Science.gov

Sample records for indelayed coking units

  1. Coking-coal deposits of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berryhill, Louise R.; Averitt, Paul

    1951-01-01

    Geohydrologic systems in the Anadarko basin in the central United States are controlled by topography, climate, geologic structures, and aquifer hydraulic properties, all of which are the result of past geologic and hydrologic processes, including tectonics and diagenesis. From Late Cambrian through Middle Ordovician time, a generally transgressive but cyclic sea covered the area. The first deposits were permeable sand, followed by calcareous mud. During periods of sea transgression, burial diagenesis decreased porosity and permeability. During Pennsylvanian time, rapid sedimentation accompanied rapid subsidence in the Anadarko basin. A geopressure zone probably resulted when sediments with little permeability trapped depositional water in Lower Pennsylvanian sands. Burial diagenesis included compaction and thermal alteration of deeply buried organic material, which released carbon dioxide, water, and hydrocarbons. By Middle Pennsylvanian time, the sea had submerged most of the central United States, including the Ozarks, as tectonic activity reached its maximum. During Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, the Ouachita uplift had been formed and was higher than the Ozarks. Uplift was accompanied by a regional upward tilt toward the Ouachita-Ozarks area; the sea receded westward, depositing large quantities of calcareous mud and clay, and precipitating evaporitic material in the restricted-circulation environment. By the end of Permian time, > 20,000 ft of Pennsylvanian and Permian sediments had been deposited in the Anadarko basin. These thick sediments caused rapid and extreme burial diagensis, including alteration of organic material During Permian time in the Ozarks area, development of the Ozark Plateau aquifer system commenced in the permeable Cambrian-Mississippian rocks near the St. Francois Mountains as the Pennsylvanian confining material was removed. Since Permian time, uplift diagenesis has been more active than burial diagenesis in the Anadarko

  2. Some physicochemical properties of petroleum pyrolysis cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Cherednik, E.M.; Butyrin, G.M.; Ibraev, S.O.; Shipkov, N.N.; Volchkova, N.I.

    1986-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the structure and reactivity of cokes and fillers from petroleum. The tests were carried out with KNPS and KNPE petroleum pyrolysis cokes, KZI needle coke obtained on a delayed coking unit, and coke obtained from KO oxidized petroleum residue. The original cokes were subjected to a preliminary thermal treatment in an inert atmosphere and the calcined samples were then used to determine the reactivity, the ash content, the specific surface, the content of impurities, the porosity, and xray characteristics. The presented data show that suppression of the catalytic effect of the impurities by impreganation with manganese phosphate is effective for cokes with low TTT.

  3. Process for calcining coke

    SciTech Connect

    Komi, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1981-05-05

    A process is described for calcining green coke in at least three heating stages, which comprises preheating the green coke in the first stage, preliminarily calcining the coke in the second stage, cooling the coke; and calcining the coke in the third stage, volatile matter from the second stage being burned during the third stage. The product coke is suitable for preparing graphite electrodes.

  4. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction

  5. 76 FR 14987 - United States v. Graftech International Ltd. and Seadrift Coke, L.P.; Public Comments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... financial crisis. All the above indicates that the world petroleum needle coke market is oligopolistic... Seadrift L.P., 75 FR 76026; and summaries of the terms of the proposed Final Judgment and CIS, together....DC 2008) (citing SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 17). Moreover, the Court's role under the APPA...

  6. 61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT FIRE BOXES AND SILOS FOR COKE DRYERS. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. Selection of equipment for coke processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhodenko, N.T.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Nurlygayanova, V.M.; Petrunina, O.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article shows how the design and selection of equipment for the crushing, transportation, and storage of petroleum coke is dependent on the physicomechanical properties of the coke. The mechanical properties of petroleum coke depend on its total porosity, which is determined from true and apparent densities. Topics considered include screen composition, bulk density, the degree of compaction, coefficients of internal and external friction, segregation, and the angle of repose. A vibrating platform operating at 350 cycles per minute was used to investigate the dynamics of compaction of coke fractions during rail transport. It is emphasized that the physical properties of coke as a free-flowing material are of paramount importance in designing the processing and transportation systems and storage facilities for coking and calcining units.

  8. CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, trachea, kidney, and prostate. An import...

  9. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. PMID:25113994

  10. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  11. Carcinogen assessment of coke oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, trachea, kidney, and prostate. An important finding of this study was the dose-response found by both length of exposure and intensity of exposure (top or side of the ovens) for mortality from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, and trachea. A study of Japanese coke oven workers also found them to be at an excess risk of lung cancer mortality. British studies of cancer mortality in coke oven workers have generally been negative, but there were weaknesses in these studies. Coke oven emissions produce positive results in mutagenicity studies. Coal tar, a condensate of coke oven emissions, and various constituents of coke oven emissions have been found to be positive in both mutagenicity and animal carcinogenicity studies.

  12. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  13. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  14. Coke formation in the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. 4: Modeling of coke formation in naphtha cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Reyniers, G.C.; Froment, G.F. . Lab. voor Petrochemische Techniek); Kopinke, F.D.; Zimmermann, G. . Abteilung Hochtemperaturreaktionen am Inst. fuer Technische Chemie)

    1994-11-01

    An extensive experimental program has been carried out in a pilot unit for the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. On the basis of the experimental information and the insight in the mechanisms for coke formation in pyrolysis reactors, a mathematical model describing the coke formation has been derived. This model has been incorporated in the existing simulation tools at the Laboratorium voor Petrochemische Techniek, and the run length of an industrial naphtha cracking furnace has been accurately simulated. In this way the coking model has been validated.

  15. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  16. Structure of metallurgical coke

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, F.L.; Makarov, G.N.; Sidogin, V.P.; Kovalenko, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    Obtaining carboniferous coke satisfying the requirements of the metallurgical production processes constitutes a complicated problem determined by correctness in selecting a technological coking process and selecting the starting coals. Changes in coal charge composition, method, and systems of coking show a considerable effect on the properties of the metallurgical coke. Moreover, each technological process in which coke is used gives rise to quite well-defined requirements as regards its physicochemical properties. The general property of the carboniferous materials, on which their technological properties depend, is the reactive capability, which, in turn, depends to a large extent on the structure (macro-, micro-, and fine structure), the degree of order in the structure, the presence and sizes of crystals, and the extent of development of the system. Therefore, the structure can and must be one of the basic criteria of evaluating the quality when producing and using a specific metallurgical fuel and a reducing agent. A method of complex microscopic analysis of a carboniferous substance of carboniferous coke, iron and chemical etching methods, and optical and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy were used to study the structure of metallurgical coke produced by the Dnepropetrovsk Coking Plant. Coke belonging to 7 size-classes was studied microscopically: > 80, 80-60, 60-40, 40-25, 25-10, < 10, and 25-8 mm. The first size classes constitute the principal production of the plant, while the 25-8 mm class is produced to increase the quality of coke supplied to the ferroalloy plants. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  17. CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS (REVISED DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, and trachea, kidney, and prostate. An im...

  18. Met coke world summit 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  19. Coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  20. Coke oven emissions

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Coke oven emissions ; CASRN NA Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  1. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  2. Coke pushing emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.; Symons, C.

    1980-07-08

    A method is described for controlling coke oven emissions comprising the steps of: (A) aligning a one-spot, open-top coke quenching car with the coke oven, (B) providing a coke guide from the coke oven to the car, (C) positioning a fume hood over the car, with the fume hood having a length about equal to the length of the car, (D) pushing hot coke from the coke oven through the coke guide and into the car, (E) withdrawing gases from the fume hood during step (D) and passing said gases to gas cleaning equipment at a gas flowrate of between about 1000 and about 3500 scfmd per ton of coke pushed under step (D), and (F) substantially upon completion of step (E) moving the car from under the fume hood to a quenching station with the hot coke in the car exposed to the atmosphere and without further withdrawal of gases from the hot coke to the gas cleaning equipment.

  3. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke. PMID:26114284

  4. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  5. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature

  6. Coke oven door seal

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrych, G.

    1984-01-17

    A coke oven door seal in which a leaf spring is fixed to the inner end of a continuous concave seating structure which is peripherally mounted on the door frame. A terminally convex ridge structure extends endwise from the door jamb to flex the leaf spring sufficiently so as to form a continuous gas tight seal around the door. The leaf spring is flexed by the ridge by an amount that is greater than the deflection which would result only from the application of pressure on the leaf spring by coke oven gases. The leaf spring is also flexed by an amount that is less than the amount which would surpass its elastic limit. In an alternate embodiment, the leaf spring and seat structure are mounted on the door jamb while the ridge is mounted on the door frame.

  7. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  8. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  9. Influence of metal surface and sulfur addition on coke deposition in the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reyniers, M.F.S.G.; Froment, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Coke formation in the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons was studied in a pilot plant unit and in a microreactor with complete mixing of the gas phase, containing a hollow cylinder suspended at the arm of an electrobalance. The morphology of the coke was studied by SEM, while EDX was used to determine the concentration of metals in the coke layer. The influence of the metal surface composition, of it pretreatment, and of the addition of various sulfur compounds on the coking rate and CO production was investigated for condition typical for those in the cracking coil. The CO yield is not a measure of the coking rate. Sulfur compounds are very efficient in reducing the CO yield but promote coke formation.

  10. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... its notice of institution (76 FR 74810, December 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was adequate... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from...

  11. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants (some in German, some in English) is presented: Ancit hot briquetting (including blast furnace tests), by-products of Ancit process, coal preparation, high volatile coking coals, preheating, briquetting blending, compacting and preheating, short coking time, wet charges, temperature control and heat consumption, supplies of coke, Solmer coke oven complex at Fos-sur-Mer, etc. (LTN)

  12. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  13. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-15

    The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

  14. Vented coke oven door apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H. B.; Gerding, C. C.

    1980-08-12

    A vented coke oven door includes a door frame having a vertical face surface carrying a plug assembly having a central vertical internal opening to conduct coke oven gas generated at the bottom of a coal charge in a coke oven chamber. The plug assembly includes a plurality of u-shaped refractory plug segments arranged in an end-to-end aligned relation with leg sections of each u-shaped segment extending horizontally into an abutting relation with the face surface of the door frame. Each leg section carries either an embedded hooked end or a t-shaped head of a threaded fastener which is supported by the door frame so that the leg sections are unrestrained against movement toward and away from each other in response to a thermal gradient across the wall thickness of the refractory plug segment. A backing plug plate is fitted into a recess in the leg sections of each plug segment to provide a closure wall to the u-shaped configuration of the segments and forms the vertical passageway for conducting coke oven gas. The backing plug plate has an exposed layer of cast refractory overlying a layer of insulation used to protect the door frame. A seal strip extends about the outer periphery of the door frame to prevent emission of coke oven gas from the coking chamber.

  15. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  16. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  17. Zinc Accumulation and Behavior in Tuyere Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Wang, Tianqiu; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhong, Jianbo; Xu, Runsheng; Wang, Guangwei; Ren, Shan; Yang, Tianjun

    2014-10-01

    A case study of zinc oxide, which represents the first report on the occurrence, crystalline features, formation mechanism, and influence of this mineral in tuyere coke, was conducted in this study. A number of zinc oxides, some of which were in hexagonal wurtzite habit, were observed to distribute mainly in coke pores, cracks, surfaces, and around coke minerals. The accumulation of zinc in tuyere coke may enhance the degradation of coke and increase the generation and accumulation of coke fine in a blast furnace, which would cause bad effect on blast furnace operation. Investigations into zinc behavior in tuyere coke can be important for further interpretations of coke degradation in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace.

  18. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. PMID:25078828

  19. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants is presented (some in German; some in English): heat recovery in coke ovens and in coke cooling (both dry and wet methods); use of recovered heat to preheat charge, stamping techniques, blending coals, binders, briquetting, etc. (LTN)

  20. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  1. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report Number 3, November 1, 1998--February 1, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-15

    The focus of work during this reporting period was the construction of an automated probe that will be used to measure the thickness of coke deposits in thermal cracking furnaces. A discovery was made during the last reporting period, which indicated that a conventional NDE broadband transducer could be used in conjunction with a sacrificial standoff composed of a fusible alloy to efficiently couple the transducer to a rough surface operating at high temperature. A probe was constructed that incorporates the recent discovery and initial testing of the probe is now underway. Successful development of the coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem.

  2. Progress toward the Hercules coke-to-methanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.; Chiramoute, J.; Pack, G.E.; Patterson, J.

    1983-08-01

    A progress report is given on the Hercules coke-to-methanol plant. The plant gasifies petroleum coke in a fluidized bed to produce syngas for the methanol plant already on site and fuel gas for a combined cycle. The plant will produce 24,000 gallons of chemical grade methanol per day and will cogenerate electricity at about 10 MWe. The coke that is used as the raw feed stock is from a local refinery's fluid coker unit and is sized at minus 6 mm (0.25 inches) and has a heating value of 31 MJ/kg (14,700 Btu/lb). The coke, which is 90% carbon, is relatively unreactive, but can be economically gasified with a catalyst using TOSCO's coke gasification process at 650-850/sup 0/ C (1200-1500/sup 0/ F). This process is unique in that a catalyst reduces the gasification temperature which in turn lowers the oxygen requirements. This lower temperature prevents a slagging ash problem, so typical in other gasification processes. The process also uses less steam than other non-catalytic fluid-bed gasification processes. The capital cost of the plant is 24.2 million dollars and the operating cost is 5.24 million dollars per year. Low interest (8.8%) State of California loans for methanol production are used as well as the alcohol tax credit. The energy cost was found to be around $5/MMBtu for a 20 cent/gal tax credit and a coke feed at $20/ton.

  3. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-29

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up.

  4. Effect of stripper conditions on the yield and structure of coke derived from n-Hexadecane

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, A.A.H.; McGhee, B.J.; Snape, C.E.

    1996-10-01

    In FCC units, coked catalyst first passes to a steam stripper to remove residual volatiles before being transferred to the regenerator. Entrained products which are symptomatic of incomplete stripping can contribute to the overall level of coke and increase its hydrogen content considerably. To determine how the yields and composition coke varies in FCC as a function of stripper conditions, tests have been conducted ill fluidised-bed reactor using n-hexadecane at 500{degrees}C, a commercial FCC catalyst with stripping times up to 120 min. Coke concentrates have been prepared by demineralisation with hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids. The inherently quantitative single pulse excitation {sup 13}C NMR technique has been used to derive the total, protonated and non-protonated aromatic carbon concentrations for the coke concentrates. Mass spectrometry las also used to characterise the cokes. The initial coke possesses considerable aliphatic character (carbon aromaticity of 0.80), but the removal of volatiles by stripping gives rise to increases in both aromaticity and aromatic ring size.

  5. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  6. Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov

    2007-01-15

    The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

  7. K2CO3 catalysis on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jian-liang; Qi, Cheng-lin; Ma, Chao; Kong, De-wen; Mao, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The catalysis of K2CO3 on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke from Pansteel in China was studied. The coke reaction index of the stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the top charged coke. Under the catalysis of K2CO3, the coke reaction index of both cokes approximately increased by 4%, 6%, 10% and 6% at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively. The reactivity of the K-enriched stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the K-enriched top charged coke below 1100°C. However, only negligible differences were found in the temperature zone between 1100 and 1200°C. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that pores in the top charged coke were smaller and equally distributed, while relatively more big pores exist non-homogenously in stamp charged coke. Due to the different processes in production, the stamp charged coke was more porous and most of the pores tended to be applanate. Cracks were observed in the microstructure of the stamp charged coke during the carbon solution reaction, implying the inferior quality of the stamp charged coke to the top charged coke at high temperature. Diffusion of K during the carbon solution reaction was studied by the energy dispersive spectrometry. It is found that K gradually spreads into the center of lumpy coke with the rising of temperature and is equally distributed on the edges of pores at 1200°C. Besides, oxidation reactions of functional groups become faster with the catalysis of K.content

  8. Variation in toxicity response of Ceriodaphnia dubia to Athabasca oil sands coke leachates.

    PubMed

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Turcotte, Dominique; Liber, Karsten

    2010-07-01

    Coke from the Athabasca (Alberta, Canada) oil sands operations may someday be integrated into reclamation landscapes. It is hypothesized that the metals associated with the solid coke may leach into the surrounding environment. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to characterize the toxicity and chemistry of coke leachates collected from two field lysimeters (i.e. shallow lysimeter and deep lysimeter) over a period of 20months, as well as from other oil sands coke storage sites. In addition, a batch renewal leaching of coke was conducted to examine the rate of metals release. Chronic toxicity of key metals (e.g. Al, Mn, Ni and V) found in lysimeter coke leachate was evaluated separately. Toxicity test results revealed that whole coke leachates (100% v/v) were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; the 7-day LC50 values were always <25% v/v coke leachate. The deep lysimeter leachate was generally more toxic than the shallow lysimeter leachate, likely because of significantly higher concentrations of vanadium (V) found in the deep lysimeter leachate at all sampling times. Vanadium concentrations were higher than all other metals found in the leachate from both lysimeters, and in the batch renewal leaching study. Furthermore, V found in leachates collected from other oil sands field sites showed a concentration-response relationship with C. dubia survival. Mass balance calculations indicated that 94-98% of potentially leachable V fraction was still present in the coke from two field lysimeters. Evidence gathered from these assessments, including toxic unit (TU) calculations for the elements of concern, suggests that V was the likely cause of toxicity of the deep lysimeter leachate, whereas in the shallow lysimeter leachate both Ni and V could be responsible for the observed toxicity. PMID:20553931

  9. EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. Pratt Coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Coke Ovens & Railroad, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Coke calcination levels and aluminum anode quality

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, C.; Samanos, B.; Vogt, F.

    1996-10-01

    The calcination temperature of petroleum coke for aluminum anode applications has been generally increased during the past 10 years. This change by coke suppliers has often been done at the request of anode manufacturers (smelters) who seek special quality requirements for the calcined coke. Such an increase in calcining temperatures not only affects coke properties, but also has an effect on calciner operations and may have some unexpected effects on anode quality. One high and one low sulfur coke were calcined industrially at two different levels. The four individual calcined cokes were characterized. Then laboratory scale anodes were produced with each individual calcined coke. These all-coke anodes were first evaluated for optimum pitch content. Then the anodes were baked over a range of temperatures (920 to 1,260 C) in order to evaluate the influence of this heat treatment on anode properties. The results show the influence of calcining temperature on coke properties and anode properties, including the most important influence of the anode baking level.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing active coke

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E.

    1980-12-30

    At least a portion of coke produced in a hearth-type furnace is fed into an activation reactor, and at least a portion of the waste gas from the hearth-type furnace is fed to the activation reactor to act as a heating gas and/or an activation gas for the coke feed. Hot waste gas from the activation reactor is passed to a waste-heat boiler. Active coke which has at least partially lost its adsorption capacity may be fed into the furnace in mixture with the coal or alone, or it may be fed directly into the activation reactor for re-activation of the coke.

  12. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  13. Process for the recovery of coke oven waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1981-01-20

    This invention is directed to a process for making coke and recovering the heat therefrom for preheating the firing gas to the coke oven. The process involves the use of the coke oven firing gas to extract the sensible heat from the hot coke from the coking oven to both preheat the firing gas for the coke oven and cool the hot coke. Significant economies are achieved in the two-fold function of coke production and heat recovery in accordance with the method disclosed.

  14. Regeneration of coked catalysts: The effect of aging upon the characteristics of the coke deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Royo, C.; Ibarra, J.V.; Monzon, A.; Santamaria, J. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente)

    1994-11-01

    The effect of aging in nitrogen upon the regeneration characteristics of the coke deposits on chromia-alumina catalysts has been investigated. To this end, the coked catalysts have been subjected to various treatments in nitrogen, and the chemical composition and reactivity of the deposits have been investigated. The results show that the process of aging in nitrogen gives rise to significant changes in both the composition and reactivity of the coke deposits, due to the stripping of the coke fractions with a higher volatility. This obviously has important consequences upon the subsequent regeneration, which are also discussed and tested in regeneration experiments using coked catalyst of different ages.

  15. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  16. Process and apparatus for the dry cooling of coke

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Breidenbach, D.; Galow, M.; Hackler, E.; Meckel, J.; Smieskol, S.; Wagener, D.

    1983-10-04

    A process and apparatus for the dry cooling of coke involves the provision of a vessel having therein first and second zones in full communication with each other. Hot coke from a coking operation is introduced into the first zone and is passed through the first and second zones. Raw coke oven gas from the coking operation is introduced into the first zone, thereby reducing the temperature of the coke, while cleaning the raw coke oven gas to form cleaned coke oven gas. The cleaned coke oven gas is removed from the first zone, cooled, and then directly or indirectly utilized as a heat carrier gas introduced into the second zone to therein further reduce the temperature of the coke. The thereby further cooled coke is removed from the second zone.

  17. Coking partially briquetted coal charge under industrial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhorukov, V.I.; Bezdvernyi, G.N.; Kopeliovich, L.V.; Mishchikhin, V.G.; Berkutov, A.N.; Stepanov, Y.; Abramicheva, A.I.; Topchii, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    The partial briquetting of low grade coals ordinarily unsuitable for coking, has been found to allow use of these materials in the coking process under industrial conditions, with an improvement in coke quality. Coke oven capacity is increased. The binder used is medium temperature coal tar.

  18. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A.

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  19. Method of hot-briquetting mixtures of coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    Kleisa, K.; Langhoff, J.; Lehmann, J.; Makrutzki, D.; Nashan, G.

    1980-07-08

    In a method of making briquettes in which coke and coking coal are admixed to form a briquetting mixture having a temperature in the range between about 400 to 500/sup 0/C, the improvement is described wherein the coke temperature is adjusted, prior to mixing of the coke with the coking coal, to a temperature level which will, upon mixing of the coke with the coking coal, result in the mixture having a temperature with +-5% of a predetermined briquetting temperature lying within said range.

  20. Method of charging coke ovens with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Azimov, A.A.; Davydenko, V.M.; Dorfman, G.A.; Gromov, N.F.; Kulakov, N.K.; Likhogub, E.P.; Marapulets, G.N.; Minasov, A.N.; Shestakov, V.A.; Silka, A.N.

    1982-11-23

    A method is claimed for charging coke ovens with coal by: passage of coal through charging holes and simultaneously withdrawing gases evolving from the coal charge through the middle charging holes thereof; holding the coal charge over a period of time sufficient for a coal-charging machine to deliver a next batch of said coal charge for charging the next successive coke oven; completely charging said coke oven while simultaneously charging the next successive coke oven through its extreme charging holes; withdrawing through said middle charging holes of said coke oven being completely charged, said coke-oven gases; and introducing a gas inert to said cokeoven gas in an amount of 15-20% of the total amount of the cokeoven gas being withdrawn. There is also provided a coal-charging machine for carrying out this method comprising a frame with undercarriages, hoppers for containing the coal charge, the number of hoppers corresponding to the number of the charging holes of the coke oven, coal feed devices disposed in the upper portion of the hoppers.

  1. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  2. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

    1997-06-17

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

  3. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Irwin Charles; Greinke, Ronald Alfred

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  4. Modern outline for a recuperator coke oven

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Proetzl, M.; Rohde, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a demonstration plant, and the results obtained in this, for the testing of Didier Engineering's 2-stage recuperative system. The two stages are: (I) partial recuperation using a metallic heat exchanger and making special use of radiation; (II) direct heat exchange between coke oven waste gas and coking coal for thermal treatment making special use of convection. It is concluded that this type of oven meets the requirements for economic production of coke in chamber-type ovens even after the year 2000. 4 references.

  5. 16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Developing an accelerated test of coking tendencies of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, M.D.; Bagby, M.O.; Schwab, A.W.; Goering, C.E.; Savage, L.D.

    1988-07-01

    Burning vegetable oils in direct-injected diesel engines leads to nozzle and combustion chamber coking and eventually to engine damage. Because typical durability tests to detect coking tendencies of fuels are expensive, a one-cylinder diesel engine was instrumented and automated to enable external detection of engine coking in only 5 h. The heat release pattern revealed shifts to later burning as coke accumulated in the engine, but exhaust emissions showed little correlation with coke accumulation.

  7. Prospects for use of lean coking coal from the Kuznetsk coalfield for coking

    SciTech Connect

    Sulimov, G.I.; Agafonov, A.A.; Ol'shanetskii, L.G.

    1983-06-01

    Coals suitable for opencast working in the southern Kuzbass form a transitional stage between low-volatile caking and lean coal and have been incorporated satisfactorily in layer coking charges together with conventional coking coal. Strength tests showed a reasonably strong metallurgical product. Two collieries in particular offered promising coals with a narrow range of vitrinite contents and varying only in rank. These have been blended with a fat coal from Pechora to produce an exceptional metallurgical coke.

  8. Reduced coking of fuel nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, A.A.; Sager, J.W.; Kobish, T.R.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a fuel nozzle useful for a gas turbine engine and having a nozzle face, the combination of fuel supply means on the nozzle, the fuel supply means including an annular fuel discharge body converging in a downstream direction toward a longitudinal central axis of the nozzle and terminating in a downstream fuel discharge orifice substantially on the central axis for discharging fuel from the orifice for mixing with air downstream of the nozzle face, air supply means on the nozzle for discharging air from the nozzle face, and means on the nozzle around the fuel discharge body cooperating with the air supply means for controllably discharging sufficient air flow with locally reduced swirl strength over the fuel discharge body to establish a recirculation zone spaced away from the nozzle face downstream thereof a sufficient distance to substantially reduce coking on the nozzle face.

  9. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  10. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  11. Improving effectiveness of coke oven patching

    SciTech Connect

    Withrow, J.A.; McCollum, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    An effective patching program is essential to protect the battery against severe damage which would result from air, foul gas, and fuel gas leaks; and to keep it in operating condition for a reasonable life span. In addition to that basic purpose of patching, other areas such as heating efficiency, coke quality, and emissions performance can benefit from an effective program. Clairton Works and US Steel Research have made improvements in the patching program in several broad categories: equipment used for application of patching material, the patching material itself, and practices used in administration of the patching program. The equipment changes include a pusher machine ram-mounted roof patching unit and a new type of patching buggy for use with materials which tend to settle or cake. New materials have been formulated which develop a ceramic bond on the oven refractories and provide superior adherance. Battery Temperature Profiles, Charging Surveys, and Stack Observation Reports are used on a regular basis to identify critical areas for patching beyond those which can be identified by operating personnel on an incidental basis. This paper reviews each of these improvements in Clairton's patching program in terms of the equipment, materials, and practices per se and also discusses the results of implementing these changes.

  12. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Possibilities of coke manufacture in nonpollutant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Barca, F.; Panaitescu, C.; Vidrighin, C.; Peleanu, I.; Albastroiu, P.

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents some possibilities to obtain coke briquettes from anthracite, using as binders petroleum pitch, wheat flour, cement, plaster, ashes from power-plants dried from the electrofilters. Specific thermal post-treatment were proposed for each case, such as: oxidation or heating at low temperatures (under 300 C). As a result the authors obtained coke briquettes to be used in small equipment, with no pollutant pyrogenetic treatment.

  14. Special analyses reveal coke-deposit structure

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX) have been used to obtain information that clarifies the three mechanisms of coke formation in ethylene furnaces, and to analyze the metal condition at the exit of furnace. The results can be used to examine furnace operations and develop improved ethylene plant practices. In this first of four articles on the analyses of coke and metal samples, the coking mechanisms and coke deposits in a section of tube from an actual ethylene furnace (Furnace A) from a plant on the Texas Gulf Coast are discussed. The second articles in the series will analyze the condition of the tube metal in the same furnace. To show how coke deposition and metal condition dependent on the operating parameters of an ethylene furnace, the third article in the series will show the coke deposition in a Texas Gulf Coast furnace tube (Furnace B) that operated at shorter residence time. The fourth article discusses the metal condition in that furnace. Some recommendations, based on the analyses and findings, are offered in the fourth article that could help extend the life of ethylene furnace tubes, and also improve overall ethylene plant operations.

  15. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    SciTech Connect

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  17. Application of NMR techniques for studying coking of FCC catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bonardet, J.J.; Barrage, M.C.; Fraissard, J.

    1995-12-31

    NMR occupies an important place in the study of the deactivation of zeolites by coking. Indeed, association of the resonances of several nuclei has shown that it is possible to investigate: the nature of the, carbonaceous; deposits; under certain conditions, the coke content; the mode of zeolite deactivation; the exact location of the internal coke and the evolution of its distribution with the coke content, the presence of carbonaceous; residues at the crystallite surface; the effect of zeolite structure and the nature of the reactant on coking and regeneration. It also reveals the role of extra framework aluminium species and that of certain lattice Al atoms in the coking process.

  18. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ΣPAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

  19. Method of operating horizontal coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, M.; Thiersch, F.B.

    1981-09-22

    A horizontal coke oven battery construction in which a pusher is mounted to extend into the batteries from one side and push coke out of the batteries on the opposite side, comprises a plurality of coke oven batteries disposed in a row. A first waste gas flue extends along the pusher side of the batteries and a second waste gas flue extends along the coke side. A stack flue at one end of the batteries is connected to the first and second waste gas flues. The construction includes means for directing the heating gases into each oven battery during operation so that, in respect to the pusher and coke size, approximately one-half of the batteries is heated by upward burning and the other half is heated by downward burning. For example, all odd numbered batteries may be heated in the same direction and all even numbered batteries heated in the same direction. The invention also comprises a two-section regenerative heating system having reversing winches wherein the heating on one-half or approximately one-half of the oven chambers is equipped for upward burning and the heating of the other half is equipped with downward burning. Between the two halves, a center head maybe be provided, or only one reversing winch may be provided at the end of the battery.

  20. APPLICABILITY OF COKE PLANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES TO COAL CONVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comparisons of process and waste stream characteristics from the Byproduct coke over process with selected gasification and liquefaction processes. It includes recommendations regarding control technologies for air, water, and solid wastes. Coke oven c...

  1. METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

  2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO RAILROAD CARS (FRONT), COAL STORAGE BIN AND TIPPLE FOR COAL TO BE CHARGED IN FURNACES (BACK) - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS IN FOREGROUND, LARRY CAR TIPPLE TO THE RIGHT, AND COAL TIPPLE IN CENTERGROUND - Lucernemines Coke Works, 0.2 mile East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  4. 2. Left to right: coke ovens, wharf with belt conveyor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Left to right: coke ovens, wharf with belt conveyor, coal bunker, coke stack, brick quencher, gas holder, view framed by bracing for overhead conveyor. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  5. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. 20 FEET. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN OF ALVERTON, CONSTRUCTED OF YELLOW REFRACTORY BRICK. "WOODLAND M2" AND "BENEZETT - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  8. 2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE TIPPLE (RIGHT), AND OVENS - Shoaf Mine & Coke Works, East side of Shoaf, off Township Route 472, Shoaf, Fayette County, PA

  9. Development of coke strength after reaction (CSR) at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    T.W. Todoschuk; J.P. Price; J.F. Gransden

    2004-03-01

    In order to prevent coke degradation without detrimentally affecting blast furnace service life, Dofasco initiated a project to improve coke strength after reaction. The results of the program and Dofasco's prediction model are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  11. Coking quality and caking properties of western Canadian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Mourits, F.M.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.; Leeder, W.R.

    1997-12-31

    Methods exist for predicting coke strength from the caking (thermal rheological) or petrographic properties of a metallurgical coal. These methods, which were derived for Carboniferous coals, frequently indicate that western Canadian Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke yet both types of coals can produce excellent coke suitable for iron blast furnaces. This paper will discuss why western Canadian metallurgical coals exhibit lower thermal rheological values and how to predict the strength of the coke produced from them.

  12. Process for producing shaft furnace cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, K.; Sunami, Y.

    1981-06-09

    An impregnated carbonaceous material which can be mixed with basic coal to form a mixture which, once roasted, forms an effective shaft furnace coke. The impregnated carbonaceous material is formed by finely crushing an inert carbonaceous material such as powdered coke, coal gasification char, coal liquifaction residue coal, oil coke, and semi-dry-distilled char, and mixing and impregnating the crushed carbonaceous material with an aromatic pitch such as coal tar, coal tar pitch, asphalt, and pitch obtained by heat-treating or solvent extracting an asphalt. The mixing is conducted at a temperature above the aromatic pitch melting point. The impregnated carbonaceous material contains preferably 50 to 95 parts by weight of crushed inert carbonaceous material and 5 to 50 parts by weight aromatic pitch.

  13. Preventing the overcharging of coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C. A.

    1981-05-19

    A metod is described for preventing the overcharging of coal into a coke oven system in which preheated coal is transported from a storage container to the coke ovens by means of a substantially enclosed continuous conveyor system filled with inert gas. A portion of inert gas within the enclosed conveyor system is carried along with the coal into the coke oven itself. During filling of the oven, this inert gas is carried up and out of the oven standpipes. When the oven becomes filled, however, the standpipe escape route becomes blocked resulting in a rapid pressure buildup within the system. This rapid pressure build-up is utilized to generate a signal to stop further filling of the oven. The instant method may be employed as a primary regulating system, but is more preferably employed as a back-up to conventional sensor probes used for regulating the level of coal.

  14. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  16. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    PubMed

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking. PMID:16366463

  17. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  18. Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov

    2009-02-15

    Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

  19. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  20. Zone control of lean gas underfiring for coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Corbman, P.; Faber, P.V.

    1982-02-09

    A coke oven battery is disclosed of the type that is underfired with coke oven gas. A system of horizontal bus flues and valve controls is provided for controlling the supply of lean gas fuel, such as blast furnace gas or any other lean gas, selectively to the gas flues in heating zones of the coke oven chamber walls and the recirculation of waste gas therefrom, so as to achieve the optimum fuel consumption under varying bulk density conditions of the coal mass in the coke oven chamber from the coke side to the pusher side.

  1. Briquetting of coke fines for phosphorus production

    SciTech Connect

    Shpaizer, E.E.; Klimova, L.K.; Mel'nik, A.P.; Egorov, A.A.

    1988-07-20

    Large amounts of coke wastes have accumulated in phosphorus factories. For use as a carbonaceous reducing agent in phosphorus production this waste material should be agglomerated to the required size with satisfactory strength, with minimal consumption of energy and materials. The dependence of briquet strength on a number of important physicochemical factors is described by an equation obtained by least-squares computer analysis of experimental data. Addition of finely ground quartzite to the mixture raises the thermal stability of the briquets. The activation energy and order of overall interaction of phosphoric acid and the ash components of coke, E = 24.8 kJ/mole and n = 0.98, were found by the method of nonisothermal kinetics. Their results show that the reactions leading to increase of briquet strength occur at temperatures from 520 to 670 K, i.e., below the ignition point of coke. Therefore the briquets may be heat-treated in an oxidizing medium; this greatly simplifies the practical process of agglomeration of coke fines.

  2. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  3. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... The Commission instituted this review on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74810) and determined on March 5, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 15123, March 14, 2012). The Commission... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  4. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, C K

    1983-01-01

    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mortality when duration and location of employment at the coke ovens are considered. Dose-response models fitted to these same data indicate that, while excess risks may still occur under the OSHA standard, the predicted levels of increased relative risk would be about 30-50% if a linear dose-response model is assumed and 3-7% if a quadratic model is assumed. Lung cancer mortality data for other steelworkers suggest the predicted excess risk has probably been somewhat overestimated, but lack of information on important confounding factors limits further dose-response analysis. PMID:6653539

  5. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  6. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  7. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  8. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  9. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  10. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  11. Method for determining the end of devolatilizing in a coke oven and adjusting the coke cycle based thereon

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.G.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing coke in a by-product coke oven battery. Each oven is operated over a coking cycle; each coking cycle having an aim total coke cycle time defined by a charging time and an aim push time. The aim push time has a permitted plus or minus deviation. Between the charging time and aim push time there is: (1) a devolatilizing period of estimated length, and (2) a coke soaking period immediately following the devolatilizing period. The method of determining the end of the devolatilizing period consists of: (a) in a first coking cycle, during a devolatilizing period, obtaining liquid catch condensed volatiles specimens from gas samples withdrawn from within the coke oven; (1) determining a reference light-transmitting value of the catch specimens for the devolatilizing period; (b) in a second coking cycle, as the coking cycle approaches an estimated end of the devolatilizing period, obtaining liquid catch specimens having condensed volatiles from gas samples withdrawn from within the coke oven; and (1) determining when an individual light-transmitting value of one of the specimens varies by a pre-selected amount from the reference light-transmitting value.

  12. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  13. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater. PMID:25706086

  14. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  15. An engineered method for the repair of coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dohle, H.; Ehmke, R.

    1996-12-31

    Improved sales figures in steel making industry and the consequently higher demand for blast furnace coke more recently not only led to a lot of new plant construction projects but also to a vivid growth in repair projects. Sales problems experienced in the past combined with the reluctant attitude to invest in new battery construction projects exerted a negative influence on the age structure of coke plants worldwide. In the US, for example, 58% of the steel companies` coke ovens and 72% of the merchant coke ovens are over 20 years old. The structural status and thus the service life expectancy of a coke oven battery surely do not alone depend on the coke oven battery`s age, but in particular on its total coke production and on the operating and maintenance practice of its operators. More stringent pollution control codes and regulations call for optimum maintenance, particularly for older coke oven plants, considering both technical and economic aspects. The target is to maintain the operability of coke ovens for a lot more years by implementing the best suitable maintenance and repair methods. On condition that appropriate maintenance and repair methods are initiated in time and with care and diligence, the service life of a coke oven battery can be prolonged substantially. A selection of repair and modernization programs developed by TSOA is described and explained.

  16. Regeneration performance and carbon consumption of semi-coke and activated coke for SO₂ and NO removal.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song; Li, Yuran; Zhu, Tingyu; Guo, Yangyang

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the operating cost of flue gas purification technologies based on carbon-based materials, the adsorption and regeneration performance of low-price semi-coke and activated coke were compared for SO2 and NO removal in a simulated flue gas. The functional groups of the two adsorbents before and after regeneration were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and were quantitatively assessed using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) coupled with FTIR and acid-base titration. The results show that semi-coke had higher adsorption capacity (16.2% for SO2 and 38.6% for NO) than activated coke because of its higher content of basic functional groups and lactones. After regeneration, the adsorption performance of semi-coke decreased because the number of active functional groups decreased and the micropores increased. Semi-coke had better regeneration performance than activated coke. Semi-coke had a larger SO2 recovery of 7.2% and smaller carbon consumption of 12% compared to activated coke. The semi-coke carbon-based adsorbent could be regenerated at lower temperatures to depress the carbon consumption, because the SO2 recovery was only reduced a small amount. PMID:26257344

  17. Coking rates in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace: Liquid petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    Integral rates of coking for 14 feedstocks (light naphtha to vacuum gas oil) and mixtures of these were determined in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace between 815 and 943/sup 0/C and between 70 and 340 ms. These can be ranked as severe coking (S.C) and low coking (L.C.) feedstocks and are characterized by production of filamentous and amorphous (encapsulating) coke, respectively. Admixture of a L.C. feedstock in greater than a critical minimum amount of a S.C. feedstock imparts a natural inhibition on the coking rate of the S.C. feedstock, so that the coking rate of the mixture mimics that of the L.C. component.

  18. Toxicological assessment of green petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Herron, Deborah; Beatty, Patrick; Podhasky, Paula; Hoffman, Gary M; Swigert, James; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Green petroleum coke is primarily inorganic carbon with some entrained volatile hydrocarbon material. As part of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program, the potential for reproductive effects was assessed in a subchronic toxicity/reproductive toxicity screening test in rats (OECD 421). The repeated-dose portion of the study provided evidence for dust accumulation and inflammatory responses in rats exposed to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) but there were no effects at 30 mg/m(3). In the reproductive toxicity screen, the frequency of successful matings was reduced in the high exposure group (300 mg/m(3)) and was not significantly different from control values but was outside the historical experience of the laboratory. The postnatal observations (external macroscopic examination, body weight, and survival) did not indicate any treatment-related differences. Additional tests conducted to assess the potential hazards to aquatic (fish, invertebrates, and algae) and soil dwelling organisms (earthworms and vascular plants) showed few effects at the maximum loading rates of 1000 mg coke/L in aquatic studies and 1000 mg coke/kg soil in terrestrial studies. The only statistically significant finding was an inhibition of algal growth measured as either biomass or growth rate. PMID:24179031

  19. Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-15

    This reports summarizes the technical progress achieved during the third quarter of the ERIP project entitled, ''Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor.'' The focus of work during this reporting period was the construction of an automated probe that will be used to measure the thickness of coke deposits in thermal cracking furnaces. A discovery was made during the last reporting period, which indicated that a conventional NDE broadband transducer could be used in conjunction with a sacrificial standoff composed of a fusible alloy to efficiently couple the transducer to a rough surface operating at high temperature. A probe was constructed that incorporates the recent discovery and initial testing of the probe is now underway. Because of other project commitments, the manpower available to allocate to the coke detector project was limited during the most recent quarter. As a result, the project is somewhat behind the original schedule. However, project expenditures are consistent with the project progress to date. The total program budget is $98,670 and the current project expenditures are approximately $24,000. The original contract budget period ends on April 30, 1999. We intend to request a six-month no-cost extension to the contract so that we may complete the project objectives.

  20. Microbiology of coke-plant activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The biological treatment of coke-plant wastewater represents the most economical means of detoxification and contaminant removal, but little is known about the microbial ecology of this system. Research was therefore undertaken to determine the kinds of microorganisms that survive and function in this environment and to examine the growth patterns that influence treatment efficiency. The microbial flora of coke-plant activated sludge is predominated by populations of aerobic gram negative rods. The principle genera identified were Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter. The genera Bacillus, Nocardia and Micrococcus were also present at low levels. A single type of rotifer was present along with various protozoans. The ability of microorganisms in coke wastewater to grow on various organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy is more restrictive when compared with that of isolates obtained from activated sludge processes treating municipal wastes. The phenol degrading bacteria can be maintained in a continuous culture system with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of as long as 14 days. Under conditions of increasing HRT the average cell size decreased and the number of cells per milliter increased. As the HRT increased cell yields decreased. At long HRT's (7 to 14 days) cell yields remained constant.

  1. Effect of bulk density of coking coal on swelling pressure.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinfeng; Yang, Chunwang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhang, Yaru; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    Coking coals are the important raw materials for the iron and steel industries and play an important role on its sustainable development, especially on the stamp-charging coke making with the characteristics of increasing the bulk density. There is a significance on the reasonable usage of the coking coal resource with the reduced production cost, improved efficiency of the economy to develop the stamp-charging coke making technology. Important effects of the density of coking coal on the coking and caking properties were investigated. In the article, the maximum values of swelling pressure and variation of Laowan gas coal and Xinjian 1/3 coking coal, Longhu fat coal and Didao coking coal, which were mined at Shenyang and Qitaihe respectively, were investigated under different bulk densities during the coking. The results showed that when the values of density increased from 0.85 ton/m(3) to 1.05 ton/m(3), for the Laowan gas coal, swelling pressure variation and even the maximum value changed slightly. The swelling pressure was 3.63 KPa when the density was improved to 1.05 ton/m(3); for the Xinjian 1/3 coking coal, the values of swelling pressure changed significantly and the maximum values was 82.88 KPa with the density improved to 1.05 when the coal was heated to 600°C. The coke porosity, which was investigated by automatic microphotometer, decreased from 47.4% to 33.1% with the increasing of the density from 0.85 ton/m(3) to 1.05 ton/m(3), and the decreased value was 14.3%. Meanwhile, the pore structures of four cokes were characterized by an optical microscope. PMID:25078833

  2. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN FORESTED OVERGROWTH (BOTTOM LEFT), COKE TAILINGS PILE (BOTTOM RIGHT THROUGH CENTER TOP LEFT), FORMER BIRMINGHAM SOUTHERN RAILWAY SHOPS BUILDING (TOP RIGHT). CONVICT CEMETERY IS JUST WEST OF THE TAILINGS PILE (TOP LEFT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH). - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Convict Cemetery, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place & Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. The effects of petroleum coke properties on carbon anode quality

    SciTech Connect

    Belitskus, D. ); Danka, D.J. )

    1988-11-01

    Comprehensive bench-scale testing of the effects of calcined coke on the properties of prebaked anodes for aluminum smelting cells has revealed correlations between coke and anode properties. Extensive measurements of the physical properties of coke as well as impurities, determinations of performance-indicative anode properties, and correlation by regression analyses provided statistically significant relationships which can generally be explained in terms of reasonable chemical and physical interactions.

  4. Method for characterizing the coking tendencies of baseoils and additive-treated oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a method of characterizing the coking tendency of baseoil. The method consists the steps of: (a) subjecting the baseoil to conditions which accelerate asphaltene coke precursor formation in the baseoil, and (b) characterizing the coking tendency of the baseoil by determining (i) the onset and progression of asphaltene coke precursor formation as a function of time or (ii) the progression of asphaltene coke precursor formation as a function of time, wherein a faster onset of asphaltene coke precursor formation and a higher rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation or a higher rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation indicates a higher coking tendency of the baseoil than a slower onset of asphaltene coke precursor formation and a lower rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation or a lower rate of asphaltene coke precursor formation.

  5. 76 FR 77020 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven Emissions ACTION... Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coke Oven Emissions,'' to the...: The purpose of Coke Oven Emissions Standard and its information collection requirements, codified...

  6. Problem of sludge formation in benzol division solar oil and ''carbonization'' in coke oven gas compressor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rezunenko, Y.I.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the problem and possible causes of sludge formation in the return solar oil in benzene recovery units and on the problem of deposits in the pipe systems after coke oven gas compressors. The possible entrainment of fine particles of coal charge in the solar oil was also discussed. Sedimentation of the sludge was recommended with daily removal of the settled sludge. A chemical analysis of the deposits in the piping system of the coke oven gas and the coal charge revealed that the deposits were not caused by entrained coal particles. (JMT)

  7. Methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.

    1998-04-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40 % by weight. There are some coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have big resources of the coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for the coke production would allow to broad up the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C`s lab shown some differences in coal properties in dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of well caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way of low caking coals application in coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method is been known for a very loner time acro. It may be divided into two possible directions of briquettes using. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is briquettes adding to coal blend in defined proportion and its combined coking. The possibility of application of coal benefication methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  8. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  9. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  10. Visualization of coke state in hydraulic decoking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qian; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Huang, Di; Chen, Liang; Xiong, Jiaguo

    2016-05-01

    The relationship model of the sound signal and the coke state can be established through multiple test and comparison of the noise signal and the coke operation. By collecting data, we summarize the main frequency power fluctuation range of the sound signal in kinds of state, and extract the nearest 5 decision results for reference. The weighted value of each result according to the update time has gradually increased. On the basis of that, we developed visualization software, real-time reflect out coke coking tower state. Animation refresh rate is second level, and the vertical height can be accurate to 0.1m.

  11. Mechanisms of coke formation and fouling in thermal cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, R.K.; Rangwala, H.A.; Hsi, C.

    1995-12-31

    When heavy oil is cracked to produce distillate, coking of the reacting liquid is, in general, preceded by formation of a new, highly viscous liquid phase, rich in coke precursors. Results from pilot-scale experiments using feedstocks from Gudao (China) reported here show that inert-gas stripping of light distillates from the reacting liquid strongly inhibits coking and possibly the partition of precursors into the new phase. Heavy oil, rich in asphaltene, is often reported to have a high coking propensity. This paper provides experimental evidence to show that the asphaltene concentration is not the most critical factor in the coking propensity of heavy oil. Autoclave tests show that the liquid product could contain more than 40% of asphaltene, and yield only 60% of the coke produced by similar tests in which the liquid product contains less than 20% asphaltene. The solubility of asphaltene in the reaction liquid is the most crucial factor affecting coke yield. It controls the coking mechanisms and the fouling tendency of the resulting coke.

  12. Upgrading coke strength by a coal-blend-compaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Fun, F.; Brayton, W.E.; Shoenberger, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the continuing effort to upgrade the strength of coke made from available coal blends, US Steel is developing coal-blend compaction as an alternative method to coal preheating. In this process the coal blend is compacted to produce relatively weak compacted materials, which are subsequently degraded into controlled size fractions of intimately integrated particles of the multicomponent coal blend. The degraded blend particles are charged into conventional coke ovens for coking. Coal-blend-compaction tests conducted in the laboratory with coals from the Appalachian basin showed substantial improvement in coke strength. The encouraging laboratory results dictated a commerical scale test at US Steel's Gary Works. This plant test, in which more than 200 tons of coal blend was used, further confirmed the improvement in coke strength by the coal-blend-compaction process. Potential benefits of the process include (1) retrospective adaptation to existing coke batteries, (2) improved strength of coke from regular coal blends, (3) maintenance of same or higher coke strength with poor coal blends, and (4) economics that are competitive with or better than those of coal preheating. Continuing developments are being investigated in a compaction pilot plant and commercial coke ovens at US Steel's Clairton Works, mainly to establish engineering criteria and optimal controls for large-scale installations. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces.

    PubMed

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2011-10-17

    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. PMID:21956815

  14. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  15. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  16. Comparison of the tribological properties of fluorinated cokes and graphites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The friction, wear, endurance life, and surface morphology of rubbed (burnished) fluorinated graphite and fluorinated coke materials were studied. Two different coke powders, a graphitic carbon powder, and a graphite powder were fluorinated and then tribologically investigated. In addition, one of the coke powders was reduced in size before fluorinating to evaluate the effect of a finer particle size on the tribological properties. For comparison, graphite and coke powders which were not fluorinated were also tribologically evaluated. Elemental analysis by emission spectroscopy was performed on each sample to determine the impurity content and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystallinity. Coke was found to have very little lubricating ability, but fluorinated coke did possess good lubricating properties. However, the fluorinated graphite and fluorinated graphitic carbon (which gave equivalent results) gave superior results to those obtained with the fluorinated cokes. No tribological benefit was found for using small versus a larger particle size of coke, at least when evaluated as a rubbed film.

  17. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1910.1029 Section 1910.1029 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1029 Coke oven emissions. (a) Scope...

  18. Formed coke production with recovery of medium btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Saller, E.

    1981-09-08

    In the fluidized carbonization and calcination of coal to form a reactive coal calcinate for admixture with bituminous binder for briquetting, curing, and coking to produce form coke, there is improvement in recovering medium Btu gases in the overheads by using as the fluidizing medium oxygen diluted with steam or carbon dioxide and removing the steam or carbon dioxide from the overheads.

  19. "Fishing" of heteropolyacids into carbonaceous seine via coking.

    PubMed

    Sushkevich, Vitaly L; Ivanova, Irina I; Lancelot, Christine; Moldovan, Simona; Ersen, Ovidiu; Ordomsky, Vitaly V

    2015-12-14

    The carbon encapsulated tungstophosphoric acid was synthesized by the controlled coking during gas phase reaction of formaldehyde with isobutene. The as-made material showed unique stability toward leaching in the aqueous phase due to localization of HPA clusters inside the porous coke matrix with high activity in the esterification reaction. PMID:26451706

  20. Clairton B battery: new technology in coke production

    SciTech Connect

    DiCola, R.F.; McCollum, H.R.

    1983-08-01

    A new 800,000 ton/year, 75-oven coke battery has been constructed at US Steels' Clairton plant. The 6 m ovens have a computerized feed-forward underfiring control system, a unique coke pushing sequence and a fully-automated single-position catch car, as well as optical targets for positioning the charging car and pushing and door machines.

  1. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF COKE-OVEN DOOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of extensive tests of selected fractions of samples of emissions generated by leakage from a coke oven door during a 16-hour coking cycle. The tests included: particulate emissions determination; trace metal analyses; gas analyses; organic analyses by IR ...

  2. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  3. Analytical methods used in a study of coke oven effluent.

    PubMed

    Schulte, K A; Larsen, D J; Hornung, R W; Crable, J V

    1975-02-01

    In a coke oven study conducted by NIOSH, selected chemical analyses of airborne particulates, vapors, and metals in the emissions from five coke ovens were done. Eight sampling procedures and seven analytical techniques were used to analyze samples collected for the study. Six of the analytical methods used are discussed. PMID:1146677

  4. Comparison of the tribological properties of fluorinated cokes and graphites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    The friction, wear, endurance life, and surface morphology of rubbed (burnished) fluorinated graphite and fluorinated coke materials were studied. Two different coke powders, a graphitic carbon powder, and a graphite powder were fluorinated and then tribologically investigated. In addition, one of the coke powders was reduced in size before fluorinating to evaluate the effect of a finer particle size on the tribological properties. For comparison, graphite and coke powders which were not fluorinated were also tribologically evaluated. Elemental analysis by emission spectroscopy was performed on each sample to determine the impurity content and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystallinity. Coke was found to have very little lubricating ability, but fluorinated coke did possess good lubricating properties. However, the fluorinated graphite and fluorinated graphitic carbon (which gave equivalent results) gave superior results to those obtained with the fluorinated cokes. No tribological benefit was found for using small versus a larger particle size of coke, at least when evaluated as a rubbed film.

  5. Effects of preheating and highly heat-conductive brick on coke quality

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, K.; Arima, T.

    1995-12-31

    In replacing the coke ovens available currently, the introduction of a combined technique of a preheated coal charging method (preheating temperature:175 C) and the use of highly heat-conductive brick is under examination for raising the productivity of coke ovens. With such background, a study of the effects of this combined technique on the coke quality, especially the coke size was conducted. The experimental results revealed that the primary size of coke produced by the combined technique is noticeably larger than that of the coke made from wet coal and after five revolutions of drum (equivalent to mechanical impact given at a time of dropping from coke oven chamber to wharf), the coke size reduces even compared with an ordinary coke. This may be due to the fact that the coke produced by the combined technique includes a lot of fissures inside the coke lump.

  6. Recycling of hazardous waste materials in the coking process.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Barriocanal, C; Díez, M A; Cimadevilla, J L G; Casal, M D; Canga, C S

    2004-03-01

    Every year the coking industry produces a significant amount of tarry and other wastes in byproducts plants. For the most part these wastes have not been put to any practical use. In addition, an integrated factory produces several waste oils which differ in composition and quantity, e.g., wastes from the steel rolling-mill process. In this work, the possibility of using such waste materials as binders in a partial briquetting process for metallurgical coke production is explored. By means of this coking procedure, a strong metallurgical coke not inferior in quality to coke from conventional coal blends is produced at pilot and semi-industrial scales. The use of such wastes, some of which are classified as hazardous materials, will avoid the need for dumping, thereby contributing to the protection of the environment as well as reducing the costs related to waste disposal. PMID:15046368

  7. Coke Deposition and Smoke Formation in Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Wear, J. D.

    1956-01-01

    In the early development of jet engines, it was occasionally found that excessive amounts of coke or other carbonaceous deposits were formed in the combustion chamber. Sometimes a considerable amount of smoke was noted in the-exhaust gases. Excessive coke deposits may adversely affect jet-engine performance in several ways. The formation of excessive amounts of coke on or just downstream of a fuel nozzle (figs. 116(a) and (b)) changes the fuel-spray pattern and possibly affects combustor life and performance. Similar effects on performance can result from the deposition of coke on primary-air entry ports (fig. 116(c)). Sea-level or altitude starting may be impaired by the deposition of coke on spark-plug electrodes (fig. 116(b)), deposits either grounding the electrodes completely or causing the spark to occur at positions other than the intended gap. For some time it was thought that large deposits of coke in turbojet combustion chambers (fig. 116(a)) might break away and damage turbine blades; however, experience has indicated that for metal blades this problem is insignificant. (Cermet turbine blades may be damaged by loose coke deposits.) Finally, the deposition of coke may cause high-temperature areas, which promote liner warping and cracking (fig. 116(d)) from excessive temperature gradients and variations in thermal-expansion rates. Smoke in the exhaust gases does not generally impair engine performance but may be undesirable from a tactical or a nuisance standpoint. Appendix B of reference 1 and references 2 to 4 present data obtained from full-scale engines operated on test stands and from flight tests that indicate some effects on performance caused by coke deposits and smoke. Some information about the mechanism of coke formation is given in reference 5 and chapter IX. The data indicate that (1) high-boiling fuel residuals and partly polymerized products may be mixed with a large amount of smoke formed in the gas phase to account for the consistency

  8. Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Sun, Quan

    2010-10-01

    Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

  9. Combustion of petroleum coke dust as a partial substitute for natural gas and oil in the alumina trihydrate calcination process

    SciTech Connect

    Desgroseillers, B.; Perron, J.; Laurin, P.; Menard, O.; Martin, J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Saguenay region, Alcan operates two coke calcination rotary kilns to supply with calcined coke its prebaked anode and Soderberg paste smelters. The annual production is approximately 220,000 t of calcined coke. For the last few years, the unwanted emissions of under calcined coke dust (UCCD) emitted from the kilns along with the hot gas reaches approximately 16,000 t per year. A maximum of 6,000 t of UCCD are recycled in fabrication processes. In the search of new possibilities to recycle and sell the remaining 10,000 t the possibility of using this UCCD as a heating source ion other processes has emerged, particularly for the calcination of alumina trihydrate. A feasibility study on the combustion as well as a plant trial showed the benefits of burning this UCCD in two 60 t/h capacity calcination units. In fact, appreciable savings in natural gas or oil, as well as increased energetic efficiency (gain of 6%) were observed in the calcination units. Furthermore, the impact on quality of the metallurgical alumina is negligible. These results can be explained partly by the use of a solid combustible which presents longer combustion time compared to natural gas. The combustion zones are therefore extended, favoring the heat transfer to the solid during calcination.

  10. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  11. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  12. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  13. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  14. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  15. Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla

    2008-09-15

    Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W.

    1996-02-01

    The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

  17. Characteristics of laboratory-coked resid HDS catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, J. Wang, Y.; Ernst, W.R. )

    1990-12-01

    A sample of commercial residual oil hydrotreating catalyst with a bimodal pore structure was coked to progressively higher levels with styrene at 425{degree}C. Measurements of porosity by mercury intrusion-extrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry, and coronene diffusivity reveal the importance of the pore network to the structure of the coked catalyst. The role played by 'shielded' large pores within the structure is demonstrated. It is proposed that coking first occurs at the junctions between large, shielded pores and narrow connecting pores. The results are discussed in terms of the theoretical predictions of Mann and co-workers.

  18. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  19. Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova

    2009-04-15

    In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

  20. Experience in the study of coke battery heating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zernii, G.G.; Leibovich, R.E.; Nepomnyashchii, A.A.; Sulimova, E.I.; Robul, L.A.; Kardashova, E.F.; Starobinskii, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of coke oven gas to the heating flues of the heating wall was presented. The effects of the variation in the density of the charge on the resulting quality of the coke were also discussed. It was concluded that the heat flow should be distributed along the heating wall with consideration not only of the conical nature of the oven, but also the difference in the bulk density of the charge with length and height of the oven. This permitted an improvement on the quality of the coke and a decrease in the consumption of heating gas for charge heating.

  1. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  2. Utilization of spent coking plant acid

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'eva, I.V.; Vasilenko, N.Y.; Mostovaya, V.G.; Tret'yak, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    A feasibility study is described for using spent regenerated sulfuric acid from a coking plant, containing 540-640 g/l H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, to pickle metals. Results were compared with the performance of a solution of technical sulfuric acid in pickling high-carbon and low-alloy steels. It was found economically feasible to use the spent regenerated acid as the basic pickling solution. The degree of protection of the metal against corrosion is 85%, which can be increased to 98-99% if inhibitors are added to the acid. Only one-fifth as much inhibitor is needed with the regenerated acid as with the technical sulfuric acid.

  3. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    PubMed

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

  4. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  5. 2. PANORAMA OF INDUSTRY: (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) USSTEEL COKE GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PANORAMA OF INDUSTRY: (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) USSTEEL COKE GAS PIPELINE, URR COAL LOADING STATION, CONRAIL PORT PERRY BRIDGE, URR HOT METAL BRIDGE, USSSTEEL EDGAR THOMSON WORKS. - Conrail Port Perry Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Elizabeth, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars on right, hot gas pipes on left and overhead; pulverized coal bunker is tall, vertical structure on left. looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  7. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  8. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  9. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  10. Experimental research on quality features of metallurgical coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, V.; Constantin, N.

    2015-06-01

    From all the solid fuels, the metallurgical coke is the most used in obtaining iron in the blast furnace. Together with the iron ore, manganese ore and fluxes, it constitutes the basis of raw materials and materials for elaborating pig iron. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations by the authors to determine the most important quality characteristics of some types of coke used in the blast furnace charge.

  11. Damage Diagnosis for High Temperature Coke-oven Chamber Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Masato; Sakaida, Michitaka; Fujikake, Yohichi; Irie, Keisuke

    Metallurgical coke is needed as reducing reagent and energy source in blast furnaces. Most of coke ovens in Japan have been working over 30 years and have become gradually decrepit. A coke oven consists of many coking chambers, and each chamber is 6 m high, 16 m long and 0.4m wide. Uneven damage at the chamber-wall surface such as brick erosion and carbon deposition disturbs production because the coke is pushed horizontally when discharged from the chamber. To diagnose the chamber wall which is constantly sustained at a high temperature, we have developed a water-cooling heat-resistance probe. Line scan cameras mounted in the probe obtain thermal images of the entire chamber-wall surfaces with high resolution. In addition, to measure topographical information of the wall, a laser light-section method combined with line-scan-camera imaging has been considered. It is emphasized that the diagnosis probe works under enormously severe conditions, such as at a temperature of over 1000°C and inside a width of only 0.4m. Clarifying the appearance of chamber-wall damages in operating aged coke ovens, we proposed the index relating unevenness of a chamber-wall surface to pushing load. The index is utilized for the guidance enabling effective repairs of damaged oven walls.

  12. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  13. Mortality of coke plant workers in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A; Hayes, R B; Scheffers, T; Sturmans, F

    1991-02-01

    During the production of coke, large quantities of coke oven gas are emitted. People who work on the top or on the sides of coke ovens are exposed to this oven gas, which contains a range of carcinogenic chemicals. To investigate the cancer risks under these work conditions, a retrospective study was undertaken. In total 11,399 former workers were enrolled in the study. Of these, 5639 had worked in the coke plant for at least six months between 1945 and 1969. The other 5740 had worked in another plant during the same period and formed a non-exposed group for comparison. The study group was followed up until 1984 for mortality. The causes of death were obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Among the coke oven workers significantly higher death rates were found for lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality in the byproduct section was similar to that expected. Among workers in the tar distillery the rate for lung cancer was higher than expected. The risk for gastric cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease among the workers of the coke shipping department was increased but the SMRs did not reach statistical significance. No data were collected about individual smoking habits or socioeconomic state of the study subjects and the possibility that the risk found could be attributed to these factors cannot be ruled out. It has been stated by other investigators, however, that the effect of not controlling for smoking tends to be modest. PMID:1998607

  14. Effects of Annealing on Microstructure and Microstrength of Metallurgical Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xing; Zhang, Guangqing; Rogers, Harold; Zulli, Paul; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2013-12-01

    Two metallurgical cokes were heat treated at 1673 K to 2273 K (1400 °C to 2000 °C) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microstrength of metallurgical cokes was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ultra-microindentation. In the process of heat treatment, the microstructure of the metallurgical cokes transformed toward the graphite structure. Raman spectroscopy of reactive maceral-derived component (RMDC) and inert maceral-derived component (IMDC) indicated that the graphitisation degree of the RMDC was slightly lower than that of the IMDC in the original cokes; however graphitisation of the RMDC progressed faster than that of the IMDC during annealing, and became significantly higher after annealing at 2273 K (2000 °C). The microstrength of cokes was significantly degraded in the process of heat treatment. The microstrength of the RMDC was lower, and of its deterioration caused by heat treatment was more severe than IMDC. The degradation of the microstrength of cokes was attributed to their increased graphitisation degree during the heat treatment.

  15. Bronchitis in men employed in the coke industry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. D.; Archibald, R. M.; Attfield, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Walker, D. D., Archibald, R. M., and Attfield, M. D. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 358-363. Bronchitis in men employed in the coke industry. An epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of bronchitis in men employed at two of the National Coal Board's coking plants is described. Eight hundred and eighty-one men (91%) of the total working population were examined. A strong association was found between bronchitis prevalence and cigarette smoking (P < 0·001). In addition, men who smoked and who were exposed to high temperatures, dust, and fumes in the environment of the coke-ovens had more bronchitis than men who worked elsewhere in the cokeworks (P < 0·02). Both the presence of bronchitis and employment in the environment of the coke-ovens had significant and independent effects on ventilatory capacity. The combination of cigarette smoking and previous employment in a dusty industry also had a significant effect on ventilatory capacity. The investigation suggests that cigarette smoking, and the combination of smoking and pollution from the coke-ovens and previous occupation, appear to be important factors in the aetiology of bronchitis and reduced ventilatory capacity in men employed in the coke manufacturing industry. PMID:5124835

  16. Mortality of coke plant workers in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A; Hayes, R B; Scheffers, T; Sturmans, F

    1991-01-01

    During the production of coke, large quantities of coke oven gas are emitted. People who work on the top or on the sides of coke ovens are exposed to this oven gas, which contains a range of carcinogenic chemicals. To investigate the cancer risks under these work conditions, a retrospective study was undertaken. In total 11,399 former workers were enrolled in the study. Of these, 5639 had worked in the coke plant for at least six months between 1945 and 1969. The other 5740 had worked in another plant during the same period and formed a non-exposed group for comparison. The study group was followed up until 1984 for mortality. The causes of death were obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Among the coke oven workers significantly higher death rates were found for lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality in the byproduct section was similar to that expected. Among workers in the tar distillery the rate for lung cancer was higher than expected. The risk for gastric cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease among the workers of the coke shipping department was increased but the SMRs did not reach statistical significance. No data were collected about individual smoking habits or socioeconomic state of the study subjects and the possibility that the risk found could be attributed to these factors cannot be ruled out. It has been stated by other investigators, however, that the effect of not controlling for smoking tends to be modest. PMID:1998607

  17. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  18. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S.

    2009-07-01

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling crossflow in a double collector main coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.G.

    1986-07-08

    A method is described of controlling the crossflow of gases given off by a coal mass during the production of coke in a coke oven having a coke side collector main and a pusher side collector main comprising the steps of: (a) determining the temperature difference between the temperature in the coke side standpipe and the temperature in the pusher side standpipe, (b) determining the temperature difference between the temperature in the freespace adjacent the coke side of the coke oven and the temperature in the freespace adjacent the pusher side of the coke oven, (c) determining the temperature difference between the temperature of the heating wall of the coke oven adjacent the coke side of the coke oven and the temperature of the heating wall of the coke oven adjacent the pusher side of the coke oven, and (d) opening the coke side standpipe control valve and gooseneck damper and the pusher side standpipe control valve and gooseneck damper, if they are not in the open position, if the temperature difference of step (b) is substantially the same as the temperature difference of step (c) and the temperature difference of step (a) is greater than about 50/sup 0/F in order to control crossflow.

  20. Effect of different pH coking wastewater on adsorption of coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    H2SO4 has an effect on the sorption of organic contaminants by coking coal (CC) in wastewater. This paper focused on the effect of pH on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols and ammonia. UV-vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, zeta potential and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis were investigated to characterize the changes of CC properties and coking wastewater (CW) at different pH values. The results showed that the COD and phenol removal efficiencies increased with decreasing pH value, while the ammonia removal efficiency was decreased gradually. A new transmittance band in the region of 340-600 cm(-1) was observed in UV-vis spectra of CW in acidic condition. The absolute value of the zeta potential as the solution was gradually increasing with the increasing of pH value. Surface area and total pore volume of CC which was immersed in acidic solutions measured by BET were much higher than that of raw CC. CC has a greater adsorption capacity to organic pollution in the acidic solution mainly by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. PMID:26877041

  1. Oxidizing Roasting Performances of Coke Fines Bearing Brazilian Specularite Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

    2016-06-01

    Oxidized pellets, consisting of Brazilian specularite fines and coke fines, were prepared by disc pelletizer using bentonite as binder. The roasting process of pellets includes preheating stage and firing stage. The compressive strength of preheated pellets and fired pellets reached the peak value at 1.5% coke fines dosage. During the initial stage of preheating, some original Fe2O3 was reduced to Fe3O4 because of partial reduction atmosphere in pellet. During the later stage of preheating and firing stage, coke fines were burnt out, and the secondary Fe2O3 (new generation Fe2O3) was generated due to the re-oxidization of Fe3O4, which improved the recrystallization of Fe2O3. Compared with the fired pellets without adding coke fines, fired pellets with 1.5% coke fines exhibited the comparable RSI (reduction swelling index) and RDI+3.15 mm (reduction degradation index), and slightly lower RI (reducibility index).

  2. 75 FR 11936 - USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of... Coke Works, Clairton, Pennsylvania. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  3. Method for recovering and utilizing heat of coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunioka, K.; Nishio, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Shimotsuma, T.

    1981-06-02

    A method is described for recovering and utilizing heat of coke- oven gas is eliminated. Through heat exchange with a high-temperature coke-oven gas generated from a coke oven battery and containing vaporized coal tar, vaporized low boiling point substances and dust. By drying and preheating a blended raw material coal fine to be charged into coking ovens of said coke oven battery, and causing most of said coal tar contained in said coke-oven gas to condense and deposit onto the particle surfaces of said coal fine. During the process of said heat exchange, sensible heat and condensation heat of said coke-oven gas and substances contained therein are recovered and utilized, and at the same time, most of the contained coal tar from said coke-oven gas.

  4. A phase-separation kinetic model for coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehe, I.A. . Corporate Research Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Coke formation during the thermolysis of petroleum residua is postulated to occur by a mechanism that involves the liquid-liquid phase separation of reacted asphaltenes to form a phase that is lean in abstractable hydrogen. This mechanism provides the basis of a model that quantitatively describes the kinetics for the thermolysis of Cold Lake vacuum residuum and its deasphalted oil in an open-tube reactor at 400 C. The previously unreacted asphaltenes were found to be the fraction with the highest rate of thermal reaction but with the least extent of reaction. This not only described the appearance and disappearance of asphaltenes but also quantitatively described the variation in molecular weight and hydrogen content of the asphaltenes with reaction time. Further evidence of the liquid-liquid phase separation was the observation of spherical particles of liquid crystalline coke and the preferential conversion of the most associated asphaltenes to coke.

  5. A phase separation kinetic model for coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehe, I.A.

    1993-12-31

    Coke formation during the thermolysis of petroleum residua is postulated to occur by a mechanism that involves the liquid-liquid phase separation of reacted asphaltenes to form a phase that is lean in abstractable hydrogen. This mechanism provides the basis of a model the quantitatively describes the kinetics for the thermolysis of Cold Lake vacuum residuum and its deasphalted oil in an open tube reactor at 400{degrees}C. The previously unreacted asphaltenes were found to be the fraction with the highest rate of thermal reaction but with the least extent of reaction. Further evidence of the liquid-liquid phase separation was the observation of spherical particles of liquid crystalline coke and the preferential conversion of the most associated asphaltenes to coke.

  6. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Heino, Jyrki J.; Kokkonen, Tommi M. T.; Makkonen, Hannu T.; Huttunen, Satu M. M.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polarized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100% coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  7. Occupational exposure to carbon/coke fibers in plants that produce green or calcined petroleum coke and potential health effects: 2. Fiber concentrations.

    PubMed

    Maxim, L Daniel; Galvin, Jennifer B; Niebo, Ron; Segrave, Alan M; Kampa, Otto A; Utell, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    We monitored exposure to various fibers among workers in eight plants operated by ConocoPhillips that produce green or calcined petroleum coke. Carbon/coke and other fibers, including calcium silicate, cellulose, gypsum, and iron silicate, were found in occupational samples. Carbon/coke fibers were found in bulk samples of calcined petroleum coke, the probable source of these fibers in occupational samples. Time-weighted average (TWA) total fiber concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed; 90% were < or = 0.1 f/ml. Although consistently low, TWA total fiber concentrations varied with plant, job (tasks), and type of coke. This was expected given the substantial differences in plant configuration, technology, and workplace practices among refineries and carbon plants. Carbon/coke fibers (identified and measured using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were found at all plants producing all types of calcined coke and not detected at any plant producing only green coke. Approximately 98% of all carbon/coke TWAs were < or = 0.1 f/ml. Analysis of task length average (TLA) data by various statistical techniques indicates that the average carbon/coke TLA is certainly < or = 0.05 f/ml and probably < 0.03 f/ml. PMID:16326398

  8. [Characterization of PAHs in fly ashes from coke production].

    PubMed

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ashes from coking, PAHs in ashes from three coke production plants were analyzed with GC-MS, and the distribution characteristics of PAHs and potential toxicity risk were discussed. The sum of 16 EPA prior PAHs varied from 8.17 x 10(2) to 5.17 x 10(3) microg x g(-1). PAH contents from the coke oven (stamp charging) with the height of 3.2 m were two times higher than those from the one (top charging) with the height of 6.0 m, and PAHs in ashes from coal charging were significantly higher than those from coke pushing in the same plant. Four-ring and five-ring PAHs were the dominant species in ashes from coking and the sum of them accounted for more than 80.00% of total PAHs. Chrysene (Chr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF) were abundant in all ash samples. The content of total BaP-based toxic equivalency (BaPeq) ranged from 1.64 x 10(2) to 9.57 x 10(2) microg x g(-1). From the carcinogenic point of view, besides benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenz [a,h] anthracene (DbA) contributed most to the overall toxicity of PAHs, followed by BaA and BbF. BaPeq concentration from coal charging was 5.21-fold higher than that from coke pushing, indicating that different reuse ways should be considered based on their specific toxicity profiles of PAHs. PMID:23745428

  9. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  10. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  11. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  12. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  16. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  17. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  18. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  19. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  20. Supercritical convection, critical heat flux, and coking characteristics of propane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Gross, R. S.; Boyd, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of propane at subcritical and supercritical pressure were experimentally evaluated using electrically heated Monel K-500 tubes. A design correlation for supercritical heat transfer coefficient was established using the approach previously applied to supercritical oxygen. Flow oscillations were observed and the onset of these oscillations at supercritical pressures was correlated with wall-to-bulk temperature ratio and velocity. The critical heat flux measured at subcritical pressure was correlated with the product of velocity and subcooling. Long duration tests at fixed heat flux conditions were conducted to evaluate coking on the coolant side tube wall and coking rates comparable to RP-1 were observed.

  1. Production of blast furnace coke via novel briquetting system

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, F.W.; Wasson, G.E.

    1982-12-07

    A method of making high strength coke briquettes suitable for use as blast furnace coke comprising, (A) providing coal, (B) heating the coal at a temperature at or above the softening point of the coal to form partially carbonized char, (C) cooling the partially carbonized char below the softening point of the coal, (D) mixing the cooled partially carbonized char and tar to form a mixture of tar and partially carbonized char, (E) briquetting the mixture of tar and partially carbonized char to form briquettes of tar and partially carbonized char, (F) calcinating the briquettes to form high strength briquettes.

  2. Temperament and intuition: a commentary on Feltz and Cokely.

    PubMed

    Nadelhoffer, Thomas; Kvaran, Trevor; Nahmias, Eddy

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we examine Adam Feltz and Edward Cokely's recent claim that "the personality trait extraversion predicts people's intuitions about the relationship of determinism to free will and moral responsibility" (INSERT REFERENCE). We will first present some criticisms of their work before briefly examining the results of a recent study of our own. We argue that while Feltz and Cokely have their finger on the pulse of an interesting and important issue, they have not established a robust and stable connection between extraversion and compatibilist-friendly intuitions. PMID:19136280

  3. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  4. Mortality in retired coke oven plant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Mur, J M; Figueredo, A; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1993-01-01

    A previous study on 536 retired coke oven plant workers in Lorraine Collieries (France) reported an excess of deaths from lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 251) compared with the French male population. Occupational exposures during working life were retraced for each subject, but the number of deaths during the observation period (1963-82) was small, and smoking habits were known only for dead subjects. In 1988, the cohort was re-examined (182 deaths occurred between 1963 and 1987) and smoking habits were determined for all the subjects. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (SMR = 238, p < 0.001). It showed an excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 141, p < 0.001), overall cancers (SMR = 133, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 133, p < 0.05). A significant excess of deaths was found for subjects who worked near the ovens for all causes (145, p < 0.01), lung cancer (SMR = 252, p < 0.01), colon cancer (SMR = 381, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 155, p < 0.05). A significant excess mortality was also found from all causes (176, p < 0.05) and stomach cancer (SMR = 538, p < 0.01) in subjects who worked in byproducts, from lung cancer (SMR = 433, p < 0.001) in those in the workshops, and from cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism (SMR = 360, p < 0.01) in those underground; but, due to small numbers, these figures were not robust. An excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 163, p<001), lung cancer (SMR = 228, p<0.05) and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 179, p<0.01) was shown also for non-exposed or slightly exposed subjects. The fact that, on the whole, mortality of various exposed groups was similar to that of non-exposed or slightly exposed workers may be explained in part by the selection at hiring and the healthy worker effect. As an increased risk of lung cancer was noted among subjects who worked in the old generations of plant compared with the other workers (although the relative risk was not significant

  5. Properties of spent active coke particles analysed via comminution in spouted bed.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  6. Properties of Spent Active Coke Particles Analysed via Comminution in Spouted Bed

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  7. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  8. Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin

    2009-05-15

    This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

  9. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  10. Using the undersizes of Karaganda coals in coking charges

    SciTech Connect

    Muzychuk, V.D.; Chernyak, Yu.B.; Khegai, U.; Tyrchenkova, L.M.; Vasyuchkov, E.I.; Vlasova, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for coking coals have increased considerably in the Karaganda basin in connection with starting up the Vostochaya Central Concentrating Mill and coal treatment plant No. 2 of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex, as well as in connection with the increase in the use of Karaganda coking coals which has taken place at the plants in the Ural and Ukraine regions. The problem of expanding the source of raw materials is of current interest due to the involvement of Karaganda coals with a high ash content in the charge. In this connection, undersizes of the fine classes of Karaganda coals presently used to meet energy needs are of considerable interest. This paper discusses how an undersize of types K and K2 Karaganda coals can be used in determined amounts in the coking charges of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex. When the amount of type KZh coals in a charges is decreased (less than or equal to 50%), the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine must be no more than 5% due to their inferior agglutinating power. When the content of type KZh coal is 55% or more, the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine can be increased to 7%. Coal undersizes from the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution mine possess a higher agglutinating power than those from the Karaganda mine. However, it is not advisable to feed them into a coking charge in an amount surpassing 5% at the present time due to the higher ash content.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coke oven emissions are known human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient,". and the evidence rom human studies is "S...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF DRY COKE QUENCHING VS. CONTINUOUS WET QUENCHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the multimedia environmental impacts of continuous wet and dry quenching at National Steel's Weirton, West Virginia, Brown's Island coke plant. The report, based primarily on design data, test data from related processes, and engineeri...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COKE BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial screening study, initiating a multimedia environmental assessment of coke by-product recovery plants in the U.S. The study included both the gathering and analysis of existing data and sampling and analysis at one plant based on EPA's Indust...

  14. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  15. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  16. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  19. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-m...

  20. The development of analytical methodologies for characterizing coke oven emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Currently, coke oven operators are required by law to monitor worker's exposure to coke oven emissions for coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) by measuring the benzene soluble fraction of particulates. However, it is not universally accepted that CTPV are a good measure of health effects. Consequently, better methods for analyzing coke oven emissions that relate to worker's health is needed. Sampling apparatus designed to measure particulates and vapor organics, employing high volume (hi-vol) pumps and personal pumps were field tested. The analytical scheme developed was more efficient in extracting PAHs than the benzene soluble fraction method. Both filter and florisil plugs were extracted with methylene chloride using an ultrasonic bath. The extract volumes were reduced and solvent exchanged with iso-octane in a Kuderna-Danish (KD) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Qualitative analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/mass spectrometer. A total of 68 compounds were identified. Sixteen PAHs selected were selected for quantitative analysis and their concentrations ranged from 0.02 ug/m{sup 3} to 5100 ug/m{sup 3}. The relative concentrations of the PAHs were compared with other processes in which PAHs are emitted, such as paving and roofing operations and were found to be unique enough that finger printing coke oven emissions may be possible.

  1. Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, O. . Chicago Coke Plant)

    1994-09-01

    ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

  2. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  3. COKE STORAGE HOPPER LOCATED OUTSIDE THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COKE STORAGE HOPPER LOCATED OUTSIDE THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY SHOWING LOADING DEVICE THAT USED A SKIP CAR TO FILL THE HOPPER FROM UNDERGROUND GRAVITY-FED STORAGE AREAS FROM INCOMING RAILROAD CARS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  5. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities. PMID:24804662

  6. Kinetics of Carbon Dissolution of Coke in Molten Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Dongik; Kim, Yumkyum; Shin, Minsoo; Lee, Joonho

    2012-12-01

    The effect of temperature on the dissolution rate of carbon from coke in molten iron was investigated using a sampling technique in the temperature range of 1723 K to 1923 K (1450 °C to 1650 °C). The dissolution rate of carbon from coke in molten iron increased as the temperature increased. At 1923 K (1650 °C), the rate-determining step was the mass transfer of carbon in the boundary layer adjacent to the metal-carbon interface. At 1723 K (1450 °C), the rate-determining step changed from the mass transfer to the interfacial chemical reaction as the reaction proceeded. At 1823 K (1550 °C), both reaction steps affected the apparent reaction rates. Sulfur dissolution did not affect the carbon dissolution rates in molten iron, so it was considered that the sulfur adsorption at the metal/coke interface was not so significant. The apparent activation energy of the carbon dissolution of coke in molten iron was estimated to be 442 kJ/mol.

  7. 19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING EAST. THE OVENS LIE TO THE EAST OF THE MINE BUILDINGS. BEEHIVE OVENS FORM THE ROW ON THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE RECTANGULAR OVENS ARE ON THE RIGHT. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  11. 29. Coke oven byproduct building "XX" with ammonia stills; powerhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Coke oven by-product building "XX" with ammonia stills; powerhouse with 8 sisters (stacks) in background; conveyor #20 (with break) on right, pulevrized coal storage bunker on left. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  12. 30. XX byproducts building (containing coke gas compressors at north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. XX by-products building (containing coke gas compressors at north end, ammonia stills in south end), #20 coal conveyor jutting out of top on east side, continuing out west side to bunker. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  13. Emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking processes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Bai, Huiling; Song, Chongfang; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhen

    2012-06-01

    Besides organic pollutants, coke production generates emissions of toxic heavy metals. However, intensive studies on heavy metal emissions from the coking industry are still very scarce. The current work focuses on assessing the emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking. Simultaneous sampling of coal, coke, residues from air pollution control devices (APCD), effluent from coke quenching, and fly ash from different processes before and after APCD has been performed. The total heavy metal concentration in the flue gas from coke pushing (CP) was significantly higher than that from coal charging (CC) and combustion of coke oven gases (CG). Emission factors of heavy metals for CP and CC were 378.692 and 42.783 μg/kg, respectively. During coking, the heavy metals that were contained in the feedstock coal showed different partitioning patterns. For example, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, and Cr were obviously concentrated in the inlet fly ash compared to the coke; among these metals Cu, As, and Cr were concentrated in the outlet fly ash, whereas Zn and Pb were distributed equally between the outlet fly ash and APCD residue. Ni, Co, Cd, Fe, and V were partitioned equally between the inlet fly ash and the coke. Understanding the behavior of heavy metals during coking processes is helpful for the effective control of these heavy metals and the assessment of the potential impact of their emissions on the environment. PMID:22607524

  14. Thickness Optimization for Petroleum Coke in Microwave Dehydrating Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Absorption Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Junruo; Peng, Jinhui; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Weifeng; Guo, Shenghui; Chen, Guo

    2015-07-01

    An analytical approach is proposed to optimize the thickness of petroleum coke for achieving maximum microwave power absorption in microwave heating based on analysis of reflection loss (RL). The microwave RL of the petroleum coke layer was studied over the moisture content range of 1%-5% at 20 °C and the petroleum coke (10% moisture content) in the temperature range of 20 to 100 °C at 2.45 GHz. The results show that RL depends sensitively on the thickness of the petroleum coke and the absorption peak shifts towards a larger thickness as the moisture content of the petroleum coke increases. There exists a matching thickness corresponding to the maximum microwave absorption, the maximum absorbing peak decreases when the thickness of petroleum coke exceeds the matching thickness. We also show that the absorption peak is found to move towards a smaller thickness region with increasing petroleum coke temperature.

  15. Influence of heating rate on quality of needle coke in calcining

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmetov, M.M.; Karpinskaya, N.M.; Shipkov, N.N.

    1984-05-01

    This article examines the calcination of raw coke in hearth and chamber furnaces. Three coke samples with identical degrees of calcining were taken from each furnace. The heating rate was calculated from measurements of the coke temperature as it moved in the furnace under conditions of a stable and characteristic calcining regime. The coke temperature was measured by means of a chromel-alumel thermocouple. Electric resistivity and carbon and hydrogen contents are practically identical for the cokes calcined in the hearth and chamber furnaces. The difference between the quality indexes of the cokes is attributed to the difference in the heating rates. The results indicate that a major disadvantage of the hearth furnace is its high heating rate. It is suggested that the hearth furnace should not be used in calcining cokes that must meet rigid quality requirements.

  16. Use of a scale model for coke oven charging practice development

    SciTech Connect

    Case, E.R.; Pendergras, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A 1/8 scale model coke oven was designed and built for use as a tool to improve coke oven charging practice. Major goals of the program were to increase coke oven productivity and decrease charging emissions. The material used to simulate coal in the model was chosen on the basis of angle of repose. the proper choice of media to simulate the coke oven charge, under a given set of operating conditions, was essential to obtain correspondence between the model and the production oven. Oven profiles were very similar after individual larry car hoppers were dropped and after leveling. Improved coke oven charging practices developed with the coke oven model, in combination with close control by operating personnel, have resulted in increased coke oven charge weights of over 1.0 ton/oven without increased charging emissions.

  17. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  19. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  20. Copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Sun, C.

    1997-12-31

    To improve the economy of the hydropyrolysis process by reducing hydrogen cost, it has been suggested to use cheaper hydrogen-rich gas (such as coke-oven gas) instead of pure hydrogen. Pyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite has been carried out with real coke-oven gas (COG) as reactive gases at 0.1--5 MPa and the final temperature of 650 C with heating rate of 5--25 C/min in an 10 g fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pressure on product yields under COG were investigated in detail and compared with coal pyrolysis with hydrogen at the same conditions. The results indicate that it is possible to use COG instead of pure hydrogen in hydropyrolysis. To optimize the yields of the valuable chemicals, the experimental conditions must be adjusted.

  1. Antifouling agents for prevention of unwanted coke formation in reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.; Stolfa, F.

    1987-03-03

    A method is described to prevent fouling of equipment used in high temperature coke producing petroleum reactions comprising the addition of an alcoholic aqueous mixture of an antifoulant comprising a phthalocyanine compound to a hydrocarbon feedstock at reaction conditions. The addition comprises the steps of: (a) sonicating a mixture of a phthalocyanine compound with water to form an aqueous dispersion of the phthalocyanine; (b) adding an alcohol to the aqueous dispersion to form an alcoholic aqueous dispersion of the phthalocyanine compound; and, (c) adding the alcoholic aqueous dispersion of the phthalocyanine compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock in an amount sufficient to reduce fouling of equipment employed during the high temperature coke producing petroleum reaction.

  2. Research on coke-oven heating technology and the properties of coke as a blast-furnace fuel. [UKhIN

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Semisalov, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    A fundamentally novel coke-oven system was designed at Giprokoks (underjet, with bottom gas and air regulation) on the basis of data from model experiments. In particular, when batteries of 41.6 m/sup 3/ coke ovens were developed, the results of model tests led to major modifications to the original designs for the regenerator zones, sloping ducts and flues. UKhIN investigations on hot and hydraulic models, using modern mathematical procedures and computers, were used to study the details of heat exchange and gas flow in the regenerator packings under coke ovens. Criterial equations were derived for the coefficients of heat transfer by convection and of hydraulic resistance, covering the specific features of regenerator performance in coke-oven heating systems. Much useful information for the advance of coke-oven technology has been obtained from laboratory, pilot and fullscale plant studies of the thermal properties of coals and blends. Investigations (including blast-furnace trials) in connection with the commercial adoption of dry coke cooling established that during its soaking in the storage chamber the coke undergoes changes in molecular structure, to an extent dependent on the time and temperature. Recommendations based on this research significantly improve the coke strength properties and extended the range of usable coal supplies. Traditionally, the Institute is greatly interested in the problem of coke yields, which has now become very urgent in connection with the use of higher proportions of grade G and other coals with high volatile matters. Detailed studies have been made of the effects of various processing factors on the yields of saleable and metallurgical coke.

  3. Removing particulates from aspiration air during coke dry quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanenko, V.T.; Lysenko, T.v.; Voronkova, T.I.; Gracheva, O.L.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of recovery of coke dust are due to the relatively large size of the particles and their highly abrasive nature. The use of wet dust traps is not feasible due to the difficulties arising from the necessity of treating the sludge water. It is feasible to use dry methods of purifying the aspiration air. As dust traps one may recommend type SDK-TsN-33 or SK-TsN-34 conical cyclones, as well as vertical electrofilters.

  4. Composition and method for coke retardant during hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, D.K.

    1988-02-09

    A process is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of filamentous coke on metallic surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon having a temperature of 600/sup 0/-1300/sup 0/F which comprises adding to the hydrocarbon a sufficient amount for the purpose of a boron compound selected from the group of boron oxide compounds, boric acid and metal borides, with the proviso that when boric acid is used, it is substantially free of water.

  5. New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries

    SciTech Connect

    A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov

    2007-05-15

    We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

  6. The influence of coke source on anode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonville, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Dreyer, C.

    1995-08-01

    The role of anode raw material has long been debated in the aluminum smelting industry. By examining data accumulated from two similar smelting operations of Aluminium Pechiney, this article focuses on the differences in performance of anodes that can be attributed to the raw materials. The results suggest that good anode performance can be obtained for a range of cokes, provided that the operation is well designed and carefully operated.

  7. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  8. The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Les

    2015-02-01

    Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.

  9. Method and apparatus for processing filling gas from a coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Polenz, J.; Wagner, H.

    1981-08-11

    An improved coke oven battery and an improved method for production of coke and byproducts are provided. The filling gas escaping during the filling of the oven chambers with coal is initially rendered inert by admixing flue gas. Then the resulting gas mixture of filling gas and flue gas is withdrawn via a conduit fed with flushing liquor from the coke oven gas off-take main and is added to the raw coke oven gas after the coke oven gas off-take main. The tar and coal containing flushing liquor coming from the filling gas conduit is fed back to the coke oven gas off-take main after removal of the tar.

  10. An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.