thermal alteration during or after accretion in parent body. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. New kind of type 3 chondrite with a graphite-magnetite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Rubin, A. E.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1981-01-01

    Four clasts in three ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias are discovered which are a new kind of type 3 chondrite. As with ordinary and carbonaceous type 3 chondrites, they have distinct chondrules, some of which contain glass, highly heterogeneous olivines and pyroxenes, and predominantly monoclinic low-Ca pyroxenes. Instead of the usual, fine-grained, Fe-rich silicate matrix, however, the clasts have a matrix composed largely of aggregates of micron- and submicron-sized graphite and magnetite. The bulk compositions of the clasts, as well as the types of chondrules (largely porphyritic), are characteristic of type 3 ordinary chondrites, although chondrules in the clasts are somewhat smaller (0.1-0.5 mm). A close relationship with ordinary chondrites is also suggested by the presence of similar graphite-magnetite aggregates in seven type 3 ordinary chondrites. It is thought that this new kind of chondrite is probably the source of the abundant graphite-magnetite inclusions in ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias and that it may be more common than indicated by the absence of whole meteorites made of chondrules and graphite-magnetite.

  19. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water

    PubMed Central

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-01-01

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and 7Li/6Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and 6Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ −550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. 6Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution <15%. In conclusion, (i) solar wind implantation is the major mechanism responsible for hydroxyls on the lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith. PMID:25288758

  20. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    PubMed

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution <15%. In conclusion, (i) solar wind implantation is the major mechanism responsible for hydroxyls on the lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith. PMID:25288758

  1. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. IV Annealing studies of a type 3.4 ordinary chondrite and the metamorphic history of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimon, R. K.; Keck, B. D.; Weeks, K. S.; Dehart, J.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1985-07-01

    Samples of a type 3.4 chondrite have been annealed at 400 - 1000°C for 1 - 200 hours, their thermoluminescence properties determined and analyzed for K, Na, Mn, Sc and Ca by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  2. Chemical Variations Among L-Chondrites--IV. Analyses, with Petrographic Notes, of 13 L-group and 3 LL-group Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosewich, E.; Dodd, R. T.

    1985-03-01

    We review our procedures for selecting, preparing and analyzing meteorite samples, present new analyses of 16 ordinary chondrites, and discuss variations of Fe, S and Si in the L-group. A tendency for Fe/Mg, S/Mg and Si/Mg to be low in L chondrites of facies d to f testifies that post-metamorphic shock melting played a significant role in the chemical diversification of the L-group. However, these ratios also vary widely and sympathetically in melt-free chondrites, indicating that much of the L-group's chemical variation arose prior to thermal metamorphism and is in that sense primary. If all L chondrites come from one parent body, type-correlated chemical trends suggest: 1) that the body had a traditional "onion skin" structure, with metamorphic intensity increasing with depth; and 2) that it formed from material that became more homogeneous, slightly poorer in iron, and significantly richer in sulfur as accretion proceeded.

  3. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. VII - Annealing studies of the Dhajala H3.8 chondrite and the thermal history of chondrules and chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keck, B. D.; Guimon, R. K.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of the Dhajala meteorite were annealed at 600-1000 C for 1, 2, 10, 20 and 100 h and their thermoluminescence (TL) properties were measured. After annealing at less than 900 deg, the TL sensitivity decreased by a factor of two; at higher temperatures, it fell by an order of magnitude. Data indicate that the annealing treatment caused the low-temperature feldspar in Dhajala to be converted to feldspar of a high-temperature (disordered) form. Low-temperature feldspar was found in the meteorite's TL-sensitive chondrules which comprised about 20 percent of those separated. It is suggested that these chondrules suffered greater crystallization of their mesostasis than the other chondrules, and equilibrated to lower temperatures. Based on TL data, there appears to be no relationship between post-metamorphic cooling rate and petrologic type for the 3.5-3.9 chondrites.

  4. Enstatite Chondrites, their Origin and the Composition of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S. B.; Petaev, M. I.; Huang, S.

    2012-12-01

    The nearly identical O isotopic compositions of the enstatite chondrites (EC), Earth's mantle, and Moon have been used to argue that the EC provide the best Solar System material for estimating the chemical composition of the Earth. A possible link between the EC and Earth is further supported by recent observations that EC and Earth have the same isotopic compositions for both major and minor elements (O, Ca, Ti, Cr) which exhibit substantial variations among different chondrite groups, with Si being the only exception. However, there is a huge mismatch in chemical compositions between the EC and Earth. For example, the EC have much too high Rb/Sr and K/U ratios and are depleted in FeO and refractory lithophile elements compared to the composition of Earth's mantle deduced from terrestrial rocks. This discrepancy could be resolved by assuming that the Earth and EC had a common nebular precursor but they have experienced different chemical evolution. Such an assumption is supported by the mineralogy and O isotopic data for the most primitive EH3 chondrites. The abundant FeO-bearing silicates, compositionally similar to those in other classes of chondrites, are well documented in ECs, with most silicates having O isotopic compositions of the bulk EC values. Recent studies showed that the chalcophile behaviour of Ca, Mg, Na, and other elements in EC is due to secondary processing of FeO-bearing silicates in an H-poor environment with high fS2 (Fe-FeS buffer) and fO2 close to the CO-CO2 buffer. We suggest that a nebular reservoir that produced the precursor material for EC has also produced the building blocks for the Earth, chemically similar to the widely accepted Earth's composition derived from mantle peridotites. It is possible that the EC precursors initially formed in an isotopically homogeneous inner terrestrial planet region (Mercury, Venus, Earth) by the disruption of a planetesimal and then were scattered to an isotopically heterogeneous outer terrestrial

  5. Implications of poikilitic textures in LL-group chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.

    1975-01-01

    Five lithic fragments with poikilitic textures in five LL-group chondrites are examined by microscope and electron microprobe to determine whether the textures have resulted from processes related to impact events, such as thermal metamorphism or partial melting. The bulk and pyroxene compositions of the fragments are determined. The compositional characteristics of minerals in certain fragments are found to indicate an apparent melt origin. It is concluded that impact processes produced the poikilitic textures and that complete melting, partial melting, and solid-state recrystallization all have had some part in producing the textures.

  6. Organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites, planetary satellites, asteroids and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed review is given of the organic compounds found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, especially the Murchison meteorite, and detected spectroscopically in other solar-system objects. The chemical processes by which the organic compounds could have formed in the early solar system and the conditions required for these processes are discussed, taking into account the possible alteration of the compounds during the lifetime of the meteoroid. Also considered are the implications for prebiotic evolution and the origin of life. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  7. Comments on D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. W.; Rigby, D.

    1981-06-01

    D/H ratios in chondritic organic matter are investigated. Demineralized organic residues obtained from previous experiments were dried in a quartz reaction vessel under vacuum for 60 minutes at 250-300 C and then combusted in oxygen for 20 minutes at 850 C. The apparatus is described and the results of the experiments such as D/H ratios in water and measurements on total carbon dioxide are given. Atomic H/C ratios calculated directly from the quantities of carbon dioxide and water recovered, are reported according to Standard Mean Ocean Water and Pee Dee Belemnite, using the customary notation.

  8. Re-Os Systematics and HSE Distribution in Metal from Ochansk (H4) Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoliar, M. I.; Horan, M. F.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Walker, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of the Re-Os systematics of chondrites have documented considerable variation in the Re/Os ratios of whole rock samples. For some whole rock chondrites, Re-Os systematics display large deviations from the primitive isochron that are considerably larger than deviations in other isotope systems. Possible interpretation of these facts is that the Re-Os system in chondrites is particularly sensitive to post-formation alteration processes, thus providing a useful tool to examine such processes. Significant variations that have been detected in highly siderophile element (HSE) patterns for ordinary chondrites support this conclusion. We report Re-Os isotope data for metal separates from the Ochansk H4 chondrite coupled with abundance data for Ru, Pd, Ir, and Pt, determined in the same samples by isotope dilution. We chose this meteorite mainly because it is an observed fall with minimal signs of weathering, and its low metamorphic grade (H4) and shock stage (S3).

  9. Ubiquitous interstellar diamond and SiC in primitive chondrites - Abundances reflect metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, Gary R.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that interstellar diamond and SiC were incorporated into all groups of chondrite meteorites. Abundances rapidly go to zero with increasing metamorphic grade, suggesting that metamorphic destruction is responsible for the apparent absence of these grains in most chondrites. In unmetamorphosed chondrites, abundances normalized to matrix content are similar for different classes. Diamond samples from chondrites of different classes have remarkably similar noble-gas constants and isotropic compositions, although constituent diamonds may have come from many sources. SiC seems to be more diverse, partly because grains are large enough to measure individually, but average characteristics seem to be similar from meteorite to meteorite. These observations suggest that various classes of chondritic meteorites sample the same solar system-wide reservoir of interstellar grains.

  10. Petrology and In Situ Trace Element Chemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Torrano, Z. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rumuruti (R) chondrites are characterized by low chondrule/matrix modal ratios, high oxidation state, small mean chondrule size, abundant sulfides and low metal contents, and are of petrologic types 3 to 6 [1, 2]. LAP 04840 (R5, [3]) and MIL 11207 (R6), contain the high-T hydrous phases amphibole and mica [3, 4]; not all equilibrated R chondrites contain these [2]. R chondrites thus can provide evidence on whether there are compositional effects caused by high-T, high-fluid metamorphism of nebular materials. We are investigating a suite of R chondrites of diverse petrologic grades to further understand the nature of the metamorphic processes that engendered them [5]. We report on our petrological studies, plus preliminary in situ analyses of trace elements in amphibole-bearing R chondrites.

  11. Nuclear track and compositional studies of olivines in CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Macdougall, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The CI and CM chondrites, with bulk chemical compositions closely resembling solar values, are important for the study of early solar system processes. Noble gas and particle track studies have revealed that a majority of the CI and CM chondrites contain precompaction solar wind and solar flare irradiation records. A quantitative understanding of these records is important because it would allow constraints to be placed on the environment in which the irradiation occurred, and, therefore, on the mode of evolution of the CI and CM chondrites. The present investigation is concerned primarily with fossil track evidence, taking into account selected specimens of several CI and CM chondrites. In addition, the results are presented of extensive studies of the angular distributions of tracks in irradiated grains from four CM chondrites. The results provide information on the exposure geometry of the grains.

  12. A unique type 3 ordinary chondrite containing graphite-magnetite aggregates - Allan Hills A77011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinley, S. G.; Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1982-01-01

    ALHA 77011, which is the object of study in the present investigation, is a chondrite of the 1977 meteorite collection from Allan Hills, Antarctica. It contains an opaque and recrystallized silicate matrix (Huss matrix) and numerous aggregates consisting of micron- and submicron-sized graphite and magnetite. It is pointed out that no abundant graphite-magnetite aggregates could be observed in other type 3 ordinary chondrites, except for Sharps. Attention is given to the results of a modal analysis, relations between ALHA 77011 and other type 3 ordinary chondrites, and the association of graphite-magnetite and metallic Fe, Ni. The discovery of graphite-magnetite aggregates in type 3 ordinary chondrites is found to suggest that this material may have been an important component in the formation of ordinary chondrites.

  13. Extraterrestrial amino acids identified in metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-03-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondrites but are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675 (CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ13C/12C ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (13-16 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.2-2 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of β-, γ-, and δ-amino acids compared to the corresponding α-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  14. Volatile elements in chondrites - Metamorphism or nebular fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Gros, J.; Higuchi, H.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three of the most highly metamorphosed meteorites of their respective classes, Shaw (LL7), Karoonda (C5), and Coolidge (C4), were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn. Comparison with data by Lipschutz and coworkers (1977) on artificially heated primitive meteorites shows that the natural metamorphism of meteorites cannot have taken place in a system open to volatiles. Shaw, metamorphosed at 1300 C for more than 1 million yr, is less depleted in In, Bi, Ag, Te, Zn, and Tl than Krymka heated at 1000 C for 1 week. Karoonda, metamorphosed at 600 C for many millennia, is less depleted in Bi and Tl than Allende heated at 600 C for 1 week. Data on primordial noble gases also show that the volatile-element patterns of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites were established by nebular condensation and changed little, if at all, during metamorphism. For enstatite chondrites, the evidence is still incomplete but seems to favor a nebular origin of the volatile pattern.

  15. Crystallinity of Fe-Ni Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Le, Loan

    2008-01-01

    The main long-term goal of this research is to understand the physical conditions in the early solar nebula through the detailed characterization of a key class of mineral present in all primitive materials: Fe-Ni sulfides [1&2]. Fe-Ni sulfides can take dozens of structures, depending on the temperature of formation, as well as other physico-chemical factors which are imperfectly understood. Add to this the additional varying factor of Ni content, and we have a potentially sensitive cosmothermometer [3]. Unfortunately, this tool requires exact knowledge of the crystal structure of each grain being considered, and there have been few (none?) studies of the detailed structures of sulfides in chondritic materials. We report here on coordinated compositional and crystallographic investigation of Fe-Ni sulfides in diverse carbonaceous chondrites, initially Acfer 094 (the most primitive CM2 [4]) Tagish Lake (a unique type C2 [5]), a C1 lithology in Kaidun [6], Bali (oxidized CV3 [7]), and Efremovka (reduced CV3 [7]).

  16. Molybdenum Isotopic Composition of Iron Meteorites, Chondrites and Refractory Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, H.; Walker, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent Mo isotopic studies of meteorites reported evidence for differences in isotopic compositions for whole rocks of some primitive and differentiated meteorites relative to terrestrial materials. Enrichments of r- and p-process isotopes of up to 3-4 units (e unit = parts in 10(exp 4) over s-process dominated isotopes are the most prominent features. Certain types of presolar grains show large enrichments in s-process isotopes, however, it was concluded on grounds of mass balance that incomplete digestion of such grains cannot explain the enrichments of r- and p-process isotopes in whole rocks of primitive chondrites. If the reported variability in r- and p-process isotope enrichments reflects the true isotopic characteristics of the whole rocks, the implications are quite profound. It would suggest the presence of large scale Mo isotopic heterogeneity within the solar accretion disk with likely collateral effects for other elements. However, such effects were not found for Ru isotopes, nor for Zr isotopes. Another recent Mo isotopic study by multi collector ICP-MS could not confirm the reported deviations in Allende, Murchison or iron meteorites. Here, we present new results for the Mo isotopic composition of iron meteorites, chondrites and CAIs obtained by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS). We discuss analytical aspects and the homogeneity of Mo isotopic compositions in solar system materials.

  17. Presolar grains in the CM2 chondrite Sutter's Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuchao; Lin, Yangting; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong; Zolensky, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite is a regolith breccia, composed predominantly of CM2 clasts with varying degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. An investigation of presolar grains in four Sutter's Mill sections, SM43, SM51, SM2-4, and SM18, was carried out using NanoSIMS ion mapping technique. A total of 37 C-anomalous grains and one O-anomalous grain have been identified, indicating an abundance of 63 ppm for presolar C-anomalous grains and 2 ppm for presolar oxides. Thirty-one silicon carbide (SiC), five carbonaceous grains, and one Al-oxide (Al2O3) were confirmed based on their elemental compositions determined by C-N-Si and O-Si-Mg-Al isotopic measurements. The overall abundance of SiC grains in Sutter's Mill (55 ppm) is consistent with those in other CM chondrites. The absence of presolar silicates in Sutter's Mill suggests that they were destroyed by aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. Furthermore, SM2-4 shows heterogeneous distributions of presolar SiC grains (12-54 ppm) in different matrix areas, indicating that the fine-grained matrix clasts come from different sources, with various thermal histories, in the solar nebula.

  18. Photometric and polarimetric properties of the Bruderheim chondritic meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Veverka, J.; Noland, M.; Hilgeman, T.

    1973-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric laboratory measurements were made as a function of phase angle in the U(0.36 microns), G(0.54 microns) and R(0.67 microns) bands for 0, 30 and 60 deg incident illumination on four particle size ranges of Bruderheim, an L6 olivine-hypersthene chondritic meteorite. The four particle size ranges were: 0.25-4.76 mm coated with less than 74 microns powder, 74-250 microns, and less than 37 microns. In addition, normal reflectance measurements were made in the spectral range from 0.31 to 1.1 microns. Comparison with astronomical data reveals that none of the asteroids in the main belt for which adequate observations exist can be matched with Bruderheim, which is representative of the most common meteoritic material encountered by the Earth. However, it appears from the polarization and photometry data that the surface of the Apollo asteroid Icarus is consistent with an ordinary chondrite composition. This suggests the possibility that this material, although common in Earth-crossing orbits, is rare as a surface constituent in the main asteroid belt.

  19. Layer silicates in a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; MacKinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-11-01

    Analytical electron microscopy on individual grains from a portion of a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (aggregate W7029C1 from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection) shows that layer silicates compose 50 percent of the silicate fraction examined. These layer silicates can be classified into two distinct crystallochemical groups: (1) fine-grained, polycrystalline smectite minerals; and (2) well-ordered, single crystals of kaolinite and Mg-poor talc. The layer silicates in this portion of sample W7029(asterisk)A are dissimilar to those described in other chondritic porous aggregates. The predominant layer silicate assemblage in W7029(asterisk)A indicates that heating of the aggregate during atmospheric entry was brief and probably to a temperature less than 300 C. Comparison with terrestrial phyllosilicate occurrences suggests that some layer silicates in aggregate W7029(asterisk)A may have been formed by alteratiton from preexisting silicate minerals at low temperatures (less than 25 C) after aggregate formation.

  20. Bulk and Grain Denstities of Allende and other Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macke, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Density and porosity are fundamental physical properties of meteorites. These data shed light on the origins, processes, and evolution of meteorite parent bodies and provide ground-truth data on asteroids. As part of an ongoing project to catalog densities and porosities of meteorites, we measured these properties on a number of samples in the collection at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York. In addition, it is important to know the extent to which these properties may vary within one particular fall. AMNH holds a significant number of fragments of the CV chondrite Allende, yielding numerous individual pieces. By measuring density and porosity of as many of these pieces as possible, we get and indication of the degree of uniformity of the fall. Bulk densities were measured using the glass bead method [1,2]. Grain densities were measured using a Quantachrome Ultrapycnometer helium pycnometer, and porosities were calculated from the bulk and grain densities. We will report on density and porosity measurements of approximately 30 different chondrites of various classifications, many of which consisting of more than one piece. Bulk and grain densities were measured for at least 27 pieces of Allende, as well as 8 pieces of the CK meteorite Karoonda. References: [1] Consolmagno G.J. and Britt D.T. 1998. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 33:1231-1240. [2] Wilkison S.L. and Robinson M.S. 2000. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 35:1203-1213.

  1. Asteroidal source of ordinary chondrites (Meteoritical Society Presidential Address 1984)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    The orbital evolution of asteroidal fragments injected into the 3-1 Kirkwood gap resonance at 2.5 AU is investigated on the basis of a Monte Carlo simulation. The diameters of the fragments in the simulation were between 10 cm and 20 km, and it was assumed that the fragments cross the orbital path of the earth every one million years. The effects of close encounter planetary perturbations, the nu dot 6 secular resonance, and the ablative effects of the earth atmosphere were also taken into account. It is found that: (1) the predicted meteorite orbits closely matched the known orbits of ordinary chondrites; and (2) the total flux was in approximate agreement with the observed fall rate of ordinary chondrites. About 90 percent of the predicted impacting bodies were created by fragmentation of larger earth crossing asteroidal fragments, the largest of which were observed in the vicinity of the Apollo-Amor objects. The numerical results are presented in a series of graphs.

  2. Exposure history of the Sutter's Mill carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Hamajima, Y.; Reedy, R. C.; Welten, K. C.

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) carbonaceous chondrite fell in California on April 22, 2012. The cosmogenic radionuclide data indicate that Sutter's Mill was exposed to cosmic rays for 0.082 ± 0.008 Myr, which is one of the shortest ages for C chondrites, but overlaps with a small cluster at approximately 0.1 Myr. The age is significantly longer than proposed ages that were obtained from cosmogenic noble gas concentrations, which have large uncertainties due to trapped noble gas corrections. The presence of neutron-capture 60Co and 36Cl in SM indicates a minimum preatmospheric radius of approximately 50 cm, and is consistent with a radius of 1-2 m, as derived from the fireball observations. Although a large preatmospheric size was proposed, one fragment (SM18) contains solar cosmic ray-produced short-lived radionuclides, such as 56Co and 51Cr. This implies that this specimen was less than 2 cm from the preatmospheric surface of Sutter's Mill. Although this conclusion seems surprising, it is consistent with the observation that the meteoroid fragmented high in the atmosphere. The presence of SCR-produced nuclides is consistent with the high SCR fluxes observed during the last few months before the meteorite's fall, when its orbit was less than 1 AU from the Sun.

  3. Clues to the origin of sulfide minerals in CI chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, J. F.; Macdougall, J. D.; Marti, K.

    1979-01-01

    The dominant sulfide in CI carbonaceous chondrites is an Fe-deficient pyrrhotite containing about 1% Ni, Alais, Ivuna, and Orgueil also contain minor cubanite, CuFe2S3, and Alais minor pentlandite, (Fe,Ni)9S8. All pyrrhotites contain 39.4 + or - 0.1% S; Ni contents range from 0.7 to 1.3%. The phase diagrams reveal no temperature at which the observed pentlandite-pyrrhotite assemblage is at equilibrium. Similarly, the pyrrhotite composition alone are inconsistent with equilibrium formation from a gas of solar composition. In Xe from high-purity submilligram Orgueil pyrrhotite separates, the ratios Xe-129/Xe-132 are not significantly larger than those in trapped meteoritic Xe. The lack of positive evidence for extinct I-129 in pyrrhotite does not permit any inferences regarding cooling rates in the early solar nebula. It is concluded that sulfides in CI chondrites cannot be nebular condensates formed under equilibrium conditions. Argon isotopic abundances reveal the presence of significant spallation and trapped gas components in Orgueil pyrrhotite. The Orgueil exposure age is calculated to be at least about 10 m.y.

  4. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  5. The valence and coordination of titanium in ordinary and enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Steven B.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    One way to better understand processes related to chondrite metamorphism is to evaluate changes in chondrite features as a function of petrologic type. Toward this end the valence and coordination of Ti in olivine and pyroxene in suites of ordinary (H, L, and LL) and enstatite (EH and EL) chondrites of types 3 through 6 have been determined with XANES spectroscopy. Trivalent Ti, typically 10-40% of the Ti in the analytical volumes, was found in ordinary chondrites of all types, despite the stability of oxidized iron in the samples. Average valences and the proportions of Ti that are in tetrahedral coordination generally decrease with increasing grade between types 3.0 and 3.5, increase from 3.5 to 4, and then level off. These trends are consistent with previous studies of chondrite oxidation states using other methods, except here the onset of oxidation is observed at a lower type, ∼3.5, than previously indicated (4). These results are also consistent with previous suggestions that oxidation of higher-grade ordinary chondrite samples involved exposure to aqueous fluids from melting of accreted ice. In the enstatite chondrites, typically 20-90% of the Ti is trivalent Ti, so it is reduced compared to Ti in the ordinary chondrites. Valence decreases slightly from petrologic type 3 to 4 and increases from 4 to 6, but no increases in tetrahedral coordination with petrologic type are observed, indicating a redox environment or process distinct from that of ordinary chondrite metamorphism. The presence of Ti4+ in the E chondrites supports previous suggestions that they formed from oxidized precursors that underwent reduction. Unlike ordinary chondrites, enstatite chondrites are thought to have been derived from a body or bodies that did not accrete ice, which could account for their different valence-coordination-petrologic type relationships. The hypothesis, based on observations of unmetamorphosed chondrules and supported by laboratory experiments, that equilibration

  6. Gallium and germanium in the metal and silicates of L- and LL-chondrites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, C.-L.; Cohen, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of Ga and Ge in the metal of 31 L-, 8 LL- and 2 H-chondrites, and in the silicates of 12 L- and LL-chondrites have been determined by spectrophotometric methods. The ranges of Ga contents in the metal of L- and LL-chondrites are 1.1 to 36.9 ppm and 1.0 to 34.1 ppm, respectively. The Ge content in the metal is positively correlated with Ga and ranges from 89.1 to 160 ppm and from 126 to 308 ppm for L- and LL-chondrites, respectively. The Ga content in the silicates of L-chondrites varies from 4.0 to 8.9 ppm. The Ga and Ge contents in the metal are clearly lower in unequilibrated than in equilibrated L- and LL-group chondrites. Unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites are well separated in the plots of Ga vs Ge in the metal, and the L- and LL-groups are also well resolved. The Ga and Ge in the metal are well correlated with petrologic grade. This suggests that Ga and Ge variations in the metal are related to thermal metamorphism. There is evidence of an enrichment of Ga in the metal due to shock reheating.

  7. Localized Chemical Redistribution During Aqueous Alteration in CR2 Carbonaceous Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Paul V.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are primitive meteorites that are valuable because they preserve evidence of processes that occurred in the solar nebula and on asteroidal parent bodies. Among the carbonaceous chondrite groups, the CR group appears to contain a particularly pristine record of early solar system processes. Distinguishing characteristics of CR2 chondrites include a high abundance of chondrules (50-60 vol.%) and Fe, Ni metal (5-8 vol. %). These meteorites preserve evidence for varying degrees of aqueous alteration, manifested by progressive replacement of chondrule mesostasis by phyllosilicates. Recent studies have suggested that even in weakly altered chondrites, mass transfer occurred between chondrules and fine-grained matrices, implying that aqueous alteration must have followed lithification of the final meteorite parent body. Although petrographic characteristics of alteration in CR chondrites have been documented, mechanisms of alteration are still only poorly understood. For example, the relative rates and scales of elemental mobility as well as the sources and sinks for key elements are currently not constrained. An improved knowledge of these issues will contribute to an increased understanding of aqueous alteration reactions on meteorite parent bodies. This study expands on research conducted on Type IIA chondrules and chondrule fragments from two CR2 chondrites, EET 87770 and EET 92105. These chondrites have been weakly altered; chondrule mesostases show incipient alteration primarily where they are in direct contact with fine-grained matrices.

  8. Thermal evolution model for the H chondrite asteroid-instantaneous formation versus protracted accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, S.; Gail, H.-P.; Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.

    2013-09-01

    We present a model of the thermal evolution of asteroids. Assuming an onion shell model for the H chondrite parent body we obtain constraints for the H chondrite asteroid parameters by fitting empirical H chondrite cooling ages of Estacado, Guareña, Kernouvé, Mt. Browne, Richardton, Allegan, Nadiabondi, Ste. Marguerite, and Forest Vale by using a genetic algorithm for parameter optimisation. The model improves previous calculations on the thermal history calculated in the instantaneous accretion approximation considering sintering and porosity dependent heat conduction. The model is extended to include a finite growth time of the parent body to study whether the meteoritic record constrains the duration of the growth phase of the parent body where it assembles most of its mass. It is found that only short accretion times of up to 0.1 Ma are compatible with the empirical data on H chondrite cooling histories. Best fit models yield excellent agreement with the cooling age data. Particularly, they indicate that (i) 26Al was the major heat source driving metamorphism, while 60Fe contributed rather marginally, (ii) maximum temperatures remained below partial melting temperatures throughout the body, indicating that no partial differentiation occurred on the H chondrite parent asteroid, (iii) the H chondrite asteroid formed 2 Ma after CAIs, briefly after most ordinary chondrite chondrules formed (if 26Al abundance defines a chronological sequence).

  9. Fe-Ni metal and sulfide minerals in CM chondrites: An indicator for thermal history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    CM chondrites were subjected to aqueous alteration and, in some cases, to secondary metamorphic heating. The effects of these processes vary widely, and have mainly been documented in silicate phases. Herein, we report the characteristic features of Fe-Ni metal and sulfide phases in 13 CM and 2 CM-related chondrites to explore the thermal history of these chondrites. The texture and compositional distribution of the metal in CM are different from those in unequilibrated ordinary and CO chondrites, but most have similarities to those in highly primitive chondrites, such as CH, CR, and Acfer 094. We classified the CM samples into three categories based on metal composition and sulfide texture. Fe-Ni metal in category A is kamacite to martensite. Category B is characterized by pyrrhotite grains always containing blebs or lamellae of pentlandite. Opaque mineral assemblages of category C are typically kamacite, Ni-Co-rich metal, and pyrrhotite. These categories are closely related to the degree of secondary heating and are not related to degree of the aqueous alteration. The characteristic features of the opaque minerals can be explained by secondary heating processes after aqueous alteration. Category A CM chondrites are unheated, whereas those in category B experienced small degrees of secondary heating. CMs in category C were subjected to the most severe secondary heating process. Thus, opaque minerals can provide constraints on the thermal history for CM chondrites. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

  10. On the Relationship between Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages and Petrography of CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Lee, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among chondrites because they mostly escaped thermal metamorphism that affected the other chondrite groups. C chondrites are chemically distinguished from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios vary over a wide range, in contrast to those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites which are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many separate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study we defined 4 distinct cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies. We have reported the results of a preliminary grouping at the NIPR Symp. in 2013 [3], however, we revised the grouping and here report our new results.

  11. Effect of metamorphism on isolated olivine grains in CO3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of a metamorphic sequence in the CO3 chondrite group has been shown previously to result in changes in properties of chondrule silicates. However, the role of isolated olivine grains during metamorphism of these chondrites has not been addressed. Isolated olivine grains in two metamorphosed CO3 chondrites, Lance and Isna, have been investigated in this study in order to assess the compositional properties of isolated olivine grains that may be attributable to metamorphism. Compositional changes in isolated olivines with increasing petrologic subtype are very similar to changes in chondrule olivines in the same chondrites. Olivine compositions from all occurrences (chondrules, isolated grains, and matrix) converge with increasing petrologic subtype. The degree of equilibration of minor elements is qualitatively related to the diffusion rate of each element in olivine, suggesting that diffusion-controlled processes are the most important processes responsible for compositional changes within the metamorphic sequence. The data are consistent with metamorphism taking place in a closed system on the CO3 chondrite parent body. Fe-poor olivine grains in metamorphosed chondrites are characterized by an Fe-rich rim, which is the result of diffusion of Fe into the grains from Fe-rich matrix. In some instances, 'complex', Fe-rich rims have been identified, which appear to have originated as igneous overgrowths and subsequently to have been overprinted by diffusion processes during metamorphism. Processes experienced by CO3 chondrites are more similar to those experienced by the ordinary chondrites than to those encountered by other carbonaceous chondrites, such as the CV3 group.

  12. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  13. Metal phases in ordinary chondrites: Magnetic hysteresis properties and implications for thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic properties are sensitive proxies to characterize FeNi metal phases in meteorites. We present a data set of magnetic hysteresis properties of 91 ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite that dominates the induced magnetism and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone as single-domain grains, and as larger multidomain grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite) dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. The bulk metal contents derived from magnetic measurements are in agreement with those estimated previously from chemical analyses. We evidence a decreasing metal content with increasing petrologic type in ordinary chondrites, compatible with oxidation of metal during thermal metamorphism. Types 5 and 6 ordinary chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites. This is compatible with lower cooling rates in the 650-450 °C interval for higher petrographic types (consistent with an onion-shell model), but is more likely the result of the oxidation of ordinary chondrites with increasing metamorphism. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above approximately 500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism and high cooling rates (e.g., following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism). Our data strengthen the view that the poor magnetic recording properties of multidomain kamacite and the secondary origin of tetrataenite make equilibrated ordinary chondrites challenging

  14. The Cooling History and Structure of the Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1996-01-01

    Most major meteorite classes exhibit significant ranges of metamorphism. The effects of metamorphism have been extensively characterized, but the heat source(s) and the metamorphic environment are unknown. Proposed beat sources include Al-26, Fe-60, electromagnetic induction, and impact. It is typically assumed that metamorphism occurred in parent bodies of some sort, but it uncertain whether these bodies were highly structured ("onion skins") or were chaotic mixes of material ("rubble piles"). The lack of simple trends of metallographic cooling rates with petrologic type has been considered supportive of both concepts. In this study, we use induced thermoluminescence (TL) as an indicator of thermal history. The TL of ordinary chondrites is produced by sodic feldspar, and the induced TL peak temperature is related to its crystallographic order/disorder. Ordered feldspar has TL peak temperatures of approx. 120 C, and disordered feldspar has TL peak temperatures of approx. 220 C. While ordered feldspar can be easily disordered in the laboratory by heating above 650 C and is easily quenched in the disordered form, producing ordered feldspar requires cooling at geologic cooling rates. We have measured the induced TL properties of 101 equilibrated ordinary chondrites, including 49 H, 29 L, and 23 LL chondrites. For the H chondrites there is an apparent trend of decreasing induced TL peak temperature with increasing petrologic type. H4 chondrites exhibit a tight range of TL peak temperatures, 190 C - 200 C, while H6 chondrites exhibit TL peak temperatures between 180 C and 190 C. H5 chondrites cover the range between H4 and H6, and also extend up to 210 C. Similar results are obtained for LL chondfiles and most L6 chondrites have lower induced TL peak temperatures than L5 chondrites.

  15. Metamorphic grade of organic matter in six unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, E.; Raynal, P. I.; Bourot-Denise, M.

    2003-05-01

    The thermal metamorphism grade of organic matter (OM) trapped in 6 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) (Semarkona [LL 3.0], Bishunpur [L/LL 3.1], Krymka [LL 3.1], Chainpur [LL 3.4], Inman [L/LL 3.4], and Tieschitz [H/L 3.6]) has been investigated with Raman spectroscopy in the region of the first-order carbon bands. The carbonaceous chondrite Renazzo (CR2) was also investigated and used as a reference object for comparison, owing to the fact that previous studies pointed to the OM in this meteorite as being the most pristine among all chondrites. The results show that the OM thermal metamorphic grade: 1) follows the hierarchy Renazzo << Semarkona << other UOCs; 2) is well correlated to the petrographic type of the studied objects; and 3) is also well correlated with the isotopic enrichment 15N. These results are strikingly consistent with earlier cosmochemical studies, in particular, the scenario proposed by Alexander et al. (1998). Thermal metamorphism in the parent body appears as the main evolution process of OM in UOCs, demonstrating that nebular heating was extremely weak and that OM burial results in the destabilization of an initial isotopic composition with high D and 15N. Furthermore, the clear discrimination between Renazzo, Semarkona, and other UOCs shows: 1) Semarkona is a very peculiar UOC--by far the most pristine; and 2) Raman spectroscopy is a valid and valuable tool for deriving petrographic sub-types (especially the low ones) that should be used in the future to complement current techniques. We compare our results with other current techniques, namely, induced thermo-luminescence and opaques petrography. Other results have been obtained. First, humic coals are not strictly valid standard materials for meteoritic OM but are helpful in the study of evolutionary trends due to thermal metamorphism. Second, terrestrial weathering has a huge effect on OM structure, particularly in Inman, which is a find. Finally, the earlier statement that fine

  16. Composition of matrix in the CR chondrite LAP 02342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Rubin, Alan E.

    2009-03-01

    We report evidence of interchondrule matrix heterogeneity on a scale of ˜50 μm in the well-preserved CR2 chondrite LAP 02342. Despite minor effects resulting from asteroidal aqueous alteration, the matrix in this CR chondrite seems to preserve much of the compositional record of nebular fines. We carried out electron-microprobe studies using a 3-μm-diameter beam; we analyzed 10 elements in 36- or 49-point grids on 11 ca. 50 × 50-μm rectangular areas of matrix. Each grid area has a distinct composition, inconsistent with a simple model of matrix material having a uniform composition throughout the nebular formation region of the CR chondrites. On S-Fe, Mg-Si, K-Na and K-Al scatter diagrams, the grid areas (i.e., different matrix patches) are largely separated from each other; plots of means with 95% confidence limits demonstrate that the compositions are resolvable. Five matrix areas were analyzed again in duplicate runs; excellent agreement was observed between duplicate studies. LAP 02342 experienced two forms of mild aqueous alteration - as patchy enrichments in Ca (inferred to reflect CaCO 3) and as regions in which sulfide laths are embedded within phyllosilicates. Despite this evidence of aqueous transport, the effect on the composition of matrix is not resolvable. For example, matrix points that were adjacent to points with high CaCO 3 contents show elemental concentrations similar to those in regions having only one or two points with a Ca enrichment. It appears that secondary minerals are found in areas where there are suitable precursor phases and voids into which new phases could grow unimpeded. Calcium appears to be unique in forming a phase that greatly lowers the Ca ++ content of the aqueous medium, thus enhancing the rate of diffusion. Because chondrules vary widely in bulk composition, the formation of chondrules in small sets (100 or less) could generate "smoke" and mesostasis spray with compositions unique to each set. However, if these

  17. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (<1 kbar) that typify thermal metamorphism, several compositional variables are good thermometers. Although those based on Fe-Mg exchange are likely to have been reset during slow cooling, those based on coupled substitution, in particular Ca and Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, are less susceptible to retrograde diffusion and are potentially more faithful recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic

  18. The early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10/sup 9/ years ago, the atomic ratio of /sup 244/Pu//sup 238/U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Comparative 187Re-187Os systematics of chondrites: Implications regarding early solar system processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Becker, H.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 47 carbonaceous, enstatite, and ordinary chondrites are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. There are significant differences in the 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites compared with ordinary and enstatite chondrites. The average 187Re/188Os for carbonaceous chondrites is 0.392 ?? 0.015 (excluding the CK chondrite, Karoonda), compared with 0.422 ?? 0.025 and 0.421 ?? 0.013 for ordinary and enstatite chondrites (1?? standard deviations). These ratios, recast into elemental Re/Os ratios, are as follows: 0.0814 ?? 0.0031, 0.0876 ?? 0.0052 and 0.0874 ?? 0.0027 respectively. Correspondingly, the 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites average 0.1262 ?? 0.0006 (excluding Karoonda), and ordinary and enstatite chondrites average 0.1283 ?? 0.0017 and 0.1281 ?? 0.0004, respectively (1?? standard deviations). The new results indicate that the Re/Os ratios of meteorites within each group are, in general, quite uniform. The minimal overlap between the isotopic compositions of ordinary and enstatite chondrites vs. carbonaceous chondrites indicates long-term differences in Re/Os for these materials, most likely reflecting chemical fractionation early in solar system history. A majority of the chondrites do not plot within analytical uncertainties of a 4.56-Ga reference isochron. Most of the deviations from the isochron are consistent with minor, relatively recent redistribution of Re and/or Os on a scale of millimeters to centimeters. Some instances of the redistribution may be attributed to terrestrial weathering; others are most likely the result of aqueous alteration or shock events on the parent body within the past 2 Ga. The 187Os/188Os ratio of Earth's primitive upper mantle has been estimated to be 0.1296 ?? 8. If this composition was set via addition of a late veneer of planetesimals after core formation, the composition suggests the veneer was dominated by materials that had Re/Os ratios most similar to ordinary and

  20. Plutonium, uranium and rare earths in the phosphates of ordinary chondrites - The quest for a chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crozaz, G.; Pellas, P.; Bourot-Denise, M.; de Chazal, S. M.; Fieni, C.; Lundberg, L. L.; Zinner, E.

    1989-06-01

    The distributions of Pu, U, and the REEs in single crystals of the calcium phosphates, merrillite, and apatite of ordinary chondrites were investigated, inferring limites on Pu concentrations from fossil track measurements. The study takes spallation-induced tracks into account. Despite the higher affinity of both Pu and the REEs for merrilite than apatite, no quantitative correlation is found between the abundances of these elements in merrillite grains from a given ordinary chondrite, indicating that Pu-244 cannot be used to determine the relative formation times of chondrites.

  1. Mineralogic and petrologic study of the low-temperature minerals in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Samples and petrographic thin sections of the Orgueil, Ivuna, and Alais chondrites were examined by optical, X-ray, and SEM techniques. Mineral species identified as primary vein constituents were epsomite, gypsum, and a calcium-magnesium carbonate. Relative abundances and textural relationships have suggested that fracture mineralization was a multi stage process, with individual mineralizations closely associated with impact brecciation events. Mass balance considerations of carbonaceous chondrite matrix support the prevailing view that the source of the fracture filling minerals was local. By inference they also suggest that the phyllosilicate matrix has been chemically altered and that there are probably very few primitive mineral phases in the primitive Cl chondrites.

  2. Thermal history of type-3 chondrites in the NASA antarctic collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.

    2014-07-01

    Chondrites are the most primitive meteorites. However, they were all modified in some ways by post-accretion geological processes operating on their asteroidal parent bodies. Hence, to decipher the formation(s) and origin(s) of their components, we must first understand how chondritic materials were modified in their asteroidal parent bodies. The modifications induced by secondary processes should not be underestimated and have to be precisely estimated before any interpretation of chondrite properties in terms of cosmochemistry. In particular, all chondrites contain some organic components that were potentially chemically and physically modified through post-accretion processes. A thin understanding of the induced evolution is required to allow for pertinent comparisons with other primitive extraterrestrial materials, such as cometary grains, to finally address questions such as the origin of organics in the Solar System. Type 3 chondrites experienced thermal metamorphism on their asteroidal parent body due to the radioactive decay of elements such as ^{26}Al. Temperatures higher than 300 °C were experienced on timescales of several thousands of years. Still, type 3 chondrites remain as unequilibrated rocks and common mineralogical thermometers cannot be applied. The polyaromatic carbonaceous matter is sensitive to thermal episodes (of long and short duration) experienced by the host meteorite. In particular, its structural order directly reflects the thermal history experienced on their parent bodies. The structural modification of the aromatic carbonaceous matter towards a higher order is irreversible, and independent of the mineralogy and degree of aqueous alteration. It is mainly controlled by the peak metamorphic temperature. Moreover, under the assumption of fairly similar organic precursors among chondrites of distinct groups, the structural order of polyaromatic organic matter allows for a direct comparison of their metamorphic grades. It is then possible

  3. Clues to the origin of metal in Almahata Sitta EL and EH chondrites and implications for primitive E chondrite thermal histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, Marian; Humayun, Munir; Bischoff, Addi

    2014-09-01

    Enstatite (E) chondrites are a group of texturally highly variable meteorites formed under strongly reducing conditions giving rise to unique mineral and chemical characteristics (e.g., high abundances of various sulfides and Si-bearing metal). In particular the abundant metal comprises a range of textures in E chondrites of different petrologic type, but available in situ siderophile trace element data on metal are limited. Nine samples of E chondrites from the recent Almahata Sitta fall [one EH3, two EL3/4, two EL6, two EL impact melt rocks (IMR), two EH IMR] were investigated in this study in addition to St. Mark’s (EH5) and Grein 002 (EL4/5), with a focus on the nature of their metal constituents. Special attention was given to metal-silicate intergrowths (MSSI) that occur in many primitive E chondrites, which have been interpreted as post-accretionary asteroidal impact melts or primitive nebular condensates. This study shows that siderophile trace element systematics in E chondrite metal are independent of petrologic type of the host rock and distinct from condensation signatures. Three basic types of siderophile trace element signatures can be distinguished, indicating crystallization from a melt, thermal equilibration upon metamorphism/complete melting, and exsolution of schreibersite-perryite-sulfide. Textural and mineral-chemical constraints from EL3/4s are used to evaluate previously proposed formation processes of MSSI (impact melting vs. nebular condensation) and elucidate which other formation scenarios are feasible. It is shown that post-accretionary (in situ) impact melting or metallic melt injection forming MSSI on the thin section scale, and nebular condensation, are unlikely formation processes. This leads to the conclusion that MSSIs are pre-accretionary melt objects that were formed during melting processes prior to the accretion of the primitive E chondrites. The same can be concluded for metal nodules in the EH3 chondrite examined. The pre

  4. Heterogeneous plagioclase compositions in the Maralinga CK4 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1993-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of CK chondrites is the wide compositional range displayed by feldspar grains in matrix relative to the narrow range of compositions exhibited by the highly equilibrated olivines and pyroxenes. Recently, it was suggested that these heterogeneous feldspar compositions may have been strongly influenced by shock metamorphisms. It is shown that the apparent range of feldspar compositions in Maralinga probably results from annealing during parent body thermal metamorphism rather than shock. The majority of matrix feldspars in Maralinga are typically 50 microns in size and are compositionally zoned, with oligoclase cores (approximately An40) and bytownite rims (approximately An80). The contact between core and rim is sharp and abrupt and is readily observed in backscattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images.

  5. Alkaline Element Fractionations in LL-chondritic Breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Okano, O.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Fractionation of moderately volatile lithophile elements including alkaline elements was an important process in the early solar system. Alkali-rich igneous fragments (K-rich fragments) were found in brecciated LL-chondrites. These fragments in Kraehenberg (LL5), Bhola (LL3-6), and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4) show fractionated alkaline element patterns; for example, abundances of alkaline elements in the Kraehenberg fragment are ~0.5 x CI for Na, ~12 x CI for K,~45 x CI for Rb, and ~70 x CI for Cs [1]. In order to understand moderately volatile element fractionations, we have undertaken mineralogical and petrological studies on K-rich fragments in Kraehenberg [1], Bhola [2], and Y-74442 [3, 4]. Results and Discussion: Kraehenberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 consist of mineral fragments, K-rich fragments, impact-melt clasts, chondrules, and matrix. K-rich fragments in these meteorites are composed of 10-100 µm-sized euhedral olivine (~60 vol.%) and groundmass of brown glasses (~40 vol.%, including microcrystalline pyroxene) which are highly enriched in alkaline elements. Dendritic pyroxene and chromite (~1 µm in size) along with troilite (~10 µm in size) are commonly observed in the groundmass. The textures are different from those of impact melt clasts in ordinary chondrites. Chemical compositions of olivine in the K-rich fragments fall within the compositional range of equilibrated LL-chondrites (Fa26-32 [5]). Groundmass glasses in the Kraehenberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 fragments are almost identical in composition when plotted on a Na+K+Al-oxides-Ca+Mg+Fe-oxides-SiO2 ternary diagram [1]. The fractionation trend is also observed in an angular igneous fragment in Siena (LL5) [6]. The lack of K isotopic fractionation effects in the K-rich clast in Kraehenberg [7] implies that the enrichment of (heavier) alkaline elements occurred near-equilibrium conditions. The K-rich fragments in Kraehenberg and Y-74442 could be early solar system materials (~4.56 Ga [8, 9

  6. Grain size distribution of the matrix in the Allende chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, M.

    1989-03-01

    Results are presented from analytical TEM, high-resolution TEM, and SEM studies of the Allende chondrite, showing that the matrix consists of very fine-grained Fe-rich olivine, Ca-poor and Fe-rich clinopyroxene, Fe-rich spinel, and Ni-bearing troilite. Slightly sintered and non-sintered very fine-grained aggregates are observed. The results suggest that the coarse-grained olivine aggregates experienced a heating event, whereas the ultrafine-grained aggregates did not. The size and frequency distributions of matrix grains are measured. The frequency distribution displays a long-term tail with power law and a log-normal pattern with a peak at 5 nm in the range from 1 to 10 nm. This suggests that the fine-grained matrix was probably formed at conditions far from equilibrium in the protosolar cloud.

  7. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilbrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of meteorites is most effectively carried out by petrographic and mineralogic studies of thin sections, but a rapid and accurate classification technique for the many samples collected in dense collection areas (hot and cold deserts) is of great interest. Oil immersion techniques have been used to classify a large proportion of the US Antarctic meteorite collections since the mid-1980s [1]. This approach has allowed rapid characterization of thousands of samples over time, but nonetheless utilizes a piece of the sample that has been ground to grains or a powder. In order to compare a few non-destructive techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  8. On mobile element transport in heated Abee. [chondrite thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikramuddin, M.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Abee chondrite samples were heated at 700 C for one week at 0.00001 to 0.001 atm Ne or at 0.00001 atm H2. Samples heated in Ne showed greater loss of Bi and Se and greater retention of Zn than those heated in H2. An inverse relationship between Zn retention and ambient Ne pressure was found. Seven trace elements (Ag, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Te, and Tl) were retained or lost to the same extent regardless of the heating conditions. Variations in the apparent activation energy for C above and below 700 C suggest that diffusive loss from different hosts and/or different mobile transport processes over the temperature range may have been in effect.

  9. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  10. Magnetic Properties of the Recently Fallen Baszkowka Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, E.; Lang, B.

    1996-03-01

    We are studying the magnetic properties of the Baszkowka L5 chondrite. This meteorite fell on August 25, 1994, at 4 PM local time in Baszkowka settlement, a distance of 2.5 km to the south from the center of Warsaw, the capital of Poland. The fall, which was observed, included a single 15 kg body of regular shape (the segment of a sphere). The magnetic study of the meteorite was inaugurated in the autumn of 1995. Having in mind a detailed examination of rock magnetic properties, we have started with measuremetns of the natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility. Until now the detailed parameters of the hysteresis loop have been determined. The examination of Curie temperatures of magnetic carriers and thermal plus AF demagnetication of specimens are in progress.

  11. Titanium isotopic anomalies in hibonites from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Compston, W.; Heydegger, H. R.

    1985-09-01

    The isotopic compositions of titanium in eight grains of hibonite (CaAl12O19) from the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison have been determined by high precision secondary ion mass spectrometry using an ion microprobe. The titanium in the hibonites varies greatly in Ti-50 from about -42 to +8 permil (relative to terrestrial) with smaller (up to 4 permil), but clearly resolvable, effects in Ti-46 and Ti-48. These results confirm the presence of widespread negative anomalies suggested by the results of Hutcheon et al. (1983) on hibonites from Murchison. The magnitude of these variations seems explicable only in terms of nucleogenic processes which produced extremely variable titanium isotopic abundances in the hibonite source materials. The hibonites evidently did not participate to the same extent as most material in the mixing and homogenisation processes that accompanied the formation and later evolution of the solar system.

  12. Major element chemical compositions of chondrules in unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical compositions (except for metals and sulfides in chondrules) of more than 500 chondrules from unequilibrated E, H, L, LL, and C chondrites were measured using a broad beam of an electron-probe microanalyzer. The compositions of chondrules can be represented by various mixtures of normative compositions of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, and high-Ca pyroxene with minor amounts of spinel, feldspathoid, SiO2-minerals, etc., indicating that the chondrule precursor materials consisted of aggregates of these minerals. The Al, Na, and K contents of most chondrules reflect the compositions of the ternary feldspar (An-Ab-Kf) of the chondrule precursor materials, and chemical types of chondrules (KF, SP, IP, and CP) are defined on the basis of the atomic proportion of Al, Na, and K.

  13. Aqueous alteration in five chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1991-02-01

    Results are presented on AEM observations carried out on chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), which include data on alkali-rich layer silicates and new observations of nonstoichiometric plagioclase and alkali feldspars in individual CP IDPs. The compositional similarities found between the feldspar minerals and the layer silicates suggest that the latter have formed from these feldspars during low-temperature aqueous alterations at a stage of diagenesis in the CP IDP parent bodies. Small, but persistent, amounts of layer silicates, carbonates, and barite found in several nominally anhydrous CP IDPs support the suggestion of incipient aqueous alterations in their parent bodies, which may include short-period comet nuclei and outer-belt asteroids.

  14. A corundum-rich inclusion in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.; Hutcheon, I. D.; MacPherson, G. J.; Grossman, L.

    1982-01-01

    Although thermodynamic calculations predict corundum to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition, a corundum-hibonite inclusion, BB-5, has for the first time been found in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. Ion microprobe measurements of Mg isotopic compositions yield the result, unexpected in such an early condensate, that Mg-26 excesses are small despite large Al-27/Mg-24 ratios. The extreme temperature required to melt this inclusion makes a liquid origin unlikely, except by the hypervelocity impact of refractory bodies. Alternatively, B-5 is a direct gas-solid condensate, and its uniform Mg-26 enrichment must be a characteristic of the reservoir from which it condensed. Nebular heterogeneity in magnesium isotopic composition is the preferred explanation for the formation of such a reservoir.

  15. Rb-Sr studies of CI and CM chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Wetherill, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole rock analyses have been performed on 2 CI and 3 CM chondrites. Four of these stones (Ivuna, Orgueil, Cold Bokkeveld and Erakot) were previously studied in this laboratory and were shown to be discordant from a 4.6 Gyr isochron. The fifth, Murchison, was not previously studied. The new data support the discordance of the first four stones, and indicate that Murchison is also discordant. Studies of Sr isotope ratios in unspiked Orgueil show that the discordance is not due to inhomogeneities in the Sr-84/Sr-86 ratio caused by incomplete mixing of nucleosynthesis products. In order to gauge the effects of weathering, two leaching experiments were performed on fresh, interior samples of Murchison; one for a period of 1.5 hr and the other for 117 hr. The results indicate that the relative solubility of nonradiogenic Sr is approximately twice that of Rb and radiogenic Sr is more soluble than the nonradiogenic Sr.

  16. Aqueous alteration in five chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on AEM observations carried out on chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), which include data on alkali-rich layer silicates and new observations of nonstoichiometric plagioclase and alkali feldspars in individual CP IDPs. The compositional similarities found between the feldspar minerals and the layer silicates suggest that the latter have formed from these feldspars during low-temperature aqueous alterations at a stage of diagenesis in the CP IDP parent bodies. Small, but persistent, amounts of layer silicates, carbonates, and barite found in several nominally anhydrous CP IDPs support the suggestion of incipient aqueous alterations in their parent bodies, which may include short-period comet nuclei and outer-belt asteroids.

  17. A model for the production of cosmogenic nuclides in chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, TH.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented for calculating the production rates of cosmic-ray-produced He, Ne, and Ar as well as Be-10, Al-26, and Mn-53 in chondrites of variable size and shape. The predictions of this model are compared with published data for the meteorites ALH78084, St. Severin, and Keyes. The agreement is found to be about 5 percent for the concentrations of Be-10, Ne-21, Ne-22, Ar-38, and Mn-53, and to be better than 1 percent for the Ne-22/Ne-21 ratios. The correlation between P(Be-10)/P(Ne-21) and Ne-22/Ne-21 ratios is experimentally verified over a wide range of irradiation conditions.

  18. Hydrothermal Convection and Aqueous Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palguta, Jennifer; Travis, B. J.; Schubert, G.

    2006-09-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) are derived from undifferentiated icy planetesimals and are the most primitive meteorites. The information that we can derive from CCs depends largely on our understanding the effects of water in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies (CCPBs). The way water influenced the parent bodies’ evolution depends partly on the flow rates and patterns of the water circulation. The first quantitative models for the thermal evolution of CCPBs were based on parameterized hydrothermal convection and homogeneous alteration. Recent work has presented full models of hydrothermal convection in an internally heated, self-gravitating porous sphere. These results illustrate that the convective patterns in CCPBs are not uniform. Some regions of the body experience little to no pore water flow while other regions experience hundreds of pore volumes. It has long been held that CC meteorites of different chemical groups come from distinct parent bodies. Simulations showing heterogeneous patterns of fluid flow in CCPBs have led to the suggestion that parent bodies could be heterogeneously altered and, consequently, one parent body could be a source for multiple groups of CC meteorites. Previously, no numerical convection simulations of CCPBs have included water-rock reactions. We have coupled the computer code MAGHNUM with the reaction package PHREEQC. We use MAGHNUM to simulate the dynamic freezing, thawing and flow of water in a radiogenically-heated, self-gravitating body. The accompanying water-rock interactions are modeled with PHREEQC. Flow and chemistry are coupled through, for example, reaction rates and temperature. This work was supported by a grant from the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  19. Formation of chondrites in a thick dynamic regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Benoit, P. H.

    1994-07-01

    H was proposed that chondrules formed as the products of energetic impacts in a very thick dynamic dust layer of an accreting asteroid-sized object and that the various chondrule groups, and thus chondrite classes, formed by variations in the number and intensity of impacts. We here argue that in such a dust layer there was probably a steady flow of volatiles and that on occasion conditions may have resembled those of a fluidized bed in which density and size sorting produced the metal-silicate fractionation and chondrule size distributions observed among the chondrites. The existence of a temporary atmosphere is suggested by the elemental and isotopic abundance patterns observed in chondrules. The atmosphere may have been permanent, but was probably transient, consisting of water and other volatiles from the parent body most probably produced during accretion and chondrule formation. It seems unlikely that such an atmosphere would be cosmic in composition and there are experimental reasons for suspecting that the H/O ratio was many orders of magnitude below cosmic and the P(Na) was much higher than expected for gases of cosmic composition. The requirements for minimal fluidization are determined by equating the upward drag force of the escaping volatiles and the downward gravitational force on the particles. We calculate that most asteroids smaller than few hundred kilometers should be capable of producing a sufficiently high flow rate of volatiles to produce fluidization. The extent of presumed fluidization seems to decrease with present volatile contents of the classes, consistent with the loss of volatiles during fluidization from parents of generally similar original composition.

  20. Multiple precursors of secondary mineralogical assemblages in CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Vacher, Lionel. G.; Delon, RéMi; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    We report a petrographic and mineralogical survey of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris, a new CM chondrite considered to be the least altered CM identified to date. Our results indicate that type-I TCIs consist of compact tochilinite/cronstedtite rims surrounding Fe-Ni metal beads, thus confirming kamacite as the precursor of type-I TCIs. In contrast, type-II TCIs are characterized by complex compositional zoning composed of three different Fe-bearing secondary minerals: from the outside inwards, tochilinite, cronstedtite, and amakinite. Type-II TCIs present well-developed faces that allow a detailed morphological analysis to be performed in order to identify the precursors. The results demonstrate that type-II TCIs formed by pseudomorphism of the anhydrous silicates, olivine, and pyroxene. Hence, there is no apparent genetic relationship between type-I and type-II TCIs. In addition, the complex chemical zoning observed within type-II TCIs suggests that the alteration conditions evolved dramatically over time. At least three stages of alteration can be proposed, characterized by alteration fluids with varying compositions (1) Fe- and S-rich fluids; (2) S-poor and Fe- and Si-rich fluids; and (3) S- and Si-poor, Fe-rich fluids. The presence of unaltered silicates in close association with euhedral type-II TCIs suggests the existence of microenvironments during the first alteration stages of CM chondrites. In addition, the absence of Mg-bearing secondary minerals in Paris TCIs suggests that the Mg content increases during the course of alteration.

  1. STARDUST INVESTIGATION INTO THE CR CHONDRITE GROVE MOUNTAIN 021710

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Xuchao; Lin Yangting; Floss, Christine; Bose, Maitrayee

    2013-05-20

    We report the presolar grain inventory of the CR chondrite Grove Mountain 021710. A total of 35 C-anomalous grains ({approx}236 ppm) and 112 O-anomalous grains ({approx}189 ppm) were identified in situ using NanoSIMS ion imaging. Of 35 C-anomalous grains, 28 were determined to be SiC grains by Auger spectroscopy. Seven of the SiC grains were subsequently measured for N and Si isotopes, allowing classification as one nova grain, one Y grain, one Z grain, and four mainstream grains. Eighty-nine out of 112 O-anomalous grains belong to Group 1, indicating origins in low-to-intermediate-mass red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars. Twenty-one are Group 4 grains and have origins in supernovae. Auger spectroscopic elemental measurements of 35 O-anomalous grains show that 33 of them are ferromagnesian silicates. They have higher Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios than those reported in other meteorites, suggesting a lower degree of alteration in the nebula and/or asteroid parent bodies. Only two oxide grains were identified, with stoichiometric compositions of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2}, respectively. The presolar silicate/oxide ratio of GRV 021710 is comparable with those of the CR3 chondrites (QUE 99177 and MET 00426) and primitive interplanetary dust particles. In order to search for presolar sulfides, the meteorite was also mapped for S isotopes. However, no presolar sulfides were found, suggesting a maximum abundance of 2 ppm. The scarcity of presolar sulfides may be due to their much faster sputtering rate by cosmic rays compared to silicates.

  2. Petrologic evidence for collisional heating of chondritic asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1995-01-01

    The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.

  3. Search for Organic Nanoglobules in Carbonaceous Chondrites Using Microtomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakano, T.; Uesugi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Primitive solar materials have various organic matters. In recent years, novel organic materials called organic nanoglobules of a few hundred micrometers in typical size were discovered in carbonaceous chondrites, IDPs, and comet 81P/Wild 2. The organic globules are spherical shape and in many cases with hollow structures. Composition of the globules are mainly aromatic carbon. The isotopic anomalies of SD and 6N 15 observed in the globules indicate that they were formed from photochemical reaction to ice particles at very low temperature environment, such as molecular clouds or outer protosolar disk. Aqueous alteration of organic matters and the gamma-ray irradiation to PAH are also suggested as alternative possible formation processes. If the globules are made from organic ice particles, the hollow regions of the globules are suggested to be once filled with volatile H20-rich organic ices, while if they were formed by aqueous alteration, the hollow regions should be filled with a fluid which caused the aqueous alteration. However, fluids in the globules have not been detected so far in the previous studies. If fluids were originally preserved in the hollows, they might be lost during destructive processes of sample separation or preparation for TEM observation. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a nondestructive method which can determine 3-D internal structures of objects. SR (synchrotron radiation)-based imaging microtomography can give submicron spatial resolution [8] and was applied to micro textures in extraterrestrial materials, such as cometary grains captured by the Stardust mission [9]. If organic globules are observed non-destructively in carbonaceous chondrites by tomography, we can check the presence of fluids in the hollows. If fluids are preserved, we may analyze chemical and isotopic compositions of the fluids. The purpose of this study is to observe organic nanoglobules using imaging tomography for future analysis.

  4. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-06-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  5. Northwest Africa 8709: A Rare but Revealing Type 3 Ordinary Chondrite Melt Breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A. M.; Hutson, M.; Friedrich, J. M.; Bland, P. A.; Pugh, R.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the discovery of a rare L3 melt breccia, which has implications for compaction processes that must have contributed to the lithification of what are expected to have been initially porous primordial chondritic agglomerates.

  6. Petrogenesis of complex veins in the Chantonnay /L6f/ chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Hill, B.

    1982-07-01

    Two cross-cutting veins in the Chantonnay (L6f) chondrite illustrate different patterns of fractionation of total chondritic shock melts. The earlier vein, which is dark-colored and bears abundant host rock xenoliths, is strongly reduced and sodium-poor relative to the bulk meteorite. It resembles and may be cogenetic with melt pockets in Chantonnay. The later vein, which is lighter-colored and somewhat vesicular, lacks evidence of either Na loss or reduction but shows modest internal differentation. Its metal and total iron contents (26.5 wt.%) are higher than normal for L-group chondrites. The trend of chemical fractionation recorded in the earlier Chantonnay vein resembles that reported for chondrules in ordinary chondrites, suggesting that chemical variations among chondrules in part reflect variations among their parental shock melts.

  7. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of the Buzzard Coulee Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanson, D.; Samson, C.; Herd, R. K.; Fry, C.; McCausland, P. J. A.; Umoh, J.; Holdsworth, D. W.

    2012-03-01

    This abstract outlines research and some results of X-ray micro-computed tomography imaging of the Buzzard Coulee H4 chondrite. A comparison of bulk density results and an analysis of radio-density profile curves are discussed.

  8. Northwest Africa 5958: A weakly altered CM-related ungrouped chondrite, not a CI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Beck, Pierre; Caste, Florent; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Sonzogni, Corinne; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5958 is a carbonaceous chondrite found in Morocco in 2009. Preliminary chemical and isotopic data leading to its initial classification as C3.0 ungrouped have prompted us to conduct a multitechnique study of this meteorite and present a general description here. The petrography and chemistry of NWA 5958 is most similar to a CM chondrite, with a low degree of aqueous alteration, apparently under oxidizing conditions, and evidence of a second, limited alteration episode manifested by alteration fronts. The oxygen isotopic composition, with ∆'17O = -4.3‰, is more 16O-rich than all CM chondrites, indicating, along with other compositional arguments, a separate parent body of origin. We suggest that NWA 5958 be reclassified as an ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite related to the CM group.

  9. Mars as the Parent Body for the CI Carbonaceous Chondrites: Confirmation of Early Mars Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2003-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that CI Carbonaceaous Chondrites belong in the Mars meteorite family. They thus represent samples, like ALH84001, of the Noachian surface environment, and are rich in organic matter, suggesting a living environment.

  10. Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions. III - Consortium study of relationship to inclusions in Allan Hills 78113 aubrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Verkouteren, R. Michael; Sears, Derek W. G.; Hasan, Fouad A.; Prinz, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn in large chondritic clasts from the Cumbersand Falls aubrite were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and the results, together with the results of a mineralogical investigation, were compared with respective data obtained for three primitive inclusions from the ALH A78113 aubrite. The results indicated that the clasts from both aubrite sources constitute a single chondritic suite. The analyses data, together with the results of thermoluminescence data for Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions and achondritic host, indicate that inclusions in Cumberland Falls and in ALH A78113 aubrite represent a primitive chondrite sample suite whose properties were established during primary nebular accretion and condensation over a broad redox range.

  11. Thermoluminescence Sensitivity and Thermal History of Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites: Review and Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Ninagawa, K.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the induced thermoluminescence (TL) data for 102 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. We discuss these data in terms of pairing, weathering, and parent body thermal history. We identify ten possible meteorites of petrologic types 3.0-3.1.

  12. Implications of Shock Features in the Amphibole- and Mica-Bearing R Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    2013-09-01

    The amphibole- and mica-bearing R6 chondrites have distinct shock features consistent with formation near the asteroid surface. They may have been hydrated at elevated temperatures beneath an impermeable compressed zone below a large impact crater.

  13. Metal phase in a B1-type CAI fragment of the CV Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1991-09-01

    Results are presented from petrographical, mineralogical, and chemical analyses of metal particles in two B1-type CAI fragments obtained from the Efremovka CV chondrite. The fragments were found to have a broken outer border consisting mainly of grains of Ca phosphates and a Fe/Ni phase. Both fragments are associated with V2O3-rich pyroxene. All individual particles and veins of the fragments are made up from high-Ni tenite, sometimes enriched in V. It is suggested that all features of the metal phase of this chondrite are a consequence of oxidation, or of partial evaporation of the metal followed by its oxidation, and that the characteristics of the metal phase of the CAI phase of the Efremovka chondrite may correspond to those of the protomatter of some fremdlings, such as the Allende chondrite.

  14. Evidence for Impact Shock Melting in CM and CI Chondrite Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Le, Loan

    2014-01-01

    C class asteroids frequently exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, or a mixture of phyllosilicate-rich material along with regions where they are absent. One particularly important example appears to be near-Earth asteroid 1999 JU3, the target of the Hayabusa II sample return mission [1], although not all spectra indicate this. In fact most spectra of 1999 JU3 are featureless, suggesting a heterogeneous regolith. Here we explore an alternative cause of dehydration of regolith of C class asteroids - impact shock melting. Impact shock melting has been proposed to explain some mineralogical characteristics of CB chondrites, but has not been considered a major process for hydrous carbonaceous chondrites. What evidence is there for significant shock melting in the very abundant CMs, or less abundant but still important CI chondrites?

  15. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  16. Titanium oxide Magneli phases in four chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, E. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed analytical electron microscope analyses of four fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) reveal the presence of titanium oxide Magneli phases, Ti(n)O(2n-1) (n = 4, 5, 6), and rare Ti-metal. The association of Magneli phases, Ti-metal, and carbonaceous material in chondritic IDPs, along with the grain size distributions of Ti-metal and Magneli phases and equilibrium dissociation pressures for these oxygen-deficient Ti-oxides, support in situ solid carbon gasification in these extraterrestrial particles. The active catalyst in this process is titanium metal that may be of interstellar origin. A model is proposed that explains the higher solid carbon content of chondritic IDPs relative to bulk carbon abundances typical for carbonaceous chondrite matrices that represent another type of more metamorphosed undifferentiated solar system bodies.

  17. Tibooburra, a new Australian meteorite find, and other carbonaceous chondrites of high petrologic grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M. J.; Jaques, A. L.

    1982-03-01

    Petrological evidence suggests that the Tibooburra meteorite from western New South Wales, like the Allende meteorite, is a CV3 chondrite which has experienced greater metamorphic effects than others of its class. The transitional nature of its bulk composition, which is intermediate between the CO and CV chondrites, is exhibited by several elements and displayed by the multivariate techniques of cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Tibooburra therefore resembles such CV chondrites as Coolidge and Karoonda, which have accreted early in the history of the Vigarano parent body and consequently possess a higher content of high-temperature, Ca-Al-rich inclusions with fewer low-temperature matrix and volatile phases than other CV chondrites. Both the matrix and magnesium silicate phases of these meteorites seem more iron-rich than those in later-accreted meteorites.

  18. Enstatite chondrites and enstatite achondrites (aubrites) were not derived from the same parent body

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Keil, Klaus

    1986-01-01

    Enstatite achondrites (aubrites) were not derived from known enstatite chondrites by melting and fractionation on one and the same parent body, for these and other reasons: (1) There is no satisfactory mechanism for fractionating metal plus troilite in enstatite chondrites to form these phases in different proportions and with different Ti contents in aubrites. (2) Many enstatite chondrites and aubrites are regolith or fragmental breccias, but clasts of one within the other have not been found. (3) Cosmic ray exposure ages of the two groups are difficult to explain if they are from the same parent body, but are easy to explain if they are from different parent bodies. Siderophile element abundances in metal from the Mt. Egerton meteorite, which consists of enstatite and metallic Fe,Ni, preclude it from being a complementary differentiate of the aubrites. Rather, it appears that Mt. Egerton was formed from the same source material as enstatite chondrites, but the components were mixed in different proportions. ?? 1986.

  19. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M. A.; Morgan, L. E.

    2016-09-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340-4380 Ma (or 4.34-4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  20. Chemical and physical studies of chondrites. X - Cathodoluminescence and phase composition studies of metamorphism and nebular processes in chondrules of type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Jie, LU; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1992-01-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics of eight type-3 ordinary chondrites and one L5 chondrite were investigated with particular emphasis on detailed compositions of the relevant phases in four of these chondrites: Semarkona (type-3.0); Krymka (3.1); Allan Hills A77214 (3.5); and Dhajala (3.8). By sorting the chondrules into eight groups according to the CL of mesostasis and to certain compositional criteria and by determining the number of chondrules in these groups as a function of petrological type, it was possible to deduce genetic/evolutionary sequences of the chondrules. It is shown that there are major compositional differences in chondrules, which account for their CL properties and the chondrule groups.

  1. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M. A.; Morgan, L. E.

    2016-07-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340-4380 Ma (or 4.34-4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  2. Postshock Annealing and Postannealing Shock in Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites: Implications for the Thermal and Shock Histories of Chondritic Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to shock effects in olivine, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and Ca-pyroxene, petrographic shock indicators in equilibrated ordinary chondrites (OC) include chromite veinlets, chromite-plagioclase assemblages, polycrystalline troilite, metallic Cu, irregularly shaped troilite grains within metallic Fe-Ni, rapidly solidified metal-sulfide intergrowths, martensite and various types of plessite, metal-sulfide veins, large metal and/or sulfide nodules, silicate melt veins, silicate darkening, low-Ca clinopyroxene, silicate melt pockets, and large regions of silicate melt. The presence of some of these indicators in every petrologic type-4 to -6 ordinary chondrite (OC) demonstrates that collisional events caused all equilibrated OC to reach shock stages S3-S6. Those type-4 to -6 OC that are classified as shock-stage S1 (on the basis of sharp optical extinction in olivine) underwent postshock annealing due to burial beneath materials heated by the impact event. Those type-4 to -6 OC that are classified S2 (on the basis of undulose extinction and lack of planar fractures in olivine) were shocked to stage S3-S6, annealed to stage S1 and then shocked again to stage S2. Some OC were probably shocked to stage 253 after annealing. It seems likely that many OC experienced multiple episodes of shock and annealing. Because 40Ar-39Ar chronological data indicate that MIL 99301 (LL6, Sl) was annealed approximately 4.26 Ga ago, presumably as a consequence of a major impact, it seems reasonable to suggest that other equilibrated S1 and S2 OC (which contain relict shock features) were also annealed by impacts. Because some type-6 S1 OC (e.g., Guarena, Kernouve, Portales Valley, all of which contain relict shock features) were annealed 4.44-4.45 Ga ago (during a period when impacts were prevalent and most OC were thermally metamorphosed), it follows that impact-induced annealing could have contributed significantly to OC thermal metamorphism.

  3. Modal mineralogy of CI and CI-like chondrites by X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Howard, K. T.; Russell, S. S.

    2015-09-01

    The CI chondrites are some of the most hydrated meteorites available to study, making them ideal samples with which to investigate aqueous processes in the early Solar System. Here, we have used position-sensitive-detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) to quantify the abundance of minerals in bulk samples of the CI chondrite falls Alais, Orgueil and Ivuna, and the Antarctic CI-like chondrites Y-82162 and Y-980115. We find that Alais, Orgueil and Ivuna are dominated by a mixed serpentine/saponite phyllosilicate (81-84 vol%), plus minor magnetite (6-10%), sulphides (4-7%) and carbonates (<3%). This reflects an extended period of aqueous alteration and the near-complete transformation of anhydrous phases into a secondary mineral assemblage. The similarity in total abundance of phyllosilicate suggests that the CI chondrites all experienced the same degree of aqueous alteration on the parent body. In contrast, Y-82162 contains a highly disordered serpentine/saponite phyllosilicate (68 vol%), sulphide (19%), olivine (11%) and magnetite (2%). This mineralogy is distinct from that of the CI chondrites, attesting to both a different starting mineralogy and alteration history. The structure and relatively low abundance of the phyllosilicate, and the high abundance of olivine, are consistent with previous observations that Y-82162 represents CI-like material that following aqueous alteration suffered thermal metamorphism at temperatures >500 °C. Similarly, Y-980115 contains disordered serpentine/saponite (71 vol%), sulphide (19%), olivine (8%) and magnetite (2%), confirming that it too is a thermally metamorphosed CI-like chondrite. We suggest that the CI-like chondrites are derived from a different parent body than the CI chondrites, which underwent short-lived thermal metamorphism due to impacts and/or solar radiation.

  4. Chondrites - Initial strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and the early history of the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.; Mark, R.; Lee-Hu, C.

    1973-01-01

    A sodium-poor, calcium-rich inclusion in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende had a Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio at the time of its formation of 0.69880, as low a value as that found in any other meteorite. The higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios found in ordinary chondrites indicate that their formation or isotopic equilibration occurred tens of millions of years later.

  5. The Osmium Isotopic Composition of Tagish Lake and Other Chondrites, Implications for Late Terrestrial Planetary Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this investigation are twofold. First, obtain high-precision Os isotope measurements of Tagish Lake and other chondrites by TIMS. Second, measure Re, Os, Pt, and other HSE concentrations by isotope dilution using TIMS and ICPMS. These measurements will determine whether this meteorite does in fact represent C-chondrite material with timeintegrated elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os with the implications to late accretion material characteristics.

  6. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of ordinary chondrites and iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Morgan, J. W.; Horan, M. F.; Grossman, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry, Re and Os abundances were determined by isotope dilution and Os-187/Os-186 measured in 11 ordinary chondrites, and also in 1 IIB and 3 IIIB irons. In addition, Os-186/Os-188 and Os-189/Os-188 ratios were precisely determined for 3 unspiked ordinary chondrites as a means of constraining the intensity of any neutron irradiation these meteorites may have experienced.

  7. Widespread evidence for high-temperature formation of pentlandite in chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Davidson, Jemma; McCoy, Timothy J.

    2016-09-01

    By investigating the compositional and textural evolution of sulfides within a wide range of relatively pristine, aqueously altered, and thermally metamorphosed chondrites we constrain the equilibration temperatures of sulfide minerals and compare them to the metamorphic history of their host meteorite. Sulfides in Mighei-like carbonaceous chondrites are complex as they equilibrated mostly between 100 and 135 °C, but some may have equilibrated at temperatures up to 600 °C. This is consistent with some CM chondrite sulfides forming at high temperature during chondrule cooling and others during low-temperature aqueous alteration and/or annealing. Karoonda-like carbonaceous chondrite sulfides equilibrated between 500 and 230 °C, which is consistent with formation during cooling and annealing after thermal metamorphism. Sulfides in the LL chondrites equilibrated between 600 and 230 °C, and are consistent with formation during chondrule cooling for Semarkona (LL3.00) and during cooling after thermal metamorphism for the equilibrated samples (types 4-6). Sulfides in the Rumuruti-like (R) chondrites equilibrated between 600 and 500 °C, and are consistent with formation after thermal metamorphism. The sulfides within the brachinite equilibrated between 600 and 400 °C, consistent with formation during cooling after thermal metamorphism. Contrary to the assertion that pentlandite is solely the product of low-temperature aqueous alteration in many chondrite groups, this study suggests that most sulfides in chondrites are formed at or upon cooling from high-temperature. The evaluation of a single mineral system within samples that retain petrographic context is vital to the interpretation of formation and alteration processes recorded by small extraterrestrial samples, such as those that have been returned by the spacecraft missions Stardust and Hayabusa and will be returned by OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2.

  8. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. XIV - Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of the Conquista, Minas Gerais, chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Kirchner, E.; Gomes, C. B.; Jarosewich, E.; Murta, R. L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Conquista chondrite is described and classified as an H4. The mineral composition is reported. H-group classification is based on described microscopic, electron microprobe, and bulk chemical studies. The evidence for petrologic type 4 classification includes the pronounced well-developed chondritic texture; the slight compositional variations in constituent phases; the high Ca contents of pyroxene and the presence of pigeonite; glassy to microcrystalline interstitial material rich in alkalis and SiO2; and twinned low-Ca clinopyroxene.

  9. Microbeam analysis of four chondritic interplanetary dust particles for major elements, carbon and oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Thomas, K. L.; Mckay, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical compositions determined using electron excited X-rays are reported for four interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere. These analyses include measurements of carbon and oxygen abundances which are important elements in these primitive materials. Spot analyses show very heterogeneous compositions on a micrometer scale although average composition approaches that of C1 carbonaceous chondrites. While the spot analyses show intermediate compositions between cometary dust and carbonaceous chondrites, the heterogeneity more closely resembles that of comet Halley dust particles.

  10. Textural evidence bearing on the origin of isolated olivine crystals in C2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. M.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In some cases the mechanical competence of chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites has been reduced by alteration of their mesostasis glass to friable phyllosilicate, providing a mechanism by which euhedral olivines can be separated from chondrules. Morphological features of isolate olivine grains found in carbonaceous chondrites are similar to those of olivine phenocrysts in chondrules. These observations suggest that the isolated olivine grains formed in chondrules, by crystallization from a liquid, rather than by condensation from a vapor.

  11. ALH85085: a unique volatile-poor carbonaceous chondrite with possible implications for nebular fractionation processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.; MacPherson, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills 85085 is a unique chondrite with affinities to the Al Rais-Renazzo clan of carbonaceous chondrites. Its constituents are less than 50 ??m in mean size. Chondrules and microchondrules of all textures are present; nonporphyritic chondrules are unusually abundant. The mean compositions of porphyritic, nonporphyritic and barred olivine chondrules resemble those in ordinary chondrites except that they are depleted in volatile elements. Ca-, Al-rich inclusions are abundant and largely free of nebular alteration; they comprise types similar to those in CM and CO chondrites, as well as unique types. Calcium dialuminate occurs in several inclusions. Metal, silicate and sulfide compositions are close to those in CM-CO chondrites and Al Rais and Renazzo. C1-chondrite clasts and metal-rich "reduced" clasts are present, but opaque matrix is absent. Siderophile abundances in ALH85085 are extremely high (e.g., Fe Si = 1.7 ?? solar), and volatiles are depleted (e.g., Na Si = 0.25 ?? solar, S Si = 0.03 ?? solar). Nonvolatile lithophile abundances are similar to those in Al Rais, Renazzo, and CM and CO chondrites. ALH85085 agglomerated when temperatures in the nebula were near 1000 K, in the same region where Renazzo, Al Rais and the CI chondrites formed. Agglomeration of high-temperature material may thus be a mechanism by which the fractionation of refractory lithophiles occurred in the nebula. Chondrule formation must have occurred at high temperatures when clumps of precursors were small. After agglomeration, ALH85085 was annealed and lightly shocked. C1 and other clasts were subsequently incorporated during late-stage brecciation. ?? 1988.

  12. Noble gases in the Bells (C2) and Sharps (H3) chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadnik, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    The Bells and Sharps chondrites are of uncertain classification in virtue of their mineralogical and chemical peculiarities, prompting the present elemental and isotopic measurements of the noble gases in them, together with such quantities derivable from them as cosmogenic exposure and gas retention ages, as well as primordial gas contents. The radiogenic and, above all, the cosmogenic gases link Bells to the C2 group, while Sharps is found to lie in the second largest peak of the H-chondrite distribution.

  13. Crystallization trends of precursor pyroxene in ordinary chondrites: Implications for igneous origin of precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Kitamura, M.

    1994-01-01

    Various observations suggest that the precursor of the fine fragments and the relict pyroxene was formed by an igneous process in a grandparent body of the chondrite. Furthermore, the fact that the precursors appear as fragments in the matrix as well as relicts in the chondrule suggests a shock origin for the chondrite by collision of two or more bodies, which had already to some extent undergone igneous differentiation.

  14. Production of ferroan andesites by the experimental partial melting of an LL chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, J. C.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Jones, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    A partial melting experiment on the St. Severin (LL) chondrite produced a melt that was andesitic, having 54-60 wt% silica, at 1200 C and an oxygen fugacity of IW+2, two log units above the iron-wustite (IW) buffer. Under these same conditions, CV, CM, and L chondrites produced low-silica melts resembling angrites. This experimental study attempts to reproduce and explain this unusual result.

  15. Studies of kamacite, perryite and schreibersite in E-chondrites and aubrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, A. J.

    1986-03-01

    The bulk composition of metal (kamacite plus perryite) was determined in eleven E-chondrites and eight aubrites. The data are compatible with the subdivision of the E-chondrites into two groups (Yavnel, 1963; Anders, 1964), St Mark's and St Sauveur belonging to type I (Easton, 1985). The Ni content of kamacite plus perryite in Kota Kota (5.49 percent) is within the range covered by the remaining E-chondrites. Normative perryite constitutes 2.1 percent of Kota Kota and 2.7 percent of South Oman. The Ni content in the bulk metal of Aubres, Bishopville, Norton County and Pena Blanca Spring is about half the average Ni content in the metal of E-chondrites or the remaining aubrites (Bustee, Khor Temiki, Mayo Belwa and Shallowater). High Ga/Ni ratios distinguish the metal in E-chondrites and aubrites from that in ordinary chondrites. The composition of both bulk metal and individual grains in aubrites makes it unlikely that they represent residual metal trapped during magmatic differentation and/or fractional crystallization of E6 material. Compositional differences between metal grains strongly indicate that the aubrites are polymict breccias.

  16. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2015-06-23

    Here, chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn–53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as 2.4 +1.8-1.3 Myr after calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition,more » measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and 4.2+0.8-0.7 Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8–2.5 Myr after CAIs.« less

  17. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2015-06-23

    Here, chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn–53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as 2.4 +1.8-1.3 Myr after calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and 4.2+0.8-0.7 Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8–2.5 Myr after CAIs.

  18. On the Behavior of Phosphorus During the Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Chizmadia, Lysa J.

    2005-01-01

    During the earliest period of solar system formation, water played an important role in the evolution of primitive dust, both after accretion of planetesimals and possible before accretion within the protoplanetary disk. Many chondrites show evidence of variable degrees of aqueous alteration, the CM2 chondrites being among the most studied [1]. This group of chondrites is characterized by mineral assemblages of both primary and secondary alteration phases. Hence, these meteorites retain a particularly important record of the reactions that occurred between primary high temperature nebular phases and water. Studies of these chondrites can provide information on the conditions and environments of aqueous alteration and the mobility of elements during alteration. This latter question is at the core of a debate concerning the location of aqueous alteration, i.e. whether alteration occurred predominantly within a closed system after accretion (parent body alteration) or whether some degree of alteration occurred within the solar nebula or on ephemeral protoplanetary bodies prior to accretion. At the core of the parent body alteration model is the hypothesis that elemental exchange between different components, principally chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. In this study, we focus on the behavior of the minor element, phosphorus. This study was stimulated by observations of the behavior of P during the earliest stages of alteration in glassy mesostasis in type II chondrules in CR chondrites and extends the preliminary observations of on Y791198 to other CM chondrites.

  19. Theoretical predictions of volatile bearing phases and volatile resources in some carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Jibamitra; Saxena, Surendra K.

    1989-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are usually believed to be the primary constituents of near-Earth asteroids and Phobos and Diemos, and are potential resources of fuels which may be exploited for future planetary missions. The nature and abundances are calculated of the major volatile bearing and other phases, including the vapor phase that should form in C1 and C2 type carbonaceous chondrites as functions of pressure and temperature. The results suggest that talc, antigorite plus or minus magnesite are the major volatile bearing phases and are stable below 400 C at 1 bar in these chondritic compositions. Simulated heating of a kilogram of C2 chondrite at fixed bulk composition between 400 and 800 C at 1 bar yields about 135 gm of volatile, which is made primarily of H2O, H2, CH4, CO2 and CO. The relative abundances of these volatile species change as functions of temperature, and on a molar basis, H2 becomes the most dominant species above 500 C. In contrast, Cl chondrites yield about 306 gm of volatile under the same condition, which consist almost completely of 60 wt percent H2O and 40 wt percent CO2. Preliminary kinetic considerations suggest that equilibrium dehydration of hydrous phyllosilicates should be attainable within a few hours at 600 C. These results provide the framework for further analyses of the volatile and economic resource potentials of carbonaceous chondrites.

  20. Hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrites and implications for their thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C. R.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a large dataset of magnetic hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone and as larger grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite). Kamacite dominates the induced magnetism whereas tetrataenite dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. Type 5 and 6 chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites, suggesting they have lower cooling rates at least in the 650-450 °C interval, consistent with an onion-shell model. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above ~500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism, and high cooling rates following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism.

  1. Partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Lost City (H) and St. Severin (LL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, Amy J. G.; Jones, John H.; Weber, Egon T.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Eucrites and diogenites are examples of asteroidal basalts and orthopyroxenites, respectively. As they are found intermingled in howardites, which are inferred to be regolith breccias, eucrites and diogenites are thought to be genetically related. But the details of this relationship and of their individual origins remain controversial. Work by Jurewicz et al. showed that 1170-1180 C partial melts of the (anhydrous) Murchison (CM) chondrite have major element compositions extremely similar to primitive eucrites, such as Sioux County. However, the MnO contents of these melts were about half that of Sioux County, a problem for the simple partial melting model. In addition, partial melting of Murchison could not produce diogenites, because residual pyroxenes in the Murchison experiments were too Fe- and Ca-rich and were minor phases at all but the lowest temperatures. A parent magma for diogenites needs an expanded low-calcium pyroxene field. In their partial melting study of an L6 chondrite, Kushiro and Mysen found that ordinary chondrites did have an expanded low-Ca pyroxene field over that of CV chondrites (i.e., Allende), probably because ordinary chondrites have lower Mg/Si ratios. This study expands that of both Kushiro and Mysen and Jurewicz et al. to the Lost City (H) and St. Severin (LL) chondrites at temperatures ranging from 1170 to 1325 C, at an fO2 of one log unit below the iron-wuestite buffer (IW-1).

  2. (40)Ar/(39)Ar Age of Hornblende-Bearing R Chondrite LAP 04840

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M.

    2015-01-01

    Chondrites have a complex chronology due to several variables affecting and operating on chondritic parent bodies such as radiogenic heating, pressure and temperature variation with depth, aqueous alteration, and shock or impact heating. Unbrecciated chondrites can record ages from 4.56 to 4.4 Ga that represent cooling in small parent bodies. Some brecciated chondrites exhibit younger ages (much less than 4 to 4.4 Ga) that may reflect the age of brecciation, disturbance, or shock and impact events (much less than 4 Ga). A unique R chondrite was recently found in the LaPaz Icefield of Antarctica - LAP 04840. This chondrite contains approximately 15% hornblende and trace amounts of biotite, making it the first of its kind. Studies have revealed an equigranular texture, mineral equilibria yielding equilibration near 650-700 C and 250-500 bars, hornblende that is dominantly OH-bearing (very little Cl or F), and high D/H ratios. To help gain a better understanding of the origin of this unique sample, we have measured the (40)Ar/(39)Ar age (LAP 04840 split 39).

  3. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2015-06-01

    Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn-53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn-53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn-53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8-2.5 Myr after CAIs.

  4. Relationship Between Iron Valence States of Serpentine in CM Chondrites and Their Aqueous Alteration Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M.; Satake, W.; Le, L.

    2012-01-01

    The 0.6-0.7 micron absorption band observed for C-type asteroids is caused by the presence of Fe(3+) in phyllosilicates . Because Fe-bearing phyllosilicates, especially serpentine, are the most dominant product of aqueous alteration in the most abundant carbonaceous chondrites, CM chondrites, it is important to understand the crystal chemistry of serpentine in CM chondrites to better understand spectral features of C-type asteroids. CM chondrites show variable degrees of aqueous alteration, which should be related to iron valences in serpentine. It is predicted that the Fe(3+)/Sum of (Fe) ratios of serpentine in CM chondrites decrease as alteration proceeds by Si and Fe(3+) substitutions from end-member cronstedtite to serpentine, which should be apparent in the absorption intensity of the 0.6-0.7 micron band from C-type asteroids. In fact, the JAXA Hayabusa 2 target (C-type asteroid: 1993 JU3) exhibits heterogeneous spectral features (0.7 micron absorption band disappears by rotation). From these points of view, we have analyzed iron valences of matrix serpentine in several CM chondrites which span the entire observed range of aqueous alteration using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (SR-XANES). In this abstract we discuss the relationship between obtained Fe(3+)/Sum of (Fe) ratios and alteration degrees by adding new data to our previous studies

  5. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Patricia M; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J; Hutcheon, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric (53)Mn-(53)Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ∼1.8-2.5 Myr after CAIs. PMID:26100451

  6. Petrology and geochemistry of Patuxent Range 91501, a clast-poor impact-melt from the L chondrite parent body, and Lewis Cliff 88663, an L7 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    2001-03-01

    We have performed petrologic and geochemical studies of Patuxent Range 91501 and Lewis Cliff 88663. PAT 91501, originally classified as an L7 chondrite, is rather a unique, near total impact-melt from the L chondrite parent body. Lewis Cliff 88663 was originally classified as an "achondrite (?)," but we find that it is a very weakly shocked L7 chondrite. PAT 91501 is an unshocked, homogeneous, igneous-textured ultramafic rock composed of euhedral to subhedral olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, augite and chrome-rich spinels with interstitial albitic plagioclase and minor silica-alumina-alkali-rich glass. Only ~10% relict chondritic material is present. Olivine grains are homogeneous (Fa25.2-26.8). Low-Ca pyroxene (Wo1.9-7.2En71.9-78.2Fs19.9-20.9) and augite (Wo29.8-39.0En49.2-55.3Fs11.8-14.9) display a strong linear TiO2-Al2O3 correlations resulting from igneous fractionation. Plagioclase is variable in composition; Or3.0-7.7Ab79.8-84.1An8.2-17.2. Chrome-rich spinels are variable in composition and zoned from Cr-rich cores to Ti-Al-rich rims. Some have evolved compositions with up to 7.9 wt% TiO2. PAT 91501 bulk silicate has an L chondrite lithophile element composition except for depletions in Zn and Br. Siderophile and chalcophile elements are highly depleted due to sequestration in cm-size metal-troilite nodules. The minerals in LEW 88663 are more uniform in composition than those in PAT 91501. Olivine grains have low CaO and Cr2O3 contents similar to those in L5-6 chondrites. Pyroxenes have high TiO2 contents with only a diffuse TiO2-Al2O3 correlations. Low-Ca pyroxenes are less calcic (Wo1.6-3.1En76.5-77.0Fs20.4-21.4), while augites (Wo39.5-45.6En46.8-51.1Fs7.6-9.4) and plagioclases (Or2.6-5.7Ab74.1-83.1An11.2-23.3) are more calcic. Spinels are homogeneous and compositionally similar to those in L6 chondrites. LEW 88663 has an L chondrite bulk composition for lithophile elements, and only slight depletions in siderophile and chalcophile elements that are plausibly due

  7. Abundance, major element composition and size of components and matrix in CV, CO and Acfer 094 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Denton S.; Brunner, Chelsea; Konrad, Kevin; Leftwich, Kristin; Erb, Isabelle; Lu, Muzhou; Rodriguez, Hugo; Crapster-Pregont, Ellen J.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The relative abundances and chemical compositions of the macroscopic components or "inclusions" (chondrules and refractory inclusions) and fine-grained mineral matrix in chondritic meteorites provide constraints on astrophysical theories of inclusion formation and chondrite accretion. We present new techniques for analysis of low count/pixel Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and Fe X-ray intensity maps of rock sections, and apply them to large areas of CO and CV chondrites, and the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. For many thousands of manually segmented and type-identified inclusions, we are able to assess, pixel-by-pixel, the major element content of each inclusion. We quantify the total fraction of refractory elements accounted for by various types of inclusion and matrix. Among CO chondrites, both matrix and inclusion Mg/Si ratios approach the solar (and bulk CO) ratio with increasing petrologic grade, but Si remains enriched in inclusions relative to matrix. The oxidized CV chondrites with higher matrix/inclusion ratios exhibit more severe aqueous alteration (oxidation), and their excess matrix accounts for their higher porosity relative to reduced CV chondrites. Porosity could accommodate an original ice component of matrix as the direct cause of local alteration of oxidized CV chondrites. We confirm that major element abundances among inclusions differ greatly, across a wide range of CO and CV chondrites. These abundances in all cases add up to near-chondritic (solar) bulk abundance ratios in these chondrites, despite wide variations in matrix/inclusion ratios and inclusion sizes: chondrite components are complementary. This complementarity provides a robust meteoritic constraint for astrophysical disk models.

  8. The Effects of Parent Body Processes on Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of parent body processes on the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites, the water extracts from nine different powdered Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed for amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-FD/ToF-MS). Four aqueously altered type 1 carbonaceous chondrites including Orgueil (C11), Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070 (CM1), Scott Glacier (SCO) 06043 (CM1), and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577 (CR1) were analyzed using this technique for the first time. Analyses of these meteorites revealed low levels of two- to five-carbon acyclic amino alkanoic acids with concentrations ranging from -1 to 2,700 parts-per-billion (ppb). The type 1 carbonaceous chondrites have a distinct distribution of the five-carbon (C5) amino acids with much higher relative abundances of the gamma- and delta-amino acids compared to the type 2 and type 3 carbonaceous chondrites, which are dominated by a-amino acids. Much higher amino acid abundances were found in the CM2 chondrites Murchison, Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94102, and Lewis Cliffs (LEW) 90500, the CR2 Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and the CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. For example, a-aminoisobutyric acid ((alpha-AIB) and isovaline were approximately 100 to 1000 times more abundant in the type 2 and 3 chondrites compared to the more aqueously altered type 1 chondrites. Most of the chiral amino acids identified in these meteorites were racemic, indicating an extraterrestrial abiotic origin. However, non-racemic isovaline was observed in the aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites Murchison, Orgueil, SCO 06043, and GRO 95577 with L-isovaline excesses ranging from approximately 11 to 19%, whereas the most pristine, unaltered carbonaceous chondrites analyzed in this study had no detectable L-isovaline excesses. These results are consistent with the

  9. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ε183W anomalies of several ε-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ε182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ∼2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a

  10. Bleached chondrules: Evidence for widespread aqueous processes on the parent asteroids of ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, Jingyuan; Brearley, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    We present the first detailed study of a population of texturally distinct chondrules previously described by Kurat (1969), Christophe Michel-Levy (1976), and Skinner et al. (1989) that are sharply depleted in alkalis and Al in their outer portions. These 'bleached' chondrules, which are exclusively radial pyroxene and cryptocrystalline in texture, have porous outer zones where mesostasis has been lost. Bleached chondrules are present in all type 3 ordinary chondrites and are present in lower abundances in types 4-6. They are most abundant in the L and LL groups, apparently less common in H chondrites, and absent in enstatite chondrites. We used x-ray mapping and traditional electron microprobe techniques to characterize bleached chondrules in a cross section of ordinary chondrites. We studied bleached chondrules from Semarkona by ion microprobe for trace elements and H isotopes, and by transmission electron microscopy. Chondrule bleaching was the result of low-temperature alteration by aqueous fluids flowing through fine-grained chondrite matrix prior to thermal metamorphism. During aqueous alteration, interstitial glass dissolved and was partially replaced by phyllosilicates, troilite was altered to pentlandite, but pyroxene was completely unaffected. Calcium-rich zones formed at the inner margins of the bleached zones, either as the result of the early stages of metamorphism or because of fluid-chondrule reaction. The mineralogy of bleached chondrules is extremely sensitive to thermal metamorphism in type 3 ordinary chondrites, and bleached zones provide a favorable location for the growth of metamorphic minerals in higher petrologic types. The ubiquitous presence of bleached chondrules in ordinary chondrites implies that they all experienced aqueous alteration early in their asteroidal histories, but there is no relationship between the degree of alteration and metamorphic grade. A correlation between the oxidation state of chondrite groups and their degree of

  11. Metamorphism and aqueous alteration in low petrographic type ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, T.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Guimon, R. K.; Jie, Lu; Benoit, P. H.; O'D. Alexander, C. M.; Wright, Ian; Pillinger, C.; Morse, A. D.; Hutchison, Robert

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the relative importance of dry metamorphism and aqueous alteration in the history of chondruies, chondruies were hand-picked from the Semarkona (petrographic type 3.0), Bishunpur (3. 1), Chainpur (3.4), Dhajala (3.8) and Allegan (5) chondrites, and matrix samples were extracted from the first three ordinary chondrites. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of all the samples were measured, and appropriate subsets of the samples were analyzed by electron-microprobe and radiochemical neutron activation and the water and H-isotopic composition determined. The TL data for chondrules from Semarkona and Bishunpur scatter widely showing no unambiguous trends, although group B1 chondrules tend to have lower sensitivities and lower peak temperatures compared with group A5 chondrules. It is argued that these data reflect the variety of processes accompanying chondrule formation. The chondrules show remarkably uniform contents of the highly labile elements, indicating mineralogical control on abundance and volatile loss from silicates and loss and recondensation of mobile chalcophiles and siderophiles in some cases. Very high D/H values (up to approx. 8000% SMOW) are observed in certain Semarkona chondrules, a confirmation of earlier work. With increasing petrographic type, mean TL sensitivities of the chondrules increase, the spread of values within an individual meteorite decreases, and peak temperatures and peak widths show trends indicating that the TL is mainly produced by feldspar and that dry, thermal metamorphism is the dominant secondary process experienced by the chondrules. The TL sensitivities of matrix samples also increase with petrographic type. Chainpur matrix samples show the same spread of peak temperatures and peak widths as Chainpur chondruies, indicating metamorphism-related changes in the feldspar are responsible for the TL of the matrix. The TL data for the Semarkona and Bishunpur matrix samples provide, at best, only weak

  12. Hf-W thermochronometry: Closure temperature and constraints on the accretion and cooling history of the H chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine, Thorsten; Touboul, Mathieu; Van Orman, James A.; Bourdon, Bernard; Maden, Colin; Mezger, Klaus; Halliday, Alex N.

    2008-06-01

    We obtained Hf-W metal-silicate isochrons for several H chondrites of petrologic types 4, 5, and 6 to constrain the accretion and high-temperature thermal history of the H chondrite parent body. The silicate fractions have 180Hf/184W ratios up to ˜ 51 and 182W/184W ratios up to ˜ 33 ɛ units higher than the whole-rock. These high 180Hf/184W and radiogenic W isotope ratios result in highly precise Hf-W ages. The Hf-W ages of the H chondrites become younger with increasing metamorphic grade and range from ΔtCAI = 1.7 ± 0.7 Ma for the H4 chondrite Ste. Marguerite to ΔtCAI = 9.6 ± 1.0 Ma for the H6 chondrites Kernouvé and Estacado. Closure temperatures for the Hf-W system in H chondrites were estimated from numerical simulations of W diffusion in high-Ca pyroxene, the major host of radiogenic 182W in H chondrites, and range from 800 ± 50 °C for H4 chondrites to 875 ± 75 °C for H6 chondrites. Owing to these high closure temperatures, the Hf-W system closed early and dates processes associated with the earliest evolution of the H chondrite parent body. Consequently, the high-temperature interval of ˜ 8 Ma as defined by the Hf-W ages is much shorter than intervals obtained from Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb dating. For H4 chondrites, heating on the parent body probably was insufficient to cause W diffusion in high-Ca pyroxene, such that the Hf-W age of ΔtCAI = 1.7 ± 0.7 Ma for Ste. Marguerite was not reset and most likely dates chondrule formation. This is consistent with Al-Mg ages of ˜ 2 Ma for L and LL chondrules and indicates that chondrules from all ordinary chondrites formed contemporaneously. The Hf-W ages for H5 and H6 chondrites of ΔtCAI = 5.9 ± 0.9 Ma and ΔtCAI = 9.6 ± 1.0 Ma correspond closely to the time of the thermal peak within the H chondrite parent body. Combined with previously published chronological data the Hf-W ages reveal an inverse correlation of cooling rate and metamorphic grade: shortly after their thermal peak H6 chondrites cooled at ˜ 10

  13. Survey of chondrule average properties in H-, L-, and LL-group chondrites - Are chondrules the same in all unequilibrated ordinary chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The petrogenetic properties of chondrules in different unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) are compared to averaged chondrule-suite values obtained from recent analyses of several H-group, L-group, and LL-group chondrites. The purpose of the study was to develop a data base for future statistical analyses of chondrite characteristics. Mean end-member compositions of olivine (mol percent Fa) and pyroxene (mol percent Fs) were used as indices of the relative degree of 'equilibration' of each chondrule suite. It is found that the bulk chondrule geometric-mean abundances of Na, Mg, and Ni are the same from one UOC to another, and show no major systematic trends related to the H-group, L-group, of LL-group parentage of the host chondrites. The patterns of rare-earth element abundances in the chondrules are also examined, and the results are compared with statistical analyses. It is concluded that multivariate statistical analysis of pooled UOC chondrule data is justified for chondrule bulk compositions, as long as the statistical results are not misinterpreted as the primary petrogenetic features of chondrules.

  14. Chemical and physical studies of chondrites: 10. Cathodoluminescence and phase composition studies of metamorphism and nebular processes in chondrules of type 3 ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, J.M.; Lu Jie; Benoit, P.H.; Sears, D.W.G. ); Lofgren, G.E. )

    1992-10-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of eight type 3 ordinary chondrites and one L5 chondrite have been determined, and phenocryst and mesostasis compositions have been analyzed in the chondrules of four of them (Semarkona, type 3.0; Krymka, 3.1; Allan Hills A77214, 3.5; and Dhajala, 3.8) in order to investigate their origins and metamorphic history. In the present study, the authors discuss the CL properties of nine ordinary chondrites of a variety of petrologic types with particular emphasis on detailed studies of the compositions of the relevant phases in four of these: Semarkona (3.0), Krymka (3.1), Allan Hills A77214 (3.5), and Dhajala (3.8). They describe a means of classifying chondrules that is based on the composition of their two major components, the mesostasis and phenocrysts. The system is applicable to > 90-95% off the chondrules in a given meteorite and it describes the range of material produced by nebular material and of the effect of metamorphism on the chondrules. They also discuss the relevance of the results for the origin of the nine chondrite classes.

  15. Magnetite in the unequilibrated CK chondrites: Implications for metamorphism and new insights into the relationship between the CV and CK chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tasha L.; Gross, Juliane; Ivanova, Marina A.; Runyon, Simone E.; Bruck, Andrea M.

    2016-07-01

    Bulk isotopic and elemental compositions of CV and CK chondrites have led to the suggestion that both originate from the same asteroid. It has been argued that magnetite compositions also support this model; however, magnetite has been studied almost exclusively in the equilibrated (type 4-6) CKs. Magnetite in seven unequilibrated CKs analyzed here is enriched in MgO, TiO2, and Al2O3 relative to the equilibrated CKs, suggesting that magnetite compositions are affected by metamorphism. Magnetite in CKs is compositionally distinct from CVs, particularly in abundances of Cr2O3, NiO, and TiO2. Although there are minor similarities between CV and equilibrated CK chondrite magnetite, this is contrary to what we would expect if the CVs and CKs represent a single metamorphic sequence. CV magnetite should resemble CK3 magnetite, as both were metamorphosed to type 3 conditions. Oxygen fugacities and temperatures of CVox and CK chondrites are also difficult to reconcile using existing CV-CK parent body models. Mineral chemistries, which eliminate issues of bulk sample heterogeneity, provide a reliable alternative to techniques that involve a small amount of sample material. CV and CK chondrite magnetite has distinct compositional differences that cannot be explained by metamorphism.

  16. Magnetite in the unequilibrated CK chondrites: Implications for metamorphism and new insights into the relationship between the CV and CK chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tasha L.; Gross, Juliane; Ivanova, Marina A.; Runyon, Simone E.; Bruck, Andrea M.

    2016-09-01

    Bulk isotopic and elemental compositions of CV and CK chondrites have led to the suggestion that both originate from the same asteroid. It has been argued that magnetite compositions also support this model; however, magnetite has been studied almost exclusively in the equilibrated (type 4-6) CKs. Magnetite in seven unequilibrated CKs analyzed here is enriched in MgO, TiO2, and Al2O3 relative to the equilibrated CKs, suggesting that magnetite compositions are affected by metamorphism. Magnetite in CKs is compositionally distinct from CVs, particularly in abundances of Cr2O3, NiO, and TiO2. Although there are minor similarities between CV and equilibrated CK chondrite magnetite, this is contrary to what we would expect if the CVs and CKs represent a single metamorphic sequence. CV magnetite should resemble CK3 magnetite, as both were metamorphosed to type 3 conditions. Oxygen fugacities and temperatures of CVox and CK chondrites are also difficult to reconcile using existing CV-CK parent body models. Mineral chemistries, which eliminate issues of bulk sample heterogeneity, provide a reliable alternative to techniques that involve a small amount of sample material. CV and CK chondrite magnetite has distinct compositional differences that cannot be explained by metamorphism.

  17. Heavily-hydrated lithic clasts in CH chondrites and the related, metal-rich chondrites Queen Alexandra Range 94411 and Hammadah al Hamra 237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greshake, A.; Krot, A. N.; Meibom, A.; Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Keil, K.

    2002-02-01

    Fine-grained, heavily-hydrated lithic clasts in the metal-rich (CB) chondrites Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94411 and Hammadah al Hamra 237 and CH chondrites, such as Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 and Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, are mineralogically similar suggesting genetic relationship between these meteorites. These clasts contain no anhydrous silicates and consist of framboidal and platelet magnetite, prismatic sulfides (pentlandite and pyrrhotite), and Fe-Mn-Mg-bearing Ca-carbonates set in a phyllosilicate-rich matrix. Two types of phyllosilicates were identified: serpentine, with basal spacing of ?0.73 nm, and saponite, with basal spacings of about 1.1-1.2 nm. Chondrules and FeNi-metal grains in CB and CH chondrites are believed to have formed at high temperature (>1300 K) by condensation in a solar nebula region that experienced complete vaporization. The absence of aqueous alteration of chondrules and metal grains in CB and CH chondrites indicates that the clasts experienced hydration in an asteroidal setting prior to incorporation into the CH and CB parent bodies. The hydrated clasts were either incorporated during regolith gardening or accreted together with chondrules and FeNi-metal grains after these high-temperature components had been transported from their hot formation region to a much colder region of the solar nebula.

  18. A Cabonaceous Chondrite Dominated Lithology from the HED Parent; PRA 04401

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, Jason S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The paired howardite breccias Mt. Pratt (PRA) 04401 and PRA 04402 are notable for their high proportion of carbonaceous chondrite clasts [1]. They consist predominantly of coarse (0.1-7 mm) diogenite (orthopyroxene), eucrite (plagioclase + pyroxene), and carbonaceous chondrite clasts set in a finer grained matrix of these same materials. Coarse C-chondrite clasts up to 7 mm are composed mainly of fine-grained phyllosilicates with lesser sulfides and high-mg# anhydrous magnesian silicates. Most of these clasts appear to be texturally consistent with CM2 classification [1] and some contain relict chondrules. The clasts are angular and reaction or alteration textures are not apparent in the surrounding matrix. PRA 04401 contains about 70 modal% C-chondrite clasts while PRA 04402 contains about 7%. Although many howardites are known to contain abundant C-chondrite clasts [2,3,4], PRA 04401 is, to our knowledge, the most chondrite-rich howardite lithology identified to date. Low EPMA totals from CM2-type clasts in other howardites suggest that they frequently contain 10 wt% or more water [2], a figure consistent with their mineralogy. PRA 04401, therefore, demonstrates the potential for hydrous lithologies with greater than 5 wt% water to occur locally within the nominally anhydrous HED parent body. Since the origin of this water is xenogenic, it might therefore be concentrated in portions of the asteroid surface where it would be more readily observable by remote sensing techniques. We plan to further examine C-chondrite clasts in PRA 04401/2 with the intent of establishing firm chemical classification, estimating water content, and evaluating their relationship with the host breccia. To help place them in context of the HED parent, we will also compare these breccias with other howardites to evaluate which lithologies are likely to be more prevalent on the asteroid surface.

  19. Ar-40/Ar-39 Age of Hornblende-bearing R Chondrite LAP 04840

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Cosca, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chondrites have a complex chronology due to several variables affecting and operating on chondritic parent bodies such as radiogenic heating, pressure and temperature variation with depth, aqueous alteration, and shock or impact heating [1]. Unbrecciated chondrites can record ages from 4.56 to 4.4 Ga that represent cooling in small parent bodies. Some brecciated chondrites exhibit younger ages (<<4 to 4.4 Ga) that may reflect the age of brecciation, disturbance, or shock and impact events (<< 4 Ga). A unique R chondrite was recently found in the LaPaz Icefield of Antarctica - LAP 04840 [2]. This chondrite contains approx.15% hornblende and trace amounts of biotite, making it the first of its kind. Studies have revealed an equigranular texture, mineral equilibria yielding equilibration near 650-700 C and 250-500 bars, hornblende that is dominantly OH-bearing (very little Cl or F), and high D/H ratios [8,9,10]. To help gain a better understanding of the origin of this unique sample, we have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 age. Age of 4.290 +/- 0.030 Ga is younger than one would expect for a sample that has cooled within a small body [4], and one might instead attribute the age to a younger shock event, On the other hand, there is no evidence for extensive shock in this meteorite (shock stage S2; [3]), so this sample may have been reannealed after the shock event. This age is similar to Ar-Ar ages determined for some other R chondrites

  20. Porosity of an Anhydrous Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strait, M. M.; Thomas, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    1995-09-01

    Determination of the density and porosity of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) is important in the dynamics of collisional and orbital evolution of small-sized particles. These measurements are also useful to suggest possible sources for IDPs based on comparisons with known extraterrestrial materials (e.g., chondrites). Previous work on IDPs shows a wide range of densities from very low (0.08 g/cm3 [1]) through low (0.3 g/cm3 [2]) to high (6.2 g/cm3 [3]), with an average density at 2.0 g/cm3 for 150 particles [2]. In another study, IDPs fall into two distinct density groups with mean values of 0.6 g/cm3 and 1.9g/cm3 [3]. In general, chondritic IDPs with lower density values most likely have appreciable porosity, suggesting they are primitive, uncompacted particles. It is believed that porosities greater than 70% are rare [2]. Sample In this study, porosity measurements were determined for one IDP, Clu17. This chondritic particle is a fragment of a large-sized IDP (L2008#5) known as a cluster particle. The cluster is composed of 53 fragments >5 micrometers in diameter; a detailed description of the cluster is given in [4]. IDP Clu17 has ~12 wt.% C and contains chondritic abundances (within 2xCI) for major elements. This fragment is dominated by fine-grained aggregates, also known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide [5]), and contains some olivine, pyroxene, Fe-Ni sulfides, and carbonaceous material. Methods IDP Clu17 was analyzed for light elements quantitatively analysis using scanning electron microscopy and thin-window energy dispersive spectrometry [details of technique in 4]. Following the initial bulk chemical analysis, the particle was embedded in epoxy, thin sectioned using an ultramicrotome, and examined with a JEOL 2000 FX transmission electron microscope. Many of the sections were not complete; individual grains in some sections are lost during microtoming. Photos from nine of the best sections were digitized by scanning at 1200 dpi. The

  1. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  2. Origin of zoned metal grains in the QUE94411 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Andrew J.; Humayun, Munir; Meibom, Anders; Krot, Alexander N.; Keil, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure distributions of the siderophile elements P, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt in metal grains in the metal-rich chondrite QUE94411 with a spatial resolution of ˜30 μm. The platinum group elements (PGEs), except Pd, exhibit radial zoning in these grains that mimics that previously observed in Ni and Co; the concentrations of these elements decreases from the cores to the rims of the grains. The PGE distributions support a condensation origin for the enhanced refractory element abundances in the zoned grains; the lack of zoning in Pd refutes an origin by a redox-controlled process, and none of the PGE-Ni relationships support an origin by fractional crystallization from a metallic melt. Several models of grain formation were explored, including equilibrium fractional condensation, which failed to yield the correct radial zoning. The zoning may be the product of a nonequilibrium fractional condensation process, in which the refractory siderophiles remained supersaturated in the cooling solar nebula, or of diffusion between refractory-enhanced Fe-Ni cores and other Fe-Ni metal that may have been deposited later from the solar nebula.

  3. (7) Iris: a possible source of ordinary chondrites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, F.; Manara, A.; Cellino, A.; di Martino, M.; Zappala, V.

    1997-05-01

    Rotationally resolved visible spectroscopy (6000~9500Å) of (7) Iris is presented. Within a few percents, no variation in Iris' visible spectrum over a rotational period has been found. These data suggest that the mineralogic properties of Iris' surface are globally homogeneous, although we cannot exclude the presence of some texture and/or albedo variegation as suggested by previous photometric and polarimetric studies available in the literature. From a dynamical point of view, we estimate the ejection velocity required for collisional fragments from this asteroid to be injected into the surrounding chaotic regions. The resulting velocity values are fairly high, but not incompatible with the values suggested by the present knowledge of catastrophic break-up phenomena and by the observational constraints put by asteroid families. Taking into account the close similarity between Iris' spectrum and that of (6) Hebe, a typical S(IV)-type object according with the most modern spectral classifications, we believe that (7) Iris may be a not negligible source of ordinary chondrite meteorites.

  4. Microstructure and Thermal History of Metal Particles in CH Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Jones, R. H.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    Fe-Ni metal particles with smooth Ni, Co, and Cr zoning patterns, 8-13 wt.% Ni in the center of the particle to 3-5 wt% Ni at the rim, have been identified in several CR-clan (CH, Bencubbinlike, and CR) chondrites. These zoning patterns are broadly consistent with an origin by gas-solid condensation in the solar nebula at temperatures between approximately 1500 to 1300 K and fast cooling rates, 2 to 25 K/day. Apparently, this condensate metal was not melted during chondrule formation or affected significantly in the solid-state by alteration during parent body processing. Consideration of diffusional redistribution of Ni, Co, Cr and siderophile elements have further constrained the calculated condensation temperatures and cooling rates of the zoned condensates. These condensate metals have irregular shapes and vary in size from 50 to 350 m as revealed in some detail by optical and SEM techniques. In addition to zoned condensate particles, other types of metal particles have been observed. These include zoned condensates with exsolution-precipitates, unzoned homogeneous metal with no exsolution precipitates, unzoned metal exhibiting exsolution precipitates and high Ni metal grains.

  5. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  6. In Situ Location and Characterization of Carbon-bearing Phases in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Insights from Yamato 791198, a Weakly-altered CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    2004-01-01

    Intense studies of carbonaceous chondrites have provided remarkable insights into the behavior of carbon during the earliest stages of our solar system. This research has demonstrated that carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse array of organic compounds, whose origins are probably the result of multiple processes that occurred in different locations including interstellar space, the solar nebula and asteroidal parent bodies [1-3]. The most abundant organic carbon component in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous chondrites is so-called macromolecular carbon, a high molecular weight material that has some affinities to terrestrial kerogen and constitutes approximately 60-70% of the organic material in these meteorites. Although recent studies e.g. [3] have radically improved our understanding of the structural and compositional characteristics of this material, a number of key questions remain to be addressed. In particular, our knowledge of where this macromolecular material is distributed at the fine-scale within carbonaceous chondrites is scant. [4] have shown that organic material is associated with phyllosilicate-rich matrix in CM chondrites, but the detailed mineralogical associations are not well-known. Over the past 2 years, we have begun to address this question by using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to locate carbon-bearing materials in situ, focusing specifically on the CM2s. To date we have reported data on the Murchison CM2 chondrite [5], a meteorite that has experienced a modest degree of aqueous alteration. To extend our observations to other CM2 chondrites, we have examined the occurrence of carbon-bearing phases in Yamato 791198. Our recent studies [5] have shown that Y-791198 is among the most weakly-altered CM chondrite currently known and hence is likely to preserve a quite primitive distribution of carbonaceous material. In this study, we present initial observations on the distribution of these materials in one fine

  7. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  8. A large shock vein in L chondrite Roosevelt County 106: Evidence for a long-duration shock pulse on the L chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Thomas G.; Xie, Zhidong; de Carli, Paul S.; Hu, Jinping

    2015-11-01

    A large shock-induced melt vein in L6 ordinary chondrite Roosevelt County 106 contains abundant high-pressure minerals, including olivine, enstatite, and plagioclase fragments that have been transformed to polycrystalline ringwoodite, majorite, lingunite, and jadeite. The host chondrite at the melt-vein margins contains olivines that are partially transformed to ringwoodite. The quenched silicate melt in the shock veins consists of majoritic garnets, up to 25 μm in size, magnetite, maghemite, and phyllosilicates. The magnetite, maghemite, and phyllosilicates are the terrestrial alteration products of magnesiowüstite and quenched glass. This assemblage indicates crystallization of the silicate melt at approximately 20-25 GPa and 2000 °C. Coarse majorite garnets in the centers of shock veins grade into increasingly finer grained dendritic garnets toward the vein margins, indicating increasing quench rates toward the margins as a result of thermal conduction to the surrounding chondrite host. Nanocrystalline boundary zones, that contain wadsleyite, ringwoodite, majorite, and magnesiowüstite, occur along shock-vein margins. These zones represent rapid quench of a boundary melt that contains less metal-sulfide than the bulk shock vein. One-dimensional finite element heat-flow calculations were performed to estimate a quench time of 750-1900 ms for a 1.6-mm thick shock vein. Because the vein crystallized as a single high-pressure assemblage, the shock pulse duration was at least as long as the quench time and therefore the sample remained at 20-25 GPa for at least 750 ms. This relatively long shock pulse, combined with a modest shock pressure, implies that this sample came from deep in the L chondrite parent body during a collision with a large impacting body, such as the impact event that disrupted the L chondrite parent body 470 Myr ago.

  9. Thermally Mobile Trace Elements in Carbonaceous Chondrites from Cold and Hot Deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Some decades ago, Anders and co-workers used RNAA to classify a number of trace elements as being volatile during nebular condensation and accretion into primitive objects based upon their strong depletion in (equilibrated) ordinary chondrites relative to C1 chondrites. Such elements, e.g. Ag, Bi, Cd, Cs, In, Se, Te, Tl, Zn and others, exhibit nearly constant, C1-normalized atomic abundances in C2 (CM2) and in C3 chondrites. They interpreted the near-constancy of these abundances according to a 2-component model in which volatiles were introduced into carbonaceous (and other) chondrites as Cl material which was diluted with differing proportions of high-temperature (i.e. volatile-free) components. In this view, mean volatile element abundances of 0.48 in C2 and 0.24-0.29 x C1 in C3 chondrites indicated that C2 and C3 chondrites are, respectively, about 1:1 and 1:2-3 mixtures of Cl-like and high temperature materials. More recently, C1 normalized abundances of such volatile elements are nearly constant in most C2-6 chondrites (i.e. 25 non-Antarctic meteorites, nearly all falls, and 36 Antarctic finds) consistent with a 2- component mixing model. However, rather than being quantized, mean volatile element contents in each chondrite define a continuum from 0.92-0.14 x Cl for these 61 chondrites. A few carbonaceous chondrites - the first having been the NIPR consortium samples B-7904, Y-82162 and Y-86720 - show an altered pattern: many of the volatile elements in each exhibit the usual constancy of C1-normalized atomic abundances, but modified by further depletion of Cd and other elements like Tl and Bi. These are the most mobile trace elements, i.e. those most readily vaporized and lost from primitive meteorites during week-long heating at greater than or equal to 400 C under low ambient pressures (initially 10 (exp -5) atm H2), simulating metamorphic conditions in a primitive parent body. Similarities between mobile element data for B-7904, Y-82162 and Y-86720 with

  10. Thermally Mobile Trace Elements in Carbonaceous Chondrites From Cold and Hot Deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Some decades ago, Anders and co-workers used RNAA to classify a number of trace elements as being volatile during nebular condensation and accretion into primitive objects based upon their strong depletion in (equilibrated) ordinary chondrites relative to C1 chondrites. Such elements, e.g. Ag, Bi, Cd, Cs, In, Se, Te, Tl, Zn and others, exhibit nearly constant, C1-normalized atomic abundances in C2 (CM2) and in C3 chondrites. They interpreted the near-constancy of these abundances according to a 2-component model in which volatiles were introduced into carbonaceous (and other) chondrites as C1 material which was diluted with differing proportions of high-temperature (i.e. volatile-free) components. In this view, mean volatile element abundances of 0.48 in C2 and 0.24-0.29 x C1 in C3 chondrites indicated that C2 and C3 chondrites are, respectively, about 1:1 and 1:2-3 mixtures of C1-like and high temperature materials. More recently, Xiao and Lipschutz found that C-normalized abundances of such volatile elements are nearly constant in most C2-6 chondrites (i.e. 25 non-Antarctic meteorites, nearly all falls, and 36 Antarctic finds) consistent with a 2-component mixing model. However, rather than being quantized, mean volatile element contents in each chondrite define a continuum from 0.92-0.14 x C1 for these 61 chondrites. A few carbonaceous chondrites, the first having been the NIPR consortium samples B-7904, Y-82162 and Y-86720, show an altered pattern: many of the volatile elements in each exhibit the usual constancy of C1-normalized atomic abundances, but modified by further depletion of Cd and other elements like Tl and Bi. These are the most mobile trace elements, i.e. those most readily vaporized and lost from primitive meteorites during week-long heating at greater than or equal to 400 C under low ambient pressures (initially 10(exp -5) atm H2), simulating metamorphic conditions in a primitive parent body. Similarities between mobile element data for B-7904, Y

  11. What Are Space Exposure Histories Telling Us about CM Carbonaceous Chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, P.; Le, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrites are chemically primitive and carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among them because they mostly escaped thermal metamor-phism that affected the other chondrite groups and ratios of their major, non-volatile and most of the volatile elements are similar to those of the Sun. Therefore, C chondrites are ex-pected to retain a good record of the origin and early history of the solar system. Carbonaceous chondrites are chemically differentiated from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios spread over a wide range though those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many sepa-rate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study, CM chondrites, the most abundant carbona-ceous chondrites, are examined. They are water-rich, chon-drule- and CAI-bearing meteorites and most of them are brec-cias. High-temperature components such as chondrules, iso-lated olivine and CAIs in CMs are frequently altered and some of them are replaced by clay minerals and surrounded by sul-fides whose Fe was derived from mafic silicates. On the basis of degrees of aqueous alteration, CMs have been classified into subtypes from 1 to 2, although Rubin et al. [1] assigned subtype 1 to subtype 2 and subtype 2 to subtype 2.6 using various petrologic properties. The classification is based on petrographic and mineralogic properties. For example, though tochilinite (2[(Fe, Mg, Cu, Ni[])S] 1.57-1.85 [(Mg, Fe, Ni, Al, Ca)(HH)2]) clumps are produced during aqueous alteration, they disappear and sulfide appears with increasing degrees of aqueous alteration. Cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age measurements of CM chondrites reveal an unusual feature. Though CRE ages of other chondrite

  12. Surface Processes on Small Planetary Bodies: Implications for the Origins of Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akridge, David Glen

    I have conducted both experimental and theoretical work concerning the formation conditions of chondritic meteorites. This work has focused on the size-sorting of chondrules and metal grains, metal abundance in chondrites, gas phase reactions, and the thermal history of meteorite parent bodies containing substantial regoliths. Although many of the major chondritic properties have been assumed to be the result of nebula processes, it is suggested here that the release of volatiles in a parent body regolith would cause gas phase reactions indistinguishable from those occurring in the nebula. The escaping volatiles from either radiogenic 26Al or impact heating could create a dynamic surface dust layer on planetesimals leading to the physical separation of regolith grains of differing size and densities. The thermal history of an H-chondrite parent body (Asteroid 6 Hebe) was numerically modeled using 26Al as the primary heat source. The three layer model consisted of an interior of solid rock overlain by a megaregolith and regolith surfaces coverings. Appropriate porosities, bulk densities, and thermal conductivities were used for each zone. Regolith and megaregolith thicknesses were varied to see which numerical run best matched the metamorphic characteristics of H-chondrites. The results show surprisingly shallow burial depths for most H-chondrites. A moderate 2 km regolith insulates the interior so that H3-6 chondrites can all be formed in the regolith or upper megaregolith. Predicted peak temperatures, cooling rates, and formation time intervals agree well with data obtained from H-chondrites. The release of volatiles (primarily water) during parent body heating events could cause fluidization in the regolith if the upward moving gas flow rate reached a minimum critical velocity. At this minimum velocity particulates are free to move with fluid-like behavior and may segregate based on size and density characteristics. Fluidization experiments at atmospheric and

  13. Chondrules in the Qingzhen type-3 enstatite chondrite Possible precursor components and comparison to ordinary chondrite chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. N.; Rubin, A. E.; Rambaldi, E. R.; Rajan, R. S.; Wasson, J. T.

    1985-08-01

    The mineral composition of chondrules from a fragment of Qingzhen (EH3) fall was analyzed by neutron activation method. Unlike the ordinary chondrite (OC) chondrules (Gooding and Keil, 1981), the Qingzhen radial pyroxene (RP) and porphyritic pyroxene (PP) chondrules have similar bulk compositions. Porphyritic olivine-pyroxene (POP) chondrules are richer than PP and RP chondrules in refractory lithophiles and siderophiles. Elements in each of the following sets intercorrelate significantly: (1) Fe-Co-Ni-Ir-Au, probably derived from a metal component; (2) Ca-Eu-Se, which suggests an oldhamite-rich precursor; (3) Al-Sc-Hf, occurring in high concentrations in POP chondrules, this set suggesting the existence of a refractory lithophile-rich and olivine-rich component; (4) Na REE; and (5) Cl-Br. Sets (2) and (4) were not precursors of OC. The interelement ratios of refractory lithophiles such as Ca, Al, Ti, Sc, and REE are similar to CI ratios, suggesting that they originated in the earliest phases as silicates, which were sulfurized before chondrule formation.

  14. Isotopic anomalies of noble gases in meteorites and their origins. III - LL-chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alaerts, L.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    Nine LL-chondrites were studied by selective etching to characterize the noble gas components in three mineral fractions: HF-HCl-solubles, chromite and carbon. The Ne-20/Ar-36 ratio is considered, noting that chondrites of different petrologic types cannot all be derived from the same volatile rich ancestor, but must have formed over a range of temperatures, with correspondingly different volatile contents. Variations in the carbonaceous chondrite fission (CCFXe) component in LL3, LL5, and LL6 chondrites are discussed, noting that if CCFXe comes from a supernova, then its distribution in LL-chondrites requires three presolar carrier minerals of the right solubility properties, containing three different xenon components. However, if CCFXe comes from fission of a volatile superheavy element, then its decrease from LL3 to LL6 can be attributed to less complete condensation from the solar nebula. Finally, the three types of primordial xenon components which occur in different minerals of the same meteorite are described.

  15. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of the ordinary chondrites and their significance for parent body stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabb, J.; Schultz, L.

    1981-01-01

    Improved exposure ages are derived for 201 H, 203 L, and 38 LL chondrites in an effort to understand the characteristics of the chondrite parent body. The Ne-21 exposure ages were calculated from literature values taking into account shielding differences, a trapped component and radiogenic He. The exposure age distributions show clear peaks at 4.5 and 20 million years for the H chondrites, while the Ls and LLs appear more as a continuous series of intermediate peaks which may be modeled by at least six peaks between 1 and 35 million years in the case of L chondrites. The observations that every petrological type occurs in each large peak and contain solar wind gases suggest that the parent bodies have been fragmented and reassembled into a megabreccia. The H meteorites are proposed to represent the surface layer of a body with a substantial, active regolith as indicated by the relatively high abundances of solar gases. The L chondrites, on the other hand, are attributed to a parent body that was fragmented by collision about 500 million years ago.

  16. Origin of dark clasts in the Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endreb, M.; Keil, K.; Bischoff, A.; Speitel, B.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    The ten specimens of the paired Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 chondrite contain abundant lithic fragments which we refer to as dark clasts. Petrological and mineralogical studies reveal that they are not related to the CR2 host meteorite but are similar to dark clasts in other CR2 chondrites. Dark clasts consist of chondrule and mineral fragments, phyllosilicate fragments and clusters, magnetite, sulfides and accessory phases, embedded into a very fine-grained, phyllosilicate-rich matrix. Magnetite has morphologies known from CI chondrites: spherules, framboids and platelets. Average abundances of major elements in the dark clasts are mostly in the range of both CR and CV chondrites, but strong depletions in Na and S are apparent. Oxygen isotopic compositions of two dark clasts suggest relationships to type 3 carbonaceous chondrites and dark inclusions in Allende. The dark clasts are clearly different in texture and mineralogical compositions from the host matrix of Acfer 059/El Djouf 001. Therefore, these dark clasts are xenoliths and are quite unlike the Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 CR2 host meteorite. We suggest that dark clasts accreted at the same time with all other components during the formation of Acfer 059/El Djouf 001 whole rock.

  17. Chemical studies of H chondrites. 4: New data and comparison of Antarctic suites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen F.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by neutron activation analysis in 13 H5 chondrites from Victoria Land and 20 H4-6 chondrites from Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. These and earlier results provide Antarctic sample suites of 34 chondrites from Victoria Land and 25 from Queen Maud Land. Treatment of data for the most volatile 10 elements (Rb to In) in these studies by multivariate statistical techniques more robust, as well as more conservative, than conventional linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression demonstrates that compositions differ at marginally significant levels. This difference cannot be explained by trivial (terrestrial) causes and becomes more significant, despite the smaller size of the database, when comparisons are limited to data from a single analyst and when all upper limits are eliminated from consideration. The Victoria Land and Queen Maud Land suites have different mean terrestrial ages (approximately 300 kyr and approximately 100 kyr, respectively) and age distributions, suggesting that a time-dependent variation of chondritic sources with different thermal histories is responsible. As a result, these two Antarctic suites are, on average, chemically distinguishable from each other. Since H chondrites serve as a paradigm for other meteorite classes, these results indicate that the near-Earth populations of planetary materials varied with time on the 10(exp 5)-year timescale.

  18. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R. H.

    2015-09-01

    Most olivine relict grains in cosmic spherules selected for the present study are pristine and have not been disturbed during their atmospheric entry, thereby preserving their chemical, mineralogical and isotopic compositions. In order to understand the origin of the particles, oxygen isotope compositions of relict olivine grains in twelve cosmic spherules collected from deep sea sediments of the Indian Ocean were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most of the data lie close to the CCAM (Carbonaceous Chondrite Anhydrous Mineral) line, with Δ17O ranging from -5‰ to 0‰. The data overlap oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites such as CV, CK, CR and CM, which suggests that chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites are the source of relict grains in cosmic spherules. Chemical compositions of olivine in cosmic spherules are also very similar to chondrule olivine from carbonaceous chondrites. Several olivine relict grains in three cosmic spherules are 16O-rich (Δ17O -21.9‰ to -18.7‰), similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine grains from two cosmic spherules have δ18O values >+20‰, which could be interpreted as mixing with stratospheric oxygen during atmospheric entry.

  19. Mineralogy and petrology of two ordinary chondrites and their correlation with other meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Pilski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Two ordinary chondrites are compared and classified using transmitted and reflected light microscopy and electron microprobe analyses. Both meteorites were confiscated by the Polish Customs Service at the border with Belarus. The first meteorite (called in this paper Terespol-1) is a L/LL6 chondrite, its classification being supported by the equilibrated compositions of olivine and orthopyroxene and the presence of large recrystallized feldspars (< 150 μm). The specimen examined experienced weak shock metamorphism (S3) and moderate weathering (although metal in the inner part of the meteorite seems to be unaffected by oxidization). The other meteorite (called in this paper Terespol-2) is a LL6 chondrite which experienced weak shock metamorphism (S3) and is unaffected by weathering. The Terespol-2 meteorite shares its classification with the Dhofar 1401 chondrite but the lack of data prevents further correlation. Both meteorites have been correlated with known findings from the Meteoritical Bulletin database and an attempt is made to identify their place of origin (fall event). Results indicate that Terespol-1 is most closely related to the Dhofar 1316 chondrite and we suggest that both meteorites at least came from the same parent body.

  20. Chemical compositions and classifica tion of five thermally altered carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha, Bianca A.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-08-01

    To establish the chemical group provenance of the five thermally altered carbonaceous chondrites Asuka (A-) 881551, Asuka-882113, Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026, Mulga (west), and Northwest Africa (NWA) 3133, we quantified 44 trace elements in each of them. We also analyzed Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 04318 (CK4), Miller Range (MIL) 090001 (CR2), Roberts Massif (RBT) 03522 (CK5) as reference samples as their chemical group affinity is already recognized. We conclude that Asuka-881551, Asuka-882113, and Mulga (west) are thermally metamorphosed CK chondrites. Compositionally, Elephant Moraine 96026 most resembles the CV chondrites. NWA 3133 is the most significantly thermally altered carbonaceous chondrite in our suite of samples. It is completely recrystallized (no chondrules or matrix remain), but its bulk composition is consistent with a CV-CK clan provenance. The thermally labile element (e.g., Se, Te, Zn, and Bi) depletion in NWA 3133 indicates a chemically open system during the heating episode. It remains unclear if the heat necessary for its thermal alteration of NWA 3133 was due to the decay of 26Al or was impact related. Finally, we infer that MIL 090001, Mulga (west), and NWA 3133 show occasional compositional signatures indicative of terrestrial alteration. The alteration is especially evident within the elements Sr, Ba, La, Ce, Th, U, and possibly Sb. Despite the alteration, we can still confidently place each of the altered chondrites within an established chemical group or clan.

  1. The Burnwell, Kentucky, Low-FeO chondrite fall: Description, classification and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Sara S.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Jarosewich, Eugene; Ash, Richard D.

    1998-07-01

    The Burnwell, Kentucky, meteorite fell as a single stone on 4 September 1990. Burnwell has lower Fa in olivine (15.8 mol%), Fs in orthopyroxene (13.4 mol%), Co in kamacite (0.36 wt.%), FeO from bulk chemical analysis (9.43 wt.%), and (17O (0.51(0.02e), and higher Fe, Ni, Co metal (19.75 wt.% from bulk wet chemical analysis) than observed in H chondrites. Burnwell plots on extensions of H-L-LL chondrite trends for each of these properties towards more reducing compositions than in H chondrites. Extensions of this trend have been previously suggested in the case of other low-FeO chondrites or silicate inclusions in the IIE iron Netscha'vo, but interpretation of the evidence in these meteorites is complicated by terrestrial weathering, chemical disequilibrium or reduction. In contrast, Burnwell is an equilibrated fall that exhibits no evidence for reduction. As such, it provides the first definitive evidence for extension of the H-L-LL ordinary chondrite trend beyond typical H values, towards more reducing compositions.

  2. Shape, metal abundance, chemistry, and origin of chondrules in the Renazzo (CR) chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, D.S.; Weisberg, M.K.; Hertz, J.; Campbell, A.J.

    2009-03-31

    We used synchrotron X-ray microtomography to image in 3-dimensions (3D) eight whole chondrules in a {approx}1 cm{sup 3} piece of the Renazzo (CR) chondrite at {approx}17 {micro}m per volume element (voxel) edge. We report the first volumetric (3D) measurement of metal/silicate ratios in chondrules and quantify indices of chondrule sphericity. Volumetric metal abundances in whole chondrules range from 1 to 37 volume % in 8 measured chondrules and by inspection in tomography data. We show that metal abundances and metal grain locations in individual chondrules cannot be reliably obtained from single random 2D sections. Samples were physically cut to intersect representative chondrules multiple times and to verify 3D data. Detailed 2D chemical analysis combined with 3D data yield highly variable whole-chondrule Mg/Si ratios with a supra-chondritic mean value, yet the chemically diverse, independently formed chondrules are mutually complementary in preserving chondritic (solar) Fe/Si ratios in the aggregate CR chondrite. These results are consistent with localized chondrule formation and rapid accretion resulting in chondrule + matrix aggregates (meteorite parent bodies) that preserve the bulk chondritic composition of source regions.

  3. High Precision Oxygen Three Isotope Analysis of Wild-2 Particles and Anhydrous Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Matrajt, G.; Kita, N. T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important discoveries from comet Wild-2 samples was observation of crystalline silicate particles that resemble chondrules and CAIs in carbonaceous chondrites. Previous oxygen isotope analyses of crystalline silicate terminal particles showed heterogeneous oxygen isotope ratios with delta(sup 18)O to approx. delta(sup 17)O down to -50% in the CAI-like particle Inti, a relict olivine grain in Gozen-sama, and an olivine particle. However, many Wild-2 particles as well as ferromagnesian silicates in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) showed Delta(sup 17)O values that cluster around -2%. In carbonaceous chondrites, chondrules seem to show two major isotope reservoirs with Delta(sup 17)O values at -5% and -2%. It was suggested that the Delta(sup 17)O = -2% is the common oxygen isotope reservoir for carbonaceous chondrite chondrules and cometary dust, from the outer asteroid belt to the Kuiper belt region. However, a larger dataset with high precision isotope analyses (+/-1-2%) is still needed to resolve the similarities or distinctions among Wild-2 particles, IDPs and chondrules in meteorites. We have made signifi-cant efforts to establish routine analyses of small particles (< or =10micronsm) at 1-2% precision using IMS-1280 at WiscSIMS laboratory. Here we report new results of high precision oxygen isotope analyses of Wild-2 particles and anhydrous chondritic IDPs, and discuss the relationship between the cometary dust and carbonaceous chondrite chondrules.

  4. A search for spectral alteration effects in chondritic gas-rich breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F.; Keil, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    Several samples of gas-rich breccias were selected, including slabs of the Kapoeta howardite, the ordinary chondrites Dubrovnik, Cangas de Onis, and Dimmit. Numerous 0.8 to 2.5 micron reflection spectra of selected areas on sawed or broken surfaces were measured with the Planetary Geosciences Division spectrogoniometer. While these spectra are not directly comparable to those of powered samples, comparisons within the data set should reveal any spectral differences due to weathering. These results indicate that unknown regolith processes do not confer the ordinary-chondrite parent bodies with an altered layer exhibiting S-class spectral properties. This is consistent with recent interpretations of the new Q-class of asteroids as the ordinary-chondrite parent bodies. However, significant spectral effects do occur in asteroid regoliths: darkening and suppression of absorption bands in highly shocked material, as seen previously in the so-called black chondrites; and segregation of metal in large impact melt pools on chondritic asteroids, which may have achondritic spectra. Neither of these effects is likely to be significant in interpreting current integral-disk spectra, but should be searched for in spectral maps returned by future spacecraft.

  5. Chemical studies of H chondrites. 4: New data and comparison of Antarctic suites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Stephen F.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1995-02-01

    We report data for the trace elements Au, Co, Sb, Ga, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, and In (ordered by putative volatility during nebular condensation and accretion) determined by neutron activation analysis in 13 H5 chondrites from Victoria Land and 20 H4-6 chondrites from Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. These and earlier results provide Antarctic sample suites of 34 chondrites from Victoria Land and 25 from Queen Maud Land. Treatment of data for the most volatile 10 elements (Rb to In) in these studies by multivariate statistical techniques more robust, as well as more conservative, than conventional linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression demonstrates that compositions differ at marginally significant levels. This difference cannot be explained by trivial (terrestrial) causes and becomes more significant, despite the smaller size of the database, when comparisons are limited to data from a single analyst and when all upper limits are eliminated from consideration. The Victoria Land and Queen Maud Land suites have different mean terrestrial ages (approximately 300 kyr and approximately 100 kyr, respectively) and age distributions, suggesting that a time-dependent variation of chondritic sources with different thermal histories is responsible. As a result, these two Antarctic suites are, on average, chemically distinguishable from each other. Since H chondrites serve as a paradigm for other meteorite classes, these results indicate that the near-Earth populations of planetary materials varied with time on the 105-year timescale.

  6. FIB-TEM Investigations of Fe-NI-Sulfides in the CI Chondrites Alais and Orgueil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eve L.; Lauretta, D. S.; Zega, T. J.; Keller, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    The CI chondrites are primitive meteorites with bulk compositions matching the solar photosphere for all but the lightest elements. They have been extensively aqueously altered, and are composed primarily of fine-grained phyllosilicate matrix material which is host to carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and minor amounts of olivine and pyroxene. The alteration, while extensive, is heterogeneous. For example, CI-chondrite cubanite and carbonate grains differ on mm to sub-mm scales, demonstrating multiple aqueous episodes. CI-chondrite variability is also evidenced by degree of brecciation, abundance and size of coarse-grained phyllosilicates, olivine and pyroxene abundance, as well as Ni-content and size of sulfide grains. Our previous work revealed Orgueil sulfide grains with variable Ni-contents, metal:S ratios, crystal structures and textures. We continue to explore the variability of CI-chondrite pyrrhotite (Po, (FeNi)1-xS) and pentlandite (Pn, (Fe,Ni)9S8) grains. We investigate the microstructure of sulfides within and among CI-chondrite meteorites in order to place constraints on the conditions under which they formed.

  7. Origin of insoluble organic matter in type 1 and 2 chondrites: New clues, new questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, Eric; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Beck, Pierre; Bonal, Lydie; Brunetto, Rosario; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pino, Thomas; Montagnac, Gilles; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Engrand, Cécile; Duprat, Jean

    2014-07-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from primitive chondrites is a polyaromatic solid with a structure and composition resembling that of terrestrial kerogens. A survey of its composition and structure has been carried out on a series of 27 CR, CM, CI and ungrouped C2 carbonaceous chondrites (Tagish Lake, Bells, Essebi, Acfer 094) using infrared and multi-wavelength Raman micro-spectroscopy (244, 514 and 785 nm laser excitations). The results show that chondritic IOM from PCA 91008 (CM2), WIS 91600 (CM2), QUE 93005 (CM2), Tagish Lake (C2 ungrouped) and possibly Cold Bokkeveld (CM2) has been subjected to the past action of short duration thermal metamorphism, presumably triggered by impacts. The IOM in most of the CM chondrites that experienced moderate to heavy aqueous alteration may have been slightly modified by collision-induced heating. However, even IOM from chondrites that escaped significant thermal metamorphism displays Raman characteristics consistent with a formation by thermal processing, either in the protosolar disk or in the parent body. An alternative energetic process to thermal heating is ion irradiation. After thoroughly analyzing both these scenarii, no conclusion can be drawn as to which is the most plausible mechanism nor whether the heating process took place prior or after accretion. The results show for the first time that the width of the G band in spectra collected with a 514 nm excitation correlates with the O/C atomic ratio, suggesting a major role of oxygen in the cross-linking of polyaromatic units.

  8. A plausible link between the asteroid 21 Lutetia and CH carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.; Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Llorca, Jordi; Fornasier, Sonia; Barucci, Maria A.; Rimola, Albert

    2016-08-01

    A crucial topic in planetology research is establishing links between primitive meteorites and their parent asteroids. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a connection between asteroids similar to 21 Lutetia, encountered by the Rosetta mission in July 2010, and the CH3 carbonaceous chondrite Pecora Escarpment 91467 (PCA 91467). Several spectra of this meteorite were acquired in the ultraviolet to near-infrared (0.3-2.2 μm) and in the midinfrared to thermal infrared (2.5-30.0 μm or 4000 to ~333 cm-1), and they are compared here to spectra from the asteroid 21 Lutetia. There are several similarities in absorption bands and overall spectral behavior between this CH3 meteorite and 21 Lutetia. Considering also that the bulk density of Lutetia is similar to that of CH chondrites, we suggest that this asteroid could be similar, or related to, the parent body of these meteorites, if not the parent body itself. However, the apparent surface diversity of Lutetia pointed out in previous studies indicates that it could simultaneously be related to other types of chondrites. Future discovery of additional unweathered CH chondrites could provide deeper insight in the possible connection between this family of metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and 21 Lutetia or other featureless, possibly hydrated high-albedo asteroids.

  9. Effects of Metamorphism on the Valence and Coordination of Titanium in Ordinary Chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L.

    2012-04-02

    Despite years of study, the conditions under which ordinary chondrites were metamorphosed from grade 3 to grade 6 are not well defined. Wide ranges of peak temperature are inferred for each grade. The long-popular 'onion shell' model, in which higher metamorphic grade is attributed to greater depths of origin, implies a corresponding decrease in cooling rate with increasing grade, and there is disagreement as to whether or not this is observed. Redox conditions during chondrite metamorphism are also not well understood. Some workers have reported evidence for reduction, presumably by carbon, with increase in grade from 3-4, followed by oxidation during metamorphism to higher grades, but other work indicates little variation in fO{sub 2} as a function of metamorphic grade. During our investigation of the valence of Ti in planetary materials, we found high proportions of Ti{sup 3+} in olivine and pyroxene in chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0) and low proportions in New Concord (L6) olivine, suggesting that Ti was oxidized during ordinary chondrite metamorphism. We have undertaken a study of L and LL chondrites of grades 3-6 to see how Ti valence and coordination vary with grade and to see if the variations can be used to constrain conditions of chondrite metamorphism.

  10. Rare Earth Element Fractionation During Evaporation of Chondritic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Davis, A. M.; Clayton, R. N.

    1993-07-01

    Evaporation experiments suggest that enrichments in the heavy isotopes of oxygen, magnesium, and silicon in some CAIs are caused by kinetic effects during evaporation [1]. Volatility-fractionated REE patterns found in some CAIs have been modeled with some success using equilibrium thermodynamics [2,3], but little is known about kinetic effects on REE patterns. We have begun an investigation of REE fractionation under conditions where large isotope effects are produced by the kinetic isotope effect. We synthesized a starting material containing CI chondritic relative proportions of MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, TiO2, and FeO, and doped it with 100 ppm each of the REE. Samples of this material were evaporated in a vacuum furnace [4] at 10^-6 torr and 1800 or 2000 degrees C for periods of a few seconds to 5 hr. The mass fraction evaporated ranged from 7.6 to 95.4%. Most residues consist of olivine and glass. Chemical compositions of the residues were determined by electron and ion microprobe. Results for selected elements are shown in Fig. 1. There is no significant evaporation of Ca, Al, and Ti up to 95% mass loss; the evaporation behavior of Mg, Si, and Fe is similar to that found by Hashimoto [5]. There is no significant evaporation of most of the REE up to 95% mass loss. Ce is much more volatile than the other REE under these conditions: a tenfold negative Ce anomaly developed between 60 and 70% mass loss and the anomaly reached 5 X 10^-4 at 95% mass loss. A small Pr anomaly (50% Pr loss) also appeared in the highest-mass-loss residue. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ce has approximately the same volatility as other LREE under solar nebular oxygen fugacity, but is much more volatile than the other REE under oxidizing conditions [6]. We suspect that conditions in the residue in our vacuum evaporation experiments became oxidizing because evaporation reactions involving most major element oxides involve release of oxygen. The four known HAL-type hibonite

  11. A Re-Examination of Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; de Vries, M.; Becker, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.

    The biomolecular building blocks of life, as we know it, are amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. The latter two form the bases of DNA and RNA, molecules that are used in the storage, transcription and translation of genetic information in all terrestrial organisms. A dedicated search for these compounds in meteorites can shed light on the origins of life in two ways: (i) Results can help assess the plausibility of extraterrestrial formation of prebiotic molecules followed by their meteoritic delivery to the early Earth. (ii) Such studies can also provide insights into possible prebiotic synthetic routes. We will search for these compounds in selected carbonaceous chondrites using formic acid extraction and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to isolate specific nucleobases from the bulk meteorite material as previously reported [1,2,3]. We will also use a new technique, resonant two-photon ionization mass spectrometry (R2PI) that can, not only identify organic compounds by their mass, but at the same time by their vibronic spectroscopy [4]. R2PI dramatically enhances the specificity for certain compounds (e.g. amino acids, nucleobases) and allows for distinction of structural isomers, tautomers and enantiomers as well as providing additional information due to isotope shifts. The optical spectroscopy can thus help us to further discriminate between terrestrial and extraterrestrial nucleobases. References: [1] Van Der Velden, W. and Schwarts, A. W. (1977) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 41, 961-968. [2] Stoks, P. G. and Schwartz, A. W. (1979a) Nature, 282, 709-10. [3] Glavin, D. P. and Bada, J. L. (2004) In Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV, Abstract # 1022, Houston. [4] Nir, E., Grace, L. I., Brauer, B. and de Vries, M. S. (1999) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121, 4896-4897.

  12. Chondritic xenon in the Earth’s mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Burnard, Peter G.; Füri, Evelyn; Marty, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Noble gas isotopes are powerful tracers of the origins of planetary volatiles, and the accretion and evolution of the Earth. The compositions of magmatic gases provide insights into the evolution of the Earth’s mantle and atmosphere. Despite recent analytical progress in the study of planetary materials and mantle-derived gases, the possible dual origin of the planetary gases in the mantle and the atmosphere remains unconstrained. Evidence relating to the relationship between the volatiles within our planet and the potential cosmochemical end-members is scarce. Here we show, using high-precision analysis of magmatic gas from the Eifel volcanic area (in Germany), that the light xenon isotopes identify a chondritic primordial component that differs from the precursor of atmospheric xenon. This is consistent with an asteroidal origin for the volatiles in the Earth’s mantle, and indicates that the volatiles in the atmosphere and mantle originated from distinct cosmochemical sources. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the origin of Eifel magmatism being a deep mantle plume. The corresponding mantle source has been isolated from the convective mantle since about 4.45 billion years ago, in agreement with models that predict the early isolation of mantle domains. Xenon isotope systematics support a clear distinction between mid-ocean-ridge and continental or oceanic plume sources, with chemical heterogeneities dating back to the Earth’s accretion. The deep reservoir now sampled by the Eifel gas had a lower volatile/refractory (iodine/plutonium) composition than the shallower mantle sampled by mid-ocean-ridge volcanism, highlighting the increasing contribution of volatile-rich material during the first tens of millions of years of terrestrial accretion.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet reflectance spectra of groups L, LL, and E chondrites and of achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. K.; Cohen, A. J.; Hapke, B. W.; Partlow, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of individual meteorites of all classes are being measured in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral wavelength region from 89 to 248 nm to evaluate the potential of VUV spectroscopy as a remote sensing method for planetary studies. In the present investigation, specimens of 15 group L chondrites, 13 group LL chondrites, 7 group E chondrites, and 18 achondrites were studied. Spectra were measured of both polished thin sections and powders of the meteorites, where both were available. Attention is given to measurements of mineral standards, shock effects, and meteorite data. It is concluded that the VUV spectra of meteorites should provide a useful basis for comparisons with spectra of asteroids and comet nuclei taken from spacecraft. VUV spectroscopy should make it possible to identify the major minerals present in a meteorite or asteroid.

  14. Identification of solar nebula condensates in interplanetary dust particles and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeck, W.; Thomas, K. L.; Mckay, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    Orthopyroxene and olivine grains, low in FeO, but containing MnO contents up to 5 wt percent were found in interplanetary dust particles (IDP) collected in the stratosphere. The majority of olivines and pyroxenes in meteorites contain less than 0.5 wt percent MnO. Orthopyroxenes and olivines high in Mn and low in FeO have only been reported from a single coarse grained chondrule rim in the Allende meteorite and from a Tieschitz matrix augite grain. The bulk MnO contents of the extraterrestrial dust particles with high MnO olivines and pyroxenes are close to CI chondrite abundances. High MnO, low FeO olivines and orthopyroxenes were also found in the matrix of Semarkona, an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite. This may indicate a related origin for minerals in extraterrestrial dust particles and in the matrix of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites.

  15. Nature and origin of matrix in the unique type 3 chondrite, Kakangari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    The characteristics of the matrix of the Kakangari type-3 chondrite were investigated using high-resolution TEM and AEM. It was found that the textural and mineralogical characteristics of the fine-grained matrix of Kakangari are different from those of the other chondrite groups. Unlike the matrix phases present in the CV3 and CO3 chondrites, the matrix mineralogy of Kakangari contains clear information regarding its possible origin and thermal history. Data obtained are most consistent with an origin of Kakangari by annealing, without melting at high temperature (possibly during a chondrule-forming thermal event), of clusters or aggregates of ultrafine-grained amorphous or crystalline phases. The precursor materials were most likely to have been a mixture of nebula and presolar dust. Chondrules in Kakangari were probably formed from identical precursors to the matrix, but reached temperatures sufficiently high to produce melting.

  16. Chondrite thermal histories from Low-CA pyroxene microstructures: Autometamorphism versus prograde metamorphism revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Jones, Rhian H.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to constrain the thermal histories of chondritic meteorites, a detailed study of the microstructures of low-Ca pyroxenes produced experimentally and in types 4 and 5 ordinary chondrites was carried out. Cooling experiments on synthetic MgSiO3 at cooling rates between 2 and 10000 C/hr from the protopyroxene stability field into that of orthopyroxene (OPX) were performed and the products of these experiments were annealed for a variety of annealing times. There are clear microstructural differences between samples which were cooled and those which were subsequently annealed. A comparison of the microstructures observed in the experimental samples with those in H4-5 ordinary chondrites shows that they cannot have experienced a single stage cooling history, as proposed for the autometamorphism model.

  17. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  18. Cristobalite-pyroxene in an L6 chondrite - Implications for metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, E. J.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    CRISPY is a cristobalite-pyroxene assemblage in the L6 chondrite ALHA 76003. It was formed by reaction of a very siliceous inclusion with the surrounding olivine-rich rock. Oxygen isotopes show that the inclusion was derived from a source with non-chondritic isotopic composition. The isotopes also show that the oxygen of the pyroxene reaction product was derived by simple mixing of oxygen from the inclusion and its immediately adjacent surroundings, with exchange with the bulk meteorite limited to a distance of about a millimeter. The persistence of cristobalite in close proximity to olivine, and the lack of isotopic equilibration, show that the metamorphic processes that form petrographic grade 6 chondrites involve transport of major elements over distances only on the order of millimeters.

  19. Refractory precursor components of Semarkona chondrules and the fractionation of refractory elements among chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. N.; Wasson, J. T.

    1983-04-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to measure about 20 of the lithophile elements in 30 chondrules from the Semarkona chondrite. The amounts of oxidized iron were calculated from other compositional parameters, and Si concentrations are estimated from mass-balance considerations. It is suggested that the refractory component probably forms from fine grained materials that were able to equilibrate down to lower nebular temperatures. The chondrite matrix may have had an origin similar to that of the nonrefractory material. The low abundance of refractories and Mg in ordinary and enstatite chondrites was produced by the loss of materials having a higher refractory element/Mg ratio than that of the refractory element of the chondrules.

  20. Thermal history of 6 Hebe as the H-chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akridge, Glen; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1997-03-01

    We have modeled the thermal history of asteroid 6 Hebe using a finite difference approximation for the radial heat conduction equation. Unlike previous work, our computer code accounts for regolith/megaregolith insulation effects for both 'instantaneous' accretion as well as 'slow' accretion (1-50 m/yr). Thermal conductivity, diffusivity, heat capacity, porosity, and bulk density are all functions of radius and temperature. The heat source used is homogeneously distributed Al-26 and other long-lived nuclides. Impact heating is not considered. The model is constrained primarily by the radius of Hebe, maximum temperatures for H-chondrite petrologic types, and observed cooling rates. The model predicts peak temperatures at the base of a 2.5-km deep regolith to be about 1000 K, equivalent to metamorphic type 5 H-chondrites, whereas, type 6 H-chondrites may sample subregolith regions with peak temperatures of about 1250 K.

  1. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Orgueil and Ivuna: Tracing the Parent Body of CI Type Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Glavin, Daniel P.; Bota, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid analyses using HPLC of pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna have found that beta-alanine, glycine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) are the most abundant amino acids in these two meteorites, with concentrations ranging from approx. 600 to 2,000 parts per billion (ppb). Other alpha-amino acids such as alanine, alpha-ABA, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and isovaline are present only in trace amounts (less than 200 ppb). Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine and the presence of racemic (D/L 1) alanine and beta-ABA in Orgueil suggest that these amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. In comparison to the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray, the amino acid composition of the CIs is strikingly distinct, suggesting that these meteorites came from a different type of parent body, possibly an extinct comet, than did the CM carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. Mineralogical comparison and cooling history of lunar and chondritic vesicular melt breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Takeda, H.; Ishii, T.

    1984-01-01

    Lunar sample 77135, an impact melt breccia full of vesicles, has been reinvestigated by electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques and compared with a vesicular melt LL chondrite, Yamato 790964, in an attempt to understand their impact heating processes and subsequent cooling history. Notable similarities between the lunar and chondritic melt breccias include: abundant vesicles, similar pyroxene chemical zoning trends, the presence of variable amounts of clastic material, and similar chemical compositions except for K and Na contents of glass and mesostasis. Some constraints on the cooling history are estimated from Mg-Fe diffusion profiles in olivine and pyroxene. The burial depth of lunar sample 77135 during cooling was 0.2-100 m; the depth for the chondrite was probably smaller. Impact melts were probably produced and a layer of regolith retained on the parent body sufficiently thick to allow the olivines to homogenize during slow cooling.

  3. Aqueous alteration in carbonaceous chondrites - Mass balance constraints on matrix mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Bulk chemical compositions of matrix material were determined in eleven Antarctic CM chondrites and five non-Antarctic CM and CI chondrites, using microprobe defocused-beam technique. The results, along with previously published data, are used to provide mass balance constraints on the relative proportions of intergrown and intermixed phyllosilicate phases in carbonaceous chondrite matrices. In terms of Fe, Si, and Mg, the CM matrix bulk compositions plot within a triangle defined by the compositions of PCP (a mixture of 25 percent tochilinite and 75 percent cronstedtite), Mg-rich serpentine, and Fe-rich serpentine. Results indicate differing amounts of PCP and serpentines in individual CM matrices. The discrepancies found between predicted and measured S and Ni values require additional sulfide phases. CI matrices were found to contain little, if any, PCP; they consist mostly of serpentine and montmorillonite.

  4. Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of carbonaceous chondritic clasts in the LEW 85300 polymict eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Hewins, R. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Xiao, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a detailed petrologic and mineralogic study of two chondritic clasts from the polymict eucrite Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85300, and performed chemical analyses by INAA and RNAA on one of these. Petrologically, the clasts are identified and are composed of dispersed aggregates, chondrules, and chondrule fragments supported by matrix. The aggregates and chondrules are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, plus some diopside. The matrix consists of fine-grained olivine, and lesser orthopyroxene and augite. Fine-grained saponite is common in the matrix. The bulk major composition of the clast studied by INAA and RNAA shows unusual abundance patterns for lithophile, siderophile and chalcophile elements but is basically chondritic. The INAA/RNAA data preclude assignment of the LEW 85300,15 clast to any commonly accepted group of carbonaceous chondrite.

  5. Micro-Scale Distributions of Major and Trace Elements in Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Zolensky, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft has successfully returned to Earth after two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa. This asteroid is classified as an S-type and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. More than 1500 particles have been identified consisting of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide and Fe metal, with compositions consistent with being of LL origin. While the chondritic components are familiar to us, the level of detail to which the Itokawa samples will be exposed to will be unprecedented given that the samples are reasonably large and accessible to a wide variety of techniques. In many ways, we expect that our knowledge base of the comparator chondrites will be found to be wanting. Chondrites are the building blocks of the solar system. However, these rocks are essentially breccias and they are quite variable in bulk element compositions as well as compositions of the individual components. We have initiated a program of analysis for chondrites focusing on major and trace element distributions between the mineral components and the matrix. The issues to be addressed include the homogeneity of matrix and chondrule components and the representivity of any given sample to the bulk meteorite. This may be particularly important given the limited numbers of Itokawa grains that may be available for a specific analysis. As an initial study, we have taken thin sections of carbonaceous chondrites to study the representivity of the matrix compositions. Spot locations were constrained to limited regions of the sections so as to assess the variability of a local scale. Further work will be required to assess variability over a centimeter scale.

  6. Assessing the Formation of Ungrouped Achondrite Northwest Africa 8186: Residue, Crystallization Product, or Recrystallized Chondrite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of primitive achondrites, metachondrites, and type 7 chondrites challenge the long held idea that all chondrites and achondrites form on separate parent bodies. These meteorites have experienced metamorphic temperatures above petrologic type 6 and have partially melted to various degrees. However, because of their isotopic and compositional similarities to both undifferentiated and differentiated groups, the provenance of these 'type 6+' meteorites remains largely unknown. CK and CV chondrites have recently been linked to a few achondrites due to their strong compositional, mineralogical, and isotopic similarities], suggesting a common origin between these meteorites. Although CVs have generally undergone low degrees of alteration near petrologic type 3, CKs have experienced a wide range of thermal alteration from petrologic type 3 to 6. Thermal evolution models on early accreting bodies predict that an early forming body can partially differentiate due to radiogenic heating, and, as a result, form radial layers of material increasing in thermal grade (types 3 to 6+) from the unmelted chondritic surface towards the differentiated core.Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is an ungrouped achondrite that provides compelling evidence for higher degrees of thermal processing and/or melting and differentiation on some CK/CV parent bodies. NWA 8186 plots on the CCAM line on a 3-oxygen isotope diagram directly with CK and CV chondrites and also plots with the CKs in regards to Cr isotopes. This meteorite is dominated by Nickel(II)Oxygen-rich olivine (less than 80%), lacks iron metal, and contains four oxide phases, indicating a high fOxygen (above FMQ) similar to the CKs. Additionally, NWA 8186 does not contain chondrules. We have further investigated the origins of NWA 8186 by examining and comparing the bulk composition of this CK-like achondrite with CK and CV chondrites, allowing us to assess the various scenarios in which NWA 8186 may have formed from

  7. Oxygen Isotope Systematics of Chondrules from the Least Equilibrated H Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kita, N. T.; Kimura, M.; Ushikubo, T.; Valley, J. W.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of bulk chondrules and their mineral separates in type 3 ordinary chondrites (UOC) show several % variability in the oxygen three isotope diagram with slope of approx.0.7 [1]. In contrast, ion microprobe analyses of olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts in ferromagnesian chondrules from LL 3.0-3.1 chondrites show mass dependent isotopic fractionation as large as 5% among type I (FeO-poor) chondrules, while type II (FeO-rich) chondrules show a narrow range (less than or equal to 1%) of compositions [2]. The .Delta(exp 17)O (=delta(exp 17)O-0.52xdelta(exp 18)O) values of olivine and pyroxene in these chondrules show a peak at approx.0.7% that are systematically lower than those of bulk chondrule analyses as well as the bulk LL chondrites [2]. Further analyses of glass in Semarkona chondrules show .17O values as high as +5% with highly fractionated d18O (max +18%), implying O-16-poor glass in chondrules were altered as a result of hydration in the parent body at low temperature [3]. Thus, chondrules in LL3.0-3.1 chondrites do not provide any direct evidence of oxygen isotope exchange between solid precursor and O-16-depleted gas during chondrule melting events. To compare the difference and/or similarity between chondrules from LL and H chondrites, we initiated systematic investigations of oxygen isotopes in chondrules from Yamato 793408 (H3.2), one of the least equilibrated H chondrite [4]. In our preliminary study of 4 chondrules, we reported distinct oxygen isotope ratios from dusty olivine and refractory forsterite (RF) grains compared to their host chondrules and confirmed their relict origins [5].

  8. Roosevelt County 075: A petrologic chemical and isotopic study of the most unequilibrated known H chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, K.; Ash, R. D.; Morse, A. D.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wieler, R.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Roosevelt County (RC) 075 was recovered in 1990 as a single 258-gram stone. Classification of this meteorite is complicated by its highly unequilibrated nature and its severe terrestrial weathering, but we favor H classification. This is supported by O isotopes and estimates of the original Fe, Ni metal content. The O isotopic composition is similar to that of a number of reduced ordinary chondrites (e.g., Cerro los Calvos, Willaroy), although RC 075 exhibits no evidence of reduced mineral compositions. Chondrule diameters are consistent with classification as an L chondrite, but large uncertainties in chondrule diameters of RC 075 and poorly constrained means of H, L and LL chondrites prevent use of this parameter for reliable classification. Other parameters are compromised by severe weathering (e.g., siderophile element abundances) or unsuitable for discrimination between unequilibrated H, L and LL chondrites (e.g., Co in kamacite delta C-13). Petrologic subtype 3.2 +/- 0.1 is suggested by the degree of olivine heterogeneity, the compositions of chondrule olivines, the thermoluminescence sensitivity, the abundances and types of chondrules mapped on cathodoluminescence mosaics, and the amount of presolar SiC. The meteorite is very weakly shocked (S2), with some chondrules essentially unshocked and, thus, is classified as an H3.2(S2) chondrite. Weathering is evident by a LREE enrichment due to clay contamination, reduced levels of many siderophile elements, the almost total loss of Fe, Ni metal and troilite, and the reduced concentrations of noble gases. Some components of the meteorite (e.g., type IA chondrules, SiC) appear to preserve their nebular states, with little modification from thermal metamorphism. We conclude that RC 075 is the most equilibrated H chondrite yet recovered and may provide additional insights into the origin of primitive materials in the solar nebula.

  9. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  10. The petrogenesis of L-6 chondrites - Insights from the chemistry of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, D. B.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the major, minor and trace element abundances of the major minerals of the L-6 chondrites Alfianello, Colby (WI) and Leedey are used to investigate the formation mechanisms of L-6 chondrites. Electron microprobe analysis was performed on individual grains of each mineral, and separated minerals were analyzed by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The compositions of the three meteorites are observed to be generally uniform, however different abundances and distributions of rare earth elements and Co and Ni indicate that the meteorites have different petrogenetic histories. Alkali element distributions are found to be incompatible with internal equilibration of a closed system.

  11. Hydrothermal alteration experiments: tracking the path from interstellar to chondrites organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Jaber, M.; Remusat, L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic molecules are detected in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The origin of these organics, whether formed prior the accretion phase, or in-situ on the parent body, is still a matter of debate. We have investigated experimentally the chemical evolution of interstellar organic molecules submitted to hydrothermal conditions, mimicking asteroidal alteration (T<200°C). In particular, we want to assess the potential catalytic role of clays minerals in the polymerization/degradation of organics. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, compound of C-N bonds) is used as a plausible interstellar precursors from icy grains. Experimental products reveal a large diversity of molecules, including nitrogen organic molecules similar to those found in chondrites.

  12. Chondrites, S asteroids, and space weathering: Thumping noises from the coffin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanale, F. P.; Clark, B. E.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the spectral characteristics of ordinary chondrites and S-asteroids in the visible and infrared can be reduced to three numerical values. These values represent the depth of the absorption band resulting from octahedrally coordinated Fe(sup 2+), the reflectance at 0.56 microns and the slope of the continuum (as measured according to convention). By plotting these three characteristics, it is possible to immediately compare the spectral characteristics of large numbers of ordinary chondrites and S-asteroids. Commonality of spectral characteristics between these populations can thus be evaluated on the basis of overlap in position on three two-coordinate systems: albedo vs. band depth, band depth vs. slope, and slope vs. albedo. In order to establish identity, members of the two populations must overlap on all three of these independent parameter spaces. In this coordinate system, spectra of 23 ordinary chondrites (representing all metamorphic grades), and 39 S-asteroids were compared. It was found that there was no overlap between the two populations in terms of the slope vs. band depth parameters, nor were most chondrites identical to the S-asteroids with respect to the other criteria. However, the controversial question remains: Where are the parent bodies of the chondrites? Perhaps an even more critical question is: Where are our samples of the S-asteroids? Considering the geography of the asteroid belt and the theory that early solar-system electromagnetic induction heating differentiated protoasteroids in the inner portion of the main belt, it was suggested that although S-asteroids and ordinary chondrites have very similar mineralogy, the S-asteroids are mixtures of metallic nickel iron and silicates which resulted from magmatism induced by electromagnetic heating whereas chondrites were only slightly metamorphosed nebular condensates. In this scenario chondrites would have been derived from a population of bodies with thermal lag times so short that

  13. Presolar SiC in chondrites - How variable and how many sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.

    1993-06-01

    The carbon and silicon isotropic compositions of 246 isotopically anomalous SiC grains measured in low concentration residues are reported. The residues were prepared from nine chondrites, namely, 6 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs), Qingzhen (EH3), Leoville (CV3), and Murchison (CM2). Murchison is used as a standard to which all the other meteorites studied are compared. The range of isotopic compositions exhibited by UOC SiC is found to be similar to Murchison, except in Inman. Inman SiC has a distinctly different distribution of its silicon isotopic composition compared to the other meteorites. Residues from Qingzhen and Leoville produce only one anomalous SiC grain each.

  14. Deformation and thermal histories of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3. 4) chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The results of optical and TEM studies of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3.4) chondrite are presented. Results were obtained, using a microprobe, from quantitative microchemical analyses for Mg, Fe, Si, and Ca for the chondrule olivine and pyroxene, showing that chondrules in the Chainpur chondrite experienced varied degrees of annealing and deformation. It is suggested that Chainpur may be an agglomerate of a breccia that experienced little overall deformation or heating during and after the final accumulation and compaction of its constituents. 75 refs.

  15. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  16. New mineralogical and chemical data on the Machinga (L6) chondrite, Malawi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Horsch, Hanna E.; Merkle, Roland K. W.

    1990-01-01

    The Machinga, southern Malawi, Africa, L6 chondrite (observed fall, January 22, 1981) contains accessory phases of metal, troilite, chromite, and native Cu (which is associated with limonite and found in zones of aqueous alteration). Rare accessory phases are apatite and pentlandite, which are uncommon in L6 chondrites. Major mineral constituents (olivine, orthopyroxene, and plagioclase) indicate shock effects at a level of about 15-20 GPa shock pressure. The meteorite is thus classified to be of L6d type. Melt pockets of widely variable composition are abundant.

  17. The Dresden (Ontario) H6 Chondrite, Part II: Classification Estimated Fireball Trajectory, and Possible Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, Phil J. A.; Brown, Peter G.; Wilson, Graham C.

    2006-06-01

    The Dresden (Ontario) meteorite fell in southwestern Ontario on the early evening of July 11, 1939. We re-examine this historic Canadian fall, consider the mineralogy, physical properties, and bulk chemistry of the meteorite, and estimate its trajectory and pre-atmospheric orbit based on visual accounts of the event. Mineralogical examination of several fragments of the meteorite reveals poor definition of chondrule margins, lack of glass, and the presence of minor feldspar, confirming Dresden (Ontario) to be an H6 ordinary chondrite. The bulk of the stone has undergone a low level of shock (S2) as indicated by generally clean extinction of silicate grains. A 12-g bulk sample of the Dresden (Ontario) main mass has elemental abundances that agree well with the H-chondrite average. The bulk density for Dresden (3.48+/-0.07 g/cm3) and porosity (4.9%) are also typical of H chondrites. Several accounts of the fall event constrain the Dresden fireball to have had a ground projection azimuth of ~050, passing from north of London, Ontario southwestwards toward Dresden. The tightly grouped strewnfield of fusion-encrusted fragments recovered ~10 km southwest of Dresden, Ontario suggests that the fireball trajectory was steep. Dark-flight simulations using the 050 azimuth best reproduce the recovered strewnfield distribution with an entry angle of >70°. The range of potential orbits derived from this inferred steep trajectory is consistent with previous orbits measured for meteorite-producing fireballs, and suggest that the Dresden meteoroid had an Apollo asteroid-type orbit, with a perihelion just inside that of the Earth's and a low-to-moderate inclination. The Dresden (Ontario) H6 chondrite is thus petrologically and dynamically similar to other H chondrites with known orbits. A comparison of the known H-chondrite orbits with a modelled debiased distribution of near-Earth objects indicates that the H chondrites were most likely delivered to the Earth via the v6 and the 3

  18. Evidence from the Semarkona ordinary chondrite for Al-26 heating of small planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Hutchison, R.

    1989-01-01

    The first observation of radiogenic Mg-26 in nonrefractory meteoritic material, a plagioclase-bearing, olivine-pyroxene clast chondrule in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite, is reported. The inferred initial abundance of Al-26 is sufficient to produce incipient melting in well-insulated bodies of chondritic composition. It is concluded that planetary accretion and diffentiation must have begun on a timescale comparable to the half-life of Al-26 and that, even if widespread melting did not occur, Al-26 heating played a significant role in thermal metamorphism on small planets.

  19. The Oxygen Isotope Composition of Dark Inclusions in HEDs, Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Buchanan, P. C.; Franchi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dark inclusions (DIs) are lithic fragments that form a volumetrically small, but important, component in carbonaceous chondrites. Carbonaceous clasts similar to DIs are also found in some ordinary chondrites and HEDs. DIs are of particular interest because they provide a record of nebular and planetary processes distinct from that of their host meteorite. DIs may be representative of the material that delivered water and other volatiles to early Earth as a late veneer. Here we focus on the oxygen isotopic composition of DIs in a variety of settings with the aim of understanding their formational history and relationship to the enclosing host meteorite.

  20. Formation of insoluble organic matter in type-1 and -2 chondrites: Radiolytic or thermal processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, E.; Orthous-Daunay, F.; Beck, P.; Bonal, L.; Brunetto, R.; Dartois, E.; Pino, T.; Montagnac, G.; Rouzaud, J.; Engrand, C.; Duprat, J.

    2014-07-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from primitive chondrites comes in the form of a polyaromatic solid with a structure and composition resembling that of terrestrial kerogens. It bears large D/H and ^{15}N/^{14}N isotopic ratios that point to a formation in a cold environment and ion-molecule reactions. However, the nature of the chemical and physical processes that led to its formation is still actively discussed: formation in the parent body by slight thermal metamorphism [1], inheritance from interstellar medium [2], or formation in the upper layer of the protosolar disk [3]. Post-accretional evolution of organic matter has also emerged as a critical issue, as it may disturb or even obscure pre-accretional information. In type 1 and 2 chondrites, evidence of short duration thermal heating of OM has been found using a variety of techniques [4]. In order to unravel pre-accretional from post-accretional processes, we have performed a survey of the composition and structure of IOM on a series of 27 CR, CM, CI, and ungrouped C2 carbonaceous chondrites (Tagish Lake, Bells, Essebi, Acfer 094) using infrared and multi-wavelength Raman micro-spectroscopy (244-, 514-, and 785-nm laser excitations [5]). Our results show that chondritic IOM from PCA 91008 (CM2), WIS 91600 (CM2), QUE 93005 (CM2), Tagish Lake (C2 ungrouped), and possibly Cold Bokkeveld (CM2) has been subjected to the past action of short-duration thermal metamorphism, presumably triggered by impacts. The IOM in most of the CM chondrites that experienced moderate to heavy aqueous alteration may have been slightly modified by collision-induced heating. Even IOM from chondrites that escaped significant thermal metamorphism (e.g., the most primitive CR chondrites) displays Raman characteristics consistent with a formation by thermal processing. This process may have happened either in the protosolar disk or in the parent body. However, an alternative energetic process to thermal heating is ion irradiation